WorldWideScience

Sample records for automatic crash notification

  1. Identification of Car Passengers with RFID for Automatic Crash Notification

    OpenAIRE

    Ouyang, Dongfang

    2009-01-01

    Automatic Crash Notification is a system designed to be used in a crash situation. When a crash occurs, the intelligent system is activated and automatically sends select crash details to the appropriate Emergency Medical Service Center. These details can be the position of the vehicle and the likely severity of the damage. Using the information, the medical treatment resources demanded for the accident is assessed at Emergency Center. Accordingly, first-aid facilities are promptly and proper...

  2. Automatic Crash Recovery Artifacts From Internet Explorer 8 And 9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Moran

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A good portion of today’s investigations include, at least in part, an examination of the user’s web history.Although it has lost ground over the past several years, Microsoft’s Internet Explorer still accounts for a large portion of the web browser market share.Most users are now aware that Internet Explorer will save browsing history, user names, passwords and form history.Consequently some users seek to eliminate these artifacts, leaving less for examiners to discover during investigations.However, most users, and probably a good portion of examiners are unaware Automatic Crash Recovery, can leave a gold mine of recent browsing history in spite of the users attempts to delete historical artifacts.

  3. Advances in Crash Response

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-29

    In this podcast, Dr. Richard C. Hunt, Director of CDC's Division of Injury Response, provides an overview on the benefits of using an Advanced Automatic Collision Notification system, or AACN, to help with emergency triage of people injured in vehicle crashes.  Created: 6/29/2009 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Division of Injury Response (DIR).   Date Released: 6/29/2009.

  4. Automatic recloser circuit breaker integrated with GSM technology for power system notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lada, M. Y.; Khiar, M. S. A.; Ghani, S. A.; Nawawi, M. R. M.; Rahim, N. H.; Sinar, L. O. M.

    2015-05-01

    Lightning is one type of transient faults that usually cause the circuit breaker in the distribution board trip due to overload current detection. The instant tripping condition in the circuit breakers clears the fault in the system. Unfortunately most circuit breakers system is manually operated. The power line will be effectively re-energized after the clearing fault process is finished. Auto-reclose circuit is used on the transmission line to carry out the duty of supplying quality electrical power to customers. In this project, an automatic reclose circuit breaker for low voltage usage is designed. The product description is the Auto Reclose Circuit Breaker (ARCB) will trip if the current sensor detects high current which exceeds the rated current for the miniature circuit breaker (MCB) used. Then the fault condition will be cleared automatically and return the power line to normal condition. The Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) system will send SMS to the person in charge if the tripping occurs. If the over current occurs in three times, the system will fully trip (open circuit) and at the same time will send an SMS to the person in charge. In this project a 1 A is set as the rated current and any current exceeding a 1 A will cause the system to trip or interrupted. This system also provides an additional notification for user such as the emergency light and warning system.

  5. Critical market crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, D.

    2003-04-01

    This review presents a general theory of financial crashes and of stock market instabilities that his co-workers and the author have developed over the past seven years. We start by discussing the limitation of standard analyses for characterizing how crashes are special. The study of the frequency distribution of drawdowns, or runs of successive losses shows that large financial crashes are “outliers”: they form a class of their own as can be seen from their statistical signatures. If large financial crashes are “outliers”, they are special and thus require a special explanation, a specific model, a theory of their own. In addition, their special properties may perhaps be used for their prediction. The main mechanisms leading to positive feedbacks, i.e., self-reinforcement, such as imitative behavior and herding between investors are reviewed with many references provided to the relevant literature outside the narrow confine of Physics. Positive feedbacks provide the fuel for the development of speculative bubbles, preparing the instability for a major crash. We demonstrate several detailed mathematical models of speculative bubbles and crashes. A first model posits that the crash hazard drives the market price. The crash hazard may sky-rocket at some times due to the collective behavior of “noise traders”, those who act on little information, even if they think they “know”. A second version inverses the logic and posits that prices drive the crash hazard. Prices may skyrocket at some times again due to the speculative or imitative behavior of investors. According the rational expectation model, this entails automatically a corresponding increase of the probability for a crash. We also review two other models including the competition between imitation and contrarian behavior and between value investors and technical analysts. The most important message is the discovery of robust and universal signatures of the approach to crashes. These precursory

  6. Airplane crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May, 1974, a severe airplane crash occurred near Springfield, llinois; the crew of three and a courier were killed. The plane was carrying a large container of controlled water with a slight amount of 60Co. A survey of the crash site by Air Force detectives and the radiological assistance team from Wright--Patterson Air Force Base indicated no radioactivity. Experiences of the incident were used to develop guidelines for future emergency preparedness

  7. Rail crash demonstration scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the manner in which the rail crash scenario was selected for public demonstration. A simplified risk assessment led to the short listing of three contender scenarios involving a drop from a high level, a crash into an abutment and the crash of a train into a stationary flask. Predictive work led to the final selection of the train crash. (author)

  8. AP statistics crash course

    CERN Document Server

    D'Alessio, Michael

    2012-01-01

    AP Statistics Crash Course - Gets You a Higher Advanced Placement Score in Less Time Crash Course is perfect for the time-crunched student, the last-minute studier, or anyone who wants a refresher on the subject. AP Statistics Crash Course gives you: Targeted, Focused Review - Study Only What You Need to Know Crash Course is based on an in-depth analysis of the AP Statistics course description outline and actual Advanced Placement test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exam, so you can make the most of your valuable study time. Our easy-to-read format covers: exploring da

  9. Crash Under Investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The cause of a fatal cargo plane accident in Shanghai is still unknown The flight data recorder of the Zimbabwean cargo plane that crashed on November 28 at Shanghai Pudong International Airport has been found near the crash scene,local aviation control authorities said.

  10. Allegheny County Crash Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Contains locations and information about every crash incident reported to the police in Allegheny County from 2004 to 2015. Fields include injury severity,...

  11. ISSC Information and Notification System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Information and Notification System carried out in WA9 of IAEA/ISSC/EBP was explained. This system is comprised of two parts, a database of earthquakes, tsunami, and volcanoes as well as a notification system for these phenomena. Data and systems from USGS, NOAA, JNES, ISPRA, and USNRC are utilized. The system can automatically display supposed effects on NPPs near a hazard source when an earthquake or tsunami occurs. Seismic observation data from the deep borehole at Kashiwazaki, which is operated by JNES, is planned to be added to the ISSC database using this information system. (author)

  12. Bubbles and market crashes

    CERN Document Server

    Youssefmir, M; Hogg, T; Youssefmir, Michael; Huberman, Bernardo; Hogg, Tad

    1994-01-01

    We present a dynamical theory of asset price bubbles that exhibits the appearance of bubbles and their subsequent crashes. We show that when speculative trends dominate over fundamental beliefs, bubbles form, leading to the growth of asset prices away from their fundamental value. This growth makes the system increasingly susceptible to any exogenous shock, thus eventually precipitating a crash. We also present computer experiments which in their aggregate behavior confirm the predictions of the theory.

  13. Currencies, Crises, and Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Kenen

    2002-01-01

    The emerging-market crises of the 1990s were characterized by crashes in exchange rates, credit flows, and output, and the currency crashes caused the other two. Because local banks and firms had large foreign-currency debts, the sharp depreciations of their countries' currencies had huge balance-sheet effects that led to an implosion of domestic credit flows, causing sharp falls in investment and output. It is wrong to blame the IMF for these calamitous outcomes. Nevertheless, the strategy a...

  14. Reproducing Context-sensitive Crashes in Mobile Apps using Crowdsourced Debugging

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Maria; Rouvoy, Romain; Seinturier, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    While the number of mobile apps published by app stores keeps increasing, the quality of these apps greatly varies. Unfortunately, end-users continue experiencing bugs and crashes for some of the apps installed on their mobile devices. Although developers heavily test their apps before release, context-sensitive crashes might still emerge after deployment. This paper therefore introduces MoTiF, a crowdsourced approach to support developers in automatically reproducing context-sensitive crashe...

  15. Braking news: link between crash severity and crash avoidance maneuvers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the link between crash severity and crash avoidance maneuvers. Various emergency lateral and speed control maneuvers were considered in response to different critical events that made the crash imminent. Partial proportional odds models that allowed for changes in effects...... across severity levels were estimated to accommodate the ordered-response nature of severity. The sample used for estimation consisted of data for single-vehicle crashes extracted from the General Estimates System crash database for the period from 2005 to 2009. Results showed the correlation between...... crash avoidance maneuvers and crash severity, with differences emerging for different critical events. Moreover, results showed two trends:(a) most drivers failed to act when facing critical events and (b) drivers rarely performed crash avoidance maneuvers that were correlated with a higher probability...

  16. Estimating likelihood of future crashes for crash-prone drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subasish Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available At-fault crash-prone drivers are usually considered as the high risk group for possible future incidents or crashes. In Louisiana, 34% of crashes are repeatedly committed by the at-fault crash-prone drivers who represent only 5% of the total licensed drivers in the state. This research has conducted an exploratory data analysis based on the driver faultiness and proneness. The objective of this study is to develop a crash prediction model to estimate the likelihood of future crashes for the at-fault drivers. The logistic regression method is used by employing eight years' traffic crash data (2004–2011 in Louisiana. Crash predictors such as the driver's crash involvement, crash and road characteristics, human factors, collision type, and environmental factors are considered in the model. The at-fault and not-at-fault status of the crashes are used as the response variable. The developed model has identified a few important variables, and is used to correctly classify at-fault crashes up to 62.40% with a specificity of 77.25%. This model can identify as many as 62.40% of the crash incidence of at-fault drivers in the upcoming year. Traffic agencies can use the model for monitoring the performance of an at-fault crash-prone drivers and making roadway improvements meant to reduce crash proneness. From the findings, it is recommended that crash-prone drivers should be targeted for special safety programs regularly through education and regulations.

  17. Road crash costs.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Road crashes result in all kinds of social costs, such as medical costs, production loss, human losses, property damage, settlement costs and costs due to congestion. Studies into road crash costs and their trends are carried out quite regularly. In 2009, the costs amounted to € 12.5 billion, or 2.2% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Insight into these costs is used for policy preparation and evaluation, and makes it possible to compare them with costs in other areas. Another important app...

  18. The Crash of '87

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Alan

    1988-01-01

    This article was published in a Capital and Class symposium on the 1987 crash. Its analysis retains its full force in 2009. It compared the 1987 and the 1929 crash, and explored the historical similarities between the long US postwar decline and the UK’s, from the mid-nineteenth century. It situated both in a rigorous value-theoretic framework rooted in Marx’s concept of superprofit. It was the author’s first such published attempt. It combined, critically, Kondratieff’s account of long w...

  19. Time-Varying Crash Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunoua, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae;

    We estimate a continuous-time model with stochastic volatility and dynamic crash probability for the S&P 500 index and find that market illiquidity dominates other factors in explaining the stock market crash risk. While the crash probability is time-varying, its dynamic depends only weakly on...

  20. Blind spot crashes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Crashes involving lorries turning right and cyclists going straight ahead usually have very serious consequences for the cyclist. The cyclist, who has right of way, is often overlooked by the lorry driver. For his part, the cyclist is often unaware that the lorry driver has not seen him or that the

  1. Crashes and Collateralized Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Jakub W. Jurek; Erik Stafford

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a parsimonious static model for characterizing financing terms in collateralized lending markets. We characterize the systematic risk exposures for a variety of securities and develop a simple indifference-pricing framework to value the systematic crash risk exposure of the collateral. We then apply Modigliani and Miller's (1958) Proposition Two (MM) to split the cost of bearing this risk between the borrower and lender, resulting in a schedule of haircuts and financing ra...

  2. AP physics B crash course

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    AP Physics B Crash Course - Get a Higher Advanced Placement Score in Less Time Crash Course is perfect for the time-crunched student, the last-minute studier, or anyone who wants a refresher on the subject. Our AP Physics B Crash Course gives you: Targeted, Focused Review - Study Only What You Need to Know The Crash Course is based on an in-depth analysis of the AP Physics B course description outline and actual AP test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exam, so you can make the most of your valuable study time. Our easy-to-read format covers: mechanics, kinetic theory, t

  3. Classified Ads Harvesting Agent and Notification System

    CERN Document Server

    Doomun, Razvi; Nadeem, Auleear; Aukin, Mozafar

    2010-01-01

    The shift from an information society to a knowledge society require rapid information harvesting, reliable search and instantaneous on demand delivery. Information extraction agents are used to explore and collect data available from Web, in order to effectively exploit such data for business purposes, such as automatic news filtering, advertisement or product searching and price comparing. In this paper, we develop a real-time automatic harvesting agent for adverts posted on Servihoo web portal and an SMS-based notification system. It uses the URL of the web portal and the object model, i.e., the fields of interests and a set of rules written using the HTML parsing functions to extract latest adverts information. The extraction engine executes the extraction rules and stores the information in a database to be processed for automatic notification. This intelligent system helps to tremendously save time. It also enables users or potential product buyers to react more quickly to changes and newly posted sales...

  4. Cancer notification in India

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmaiah, K. C.; B Guruprasad; Lokesh, K. N.; V S Veena

    2014-01-01

    In many developed countries, notification of cancer cases is compulsory. Developing countries including India accounts for more than half of new cancer cases in the world, however notification of cancer is not yet mandatory. The primary purpose of notification is to effect prevention and control and better utilization of resources. It is also a valuable source for incidence, prevalence, mortality and morbidity of the disease. Notification of cancer will lead to improved awareness of common et...

  5. Identification of Energy Distribution for Crash Deformational Processes of Road Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    István Harmati; Péter Várlaki

    2007-01-01

    Car body deformation modelling plays a very important role in crash accidentanalyses, as well as in safe car body design. The determination of the energy absorbed bythe deformation and the corresponding Energy Equivalent Speed can be of key importance;however their precise determination is a very difficult task. Although, using the results ofcrash tests, intelligent and soft methods offer an automatic way to model the crash processitself, as well as to determine the absorbed energy, the befor...

  6. Crash course in readers' advisory

    CERN Document Server

    Orr, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    One of the key services librarians provide is helping readers find books they'll enjoy. This ""crash course"" will furnish you with the basic, practical information you need to excel at readers' advisory (RA) for adults and teens.

  7. Development of an occult metric for common motor vehicle crash injuries - biomed 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoell, Samantha L; Weaver, Ashley A; Stitzel, Joel D

    2013-01-01

    Detection of occult injuries, which are not easily recognized and are life-threatening, in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) is crucial in order to reduce fatalities. An Occult Injury Database (OID) was previously developed by the Center for Transportation Injury Research (CenTIR) using the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) 1997-2001 which identified occult and non-occult head, thorax, and abdomen injuries. The objective of the current work was to develop an occult injury model based on underlying injury characteristics to derive an Occult Score for common MVC-induced injuries. A multiple logistic regression model was developed utilizing six injury parameters to generate a probability formula which assigned an Occult Score for each injury. The model was applied to a list of 240 injuries comprising the top 95 percent of injuries occurring in NASS-CDS 2000-2011. The parameters in the model included a continuous Cause MRR/year variable indicating the annual proportion of occupants sustaining a given injury whose cause of death was attributed to that injury. The categorical variables in the model were AIS 2-3 vs. 4-6, laceration, hemorrhage/hematoma, contusion, and intracranial. Results indicated that injuries with a low Cause MRR/year and AIS severity of 4-6 had an increased likelihood of being occult. In addition, the presence of a laceration, hemorrhage/hematoma, contusion, or intracranial injury also increased the likelihood of an injury being occult. The Occult Score ranges from zero to one with a threshold of 0.5 as the discriminator of an occult injury. Of the considered injuries, it was determined that 54% of head, 26% of thorax, and 23% of abdominal injuries were occult injuries. No occult injuries were identified in the face, spine, upper extremity, or lower extremity body regions. The Occult Score generated can be useful in advanced automatic crash notification research and for the detection of serious occult injuries in

  8. Building concepts against airplane crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany safety related buildings of nuclear facilities as well as their equipment are to be designed against airplane crash. While the safety of the structure itself can always be guaranteed by structural means, the induced vibrations may cause severe problems for the equipment. Considerable effort was expended in recent years to comprehend the load case airplane crash in a more exact manner and to evaluate reasonable floor response spectra. Besides this analytical effort, investigations are cited to minimize the induced vibrations by new structural concepts. The present paper gives a survey concerning the development of structural concepts, culminating in the double shell structures that are state of the art today. Then the idea of spring supports, as it is known for the aseismic foundation of buildings, is further developed to a new spring concept which reduces the induced vibrations in an optimum way in the load case airplane crash and which additionally isolates earthquake vibrations. (orig.)

  9. Weather Conditions, Weather Information and Car Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Adriaan Perrels; Athanasios Votsis; Väinö Nurmi; Karoliina Pilli-Sihvola

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic safety is the result of a complex interaction of factors, and causes behind road vehicle crashes require different measures to reduce their impacts. This study assesses how strongly the variation in daily winter crash rates associates with weather conditions in Finland. This is done by illustrating trends and spatiotemporal variation in the crash rates, by showing how a GIS application can evidence the association between temporary rises in regional crash rates and the occurrence...

  10. Emergency Notification Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsouros, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In higher education, the IT department is often the service provider for the institution's emergency notification system (ENS). For many institutions, the complexity of providing emergency notification to students, faculty, and staff makes using a local, on-premise solution unrealistic. But finding the right commercially hosted technical solution…

  11. Identification of Energy Distribution for Crash Deformational Processes of Road Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Harmati

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Car body deformation modelling plays a very important role in crash accidentanalyses, as well as in safe car body design. The determination of the energy absorbed bythe deformation and the corresponding Energy Equivalent Speed can be of key importance;however their precise determination is a very difficult task. Although, using the results ofcrash tests, intelligent and soft methods offer an automatic way to model the crash processitself, as well as to determine the absorbed energy, the before-crash speed of the car, etc. Inthis paper a model is introduced which is able to describe the changing of the energydistribution during the whole deformational process and to analyze the strength of thedifferent parts without any human intervention thus significantly can contribute to theimprovement of the modelling, (automatic design, and safety of car bodies.

  12. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Seriously Ill Child Featured Website: NIDA for Teens Past Issues Most Viewed February 2014 Print RSS Find us on Facebook External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk Video technology and in-vehicle sensors showed that distracted driving, ...

  13. Market Crashes without External Shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Sergiu Hart; Yair Tauman

    2004-01-01

    It is shown here that market crashes and bubbles can arise without external shocks. Sudden changes in behavior coming after a long period of stationarity may be the result of endogenous information processing. Except for the daily observation of the market, there is no new information, no communication and no coordination among the participants.

  14. Knowledge crash and knowledge management

    OpenAIRE

    Ermine, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-01

    This article, by including the problem of “Knowledge Crash” in the more general framework of “Knowledge Management”, enlarges the concepts of knowledge, generation and knowledge transfer. It proposes a global approach, starting from a strategic analysis of a knowledge capital and ending in the implementation of socio-technical devices for inter-generational knowledge transfer.

  15. Braking News: the Link between Crash Severity and Crash Avoidance Maneuvers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the linkage between crash severity and crash avoidance maneuvers. Various emergency lateral and speed control maneuvers are considered in response to different critical events that made the crash imminent. Partial proportional odds models are estimated to accommodate the...... ordered-response nature of severity while allowing for changes in effects across severity levels. The data sample for estimation consists of single-vehicle crashes extracted from the General Estimates System (GES) crash database for the period 2005-2009. Results show the correlation between crash...... avoidance maneuvers and crash severity, with differences emerging for different critical events. Moreover, results show two trends: (i) most drivers fail to act when facing critical events, and (ii) drivers rarely perform crash avoidance maneuvers that are correlated with higher probability of lower crash...

  16. Emergency Notification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID ENS provides quick and effective notification messages during any emergency affecting the Ronald Reagan Building, SA-44, Potomac Yards and USAID...

  17. Crash energy absorption of two-segment crash box with holes under frontal load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choiron, Moch. Agus; Sudjito, Hidayati, Nafisah Arina

    2016-03-01

    Crash box is one of the passive safety components which designed as an impact energy absorber during collision. Crash box designs have been developed in order to obtain the optimum crashworthiness performance. Circular cross section was first investigated with one segment design, it rather influenced by its length which is being sensitive to the buckling occurrence. In this study, the two-segment crash box design with additional holes is investigated and deformation behavior and crash energy absorption are observed. The crash box modelling is performed by finite element analysis. The crash test components were impactor, crash box, and fixed rigid base. Impactor and the fixed base material are modelled as a rigid, and crash box material as bilinear isotropic hardening. Crash box length of 100 mm and frontal crash velocity of 16 km/jam are selected. Crash box material of Aluminum Alloy is used. Based on simulation results, it can be shown that holes configuration with 2 holes and ¾ length locations have the largest crash energy absorption. This condition associated with deformation pattern, this crash box model produces axisymmetric mode than other models.

  18. Cost of Physical Vehicle Crash Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Baguley, Paul; Roy, Rajkumar; James W. Watson

    2008-01-01

    The automotive safety-testing environment currently deploys virtual methods and physical crash testing for new product development and validation in safety testing legislation. Cost benefit analysis of crash testing is considered here by estimating the cost of physical crash testing. This has been achieved via the compilation of detailed process maps and AS-IS analyses of the current physical testing procedures. This leads on to detailed work and cost breakdown structures used in the comparat...

  19. Abdominal Injury Patterns in Real Frontal Crashes: Influence of Crash Conditions, Occupant Seat and Restraint Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lamielle, S.; CUNY,S; Foret-Bruno, JY.; Petit, P.; VEZIN,P; Verriest, JP.; Guillemot, H.

    2006-01-01

    An in-depth study was conducted through the analysis of medical reports and crash data from real world accidents. The objective was to investigate the abdominal injury patterns among car occupants in frontal crashes. The influence of the type of restraint system, the occupant seat, the age and the crash severity was investigated. The results indicate that the risk of abdominal AIS 3+ injuries increased with crash severity and decreased with the introduction of belt retractors. Rear belted pas...

  20. Motorcycle-related spinal injury: crash characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkipli, Zarir Hafiz; Abdul Rahmat, Abdul Manap; Mohd Faudzi, Siti Atiqah; Paiman, Noor Faradila; Wong, Shaw Voon; Hassan, Ahamedali

    2012-11-01

    This study presents an analysis of crash characteristics of motorcyclists who sustained spinal injuries in motorcycle crashes. The aim of the study is to identify the salient crash characteristics that would help explain spinal injury risks for motorcyclists. Data were retrospectively collected from police case reports that were archived at MIROS from year 2005 to 2007. The data were categorized into two subcategories; the first group was motorcycle crashes with spinal injury (case) and the second group was motorcycle crashes without spinal injury (control). A total of 363 motorcyclists with spinal injury and 873 motorcyclists without spinal injury were identified and analyzed. Descriptive analysis and multivariate analysis were performed in order to determine the odds of each characteristic in contributing to spinal injury. Single vehicle crash, collision with fixed objects and crash configuration were found to have significant influence on motorcyclists in sustaining spinal injury (p<0.05). Although relatively few than other impact configurations, the rear-end impacted motorcyclist shows the highest risk of spinal injury. Helmets have helped to reduce head injury but they did not seem to offer corresponding protection for the spine in the study. With a growing number of young motorcyclists, further efforts are needed to find effective measures to help reduce the crash incidents and severity of spinal injury. In sum, the study provides some insights on some vital crash characteristics associated with spinal injury that can be further investigated to determine the appropriate counter-measures and prevention strategies to reduce spinal injury. PMID:23036400

  1. AP calculus AB & BC crash course

    CERN Document Server

    Rosebush, J

    2012-01-01

    AP Calculus AB & BC Crash Course - Gets You a Higher Advanced Placement Score in Less Time Crash Course is perfect for the time-crunched student, the last-minute studier, or anyone who wants a refresher on the subject. AP Calculus AB & BC Crash Course gives you: Targeted, Focused Review - Study Only What You Need to Know Crash Course is based on an in-depth analysis of the AP Calculus AB & BC course description outline and actual AP test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exams, so you can make the most of your valuable study time. Written by experienced math teachers, our

  2. AP English language & composition crash course

    CERN Document Server

    Hogue, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    AP English Language & Composition Crash Course - Gets You a Higher Advanced Placement Score in Less Time Crash Course is perfect for the time-crunched student, the last-minute studier, or anyone who wants a refresher on the subject. AP English Language & Composition Crash Course gives you: Targeted, Focused Review - Study Only What You Need to Know Crash Course is based on an in-depth analysis of the AP English Language & Composition course description outline and actual Advanced Placement test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exam, so you can make the most of your valua

  3. Database improvements for motor vehicle/bicycle crash analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lusk, Anne C; Asgarzadeh, Morteza; Farvid, Maryam S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bicycling is healthy but needs to be safer for more to bike. Police crash templates are designed for reporting crashes between motor vehicles, but not between vehicles/bicycles. If written/drawn bicycle-crash-scene details exist, these are not entered into spreadsheets. Objective: To assess which bicycle-crash-scene data might be added to spreadsheets for analysis. Methods: Police crash templates from 50 states were analysed. Reports for 3350 motor vehicle/bicycle crashes (2011) w...

  4. Property Damage Crash Equivalency Factors for Solving the Crash Frequency-Severity Dilemma: Case Study on South Korean Rural Roads

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Jutaek; Washington, Simon; Lee, Dongmin

    2010-01-01

    Safety interventions (e.g. median barriers, photo enforcement) and road features (e.g. median type and width) can influence crash severities, crash frequencies, or both. Both dimensions—crash frequency and crash severity—are needed to obtain a full accounting of road safety. Extensive literature and common sense both dictate that all crashes are not ‘created’ equal—with fatalities costing society more than 1000 times the cost of property damage only crashes. Despite this glowing disparity, th...

  5. Crash Impact Demonstration. (pt 6/10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    This clip: Cockpit interior. Showing the pilot during impact, view forward. With narration. Background: On December 1st, 1984, a remote controlled 4 engined transport jet took off from Edwards AFB, CA and crashed into a barren patch of nearby desert. This Controlled Impact Demonstration was a joint R&D program by the FAA and NASA. The FAA designed the C.I.D. to underscore results of exhaustive research in two areas of aircraft safety: improved crash protection and reduced post-crash fire hazards.Despite the fact the crash did not go exactly as designed C.I.D.did achieve its primary objectives.The analysis of C.I.D. data continues. The CID's crash wothiness tests were as important to the FAA as the fire safety tests. The crash protection objectives were: 1st: To obtain data on impact forces and their transmission thru the structure to the seats and occupants. 2nd: To evaluate the performance of existing and advanced energy absorbing seats. 3rd :To compare tests used to predict structural behaviour with an actual crash. AMK (anti-misting kerosene) fuel was employed in the test. The FAA has examined AMK's potential for protecting commercial transports from ignition of misted fuels. All research indicated that AMK would be effective in preventing this problem. The C.I.D. was an opportunity to use AMK in a realistic, impact-survivable crash.

  6. Crash Impact Demonstration. (pt 7/10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    This clip: Montage of several different views thru the duration of impact. With narration. Background: On December 1st, 1984, a remote controlled 4 engined transport jet took off from Edwards AFB, CA and crashed into a barren patch of nearby desert. This Controlled Impact Demonstration was a joint R&D program by the FAA and NASA. The FAA designed the C.I.D. to underscore results of exhaustive research in two areas of aircraft safety: improved crash protection and reduced post-crash fire hazards.Despite the fact the crash did not go exactly as designed C.I.D.did achieve its primary objectives.The analysis of C.I.D. data continues. The CID's crash wothiness tests were as important to the FAA as the fire safety tests. The crash protection objectives were: 1st: To obtain data on impact forces and their transmission thru the structure to the seats and occupants. 2nd: To evaluate the performance of existing and advanced energy absorbing seats. 3rd :To compare tests used to predict structural behaviour with an actual crash. AMK (anti-misting kerosene) fuel was employed in the test. The FAA has examined AMK's potential for protecting commercial transports from ignition of misted fuels. All research indicated that AMK would be effective in preventing this problem. The C.I.D. was an opportunity to use AMK in a realistic, impact-survivable crash.

  7. Crash Impact Demonstration. (pt 3/10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    This clip: Extreme Long shot of impact showing the huge fireball surrounding the airplane. With narration. Background: On December 1st, 1984, a remote controlled 4 engined transport jet took off from Edwards AFB, CA and crashed into a barren patch of nearby desert. This Controlled Impact Demonstration was a joint R&D program by the FAA and NASA. The FAA designed the C.I.D. to underscore results of exhaustive research in two areas of aircraft safety: improved crash protection and reduced post-crash fire hazards.Despite the fact the crash did not go exactly as designed C.I.D.did achieve its primary objectives.The analysis of C.I.D. data continues. The CID's crash wothiness tests were as important to the FAA as the fire safety tests. The crash protection objectives were: 1st: To obtain data on impact forces and their transmission thru the structure to the seats and occupants. 2nd: To evaluate the performance of existing and advanced energy absorbing seats. 3rd :To compare tests used to predict structural behaviour with an actual crash. AMK (anti-misting kerosene) fuel was employed in the test. The FAA has examined AMK's potential for protecting commercial transports from ignition of misted fuels. All research indicated that AMK would be effective in preventing this problem. The C.I.D. was an opportunity to use AMK in a realistic, impact-survivable crash.

  8. Seat Design for Crash Worthiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkel, I Irving; Rosenberg, Edmund G

    1957-01-01

    A study of many crash deceleration records suggested a simplified model of a crash deceleration pulse, which incorporates the essential properties of the pulse. The model pulse is considered to be composed of a base pulse on which are superimposed one or more secondary pulses of shorter duration. The results of a mathematical analysis of the seat-passenger deceleration in response to the airplane deceleration pulse are provided. On the basis of this information, presented as working charts, the maximum deceleration loads experienced by the seat and passenger in response to the airplane deceleration pulse can be computed. This maximum seat-passenger deceleration is found to depend on the natural frequency of the seat containing the passenger, considered as a mass-spring system. A method is presented that shows how to arrive at a combination of seat strength, natural frequency, and ability to absorb energy in deformation beyond the elastic limit that will allow the seat to serve without failure during an airplane deceleration pulse taken as the design requirement.

  9. Weather Conditions, Weather Information and Car Crashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan Perrels

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic safety is the result of a complex interaction of factors, and causes behind road vehicle crashes require different measures to reduce their impacts. This study assesses how strongly the variation in daily winter crash rates associates with weather conditions in Finland. This is done by illustrating trends and spatiotemporal variation in the crash rates, by showing how a GIS application can evidence the association between temporary rises in regional crash rates and the occurrence of bad weather, and with a regression model on crash rate sensitivity to adverse weather conditions. The analysis indicates that a base rate of crashes depending on non-weather factors exists, and some combinations of extreme weather conditions are able to substantially push up crash rates on days with bad weather. Some spatial causation factors, such as variation of geophysical characteristics causing systematic differences in the distributions of weather variables, exist. Yet, even in winter, non-spatial factors are normally more significant. GIS data can support optimal deployment of rescue services and enhance in-depth quantitative analysis by helping to identify the most appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. However, the supportive role of GIS should not be inferred as existence of highly significant spatial causation.

  10. Post-crash fuel dispersal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tieszen, S.R.

    1997-03-01

    This paper is a brief overview of work over the last several decades in understanding what occurs to jet fuel stored in aircraft fuel tanks on impact with the ground. Fuel dispersal is discussed in terms of the overall crash dynamics process and impact regimes are identified. In a generic sense, the types of flow regimes which can occur are identified and general descriptions of the processes are given. Examples of engineering level tools, both computational and experimental, which have applicability to analyzing the complex environments are presented. Finally, risk based decision is discussed as a quick means of identifying requirements for development of preventative or mitigation strategies, such as further work on the development of an anti-misting agent.

  11. 49 CFR 238.403 - Crash energy management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crash energy management. 238.403 Section 238.403... Equipment § 238.403 Crash energy management. (a) Each power car and trailer car shall be designed with a crash energy management system to dissipate kinetic energy during a collision. The crash...

  12. Factors Contributing to Crashes among Young Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndel J. Bates

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Young drivers are the group of drivers most likely to crash. There are a number of factors that contribute to the high crash risk experienced by these drivers. While some of these factors are intrinsic to the young driver, such as their age, gender or driving skill, others relate to social factors and when and how often they drive. This article reviews the factors that affect the risk of young drivers crashing to enable a fuller understanding of why this risk is so high in order to assist in developing effective countermeasures.

  13. Using hierarchical Bayesian binary probit models to analyze crash injury severity on high speed facilities with real-time traffic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongjie; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Severe crashes are causing serious social and economic loss, and because of this, reducing crash injury severity has become one of the key objectives of the high speed facilities' (freeway and expressway) management. Traditional crash injury severity analysis utilized data mainly from crash reports concerning the crash occurrence information, drivers' characteristics and roadway geometric related variables. In this study, real-time traffic and weather data were introduced to analyze the crash injury severity. The space mean speeds captured by the Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI) system on the two roadways were used as explanatory variables in this study; and data from a mountainous freeway (I-70 in Colorado) and an urban expressway (State Road 408 in Orlando) have been used to identify the analysis result's consistence. Binary probit (BP) models were estimated to classify the non-severe (property damage only) crashes and severe (injury and fatality) crashes. Firstly, Bayesian BP models' results were compared to the results from Maximum Likelihood Estimation BP models and it was concluded that Bayesian inference was superior with more significant variables. Then different levels of hierarchical Bayesian BP models were developed with random effects accounting for the unobserved heterogeneity at segment level and crash individual level, respectively. Modeling results from both studied locations demonstrate that large variations of speed prior to the crash occurrence would increase the likelihood of severe crash occurrence. Moreover, with considering unobserved heterogeneity in the Bayesian BP models, the model goodness-of-fit has improved substantially. Finally, possible future applications of the model results and the hierarchical Bayesian probit models were discussed. PMID:24172082

  14. Injury Differences Between Small and Large Overlap Frontal Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Hallman, Jason J.; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Maiman, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    Because small overlap impacts have recently emerged as a crash mode posing great injury risk to occupants, a detailed analysis of US crash data was conducted using the NASS/CDS and CIREN databases. Frontal crashes were subcategorized into small overlap impact (SOI) and large overlap impact (LOI) using crash and crush characteristics from the datasets. Injuries to head, spine, chest, hip and pelvis, and lower extremities were parsed and compared between crash types. MAIS 3+ occupants in NASS/C...

  15. Amplification and Asymmetry in Crashes and Frenzies

    OpenAIRE

    Han N. Ozsoylev

    2005-01-01

    We often observe disproportionate reactions to tangible information in large stock price movements. Moreover these movements feature an asymmetry: the number of crashes is more than that of frenzies in the S&P 500 index. This paper offers an explanation for these two characteristics of large movements in which hedging (portfolio insurance) causes amplified price reactions to news and liquidity shocks as well as an asymmetry biased towards crashes. Risk aversion of traders is shown to be essen...

  16. Modelling the Crash Response of Composite Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A.; Kohlgrüber, D.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes recent progress on the materials modelling and numerical simulation of the dynamic crash response of fibre reinforced composite structures. The work is based on the application of explicit finite element analysis codes to composite aircraft structures and structural elements under low velocity impact conditions (up to 15 m/s). Structures studied are designed to absorb crash energy and reduce seat deceleration pulses in aircraft subfloor structures, and consist of an aircra...

  17. Marijuana Use and Motor Vehicle Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Mu-Chen; Brady, Joanne E.; DiMaggio, Charles J.; Lusardi, Arielle R.; Tzong, Keane Y.; Li, Guohua

    2011-01-01

    Since 1996, 16 states and the District of Columbia in the United States have enacted legislation to decriminalize marijuana for medical use. Although marijuana is the most commonly detected nonalcohol drug in drivers, its role in crash causation remains unsettled. To assess the association between marijuana use and crash risk, the authors performed a meta-analysis of 9 epidemiologic studies published in English in the past 2 decades identified through a systematic search of bibliographic data...

  18. Crash Recovery for Embedded Main Memory Database

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Ye; Shuang Wang; Yi-bing Li

    2012-01-01

    In the last years, the deployment of embedded real-time communication systems has increased dramatically. At the same time, the amount of data that needs to be managed by embedded real-time main memory databases is increasing, thus requiring an efficient data management. However, system crash will cause data loss in main memory, which will seriously affect the normal operation of the entire communication system. This paper introduces an algorithm of system crash recovery applied in main memor...

  19. Alert Notification System Router

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurganus, Joseph; Carey, Everett; Antonucci, Robert; Hitchener, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The Alert Notification System Router (ANSR) software provides satellite operators with notifications of key events through pagers, cell phones, and e-mail. Written in Java, this application is specifically designed to meet the mission-critical standards for mission operations while operating on a variety of hardware environments. ANSR is a software component that runs inside the Mission Operations Center (MOC). It connects to the mission's message bus using the GMSEC [Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC)] standard. Other components, such as automation and monitoring components, can use ANSR to send directives to notify users or groups. The ANSR system, in addition to notifying users, can check for message acknowledgements from a user and escalate the notification to another user if there is no acknowledgement. When a firewall prevents ANSR from accessing the Internet directly, proxies can be run on the other side of the wall. These proxies can be configured to access the Internet, notify users, and poll for their responses. Multiple ANSRs can be run in parallel, providing a seamless failover capability in the event that one ANSR system becomes incapacitated.

  20. NotifEye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucero, Andrés; Vetek, Akos

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we explore the use of interactive eyewear in public. We introduce NotifEye, an application that allows a person to receive social network notifications on interactive glasses while walking on a busy street. The prototype uses a minimalistic user interface (UI) for interactive glasses...

  1. Mass Notification for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Tod

    2010-01-01

    Mass notification is a high priority in educational institutions. As the number of electronic communication devices has diversified, so has the complexity of designing an effective mass notification system. Picking the right system, with the right features, support services and price, can be daunting. This publication, updated quarterly due to…

  2. Crash and recovery from a crash of the computer systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kaevik, Zorica; Hristov, Risto; Gelev, Saso; Golubovski, Roman

    2013-01-01

    We live in a world of more and more intensive technical-technological development and use of automatic processing of data. There is almost no sphere in the human activity where the computer or one of the many microprocessors isn't involved. The big archives of data placed in the computer systems today are being used by a bigger number of users, while the bigger communication computer systems have risen the boundaries recently and become world ones. Concerning these kind of systems, the securi...

  3. Property Damage Crash Equivalency Factors for Solving the Crash Frequency-Severity Dilemma: Case Study on South Korean Rural Roads

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Jutaek; Washington, Simon; Lee, Dongmin

    2010-01-01

    Safety interventions (e.g. median barriers, photo enforcement) and road features (e.g. median type and width) can influence crash severities, crash frequencies, or both. Both dimensions—crash frequency and crash severity—are needed to obtain a full accounting of road safety. Extensive literature and common sense both dictate that all crashes are not ‘created’ equal—with fatalities costing society more than 1000 times the cost of property damage only crashes. Despite this glowing dis...

  4. Predicting crash risk and identifying crash precursors on Korean expressways using loop detector data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Ho-Chan; Kho, Seungyoung

    2016-03-01

    In order to improve traffic safety on expressways, it is important to develop proactive safety management strategies with consideration for segment types and traffic flow states because crash mechanisms have some differences by each condition. The primary objective of this study is to develop real-time crash risk prediction models for different segment types and traffic flow states on expressways. The mainline of expressways is divided into basic segment and ramp vicinity, and the traffic flow states are classified into uncongested and congested conditions. Also, Korean expressways have irregular intervals between loop detector stations. Therefore, we investigated on the effect and application of the detector stations at irregular intervals for the crash risk prediction on expressways. The most significant traffic variables were selected by conditional logistic regression analysis which could control confounding factors. Based on the selected traffic variables, separate models to predict crash risk were developed using genetic programming technique. The model estimation results showed that the traffic flow characteristics leading to crashes are differed by segment type and traffic flow state. Especially, the variables related to the intervals between detector stations had a significant influence on crash risk prediction under the uncongested condition. Finally, compared with the single model for all crashes and the logistic models used in previous studies, the proposed models showed higher prediction performance. The results of this study can be applied to develop more effective proactive safety management strategies for different segment types and traffic flow states on expressways with loop detector stations at irregular intervals. PMID:26710266

  5. A study to maximize the crash energy absorption efficiency within the limits of crash space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of an engine room is important to protect the passenger from a crash impact by improving the absorption of the crash impact energy. The side member in the engine room absorbs most of the crash impact energy when the vehicle experiences a frontal crash. The side member is of two types: hat and 'U.' Analysis of the extent of energy absorption and the mechanism of the side member are necessary through a collapse mode in various load conditions. In this study, the design of experiments was used for evaluating the characteristics of the absorption of crash energy by side members through design variables. First, crash analysis was performed by experiment number extracted from the design of the experiment. Then, using the results of crash analysis, multiple regressions were conducted and sensitivity analysis performed for each design variable. Finally, the optimum design was developed for maximizing the absorption energy per unit weight considering various boundary conditions. In the present study, as a basic step for modeling the fatigue behavior of an extruded Al alloy cylinder, the fatigue crack growth data of the alloy was collected in two orientations. Microstructural analysis revealed that the material had recrystallized grains and clusters of constituent particles aligned in the direction of extrusion. Fatigue life of the samples revealed a shorter fatigue life representing a higher fatigue crack growth rate in the transverse direction

  6. Crash Recovery for Embedded Main Memory Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ye

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the deployment of embedded real-time communication systems has increased dramatically. At the same time, the amount of data that needs to be managed by embedded real-time main memory databases is increasing, thus requiring an efficient data management. However, system crash will cause data loss in main memory, which will seriously affect the normal operation of the entire communication system. This paper introduces an algorithm of system crash recovery applied in main memory database of embedded real-time communication system. This paper expatiates the software architecture of SDR base station, the cause of crash occurring, and proposes the flash recovery algorithm using for system recovery. A main memory database using this algorithm has been applied in a real communication system——multimode SDR base station communication system.

  7. Transportation Institute releases findings on driver behavior and crash factors

    OpenAIRE

    Box, Sherri

    2006-01-01

    Driver inattention is the leading factor in most crashes and near-crashes, according to a landmark research report released today by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI).

  8. Gender and Age Differences among Teen Drivers in Fatal Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Swedler, David I.; Bowman, Stephen M.; Baker, Susan P.

    2012-01-01

    To identify age and gender differences among teen drivers in fatal crashes, we analyzed FARS data for 14,026crashes during 2007–2009. Compared with female teenagers, crashes of male teenagers were significantly more likely to involve BACs of 0.08% or more (21% vs. 12%), speeding (38% vs. 25%), reckless driving (17% vs. 14%), night driving (41% vs. 36%) and felony crashes (hit-and-run, homicide, or manslaughter) (8% vs. 6%) (all χ2 p

  9. Influence of Cannabis on Fatal Traffic Crash: A Detailed Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    VAN ELSLANDE, Pierre; FOURNIER, Jean-Yves; Jaffard, Magali

    2012-01-01

    The influence of cannabis on traffic crashes is a growing concern. Experimental studies provide ample evidences of cannabis influence on psychomotor and cognitive performances. Epidemiological works describe the excess crash risk that this substance causes. And yet, this psychotropic drug influence in causing crashes is still at the centre of many discussions. The present analysis consists in exploiting crash data in detail to obtain a more precise understanding of the failures that drivers a...

  10. Gasoline Prices and Their Relationship to Drunk-Driving Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Guangqing Chi; Xuan Zhou; Timothy McClure; Paul Gilbert; Arthur Cosby; Li Zhang; Angela Robertson; David Levinson

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between changing gasoline prices and drunk-driving crashes. Specifically, we examine the effects of gasoline prices on drunk-driving crashes in Mississippi by age, gender, and race from 2004Ð2008, a period experiencing great fluctuation in gasoline prices. An exploratory visualization by graphs shows that higher gasoline prices are generally associated with fewer drunk-driving crashes. Higher gasoline prices depress drunk- driving crashes among younger...

  11. Assessing factors causing severe injuries in crashes of high-deck buses in long-distance driving on freeways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hsing-Chung

    2014-01-01

    High-deck buses that have a higher center of gravity traveling at an excessive speed have a higher likelihood of causing serious and fatal accidents when drivers lose control of the vehicle. In addition, drivers who suffer from fatigue in long-distance driving increase the likelihood of serious accident. This paper examines the effects of risk factors contributing to severe crashes associated with high-deck buses used for long-distance driving on freeways. An ordered logit and latent class models are used to examine significant factors on the severity of injuries in crashes related to high-deck buses. Driver fatigue, drivers or passengers not wearing a seat belt, reckless driving, drunk driving, crashes occurred between midnight and dawn, and crashes occurred at interchange ramps were found to significantly affect the severity of injuries in crashes involving high-deck buses. Safety policies to prevent severe injuries in crashes involving high deck buses used for long-distance runs on freeways include: (1) restricting drivers from exceeding the limit of daily driving hours and mandating sufficient rest breaks; (2) installing an automatic sleep-warning device in the vehicle; (3) drivers with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome or sleep disorders should be tested and treated before they are allowed to perform long hours of driving tasks; (4) educating the public or even amending the seatbelt legislation to require all passengers to wear a seat belt and thus reduce the chance of ejection from a high-deck bus and prevent serious injuries in a crash while traveling at a higher speed on freeways. PMID:24144498

  12. Pre-crash system validation with PRESCAN and VEHIL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietelink, O.J.; Verburg, D.J.; Labibes, K.; Oostendorp, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the tools for design and validation of Pre-Crash Systems: the software tool PRE-crash SCenario ANalyzer (PRESCAN) and the VEhicle-Hardware-In-the-Loop (VEHIL) facility. PRESCAN allows to investigate a pre-crash scenario in simulation. This scenario can then be compared with tests

  13. 14 CFR 29.952 - Fuel system crash resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system crash resistance. 29.952... crash resistance. Unless other means acceptable to the Administrator are employed to minimize the hazard of fuel fires to occupants following an otherwise survivable impact (crash landing), the fuel...

  14. 49 CFR 563.10 - Crash test performance and survivability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR 571.208, Occupant crash protection, must comply with the requirements in subpart (c) of this... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crash test performance and survivability. 563.10... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EVENT DATA RECORDERS § 563.10 Crash...

  15. 14 CFR 27.952 - Fuel system crash resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system crash resistance. 27.952... crash resistance. Unless other means acceptable to the Administrator are employed to minimize the hazard of fuel fires to occupants following an otherwise survivable impact (crash landing), the fuel...

  16. Automatic sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Haeseler, Friedrich

    2003-01-01

    Automatic sequences are sequences which are produced by a finite automaton. Although they are not random they may look as being random. They are complicated, in the sense of not being not ultimately periodic, they may look rather complicated, in the sense that it may not be easy to name the rule by which the sequence is generated, however there exists a rule which generates the sequence. The concept automatic sequences has special applications in algebra, number theory, finite automata and formal languages, combinatorics on words. The text deals with different aspects of automatic sequences, in particular:· a general introduction to automatic sequences· the basic (combinatorial) properties of automatic sequences· the algebraic approach to automatic sequences· geometric objects related to automatic sequences.

  17. Analyzing road design risk factors for run-off-road crashes in The Netherlands with crash prediction models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petegem, J.W.H. van & Wegman, F.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    About 50% of all road traffic fatalities and 30% of all traffic injuries in The Netherlands take place on rural roads with a speed limit of 80 km/h. About 50% of these crashes are run-off-road (ROR) crashes. To reduce the number of crashes on this road type, attention should be put on improving the

  18. Vehicle dynamics and crash dynamics with minicomputer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giavotto, V. Puccinelli, L. Borri, M. Edelman, A. & Heijer, T.

    1982-01-01

    The definition and the development of the VEDYAC system is given. Following a previous large experience concerning the simulation of crashes with safety barriers, a basic philosophy has been developed and the requirements of the VEDYAC project have been fixed. The main features of the VEDYAC project

  19. Syncope and Motor Vehicle Crash Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Numé, Anna-Karin; Gislason, Gunnar; Christiansen, Christine B;

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Syncope may have serious consequences for traffic safety. Current clinical guideline recommendations on driving following syncope are primarily based on expert consensus. OBJECTIVE: To identify whether there is excess risk of motor vehicle crashes among patients with syncope compared...... reference. RESULTS: The 41 039 patients with syncope had a median age of 66 years (interquartile range [IQR], 47-78 years); 51.0% were women; and 34.8% had cardiovascular disease. Through a median follow-up of 2.0 years (IQR, 0.8-3.3 years), 1791 patients with syncope (4.4%) had a motor vehicle crash, 78.......83 (95% CI, 1.74-1.91) after adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic position, and relevant comorbidities and pharmacotherapy. Men had a relatively higher rate of motor vehicle crashes (RR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.79-2.03) than women (RR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.63-1.87). The excess risk of motor vehicle crashes...

  20. Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-07

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the October 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Motor vehicle crashes are costly and preventable. Learn what can be done to help prevent motor vehicle injuries.  Created: 10/7/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 10/7/2014.

  1. Vital Signs-Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-07

    This podcast is based on the October 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Motor vehicle crashes are costly and preventable. Learn what can be done to help prevent motor vehicle injuries.  Created: 10/7/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/7/2014.

  2. CRASH3: cosmological radiative transfer through metals

    CERN Document Server

    Graziani, L; Ciardi, B

    2012-01-01

    Here we introduce CRASH3, the latest release of the 3D radiative transfer code CRASH. In its current implementation CRASH3 integrates into the reference algorithm the code Cloudy to evaluate the ionisation states of metals, self-consistently with the radiative transfer through H and He. The feedback of the heavy elements on the calculation of the gas temperature is also taken into account, making of CRASH3 the first 3D code for cosmological applications which treats self-consistently the radiative transfer through an inhomogeneous distribution of metal enriched gas with an arbitrary number of point sources and/or a background radiation. The code has been tested in idealized configurations, as well as in a more realistic case of multiple sources embedded in a polluted cosmic web. Through these validation tests the new method has been proven to be numerically stable and convergent. We have studied the dependence of the results on a number of physical quantities such as the source characteristics (spectral range...

  3. Survivors’ experiences from a train crash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Forsberg

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Rarely described are people's lived experiences from severe injury events such as train crashes. The number of train crashes named disasters with ≥10 killed and/or ≥100 nonfatally injured grows globally and the trend shows that more people survive these disasters today than did so in the past. This results in an increased number of survivors needing care. The aim of the study was to explore survivors’ experiences from a train crash. Narrative interviews were performed with 14 passengers 4 years after a train crash event. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the interviews. Experiences were captured in three main themes: (1 Living in the mode of existential threat describes how the survivors first lost control, then were thrown into a state of unimaginable chaos as they faced death. (2 Dealing with the unthinkable described how survivors restored control, the central role of others, and the importance of reconstructing the event to move forward in their processing. (3 Having cheated death shows how some became shackled by their history, whereas others overcame the haunting of unforgettable memories. Furthermore, the result shows how all experienced a second chance in life. Experiencing a train crash meant that the passengers experienced severe vulnerability and a threat to life and interdependence turned out to play a crucial role. Focusing on helping other passengers on site was one way to regain the loss of control and kept the chaos at bay. Family, friends, and fellow passengers turned out to be extremely important during the recovery process why such closeness should be promoted and facilitated.

  4. Driver inattention and driver distraction in serious casualty crashes: data from the Australian National Crash In-depth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beanland, Vanessa; Fitzharris, Michael; Young, Kristie L; Lenné, Michael G

    2013-05-01

    Driver inattention and driver distraction represent a major problem in road safety. Although both are believed to contribute to increased crash risk, there is currently limited reliable information on their role in crashes. The current study used in-depth data from the Australian National Crash In-depth Study to investigate the role of driver distraction and inattention in serious casualty crashes. The sample included 856 crashes from 2000 to 2011, in which at least one party was admitted to hospital due to crash-related injuries. Crashes were coded using a taxonomy of driver inattention that delineates five inattention subtypes: restricted attention, misprioritised attention, neglected attention, cursory attention, and diverted attention (distraction). Approximately 45% of crashes could not be coded due to insufficient information while in an additional 15% the participant indicated the "other driver was at fault" without specifying whether inattention was involved. Of the 340 remaining cases, most showed evidence of driver inattention (57.6%) or possible inattention (5.9%). The most common subtypes of inattention were restricted attention, primarily due to intoxication and/or fatigue, and diverted attention or distraction. The most common types of distraction involved voluntary, non-driving related distractions originating within the vehicle, such as passenger interactions. The current study indicates that a majority of serious injury crashes involve driver inattention. Most forms of inattention and distraction observed are preventable. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using in-depth crash data to investigate driver inattention in casualty crashes. PMID:23499981

  5. Oil Notifications: Emergency Response Notification System (ERNS) fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Emergency Response Notification System (ERNS) is a national computer database which provides the only centralized mechanism for documenting and verifying incident notification information as initially reported to the National Response Center (NRC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and to a limited extent, the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG). The initial notification data may be followed up with updated information from various Federal, State and local response authorities, as appropriate. ERNS contains data that can be used to analyze release notifications, support emergency planning efforts, and assist decision makers in developing spill prevention programs. The fact sheet provides summary information on notifications of releases of oil reported in accordance with the Clean Water Act (CWA). Under Section 311 of the CWA, discharges of oil which: (1) cause a sheen to appear on the surface of the water; (2) violate applicable water quality standards; or (3) cause sludge or emulsion to be deposited beneath the surface of the water or adjoining shoreline, must be reported to the NRC

  6. Gender and Age Differences among Teen Drivers in Fatal Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedler, David I; Bowman, Stephen M; Baker, Susan P

    2012-01-01

    To identify age and gender differences among teen drivers in fatal crashes, we analyzed FARS data for 14,026crashes during 2007-2009. Compared with female teenagers, crashes of male teenagers were significantly more likely to involve BACs of 0.08% or more (21% vs. 12%), speeding (38% vs. 25%), reckless driving (17% vs. 14%), night driving (41% vs. 36%) and felony crashes (hit-and-run, homicide, or manslaughter) (8% vs. 6%) (all χ(2) p<0.001). Conversely, crashes of female teenagers were more likely to involve right angle ("t-bone") crashes (23% vs. 17%). Some crash characteristics associated with males and known to play a major role in crash causation also are more common in the youngest teenagers; for example, crashes of drivers age 15 or 16 were more likely than crashes of older teens to involve speeding or reckless driving. Crashes of drivers with BACs of 0.08% or higher increased with age in both genders. Some age effects differed by gender: for example, the proportion of crashes of female teens that involved speeding dropped from 38% to 22% between ages 15 and 19, while for males about 38% of crashes at each age involved speeding. The gender and age differences observed in teen drivers suggest opportunities for targeted driver training - for example, simulator training modules specifically tailored for male or female teenagers. Technology-based tools could also be developed to help parents to focus on the reckless driving tendencies of their sons. Insurance companies should consider ways to incentivize young males to drive more responsibly. PMID:23169121

  7. Analysis of Aircraft Crash Accident for WETF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report applies the methodology of DOE-STD-3014-96, ''Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities'', to the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) at LANL. Straightforward application of that methodology shows that including local helicopter flights with those of all other aircraft with potential to impact the facility poses a facility impact risk slightly in excess of the DOE standard's threshold--10-6 impacts per year. It is also shown that helicopters can penetrate the facility if their engines impact that facility's roof. However, a refinement of the helicopter impact analysis shows that penetration risk of the facility for all aircraft lies below the DOE standard's threshold. By that standard, therefore, the potential for release of hazardous material from the facility as a result of an aircraft crashing into the facility is negligible and need not be analyzed further

  8. Explaining Differences in Crash and Injury Crash Outcomes in Red Light Camera Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langland-Orban, Barbara; Pracht, Etienne E; Large, John T; Zhang, Nanhua; Tepas, Joseph T

    2016-06-01

    Evaluations of red light camera (RLC) traffic safety programs have produced mixed results. Some conclude RLCs were associated with significant increases in motor vehicle crashes and injury crashes, whereas other research reports safety benefits. To understand the difference in findings, the present analysis assessed whether standards required for internal validity in quasi-experimental public health program evaluations were adhered to in frequently cited RLC analyses. Four evaluation standards were identified and used to assess the RLC analyses: lack of bias in the selection of both (a) treated sites and (b) comparison sites, (c) integration of relevant control variables in the analysis, and (d) full disclosure of results of the statistical analysis. Six leading RLC studies were then critiqued. Only two of the six studies adhered to the four standards and both concluded RLCs were associated with significant increases in crashes and injury or possible injury crashes. A third study reported an increase in fatal/injury crashes but did not test for statistical significance. Three studies reported equivocal findings; however, each failed to adhere to most standards. Differences in findings were attributed to the evaluation methods used. If implementing an RLC program, communities should use sound public health evaluation methods to assess effectiveness. PMID:25007792

  9. Modeling Situation Awareness and Crash Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Donald L.; Strayer, David L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we develop a model of the relationship between crash risk and a driver’s situation awareness. We consider a driver’s situation awareness to reflect the dynamic mental model of the driving environment and to be dependent upon several psychological processes including Scanning the driving environment, Predicting and anticipating hazards, Identifying potential hazards in the driving scene as they occur, Deciding on an action, and Executing an appropriate Response (SPIDER). Togeth...

  10. Can analyst predict stock market crashes?

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Terence T. L.; Xiaolei Wang

    2013-01-01

    The frequency of financial market turmoil has been rising over the past two decades. While the incidence of market turmoil has increased, the performance of analysts during tumultuous times has not received much attention in the literature. This paper examines whether the accuracy of analyst forecasts on stock returns varies during tumultuous times. Our results indicate that analysts' forecast performance during stock market crashes drops significantly.

  11. Deleveraging, short sale constraints and market crash

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Liang; Zhang, Lei; Fu, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a theory of market crashes resulting from a deleveraging shock. We consider two representative investors in a market holding different opinions about the public available information. The deleveraging shock forces the high confidence investors to liquidate their risky assets to pay back their margin loans. When short sales are constrained, the deleveraging shock creates a liquidity vacuum in which no trades can occur between the two representative investors until the...

  12. Motor Vehicle Crash Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-06

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the July 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. In the U.S., about 90 people die in motor vehicle crashes each day and thousands more are injured, resulting in hundreds of millions of dollars in direct medical costs each year. Learn what you can do to stay safe.  Created: 7/6/2016 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 7/6/2016.

  13. Injury Patterns in Side Pole Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Pintar, Frank A.; Maiman, Dennis J.; Yoganandan, Narayan

    2007-01-01

    Side impact pole/tree crashes can have devastating consequences. A series of 53 CIREN cases of narrow-object side impacts were analyzed. Twenty-seven of 53 had serious chest injury and 27 had serious head injury. Unilateral chest trauma led to the examination of residual crush pattern that often demonstrated oblique door intrusion into the occupant thorax space. It was hypothesized that unilateral chest trauma was caused by antero-lateral chest loading. This hypothesis was evaluated by conduc...

  14. The Stock Market Crashes of 1929 and 1987: Linking History and Personal Finance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopus, Jane S.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses two twentieth-century stock market crashes: the crash of 1929 and the crash of 1987. When this material is presented to students, they see important parallels between the two historical events. But despite remarkable similarities in the severity and many other aspects of the two crashes, the crash of 1929 was followed by the…

  15. 41 CFR 102-34.295 - To whom do we send crash reports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false To whom do we send crash... MANAGEMENT Motor Vehicle Crash Reporting § 102-34.295 To whom do we send crash reports? Send crash reports as... agency directives. (b) If the motor vehicle is leased from GSA Fleet, report the crash to GSA...

  16. Signal analysis, modeling and simulation of vehicle crash dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Midjena, Debela Yadeta; Muraspahic, Sanin

    2013-01-01

    Vehicle crash safety has been a strong point of interest for long time in many countries due to the reason that safety statistics show high fatality rate of vehicle occupants involved in road accidents. All vehicles which are going to appear on the road must go through several serious crash investigations to approve whether they conform to the relevant safety standards. There are large crash test facilities built by big companies for these operations. However, a wide and full-scal...

  17. Performing Network Level Crash Evaluation Using Skid Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Ross James

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of crash count data as a function of roadway characteristics allows Departments of Transportation to predict expected average crash risks in order to assist in identifying segments that could benefit from various treatments. Currently, the evaluation is performed using negative binomial regression, as a function of average annual daily traffic (AADT) and other variables. For this thesis, a crash study was carried out for the interstate, primary and secondary routes, in the...

  18. On the Fatal Crash Experience of Older Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Kent, Richard; Henary, Basem; Matsuoka, Fumio

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the fatal crash experiences of older drivers. Data from two U.S. databases (NASS-CDS and FARS) were used. Several crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics were compared across age groups, including vehicle type, crash direction (PDOF), severity (ΔV), and injured body region. A sub-set of 97 fatally injured drivers was chosen for a detailed case study. The mean travel speed, ΔV, and airbag deployment rate decreased significantly with age (p

  19. 40 CFR 63.3910 - What notifications must I submit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What notifications must I submit? 63... Notifications, Reports, and Records § 63.3910 What notifications must I submit? (a) General. You must submit the... Notification. You must submit the initial notification required by § 63.9(b) for a new or...

  20. 40 CFR 63.4310 - What notifications must I submit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What notifications must I submit? 63... Notifications, Reports, and Records § 63.4310 What notifications must I submit? (a) You must submit the... Notification. You must submit the Initial Notification required by § 63.9(b) for a new or...

  1. Automated Vehicle Crash Rate Comparison Using Naturalistic Data

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Myra; Atwood, Jon; Russell, Sheldon; Trimble, Tammy; McClafferty, Julie; Perez, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed driving risk for the United States nationally and for the Google Self-Driving Car project. Driving safety on public roads was examined in three ways. The total crash rates for the Self-Driving Car and the national population were compared to (1) rates reported to the police, (2) crash rates for different types of roadways, and (3) scenarios that give rise to unreported crashes. First, crash rates from the Google Self-Driving Car project per million miles driven, broken dow...

  2. Offsite radiological consequence analysis for the bounding aircraft crash accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this calculation note is to quantitatively analyze a bounding aircraft crash accident for comparison to the DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', Appendix A, Evaluation Guideline of 25 rem. The potential of aircraft impacting a facility was evaluated using the approach given in DOE-STD-3014-96, ''Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities''. The following aircraft crash FR-equencies were determined for the Tank Farms in RPP-11736, ''Assessment Of Aircraft Crash FR-equency For The Hanford Site 200 Area Tank Farms'': (1) The total aircraft crash FR-equency is ''extremely unlikely.'' (2) The general aviation crash FR-equency is ''extremely unlikely.'' (3) The helicopter crash FR-equency is ''beyond extremely unlikely.'' (4) For the Hanford Site 200 Areas, other aircraft type, commercial or military, each above ground facility, and any other type of underground facility is ''beyond extremely unlikely.'' As the potential of aircraft crash into the 200 Area tank farms is more FR-equent than ''beyond extremely unlikely,'' consequence analysis of the aircraft crash is required

  3. Injury Risk Functions in Frontal Impacts Using Data from Crash Pulse Recorders

    OpenAIRE

    Stigson, Helena; Kullgren, Anders; Rosén, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of how crash severity influences injury risk in car crashes is essential in order to create a safe road transport system. Analyses of real-world crashes increase the ability to obtain such knowledge.

  4. 77 FR 29247 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... Standards; Occupant Crash Protection AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA... technical amendments to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 208, Occupant Crash Protection... requirements for pressure vessels and explosive devices used in occupant crash protection systems, such as...

  5. Crash protection of stock car racing drivers--application of biomechanical analysis of Indy car crash research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, John W; Begeman, Paul C; Faller, Ronald K; Sicking, Dean L; McClellan, Scott B; Maynard, Edwin; Donegan, Michael W; Mallott, Annette M; Gideon, Thomas W

    2006-11-01

    Biomechanical analysis of Indy car crashes using on-board impact recorders (Melvin et al. 1998, Melvin et al. 2001) indicates that Indy car driver protection in high-energy crashes can be achieved in frontal, side, and rear crashes with severities in the range of 100 to 135 G peak deceleration and velocity changes in the range of 50 to 70 mph. These crashes were predominantly single-car impacts with the rigid concrete walls of oval tracks. This impressive level of protection was found to be due to the unique combination of a very supportive and tight-fitting cockpit-seating package, a six-point belt restraint system, and effective head padding with an extremely strong chassis that defines the seat and cockpit of a modern Indy car. In 2000 and 2001, a series of fatal crashes in stock car racing created great concern for improving the crash protection for drivers in those racecars. Unlike the Indy car, the typical racing stock car features a more spacious driver cockpit due to its resemblance to the shape of a passenger car. The typical racing seat used in stock cars did not have the same configuration or support characteristics of the Indy car seat, and five-point belt restraints were used. The tubular steel space frame chassis of a stock car also differs from an Indy car's composite chassis structure in both form and mechanical behavior. This paper describes the application of results of the biomechanical analysis of the Indy car crash studies to the unique requirements of stock car racing driver crash protection. Sled test and full-scale crash test data using both Hybrid III frontal crash anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and BioSID side crash ATDs for the purpose of evaluating countermeasures involving restraint systems, seats and head/neck restraints has been instrumental in guiding these developments. In addition, the development of deformable walls for oval tracks (the SAFER Barrier) is described as an adjunct to improved occupant restraint through control

  6. Sawtooth crashes at high beta on JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper, B.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Sips, A.C.C. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Nave, M.F.F. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior Tecnico

    1994-07-01

    The sawtooth crashes on JET display features which depend on beta. The main observation is a transient bulging of flux surfaces (duration inferior to 30 microsec.), which is predominantly on the low field side and extends to larger radii as beta increases. This phenomenon reaches the plasma boundary when beta{sub N} exceeds 0.5 and in these cases is followed by an ELM within 50 microsec. These sawtooth/ELM events limit plasma performance. Modelling of mode coupling shows qualitative agreement between observations of the structure of the sawtooth precursor and the calculated internal kink mode at high beta. (authors). 6 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Data Mining on Crash Simulation Data

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhlmann, A.; Vetter, R. -M.; Luebbing, Ch.; Thole, C. -A.

    2005-01-01

    The work presented in this paper is part of the cooperative research project AUTO-OPT carried out by twelve partners from the automotive industries. One major work package concerns the application of data mining methods in the area of automotive design. Suitable methods for data preparation and data analysis are developed. The objective of the work is the re-use of data stored in the crash-simulation department at BMW in order to gain deeper insight into the interrelations between the geometr...

  8. Mechanisms of injury in automobile crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelke, D F

    1972-02-01

    The only way to determine the causes of injury in automobile collisions is through examination of data collected in detailed investigation of crashes. Such data were gathered from a ten-year study of collisions that caused injury to the occupants of the cars. In a comparison of injuries in the newer model automobiles-vehicles equipped with the safety features-with those in older model cars not equipped with the present-day occupant protection devices, significant reduction in injury severity was noted. PMID:5059662

  9. Innovative Anti Crash Absorber for a Crashworthy Landing Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Michele; Marulo, Francesco; Montesarchio, Bruno; Bruno, Massimiliano

    2014-06-01

    This paper defines an innovative concept to anti-crash absorber in composite material to be integrated on the landing gear as an energy-absorbing device in crash conditions to absorb the impact energy. A composite cylinder tube in carbon fiber material is installed coaxially to the shock absorber cylinder and, in an emergency landing gear condition, collapses in order to enhance the energy absorption performance of the landing system. This mechanism has been developed as an alternative solution to a high-pressure chamber installed on the Agusta A129 CBT helicopter, which can be considered dangerous when the helicopter operates in hard and/or crash landing. The characteristics of the anti-crash device are presented and the structural layout of a crashworthy landing gear adopting the developed additional energy absorbing stage is outlined. Experimental and numerical results relevant to the material characterization and the force peaks evaluation of the system development are reported. The anti-crash prototype was designed, analysed, optimized, made and finally the potential performances of a landing gear with the additional anti-crash absorber system are tested by drop test and then correlated with a similar test without the anti-crash system, showing that appreciable energy absorbing capabilities and efficiencies can be obtained in crash conditions.

  10. Analyzing angle crashes at unsignalized intersections using machine learning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Haleem, Kirolos

    2011-01-01

    A recently developed machine learning technique, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), is introduced in this study to predict vehicles' angle crashes. MARS has a promising prediction power, and does not suffer from interpretation complexity. Negative Binomial (NB) and MARS models were fitted and compared using extensive data collected on unsignalized intersections in Florida. Two models were estimated for angle crash frequency at 3- and 4-legged unsignalized intersections. Treating crash frequency as a continuous response variable for fitting a MARS model was also examined by considering the natural logarithm of the crash frequency. Finally, combining MARS with another machine learning technique (random forest) was explored and discussed. The fitted NB angle crash models showed several significant factors that contribute to angle crash occurrence at unsignalized intersections such as, traffic volume on the major road, the upstream distance to the nearest signalized intersection, the distance between successive unsignalized intersections, median type on the major approach, percentage of trucks on the major approach, size of the intersection and the geographic location within the state. Based on the mean square prediction error (MSPE) assessment criterion, MARS outperformed the corresponding NB models. Also, using MARS for predicting continuous response variables yielded more favorable results than predicting discrete response variables. The generated MARS models showed the most promising results after screening the covariates using random forest. Based on the results of this study, MARS is recommended as an efficient technique for predicting crashes at unsignalized intersections (angle crashes in this study). PMID:21094345

  11. Impact of traffic states on freeway crash involvement rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Hwasoo; Jang, Kitae; Skabardonis, Alexander; Kang, Seungmo

    2013-01-01

    Freeway traffic accidents are complicated events that are influenced by multiple factors including roadway geometry, drivers' behavior, traffic conditions and environmental factors. Among the various factors, crash occurrence on freeways is supposed to be strongly influenced by the traffic states representing driving situations that are changed by road geometry and cause the change of drivers' behavior. This paper proposes a methodology to investigate the relationship between traffic states and crash involvements on the freeway. First, we defined section-based traffic states: free flow (FF), back of queue (BQ), bottleneck front (BN) and congestion (CT) according to their distinctive patterns; and traffic states of each freeway section are determined based on actual measurements of traffic data from upstream and downstream ends of the section. Next, freeway crash data are integrated with the traffic states of a freeway section using upstream and downstream traffic measurements. As an illustrative study to show the applicability, we applied the proposed method on a 32-mile section of I-880 freeway. By integrating freeway crash occurrence and traffic data over a three-year period, we obtained the crash involvement rate for each traffic state. The results show that crash involvement rate in BN, BQ, and CT states are approximately 5 times higher than the one in FF. The proposed method shows promise to be used for various safety performance measurement including hot spot identification and prediction of the number of crash involvements on freeway sections. PMID:22795398

  12. Countermeasures for Reducing Alcohol-Related Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voas, R B

    2000-01-01

    Programs to prevent alcohol-related crashes occur at several levels. Although most of the public thinks of drunk-driving prevention only in terms of the criminal justice system, much can be done to prevent alcohol-related highway deaths before the drinking-and-driving offender gets on the road. In recent years, the field of alcohol safety has merged with the area of public health concerned with preventing alcohol- and drug-related traumatic injury and death. This paper provides an overview of the status of road safety programs directed at reducing impaired driving. It covers ten topics falling into the three levels of prevention: primary programs to reduce alcohol consumption; secondary programs to prevent driving after drinking; and tertiary programs to prevent recidivism among convicted drinking drivers. PMID:26256029

  13. Suicide plane crash against nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cea (French atomic energy commission) and EDF (Electricity of France) are reassessing their safety standards concerning suicide plane attacks against nuclear facilities. The general idea is to study the non-linear behaviour of reinforced concrete in case of mechanical impact. American studies carried out in 1988 show that a F-14 phantom crashing into a 3,6 meter thick wall at a speed of 774 km/h penetrates only the first 5 cm of the wall. More recent studies performed in Germany and based on computerized simulations show that the reactor containment can sustain impacts from a F15 plane or even from a 747-Boeing but contiguous buildings like the one which houses spent fuels might be more easily damaged because of their metal roofing. (A.C.)

  14. Bayesian log-periodic model for financial crashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Caballero, Carlos Vladimir; Knapik, Oskar

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a Bayesian approach in econophysics literature about financial bubbles in order to estimate the most probable time for a financial crash to occur. To this end, we propose using noninformative prior distributions to obtain posterior distributions. Since these distributions...... part of the study, we analyze a well-known example of financial bubble – the S&P 500 1987 crash – to show the usefulness of the three methods under consideration and crashes of Merval-94, Bovespa-97, IPCMX-94, Hang Seng-97 using the simplest method. The novelty of this research is that the Bayesian...

  15. Projecting Fatalities in Crashes Involving Older Drivers, 2000-2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.S.

    2001-03-23

    As part of this research effort, we developed a new methodology for projecting elderly traffic crash fatalities. This methodology separates exposure to crashes from crash risk per se, and further divides exposure into two components, the number of miles driven and the likelihood of being a driver. This component structure permits conceptually different determinants of traffic fatalities to be projected separately and has thorough motivation in behavioral theory. It also permits finer targeting of particular aspects of projections that need improvement and closer linking of projections to possible policy instruments for influencing them.

  16. Evaluation of the First Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT 1) Full-Scale Crash Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Martin S.; Littell, Justin D.; Jackson, Karen E.; Bark, Lindley W.; DeWeese, Rick L.; McEntire, B. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, the NASA Rotary Wing Crashworthiness Program initiated the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) research program by obtaining two CH-46E helicopters from the Navy CH-46E Program Office (PMA-226) at the Navy Flight Readiness Center in Cherry Point, North Carolina. Full-scale crash tests were planned to assess dynamic responses of transport-category rotorcraft under combined horizontal and vertical impact loading. The first crash test (TRACT 1) was performed at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research Facility (LandIR), which enables the study of critical interactions between the airframe, seat, and occupant during a controlled crash environment. The CH-46E fuselage is categorized as a medium-lift rotorcraft with fuselage dimensions comparable to a regional jet or business jet. The first TRACT test (TRACT 1) was conducted in August 2013. The primary objectives for TRACT 1 were to: (1) assess improvements to occupant loads and displacement with the use of crashworthy features such as pre-tensioning active restraints and energy absorbing seats, (2) develop novel techniques for photogrammetric data acquisition to measure occupant and airframe kinematics, and (3) provide baseline data for future comparison with a retrofitted airframe configuration. Crash test conditions for TRACT 1 were 33-ft/s forward and 25-ft/s vertical combined velocity onto soft soil, which represent a severe, but potentially survivable impact scenario. The extraordinary value of the TRACT 1 test was reflected by the breadth of meaningful experiments. A total of 8 unique experiments were conducted to evaluate ATD responses, seat and restraint performance, cargo restraint effectiveness, patient litter behavior, and photogrammetric techniques. A combination of Hybrid II, Hybrid III, and ES-2 Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) were placed in forward and side facing seats and occupant results were compared against injury criteria. Loads from ATDs in energy

  17. 49 CFR 382.411 - Employer notifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employer notifications. 382.411 Section 382.411... Employer notifications. (a) An employer shall notify a driver of the results of a pre-employment controlled... being notified of the disposition of the employment application. An employer shall notify a driver...

  18. 5 CFR 179.304 - Notification procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification procedures. 179.304 Section 179.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Administrative Offset § 179.304 Notification procedures. Before collecting any...

  19. Prioritizing Child Pornography Notifications: Predicting Direct Victimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Smid; K. Schepers; J.H. Kamphuis; S. van Linden; S. Bartling

    2014-01-01

    The growing number of notifications for child pornography (CP) possession constitutes a capacity problem for police forces entrusted with the investigation of these offenses. Notifications of CP offenses in which the investigation reveals concurrent direct victimization, in the form of contact offen

  20. 32 CFR 989.24 - Public notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of possible notification methods in 40 CFR 1506.6(b)(3) is only illustrative. The EPF may use other equally effective means of notification as a substitute for any of the methods listed. Because many Air... with EPF funds an advertisement in a prominent section of the local newspaper(s) of general...

  1. 49 CFR 192.16 - Customer notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer notification. 192.16 Section 192.16... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 192.16 Customer notification. (a) This section applies to each operator of a service line who does not maintain the customer's buried piping...

  2. 40 CFR 60.4162 - Notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Generating Units Hg Allowance Transfers § 60.4162 Notification. (a) Notification of recordation. Within 5 business days of recordation of a Hg allowance transfer under § 60.4161, the Administrator will notify the Hg authorized account representatives of both the transferor and transferee accounts....

  3. 77 FR 39112 - State Official Notification Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ...'' language from the Final Rule and suggested that the exception to the ten-day notification requirement... provided. By way of clarification, material changes are those changes that substantively affect the legal... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1082 RIN 3170-AA02 State Official Notification Rule AGENCY: Bureau of...

  4. 49 CFR 659.33 - Accident notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident notification. 659.33 Section 659.33 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION... Agency § 659.33 Accident notification. (a) The oversight agency must require the rail transit agency...

  5. 40 CFR 63.3510 - What notifications must I submit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What notifications must I submit? 63... § 63.3510 What notifications must I submit? (a) General. You must submit the notifications in §§ 63.7(b... submit the Initial Notification required by § 63.9(b) for a new or reconstructed affected source no...

  6. 40 CFR 63.4510 - What notifications must I submit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What notifications must I submit? 63..., Reports, and Records § 63.4510 What notifications must I submit? (a) General. You must submit the... notification. You must submit the initial notification required by § 63.9(b) for a new or...

  7. Injury Risk for Rear-Seated Occupants in Small Overlap Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Arbogast, Kristy B.; Locey, Caitlin M.; Hammond, Rachel; Belwadi, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    Small overlap crashes, where the primary crash engagement is outboard from the longitudinal energy absorbing structures of the vehicle, have received recent interest as a crash dynamic that results in high likelihood of injury. Previous analyses of good performing vehicles showed that 24% of crashes with AIS 3+ injuries to front seat occupants were small overlap crashes. However, similar evaluations have not been conducted for those rear seated. Vehicle dynamics suggest that rear seat occupan...

  8. Linux Crash Dump的设计与实现%AN INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF Linux Crash Dump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 沈亚谦; 潘金贵

    2002-01-01

    本文介绍了Linux Crash Dump的设计与实现方法.Linux Crash Dump提供了一种保存系统在发生Crash时内存映象的能力.通过对Dump结果的分析,可以有效地帮助诊断系统出错的原因.本文介绍了如何进行Crash Dump,以及Dump的数据的组织和保存方法等.

  9. A multinomial-logit ordered-probit model for jointly analyzing crash avoidance maneuvers and crash severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    the United States National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System (GES) crash database for the years 2005-2009. Results show (i) the correlation between crash avoidance maneuvers and crash severity, and (ii) the link between drivers' attributes, risky driving behavior, road......' propensity to engage in various corrective maneuvers in the case of the critical event of vehicle travelling. Five lateral and speed control maneuvers are considered: “braking”, “steering”, “braking & steering”, and “other maneuvers”, in addition to a “no action” option. The analyzed data are retrieved from...

  10. Why Do Markets Crash? Bitcoin Data Offers Unprecedented Insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Donier

    Full Text Available Crashes have fascinated and baffled many canny observers of financial markets. In the strict orthodoxy of the efficient market theory, crashes must be due to sudden changes of the fundamental valuation of assets. However, detailed empirical studies suggest that large price jumps cannot be explained by news and are the result of endogenous feedback loops. Although plausible, a clear-cut empirical evidence for such a scenario is still lacking. Here we show how crashes are conditioned by the market liquidity, for which we propose a new measure inspired by recent theories of market impact and based on readily available, public information. Our results open the possibility of a dynamical evaluation of liquidity risk and early warning signs of market instabilities, and could lead to a quantitative description of the mechanisms leading to market crashes.

  11. Why Do Markets Crash? Bitcoin Data Offers Unprecedented Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donier, Jonathan; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Crashes have fascinated and baffled many canny observers of financial markets. In the strict orthodoxy of the efficient market theory, crashes must be due to sudden changes of the fundamental valuation of assets. However, detailed empirical studies suggest that large price jumps cannot be explained by news and are the result of endogenous feedback loops. Although plausible, a clear-cut empirical evidence for such a scenario is still lacking. Here we show how crashes are conditioned by the market liquidity, for which we propose a new measure inspired by recent theories of market impact and based on readily available, public information. Our results open the possibility of a dynamical evaluation of liquidity risk and early warning signs of market instabilities, and could lead to a quantitative description of the mechanisms leading to market crashes. PMID:26448333

  12. Crash Prediction and Risk Evaluation Based on Traffic Analysis Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiping Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic safety evaluation for traffic analysis zones (TAZs plays an important role in transportation safety planning and long-range transportation plan development. This paper aims to present a comprehensive analysis of zonal safety evaluation. First, several criteria are proposed to measure the crash risk at zonal level. Then these criteria are integrated into one measure-average hazard index (AHI, which is used to identify unsafe zones. In addition, the study develops a negative binomial regression model to statistically estimate significant factors for the unsafe zones. The model results indicate that the zonal crash frequency can be associated with several social-economic, demographic, and transportation system factors. The impact of these significant factors on zonal crash is also discussed. The finding of this study suggests that safety evaluation and estimation might benefit engineers and decision makers in identifying high crash locations for potential safety improvements.

  13. Heavy Vehicle Crash Characteristics in Oman; 2009–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Al-Bulushi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Oman has seen a shift in the burden of diseases towards road accidents. The main objective of this paper, therefore, is to describe key characteristics of heavy vehicle crashes in Oman and identify the key driving behaviours that influence fatality risks. Crash data from January 2009 to December 2011 were examined and it was found that, of the 22,543 traffic accidents that occurred within this timeframe, 3,114 involved heavy vehicles. While the majority of these crashes were attributed to driver behaviours, a small proportion was attributed to other factors. The results of the study indicate that there is a need for a more thorough crash investigation process in Oman. Future research should explore the reporting processes used by the Royal Oman Police, cultural influences on heavy vehicle operations in Oman and improvements to the current licensing system.

  14. Determinants of road traffic crash fatalities across Indian States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Grimm (Michael); C. Treibich (Carole)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: This paper explores the determinants of road traffic crash fatalities in India. As potential factors, the analysis considers, besides income, the sociodemographic populationstructure, motorization levels, road and health infrastructure and road rule enforcement. Methods: An or

  15. Finite Element Crash Simulations and Impact-Induced Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Mackerle

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography lists references to papers, conference proceedings and theses/dissertations dealing with finite element simulations of crashes, impact-induced injuries and their protection that were published in 1980–1998. 390 citations are listed.

  16. Relationship between organisational safety culture dimensions and crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varmazyar, Sakineh; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Arghami, Shirazeh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Knowing about organisational safety culture in public transportation system can provide an appropriate guide to establish effective safety measures and interventions to improve safety at work. The aim of this study was investigation of association between safety culture dimensions (leadership styles and company values, usage of crashes information and prevention programmes, management commitment and safety policy, participation and control) with involved self-reported crashes. The associations were considered through Spearman correlation, Pearson chi-square test and logistic regression. The results showed an association among self-reported crashes (occurrence or non-occurrence) and factors including leadership styles and company values; management commitment and safety policy; and control. Moreover, it was found a negative correlation and an odds ratio less than one between control and self-reported crashes. PMID:25494102

  17. Multi-level Bayesian safety analysis with unprocessed Automatic Vehicle Identification data for an urban expressway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qi; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Yu, Rongjie

    2016-03-01

    In traffic safety studies, crash frequency modeling of total crashes is the cornerstone before proceeding to more detailed safety evaluation. The relationship between crash occurrence and factors such as traffic flow and roadway geometric characteristics has been extensively explored for a better understanding of crash mechanisms. In this study, a multi-level Bayesian framework has been developed in an effort to identify the crash contributing factors on an urban expressway in the Central Florida area. Two types of traffic data from the Automatic Vehicle Identification system, which are the processed data capped at speed limit and the unprocessed data retaining the original speed were incorporated in the analysis along with road geometric information. The model framework was proposed to account for the hierarchical data structure and the heterogeneity among the traffic and roadway geometric data. Multi-level and random parameters models were constructed and compared with the Negative Binomial model under the Bayesian inference framework. Results showed that the unprocessed traffic data was superior. Both multi-level models and random parameters models outperformed the Negative Binomial model and the models with random parameters achieved the best model fitting. The contributing factors identified imply that on the urban expressway lower speed and higher speed variation could significantly increase the crash likelihood. Other geometric factors were significant including auxiliary lanes and horizontal curvature. PMID:26722989

  18. Notification procedure in the Finnish environmental protection act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental guide deals with the notification procedures according to the Finnish Environmental Protection Act. A notification must be done on temporary activities causing noise and vibration, experimental activities, exceptional situations and treatment of polluted soil and groundwater. The aim of the guide is to assist permit authorities dealing with notifications. Also operators obligated to make notification may benefit from this guide. As annexes to this guide there are models of permits of notification procedures and appeal address. (orig.)

  19. Crash Risk Reduction at Signalized Intersections Using Longitudinal Data

    OpenAIRE

    Mark L. Burkey; Obeng, Kofi

    2005-01-01

    This study extends the previous work of Burkey and Obeng (2004) that examined the impact of red light cameras on the type and severity of crashes at signalized intersections in Greensboro, NC. The extension takes the following form. First, we extend the data to cover 57 months, and to include demographics, technology variables, the condition of a driver at the time of the crash, vehicle characteristics, land use and visual obstruction. Second, instead of examining the impact of re...

  20. Studying the effect of weather conditions on daily crash counts

    OpenAIRE

    Brijs, Tom; Karlis, Dimitris; Wets, Geert

    2007-01-01

    In previous research, significant effects of weather conditions on car crashes have been found. However, most studies use monthly or yearly data and only few studies are available analyzing the impact of weather conditions on daily car crash counts. Furthermore, the studies that are available on a daily level do not model the data in a time-series context, hereby ignoring the temporal serial correlation that may be present in the data. In this paper, we introduce an Integer Autoregressive mod...

  1. A fuzzy logic approach to modeling a vehicle crash test

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlus, Witold; Karimi, Hamid Reza; Robbersmyr, Kjell G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an application of fuzzy approach to vehicle crash modeling. A typical vehicle to pole collision is described and kinematics of a car involved in this type of crash event is thoroughly characterized. The basics of fuzzy set theory and modeling principles based on fuzzy logic approach are presented. In particular, exceptional attention is paid to explain the methodology of creation of a fuzzy model of a vehicle collision. Furthermore, the simulation results are presented and...

  2. Dynamics of a financial market index after a crash

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Lillo; Mantegna, Rosario N.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the statistical properties of index returns in a financial market just after a major market crash. The observed non-stationary behavior of index returns is characterized in terms of the exceedances over a given threshold. This characterization is analogous to the Omori law originally observed in geophysics. By performing numerical simulations and theoretical modelling, we show that the nonlinear behavior observed in real market crashes cannot be described by a GARCH(1,1) model. We ...

  3. Trade Deficit News, Systematic Risk and the Crash of 1987

    OpenAIRE

    Willem Thorbecke

    1994-01-01

    News of enormous trade deficits began affecting asset prices in the mid-1980s. Some have suggested that trade deficit news contributed to the October 1987 stock market crash. This argument would be more compelling if the trade deficit were a source of systematic risk to asset prices, since then trade deficit news could have contributed to the increased perception of the riskiness of holding equities that occurred just before the crash. Here the Arbitrage Pricing Theory is used to demonstrate ...

  4. Forensic odontological observations in the victims of DANA air crash

    OpenAIRE

    Obafunwa, John Oladapo; Ogunbanjo, Victor Olabode; Ogunbanjo, Ogunbiyi Babatunde; Soyemi, Sunday Sokunle; Faduyile, Francis Adedayo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Forensic odontology or forensic dentistry is that aspect of forensic science that uses the application of dental science for the identification of unknown human remains and bite marks. Deaths resulting from mass disasters such as plane crash or fire incidence have always been given mass burial in Nigeria. This was obviously due to the fact that Forensic Pathologists whose roles involve disaster victim identification were not available at that time. However, in the DANA air crash ...

  5. Tuberculosis Notification: Issues and Challenges.

    OpenAIRE

    Manisha Nagpal; Naresh Chawla

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem. An emerging menace in India is drug resistant forms of TB. In order to ensure proper TB diagnosis and case management, reduce TB transmission and address the problems of emergence of spread of Drug Resistant-TB, it is essential to have complete information of all TB cases. Therefore, Govt. of India declared Tuberculosis a notifiable disease on 7th May 2012. This paper highlights the fact that notification of TB in the absence of regulation o...

  6. Statistical modeling of total crash frequency at highway intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash M. Roshandeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intersection-related crashes are associated with high proportion of accidents involving drivers, occupants, pedestrians, and cyclists. In general, the purpose of intersection safety analysis is to determine the impact of safety-related variables on pedestrians, cyclists and vehicles, so as to facilitate the design of effective and efficient countermeasure strategies to improve safety at intersections. This study investigates the effects of traffic, environmental, intersection geometric and pavement-related characteristics on total crash frequencies at intersections. A random-parameter Poisson model was used with crash data from 357 signalized intersections in Chicago from 2004 to 2010. The results indicate that out of the identified factors, evening peak period traffic volume, pavement condition, and unlighted intersections have the greatest effects on crash frequencies. Overall, the results seek to suggest that, in order to improve effective highway-related safety countermeasures at intersections, significant attention must be focused on ensuring that pavements are adequately maintained and intersections should be well lighted. It needs to be mentioned that, projects could be implemented at and around the study intersections during the study period (7 years, which could affect the crash frequency over the time. This is an important variable which could be a part of the future studies to investigate the impacts of safety-related works at intersections and their marginal effects on crash frequency at signalized intersections.

  7. Structural Integrity Assessment of Reactor Containment Subjected to Aircraft Crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When an accident occurs at the NPP, containment building which acts as the last barrier should be assessed and analyzed structural integrity by internal loading or external loading. On many occasions that can occur in the containment internal such as LOCA(Loss Of Coolant Accident) are already reflected to design. Likewise, there are several kinds of accidents that may occur from the outside of containment such as earthquakes, hurricanes and strong wind. However, aircraft crash that at outside of containment is not reflected yet in domestic because NPP sites have been selected based on the probabilistic method. After intentional aircraft crash such as World Trade Center and Pentagon accident in US, social awareness for safety of infrastructure like NPP was raised world widely and it is time for assessment of aircraft crash in domestic. The object of this paper is assessment of reactor containment subjected to aircraft crash by FEM(Finite Element Method). In this paper, assessment of structural integrity of containment building subjected to certain aircraft crash was carried out. Verification of structure integrity of containment by intentional severe accident. Maximum stress 61.21MPa of horizontal shell crash does not penetrate containment. Research for more realistic results needed by steel reinforced concrete model

  8. Development of a motion analysis system specialized for car-crash tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young-Hoo; Lee, Jea-Sun

    1995-05-01

    A prototype of a PC-based motion analysis system specialized for the car-crash test with 2D and 3D analysis capabilities was developed. The core of the proposed motion analysis system is the film-to-video conversion and the semiautomatic marker tracking. Construction of the converter using a 16 mm film projector and a CCD camera is currently undergoing. The semiautomatic marker tracking system was tested in an outdoor pilot experiment a with a small-sized passenger car. A film-to- video converter, a PC with a frame grabber, an RGB video monitor and the tracking software are the components of the tracking system. A location- prediction & marker-detection algorithm was embedded in the tracking software of automatic marker detection. Other data analysis features were also discussed.

  9. Linux Crash Dump分析工具的设计与实现%The Design and Implementation of an Analysis Tool of Linux Crash Dump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈亚谦; 王勇; 潘金贵

    2002-01-01

    提出了一种利用Linux Crash Dump以及对Dump的分析来进行Linux系统调试的方法.着重描述了在目前Linux系统中添加Crash Dump功能的方法和Linux Crash Dump分析工具的具体实现方案.

  10. Investigating the Effects of Side Airbag Deployment in Real-World Crashes Using Crash Comparison Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Loftis, Kathryn L.; Weaver, Ashley A.; Stitzel, Joel D.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate side airbag (SAB) deployment in near side crashes and compare injuries and contact points between occupants with and without SAB deployment. Using NASS 2000–2008 and selecting for near side cases, with PDOF ± 20 degrees from 90 or 270, for non-pregnant adult belted occupants, there were 20,253 (weighted) SAB deployments. NASS showed that SABs have been increasing within the fleet, comprising 2% of airbags in 2000 and increasing to 33% of airbags ...

  11. Modeling Composite Laminate Crushing for Crash Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David C.; Jones, Lisa (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Crash modeling of composite structures remains limited in application and has not been effectively demonstrated as a predictive tool. While the global response of composite structures may be well modeled, when composite structures act as energy-absorbing members through direct laminate crushing the modeling accuracy is greatly reduced. The most efficient composite energy absorbing structures, in terms of energy absorbed per unit mass, are those that absorb energy through a complex progressive crushing response in which fiber and matrix fractures on a small scale dominate the behavior. Such failure modes simultaneously include delamination of plies, failure of the matrix to produce fiber bundles, and subsequent failure of fiber bundles either in bending or in shear. In addition, the response may include the significant action of friction, both internally (between delaminated plies or fiber bundles) or externally (between the laminate and the crushing surface). A figure shows the crushing damage observed in a fiberglass composite tube specimen, illustrating the complexity of the response. To achieve a finite element model of such complex behavior is an extremely challenging problem. A practical crushing model based on detailed modeling of the physical mechanisms of crushing behavior is not expected in the foreseeable future. The present research describes attempts to model composite crushing behavior using a novel hybrid modeling procedure. Experimental testing is done is support of the modeling efforts, and a test specimen is developed to provide data for validating laminate crushing models.

  12. Crash testing of nuclear fuel shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to understand the dynamics of extra severe transportation accidents and to evaluate state-of-the-art computational techniques for predicting the dynamic response of shipping casks involved in vehicular system crashes, the Environmental Control Technology Division of ERDA undertook a program with Sandia to investigate these areas. The program encompasses the following distinct major efforts. The first of these utilizes computational methods for predicting the effects of the accident environment and, subsequently, to calculate the damage incurred by a container as the result of such an accident. The second phase involves the testing of 1/8-scale models of transportation systems. Through the use of instrumentation and high-speed motion photography the accident environments and physical damage mechanisms are studied in detail. After correlating the results of these first two phases, a full scale event involving representative hardware is conducted. To date two of the three selected test scenarios have been completed. Results of the program to this point indicate that both computational techniques and scale modeling are viable engineering approaches to studying accident environments and physical damage to shipping casks

  13. Cervical spine response in frontal crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Matthew B; Fice, Jason B; Cronin, Duane S

    2011-11-01

    Predicting neck response and injury resulting from motor vehicle accidents is essential to improving occupant protection. A detailed human cervical spine finite element model has been developed, with material properties and geometry determined a priori of any validation, for the evaluation of global kinematics and tissue-level response. Model validation was based on flexion/extension response at the segment level, tension response of the whole ligamentous cervical spine, head kinematic response from volunteer frontal impacts, and soft tissue response from cadaveric whole cervical spine frontal impacts. The validation responses were rated as 0.79, assessed using advanced cross-correlation analysis, indicating the model exhibits good biofidelity. The model was then used to evaluate soft tissue response in frontal impact scenarios ranging from 8G to 22G in severity. Disc strains were highest in the C4-C5-C6 segments, and ligament strains were greatest in the ISL and LF ligaments. Both ligament and disc fiber strain levels exceeded the failure tolerances in the 22G case, in agreement with existing data. This study demonstrated that a cervical spine model can be developed at the tissue level and provide accurate biofidelic kinematic and local tissue response, leading to injury prediction in automotive crash scenarios. PMID:21665513

  14. Posttraumatic Growth After Motor Vehicle Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kitty K; Leung, Patrick W L; Cho, Valda W; Law, Lawrence S C

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between sub-dimensions of posttraumatic growth (PTG) and distress was investigated for survivors of motor vehicle crashes (MVC). PTG and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for 1045 MVC survivors who attended the Accident and Emergency Services were examined with the Chinese versions of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised 1 week after the experience of a MVC. A factor structure, which was different from both the original English version of the PTGI and the Chinese version of PTGI for cancer survivors, was identified. Factors extracted were: (1) Life and Self Appreciation; (2) New Commitments; (3) Enlightenment; and (4) Relating to Others. However, correlation analyses indicated a functional similarity between factors from this study and those from previous studies. Relations between PTG sub-dimensions and PTSD symptoms were identified. Results from hierarchical multiple regression analysis and structural equation modeling show that there were different predictors for different PTG sub-dimensions. Findings suggest that different modes of relationship between PTSD symptoms and PTG sub-dimensions may co-exist. PMID:27040687

  15. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) Notification Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    To encourage wide use of the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) data, especially among the scientific community, special notifications were prepared to inform them about the data's availability, its form, and the procedures for obtaining them. To achieve the widest distribution to the primary audiences of interest, mailings were made to scientists associated with the OSTA Resource Observation Division programs and to scientific and professional societies and journals. Accompanying the notifications to the societies and journals were samples of the HCMM imagery and a description of the image's predominant characteristics. A follow-up survey was completed to determine the effectiveness of the HCMM notifications.

  16. Reducing the environmental impact of trials: a comparison of the carbon footprint of the CRASH-1 and CRASH-2 clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Ian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All sectors of the economy, including the health research sector, must reduce their carbon emissions. The UK National Institute for Health Research has recently prepared guidelines on how to minimize the carbon footprint of research. We compare the carbon emissions from two international clinical trials in order to identify where emissions reductions can be made. Methods We conducted a carbon audit of two clinical trials (the CRASH-1 and CRASH-2 trials, quantifying the carbon dioxide emissions produced over a one-year audit period. Carbon emissions arising from the coordination centre, freight delivery, trial-related travel and commuting were calculated and compared. Results The total emissions in carbon dioxide equivalents during the one-year audit period were 181.3 tonnes for CRASH-1 and 108.2 tonnes for CRASH-2. In total, CRASH-1 emitted 924.6 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalents compared with 508.5 tonnes for CRASH-2. The CRASH-1 trial recruited 10,008 patients over 5.1 years, corresponding to 92 kg of carbon dioxide per randomized patient. The CRASH-2 trial recruited 20,211 patients over 4.7 years, corresponding to 25 kg of carbon dioxide per randomized patient. The largest contributor to emissions in CRASH-1 was freight delivery of trial materials (86.0 tonnes, 48% of total emissions, whereas the largest contributor in CRASH-2 was energy use by the trial coordination centre (54.6 tonnes, 30% of total emissions. Conclusions Faster patient recruitment in the CRASH-2 trial largely accounted for its greatly increased carbon efficiency in terms of emissions per randomized patient. Lighter trial materials and web-based data entry also contributed to the overall lower carbon emissions in CRASH-2 as compared to CRASH-1. Trial Registration Numbers CRASH-1: ISRCTN74459797 CRASH-2: ISRCTN86750102

  17. Spatial regression analysis of traffic crashes in Seoul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Kyoung-Ah; Kim, Joon-Ki; Lee, Young-Ihn; Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F

    2016-06-01

    Traffic crashes can be spatially correlated events and the analysis of the distribution of traffic crash frequency requires evaluation of parameters that reflect spatial properties and correlation. Typically this spatial aspect of crash data is not used in everyday practice by planning agencies and this contributes to a gap between research and practice. A database of traffic crashes in Seoul, Korea, in 2010 was developed at the traffic analysis zone (TAZ) level with a number of GIS developed spatial variables. Practical spatial models using available software were estimated. The spatial error model was determined to be better than the spatial lag model and an ordinary least squares baseline regression. A geographically weighted regression model provided useful insights about localization of effects. The results found that an increased length of roads with speed limit below 30km/h and a higher ratio of residents below age of 15 were correlated with lower traffic crash frequency, while a higher ratio of residents who moved to the TAZ, more vehicle-kilometers traveled, and a greater number of access points with speed limit difference between side roads and mainline above 30km/h all increased the number of traffic crashes. This suggests, for example, that better control or design for merging lower speed roads with higher speed roads is important. A key result is that the length of bus-only center lanes had the largest effect on increasing traffic crashes. This is important as bus-only center lanes with bus stop islands have been increasingly used to improve transit times. Hence the potential negative safety impacts of such systems need to be studied further and mitigated through improved design of pedestrian access to center bus stop islands. PMID:26994374

  18. Modelling the hierarchical structure of road crash data : application to severity analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lenguerrand, E.; MARTIN,JL; Laumon, B.

    2006-01-01

    Road crashes have an unquestionably hierarchical crash-car-occupant structure. Multilevel models are used with correlated data, but their application to crash data can be difficult. The number of sub-clusters per cluster is small, with less than two cars per crash and less than two occupants per car, whereas the number of clusters can be high, with several hundred/thousand crashes. Application of the Monte-Carlo method on observed and simulated French road crash data between 1996 and 2000 all...

  19. Premarket Notifications (510(k)s)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medical device manufacturers are required to submit a premarket notification or 510(k) if they intend to introduce a device into commercial distribution for the...

  20. 77 FR 74048 - Buy America Waiver Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... State of Michigan and the Government of Canada over the Detroit River linking Detroit, Michigan, to... public interest or when satisfactory quality domestic steel and iron products are not sufficiently... Federal Highway Administration Buy America Waiver Notification AGENCY: Federal Highway...

  1. 78 FR 12809 - Buy America Waiver Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... satisfactory quality domestic steel and iron products are not sufficiently available. This notice provides... deficient bridge carrying US-1 over the Piscataqua River between Portsmouth, NH, and Kittery, ME. The... Federal Highway Administration Buy America Waiver Notification AGENCY: Federal Highway...

  2. 47 CFR 1.1927 - Notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... United States Salary Offset-Individual Debt § 1.1927 Notification. (a) Salary offset deductions will not... to the employee at least 30 days before any deduction, written notice stating at a minimum: (1)...

  3. Pre-Trip Notification Database (PTNS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The PTNS contains pre-trip notification data from vessels participating in the Northeast Multispecies groundfish fishery from 2010 to present and the Longfin squid...

  4. Vergi Hukukunda Tebligatta Yeni Bir Uygulama: Elektronik Tebligat(A Recent Implementation in Notification in Tax Law: Electronic Notification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice YURTSEVER

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tax-basis documents are to be notified to tax payers via various manners and methods. Timely notification is important on the basis of people given enough time and instruments for their right to legal remedies to be carried into effect. Notifications regarding tax collection are carried out according to Tax Precedure Law whereas notifications regarding tax trials for tax disputes are carried out according to Notification Law. In order to solve notification related problems, an analogy should be drawn between Tax Precedure Law and Notification Law. Also, in the case of notifications via traditional methods, it is seen that significant information for tax payers may not be delivered on time and therefore tax claim collections may be legally impossible. Within this framework, in order to provide timely taxation and complete the taxation procedure, by virtue of the development in IT, electronic notification in addition to the said notification methods should take place in regulations. It is obvious that electronic notification would be safer and faster in comparison to the physical notification methods. Notification taking days through traditinional notification methods could be received by the addressee via e-notification in such a swift way.

  5. The tole of towing services at motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, L; Jame, W; Ryan, G A

    1975-08-16

    A survey of tow truck services operating in a defined area of the south-east suburbs of Melbourne was undertaken to determine their potential for delivering emergency medical care at the scene of crashes. Most towing firms have an association with a panel-beating shop, and operate within a limited area of one to three miles radius. The rapid response of tow trucks to crash scenes is due to their well-developed intelligence network of "spotters" and the short distances the trucks travel. Very little first aid is provided by the drivers, although one-fifth had some first aid training at some time. In about one-half of the calls to crashes a damaged vehicle is still at the scene, in about 20% an ambulance is called, and in about 5% a hospital admission occurs. Direct observation of 22 crashes suggests that on average, tow trucks arrive at a crash scene five minutes before the ambulance, and fifteen minutes before the police. There is a good case for making first aid training a preerequisite for issue of a tow truck operator's license. PMID:1160789

  6. Urban sprawl as a risk factor in motor vehicle crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Reid; Hamidi, Shima; Grace, James B.

    2016-01-01

    A decade ago, compactness/sprawl indices were developed for metropolitan areas and counties which have been widely used in health and other research. In this study, we first update the original county index to 2010, then develop a refined index that accounts for more relevant factors, and finally seek to test the relationship between sprawl and traffic crash rates using structural equation modelling. Controlling for covariates, we find that sprawl is associated with significantly higher direct and indirect effects on fatal crash rates. The direct effect is likely due to the higher traffic speeds in sprawling areas, and the indirect effect is due to greater vehicle miles driven in such areas. Conversely, sprawl has negative direct relationships with total crashes and non-fatal injury crashes, and these offset (and sometimes overwhelm) the positive indirect effects of sprawl on both types of crashes through the mediating effect of increased vehicle miles driven. The most likely explanation is the greater prevalence of fender benders and other minor accidents in the low speed, high conflict traffic environments of compact areas, negating the lower vehicle miles travelled per capita in such areas.

  7. Delamination Modeling of Composites for Improved Crash Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, David C.

    1999-01-01

    Finite element crash modeling of composite structures is limited by the inability of current commercial crash codes to accurately model delamination growth. Efforts are made to implement and assess delamination modeling techniques using a current finite element crash code, MSC/DYTRAN. Three methods are evaluated, including a straightforward method based on monitoring forces in elements or constraints representing an interface; a cohesive fracture model proposed in the literature; and the virtual crack closure technique commonly used in fracture mechanics. Results are compared with dynamic double cantilever beam test data from the literature. Examples show that it is possible to accurately model delamination propagation in this case. However, the computational demands required for accurate solution are great and reliable property data may not be available to support general crash modeling efforts. Additional examples are modeled including an impact-loaded beam, damage initiation in laminated crushing specimens, and a scaled aircraft subfloor structures in which composite sandwich structures are used as energy-absorbing elements. These examples illustrate some of the difficulties in modeling delamination as part of a finite element crash analysis.

  8. A crash programme scenario for the Canadian oil sands industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report Peaking of World Oil Production: Impacts, Mitigation and Risk Management, by Robert L. Hirsch et al., concludes that Peak Oil is going to happen and that worldwide large-scale mitigation efforts are necessary to avoid its possible devastating effects for the world economy. These efforts include accelerated production, referred to as crash programme production, from Canada's oil sands. The objective of this article is to investigate and analyse what production levels that might be reasonable to expect from a crash programme for the Canadian oil sands industry, within the time frame 2006-2018 and 2006-2050. The implementation of a crash programme for the Canadian oil sands industry is associated with serious difficulties. There is not a large enough supply of natural gas to support a future Canadian oil sands industry with today's dependence on natural gas. It is possible to use bitumen as fuel and for upgrading, although it seems to be incompatible with Canada's obligations under the Kyoto treaty. For practical long-term high production, Canada must construct nuclear facilities to generate energy for the in situ projects. Even in a very optimistic scenario Canada's oil sands will not prevent Peak Oil. A short-term crash programme from the Canadian oil sands industry achieves about 3.6 mb/d by 2018. A long-term crash programme results in a production of approximately 5 mb/d by 2030

  9. Human fatigue and the crash of the airship Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg A. Bendrick

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The airship Italia, commanded by General Umberto Nobile, crashed during its return flight from the North Pole in 1928. The cause of the accident was never satisfactorily explained. We present evidence that the crash may have been fatigue-related. Nobile's memoirs indicate that at the time of the crash he had been awake for at least 72 h. Sleep deprivation impairs multiple aspects of cognitive functioning necessary for exploration missions. Just prior to the crash, Nobile made three command errors, all of which are of types associated with inadequate sleep. First, he ordered a release of lift gas when he should have restarted engines (an example of incorrect data synthesis, with deterioration of divergent thinking; second, he inappropriately ordered the ship above the cloud layer (a deficiency in the assessment of relative risks; and third, he remained above the cloud layer for a prolonged period of time (examples of attention to secondary problems, and calculation problems. We argue that as a result of these three errors, which would not be expected from such an experienced commander, there was no longer enough static lift to maintain level flight when the ship went below the cloud layer. Applying Circadian Performance Simulation Software to the sleep–wake patterns described by Nobile in his memoirs, we found that the predicted performance for someone awake as long as he had been is extremely low. This supports the historical evidence that human fatigue contributed to the crash of the Italia.

  10. Mapping Bicycle Crash Risk Patterns on the Local Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Loidl

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, mainly aggregated statistics are used for bicycle crash risk calculations. Thus, the understanding of spatial patterns at local scale levels remains vague. Using an agent-based flow model and a bicycle crash database covering 10 continuous years of observation allows us to calculate and map the crash risk on various spatial scales for the city of Salzburg (Austria. In doing so, we directly account for the spatial heterogeneity of crash occurrences. Additionally, we provide a measure for the statistical robustness on the level of single reference units and consider modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP effects in our analysis. This study is the first of its kind. The results facilitate a better understanding of spatial patterns of bicycle crash rates on the local scale. This is especially important for cities that strive to improve the safety situation for bicyclists in order to address prevailing safety concerns that keep people from using the bicycle as a utilitarian mode of (urban transport.

  11. Option pricing during post-crash relaxation times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibeh, Ghassan; Harmanani, Haidar M.

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a model for option pricing in markets that experience financial crashes. The stochastic differential equation (SDE) of stock price dynamics is coupled to a post-crash market index. The resultant SDE is shown to have stock price and time dependent volatility. The partial differential equation (PDE) for call prices is derived using risk-neutral pricing. European call prices are then estimated using Monte Carlo and finite difference methods. Results of the model show that call option prices after the crash are systematically less than those predicted by the Black-Scholes model. This is a result of the effect of non-constant volatility of the model that causes a volatility skew.

  12. Estimating national road crash fatalities using aggregate data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Anwaar; Khan, Beenish Akbar; Khurshid, Muhammad Bilal; Khan, Muhammad Babar; Waheed, Abdul

    2016-09-01

    Injuries and fatalities from road traffic crashes have emerged a major public health challenge in Pakistan. Reliable estimates of road crash fatalities (RCF) of a country, is a vital element needed for identification and control of key risk factors, road-safety improvement efforts and prioritizing national health. Reliability of current annual RCF estimates for Pakistan becomes highly questionable due to serious underreporting. This study aimed to predict annual RCF for Pakistan using data from World Health Organization and International Road Federation sources. An ordinary least square (OLS) regression model that relates fatality rate with different explanatory variables was developed. RCF were predicted for Pakistan for year 2012 and 2013, and results were compared with national police reported estimates. Study results indicated that there is serious underreporting of RCF in Pakistan and immediate measures are needed to improve the existing road crash recording and reporting system at the national and subnational levels. PMID:25571957

  13. Car Crash Risk May Nearly Double in People Prone to Fainting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157512.html Car Crash Risk May Nearly Double in People Prone to ... as likely as others to get into a car crash, a new study finds. The researchers say the ...

  14. Drowsiness, counter-measures to drowsiness, and the risk of a motor vehicle crash

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, P; Koepsell, T; Moffat, J; Rivara, F

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—Knowledge of how different indicators of drowsiness affect crash risk might be useful to drivers. This study sought to estimate how drowsiness related factors, and factors that might counteract drowsiness, are related to the risk of a crash.

  15. Crash Risk Soars When Truck Drivers Don't Treat Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157882.html Crash Risk Soars When Truck Drivers Don't Treat ... their treatment program are much more likely to crash, a new study finds. "The most surprising result ...

  16. Pot-Linked Fatal Car Crashes Doubled in One State After Legalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_158760.html Pot-Linked Fatal Car Crashes Doubled in One State After Legalization Experts say ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The number of fatal car crashes involving marijuana more than doubled after Washington state ...

  17. A different perspective on conspicuity related motorcycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Craen, Saskia; Doumen, Michelle J A; van Norden, Yvette

    2014-02-01

    The most common type of conflict in which a motorcyclist is injured or killed is a collision between a motorcycle and a car, often in priority situations. Many studies on motorcycle safety focus on the question why car drivers fail to give priority and on the poor conspicuity of motorcycles. The concept of 'looked-but-failed-to-see' crashes is a recurring item. On the other hand, it is not entirely unexpected that motorcycles have many conflicts with cars; there simply are so many cars on the road. This paper tries to unravel whether - acknowledging the differences in exposure - car drivers indeed fail to yield for motorcycles more often than for other cars. For this purpose we compared the causes of crashes on intersections (e.g. failing to give priority, speeding, etc.) between different crash types (car-motorcycle or car-car). In addition, we compared the crash causes of dual drivers (i.e. car drivers who also have their motorcycle licence) with regular car drivers. Our crash analysis suggests that car drivers do not fail to give priority to motorcycles relatively more often than to another car when this car/motorcycle approaches from a perpendicular angle. There is only one priority situation where motorcycles seem to be at a disadvantage compared to cars. This is when a car makes a left turn, and fails to give priority to an oncoming motorcycle. This specific crash scenario occurs more often when the oncoming vehicle is a motorcycle than when it is a car. We did not find a significant difference between dual drivers and regular car drivers in how often they give priority to motorcycles compared to cars. PMID:24291070

  18. Modeling crash spatial heterogeneity: random parameter versus geographically weighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pengpeng; Huang, Helai

    2015-02-01

    The widely adopted techniques for regional crash modeling include the negative binomial model (NB) and Bayesian negative binomial model with conditional autoregressive prior (CAR). The outputs from both models consist of a set of fixed global parameter estimates. However, the impacts of predicting variables on crash counts might not be stationary over space. This study intended to quantitatively investigate this spatial heterogeneity in regional safety modeling using two advanced approaches, i.e., random parameter negative binomial model (RPNB) and semi-parametric geographically weighted Poisson regression model (S-GWPR). Based on a 3-year data set from the county of Hillsborough, Florida, results revealed that (1) both RPNB and S-GWPR successfully capture the spatially varying relationship, but the two methods yield notably different sets of results; (2) the S-GWPR performs best with the highest value of Rd(2) as well as the lowest mean absolute deviance and Akaike information criterion measures. Whereas the RPNB is comparable to the CAR, in some cases, it provides less accurate predictions; (3) a moderately significant spatial correlation is found in the residuals of RPNB and NB, implying the inadequacy in accounting for the spatial correlation existed across adjacent zones. As crash data are typically collected with reference to location dimension, it is desirable to firstly make use of the geographical component to explore explicitly spatial aspects of the crash data (i.e., the spatial heterogeneity, or the spatially structured varying relationships), then is the unobserved heterogeneity by non-spatial or fuzzy techniques. The S-GWPR is proven to be more appropriate for regional crash modeling as the method outperforms the global models in capturing the spatial heterogeneity occurring in the relationship that is model, and compared with the non-spatial model, it is capable of accounting for the spatial correlation in crash data. PMID:25460087

  19. Cyclists and drivers in road interactions: A comparison of perceived crash risk

    OpenAIRE

    CHAURAND, Nadine; Delhomme, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Today’s increase in the number of cyclists has triggered a change in the interactions to be handled by road users. However, few studies have investigated crash risk perceived by cyclists interacting with other users, and few have compared cyclists’ and drivers’ perceptions of crash risk in bike–car interactions,the most dangerous situation for cyclists. Our aims here are to study perceived crash risk (no matter the seriousness of the crash) in six common road situation...

  20. Accident analysis for aircraft crash into hazardous facilities: DOE standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This standard provides the user with sufficient information to evaluate and assess the significance of aircraft crash risk on facility safety without expending excessive effort where it is not required. It establishes an approach for performing a conservative analysis of the risk posed by a release of hazardous radioactive or chemical material resulting from an aircraft crash into a facility containing significant quantities of such material. This can establish whether a facility has a significant potential for an aircraft impact and whether this has the potential for producing significant offsite or onsite consequences. General implementation guidance, screening and evaluation guidelines, and methodologies for the evaluations are included

  1. 78 FR 53386 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... 20 mph to 25 mph rigid barrier crash test (65 FR 30680). \\11\\ On September 2, 1993, NHTSA amended... considering unbelted crash test requirements date back to the 1970s (35 FR 16927).\\14\\ To do so without a...; Occupant Crash Protection AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), DOT....

  2. 40 CFR 63.4110 - What notifications must I submit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What notifications must I submit? 63... Records § 63.4110 What notifications must I submit? (a) You must submit the notifications in §§ 63.7(b... sections, except as provided in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section. (1) You must submit the...

  3. Parents' Perspectives on Parental Notification of College Students' Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosden, Merith; Hughes, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    Although many colleges and universities use "parental notification" to inform parents of students' alcohol use, the impact of this intervention on student and parent behavior is unclear. Surveys were obtained from 326 parents of university undergraduates, 56 of whom had received a notification. Parent responses to the notification were largely…

  4. Two-fractal overlap time series: Earthquakes and market crashes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bikas K Chakrabarti; Arnab Chatterjee; Pratip Bhattacharyya

    2008-08-01

    We find prominent similarities in the features of the time series for the (model earthquakes or) overlap of two Cantor sets when one set moves with uniform relative velocity over the other and time series of stock prices. An anticipation method for some of the crashes have been proposed here, based on these observations.

  5. Car-Crash Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Penny L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Describes an interesting, inexpensive, and highly motivating experiment to study uniform and accelerated motion by measuring the position of a car as it crashes into a rigid wall. Data are obtained from a sequence of pictures made by a high speed camera. (Author/SLH)

  6. Crash simulations of wheelchair-occupant systems in transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, W; Pilkey, W D

    1998-01-01

    A nonlinear multirigid body dynamic computer model has been developed to simulate the dynamic responses of a wheelchair-occupant system in a vehicle during a crash. The occupant, restrained by safety belts, is seated in a wheelchair that is, in turn, tied down in a vehicle. Validated extensively by crash sled tests at three laboratories, this model has been used to predict the responses of wheelchair-occupant systems in various crash environments. To evaluate the crashworthiness of different wheelchair tie-downs, the sensitivity of several design parameters, such as tiedown stiffness, wheel stiffness, and tiedown positions, has been studied using this model, and optimal values of these parameters for the wheelchair-occupant system have been obtained. Moreover, the model has been used to study the sensitivity of crash sled test pulse corridors in an effort to develop a sled test standard. It has been found that an existing ISO corridor allows large variation and should be "tightened." The model was implemented using a version of the multibody dynamic simulator, the Articulated Total Body program. PMID:9505255

  7. Finite pressure effects on the tokamak sawtooth crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Yasutaro

    1998-07-01

    The sawtooth crash is a hazardous, disruptive phenomenon that is observed in tokamaks whenever the safety factor at the magnetic axis is below unity. Recently, Tokamak Test Fusion Reactor (TFTR) experimental data has revealed interesting features of the dynamical pressure evolution during the crash phase. Motivated by the experimental results, this dissertation focuses on theoretical modeling of the finite pressure effects on the nonlinear stage of the sawtooth crash. The crash phase has been studied numerically employed a toroidal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) initial value code deduced from the FAR code. For the first time, by starting from a concentric equilibrium, it has been shown that the evolution through an m/n = 1/1 magnetic island induces secondary high-n ballooning instabilities. The magnetic island evolution gives rise to convection of the pressure inside the inversion radius and builds up a steep pressure gradient across the island separatrix, or current sheet, and thereby triggers ballooning instabilities below the threshold for the axisymmetric equilibrium. Due to the onset of secondary ballooning modes, concomitant fine scale vortices and magnetic stochasticity are generated. These effects produce strong flows across the current sheet, and thereby significant modify the m = 1 driven magnetic reconnection process. The resultant interaction of the high-n ballooning modes with the magnetic reconnection process is discussed.

  8. Finite pressure effects on the tokamak sawtooth crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sawtooth crash is a hazardous, disruptive phenomenon that is observed in tokamaks whenever the safety factor at the magnetic axis is below unity. Recently, Tokamak Test Fusion Reactor (TFTR) experimental data has revealed interesting features of the dynamical pressure evolution during the crash phase. Motivated by the experimental results, this dissertation focuses on theoretical modeling of the finite pressure effects on the nonlinear stage of the sawtooth crash. The crash phase has been studied numerically employed a toroidal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) initial value code deduced from the FAR code. For the first time, by starting from a concentric equilibrium, it has been shown that the evolution through an m/n = 1/1 magnetic island induces secondary high-n ballooning instabilities. The magnetic island evolution gives rise to convection of the pressure inside the inversion radius and builds up a steep pressure gradient across the island separatrix, or current sheet, and thereby triggers ballooning instabilities below the threshold for the axisymmetric equilibrium. Due to the onset of secondary ballooning modes, concomitant fine scale vortices and magnetic stochasticity are generated. These effects produce strong flows across the current sheet, and thereby significant modify the m = 1 driven magnetic reconnection process. The resultant interaction of the high-n ballooning modes with the magnetic reconnection process is discussed

  9. An orthotropic damage model for crash simulation of composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, W.; Swartjes, F.H.M.; Gan, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a practical orthotropic damage model is developed and tested for composite materials during crash. The model uses the Hashin's failure criteria in which the fibre and matrix failures are described explicitly, both in tension and compression. A linear softening degradation is proposed

  10. Exploring older driver crash trend: New Jersey case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanvi Trieu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Older drivers age 65 and above are known to experience greater risk on the roadway as well as increasing the risk to other roadway users. Within the next 20 years, their population is expected to increase from 41 million in 2011 to 70 million in 2030. To address this foreseeable change, the nation's recent Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21 act requires state and local governments to examine older drivers and pedestrian risks and implement countermeasures as appropriate. This research was conducted to assist agencies in strategising for future plans, programmes and initiatives to better address the problem presented. This was accomplished by performing a detailed engineering analysis on crash data of older drivers over a 10-year period (2003–2012 from the state of New Jersey to identify crash trends and characteristics. A major finding from this research was the increase in fatal crashes of older drivers as a function of age. Top-ranking collision types with other vehicles and non-vehicles were identified. Crashes as a function of seasonal change, climate and lighting conditions were also examined.

  11. Two Fractal Overlap Time Series: Earthquakes and Market Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarti, Bikas K.; Arnab Chatterjee; Pratip Bhattacharyya

    2007-01-01

    We find prominent similarities in the features of the time series for the (model earthquakes or) overlap of two Cantor sets when one set moves with uniform relative velocity over the other and time series of stock prices. An anticipation method for some of the crashes have been proposed here, based on these observations.

  12. Investigation of work zone crash casualty patterns using association rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jinxian; Zhu, Jia-Zheng; Yan, Xuedong; Liu, Zhiyuan

    2016-07-01

    Investigation of the casualty crash characteristics and contributory factors is one of the high-priority issues in traffic safety analysis. In this paper, we propose a method based on association rules to analyze the characteristics and contributory factors of work zone crash casualties. A case study is conducted using the Michigan M-94/I-94/I-94BL/I-94BR work zone crash data from 2004 to 2008. The obtained association rules are divided into two parts including rules with high-lift, and rules with high-support for the further analysis. The results show that almost all the high-lift rules contain either environmental or occupant characteristics. The majority of association rules are centered on specific characteristics, such as drinking driving, the highway with more than 4 lanes, speed-limit over 40mph and not use of traffic control devices. It should be pointed out that some stronger associated rules were found in the high-support part. With the network visualization, the association rule method can provide more understandable results for investigating the patterns of work zone crash casualties. PMID:27038500

  13. Tuberculosis notifications in Australia, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareja, Christina; Waring, Justin; Stapledon, Richard

    2014-03-01

    The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System received 1,353 tuberculosis (TB) notifications in 2010, representing a rate of 6.1 cases per 100,000 population. While rates of 5 to 6 cases per 100,000 population for TB have been maintained in Australia, since first achieved in the mid-1980s, there has been a steady increase in incidence over the past decade. The incidence in the Australian-born Indigenous population was 7.5 per 100,000 population, which is 11 times the incidence reported in the Australian-born non-Indigenous population of 0.7 per 100,000 population. Overseas-born people accounted for 90% of all cases notified in 2010 and represented a rate of 24 per 100,000 population. International students have been recognised as an increasingly important group, representing 25% of all overseas-born cases notified in 2010, and are a focus of this report. Household or other close contact with TB or past residence in a high risk country were the most commonly reported risk factors for TB infection. Outcome data for the 2009 TB cohort indicate that treatment success was attained in more than 95% of cases. As Australia continues to contribute to global TB control it is important to maintain good centralised national reporting of TB to identify populations at risk and monitor trends in TB. PMID:25409354

  14. Safety performance functions for crash severity on undivided rural roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Francesca; Busiello, Mariarosaria; Dell'Acqua, Gianluca

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to explore the effect of the road features of two-lane rural road networks on crash severity. One of the main goals is to calibrate Safety Performance Functions (SPFs) that can predict the frequency per year of injuries and fatalities on homogeneous road segments. It was found that on more than 2000km of study-road network that annual average daily traffic, lane width, curvature change rate, length, and vertical grade are important variables in explaining the severity of crashes. A crash database covering a 5-year period was examined to achieve the goals (1295 injurious crashes that included 2089 injuries and 235 fatalities). A total of 1000km were used to calibrate SPFs and the remaining 1000km reflecting the traffic, geometric, functional features of the preceding one were used to validate their effectiveness. A negative binomial regression model was used. Reflecting the crash configurations of the dataset and maximizing the validation outcomes, four main sets of SPFs were developed as follows: (a) one equation to predict only injury frequency per year for the subset where only non-fatal injuries occurred, (b) two different equations to predict injury frequency and fatality frequency per year per sub-set where at least one fa tality occurred together with one injury, and (c) only one equation to predict the total frequency per year of total casualties correlating accurate percentages to obtain the final expected frequency of injuries and fatalities per year on homogeneous road segments. Residual analysis confirms the effectiveness of the SPFs. PMID:27177393

  15. Activity modes selection for project crashing through deterministic simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Mohanty

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The time-cost trade-off problem addressed by CPM-based analytical approaches, assume unlimited resources and the existence of a continuous time-cost function. However, given the discrete nature of most resources, the activities can often be crashed only stepwise. Activity crashing for discrete time-cost function is also known as the activity modes selection problem in the project management. This problem is known to be NP-hard. Sophisticated optimization techniques such as Dynamic Programming, Integer Programming, Genetic Algorithm, Ant Colony Optimization have been used for finding efficient solution to activity modes selection problem. The paper presents a simple method that can provide efficient solution to activity modes selection problem for project crashing.Design/methodology/approach: Simulation based method implemented on electronic spreadsheet to determine activity modes for project crashing. The method is illustrated with the help of an example.Findings: The paper shows that a simple approach based on simple heuristic and deterministic simulation can give good result comparable to sophisticated optimization techniques.Research limitations/implications: The simulation based crashing method presented in this paper is developed to return satisfactory solutions but not necessarily an optimal solution.Practical implications: The use of spreadsheets for solving the Management Science and Operations Research problems make the techniques more accessible to practitioners. Spreadsheets provide a natural interface for model building, are easy to use in terms of inputs, solutions and report generation, and allow users to perform what-if analysis.Originality/value: The paper presents the application of simulation implemented on a spreadsheet to determine efficient solution to discrete time cost tradeoff problem.

  16. The Impact of Driver Inattention on Near-Crash/Crash Risk: An Analysis Using the 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study Data

    OpenAIRE

    Klauer, Sheila G; Dingus, Thomas A.; Neale, Vicki L.; Sudweeks, Jeremy D.; Ramsey, D J

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to conduct in-depth analyses of driver inattention using the driving data collected in the 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study. An additional database of baseline epochs was reduced from the raw data and used in conjunction with the crash and near-crash data identified as part of the original 100-Car Study to account for exposure and establish near-crash/crash risk. The analyses presented in this report are able to establish direct relationships between driving b...

  17. 78 FR 13756 - Technical Report: Effectiveness of LED Stop Lamps for Reducing Rear-End Crashes: Analyses of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Reducing Rear-End Crashes: Analyses of State Crash Data AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety.... The report's title is: Effectiveness of LED Stop Lamps for Reducing Rear-End Crashes: Analyses of State Crash Data. DATES: Comments must be received no later than June 28, 2013. ADDRESSES: Report:...

  18. Influence of the strain path on crash properties of a crash-box structure by experimental and numerical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrenberger, L.; Even, D.; Molinari, A.; Rusinek, A.

    2006-08-01

    In order to reduce the gas emission without decreasing the passengers safety, the UHSS (Ultra High Strength Steel) steels are more and more used in the automotive industry. The very high mechanical characteristics of these steels allow to reduce the car weight thanks to the thickness reduction of the structure parts. The aim of this study is to analyse the plastic pre-strain effect (forming) on the crash properties of a crash-box structure. In order to achieve this goal, experimental rheological tests have been performed by combining quasi-static tensile tests followed by dynamic tensile test (8.10 - 3 s - 1 ≤ dot{\\varepsilon} ≤ 1000 s - 1) for a TRIP steel produced by ARCELOR. The combination of these results allows to obtain a better understanding of the steel behaviour in dynamic loading under different strain paths. All these information are necessary for an efficient simulation of crash test by including a pertinent material response. A special attention is given to the influence of the previous forming process on the dynamical response of crash boxes.

  19. Co-Movements Of U.S. And European Stock Markets Before And After The 2008 Gloal Stock Market Crash

    OpenAIRE

    Meric Ilhan; Nygren Lan Ma; Bentley Jerome T.; McCall Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies show that correlation between national stock markets increased and the benefits of global portfolio diversification decreased significantly after the global stock market crash of 1987. The 1987 and 2008 crashes are the two most important global stock market crashes since the 1929 Great depression. Although the effects of the 1987 crash on the comovements of national stock markets have been investigated extensively, the effects of the 2008 crash have not been studied sufficie...

  20. Social costs of road crashes: An international analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Wim; Stipdonk, Henk

    2016-09-01

    This paper provides an international overview of the most recent estimates of the social costs of road crashes: total costs, value per casualty and breakdown in cost components. The analysis is based on publications about the national costs of road crashes of 17 countries, of which ten high income countries (HICs) and seven low and middle income countries (LMICs). Costs are expressed as a proportion of the gross domestic product (GDP). Differences between countries are described and explained. These are partly a consequence of differences in the road safety level, but there are also methodological explanations. Countries may or may not correct for underreporting of road crashes, they may or may not use the internationally recommended willingness to pay (WTP)-method for estimating human costs, and there are methodological differences regarding the calculation of some other cost components. The analysis shows that the social costs of road crashes in HICs range from 0.5% to 6.0% of the GDP with an average of 2.7%. Excluding countries that do not use a WTP- method for estimating human costs and countries that do not correct for underreporting, results in average costs of 3.3% of GDP. For LMICs that do correct for underreporting the share in GDP ranges from 1.1% to 2.9%. However, none of the LMICs included has performed a WTP study of the human costs. A major part of the costs is related to injuries: an average share of 50% for both HICs and LMICs. The average share of fatalities in the costs is 23% and 30% respectively. Prevention of injuries is thus important to bring down the socio-economic burden of road crashes. The paper shows that there are methodological differences between countries regarding cost components that are taken into account and regarding the methods used to estimate specific cost components. In order to be able to make sound comparisons of the costs of road crashes across countries, (further) harmonization of cost studies is recommended. This can be

  1. 40 CFR 279.62 - Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... burner point of contact; (v) Type of used oil activity; and (vi) Location of the burner facility. ... requirements and obtain an EPA identification number. (b) Mechanics of notification. A used oil burner who has... identification number. The letter should include the following information: (i) Burner company name; (ii)...

  2. 48 CFR 245.7308 - Antitrust notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Inventory 245.7308 Antitrust notification. (a) When contractor inventory with an estimated fair market value of $3 million or more or any patents, processes, techniques, or inventions, regardless of cost, are...) Proposed sale price (explain if the proposed purchaser was not highest bidder); (3) Acquisition cost...

  3. 38 CFR 75.117 - Notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sensitive personal information, the Secretary will promptly provide written notification by first-class mail... that were involved in the data breach (e.g., full name, Social Security number, date of birth, home..., including major media in geographic areas where the affected individuals likely reside. Such a notice...

  4. 28 CFR 22.27 - Notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification. 22.27 Section 22.27 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CONFIDENTIALITY OF IDENTIFIABLE RESEARCH AND STATISTICAL... of subject, be expected to totally conceal subject identity, an individual shall be so advised....

  5. 77 FR 6170 - Buy America Waiver Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ...'') for rehabilitation of the Congress Parkway Bascule Bridge over the South Branch of the Chicago River... inconsistent with the public interest or when satisfactory quality domestic steel and iron products are not... Federal Highway Administration Buy America Waiver Notification AGENCY: Federal Highway...

  6. 47 CFR 64.1603 - Customer notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer notification. 64.1603 Section 64.1603 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Calling Party Telephone Number; Privacy § 64.1603...

  7. 40 CFR 279.73 - Notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Fuel Marketers § 279.73 Notification. (a) Identification numbers. A used oil fuel marketer subject to the requirements of this subpart who has not... requirements and obtain an EPA identification number. (b) A marketer who has not received an EPA...

  8. 14 CFR 15.107 - Notification requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15.107 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL... Federal Aviation Act of 1958 § 15.107 Notification requirements. A request for indemnification will not be... publisher's first receipt of a demand for payment, or service of a complaint in any proceeding, federal...

  9. Motor vehicle crash-related subdural hematoma from real-world head impact data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Jillian E; Whitlow, Christopher T; Edgerton, Colston A; Powers, Alexander K; Maldjian, Joseph A; Stitzel, Joel D

    2012-12-10

    Abstract Approximately 1,700,000 people sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year and motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a leading cause of hospitalization from TBI. Acute subdural hematoma (SDH) is a common intracranial injury that occurs in MVCs associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. In this study, SDH volume and midline shift have been analyzed in order to better understand occupant injury by correlating them to crash and occupant parameters. Fifty-seven head computed tomography (CT) scans were selected from the Crash Injury Research Engineering Network (CIREN) with Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) level 3+ SDH. Semi-automated methods were used to isolate the intracranial volume. SDH and additional occupant intracranial injuries were segmented across axial CT images, providing a total SDH injury volume. SDH volume was correlated to crash parameters and occupant characteristics. Results show a positive correlation between SDH volume and crash severity in near-side and frontal crashes. Additionally, the location of the resulting hemorrhage varied by crash type. Those with greater SDH volumes had significantly lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores at the crash site in near-side crashes. Age and fracture type were found to be significant contributors to SDH volume. This study is a volumetric analysis of real world brain injuries and known MVC impacts. The results of this study demonstrate a relationship among SDH volume, crash mechanics, and occupant characteristics that provide a better understanding of the injury mechanisms of MVC-associated TBI. PMID:22928543

  10. Investigating driver injury severity patterns in rollover crashes using support vector machine models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Zhang, Guohui; Qian, Zhen; Tarefder, Rafiqul A; Tian, Zong

    2016-05-01

    Rollover crash is one of the major types of traffic crashes that induce fatal injuries. It is important to investigate the factors that affect rollover crashes and their influence on driver injury severity outcomes. This study employs support vector machine (SVM) models to investigate driver injury severity patterns in rollover crashes based on two-year crash data gathered in New Mexico. The impacts of various explanatory variables are examined in terms of crash and environmental information, vehicle features, and driver demographics and behavior characteristics. A classification and regression tree (CART) model is utilized to identify significant variables and SVM models with polynomial and Gaussian radius basis function (RBF) kernels are used for model performance evaluation. It is shown that the SVM models produce reasonable prediction performance and the polynomial kernel outperforms the Gaussian RBF kernel. Variable impact analysis reveals that factors including comfortable driving environment conditions, driver alcohol or drug involvement, seatbelt use, number of travel lanes, driver demographic features, maximum vehicle damages in crashes, crash time, and crash location are significantly associated with driver incapacitating injuries and fatalities. These findings provide insights for better understanding rollover crash causes and the impacts of various explanatory factors on driver injury severity patterns. PMID:26938584

  11. Application of Probability Methods to Assess Crash Modeling Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Karen H.; Stockwell, Alan E.; Hardy, Robin C.

    2007-01-01

    Full-scale aircraft crash simulations performed with nonlinear, transient dynamic, finite element codes can incorporate structural complexities such as: geometrically accurate models; human occupant models; and advanced material models to include nonlinear stress-strain behaviors, and material failure. Validation of these crash simulations is difficult due to a lack of sufficient information to adequately determine the uncertainty in the experimental data and the appropriateness of modeling assumptions. This paper evaluates probabilistic approaches to quantify the effects of finite element modeling assumptions on the predicted responses. The vertical drop test of a Fokker F28 fuselage section will be the focus of this paper. The results of a probabilistic analysis using finite element simulations will be compared with experimental data.

  12. Response of equipment in nuclear power plants to airplane crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants in Germany are to be designed against airplane crash. Two problems arise: first, the local problem of penetration as well as local destruction of the building and secondly the airplane induced vibrations of the whole building which cause loadings for secondary systems (equipment). This paper deals especially with the second problem. Floor response spectra due to airplane crash are presented for two different power plant buildings. The influence of various parameters (time history of excitation, direction and location of impact, mathematical model, soil, damping, etc.) are discussed. A comparison with the results of earthquake loading is given. Suggestions are made for developing suitable floor design spectra and using them to analyse multidegree-of-freedom systems. However, the paper gives only a partial answer to the questions arising because of some important restrictions which had to be made. Studies concerning these restrictions are still being conducted and will be presented in a separate paper. (Auth.)

  13. Response of equipment in nuclear power plants to airplane crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question has been posed concerning the effect of airplane crash on the safety of the equipment (pipes, vessels, etc.) mounted on the floors and walls inside the outer structure. This equipment is set into vibration by the crash-induced shaking of the outer building; the resulting stresses may be quite appreciable. The following questions arise: a) how large are these stresses. Can they, for example, be larger than the stresses produced by earthquake loading. b) What are the significant response parameters. c) Which methods of analysis and design criteria are reasonable. To what extent is it possible to apply the techniques which have become generally accepted for earthquake loading. The paper presents a preliminary answer to these questions pending further work in this area. (orig./HP)

  14. Can a stochastic cusp catastrophe model explain stock market crashes?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 10 (2009), s. 1824-1836. ISSN 0165-1889 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD402/09/H045; GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Grant ostatní: GAUK(CZ) 46108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Stochastic cusp catastrophe * Bifurcations * Singularity * Nonlinear dynamics * Stock market crash Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.097, year: 2009

  15. Fatal motorcycle crashes: a serious public health problem in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco Carlos; Godinho Mauricio; Berti de Azevedo Barros Marilisa; Rizoli Sandro; Fraga Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The numbers of two-wheel vehicles are growing across the world. In comparison to other vehicles, motorcycles are cheaper and thus represent a significant part of the automobile market. Both the mobility and speed are attractive factors to those who want to use them for work or leisure. Crashes involving motorcyclists have become an important issue, especially fatal ones. Specific severe injuries are responsible for the deaths. Defining them is necessary in order to offer...

  16. Car Crashes and Central Disorders of Hypersomnolence: A French Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Pizza

    Full Text Available Drowsiness compromises driving ability by reducing alertness and attentiveness, and delayed reaction times. Sleep-related car crashes account for a considerable proportion of accident at the wheel. Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, narcolepsy type 2 (NT2 and idiopathic hypersomnia (IH are rare central disorders of hypersomnolence, the most severe causes of sleepiness thus being potential dangerous conditions for both personal and public safety with increasing scientific, social, and political attention. Our main objective was to assess the frequency of recent car crashes in a large cohort of patients affected with well-defined central disorders of hypersomnolence versus subjects from the general population.We performed a cross-sectional study in French reference centres for rare hypersomnia diseases and included 527 patients and 781 healthy subjects. All participants included needed to have a driving license, information available on potential accident events during the last 5 years, and on potential confounders; thus analyses were performed on 282 cases (71 IH, 82 NT2, 129 NT1 and 470 healthy subjects.Patients reported more frequently than healthy subjects the occurrence of recent car crashes (in the previous five years, a risk that was confirmed in both treated and untreated subjects at study inclusion (Untreated, OR = 2.21 95%CI = [1.30-3.76], Treated OR = 2.04 95%CI = [1.26-3.30], as well as in all disease categories, and was modulated by subjective sleepiness level (Epworth scale and naps. Conversely, the risk of car accidents of patients treated for at least 5 years was not different to healthy subjects (OR = 1.23 95%CI = [0.56-2.69]. Main risk factors were analogous in patients and healthy subjects.Patients affected with central disorders of hypersomnolence had increased risk of recent car crashes compared to subjects from the general population, a finding potentially reversed by long-term treatment.

  17. The Great Crash and the Onset of the Great Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Christina D. Romer

    1988-01-01

    This paper argues that the collapse of stock prices in October 1929 generated temporary uncertainty about future income, which led consumers to forgo purchases of durable goods. That the Great Crash generated uncertainty is evidenced by the decline in surety expressed by contemporary forecasters. That this uncertainty affected consumer behavior is shown by the fact that spending on consumer durables declined drastically in late 1929, while spending on perishable goods rose slightly. This effe...

  18. Predictive estimates for behaviour in the train crash demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predictive work for the Train Crash Demonstration included estimates of the post-impact behaviour of the flask, flatrol, locomotive and carriages. These estimates were produced using hand calculations and desk study of certain relevant railway incidents. Because of the natural uncertainties in the process, an event 'tree' was constructed to show the various possible motions foreseen. Observations from the Demonstration are summarised and compared with the estimates. (author)

  19. Determinants of road traffic crash fatalities across Indian States

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Michael; Treibich, Carole

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: This paper explores the determinants of road traffic crash fatalities in India. As potential factors, the analysis considers, besides income, the sociodemographic populationstructure, motorization levels, road and health infrastructure and road rule enforcement. Methods: An original panel data set covering 25 Indian states is analyzed using multivariate regression analysis. Time and state fixed effects account for unobserved heterogeneity across states and time. Results...

  20. Liquidity, Default and Crashes: Endogenous Contracts in General Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    John Geanakoplos

    2001-01-01

    The possibility of default limits available liquidity. If the potential default draws nearer, a liquidity crisis may ensue, causing a crash in asset prices, even if the probability of default barely changes, and even if no defaults subsequently materialize. Introducing default and limited collateral into general equilibrium theory (GE) allows for a theory of endogenous contracts, including endogenous margin requirements on loans. This in turn allows GE to explain liquidity and liquidity crise...

  1. LESSONS IN CRISIS MISMANAGEMENT FROM THE 1929 CRASH

    OpenAIRE

    Janice M. Traflet (ed.)

    2006-01-01

    Crisis management theory illuminates the New York Stock Exchanges efforts to recover organizational legitimacy after the 1929 crash and the scandals unearthed in its wake. Ineptly defusing charges of an unfair and disorderly marketplace, NYSE President Richard Whitney and his Old Guard colleagues magnified perceptions of Exchange dysfunction. Even after New Deal reform of the securities sector the NYSE remained a self-regulatory organization. How did the NYSE emerge from its crisis decade (19...

  2. Numerical Simulation of Helicopter Cockpit Seat subjected to Crash Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Sulaiman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sikorsky S-61 or better known as “Nuri” had served the Malaysian aviation sector for the past four decades. It is mainly used for transportation, combat search and rescue purposes. However, there were Nuri helicopter crashes or accident cases reported during its operation period which involved loss of its occupants. The pilot survivability rate can be improved provided that the vertical impact loading on the helicopter is reduced during the crash accident. Utilization of an energy absorbing pilot seat or cockpit structure maybe one of the approaches to minimize the impact shock exerted to the occupants. However, the shock or maximum acceleration of the cockpit/pilot seat has to be first determined before a thorough design scheme can be undertaken. In this study, a vertical crash event of the Nuri pilot seat from 500 feet altitude was simulated and the maximum acceleration rate was determined using MSC PATRAN/LSDYNA. The pilot survivability was determined by comparing the result with human tolerance criteria data available in other published works. From the result, it was found that the maximum acceleration of the Nuri pilot seat was 584.4g at 19. 63 milliseconds, thus it can be concluded that the survivability aspect of the pilot is fatal when compared to other published works.

  3. Optimizing Scrip Systems: Efficiency, Crashes, Hoarders, and Altruists

    CERN Document Server

    Kash, Ian A; Halpern, Joseph Y

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the design of efficient scrip systems and develop tools for empirically analyzing them. For those interested in the empirical study of scrip systems, we demonstrate how characteristics of agents in a system can be inferred from the equilibrium distribution of money. From the perspective of a system designer, we examine the effect of the money supply on social welfare and show that social welfare is maximized by increasing the money supply up to the point that the system experiences a ``monetary crash,'' where money is sufficiently devalued that no agent is willing to perform a service. We also examine the implications of the presence of altruists and hoarders on the performance of the system. While a small number of altruists may improve social welfare, too many can also cause the system to experience a monetary crash, which may be bad for social welfare. Hoarders generally decrease social welfare but, surprisingly, they also promote system stability by helping prevent monetary crashes. In addition...

  4. Canada's automated earthquake notification service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetmiller, R.J.; Adams, J.; Woodgold, C. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada, Canadian Hazard Information Service

    2007-07-01

    An automated natural hazard announcement service (ANHAS) is provided by the Geological Service of Canada (GSC) for agencies in Canada that need to respond quickly to significant earthquakes. It is used in the Canadian railway industry as well as by dam operators in Ontario, New Brunswick and Quebec to prioritize and initiate dam inspections after strong earthquakes. However, each company uses its own rules to make decisions as to how to respond to an earthquake. The GSC is interested in developing a uniform national best-practice for the industry's response to significant earthquakes. This paper discussed the GSC's primary seismograph network which consists of a 120-seismograph network plus data from another 90 seismographs in Canada and the United States. In addition, the GSC's automatic earthquake location software (AUTOLOC) was discussed. This software provides magnitude and location estimates, usually within 5-10 minutes of an earthquake, and GSC uses three independent sources of real-time AUTOLOC information for reliability. The paper also discussed how the software determines the strength of shaking from earthquake size and location. The paper also identified current dam notification criteria including several simple response rules that have been devised based on earthquake magnitude and distance. A better system of co-ordinated ANHAS criteria for Canadian railways and a proposed scheme for Canadian dams were also offered. It was concluded that this proposed scheme will help avoid overreaction and unnecessary downtime in marginal situations. 9 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  5. Information note about the protection of nuclear facilities against aircraft crashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protection of nuclear facilities against external risks (earthquakes, floods, fires etc..) is an aspect of safety taken into consideration by the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN). Concerning the aircraft crashes, the fundamental safety rules make three categories of aircraft: the small civil aircraft (weight 5.7 t). Nuclear facilities are designed to resist against crashes of aircraft from the first category only, because the probability of the accidental crash of a big aircraft are extremely low. This document comprises an information note about the protection of nuclear facilities against aircraft crashes, a dossier about the safety of nuclear facilities with respect to external risks in general (natural disasters and aircraft crashes), and an article about the protection of nuclear power plants against aircraft crashes (design, safety measures, regulation, surveillance, experience feedback). (J.S.)

  6. The role of exposure in comparisons of crash risk among different drivers and driving environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipman, M L; MacGregor, C G; Smiley, A M; Lee-Gosselin, M

    1993-04-01

    Crash rates based on drivers, driver-kilometers, and driver-days in the denominator were compared, using survey estimates of time and distance driven and the annual frequency of traffic crashes in Ontario. Rates by age, sex, and region were computed for all crashes and for crashes resulting in injury or fatality. Young male drivers remained at high risk for all types of denominator; older women had high rates when distance was included in the denominator. When time spent driving was substituted, men and women drivers over 60 had very similar rates. For comparisons of rural residents with urban and northern residents, time and distance give equivalent results. These findings suggest that apparent differences in crash risk per kilometre, whether for older women or for urban drivers, is explained by differences in typical driving speed and environment. Exposure time is better than distance to explain crash risk among drivers and regions with very different driving patterns and environments. PMID:8471119

  7. Driver crash risk factors and prevalence evaluation using naturalistic driving data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingus, Thomas A; Guo, Feng; Lee, Suzie; Antin, Jonathan F; Perez, Miguel; Buchanan-King, Mindy; Hankey, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    The accurate evaluation of crash causal factors can provide fundamental information for effective transportation policy, vehicle design, and driver education. Naturalistic driving (ND) data collected with multiple onboard video cameras and sensors provide a unique opportunity to evaluate risk factors during the seconds leading up to a crash. This paper uses a National Academy of Sciences-sponsored ND dataset comprising 905 injurious and property damage crash events, the magnitude of which allows the first direct analysis (to our knowledge) of causal factors using crashes only. The results show that crash causation has shifted dramatically in recent years, with driver-related factors (i.e., error, impairment, fatigue, and distraction) present in almost 90% of crashes. The results also definitively show that distraction is detrimental to driver safety, with handheld electronic devices having high use rates and risk. PMID:26903657

  8. Investigation of dynamics of ELM crashes and their mitigation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankin, Alexei Y. [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-08-14

    The accurate prediction of H-mode pedestal dynamics is critical for planning experiments in existing tokamaks and in the design of future tokamaks such as ITER and DEMO. The main objective of the proposed research is to advance the understanding of the physics of H-mode pedestal. Through advances in coupled kinetic-MHD simulations, a new model for H-mode pedestal and ELM crashes as well as an improved model for the bootstrap current will be developed. ELMmitigation techniques will also be investigated. The proposed research will help design efficient confinement scenarios and reduce transient heat loads on the divertor and plasma facing components. During the last two years, the principal investigator (PI) of this proposal actively participated in physics studies related to the DOE Joint Research Targets. These studies include the modeling of divertor heat load in the DIII-D, Alcator C-Mod, and NSTX tokamaks in 2010, and the modeling of H-mode pedestal structure in the DIII-D tokamak in 2011. It is proposed that this close collaboration with experimentalists from major US tokamaks continue during the next funding period. Verification and validation will be a strong component of the proposed research. During the course of the project, advances will be made in the following areas; Dynamics of the H-mode pedestal buildup and recovery after ELM crashes – The effects of neutral fueling, particle and thermal pinches will be explored; Dynamics of ELM crashes in realistic tokamak geometries – Heat loads associated with ELM crashes will be validated against experimental measurements. An improved model for ELM crashes will be developed; ELM mitigation – The effect of resonant magnetic perturbations on ELMs stability and their evolution will be investigated; Development of a new bootstrap current model – A reduced model for will be developed through careful verification of existing models for bootstrap current against first-principle kinetic neoclassical simulations

  9. Assessing the Residual Teen Crash Risk Factors after Graduated Drivers License Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Thor, Craig P.; Gabler, Hampton C.

    2010-01-01

    Graduated driving licensing laws are now in place in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. However, despite stricter supervised driving requirements, restrictions on the number of passengers, and earlier nighttime driving curfews, teen drivers continue to be at a higher crash risk than the adult driving population. The National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey (NMVCCS) dataset was examined to compare and contrast the primary crash factors for teen drivers (16–18 years. old) and...

  10. Real-world car-to-pedestrian-crash data from an urban centre

    OpenAIRE

    Matthes Gerrit; Stengel Dirk; Frank Matthias; Beirau Melissa; Schmucker Uli; Ekkernkamp Axel; Seifert Julia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Pedestrians are at a high risk for crash and injury. This study aims at comparing data from real world crashes with data gathered from experimental settings. Methods IMPAIR (In-Depth Medical Pedestrian Accident Investigation and Reconstruction) was a prospective, observational study performed in a metropolitan area. Data was collected on-scene, from clinical records, and interviews. Data comprise crash data, details on injury pattern and injury severity. Results Thirty-sev...

  11. Non-Parametric Analyses of Log-Periodic Precursors to Financial Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Xing Zhou; Didier Sornette

    2002-01-01

    We apply two non-parametric methods to test further the hypothesis that log-periodicity characterizes the detrended price trajectory of large financial indices prior to financial crashes or strong corrections. The analysis using the so-called (H,q)-derivative is applied to seven time series ending with the October 1987 crash, the October 1997 correction and the April 2000 crash of the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA), the Standard & Poor 500 and Nasdaq indices. The Hilbert transform is app...

  12. Investigating crash injury severity at unsignalized intersections in Heilongjiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Pei

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies suggest that more crashes occur due to mixed traffic flow at unsignalized intersections. However, very little is known about the injury severity of these crashes. The objective of this study is therefore to investigate how contributory factors affect crash injury severity at unsignalized intersections. The dataset used for this analysis derived from police crash reports from Dec. 2006 to Apr. 2009 in Heilongjiang Province, China. An ordered probit model was developed to predict the probability that the injury severity of a crash will be one of four levels : no injury, slight injury, severe injury, and fatal injury. The injury severity of a crash was evaluated in terms of the most severe injury sustained by any person involved in the crash. Results from the present study showed that different factors had varying effects on crash injury severity. Factors found to resuit in the increased probability of serious injuries include adverse weather, sideswiping with pedestrians on poor surface, the interaction of rear-ends and the third-class highway, winter night without illumination, and the interaction between traffic signs or markings and the third-class highway. Although there are some limitations in the current study, this study provides more insights into crash injury severity at unsignalized intersections.

  13. Vehicle-Barrier Tracking of a Scaled Crash Test for Roadside Barrier Design

    OpenAIRE

    Amato, Giuseppina; Ghosh, Bidisha; SIMMS, CIARAN

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the tracking system used to perform a scaled vehicle-barrier crash test is reported. The scaled crash test was performed as part of a wider project aimed at designing a new safety barrier making use of natural building materials. The scaled crash test was designed and performed as a proof of concept of the new mass-based safety barriers and the study was composed of two parts: the scaling technique and of a series of performed scaled crash tests. The scaling method was used for ...

  14. Road traffic crashes, injury and fatality trends in Sri Lanka: 1938–2013

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To analyse trends in road traffic crashes, injuries and fatalities over 75 years in Sri Lanka. Methods Data on road traffic crashes, injuries and fatalities between 1938 and 2013 were obtained from the Police Statistics Unit. Rates per 100 000 population were calculated and trends were analysed using joinpoint regression analysis. Findings Road traffic crashes and injuries rose substantially between 1938 and 2013: annual crashes increased from 61.2 to 183.6 per 100 000 peop...

  15. Relationship between crash rate and hourly traffic flow on interurban motorways

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, JL

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the relationship between crash incidence rates and hourly traffic volume and discusses the influence of traffic on crash severity, based on observations made on 2000 km of french interurban motorways over 2 years. Incidence rates involving property damage-only crashes and injury-crashes are highest when traffic is lightest (under 400 vehicles/h). These incidence rates are at their lowest when traffic flows at a rate of 1000-1500 vehicles/h. For heavier traffic flows, cras...

  16. Determination of Selected Crash Parameters in Head-on Vehicle Collision with Rollover

    OpenAIRE

    Coufal, Tomáš; Semela, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents complete results of the head-on small overlap crash test of vehicle with driver moving at a speed of approximately 12 m/s against stationary vehicle with post-crash rollover. When a crash does not involve the main crush-zone structures, the occupant compartment is not well protected. The emphasis in the paper was put on determination and presentation of crash parameters for the application in traffic accident analyses and for simulation with the help of software for acciden...

  17. Injury severity data for front and second row passengers in frontal crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Theresa; Leszek Gawarecki; Tavakoli, Massoud

    2016-06-01

    The data contained here were obtained from the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration׳s National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for the years 2008-2014. This publically available data set monitors motor vehicle crashes in the United States, using a stratified random sample frame, resulting in information on approximately 5000 crashes each year that can be utilized to create national estimates for crashes. The NASS-CDS data sets document vehicle, crash, and occupant factors. These data can be utilized to examine public health, law enforcement, roadway planning, and vehicle design issues. The data provided in this brief are a subset of crash events and occupants. The crashes provided are exclusively frontal crashes. Within these crashes, only restrained occupants who were seated in the right front seat position or the second row outboard seat positions were included. The front row and second row data sets were utilized to construct occupant pairs crashes where both a right front seat occupant and a second row occupant were available. Both unpaired and paired data sets are provided in this brief. PMID:27077084

  18. The effects of roadway characteristics on farm equipment crashes: A GIS approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenan, Mitchell Joseph

    Tractors and other self-propelled farm equipment, such as combines, sprayers, and towed grain carts, are often used on public roadways as the primary means for traveling from homestead to homestead or from homestead to a distributer. Increased roadway exposure has led to a growing concern for crashes involving farm equipment on the public roadway. A handful of studies exist examining public roadway crashes involving farm equipment using crash data, but none thus far have evaluated road segment data to identify road-specific risk factors. The objective of this study is to identify if roadway characteristics (traffic density, speed limit, road type, surface type, road width, and shoulder width) affect the risk of a crash involving farm equipment on Iowa public roadways. A retrospective cohort study of Iowa roads was conducted to identify the types of roads that are at an increased risk of having a farm-equipment crash on them. Crash data from the Iowa Department of Transportation (to identify crashes) were spatial linked to Iowa roadway data using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Logistic regression was used to calculate ORs and 95% CL. Out of 319,705 road segments in Iowa, 0.4% segments (n=1,337) had a farm equipment crash from 2005-2011. The odds of having a farm equipment crash were significantly higher for road segments with increased traffic density and speed limit. Roads with an average daily traffic volume of at least 1,251 vehicles were at a 5.53 times greater odds of having a crash than roads with a daily traffic volume between 0-30 vehicles. (CI: 3.90-7.83). Roads with a posted speed limit between 50mph and 60mph were at a 4.88 times greater odds of having a crash than roads with a posted speed limit of 30mph or less. (CI: 3.85-6.20). Specific roadway characteristics such as roadway and shoulder width were also associated with the risk of a crash. For every 5 foot increase in road width, the odds for a crash decreased by 6 percent (CI: 0.89-0.99) and

  19. Automatic input rectification

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Fan; Ganesh, Vijay; Carbin, Michael James; Sidiroglou, Stelios; Rinard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel technique, automatic input rectification, and a prototype implementation, SOAP. SOAP learns a set of constraints characterizing typical inputs that an application is highly likely to process correctly. When given an atypical input that does not satisfy these constraints, SOAP automatically rectifies the input (i.e., changes the input so that it satisfies the learned constraints). The goal is to automatically convert potentially dangerous inputs into typical inputs that the ...

  20. Automatic Fiscal Stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis Eduard Mitu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Policies or institutions (built into an economic system that automatically tend to dampen economic cycle fluctuations in income, employment, etc., without direct government intervention. For example, in boom times, progressive income tax automatically reduces money supply as incomes and spendings rise. Similarly, in recessionary times, payment of unemployment benefits injects more money in the system and stimulates demand. Also called automatic stabilizers or built-in stabilizers.

  1. Notification of brain death in the hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Soares de Jesus Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identifying brain death in the hospital. Methods: it is a cross sectional and quantitative study which analyzed secondary data extracted from the notified brain death registers and from the medical records of the eligible patients. The data were processed and analyzed through descriptive statistics and comparisons. Results: of the 64 cases of notifications, the male gender predominated (67.2% within the age range from 40 to 59 years (64.1%. There was a greater proportion (71.8% of causes of death related to Hemorrhagic Cerebral Vascular Accident and Traumatic Brain Injury caused by motorcycle accident, showing statistically significant difference (p<0.05 regarding the gender, age and location. Conclusion: the Hemorrhagic Cerebral Vascular Accident was the most prevalent cause of notification of brain death and the Intensive Therapy Unit was the most notified venue.

  2. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, G.F. (comp.)

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  3. Prioritizing Child Pornography Notifications: Predicting Direct Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Wineke; Schepers, Klaartje; Kamphuis, Jan Henk; van Linden, Sabine; Bartling, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    The growing number of notifications for child pornography (CP) possession constitutes a capacity problem for police forces entrusted with the investigation of these offenses. Notifications of CP offenses in which the investigation reveals concurrent direct victimization, in the form of contact offenses, grooming, online offending, or the production of CP material, form a potential target group for prioritization. The first of the twofold aims of this study was to validate the occurring distinction between mixed suspects (i.e., CP possession suspects who were also ever associated with direct victimization) and CP-only suspects (i.e., CP possession suspects who were never associated with direct victimization) to predict an outcome of the investigation including direct victimization. The second aim was to explore variables related to direct victimization among CP-only suspects. A total of 150 files of police investigations into notifications for CP offenses were studied. Findings confirmed significantly greater prevalence of direct victimization as an outcome of the investigation among mixed suspects than CP-only suspects (90% vs. 10%). Among CP-only suspects, direct victimization was predicted by (a) prior police contacts, charges, or convictions concerning noncontact sexual offending, (b) the confiscation of more than two computers during the house search, and (c) a more serious nature of the CP material that formed the basis for the notification in terms of younger victims and more extreme content. These variables may point to a small subgroup of heavily invested CP offenders who are at a higher risk to cross the line to direct victimization. Cross-validation of these preliminary findings is indicated. PMID:24492619

  4. Pre-Congestion Notification Encoding Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, K.; Karagiannis, G.

    2007-01-01

    DiffServ mechanisms have been developed to support Quality of Service (QoS). However, the level of assurance that can be provided with DiffServ without substantial over-provisioning is limited. Pre-Congestion Notification (PCN) investigates the use of per-flow admission control to provide the required service guarantees for the admitted traffic. While admission control will protect the QoS under normal operating conditions, an additional flow termination mechanism is necessary in the times of...

  5. Notification of brain death in the hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Soares de Jesus Souza; Gerlene Grudka Lira; Rachel Mola

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to identifying brain death in the hospital. Methods: it is a cross sectional and quantitative study which analyzed secondary data extracted from the notified brain death registers and from the medical records of the eligible patients. The data were processed and analyzed through descriptive statistics and comparisons. Results: of the 64 cases of notifications, the male gender predominated (67.2%) within the age range from 40 to 59 years (64.1%). There was a greater proportion (71.8...

  6. Agent-Based Mobile Event Notification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Fahim El-Gazzar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the noticeable move towards using mobile devices (mobile phones and PDAs and wireless technologies have made information available in the context of "anytime, anywhere using any mobile device" experience. Delivering information to mobile devices needs some sort of communication means such as Push, Pull, or mixed (Push and Pull technologies to deliver any chunk of information (events, ads, advisory tips, learning materials, etc.. Events are the most important pieces of information that should be delivered timely wherever the user is. Agent-based technology offers autonomous, flexible, adaptable, and reliable way of delivering events to any device, anywhere, and on time. Publish/subscribe communication model is the basic infrastructure for event-based communication. In this paper, we define the need to mobilize the event notification process in educational environment and the possible categories of event notifications that students can receive from their educational institution. This paper also proposes a framework for agent-based mobile event notification system. The proposed framework is derived from the concept of push–based publish/subscribe communication model but taking advantage from software agents to serve in the mobile environment. Finally, the paper provides a detailed analysis for the proposed system.

  7. Explaining reduction of pedestrian–motor vehicle crashes in Arkhangelsk, Russia, in 2005–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Kudryavtsev

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explain a reduction in pedestrian–motor vehicle crashes in Arkhangelsk, Russia, in 2005–2010. Study design. Retrospective ecological study. Methods. For 2005–2010, police data on pedestrian–motor vehicle crashes, traffic violations, and total motor vehicles (MVs were combined with data on changes in national road traffic legislation and municipal road infrastructure. Negative binomial regression was used to investigate trends in monthly rates of pedestrian–motor vehicle crashes per total MVs and estimate changes in these rates per unit changes in the safety measures. Results. During the 6 years, the police registered 2,565 pedestrian–motor vehicle crashes: 1,597 (62% outside crosswalks, 766 (30% on non-signalized crosswalks, and 202 (8% on signalized crosswalks. Crash rates outside crosswalks and on signalized crosswalks decreased on average by 1.1% per month, whereas the crash rate on non-signalized crosswalks remained unchanged. Numbers of signalized and non-signalized crosswalks increased by 14 and 19%, respectively. Also, 10% of non-signalized crosswalks were combined with speed humps, and 4% with light-reflecting vertical signs. Pedestrian penalties for traffic violations increased 4-fold. Driver penalties for ignoring prohibiting signal and failure to give way to pedestrian on non-signalized crosswalk increased 7- and 8-fold, respectively. The rate of total registered drivers’ traffic violations per total MVs decreased on average by 0.3% per month. All studied infrastructure and legislative measures had inverse associations with the rate of crashes outside crosswalks. The rate of crashes on signalized crosswalks showed inverse associations with related monetary penalties. Conclusions. The introduction of infrastructure and legislative measures is the most probable explanation of the reduction of pedestrian–motor vehicle crashes in Arkhangelsk. The overall reduction is due to decreases in rates of crashes

  8. Development of crash modification factors for changing lane width on roadway segments using generalized nonlinear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chris; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Park, Juneyoung; Wang, Jung-Han

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of changing lane width in reducing crashes on roadway segments. To consider nonlinear relationships between crash rate and lane width, the study develops generalized nonlinear models (GNMs) using 3-years crash records and road geometry data collected for all roadway segments in Florida. The study also estimates various crash modification factors (CMFs) for different ranges of lane width based on the results of the GNMs. It was found that the crash rate was highest for 12-ft lane and lower for the lane width less than or greater than 12ft. GNMs can extrapolate this nonlinear continuous effect of lane width and estimate the CMFs for any lane width, not only selected lane widths, unlike generalized linear models (GLMs) with categorical variables. The CMFs estimated using GNMs reflect that crashes are less likely to occur for narrower lanes if the lane width is less than 12ft whereas crashes are less likely to occur for wider lanes if the lane width is greater than 12ft. However, these effects varied with the posted speed limits as the effect of interaction between lane width and speed limit was significant. The estimated CMFs show that crashes are less likely to occur for lane widths less than 12ft than the lane widths greater than 12ft if the speed limit is higher than or equal to 40mph. It was also found from the CMFs that crashes at higher severity levels (KABC and KAB) are less likely to occur for lane widths greater or less than 12ft compared to 12-ft lane. The study demonstrates that the CMFs estimated using GNMs clearly reflect variations in crashes with lane width, which cannot be captured by the CMFs estimated using GLMs. Thus, it is recommended that if the relationship between crash rate and lane width is nonlinear, the CMFs are estimated using GNMs. PMID:25616033

  9. Crash protectiveness to occupant injury and vehicle damage: An investigation on major car brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Helai; Li, Chunyang; Zeng, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    This study sets out to investigate vehicles' crash protectiveness on occupant injury and vehicle damage, which can be deemed as an extension of the traditional crash worthiness. A Bayesian bivariate hierarchical ordered logistic (BVHOL) model is developed to estimate the occupant protectiveness (OP) and vehicle protectiveness (VP) of 23 major car brands in Florida, with considering vehicles' crash aggressivity and controlling external factors. The proposed model not only takes over the strength of the existing hierarchical ordered logistic (HOL) model, i.e. specifying the order characteristics of crash outcomes and cross-crash heterogeneities, but also accounts for the correlation between the two crash responses, driver injury and vehicle damage. A total of 7335 two-vehicle-crash records with 14,670 cars involved in Florida are used for the investigation. From the estimation results, it's found that most of the luxury cars such as Cadillac, Volvo and Lexus possess excellent OP and VP while some brands such as KIA and Saturn perform very badly in both aspects. The ranks of the estimated safety performance indices are even compared to the counterparts in Huang et al. study [Huang, H., Hu, S., Abdel-Aty, M., 2014. Indexing crash worthiness and crash aggressivity by major car brands. Safety Science 62, 339-347]. The results show that the rank of occupant protectiveness index (OPI) is relatively coherent with that of crash worthiness index, but the ranks of crash aggressivity index in both studies is more different from each other. Meanwhile, a great discrepancy between the OPI rank and that of vehicle protectiveness index is found. What's more, the results of control variables and hyper-parameters estimation as well as comparison to HOL models with separate or identical threshold errors, demonstrate the validity and advancement of the proposed model and the robustness of the estimated OP and VP. PMID:26551733

  10. Analysis of 86 fatal motorcycle frontal crashes in Chongqing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hui; HUANG Wei; YANG Guang-yu; CHEN Rong; LIU Sheng-xiong; YU Yong-min; YIN Zhi-yong; WANG Zheng-guo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the injuries of motorcyclists involved in fatal motorcycle frontal crashes.Methods: A survey group involving multi-discipline experts was built to randomly collect data on fatal motorcycle frontal collision accidents that occurred in Chongqing during 2006-2010.The sampled information included medical or autopsy reports,blood alcohol concentration (BAC)level,helmet use,accident witness,field sketch as well as field photos.The motorcyclist injuries were scored according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2005.The involved riders with a BAC level≥20 mg/ml were attributed to alcohol use.Data were processed statistically with nonparametric test via software SPSS 11.0.Results:A total of 86 fatal motorcycle frontal crashes were sampled and further analyzed.The age of motorcyclists enrolled in this investigation showed nominal distribution and the middle-aged (30-39 years) occupied the highest percentage of fatalities.There were only 14 motorcyclists (16.3%) wearing helmets at the moment ofcollision.And 12.8% of these motorcyclist crashes were attributable to alcohol use.Impact injury was the main fatal cause,accounting for 72% of motorcyclist deaths,followed by tumbling injury (26%) and run-over (2%).Respectively 84%,22% and 19%of motorcyclists who sustained head,chest and abdominal trauma died.Extremity injury was the most frequently observed injury type.Conclusions: This investigation is helpful to build accident prevention programs and develop protection devices which may effectively mitigate injuries and prevent deaths following motorcycle frontal collision accidents.Further investigations on motorcycle collision accidents are still needed.

  11. Commuter motorcycle crashes in Malaysia: An understanding of contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Jennifer; Yuen, Jeremy; Ravi, Mano Deepa; Hoareau, Effie; Mohammed, Mohammed Azman Aziz; Bakar, Harun; Venkataraman, Saraswathy; Nair, Prame Kumar

    2013-01-01

    In Malaysia, two-thirds of reported workplace-related fatal and serious injury incidents are the result of commuting crashes (especially those involving motorcyclists), however, little is known about the contributing factors to these collisions. A telephone survey of 1,750 motorcyclists (1,004 adults who had been involved in a motorcycle commuting crash in the last 2 years and 746 adult motorcyclists who had not been involved in a motorcycle crash in the last 2 years) was undertaken. The contributions of a range of behavioural, attitudinal, employment and travel pattern factors to collision involvement were examined. The findings revealed that the majority of participants were licensed riders, rode substantial distances (most often for work purposes), and reported adopting safe riding practices (helmet wearing and buckling). However, there were some concerning findings regarding speeding behaviour, use of mobile phones while riding, and engaging in other risky behaviours. Participants who had been involved in a collision were younger (aged 25-29 years), had higher exposure (measured by distances travelled, frequency of riding, and riding on high volume and higher speed roads), reported higher rates of riding for work purposes, worked more shift hours and had a higher likelihood of riding at relatively high speeds compared with participants who had not been involved in a collision. Collisions generally occurred during morning and early evening hours, striking another vehicles, and during normal traffic flow. The implications of these findings for policy decisions and development of evidence-based behavioural/training interventions addressing key contributing factors are discussed. PMID:24406945

  12. The role of alcohol in Thailand motorcycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasantikul, Vira; Ouellet, James V; Smith, Terry; Sirathranont, Jetn; Panichabhongse, Viratt

    2005-03-01

    In order to identify motorcycle accident cause factors and countermeasures in Thailand, a large prospective study was undertaken. Researchers conducted on-scene, in-depth investigation and reconstruction of 969 collisions involving 1082 motorcycle riders. Accidents were randomly sampled and included all levels of injury severity. Alcohol proved to be the most outstanding cause factor, with 393 drinking riders in crashes. Alcohol accidents were distinctly different from non-alcohol crashes. Alcohol accidents were more frequent on weekends and particularly at night, usually when the rider was on his way home. Drinking riders were more likely to lose control of the motorcycle, usually by running off the road. They were more likely to be in a single vehicle accident, to violate traffic control signals, and to be in non-intersection collisions. Males were far more likely to drink and ride than females. Drinking riders were far more likely to be inattentive to the driving task just before they crashed, and to be the primary or sole cause of the accident. One-fourth of all riders did not go to the hospital, and another 42% needed only treatment in the emergency room. Drinking riders were more likely to be hospitalized and far more likely to be killed. The higher hospitalization and fatality rates of drinking riders resulted from the kinds of accidents in which they were involved, not from the minimal differences in speeds and helmet use. Problems with balance and coordination were about equally rare among drinking and non-drinking riders. Inattention was a far greater contributing factor. PMID:15667823

  13. Road crash in China from 2003 to 2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ji-hong; QIU Jun; ZHAO Xin-cai; LIU Guo-dong; XIAO Kai; ZHANG Liang; JIANG Zhi-quan; WANG Zheng-guo

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To analyze characteristics and causes of road crash and injuries in China from 2003 to 2005.Methods : The data of road crash in 2003-2005 were collected to study the characteristics including total vehicle number, occurrence rates of traffic accidents and serious traffic accidents so as to discuss the causes and characteristics of road crash in China.Results: From 2003 to 2005, the numbers of traffic accidents, injuries and deaths as well as the mortality rates per 100 000 persons and per 10 000 vehicles declined in China. Until 2005, the total number of traffic accidents decreased to 450 000 and deaths to 99 000, with the mortality rate per 10 000 vehicles being 7.6 persons. While the drivers and passengers accounted for 33.2% and 26.6% of death casualties respectively in 2005. Most traffic accidents were caused by drivers, especially those with driving experience less than 3 years. Traffic accidents occurred on suburban roads accounted for 60%. The mortality rate of the traffic accidents per 100 km on the first grade road ranked the highest. The mortality rate of the traffic accidents on expressways ranked the highest, with continual increase of death and injury.Conclusions: At present, the increase trend of traffic accidents and casualties in China has been slowed down to some extent and shows a declining tendency, but the situation is far away from being optimistic. In order to cut down the number of traffic accidents and casualties, we should pay more attention to training and managing drivers with less than three driving years and those driving buses. Strict prevention measures should be laid on traffic accidents on first grade roads, expressways and suburban roads as well as the enhancement on improving first-aid system.

  14. Lower extremity finite element model for crash simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schauer, D.A.; Perfect, S.A.

    1996-03-01

    A lower extremity model has been developed to study occupant injury mechanisms of the major bones and ligamentous soft tissues resulting from vehicle collisions. The model is based on anatomically correct digitized bone surfaces of the pelvis, femur, patella and the tibia. Many muscles, tendons and ligaments were incrementally added to the basic bone model. We have simulated two types of occupant loading that occur in a crash environment using a non-linear large deformation finite element code. The modeling approach assumed that the leg was passive during its response to the excitation, that is, no active muscular contraction and therefore no active change in limb stiffness. The approach recognized that the most important contributions of the muscles to the lower extremity response are their ability to define and modify the impedance of the limb. When nonlinear material behavior in a component of the leg model was deemed important to response, a nonlinear constitutive model was incorporated. The accuracy of these assumptions can be verified only through a review of analysis results and careful comparison with test data. As currently defined, the model meets the objective for which it was created. Much work remains to be done, both from modeling and analysis perspectives, before the model can be considered complete. The model implements a modeling philosophy that can accurately capture both kinematic and kinetic response of the lower limb. We have demonstrated that the lower extremity model is a valuable tool for understanding the injury processes and mechanisms. We are now in a position to extend the computer simulation to investigate the clinical fracture patterns observed in actual crashes. Additional experience with this model will enable us to make a statement on what measures are needed to significantly reduce lower extremity injuries in vehicle crashes. 6 refs.

  15. Epidemiology, Causes and Prevention of Car Rollover Crashes with Ejection

    OpenAIRE

    El-Hennawy, HM; El-Menyar, A; Al-Thani, H; Tuma, M; Parchani, A; H. Abdulrahman; Peralta, R; Asim, M.; Zarour, A; Latifi, R

    2014-01-01

    Rollover crashes (ROCs) are responsible for almost a third of all highway vehicle occupant fatalities. Although ROCs are common and serious mechanism of injury, ROCs are under-reported. To analyze the causes, mechanism, impact and prevention of ROCs, we reviewed the literature between 1984 and 2013. By utilizing the search engines PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE by using key words “ROCs” “Ejection” and “vehicle” the initial search yielded 241 abstracts, of which 58 articles were relevant. Most of ...

  16. Risk exposure and crash involvement rates of occasional drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Fontaine, H

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes how nearly half the cars in France are driven by more than one person. Generally, there is one principal driver who covers the greatest distance in the car and one or more occasional drivers. Many studies of risk that link crash data with car travel data only consider the risk exposure of principal drivers because of a lack of more detailed information on the different drivers of a particular car. It is however important to determine what percentage of total distance bein...

  17. A different perspective on conspicuity related motorcycle crashes.

    OpenAIRE

    Craen, S. de Doumen, M.J.A. & Norden, Y. van

    2013-01-01

    The most common type of conflict in which a motorcyclist is injured or killed is a collision between a motorcycle and a car, often in priority situations. Many studies on motorcycle safety focus on the question why car drivers fail to give priority and on the poor conspicuity of motorcycles. The concept of ‘looked-but-failed-to-see’ crashes is a recurring item. On the other hand, it is not entirely unexpected that motorcycles have many conflicts with cars; there simply are so many cars on the...

  18. Rebreathing in a subject wearing an integral crash helmet.

    OpenAIRE

    Greenbaum, R; Malins, A F; Davies, R.; Baskett, P J

    1982-01-01

    The respired air of a volunteer was analysed while he was wearing a variety of integral crash helmets. Observations were made with and without a protective balaclava, bib or scarf, or both. Rebreathing occurred and the peak inspired oxygen tension fell as low as 16.0 kPa (120 mm Hg) with a minimum inspired carbon dioxide of 2.1 KPa (16.0 mm Hg). Accessories worn or attached to the helmet which restrict airflow into the helmet should not be used. Attention should be paid to the "air conditioni...

  19. Airbag Effectiveness on Brain Trauma in Frontal Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Pintar, Frank A.; Yoganandan, Narayan; Gennarelli, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of frontal restraint systems in reducing the potential for head injuries, specifically brain injuries and skull fractures. The US DOT NASS database files from 1991–1998 were evaluated for drivers and right front seat occupants in frontal crashes. Of the total driver and right front seat occupants in this data set, 3.83% sustained a brain injury without skull fracture, 0.05% sustained a skull fracture without a brain injury, and 0.16%...

  20. 75 FR 50958 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcoach Definition; Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Standards; Motorcoach Definition; Occupant Crash Protection AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety.... Stage 2: Frontal Sled Tests VI. Proposed Requirements a. Adding a Definition of ``Motorcoach'' to 49 CFR... frontal 48 kilometers per hour (km/h) (30 miles per hour (mph)) barrier crash test with instrumented...

  1. Crash Frequency Modeling Using Real-Time Environmental and Traffic Data and Unbalanced Panel Data Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Chen, Suren; Ma, Xiaoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Traffic and environmental conditions (e.g., weather conditions), which frequently change with time, have a significant impact on crash occurrence. Traditional crash frequency models with large temporal scales and aggregated variables are not sufficient to capture the time-varying nature of driving environmental factors, causing significant loss of critical information on crash frequency modeling. This paper aims at developing crash frequency models with refined temporal scales for complex driving environments, with such an effort providing more detailed and accurate crash risk information which can allow for more effective and proactive traffic management and law enforcement intervention. Zero-inflated, negative binomial (ZINB) models with site-specific random effects are developed with unbalanced panel data to analyze hourly crash frequency on highway segments. The real-time driving environment information, including traffic, weather and road surface condition data, sourced primarily from the Road Weather Information System, is incorporated into the models along with site-specific road characteristics. The estimation results of unbalanced panel data ZINB models suggest there are a number of factors influencing crash frequency, including time-varying factors (e.g., visibility and hourly traffic volume) and site-varying factors (e.g., speed limit). The study confirms the unique significance of the real-time weather, road surface condition and traffic data to crash frequency modeling. PMID:27322306

  2. The Thule episode epidemiological follow up after the crash of a B-52 bomber in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, K

    1992-01-01

    The aim was to explore the pattern of disease in staff associated with a bomber that crashed in 1968 when carrying nuclear bombs.......The aim was to explore the pattern of disease in staff associated with a bomber that crashed in 1968 when carrying nuclear bombs....

  3. Study Shows Just How Big a Role Cellphones Play in Car Crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Just How Big a Role Cellphones Play in Car Crashes In-vehicle videos highlight other distractions, such as ... the wheel, researchers report that video taken inside cars showed drivers were ... of crashes. Not surprisingly, the findings link cellphone use to ...

  4. The roles of motorcyclists and car drivers in conspicuity-related motorcycle crashes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craen, S. de Doumen, M. Bos, N. & Norden, Y. van

    2012-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the available research on the different factors of influence on the perception of motorcycles. It also presents analyses of Dutch motorcycle crashes which provide a description of the relative occurrence of car-motorcycle crashes in the Netherlands. Finally, this rep

  5. Piercing of the containment shell of a reactor building in case of airplane crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author presents a simple calculation model for a realistic check of the piercing safety of containments of reactor buildings in case of airplane crash. Its application is illustrated by a numerical example (Starfighter crash on the Unterweser nuclear power plant). (orig.)

  6. 77 FR 32712 - Technical Report: Evaluation of the Enhancing Vehicle-to-Vehicle Crash Compatibility Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ...This notice announces NHTSA's publication of a Technical Report reviewing and evaluating the Enhancing Vehicle-to-Vehicle Crash Compatibility Agreement. The report's title is: Evaluation of the Enhancing Vehicle-to-Vehicle Crash Compatibility Agreement: Effectiveness of the Primary and Secondary Energy-Absorbing Structures on Pickup Trucks and...

  7. Bicycle Guidelines and Crash Rates on Cycle Tracks in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morency, Patrick; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F.; Willett, Walter C.; Dennerlein, Jack T.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We studied state-adopted bicycle guidelines to determine whether cycle tracks (physically separated, bicycle-exclusive paths adjacent to sidewalks) were recommended, whether they were built, and their crash rate. Methods. We analyzed and compared US bicycle facility guidelines published between 1972 and 1999. We identified 19 cycle tracks in the United States and collected extensive data on cycle track design, usage, and crash history from local communities. We used bicycle counts and crash data to estimate crash rates. Results. A bicycle facility guideline written in 1972 endorsed cycle tracks but American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) guidelines (1974–1999) discouraged or did not include cycle tracks and did not cite research about crash rates on cycle tracks. For the 19 US cycle tracks we examined, the overall crash rate was 2.3 (95% confidence interval = 1.7, 3.0) per 1 million bicycle kilometers. Conclusions. AASHTO bicycle guidelines are not explicitly based on rigorous or up-to-date research. Our results show that the risk of bicycle–vehicle crashes is lower on US cycle tracks than published crashes rates on roadways. This study and previous investigations support building cycle tracks. PMID:23678920

  8. 76 FR 46359 - Announcing the Nineteenth Public Meeting of the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ...This notice announces the Nineteenth Public Meeting of members of the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network. CIREN is a collaborative effort to conduct research on crashes and injuries at six Level I Trauma Centers across the United States linked by a computer network. The current CIREN model utilizes two types of centers, medical and engineering. Medical centers are based at Level I......

  9. 76 FR 53648 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards: Occupant Crash Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... Standards: Occupant Crash Protection AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA... vehicle safety standard (FMVSS) on occupant crash protection to remove the sunset of a requirement that a... vehicle seats. The NPRM preceding this final rule was published September 12, 2008 (73 FR 52939, Docket...

  10. Simulations of Pedestrian Impact Collisions with Virtual CRASH 3 and Comparisons with IPTM Staged Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Tony; Scurlock, Bob

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present results from a series of Virtual CRASH-based pedestrian impact simulations. We compare the results of these Virtual CRASH pedestrian impact simulations to data from pedestrian impact collisions staged at the Institute of Police Technology and Management.

  11. 24 CFR 55.21 - Notification of floodplain hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 CFR part 58 of the hazards of the floodplain location before the execution of documents completing... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of floodplain hazard... § 55.21 Notification of floodplain hazard. For HUD programs under which a financial transaction for...

  12. 7 CFR 65.300 - Country of origin notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Country of origin notification. 65.300 Section 65.300... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Country of Origin Notification § 65.300 Country of...

  13. 34 CFR 104.32 - Location and notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Preschool, Elementary, and Secondary Education § 104.32 Location and notification. A recipient... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Location and notification. 104.32 Section 104.32 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT...

  14. 22 CFR 72.4 - Notifications of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notifications of death. 72.4 Section 72.4... DEATHS AND ESTATES Reporting Deaths of United States Nationals § 72.4 Notifications of death. The... legal representative (if any, and if different from the next of kin), of the death of a United...

  15. 33 CFR 133.25 - Notification of Governor's designee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification of Governor's designee. 133.25 Section 133.25 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.25 Notification of Governor's designee. (a) If the Governor of a...

  16. 10 CFR 709.4 - Notification of a CI evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of a CI evaluation. 709.4 Section 709.4... Notification of a CI evaluation. (a) If a polygraph examination is scheduled, DOE must notify the covered... retention in that position (709.3(b) and (c)) upon his or her successful completion of a CI...

  17. 28 CFR 73.3 - Form of notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Form of notification. 73.3 Section 73.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NOTIFICATIONS TO THE ATTORNEY GENERAL BY AGENTS... addresses of the agent, the identity of the foreign government or official for whom the agent is acting,...

  18. 20 CFR 366.1 - Notification to Internal Revenue Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification to Internal Revenue Service. 366... PROCEDURES COLLECTION OF DEBTS BY FEDERAL TAX REFUND OFFSET § 366.1 Notification to Internal Revenue Service. Upon entering into an agreement with the Internal Revenue Service and the Financial Management...

  19. 76 FR 18731 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD...)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of...

  20. 78 FR 26326 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section...)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (i) Prospective Purchaser: United Kingdom (ii)...

  1. 75 FR 60424 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD...(b)(1) arms sales notifications to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law...

  2. 76 FR 60457 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of... Proposed Issuance of Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1)of the Arms Export Control Act...

  3. 76 FR 26707 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements...

  4. 77 FR 46417 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section... Section 36(b)(1) Of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (i) Prospective Purchaser: Thailand (ii)...

  5. 77 FR 42707 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of... Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (i)...

  6. 76 FR 28956 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  7. 76 FR 60467 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of... Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act (i) Prospective...

  8. 75 FR 62792 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD... 36(b)(1) arms sales notifications to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law...

  9. 78 FR 62588 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of... Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (i)...

  10. 75 FR 74014 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  11. 75 FR 9182 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD...)(1) arms sales notification to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated...

  12. 76 FR 60471 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section... Proposed Issuance of Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act,...

  13. 75 FR 11865 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD...)(1) arms sales notification to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law 104-164 dated...

  14. 78 FR 62600 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of... Proposed Issuance of Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act,...

  15. 75 FR 81993 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  16. 76 FR 18726 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD...)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of...

  17. 76 FR 37075 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  18. 76 FR 37078 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  19. 75 FR 20571 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD...(b)(1) arms sales notifications to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law...

  20. 78 FR 15004 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of... Proposed Issuance of Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act,...

  1. 78 FR 46579 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section... Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as Amended (i)...

  2. 77 FR 37879 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section... Proposed Issuance of Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act,...

  3. 78 FR 50047 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of... Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b) (1) Of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (i)...

  4. 77 FR 51780 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section... Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (i)...

  5. 77 FR 42711 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section... Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as Amended (i)...

  6. 76 FR 76954 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section... Proposed Issuance of Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act,...

  7. 76 FR 8716 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD...)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of...

  8. 78 FR 72066 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section... Proposed Issuance of Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act,...

  9. 78 FR 26324 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of... No. 13-20 Notice of Proposed Issuance of Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the...

  10. 75 FR 62767 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD... 36(b)(1) arms sales notifications to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law...

  11. 77 FR 75617 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of... Proposed Issuance of Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act,...

  12. 76 FR 56181 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section... Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (i) Prospective Purchaser: Peru (ii)...

  13. 76 FR 29212 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements...

  14. 75 FR 48646 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notifications AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency, DoD... 36(b)(1) arms sales notifications to fulfill the requirements of section 155 of Public Law...

  15. 76 FR 37071 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  16. 76 FR 77809 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of... Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as Amended (i)...

  17. 78 FR 701 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of... Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (i)...

  18. 76 FR 60455 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section... Proposed Issuance of Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act,...

  19. 75 FR 74011 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  20. 77 FR 37881 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... of a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of... Proposed Issuance of Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the Arms Export Control Act,...

  1. 76 FR 38371 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of...

  2. 78 FR 78939 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... a section 36(b)(1) arms sales notification. This is published to fulfill the requirements of section... Transmittal No. 13-68 Notice of Proposed Issuance of Letter of Offer Pursuant to Section 36(b)(1) of the...

  3. 42 CFR 1002.212 - State agency notifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State agency notifications. 1002.212 Section 1002.212 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG... agency notifications. When the State agency initiates an exclusion under § 1002.210, it must provide...

  4. 40 CFR 61.09 - Notification of startup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification of startup. 61.09 Section...) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS General Provisions § 61.09 Notification of startup. (a) The owner or operator of each stationary source which has an initial startup after the...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1191 - What notifications must I submit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What notifications must I submit? 63.1191 Section 63.1191 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS..., Recordkeeping, and Reporting § 63.1191 What notifications must I submit? You must submit written...

  6. 45 CFR 164.406 - Notification to the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification to the media. 164.406 Section 164.406... § 164.406 Notification to the media. (a) Standard. For a breach of unsecured protected health... the discovery of the breach as provided in § 164.404(a)(2), notify prominent media outlets serving...

  7. 43 CFR 29.8 - Notification and advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... promulgated thereunder (33 CFR 153.203 and 40 CFR 110.10, respectively). (b) Upon receiving notice of an... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification and advertisement. 29.8... LIABILITY FUND § 29.8 Notification and advertisement. (a) As soon as the person in charge of a vessel...

  8. 7 CFR 400.204 - Notification of deviation from standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of deviation from standards. 400.204... Contract-Standards for Approval § 400.204 Notification of deviation from standards. A Contractor shall... that the deviation is temporary, the Corporation may grant a temporary waiver pending compliance...

  9. 34 CFR 5.61 - Notification of estimated fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification of estimated fees. 5.61 Section 5.61... PURSUANT TO PUB. L. 90-23 (Eff. until 7-14-10) Fees and Charges § 5.61 Notification of estimated fees. If the estimated fees under this section total more than $25, or more than the maximum amount...

  10. 12 CFR 745.13 - Notification to members/shareholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification to members/shareholders. 745.13 Section 745.13 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS... Notification to members/shareholders. Each insured credit union shall provide notice to its members...

  11. 47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107....107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant to No. 1492 of Article 13 and Section F of Appendix 3 to the international Radio Regulations (Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy...

  12. 21 CFR 7.50 - Public notification of recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public notification of recall. 7.50 Section 7.50... ENFORCEMENT POLICY Recalls (Including Product Corrections)-Guidance on Policy, Procedures, and Industry Responsibilities § 7.50 Public notification of recall. The Food and Drug Administration will promptly...

  13. Assessment of aircraft crash FR-equency for the Hanford site 200 Area tank farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two factors, the near-airport crash FR-equency and the non-airport crash FR-equency, enter into the estimate of the annual aircraft crash FR-equency at a facility. The near-airport activities, Le., takeoffs and landings FR-om any of the airports in a 23-statute-mile (smi) (20-nautical-mile, [nmi]) radius of the facilities, do not significantly contribute to the annual aircraft crash FR-equency for the 200 Area tank farms. However, using the methods of DOE-STD-3014-96, the total FR-equency of an aircraft crash for the 200 Area tank farms, all FR-om non-airport operations, is calculated to be 7.10E-6/yr. Thus, DOE-STD-3014-96 requires a consequence analysis for aircraft crash. This total FR-equency consists of contributions FR-om general aviation, helicopter activities, commercial air carriers and air taxis, and FR-om large and small military aircraft. The major contribution to this total is FR-om general aviation with a FR-equency of 6.77E-6/yr. All other types of aircraft have less than 1E-6/yr crash FR-equencies. The two individual aboveground facilities were in the realm of 1E-7/yr crash FR-equencies: 204-AR Waste Unloading Facility at 1.56E-7, and 242-T Evaporator at 8.62E-8. DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', states that external events, such as aircraft crashes, are referred to as design basis accidents (DBA) and analyzed as such: ''if FR-equency of occurrence is estimated to exceed 10-6/yr conservatively calculated'' DOE-STD-3014-96 considers its method for estimating aircraft crash FR-equency as being conservative. Therefore, DOE-STD-3009-94 requires DBA analysis of an aircraft crash into the 200 Area tank farms. DOE-STD-3009-94 also states that beyond-DBAs are not evaluated for external events. Thus, it requires only a DBA analysis of the effects of an aircraft crash into the 200 Area tank farms. There are two attributes of an aircraft crash into a Hanford waste

  14. Estimating costs of traffic crashes and crime: tools for informed decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streff, F M; Molnar, L J; Cohen, M A; Miller, T R; Rossman, S B

    1992-01-01

    Traffic crashes and crime both impose significant economic and social burdens through injury and loss of life, as well as property damage and loss. Efforts to reduce crashes and crime often result in competing demands on limited public resources. Comparable and up-to-date cost data on crashes and crime contribute to informed decisions about allocation of these resources in important ways. As a first step, cost data provide information about the magnitude of the problems of crashes and crime by allowing us to estimate associated dollar losses to society. More importantly, cost data on crashes and crime are essential to evaluating costs and benefits of various policy alternatives that compete for resources. This paper presents the first comparable comprehensive cost estimates for crashes and crime and applies them to crash and crime incidence data for Michigan to generate dollar losses for the state. An example illustrates how cost estimates can be used to evaluate costs and benefits of crash-reduction and crime-reduction policies in making resource allocation decisions. Traffic crash and selected index crime incidence data from the calendar year 1988 were obtained from the Michigan State Police. Costs for crashes and index crimes were generated and applied to incidence data to estimate dollar losses from crashes and index crimes for the state of Michigan. In 1988, index crimes in Michigan resulted in $0.8 billion in monetary costs and $2.4 billion in total monetary and nonmonetary quality-of-life costs (using the willingness-to-pay approach). Traffic crashes in Michigan resulted in $2.3 billion in monetary costs and $7.1 billion in total monetary and nonmonetary quality-of-life costs, nearly three times the costs of index crimes. Based on dollar losses to the state, the magnitude of the problem of traffic crashes clearly exceeded that of index crimes in Michigan in 1988. From a policy perspective, summing the total dollar losses from crashes or crime is of less

  15. 47 CFR 17.7 - Antenna structures requiring notification to the FAA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna structures requiring notification to..., MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Federal Aviation Administration Notification Criteria § 17.7 Antenna structures requiring notification to the FAA. A notification to the Federal...

  16. The Association between Regional Environmental Factors and Road Trauma Rates: A Geospatial Analysis of 10 Years of Road Traffic Crashes in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubacher, Jeffrey R.; Chan, Herbert; Erdelyi, Shannon; Schuurman, Nadine; Amram, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    Background British Columbia, Canada is a geographically large jurisdiction with varied environmental and socio-cultural contexts. This cross-sectional study examined variation in motor vehicle crash rates across 100 police patrols to investigate the association of crashes with key explanatory factors. Methods Eleven crash outcomes (total crashes, injury crashes, fatal crashes, speed related fatal crashes, total fatalities, single-vehicle night-time crashes, rear-end collisions, and collisions involving heavy vehicles, pedestrians, cyclists, or motorcyclists) were identified from police collision reports and insurance claims and mapped to police patrols. Six potential explanatory factors (intensity of traffic law enforcement, speed limits, climate, remoteness, socio-economic factors, and alcohol consumption) were also mapped to police patrols. We then studied the association between crashes and explanatory factors using negative binomial models with crash count per patrol as the response variable and explanatory factors as covariates. Results Between 2003 and 2012 there were 1,434,239 insurance claim collisions, 386,326 police reported crashes, and 3,404 fatal crashes. Across police patrols, there was marked variation in per capita crash rate and in potential explanatory factors. Several factors were associated with crash rates. Percent roads with speed limits ≤ 60 km/hr was positively associated with total crashes, injury crashes, rear end collisions, and collisions involving pedestrians, cyclists, and heavy vehicles; and negatively associated with single vehicle night-time crashes, fatal crashes, fatal speeding crashes, and total fatalities. Higher winter temperature was associated with lower rates of overall collisions, single vehicle night-time collisions, collisions involving heavy vehicles, and total fatalities. Lower socio-economic status was associated with higher rates of injury collisions, pedestrian collisions, fatal speeding collisions, and fatal

  17. Cyclist–motorist crash patterns in Denmark: A latent class clustering approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The current study aimed at uncovering patterns of cyclist–motorist crashes in Denmark and investigating their prevalence and severity. The importance of implementing clustering techniques for providing a holistic overview of vulnerable road users’ crash patterns derives from the need to...... prioritize safety issues and to devise efficient preventive measures. Method: The current study focused on cyclist–motorist crashes that occurred in Denmark during the period between 2007 and 2011. To uncover crash patterns, the current analysis applied latent class clustering, an unsupervised probabilistic...... clustering approach that relies on the statistical concept of likelihood and allows partial overlap across clusters. Results: The analysis yielded 13 distinguishable cyclist–motorist latent classes. Specific crash patterns for urban and rural areas were revealed. Prevalent features that allowed...

  18. Risk factors associated with crash severity on low-volume rural roads in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Rasmussen, Thomas Kjær; Kaplan, Sigal

    crashes were identified by map-matching the crash location to the geographic information system representing the national transport network and extracting the relevant crashes based on annual average traffic volumes. Injury severity was modeled by estimating a generalized ordered logit model due to its...... advantage in accommodating the ordered-response nature of severity while relaxing the proportional odds assumption. Model estimates and pseudo-elasticities show that aggravated crash injury severity is significantly associated with (i) alcohol and failure to wear seatbelts, (ii) involvement of vulnerable......Safety on low-volume rural roads is drawing attention due to the high fatality and severe injury rates in comparison with high-volume roads and the increasing awareness of sustainable rural development among policy makers. This study analyzes the risk factors associated with crash severity on low...

  19. Risk Factors Associated with Crash Severity on Low-Volume Rural Roads in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Rasmussen, Thomas Kjær; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    crashes were identified by map-matching the crash location to the geographic information system representing the national transport network and extracting the relevant crashes based on annual average traffic volumes. Injury severity was modeled by estimating a generalized ordered logit model due to its...... advantage in accommodating the ordered-response nature of severity while relaxing the proportional odds assumption. Model estimates and pseudoelasticities show that aggravated crash injury severity is significantly associated with (1) alcohol and failure to wear seatbelts, (2) involvement of vulnerable road......Safety on low-volume rural roads is drawing attention due to the high fatality and severe injury rates in comparison with high-volume roads and the increasing awareness of sustainable rural development among policy makers. This study analyzes the risk factors associated with crash severity on low...

  20. Evaluation of vehicle damage involved in road crashes based on quantificated model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Yan-hui; XU Hong-guo; JIANG Hua-ping

    2008-01-01

    Based on economics theory, social value loss caused by vehicle involved in crashes as well as various factors influencing on it were analyzed, the corresponding micro-econometrics model was theoretically given. Moreover, the practicability of the model,the veracity and rationality of quantification were analyzed. Based on probability theory and mathematical statistical theory, macro approach to evaluating vehicle damage in crashes was presented, and the corresponding macro-econometrics model was constructed. In addition, the macro-econometrics model was utilized to assess economic loss from statistical data of vehicle damaged in crashes, which has shown that the model can meet the demand of quantification analysis of vehicle damage, and be applied to the evaluation of economic loss caused by crashes. The results in this paper will be of practical significance for scientific, comprehensive and rational evaluating socio-economic loss caused by road crashes.

  1. Damage assessment of nuclear containment against aircraft crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Damage assessment of nuclear containment is studied against aircraft crash. • Four impact locations have been identified at the outer containment shell. • The mid of the total height has been found to be most vulnerable location. • The crown of dome has been found to be the strongest location. • Phantom F4 caused more localized and severe damage compared to other aircrafts. - Abstract: The behavior of nuclear containment structure has been studied against aircraft crash with an emphasis on the influence of strike location. The impact locations identified on the BWR Mark III type nuclear containment structure are mid-height, junction of dome and cylinder, crown of dome and arc of dome. The containment at each of the above locations has been impacted normally by Phantom F-4, Boeing 707-320 and Airbus A320 aircrafts. The loading of the aircraft has been assigned through the corresponding reaction-time response curve. ABAQUS/Explicit finite element code has been used to carry out the three-dimensional numerical simulations. The concrete damaged plasticity model was used to simulate the behavior of concrete while the behavior of steel reinforcement was incorporated using the Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic material model. The mid-height of containment has been found to experience most severe deformation against each aircraft. Phantom F4 has been found to be most disastrous at each location. The results have been compared with those of the available studies with respect to the containment deformation

  2. Numerical simulation of aircraft crash on nuclear containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The deformation was more localised at the center of cylindrical portion. ► The peak deflection at the junction of dome and cylinder was found to be 67 mm. ► The peak deflection at midpoint of the cylindrical portion was found to be 88.9 mm. ► The strain rate was found to be an important parameter to effect the deformation. ► The model without strain rate and 290 s−1 strain rate predicted very high deformations. - Abstract: Numerical simulations were carried with ABAQUS/Explicit finite element code in order to predict the response of BWR Mark III type nuclear containment against Boeing 707-320 aircraft crash. The load of the aircraft was applied using and force history curve. The damaged plasticity model was used to predict the behavior of concrete while the Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic material model was used to incorporate the behavior of steel reinforcement. The crash was considered to occur at two different locations i.e., the midpoint of the cylindrical portion and the junction of dome and cylinder. The midpoint of the cylindrical portion experienced more deformation. The strain rate in the material model was varied and found to have a significant effect on the response of containment. The results of the present investigation were compared with those of the studies available in literature and a close agreement with the previous results was found in terms of maximum target deformation.

  3. Crash simulation of UNS electric vehicle under frontal front impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, D. D.; Lukamana, N. I.; Budiana, E. P.; Tjahjana, D. D. D. P.

    2016-03-01

    Sebelas Maret University has been developing an Electric Vehicle namely SmarT-EV UNS. The main structure of the car are chasis and body. The chasis is made from steel and the body is made from fiberglass composite. To ensure the safety of the car, both static and dynamic tests were carried out to these structures, including their materials, like: tensile test, bending test, and impact test. Another test needed by this vehicle is crashworthiness test. To perform the test, it is needed complex equipments and it is quite expensive. Another way to obtain vehicle crashworthiness behaviour is by simulate it. The purpose of this study was to simulate the response of the Smart-EV UNS electric vehicle main structure when crashing rigid barrier from the front. The crash simulation was done in according to the NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) within the speed of the vehicle of 35 mph. The UNS Electric Vehicle was modelled using SolidWorks software, and the simulation process was done by finite element method using ANSYS software. The simulation result showed that the most internal impact energy was absorbed by chassis part. It absorbed 76.2% of impact energy, then the base absorbed 11.3 %, while the front body absorbed 2.5 %, and the rest was absorbed by fender, hood, and other parts.

  4. Spinal cord injuries from road traffic crashes in southeastern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad R Rasouli; Mohsen Nouri; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the data of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) induced by road traffic crashes in southeastern Iran for better understanding the pattern of these injuries and therefore for better designing health system planning.Methods: In this historical cohort study, the patients who had been transferred to Level I trauma center in southeastern Iran due to road traffic accidents with radiographic documented SCI were evaluated.Results: Among 64 patients with SCI, 38 patients (59.4%, 36 males and 2 females, aged 27.42 years ± 9.44 years on average) were injured by road traffic accidents.Car and motorcycle accidents were responsible for 26 cases (68.4%) and 12 cases (31.6%), respectively. And 31 patients (81. 6%) had complete SCI. Conus medularis (T12-L2) was the most affected level.Conclusions: Results are discussed in terms of preventive measures, specifically those concerning the use of restraint and helmet and driving behavior. This study should be extended nationally to gain a larger case series so that the SCI risk of particular vehicle configurations,considering other crash factors, can be more precisely quantified and the characteristics for low occurrence of SCI can be more precisely identified.

  5. Damage assessment of nuclear containment against aircraft crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Mohd Ashraf, E-mail: iqbal_ashraf@rediffmail.com; Sadique, Md. Rehan, E-mail: rehan.sadique@gmail.com; Bhargava, Pradeep, E-mail: bhpdpfce@iitr.ac.in; Bhandari, N.M., E-mail: nmbcefce@iitr.ac.in

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Damage assessment of nuclear containment is studied against aircraft crash. • Four impact locations have been identified at the outer containment shell. • The mid of the total height has been found to be most vulnerable location. • The crown of dome has been found to be the strongest location. • Phantom F4 caused more localized and severe damage compared to other aircrafts. - Abstract: The behavior of nuclear containment structure has been studied against aircraft crash with an emphasis on the influence of strike location. The impact locations identified on the BWR Mark III type nuclear containment structure are mid-height, junction of dome and cylinder, crown of dome and arc of dome. The containment at each of the above locations has been impacted normally by Phantom F-4, Boeing 707-320 and Airbus A320 aircrafts. The loading of the aircraft has been assigned through the corresponding reaction-time response curve. ABAQUS/Explicit finite element code has been used to carry out the three-dimensional numerical simulations. The concrete damaged plasticity model was used to simulate the behavior of concrete while the behavior of steel reinforcement was incorporated using the Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic material model. The mid-height of containment has been found to experience most severe deformation against each aircraft. Phantom F4 has been found to be most disastrous at each location. The results have been compared with those of the available studies with respect to the containment deformation.

  6. Self-harm and risk of motor vehicle crashes among young drivers : findings from the DRIVE Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martiniuk, Alexandra L. C.; Ivers, Rebecca Q.; Glozier, Nick; Patton, George C.; Lam, Lawrence T.; Boufous, Soufiane; Senserrick, Teresa; Williamson, Ann; Stevenson, Mark; Norton, Robyn

    2009-01-01

    Background: Some motor vehicle crashes, particularly single-vehicle crashes, may result from intentional self-harm. We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess the risk that intentional self-harm poses for motor vehicle crashes among young drivers. Methods: We prospectively linked survey data

  7. Modeling the effect of operator and passenger characteristics on the fatality risk of motorcycle crashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tavakoli Kashani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND:In Iran more than 25% of crash fatalities belong to motorcycle operators and passengers in the recent years, from which about 20% are related to passenger fatalities. METHODS: The aim of this study was to investigate the motorcycle operator and passenger characteristics as well as other contributory factors that may affect the fatality risk of motorcyclists involved in traffic crashes. To this end, motorcycle crash data between 2009 and 2012 was extracted from Iran traffic crash database and a logistic regression analysis was performed to obtain odds ratio estimates for each of the study variables. RESULTS: The fatality risk of motorcyclists has a direct relationship with the number of pillion passengers carried. Results also indicate that the amount of increase in the likelihood of having a fatality in a motorcycles crash is considerably higher when the operator is accompanied by a male passenger of the same age. Furthermore, results showed that if the crash is occurred in the darkness, on curves, in rural areas and on highways, then the crash would be more likely to be fatal. Moreover, the head-on collisions, older operators, unlicensed operators and not using a safety helmet were found to increase the likelihood of a fatality in a motorcycle crash. CONCLUSIONS: Preventative measures such as, imposing stricter rules regarding safety helmet usage and confining the number of pillion passengers to one, might be implemented to reduce the fatality risk in motorcycle crashes. In addition, more appropriate infrastructures for penalizing offending motorcyclists could also reduce the frequency of law violations such as not wearing helmet or riding without motorcycle license, which in turn, would result into a reduction in the fatality risk of motorcycle crashes

  8. Notification prescribing the quantities of radioisotopes and others

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The notification is wholly revised under the order and the regulations for enforcing the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes. The concentration of isotopes emitting radiation shall be 0.002 micro-curie per gram. When not tightly sealed, the quantity of such isotopes shall be 0.1 micro-curie for strontium 90 and isotopes emitting alpha rays, 1 micro-curie for isotopes emitting radiation with half-life of more than 30 days, 10 micro-curie for isotopes emitting radiation with half-life of less than 30 days and 100 micro-curie for Hydrogen 3, Beryllium 7, Carbon 14, Fluorine 18, etc. The quantity of isotopes shall be more than 10 curie for those with automatic indicators and more than 3,000 curie for those interlocked. In the controlled area the permissible dose of exterior radiation is 30 mili-rem for a week. The maximum permissible exposure dose for the workers engaged in radiation business is 3 rem for 3 months. The maximum permissible accumulative dose for such workers is a figure (unit rem) calculated by a formula D = 5(N-18), when D means the permissible accumulative dose and N number of the age. The permissible exposure dose is 12 rem for the urgent work and 1.5 rem for a year for the persons who enter into the controlled area on business. The maximum permissible density in the air, under water and on the surface, etc. are in detail prescribed with tables attached. (Okada, K.)

  9. Reactive donor notification: First error reported

    OpenAIRE

    Urvershi Kotwal; Veena Doda; Satyam Arora; Meena Joshi

    2014-01-01

    Donor notification and post-donation counseling is an essential role of blood bank. If a donor is reactive for any marker, the blood bank counselor, informs the donor and advices him/her to report to the blood bank for further counseling and management. The counselor at our blood bank informed a young female voluntary donor to be reactive for HIV both with ELISA as well as NAT. When the donor reported to blood bank, the repeat testing was negative and no history of high risk behavior could be...

  10. Improving TCP Performance over Wireless Links Using Link-Layer Retransmission and Explicit Loss Notification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In order to support the mobility of computers during communication, the transport control protocol (TCP) con-nections between fixed host and mobile host often traverse wired and wireless networks, and the recovery of the losses dueto wireless transmission error is much different from congestion control. This paper analyzes the interaction between TCPand link layer retransmission scheme when the correlated packet are losses handled, indicates that a higher value of themaximum number of successive link layer timeout retransmissions has an adverse effect on TCP ability to perform conges-tion control rapidly. To achieve a better TCP performance, the paper proposes a strategy combining link-layer selective-re-ject automatic repeat request (ARQ) with explicit loss notification mechanism, which can respond to congestion quicklywhile keeping wireless link more reliable, and make TCP react to the different packet losses more suitably.

  11. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator February 19, 2009 Halifax Health Medical Center, Daytona Beach, FL Welcome to Halifax Health Daytona Beach, Florida. Over the next hour you' ...

  12. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  13. Severity of road crashes involving pedestrians in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzosa, Nina; Miles, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    Pedestrians are considered as one of the most vulnerable road users in less developed countries (LDCs). Yet, pedestrian safety remains poorly addressed in both urban and rural transportation plans in most LDCs. Since most pedestrian injury severity studies are conducted in developed countries, this study fills the gap with an inquiry focused on a highly urbanized region of an LDC that faces a rapid increase in car ownership and increasing pedestrian-related traffic injuries, documenting specific pedestrian safety issues and providing guidance for injury prevention measures in such places. Using the Metro Manila Accident Reporting and Analysis System (MMARAS) data from 2008 to 2011, this study combines binomial logistic regression and street level analysis that further explores the statistical results and examines other factors that contribute to collisions and increase the potential for serious injury or death in three cities in Metro Manila: Makati, Manila, and Quezon. The results of the binomial regression analysis show that traffic crashes that involve heavy and multiple vehicles, and an elderly pedestrian (60 years old and above), as well as those that occurred during the evening (7 pm to midnight) and late at night (1 am to 5 am) have significantly higher odds of resulting in a fatal outcome; when the crash involves a female pedestrian and when the road surface is wet the odds of a fatal outcome are lower. Moreover, by closely examining the environment of these roadways, the study finds that most pedestrian fatalities occur on high-speed, high-traffic-volume, multilane roadways, that are surrounded by land uses that generate a particularly problematic mix of heavy vehicular and pedestrian traffic. The street level analysis also finds that fatal pedestrian crashes occur close to different types of transit stations. The results of this study of three cities in Metro Manila, reflect the twofold challenge to pedestrian safety in rapidly urbanizing areas in

  14. Anger, Cognition, Ideology: What Crash Can Show Us About Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue J. Kim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract (E: Sue J. Kim’s essay “Anger, Cognition, Ideology: What Crash Can Show Us About Emotion” argues for the relevance and importance of cognitive studies to ethnic and postcolonial literary studies, and vice versa. After surveying recent developments in the field of cognitive studies, the essay combines cultural and cognitive approaches in order to examine anger in and around the 2005 Paul Haggis film Crash.

     

    Abstract (F: Dans cet article, l’auteur fait un plaidoyer pour l’application des études cognitives aux études ethniques et postcoloniales et inversement. L’essai présente d’abord un survol des récents développements dans le domaine des études cognitives, puis combine les approches culturelles et cognitives dans une lecture détaillée du thème de la colère dans le film Crash de Paul Haggis (2005.

     

  15. Automatic Arabic Text Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Al-harbi, S; Almuhareb, A.; Al-Thubaity , A; Khorsheed, M. S.; Al-Rajeh, A.

    2008-01-01

    Automated document classification is an important text mining task especially with the rapid growth of the number of online documents present in Arabic language. Text classification aims to automatically assign the text to a predefined category based on linguistic features. Such a process has different useful applications including, but not restricted to, e-mail spam detection, web page content filtering, and automatic message routing. This paper presents the results of experiments on documen...

  16. Case-control analysis in highway safety: Accounting for sites with multiple crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Frank

    2013-12-01

    There is an increased interest in the use of epidemiological methods in highway safety analysis. The case-control and cohort methods are commonly used in the epidemiological field to identify risk factors and quantify the risk or odds of disease given certain characteristics and factors related to an individual. This same concept can be applied to highway safety where the entity of interest is a roadway segment or intersection (rather than a person) and the risk factors of interest are the operational and geometric characteristics of a given roadway. One criticism of the use of these methods in highway safety is that they have not accounted for the difference between sites with single and multiple crashes. In the medical field, a disease either occurs or it does not; multiple occurrences are generally not an issue. In the highway safety field, it is necessary to evaluate the safety of a given site while accounting for multiple crashes. Otherwise, the analysis may underestimate the safety effects of a given factor. This paper explores the use of the case-control method in highway safety and two variations to account for sites with multiple crashes. Specifically, the paper presents two alternative methods for defining cases in a case-control study and compares the results in a case study. The first alternative defines a separate case for each crash in a given study period, thereby increasing the weight of the associated roadway characteristics in the analysis. The second alternative defines entire crash categories as cases (sites with one crash, sites with two crashes, etc.) and analyzes each group separately in comparison to sites with no crashes. The results are also compared to a "typical" case-control application, where the cases are simply defined as any entity that experiences at least one crash and controls are those entities without a crash in a given period. In a "typical" case-control design, the attributes associated with single-crash segments are weighted

  17. Utilizing the eigenvectors of freeway loop data spatiotemporal schematic for real time crash prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shou'en; Xie, Wenjing; Wang, Junhua; Ragland, David R

    2016-09-01

    The concept of crash precursor identification is gaining more practicality due to the recent advancements in Advanced Transportation Management and Information Systems. Investigating the shortcomings of the existing models, this paper proposes a new method to model the real time crash likelihood based on loop data through schematic eigenvectors. Firstly, traffic volume, occupancy and density spatiotemporal schematics in certain duration before an accident occurrence were constructed to describe the traffic flow status. Secondly, eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the spatiotemporal schematics were extracted to represent traffic volume, occupancy and density situation before the crash occurrence. Thirdly, by setting the vectors in crash time as case and those at crash free time as control, a logistic model is constructed to identify the crash precursors. Results show that both the eigenvectors and eigenvalues can significantly impact the accident likelihood compared to the previous study, the proposed model has the advantage of avoiding multicollinearity, better reflection of the overall traffic flow status before the crash, and improving missing data problem of loop detectors. PMID:27258946

  18. Case series analysis of hindfoot injuries sustained by drivers in frontal motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Funk, James; Forbes, Aaron; Hurwitz, Shepard; Shaw, Greg; Crandall, Jeff; Freeth, Rob; Michetti, Chris; Rudd, Rodney; Scarboro, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Improvements to vehicle frontal crashworthiness have led to reductions in toe pan and instrument panel intrusions as well as leg, foot, and ankle loadings in standardized crash tests. Current field data, however, suggests the proportion of foot and ankle injuries sustained by drivers in frontal crashes has not decreased over the past two decades. To explain the inconsistency between crash tests results and real world lower limb injury prevalence, this study investigated the injury causation scenario for the specific hind-foot injury patterns observed in frontal vehicle crashes. Thirty-four cases with leg, foot, and ankle injuries were selected from the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database. Talus fractures were present in 20 cases, representing the most frequent hind-foot skeletal injuries observed among the reviewed cases. While axial compression was the predominant loading mechanism causing 18 injuries, 11 injured ankles involved inversion or eversion motion, and 5 involved dorsiflexion as the injury mechanism. Injured ankles of drivers were more biased towards the right aspect with foot pedals contributing to injuries in 13 of the 34 cases. Combined, the results suggest that despite recent advancement of vehicle performance in crash tests, efforts to reduce axial forces sustained in lower extremity should be prioritized. The analysis of injury mechanisms in this study could aid in crash reconstructions and the development of safety systems for vehicles. PMID:26183693

  19. Prioritizing Highway Safety Manual's crash prediction variables using boosted regression trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dibakar; Alluri, Priyanka; Gan, Albert

    2015-06-01

    The Highway Safety Manual (HSM) recommends using the empirical Bayes (EB) method with locally derived calibration factors to predict an agency's safety performance. However, the data needs for deriving these local calibration factors are significant, requiring very detailed roadway characteristics information. Many of the data variables identified in the HSM are currently unavailable in the states' databases. Moreover, the process of collecting and maintaining all the HSM data variables is cost-prohibitive. Prioritization of the variables based on their impact on crash predictions would, therefore, help to identify influential variables for which data could be collected and maintained for continued updates. This study aims to determine the impact of each independent variable identified in the HSM on crash predictions. A relatively recent data mining approach called boosted regression trees (BRT) is used to investigate the association between the variables and crash predictions. The BRT method can effectively handle different types of predictor variables, identify very complex and non-linear association among variables, and compute variable importance. Five years of crash data from 2008 to 2012 on two urban and suburban facility types, two-lane undivided arterials and four-lane divided arterials, were analyzed for estimating the influence of variables on crash predictions. Variables were found to exhibit non-linear and sometimes complex relationship to predicted crash counts. In addition, only a few variables were found to explain most of the variation in the crash data. PMID:25823903

  20. Injury risk for rear-seated occupants in small overlap crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Locey, Caitlin M; Hammond, Rachel; Belwadi, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    Small overlap crashes, where the primary crash engagement is outboard from the longitudinal energy absorbing structures of the vehicle, have received recent interest as a crash dynamic that results in high likelihood of injury. Previous analyses of good performing vehicles showed that 24% of crashes with AIS 3+ injuries to front seat occupants were small overlap crashes. However, similar evaluations have not been conducted for those rear seated. Vehicle dynamics suggest that rear seat occupants may be at greater risk due to lack of lateral seating support and a steering wheel to hold, making them more sensitive to lateral movement seen in these crashes. Thus, the objective was to calculate injury risk for rear-seated occupants in small overlap collisions. AIS 2+ and AIS 3+ injury risk was calculated from NASS-CDS data from 2000-2011. Inclusion criteria were vehicles of model year 2000 or later, with CDC codes of "FL" or "FR", and an occupant in the second or third row. AIS2+ injury risk was 5.1%, and AIS3+ injury risk was 2.4%. Of note, half of the occupants were Occupants seated near side were nearly three times as likely to sustain an AIS2+ injury than occupants seated far side. Particular attention should be paid to the prominence of head injuries in this crash dynamic and consideration given to their mitigation. Additional research should determine whether countermeasures being implemented for front seat occupants can be beneficial to rear seat occupants. PMID:24406964

  1. Risk factors for severe injury in cyclists involved in traffic crashes in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufous, Soufiane; de Rome, Liz; Senserrick, Teresa; Ivers, Rebecca

    2012-11-01

    This study examines the impact of cyclist, road and crash characteristics on the injury severity of cyclists involved in traffic crashes reported to the police in Victoria, Australia between 2004 and 2008. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify predictors of severe injury (serious injury and fatality) in cyclist crashes reported to the police. There were 6432 cyclist crashes reported to the police in Victoria between 2004 and 2008 with 2181 (33.9%) resulting in severe injury of the cyclist involved. The multivariate analysis found that factors that increase the risk of severe injury in cyclists involved in traffic crashes were age (50 years and older), not wearing a helmet, riding in the dark on unlit roads, riding on roads zoned 70 km/h or above, on curved sections of the road, in rural locations and being involved in head-on collisions as well as off path crashes, which include losing control of vehicle, and on path crashes which include striking the door of a parked vehicle. While this study did not test effectiveness of preventative measures, policy makers should consider implementation of programs that address these risk factors including helmet programs and environmental modifications such as speed reduction on roads that are frequented by cyclists. PMID:23036419

  2. A Perspective into Regulatory Requirements for Intentional Aircraft Crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Yun; Park, Jong Seuk; Chung, Yun Suk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Inn Seock [ISSA Technology, Maryland (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eong Soo; Kim, Jong Hyun [ACT Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    In the aftermath of the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the United States, there was heightened interest worldwide in protecting nuclear power plants against intentional aircraft attack by terrorists. This paper presents our perspective into regulatory requirements for intentional aircraft crash that were set forth in foreign countries, including the latest rulemaking by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), i.e., 10 CFR 50.54(hh) and 10 CFR 50.150 that have been made effective in May and July of 2009, respectively. In light of these international efforts to further enhance safety of NPPs, a study is also underway at the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) to establish an effective and efficient regulatory approach in consideration of the state of the art in this area

  3. A Perspective into Regulatory Requirements for Intentional Aircraft Crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the aftermath of the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the United States, there was heightened interest worldwide in protecting nuclear power plants against intentional aircraft attack by terrorists. This paper presents our perspective into regulatory requirements for intentional aircraft crash that were set forth in foreign countries, including the latest rulemaking by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), i.e., 10 CFR 50.54(hh) and 10 CFR 50.150 that have been made effective in May and July of 2009, respectively. In light of these international efforts to further enhance safety of NPPs, a study is also underway at the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) to establish an effective and efficient regulatory approach in consideration of the state of the art in this area

  4. Secondary fast reconnecting instability in the sawtooth crash

    CERN Document Server

    Del Sarto, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    In this work we consider magnetic reconnection in thin current sheets with both resistive and electron inertia effects. When the current sheet is produced by a primary instability of the internal kink type, the analysis of secondary instabilities indicates that reconnection proceeds on a time scale much shorter than the primary instability characteristic time. In the case of a sawtooth crash, non-collisional physics becomes important above a value of the Lundquist number which scales like S ~ (R/d_e)^{12/5}, in terms of the tokamak major radius R and of the electron skin depth d_e. This value is commonly achieved in present day devices. As collisionality is further reduced, the characteristic rate increases, approaching Alfv\\'enic values when the primary instability approaches the collisionless regime.

  5. Crash test for the Copenhagen problem with oblateness

    CERN Document Server

    Zotos, Euaggelos E

    2015-01-01

    The case of the planar circular restricted three-body problem where one of the two primaries is an oblate spheroid is investigated. We conduct a thorough numerical analysis on the phase space mixing by classifying initial conditions of orbits and distinguishing between three types of motion: (i) bounded, (ii) escape and (iii) collisional. The presented outcomes reveal the high complexity of this dynamical system. Furthermore, our numerical analysis shows a strong dependence of the properties of the considered escape basins with the total orbital energy, with a remarkable presence of fractal basin boundaries along all the escape regimes. Interpreting the collisional motion as leaking in the phase space we related our results to both chaotic scattering and the theory of leaking Hamiltonian systems. We also determined the escape and collisional basins and computed the corresponding escape/crash times. The highly fractal basin boundaries observed are related with high sensitivity to initial conditions thus implyi...

  6. Bubble, critical zone and the crash of Royal Ahold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekstra, Gerrit; Sornette, Didier; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2005-02-01

    We find that the seed of the 2002/03 crisis of the Dutch supermarket giant AHOLD was planted in 1996. We have adapted Weidlich's theory of opinion formation to describe the formation of buy or sell decisions among investors, based on a competition between the mechanisms of herding and of personal opinion opposing the herd. Using our identification of a “critical zone” starting in mid-1997 describing the maturation of a systemic instability forewarning of an inevitable crash fueled by raising expectations of investors to maintain strong herding pressures, our study opens the possibility of developing early warning signals but also suggests to top management ways of dealing with the coming crisis.

  7. Aircraft crash analysis of the proposed sizewell B containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper attempts to examine the behaviour of the proposed sizewell B containment vessel under the impact of a multi-role combat aircraft such as a Tornado and Phantom RF-4E. A 600 section of the containment vessel is analysed using three dimensional 20 noded isoparametric finite elements adopted in Program CRASH. The impact area under consideration is 28 m2 which is evaluated from the data obtained from these two aircraft. The vessel is assumed to have unbonded tendons both in the dome and in the barrel wall. The influence of the liner is included in evaluating resistance to the impact. A three-dimensional time dependent impact analysis is carried out which incorporates, direct integration concept. The final results obtained include displacements, velocities, accelerations; concrete scabbing, perforation and general cracking. The final damage is shown in a specially prepared post-mortem diagram. The paper has an appendix summarising the constitutive equations for the proposed numerical model. (orig.)

  8. Prescription medicines and the risk of road traffic crashes: a French registry-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludivine Orriols

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent decades, increased attention has been focused on the impact of disabilities and medicinal drug use on road safety. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between prescription medicines and the risk of road traffic crashes, and estimate the attributable fraction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We extracted and matched data from three French nationwide databases: the national health care insurance database, police reports, and the national police database of injurious crashes. Drivers identified by their national health care number involved in an injurious crash in France, between July 2005 and May 2008, were included in the study. Medicines were grouped according to the four risk levels of the French classification system (from 0 [no risk] to 3 [high risk]. We included 72,685 drivers involved in injurious crashes. Users of level 2 (odds ratio [OR]  = 1.31 [1.24-1.40] and level 3 (OR  = 1.25 [1.12-1.40] prescription medicines were at higher risk of being responsible for a crash. The association remained after adjustment for the presence of a long-term chronic disease. The fraction of road traffic crashes attributable to levels 2 and 3 medications was 3.3% [2.7%-3.9%]. A within-person case-crossover analysis showed that drivers were more likely to be exposed to level 3 medications on the crash day than on a control day, 30 days earlier (OR  = 1.15 [1.05-1.27]. CONCLUSION: The use of prescription medicines is associated with a substantial number of road traffic crashes in France. In light of the results, warning messages appear to be relevant for level 2 and 3 medications and questionable for level 1 medications. A follow-up study is needed to evaluate the impact of the warning labeling system on road traffic crash prevention.

  9. Understanding crash mechanism on urban expressways using high-resolution traffic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Moinul; Muromachi, Yasunori

    2013-08-01

    Urban expressways play a vital role in the modern mega cities by serving peak hour traffic alongside reducing travel time for moderate to long distance intra-city trips. Thus, ensuring safety on these roads holds high priority. Little knowledge has been acquired till date regarding crash mechanism on these roads. This study uses high-resolution traffic data collected from the detectors to identify factors influencing crash. It also identifies traffic patterns associated with different types of crashes and explains crash phenomena thereby. Unlike most of the previous studies on conventional expressways, the research separately investigates the basic freeway segments (BFS) and the ramp areas. The study employs random multinomial logit, a random forest of logit models, to rank the variables; expectation maximization clustering algorithm to identify crash prone traffic patterns and classification and regression trees to explain crash phenomena. As accentuated by the study outcome, crash mechanism is not generic throughout the expressway and it varies from the BFS to the ramp vicinities. The level of congestion and speed difference between upstream and downstream traffic best explains crashes and their types for the BFS, whereas, the ramp flow has the highest influence in determining the types of crashes within the ramp vicinities. The paper also discusses about the applicability of different countermeasures, such as, variable speed limits, temporary restriction on lane changing, posting warnings, etc., to attenuate different patterns of hazardous traffic conditions. The study outcome can be utilized in designing location and traffic condition specific proactive road safety management systems for urban expressways. PMID:23628939

  10. Hotspots and social background of urban traffic crashes: A case study in Cluj-Napoca (Romania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, József; Ciobanu, Silviu Marian; Man, Titus Cristian

    2016-02-01

    Mobility practices have changed dramatically in Romanian towns over the last 25 years, following the collapse of socialist mobility restrictions. Urban areas like Cluj-Napoca are facing both increasing immigration and car mobility, and therefore increasing levels of road traffic crashes. The analysis of traffic crashes is one of the most important elements for improving the road safety policy. This paper is divided in two parts. In the first one, the authors focus on identifying the traffic crash hotspots along the street network, while in the second part they discuss the social background of road traffic crash occurrence. The first step in analyzing traffic crashes is to determine crash hotspots. A four-year record (2010-2013) provided by the Traffic Department of the General Inspectorate of Romanian Police (GIRPTD) was used. As a method of hotspot determination, the Kernel Density Estimation tool was employed, in the frame of the spatial analysis along network (SANET). The outcome was the hotspot map of traffic crashes in Cluj-Napoca. The results have revealed 4 categories of street segments: not-dangerous, low-dangerous, medium-dangerous and high-dangerous. Based on this classification, at least 4 dangerous areas were identified, located at the city entrances-exits (in the West, North-West and East) and the city center (the most dangerous zone). The second part of the paper focuses on social groups involved in car crashes. The following are considered: age, gender and blood alcohol concentration of the person (driver or pedestrian) found guilty for every individual crash. PMID:26680130

  11. Analysis of factors associated with injury severity in crashes involving young New Zealand drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Harold B; Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo G

    2014-04-01

    Young people are a risk to themselves and other road users, as motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of their death. A thorough understanding of the most important factors associated with injury severity in crashes involving young drivers is important for designing well-targeted restrictive measures within youth-oriented road safety programs. The current study estimates discrete choice models of injury severity of crashes involving young drivers conditional on these crashes having occurred. The analysis examined a comprehensive set of single-vehicle and two-vehicle crashes involving at least one 15-24 year-old driver in New Zealand between 2002 and 2011 that resulted in minor, serious or fatal injuries. A mixed logit model accounting for heterogeneity and heteroscedasticity in the propensity to injury severity outcomes and for correlation between serious and fatal injuries proved a better fit than a binary and a generalized ordered logit. Results show that the young drivers' behavior, the presence of passengers and the involvement of vulnerable road users were the most relevant factors associated with higher injury severity in both single-vehicle and two-vehicle crashes. Seatbelt non-use, inexperience and alcohol use were the deadliest behavioral factors in single-vehicle crashes, while fatigue, reckless driving and seatbelt non-use were the deadliest factors in two-vehicle crashes. The presence of passengers in the young drivers' vehicle, and in particular a combination of males and females, dramatically increased the probability of serious and fatal injuries. The involvement of vulnerable road users, in particular on rural highways and open roads, considerably amplified the probability of higher crash injury severity. PMID:24456849

  12. Safety impacts of SUVs, vans, and pickup trucks in two-vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Edmond L; Hammitt, James K

    2003-08-01

    Policy makers, vehicle manufacturers, and consumers have shown growing concern about the relative safety of sport utility vehicles (SUVs), vans, pickups, and cars. Empirical analysis of real-world crashes is complicated by the possibility that apparent relationships between vehicle type and safety may be confounded by other factors, such as driver behavior and crash circumstances. This study compares different vehicle types with respect to their crashworthiness (self-protection) and aggressivity (risk to others) in crashes between two passenger vehicles. The U.S. Crashworthiness Data System is used to analyze detailed information on 6,481 drivers involved in crashes during 1993-1999. Logistic regression analysis is used to model the risk of serious injury or death to a driver, conditional on a crash occurring. Covariates include the body type of each vehicle in the crash; the driver's age, gender, and restraint use; and the configuration of the crash. A unique feature of this study is the use of "delta-v" to represent the joint effects of vehicle mass and crash severity. While estimated effects are somewhat sensitive to the injury severity level used as the outcome variable, SUVs, vans, and pickups appear to be more aggressive and may be more crashworthy than cars. Effects of pickups are most pronounced. Drivers in pickups face less risk of serious injury than car drivers (odds ratio [OR], 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20-0.60), and drivers who collide with pickups experience more than twice the risk than those who collide with a car (OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.03-4.62). While vehicle mass and crash severity contribute to the apparent crashworthiness and aggressivity of passenger vehicles, other vehicle characteristics associated with body type (e.g., the stiffness and height of the underlying structure of the vehicle) also influence safety risks. PMID:12926558

  13. Requirements of a system to reduce car-to-vulnerable road user crashes in urban intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibovic, Azra; Davidsson, Johan

    2011-07-01

    Intersection crashes between cars and vulnerable road users (VRUs), such as pedestrians and bicyclists, often result in injuries and fatalities. Advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs) can prevent, or mitigate, these crashes. To derive functional requirements for such systems, an understanding of the underlying contributing factors and the context in which the crashes occur is essential. The aim of this study is to use microscopic and macroscopic crash data to explore the potential of information and warning providing ADASs, and then to derive functional sensor, collision detection, and human-machine interface (HMI) requirements. The microscopic data were obtained from the European project SafetyNet. Causation charts describing contributing factors for 60 car-to-VRU crashes had been compiled and were then also aggregated using the SafetyNet Accident Causation System (SNACS). The macroscopic data were obtained from the Swedish national crash database, STRADA. A total of 9702 crashes were analyzed. The results show that the most frequent contributing factor to the crashes was the drivers' failure to observe VRUs due to reduced visibility, reduced awareness, and/or insufficient comprehension. An ADAS should therefore help drivers to observe the VRUs in time and to enhance their ability to interpret the development of events in the near future. The system should include a combination of imminent and cautionary collision warnings, with additional support in the form of information about intersection geometry and traffic regulations. The warnings should be deployed via an in-vehicle HMI and according to the likelihood of crash risk. The system should be able to operate under a variety of weather and light conditions. It should have the capacity to support drivers when their view is obstructed by physical objects. To address problems that vehicle-based sensors may face in this regard, the use of cooperative systems is recommended. PMID:21545892

  14. Hot-Air Balloon Tours: Crash Epidemiology in the United States, 2000-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Sarah-Blythe; Beaty, Leland P.; Baker, Susan P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hot-air balloon tours are FAR Part 91-governed balloon rides conducted for compensation or hire. Part 91, General Aviation, in general involves the least strict federal regulations and accounts for the majority of aviation crashes and fatalities. Methods National Transportation Safety Board reports of hot-air balloon tour crashes in the United States from 2000 through 2011 were read and analyzed. Results During the 12-yr period, 78 hot-air balloon tours crashed, involving 518 occupants. There were 91 serious injuries and 5 fatalities; 83% of crashes resulted in one or more serious or fatal outcomes. Of the serious injuries characterized, 56% were lower extremity fractures. Most crashes (81%) occurred during landing; 65% involved hard landings. Fixed object collisions contributed to 50% of serious injuries and all 5 fatalities. During landing sequences, gondola dragging, tipping, bouncing, and occupant ejection were associated with poor outcomes. Of the crashes resulting in serious or fatal outcomes, 20% of balloons were significantly damaged or destroyed. Discussion The incidence of morbidity and mortality is high among hot-air balloon tour crashes, and the proportion of balloon crashes attributed to paid rides appears to have increased over time. In addition to examining the role of restraint systems, personal protective equipment, and power line emergency procedures in ballooning, injury prevention efforts should target factors such hard landings, object strikes, gondola instability, and occupant ejections, which are associated with balloon injuries and deaths. Crash outcomes may also improve with vehicle engineering that enables balloons themselves to absorb impact forces. PMID:24279231

  15. Assessment of methodologies for analysis of the dungeness B accidental aircraft crash risk.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2010-09-01

    The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has requested Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to review the aircraft crash methodology for nuclear facilities that are being used in the United Kingdom (UK). The scope of the work included a review of one method utilized in the UK for assessing the potential for accidental airplane crashes into nuclear facilities (Task 1) and a comparison of the UK methodology against similar International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) methods (Task 2). Based on the conclusions from Tasks 1 and 2, an additional Task 3 would provide an assessment of a site-specific crash frequency for the Dungeness B facility using one of the other methodologies. This report documents the results of Task 2. The comparison of the different methods was performed for the three primary contributors to aircraft crash risk at the Dungeness B site: airfield related crashes, crashes below airways, and background crashes. The methods and data specified in each methodology were compared for each of these risk contributors, differences in the methodologies were identified, and the importance of these differences was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. The bases for each of the methods and the data used were considered in this assessment process. A comparison of the treatment of the consequences of the aircraft crashes was not included in this assessment because the frequency of crashes into critical structures is currently low based on the existing Dungeness B assessment. Although the comparison found substantial differences between the UK and the three alternative methodologies (IAEA, NRC, and DOE) this assessment concludes that use of any of these alternative methodologies would not change the conclusions reached for the Dungeness B site. Performance of Task 3 is thus not recommended.

  16. Fatal motorcycle crashes: a serious public health problem in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrasco Carlos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The numbers of two-wheel vehicles are growing across the world. In comparison to other vehicles, motorcycles are cheaper and thus represent a significant part of the automobile market. Both the mobility and speed are attractive factors to those who want to use them for work or leisure. Crashes involving motorcyclists have become an important issue, especially fatal ones. Specific severe injuries are responsible for the deaths. Defining them is necessary in order to offer better prevention and a more suitable medical approach. Methods All fatal motorcycle crashes between January 2001 and December 2009 in Campinas, Brazil, were analyzed in this study. Official data have been collected from police incident reports, hospitals’ registers and autopsies. Both incidents and casualties were analyzed according to relevant variables. The Injury Severity Score (ISS was calculated, describing the most potentially fatal injuries. Results There were 479 deaths; 90.8% were male; the mean age was 27.8 (range 0-73; 86.4% were conductors of the vehicles; blood alcohol was positive in 42.3%; 49.7% died at a hospital; 32.6% died at the scene; 26.1% of the accidents occurred at night, 69.1% were urban and 30.9% occurred on highways. The main causes of injury were collisions (63% and falls (14%. The mean ISS was 38.5 (range 9-75. With regard to injuries, head trauma (67% and thoracic trauma (40% were the most common, followed by abdominal trauma (35%. Traumatic brain injury (67% and hypovolemic shock (38% were the most frequent causes of death. Conclusions Alcohol was a significant factor in relation to the accidents. Head trauma was the most frequent and severe injury. Half of the victims died before receiving adequate medical attention, suggesting that prevention programs and laws should be implemented and applied in order to save future lives.

  17. Nuclear containment structure subjected to commercial and fighter aircraft crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Nuclear containment response has been studied against aircraft crash. • Concrete damaged plasticity and Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic models were employed. • Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 767-400 aircrafts caused global failure of containment. • Airbus A320 and Boeing 707-320 aircrafts caused local damage. • Tension damage of concrete was found more prominent compared to compression damage. -- Abstract: The response of a boiling water reactor (BWR) nuclear containment vessel has been studied against commercial and fighter aircraft crash using a nonlinear finite element code ABAQUS. The aircrafts employed were Boeing 747-400, Boeing 767-400, Airbus A-320, Boeing 707-320 and Phantom F4. The containment was modeled as a three-dimensional deformable reinforced concrete structure while the loading of aircraft was assigned using the respective reaction–time curve. The location of strike was considered near the junction of dome and cylinder, and the angle of incidence, normal to the containment surface. The material behavior of the concrete was incorporated using the damaged plasticity model while that of the reinforcement, the Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic model. The containment could not sustain the impact of Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 767-400 aircrafts and suffered rupture of concrete around the impact region leading to global failure. On the other hand, the maximum local deformation at the point of impact was found to be 0.998 m, 0.099 m, 0.092 m, 0.089 m, and 0.074 m against Boeing 747-400, Phantom F4, Boeing 767, Boeing 707-320 and Airbus A-320 aircrafts respectively. The results of the present study were compared with those of the previous analytical and numerical investigations with respect to the maximum deformation and overall behavior of the containment

  18. Nuclear containment structure subjected to commercial and fighter aircraft crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadique, M.R., E-mail: rehan.sadique@gmail.com; Iqbal, M.A., E-mail: iqbalfce@iitr.ernet.in; Bhargava, P., E-mail: bhpdpfce@iitr.ernet.in

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Nuclear containment response has been studied against aircraft crash. • Concrete damaged plasticity and Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic models were employed. • Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 767-400 aircrafts caused global failure of containment. • Airbus A320 and Boeing 707-320 aircrafts caused local damage. • Tension damage of concrete was found more prominent compared to compression damage. -- Abstract: The response of a boiling water reactor (BWR) nuclear containment vessel has been studied against commercial and fighter aircraft crash using a nonlinear finite element code ABAQUS. The aircrafts employed were Boeing 747-400, Boeing 767-400, Airbus A-320, Boeing 707-320 and Phantom F4. The containment was modeled as a three-dimensional deformable reinforced concrete structure while the loading of aircraft was assigned using the respective reaction–time curve. The location of strike was considered near the junction of dome and cylinder, and the angle of incidence, normal to the containment surface. The material behavior of the concrete was incorporated using the damaged plasticity model while that of the reinforcement, the Johnson–Cook elasto-viscoplastic model. The containment could not sustain the impact of Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 767-400 aircrafts and suffered rupture of concrete around the impact region leading to global failure. On the other hand, the maximum local deformation at the point of impact was found to be 0.998 m, 0.099 m, 0.092 m, 0.089 m, and 0.074 m against Boeing 747-400, Phantom F4, Boeing 767, Boeing 707-320 and Airbus A-320 aircrafts respectively. The results of the present study were compared with those of the previous analytical and numerical investigations with respect to the maximum deformation and overall behavior of the containment.

  19. Numerical simulation of aircraft crash on nuclear containment structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, M.A., E-mail: iqbalfce@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Rai, S.; Sadique, M.R.; Bhargava, P. [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The deformation was more localised at the center of cylindrical portion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The peak deflection at the junction of dome and cylinder was found to be 67 mm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The peak deflection at midpoint of the cylindrical portion was found to be 88.9 mm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The strain rate was found to be an important parameter to effect the deformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model without strain rate and 290 s{sup -1} strain rate predicted very high deformations. - Abstract: Numerical simulations were carried with ABAQUS/Explicit finite element code in order to predict the response of BWR Mark III type nuclear containment against Boeing 707-320 aircraft crash. The load of the aircraft was applied using and force history curve. The damaged plasticity model was used to predict the behavior of concrete while the Johnson-Cook elasto-viscoplastic material model was used to incorporate the behavior of steel reinforcement. The crash was considered to occur at two different locations i.e., the midpoint of the cylindrical portion and the junction of dome and cylinder. The midpoint of the cylindrical portion experienced more deformation. The strain rate in the material model was varied and found to have a significant effect on the response of containment. The results of the present investigation were compared with those of the studies available in literature and a close agreement with the previous results was found in terms of maximum target deformation.

  20. Experimental studies on the axial crash behavior of aluminum foam-filled hat sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-chun; FAN Zi-jie; GUI Liang-jin; WANG Zheng-hong; FU Zi-lai

    2006-01-01

    Drop hammer tests were carried out to study the axial crash behavior of aluminum foam-filled hat sections.First,the axial crash tests of the empty hat sections,aluminum foam and the aluminum foam-filled hat sections were carried out;then,based upon the test results,the axial crash behavior of the aluminum foam-filled hat sections were analyzed.It was found that aluminum foam filling can increase the energy absorption capacities of the hat sections.Compared with the non-filled structures,aluminum foamfilled structures were much more stable and needed less mass to absorb the specified energy.

  1. The Role of High Frequency Trading in Market Volatility and Flash Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Ngosa, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    High Frequency Trading is a phenomenon that is yet to be completely understood. This research attempts to find the relationship if any between high frequency trading and volatility as well as the relationship between volatility and flash crashes. A lot of empirical evidence has been carried out on high frequency trading since the infamous Flash Crash of May 6th 2010 with an array of conflicting results. Despite this, the question as to how HFT affects volatility and flash crashes is yet to be...

  2. International Evidence on Market Linkages After the 2008 Stock Market Crash

    OpenAIRE

    Gulser Meric; Christine Lentz; Wayne Smeltz; Ilhan Meric,

    2012-01-01

    The 2008 crash was the most important global stock market crash in history since the Great Depression. In this paper, we study the contemporaneous co-movements of and the time-series lead/lag linkages between global stock markets after the 2008 stock market crash by using the time-varying correlation analysis, principal components analysis (PCA), and Granger-causality (G-C) statistical techniques. We find that correlation between global stock markets has increased and the benefit of global po...

  3. The impact of crash simulation on productivity and problem-solving in automotive R&D

    OpenAIRE

    Spethmann, Philipp; Thomke, Stefan H.; Herstatt, Cornelius

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of the virtual tool 'crash simulation' on automotive R&D over the last 35 years. The research carried out in this context identifies and investigates distinct phases respectively stages of the potential of crash simulations based on the Finite Element Method and the stages' impact on automotive R&D in-depth. In a study of German Original Equipment Manufacturers' (OEM) utilization of crash simulations, the evolution of this tool is explored and its impact on prod...

  4. Vehicle mass and injury risk in two-car crashes: A novel methodology

    OpenAIRE

    R. Tolouei; Maher, M.; Titheridge, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel methodology based on disaggregate analysis of two-car crash data to estimate the partial effects of mass, through the velocity change, on absolute driver injury risk in each of the vehicles involved in the crash when absolute injury risk is defined as the probability of injury when the vehicle is involved in a two-car crash. The novel aspect of the introduced methodology is in providing a solution to the issue of lack of data on the speed of vehicles prior to the...

  5. Analysis of Casualty Risk per Police-Reported Crash for Model Year 2000 to 2004 Vehicles, using Crash Data from Five States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom

    2011-03-20

    In this report we compare two measures of driver risks: fatality risk per vehicle registration-year, and casualty (fatality plus serious injury) risk per police-reported crash. Our analysis is based on three sets of data from five states (Florida, Illinois, Maryland, Missouri, and Pennsylvania): data on all police-reported crashes involving model year 2000 to 2004 vehicles; 2005 county-level vehicle registration data by vehicle model year and make/model; and odometer readings from vehicle emission inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs conducted in urban areas of four of the five states (Florida does not have an I/M program). The two measures of risk could differ for three reasons: casualty risks are different from fatality risk; risks per vehicle registration-year are different from risks per crash; and risks estimated from national data are different from risks from the five states analyzed here. We also examined the effect of driver behavior, crash location, and general vehicle design on risk, as well as sources of potential bias in using the crash data from five states.

  6. Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification (BEACON) system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Beach Advisory and Closing Online Notification system (BEACON) is a colletion of state and local data reported to EPA about beach closings and advisories. BEACON is...

  7. USGS Volcanic Activity Alert-Notification System Description

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Website provides plain-English description of the alert notification system that the USGS has adopted nationwide for characterizing the level of unrest and eruptive...

  8. 7 CFR 1962.13 - Notification to potential purchasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PERSONAL PROPERTY Servicing and Liquidation of Chattel Security § 1962.13 Notification to potential purchasers. (a) In States without a Central Filing System...

  9. 39 CFR 281.1 - Notification of firm mailers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DESTROYED THROUGH TRANSPORTATION ACCIDENTS OR CATASTROPHES § 281.1 Notification of firm mailers. Whenever bulk firm mail shipments are involved in transportation accidents or catastrophes, such as train...

  10. Automatic Program Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Automatic Program Development is a tribute to Robert Paige (1947-1999), our accomplished and respected colleague, and moreover our good friend, whose untimely passing was a loss to our academic and research community. We have collected the revised, updated versions of the papers published in his...... honor in the Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation Journal in the years 2003 and 2005. Among them there are two papers by Bob: (i) a retrospective view of his research lines, and (ii) a proposal for future studies in the area of the automatic program derivation. The book also includes some papers by...... members of the IFIP Working Group 2.1 of which Bob was an active member. All papers are related to some of the research interests of Bob and, in particular, to the transformational development of programs and their algorithmic derivation from formal specifications. Automatic Program Development offers a...

  11. A dynamic mathematical test of international property securities bubbles and crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Eddie C. M.; Zheng, Xian; Wang, Hui

    2010-04-01

    This study investigates property securities bubbles and crashes by using a dynamic mathematical methodology developed from the previous research (Watanabe et al. 2007a, b [31,32]). The improved model is used to detect the bubble and crash periods in five international countries/cities (namely, United States, United Kingdom, Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore) from Jan, 2000 to Oct, 2008. By this model definition, we are able to detect the beginning of each bubble period even before it bursts. Meanwhile, the empirical results show that most of property securities markets experienced bubble periods between 2003 and 2007, and crashes happened in Apr 2008 triggered by the Subprime Mortgage Crisis of US. In contrast, Japan suffered the shortest bubble period and no evidence has documented the existence of crash there.

  12. An Inferential System for Determination of Candidate Crash Sites for Search and Rescue Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop, test, and prove the feasibility of a methodology for an inferential system for the generation of crash site likelihood maps. These maps will...

  13. The impact of pedestal turbulence and electron inertia on edge-localized-mode crashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, P. W. [FSC and State Key Lab of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Xu, X. Q. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Diamond, P. H. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences and Department of Physics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0429 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    We demonstrate that the occurrence of Edge-Localized-Modes (ELM) crashes does not depend only on the linear peeling-ballooning threshold, but also relies on nonlinear processes. Wave-wave interaction constrains the growth time of a mode, thus inducing a shift in the criterion for triggering an ELM crash. An ELM crash requires the P-B growth rate to exceed a critical value γ>γ{sub c}, where γ{sub c} is set by 1/τ{sup ¯}{sub c}, and τ{sup ¯}{sub c} is the averaged mode phase coherence time. For 0<γ<γ{sub c}, P-B turbulence develops but drives enhanced turbulent transport. We also show that electron inertia dramatically changes the instability threshold when density is low. However, P-B turbulence alone cannot generate enough current transport to allow fast reconnection during an ELM crash.

  14. How Common are Noise Sources on the Crash Arc of Malaysian Flight 370

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenimore, Edward E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kunkle, Thomas David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stead, Richard J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-10-21

    Malaysian Flight 370 disappeared nearly without a trace. Besides some communication handshakes to the INMASAT satellite, the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty monitoring system could have heard the aircraft crash into the southern Indian Ocean. One noise event from Cape Leeuwin has been suggested by Stead as the crash and occurs within the crash location suggested by Kunkle at el. We analyze the hydrophone data from Cape Leeuwin to understand how common such noise events are on the arc of possible locations where Malaysian Flight 370 might have crashed. Few other noise sources were found on the arc. The noise event found by Stead is the strongest. No noise events are seen within the Australian Transportation Safety Board (ATSB) new search location until the 10th strongest event, an event which is very close to the noise level.

  15. U.S. Car Crash Deaths Down, but Still Surpass Other Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159736.html U.S. Car Crash Deaths Down, But Still Surpass Other ... roadway death rate among 20 countries examined, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said. "It ...

  16. A public information and notification system for emergency mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federal Emergency Management Agency has become increasingly concerned about the ability to notify the public in a timely manner in the event of a nuclear accident, or chemical event. FEMA draft Guidance Memorandum AN-1 proposes a 15 minute public notification requirement. This paper outlines a comprehensive new public information notification system (PINS) that can meet all of the new requirements of AN-1 and Title 3 for chemical accidents. It is suggested as an alternative to the Emergency Broadcast System

  17. Optimizing smartphone micro-usage with smartwatch notifications

    OpenAIRE

    Bolle, Laurens; De Croon, Robin; Duval, Erik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of a smartwatch application on smartphone micro-usage, brief bursts of interaction Ferreira et al. , among students is investigated. Our study indicates that social applications, such as WhatsApp, SMS or e-mail are used most by students. These applications tend to generate numerous notifications, which often result in brief bursts of smartphone use, which is called micro-usage. We propose three novel ways of handling notifications on a smartwatch, in order to redu...

  18. A message queue based event notification system : football lottery system

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yunpeng

    2010-01-01

    The event notification service enables user of getting informed about the occurrence of their events of interest. Message queue technology provides asynchronous message exchange functions between computer processes. This thesis presents a solution of building event notification system using the message queue approach. The events in the experiment are generated during the football match and used for both stateless and stateful processing. The system includes three main applic...

  19. Automatic utilities auditing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Colin Boughton [Energy Metering Technology (United Kingdom)

    2000-08-01

    At present, energy audits represent only snapshot situations of the flow of energy. The normal pattern of energy audits as seen through the eyes of an experienced energy auditor is described. A brief history of energy auditing is given. It is claimed that the future of energy auditing lies in automatic meter reading with expert data analysis providing continuous automatic auditing thereby reducing the skill element. Ultimately, it will be feasible to carry out auditing at intervals of say 30 minutes rather than five years.

  20. Automatic Camera Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Preuss, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Automatically generating computer animations is a challenging and complex problem with applications in games and film production. In this paper, we investigate howto translate a shot list for a virtual scene into a series of virtual camera configurations — i.e automatically controlling the virtual...... camera. We approach this problem by modelling it as a dynamic multi-objective optimisation problem and show how this metaphor allows a much richer expressiveness than a classical single objective approach. Finally, we showcase the application of a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm to generate a shot...

  1. Automatic text summarization

    CERN Document Server

    Torres Moreno, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This new textbook examines the motivations and the different algorithms for automatic document summarization (ADS). We performed a recent state of the art. The book shows the main problems of ADS, difficulties and the solutions provided by the community. It presents recent advances in ADS, as well as current applications and trends. The approaches are statistical, linguistic and symbolic. Several exemples are included in order to clarify the theoretical concepts.  The books currently available in the area of Automatic Document Summarization are not recent. Powerful algorithms have been develop

  2. The analysis of epidemiological characteristics of road traffic crashes in a mountain city in western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周继红; 赵新才; 王正国; 朱佩芳; 简华刚; 刘大维; 周金玲; 刘蕾

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the epidemiological characteristics and preventive methods of road traffic crashes in a mountain city in western China through sampling investigation of traffic crashes in different regions of Chongqing city in recent years. Methods: Two police teams of traffic management in downtown, two teams in suburb, one team in county and one freeway team were randomly selected, and road traffic crashes between 1988 and 1997 were investigated and analyzed. Results: A total of 13121 road traffic crashes with 6201 crashes with casualties were analyzed. The incidence of crashes was higher in May, June and July, and on Friday and Wednesday and at 8:00-12:00 and 14:00-18:00 within a day. Casualties were 44.0% in pedestrians and 42.5% in passengers of total casualties. The deaths and severe injuries in pedestrians were59.1% of total deaths and 56.4% of total severe injuries. The age of drivers and passengers were mainly at 18-30 years, followed by 31-40 years. People over 60 years old accounted for 24.1% of total pedestrian casualty. Head injury was the most common reason for deaths. The main reasons for these crashes were improper driving and violating traffic laws. Violating traffic laws by pedestrian was one of the main reasons for pedestrian casualty. Conclusions: The crashes are related to the characteristics of geography, climate, society activity of people, and the sense of traffic safety, the basic traffic construction and management in Chongqing. The traffic casualty of pedestrian is a big problem in Chongqing. To prevent and decrease road traffic injuries effective methods should be worked out and propaganda on traffic safety and traffic management should be strengthened according to different characteristics of different regions. To strengthen the first aid and treatment of cranium-brain injury and chest-back injury is also helpful in decreasing traffic deaths.

  3. Motor vehicle crashes and maternal mortality in New Mexico: the significance of seat belt use.

    OpenAIRE

    Schiff, M; Albers, L.; McFeeley, P

    1997-01-01

    In recent years, as deaths from medical complications during pregnancy have declined, injuries-specifically those sustained in motor vehicle crashes-represent a growing proportion of all pregnancy-associated deaths. To investigate pregnancy-associated deaths in motor vehicle crashes in New Mexico, we scrutinized the database of the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator for all deaths during pregnancy and up to 6 weeks postpartum from 1986 through 1995. A total of 97 deaths were identi...

  4. Associating crash avoidance maneuvers with driver attributes and accident characteristics: a mixed logit model approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    logit model that represents the selection among 5 emergencylateral and speed control maneuvers (i.e., “no avoidance maneuvers,” “braking,” “steering,” “braking and steering,” and“other maneuvers) while accommodating correlations across maneuvers and heteroscedasticity. Data for the analysis were...... rethinking in-vehicle collision warning systems. Future research should address the effectiveness of crash avoidance maneuvers and joint modeling of maneuver selection and crash severity....

  5. Responsibility Study: Main Illicit Psychoactive Substances Among Car Drivers Involved in Fatal Road Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Gadegbeku, B.; Amoros, E.; Laumon, B.

    2011-01-01

    In 1999, in France, before considering modifications in drug legislation, the government requested a study of the effect of illicit drugs on the risk of road crashes. It implemented a systematic screening of illicit drugs for all drivers involved in fatal crashes between October 2001 and September 2003. Within the European DRUID project, the study was restricted to car drivers. The project reported here is a responsibility analysis and, as such, it belongs to the framework of case-control stu...

  6. Reconstruction of Car-Electric Bicycle Side Collision Based on PC-Crash

    OpenAIRE

    Shenchao Wang; Yubin Qian; Xianguo Qu

    2014-01-01

    A collision model, an automobile model and a multi-rigid-body model in PC-crash are analyzed. By simulating a side collision accident between a car and an electric bicycle (EB), a method that reproduces the car-electric bicycle side collision accident based on PC-crash is presented according to some important information such as the final position, the contacting location between the cyclist and the car. A result is obtained by comparing with the reproduced result, the defor...

  7. Investor Recognition of Bankrputcy Costs: Evidence from the 1987 Market Crash

    OpenAIRE

    Cheol S. Eun; H. Jonathan Jang

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the behavior of stock prices of individual firms with different bond ratings surrounding the October market crash of 1987 and therefrom make inferences about the significance of bankruptcy costs borne by stockholders. The key findings are as follows: Immediately following the crash, stock prices of firms with different bond ratings display dramatically divergent behavior. Specifically, stocks with speculative bond ratings exhibit significantly negative cumulative abn...

  8. Onset of a Declining Trend in Fatal Motor Vehicle Crashes Involving Drunk-driving in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Background In Japan, introduction of severe drunk-driving penalties and a lower blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit in June 2002 was followed by a substantial reduction in fatal alcohol-related crashes. However, previous research suggests that this reduction started before the legal amendments. The causes of the decrease have not been studied in detail. Methods Monthly police data on fatal road traffic crashes from January 1995 to August 2006 were analyzed using a joinpoint regression mod...

  9. House-price crash and macroeconomic crisis: a Hong Kong case study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hewitt; Hu, Yannan; Hu, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The crash of house prices has become an important feature of macroeconomic crisis. We argue that the crash of house prices driven by contractionary monetary policy is not only a reaction, but also accelerates and amplifies the fluctuations of major macroeconomic variables. The impulse response of consumption to the house price shock estimated from Bayesian VAR is of same level as that of investment in Hong Kong, which is distinct from the United States. Therefore, in this paper we conduct a c...

  10. Co-Movements of European Equity Markets Before and After the 1987 Crash

    OpenAIRE

    Ilhan Meric,; Gulser Meric

    1997-01-01

    This article studies the changes in the co-movements of the twelve largest European equity markets after the 1987 international equity market crash. Tests based on Box M and principal component analysis indicate that the comovements of these equity markets changed significantly after the crash. Low correlations among national equity markets are often presented as evidence in support of the benefits of international portfolio diversification. The findings indicate that correlations among the t...

  11. Crash Aversion and the Cross-Section of Expected Stock Returns Worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Weigert, Florian

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines whether investors receive a compensation for holding stocks with a strong sensitivity to extreme market downturns in a sample covering 40 different countries. Worldwide, stocks with strong crash sensitivity deliver average returns of more than 7% p.a. higher than stocks with weak crash sensitivity. The effect is robust across geographical subsamples and is not explained by systematic risk factors and alternative firm characteristics. I show that the risk premium is particu...

  12. Crash Aversion and the Cross-Section of Expected Stock Returns Worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Weigert, Florian

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines whether investors receive compensation for holding stocks with a strong sensitivity to extreme market downturns in a sample covering forty countries. Worldwide, stocks with strong crash sensitivity deliver average returns of more than 7% p.a. higher than stocks with weak crash sensitivity. The effect is robust across geographical subsamples and is not explained by systematic risk factors and alternative firm characteristics. I show that the risk premium is particularly pro...

  13. Fatal car crash configurations and injury panorama : with special emphasis on the function of restraint system

    OpenAIRE

    Lindquist, Mats

    2007-01-01

    Background: Most traffic safety research projects require accurate real world data which is collected in different databases around the world. This is especially important since the results of these projects form the basis for new crash test procedures and standards. In many of these databases the involvement of the frontal structures of the car in frontal crashes is coded by using the SAE J224 practice (Society of Automobile Engineers). There were indications that by using this practice the ...

  14. The epidemiology of fatal cyclist crashes over a 14-year period in Alberta, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudet, Lindsay; Romanow, Nicole T. R.; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Voaklander, Donald; Hagel, Brent E.; Rowe, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Background Cycling is a popular recreational activity and a common transportation option; however, cycling-related injuries can be fatal. There are few studies of cycling fatalities in Canada and none in a region as sparsely populated as Alberta. Methods A chart review was conducted of cyclists involved in fatal crashes. Charts for deaths that occurred between 1998 and 2011 (inclusive) were identified and abstracted onto standardized forms. Personal characteristics and crash circumstances, in...

  15. Car crash and injury among young drivers: contribution of social, circumstantial and car attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflamme, L; Vaez, M

    2007-03-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the independent contribution of individual, car and circumstantial features in severe and fatal car crashes involving young drivers. A prospective longitudinal, register-based cohort study was conducted at national level (in Sweden), in which people born in the years 1970-1972 (n = 334070) were followed up for the period 1988-2000 (aged 16-18 years in 1988) for their first two-car crashes leading to severe or fatal injury. Ten variables descriptive of the driver (sociodemographics), the car (safety level) and the crash have been analysed using multiple logistic regressions for male and female drivers separately, compiling crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% CI. When controlling for other features, none of the variables descriptive of male and female drivers' socio-demographic characteristics impacts significantly on the odds of being severely injured or dying in a car-to-car crash. After adjustment, significant excess risks are observed for speed limits higher than the lowest one, type of crash other than rear end collision and road and light conditions other than favourable (dry and daylight), for both male and female drivers. For males only, cars from all car safety levels have significantly higher odds than those from the safest category. Among male and female young drivers, class differences in the risk of being severely injured in a traffic injury are substantial. Yet, despite this imbalance, crash characteristics (for males and females) and safety level of the vehicle driven (for males) remain the most determinant factors of crash severity. Understanding the social patterning of road traffic injuries is a challenge for public health and it seems that qualitative and quantitative differences in crash exposure offer part of the explanation. Young drivers from all social groups need, however, to be sensitized to the risk factors. PMID:17624005

  16. Occupant injury in rollover crashes - Contribution of planar impacts with objects and other vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, Johan; Poplin, Gerald; McMurry, Tim; Crandall, Jeff; Kerrigan, Jason

    2015-12-01

    Planar impacts with objects and other vehicles may increase the risk and severity of injury in rollover crashes. The current study compares the frequency of injury measures (MAIS 2+, 3+, and 4+; fatal; AIS 2+ head and cervical spine; and AIS 3+ head and thorax) as well as vehicle type distribution (passenger car, SUV, van, and light truck), crash kinematics, and occupant demographics between single vehicle single event rollovers (SV Pure) and multiple event rollovers to determine which types of multiple event rollovers can be pooled with SV Pure to study rollover induced occupant injury. Four different types of multiple event rollovers were defined: single and multi-vehicle crashes for which the rollover is the most severe event (SV Prim and MV Prim) and single and multi-vehicle crashes for which the rollover is not the most severe event (SV Non-Prim and MV Non-Prim). Information from real world crashes was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for the period from 1995 through 2011. Belted, contained or partially ejected, adult occupants in vehicles that completed 1-16 lateral quarter turns were assigned to one of the five rollover categories. The results showed that the frequency of injury in non-primary rollovers (SV Non-Prim and MV Non-Prim) involving no more than one roof inversion is substantially greater than in SV Pure, but that this disparity diminishes for crashes involving multiple inversions. It can further be concluded that for a given number of roof inversions, the distribution of injuries and crash characteristics in SV Pure and SV Prim crashes are sufficiently similar for these categories to be considered collectively for purposes of understanding etiologies and developing strategies for prevention. PMID:26418467

  17. Motor Vehicle Crash-Related Subdural Hematoma from Real-World Head Impact Data

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, Jillian E.; Whitlow, Christopher T.; Edgerton, Colston A.; Powers, Alexander K.; Maldjian, Joseph A.; Stitzel, Joel D.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 1,700,000 people sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year and motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a leading cause of hospitalization from TBI. Acute subdural hematoma (SDH) is a common intracranial injury that occurs in MVCs associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. In this study, SDH volume and midline shift have been analyzed in order to better understand occupant injury by correlating them to crash and occupant parameters. Fifty-seven head computed tomography (...

  18. Direct memory access transfer completion notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Parker, Jeffrey J.; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Vranas, Pavlos

    2010-07-27

    Methods, compute nodes, and computer program products are provided for direct memory access (`DMA`) transfer completion notification. Embodiments include determining, by an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node, whether a data descriptor for an application message to be sent to a target compute node is currently in an injection first-in-first-out (`FIFO`) buffer in dependence upon a sequence number previously associated with the data descriptor, the total number of descriptors currently in the injection FIFO buffer, and the current sequence number for the newest data descriptor stored in the injection FIFO buffer; and notifying a processor core on the origin DMA engine that the message has been sent if the data descriptor for the message is not currently in the injection FIFO buffer.

  19. Reactive donor notification: First error reported

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urvershi Kotwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Donor notification and post-donation counseling is an essential role of blood bank. If a donor is reactive for any marker, the blood bank counselor, informs the donor and advices him/her to report to the blood bank for further counseling and management. The counselor at our blood bank informed a young female voluntary donor to be reactive for HIV both with ELISA as well as NAT. When the donor reported to blood bank, the repeat testing was negative and no history of high risk behavior could be elicited. The hospital information system (HIS records were checked again immediately for clarification and showed consistency with her demographic profile. But when her manual records and donor questionnaire were retrieved, showed information displayed in the HIS system was wrongly interpreted by the counselor. In this era of information technology being highly advanced, the role of manual record keeping is still the gold standard.

  20. Automatic Detection of Asteroids and Meteoroids - A Wide Field Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Vereš, P; Jedicke, R; Tonry, J; Denneau, L; Wainscoat, R; Kornoš, L; Šilha, J

    2014-01-01

    We propose a low-cost robotic optical survey aimed at $1-300$ m Near Earth Objects (NEO) based on four state-of-the-art telescopes having extremely wide field of view. The small Near-Earth Asteroids (NEA) represent a potential risk but also easily accessible space resources for future robotic or human space in-situ exploration, or commercial activities. The survey system will be optimized for the detection of fast moving - trailed - asteroids, space debris and will provide real-time alert notifications. The expected cost of the system including 1-year development and 2-year operation is 1,000,000 EUR. The successful demonstration of the system will promote cost-efficient ADAM-WFS (Automatic Detection of Asteroids and Meteoroids - A Wide Field Survey) systems to be built around the world.

  1. [When should notification of an infectious disease be mandatory? A decision aid to determine whether mandatory notification is justified].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijkerk, P; Fanoy, E B; van der Sande, M A B

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, all physicians are required to report cases of certain infectious diseases to the public health services, to allow appropriate control measures. In recent years, various requests have been submitted to add certain infectious diseases to the list of notifiable diseases. In order to decide whether such a request should be granted, we developed a structured decision aid based on a range of existing criteria for mandatory notification, applied in the Netherlands and other countries. In this article, we describe the development of this decision aid and illustrate its use in the mandatory notification application reviews for Vibrio vulnificus infection and tularaemia respectively. Based on the decision aid outcomes, mandatory notification for V. vulnificus infection was advised as not necessary whereas notification is considered mandatory for tularaemia. PMID:27050495

  2. Crashes on the way to and from coal mines in New South Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabbott, N. [ARRB Group Ltd. (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    This study investigated incidents and crashes on the way to and from coal mines in New South Wales. It collected injury data relevant to vehicular crushes of coal miners and incident data from responses to questionnaires. The crush data and incident data was explored for information relevant to prevalence, fatigue, mine type and time of day. Comparisons were made to the results of a similar study conducted in Queensland. It was found that a high number of incidents and crashes are occurring for coal miners on the way to and from coal mines in NSW. Some of the causes of these crashes have been related to factors such as fatigue, health, wildlife on the road and interactions with other drivers. Strategies have been developed to reduce the prevalence of these crashes. the counter measurers shown within this report have the capacity to reduce road trauma due to travel crashes of NSW coal miners. The dissemination of this report and discussion of the possible countermeasures are a useful stating point and will hopefully promulgate actions to reduce travel crash injuries. The information arising from the results of this projet has provided a strong platform on which to base strategies to reduce the prevalence of coal miners suffering road trauma. 16 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Data development technical support document for the aircraft crash risk analysis methodology (ACRAM) standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aircraft Crash Risk Analysis Methodology (ACRAM) Panel has been formed by the US Department of Energy Office of Defense Programs (DOE/DP) for the purpose of developing a standard methodology for determining the risk from aircraft crashes onto DOE ground facilities. In order to accomplish this goal, the ACRAM panel has been divided into four teams, the data development team, the model evaluation team, the structural analysis team, and the consequence team. Each team, consisting of at least one member of the ACRAM plus additional DOE and DOE contractor personnel, specializes in the development of the methodology assigned to that team. This report documents the work performed by the data development team and provides the technical basis for the data used by the ACRAM Standard for determining the aircraft crash frequency. This report should be used to provide the generic data needed to calculate the aircraft crash frequency into the facility under consideration as part of the process for determining the aircraft crash risk to ground facilities as given by the DOE Standard Aircraft Crash Risk Assessment Methodology (ACRAM). Some broad guidance is presented on how to obtain the needed site-specific and facility specific data but this data is not provided by this document

  4. Analysis of driver injury severity in single-vehicle crashes on rural and urban roadways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Guohui; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Xiaoyue Cathy; Tarefder, Rafiqul

    2016-09-01

    This study analyzes driver injury severities for single-vehicle crashes occurring in rural and urban areas using data collected in New Mexico from 2010 to 2011. Nested logit models and mixed logit models are developed in order to account for the correlation between severity categories (No injury, Possible injury, Visible injury, Incapacitating injury and fatality) and individual heterogeneity among drivers. Various factors, such as crash and environment characteristics, geometric features, and driver behavior are examined in this study. Nested logit model and mixed logit model reveal similar results in terms of identifying contributing factors for driver injury severities. In the analysis of urban crashes, only the nested logit model is presented since no random parameter is found in the mixed logit model. The results indicate that significant differences exist between factors contributing to driver injury severity in single-vehicle crashes in rural and urban areas. There are 5 variables found only significant in the rural model and six significant variables identified only in the urban crash model. These findings can help transportation agencies develop effective policies or appropriate strategies to reduce injury severity resulting from single-vehicle crashes. PMID:27240127

  5. The odds of wrong-way crashes and resulting fatalities: A comprehensive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnaluri, Raj V

    2016-03-01

    The United States of America and other nations are grappling with the incidence of wrong-way driving (WWD). The issue is as important today (NTSB, 2012) as it was a half-century ago (Hulbert and Beers, 1966). In the absence of a comprehensive analysis, any effort to implement WWD countermeasures can be counterproductive. Hence, this effort began with the express intent to identify the factors that cause WWD crashes and fatalities. This work is sizeable in that it evaluated one million complete crash records from Florida. The methodology comprised (a) administering a survey on the perceptions about WWD; (b) developing binomial logistic models for computing the odds of WWD crashes, and of fatal crashes within the WWD space; (c) analyzing the contributing variables; and (d) comparing perceptions with crash analysis results. The study parameters included driver's age, gender, licensing state, physical defect, blood alcohol concentration, vehicle use, seatbelt compliance, day and time of crash, roadway lighting, facility type, weather conditions, road geometrics, and traffic volumes. Individual variable analysis of 23 parameters and the model development process included the determination of odds ratios and statistical tests for the predictive power and goodness-of-fit. The results of this work are generally consistent with expectation, yet surprising at times. This work concludes with decision-making inputs to the scientist, policy-maker and practitioner on the need for effectively engineering the roads, actively educating people about wrong-way driving, and strictly enforcing traffic laws, rules and regulations. PMID:26745273

  6. Observation of different phases during an ELM crash with the help of nitrogen seeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method was applied to indirectly obtain information about the features of the crash of the H-mode edge transport barrier in consequence of an edge localized mode (ELM). The method is based on a combination of fast measurements, without spatial resolution, and relatively slow measurements, with high spatial resolution. The comparison of two different ELM scenarios in the full metal tokamak ASDEX Upgrade—a standard scenario and one with additional nitrogen seeding—revealed a two-fold nature of the ELM crash. In the case with additional nitrogen only a part of the standard crash is observed. This suggests the standard ELM crash consists of two or more consecutive events instead of a single distinct one. Some of these events are observed to be suppressed with changes in plasma parameters. The effect of the impurity seeding on different plasma parameters is documented in detail and compared to measurements conducted in machines with a carbon wall. The radial extent of the phases observed during the ELM crash differs in the kinetic profiles, with one instability extending inside the pedestal top and the other being confined to the pedestal region. This picture can explain the differences in the loss of stored energy and the change in ELM frequency which are observed for the analysed pair of discharges. It also suggests that the ELM crash starts at the pedestal top and only then affects the steep gradient region. (paper)

  7. Driving risk assessment using near-crash database through data mining of tree-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianqiang; Zheng, Yang; Li, Xiaofei; Yu, Chenfei; Kodaka, Kenji; Li, Keqiang

    2015-11-01

    This paper considers a comprehensive naturalistic driving experiment to collect driving data under potential threats on actual Chinese roads. Using acquired real-world naturalistic driving data, a near-crash database is built, which contains vehicle status, potential crash objects, driving environment and road types, weather condition, and driver information and actions. The aims of this study are summarized into two aspects: (1) to cluster different driving-risk levels involved in near-crashes, and (2) to unveil the factors that greatly influence the driving-risk level. A novel method to quantify the driving-risk level of a near-crash scenario is proposed by clustering the braking process characteristics, namely maximum deceleration, average deceleration, and percentage reduction in vehicle kinetic energy. A classification and regression tree (CART) is employed to unveil the relationship among driving risk, driver/vehicle characteristics, and road environment. The results indicate that the velocity when braking, triggering factors, potential object type, and potential crash type exerted the greatest influence on the driving-risk levels in near-crashes. PMID:26319604

  8. How the choice of safety performance function affects the identification of important crash prediction variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ketong; Simandl, Jenna K; Porter, Michael D; Graettinger, Andrew J; Smith, Randy K

    2016-03-01

    Across the nation, researchers and transportation engineers are developing safety performance functions (SPFs) to predict crash rates and develop crash modification factors to improve traffic safety at roadway segments and intersections. Generalized linear models (GLMs), such as Poisson or negative binomial regression, are most commonly used to develop SPFs with annual average daily traffic as the primary roadway characteristic to predict crashes. However, while more complex to interpret, data mining models such as boosted regression trees have improved upon GLMs crash prediction performance due to their ability to handle more data characteristics, accommodate non-linearities, and include interaction effects between the characteristics. An intersection data inventory of 36 safety relevant parameters for three- and four-legged non-signalized intersections along state routes in Alabama was used to study the importance of intersection characteristics on crash rate and the interaction effects between key characteristics. Four different SPFs were investigated and compared: Poisson regression, negative binomial regression, regularized generalized linear model, and boosted regression trees. The models did not agree on which intersection characteristics were most related to the crash rate. The boosted regression tree model significantly outperformed the other models and identified several intersection characteristics as having strong interaction effects. PMID:26710265

  9. A spatial generalized ordered response model to examine highway crash injury severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Marisol; Paleti, Rajesh; Bhat, Chandra R

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes a flexible econometric structure for injury severity analysis at the level of individual crashes that recognizes the ordinal nature of injury severity categories, allows unobserved heterogeneity in the effects of contributing factors, as well as accommodates spatial dependencies in the injury severity levels experienced in crashes that occur close to one another in space. The modeling framework is applied to analyze the injury severity sustained in crashes occurring on highway road segments in Austin, Texas. The sample is drawn from the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) crash incident files from 2009 and includes a variety of crash characteristics, highway design attributes, driver and vehicle characteristics, and environmental factors. The results from our analysis underscore the value of our proposed model for data fit purposes as well as to accurately estimate variable effects. The most important determinants of injury severity on highways, according to our results, are (1) whether any vehicle occupant is ejected, (2) whether collision type is head-on, (3) whether any vehicle involved in the crash overturned, (4) whether any vehicle occupant is unrestrained by a seat-belt, and (5) whether a commercial truck is involved. PMID:23333845

  10. Conversion of the dominantly ideal perturbations into a tearing mode after a sawtooth crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igochine, V., E-mail: valentin.igochine@ipp.mpg.de; Gude, A.; Günter, S.; Lackner, K.; Yu, Q.; Barrera Orte, L.; McDermott, R. M. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Bogomolov, A.; Classen, I. [FOM-Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Luhmann, N. C. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Forced magnetic reconnection is a topic of common interest in astrophysics, space science, and magnetic fusion research. The tearing mode formation process after sawtooth crashes implies the existence of this type of magnetic reconnection and is investigated in great detail in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. The sawtooth crash provides a fast relaxation of the core plasma temperature and can trigger a tearing mode at a neighbouring resonant surface. It is demonstrated for the first time that the sawtooth crash leads to a dominantly ideal kink mode formation at the resonant surface immediately after the sawtooth crash. Local measurements show that this kink mode transforms into a tearing mode on a much longer timescale (10{sup −3}s−10{sup −2}s) than the sawtooth crash itself (10{sup −4}s). The ideal kink mode formed after the sawtooth crash provides the driving force for magnetic reconnection and its amplitude is one of the critical parameters for the length of the transition phase from a ideal into an resistive mode. Nonlinear two fluid MHD simulations confirm these observations.

  11. Automatic Dance Lesson Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Leung, H.; Yue, Lihua; Deng, LiQun

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an automatic lesson generation system is presented which is suitable in a learning-by-mimicking scenario where the learning objects can be represented as multiattribute time series data. The dance is used as an example in this paper to illustrate the idea. Given a dance motion sequence as the input, the proposed lesson generation…

  12. Automatic Complexity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1989-01-01

    One way to analyse programs is to to derive expressions for their computational behaviour. A time bound function (or worst-case complexity) gives an upper bound for the computation time as a function of the size of input. We describe a system to derive such time bounds automatically using abstract...

  13. Towards Improving Crash Data Management System in Gulf Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Jamal Almatawah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and analytical approaches to accident data collection, storage and analysis are essential in dealing with road safety problems. Police accident records in the majority of countries form the main (and sometimes the only source of accident data. Access to the accident database is also important to identifying specific safety problems and evaluating the effectiveness of the countermeasure introduced. Accident data collection and analysis offered by technological innovation such as Electronic Data Entry (EDE, Electronic Data transfer (EDT, and Geographic Information system (GIS are implemented in developed countries. Developing countries, including the Gulf countries, should take advantage of the experience of developed countries on how the advance accident data management system works to identifying, more accurately, the main factors contributing to traffic accident. The main purpose of this research is to provide information on accident statistics process in Virginia state, starting from the time of accident occurring until it is stored in the database, with the aim of using it towards improving the process of collecting and maintaining accident data system in Gulf countries. The task is performed by reviewing the relevant international literature and interviewing police officers in charge and academic researchers in order to compare the accident data management system and also the quality of the data. Recommendations towards developing the crash data management system will be obtained based on the research results and international experience.

  14. Co-Movements Of U.S. And European Stock Markets Before And After The 2008 Gloal Stock Market Crash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meric Ilhan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies show that correlation between national stock markets increased and the benefits of global portfolio diversification decreased significantly after the global stock market crash of 1987. The 1987 and 2008 crashes are the two most important global stock market crashes since the 1929 Great depression. Although the effects of the 1987 crash on the comovements of national stock markets have been investigated extensively, the effects of the 2008 crash have not been studied sufficiently. In this paper we study this issue with a research sample that includes the U.S stock market and twenty European stock markets. We find that correlation between the twenty-one stock markets increased and the benefits of portfolio diversification decreased significantly after the 2008 stock market crash.

  15. Exploring the impacts of factors contributing to tram-involved serious injury crashes on Melbourne tram routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naznin, Farhana; Currie, Graham; Logan, David

    2016-09-01

    Previous research is limited regarding factors influencing tram-involved serious injury crashes. The aim of this study is to identify key vehicle, road, environment and driver related factors associated with tram-involved serious injury crashes. Using a binary logistic regression modelling approach, the following factors were identified to be significant in influencing tram-involved fatal crashes in Melbourne: tram floor height, tram age, season, traffic volume, tram lane priority and tram travel speed. Low floor trams, older trams, tram priority lanes and higher tram travelling speeds are more likely to increase tram-involved fatal crashes. Higher traffic volume decreases the likelihood of serious crashes. Fatal crashes are more likely to occur during spring and summer. Findings from this study may offer ideas for future research in the area of tram safety and help to develop countermeasures to prevent specific fatality types from occurring. PMID:27352035

  16. 47 CFR 1.9060 - Amendments, waivers, and dismissals affecting spectrum leasing notifications and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... spectrum leasing notifications and applications. 1.9060 Section 1.9060 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9060 Amendments, waivers, and dismissals affecting spectrum leasing notifications and applications....

  17. 76 FR 21347 - Proposed Pesticide Program's Pilot Fragrance Notification Program; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... AGENCY Proposed Pesticide Program's Pilot Fragrance Notification Program; Notice of Availability AGENCY... publishing for comment a proposed Pilot Fragrance Notification Program (PFNP) for registrants seeking to add new or modify existing fragrances in new or currently registered pesticide products. The...

  18. 77 FR 21621 - Meeting of Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Meeting of Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee ACTION: Notification of...), the United States Mint announces the Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee (CCAC) public...

  19. 77 FR 12371 - Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee February 28, 2012, Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... United States Mint Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee February 28, 2012, Public Meeting ACTION: Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee February 28, 2012, Public Meeting. ] SUMMARY... Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee (CCAC) public meeting scheduled for February 28, 2012. Date:...

  20. Road traffic crash circumstances and consequences among young unlicensed drivers: A Swedish cohort study on socioeconomic disparities

    OpenAIRE

    Laflamme Lucie; Hasselberg Marie; Hanna Christina L; Möller Jette

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Young car drivers run a higher risk of road traffic crash and injury not only because of their lack of experience but also because of their young age and their greater propensity for adopting unsafe driving practices. Also, low family socioeconomic position increases the risk of crash and of severe crash in particular. Whether this holds true for young unlicensed drivers as well is not known. Increasing attention is being drawn to the prevalence and practice of unlicensed ...

  1. Demographics, Velocity Distributions, and Impact Type as Predictors of AIS 4+ Head Injuries in Motor Vehicle Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Fitzharris, Michael; Pintar, Frank A.; Stemper, Brian D.; Rinaldi, James; Maiman, Dennis J.; Fildes, Brian N.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine differences between the United States-based NASS and CIREN and Australia-based ANCIS databases in occupant-, crash-, and vehicle-related parameters for AIS 4+ head injuries in motor vehicle crashes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine roles of the change in velocity (DV), crash type (frontal, far-side, nearside, rear impact), seatbelt use, and occupant position, gender, age, stature, and body mass in cranial traumas. Belted and unb...

  2. Predicting Crashes Using Traffic Offences. A Meta-Analysis that Examines Potential Bias between Self-Report and Archival Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    af Wåhlberg, Anders; Freeman, James; Watson, Barry; Watson, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Background Traffic offences have been considered an important predictor of crash involvement, and have often been used as a proxy safety variable for crashes. However the association between crashes and offences has never been meta-analysed and the population effect size never established. Research is yet to determine the extent to which this relationship may be spuriously inflated through systematic measurement error, with obvious implications for researchers endeavouring to accurately identify salient factors predictive of crashes. Methodology and Principal Findings Studies yielding a correlation between crashes and traffic offences were collated and a meta-analysis of 144 effects drawn from 99 road safety studies conducted. Potential impact of factors such as age, time period, crash and offence rates, crash severity and data type, sourced from either self-report surveys or archival records, were considered and discussed. After weighting for sample size, an average correlation of r = .18 was observed over the mean time period of 3.2 years. Evidence emerged suggesting the strength of this correlation is decreasing over time. Stronger correlations between crashes and offences were generally found in studies involving younger drivers. Consistent with common method variance effects, a within country analysis found stronger effect sizes in self-reported data even controlling for crash mean. Significance The effectiveness of traffic offences as a proxy for crashes may be limited. Inclusion of elements such as independently validated crash and offence histories or accurate measures of exposure to the road would facilitate a better understanding of the factors that influence crash involvement. PMID:27128093

  3. Thoracic Injury Risk as a Function of Crash Severity – Car-to-car Side Impact Tests with WorldSID Compared to Real-life Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Sunnevång, Cecilia; Rosén, Erik; Boström, Ola; Lechelt, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    Side airbags reduce the risk of fatal injury by approximately 30%. Due to limited real-life data the risk reducing effect for serious injury has not yet been established. Since side airbags are mainly designed and validated for crash severities used in available test procedures little is known regarding the protective effect when severity increases.

  4. Automatic indexing, compiling and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the principles of automatic indexing, is followed by a comparison and summing-up of work by the authors and by a Soviet staff from the Moscou INFORM-ELECTRO Institute. The mathematical and linguistic problems of the automatic building of thesaurus and automatic classification are examined

  5. Automatic detection of aircraft emergency landing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Fei; Rahman, Zia-ur; Krusienski, Dean; Li, Jiang

    2011-06-01

    An automatic landing site detection algorithm is proposed for aircraft emergency landing. Emergency landing is an unplanned event in response to emergency situations. If, as is unfortunately usually the case, there is no airstrip or airfield that can be reached by the un-powered aircraft, a crash landing or ditching has to be carried out. Identifying a safe landing site is critical to the survival of passengers and crew. Conventionally, the pilot chooses the landing site visually by looking at the terrain through the cockpit. The success of this vital decision greatly depends on the external environmental factors that can impair human vision, and on the pilot's flight experience that can vary significantly among pilots. Therefore, we propose a robust, reliable and efficient algorithm that is expected to alleviate the negative impact of these factors. We present only the detection mechanism of the proposed algorithm and assume that the image enhancement for increased visibility, and image stitching for a larger field-of-view have already been performed on the images acquired by aircraftmounted cameras. Specifically, we describe an elastic bound detection method which is designed to position the horizon. The terrain image is divided into non-overlapping blocks which are then clustered according to a "roughness" measure. Adjacent smooth blocks are merged to form potential landing sites whose dimensions are measured with principal component analysis and geometric transformations. If the dimensions of the candidate region exceed the minimum requirement for safe landing, the potential landing site is considered a safe candidate and highlighted on the human machine interface. At the end, the pilot makes the final decision by confirming one of the candidates, also considering other factors such as wind speed and wind direction, etc. Preliminary results show the feasibility of the proposed algorithm.

  6. Cyclists and drivers in road interactions: A comparison of perceived crash risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurand, Nadine; Delhomme, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Today's increase in the number of cyclists has triggered a change in the interactions to be handled by road users. However, few studies have investigated crash risk perceived by cyclists interacting with other users, and few have compared cyclists' and drivers' perceptions of crash risk in bike-car interactions, the most dangerous situation for cyclists. Our aims here are to study perceived crash risk (no matter the seriousness of the crash) in six common road situations during which cyclist crashes are frequent and also to study cyclists' and drivers' perceived risk in bike-car interactions, in comparison to other interaction types (cyclist vs. cyclist and driver vs. driver). We predicted that perceived risk of being involved in a crash during a particular interaction would be greater when in interaction with a car than with a bike, and that drivers would perceive more risk than cyclists would. We also predicted that perceived risk would decrease with drivers' and cyclists' experience of their transportation mode and their perceived control over the interaction situation. We ran an online survey on two samples, experienced cyclists (N=336) and non-cyclist car drivers (N=92). Participants evaluated their personal risk - as cyclists or as drivers - of being involved in a road crash if they were in an interaction with a bike or a car for each of six risky road situations. Experience was measured in terms of years of vehicle driving and driven km; perceived control was measured in terms of perceived skill and responsibility for the risky behavior. The results validated our hypotheses: perceived risk was higher for car drivers than for cyclists and for interacting with a car than with a bike. The implications of these results for interventions to improve road safety for both cyclists and car drivers are discussed. PMID:23021420

  7. The automatic NMR gaussmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the automatic gaussmeter operating according to the principle of nuclear magnetic resonance. There have been discussed the operating principle, the block diagram and operating parameters of the meter. It can be applied to measurements of induction in electromagnets of wide-line radio-spectrometers EPR and NMR and in calibration stands of magnetic induction values. Frequency range of an autodyne oscillator from 0,6 up to 86 MHz for protons is corresponding to the field range from 0.016 up to 2T. Applicaton of other nuclei, such as 7Li and 2D is also foreseen. The induction measurement is carried over automatically, and the NMR signal and value of measured induction are displayed on a monitor screen. (author)

  8. Automatic trend estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Vamos¸, C˘alin

    2013-01-01

    Our book introduces a method to evaluate the accuracy of trend estimation algorithms under conditions similar to those encountered in real time series processing. This method is based on Monte Carlo experiments with artificial time series numerically generated by an original algorithm. The second part of the book contains several automatic algorithms for trend estimation and time series partitioning. The source codes of the computer programs implementing these original automatic algorithms are given in the appendix and will be freely available on the web. The book contains clear statement of the conditions and the approximations under which the algorithms work, as well as the proper interpretation of their results. We illustrate the functioning of the analyzed algorithms by processing time series from astrophysics, finance, biophysics, and paleoclimatology. The numerical experiment method extensively used in our book is already in common use in computational and statistical physics.

  9. 20 CFR 366.6 - Change in notification to Internal Revenue Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in notification to Internal Revenue... Internal Revenue Service. If, after submitting to the Internal Revenue Service notification of liability... named in the notification that reduces the amount of the debt referred to the Internal Revenue...

  10. 10 CFR 50.72 - Immediate notification requirements for operating nuclear power reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immediate notification requirements for operating nuclear power reactors. 50.72 Section 50.72 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Inspections, Records, Reports, Notifications § 50.72 Immediate notification requirements for operating nuclear...

  11. 20 CFR 903.3 - Procedures for notification with respect to records regarding individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for notification with respect to... respect to records regarding individuals. (a) Procedures for notification. The systems of records... contained in this part; (3) Furnish the name of the system of records with respect to which notification...

  12. Automatic Wall Painting Robot

    OpenAIRE

    P.KEERTHANAA, K.JEEVITHA, V.NAVINA, G.INDIRA, S.JAYAMANI

    2013-01-01

    The Primary Aim Of The Project Is To Design, Develop And Implement Automatic Wall Painting Robot Which Helps To Achieve Low Cost Painting Equipment. Despite The Advances In Robotics And Its Wide Spreading Applications, Interior Wall Painting Has Shared Little In Research Activities. The Painting Chemicals Can Cause Hazards To The Human Painters Such As Eye And Respiratory System Problems. Also The Nature Of Painting Procedure That Requires Repeated Work And Hand Rising Makes It Boring, Time A...

  13. Automatic Program Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Lígia Maria da Silva Ribeiro; Gabriel de Sousa Torcato David

    2007-01-01

    To profit from the data collected by the SIGARRA academic IS, a systematic setof graphs and statistics has been added to it and are available on-line. Thisanalytic information can be automatically included in a flexible yearly report foreach program as well as in a synthesis report for the whole school. Somedifficulties in the interpretation of some graphs led to the definition of new keyindicators and the development of a data warehouse across the university whereeffective data consolidation...

  14. Automatic Inductive Programming Tutorial

    OpenAIRE

    Aler, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    Computers that can program themselves is an old dream of Artificial Intelligence, but only nowadays there is some progress of remark. In relation to Machine Learning, a computer program is the most powerful structure that can be learned, pushing the final goal well beyond neural networks or decision trees. There are currently many separate areas, working independently, related to automatic programming, both deductive and inductive. The first goal of this tutorial is to give to the attendants ...

  15. Automatic food decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone

    Consumers' food decisions are to a large extent shaped by automatic processes, which are either internally directed through learned habits and routines or externally influenced by context factors and visual information triggers. Innovative research methods such as eye tracking, choice experiments...... and food diaries allow us to better understand the impact of unconscious processes on consumers' food choices. Simone Mueller Loose will provide an overview of recent research insights into the effects of habit and context on consumers' food choices....

  16. Automatic Differentiation Variational Inference

    OpenAIRE

    Kucukelbir, Alp; Tran, Dustin; Ranganath, Rajesh; Gelman, Andrew; Blei, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Probabilistic modeling is iterative. A scientist posits a simple model, fits it to her data, refines it according to her analysis, and repeats. However, fitting complex models to large data is a bottleneck in this process. Deriving algorithms for new models can be both mathematically and computationally challenging, which makes it difficult to efficiently cycle through the steps. To this end, we develop automatic differentiation variational inference (ADVI). Using our method, the scientist on...

  17. Automaticity or active control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tudoran, Ana Alina; Olsen, Svein Ottar

    This study addresses the quasi-moderating role of habit strength in explaining action loyalty. A model of loyalty behaviour is proposed that extends the traditional satisfaction–intention–action loyalty network. Habit strength is conceptualised as a cognitive construct to refer to the psychologic......, respectively, between intended loyalty and action loyalty. At high levels of habit strength, consumers are more likely to free up cognitive resources and incline the balance from controlled to routine and automatic-like responses....

  18. Automatic digital image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshtasby, A.; Jain, A. K.; Enslin, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper introduces a general procedure for automatic registration of two images which may have translational, rotational, and scaling differences. This procedure involves (1) segmentation of the images, (2) isolation of dominant objects from the images, (3) determination of corresponding objects in the two images, and (4) estimation of transformation parameters using the center of gravities of objects as control points. An example is given which uses this technique to register two images which have translational, rotational, and scaling differences.

  19. Side Impact Regulatory Trends, Crash Environment and Injury Risk in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Priya; Dalmotas, Dainius; Chouinard, Aline

    2015-11-01

    Light duty vehicles in the US are designed to meet and exceed regulatory standards, self-imposed industry agreements and safety rating tests conducted by NHTSA and IIHS. The evolution of side impact regulation in the US from 1973 to 2015 is discussed in the paper along with two key industry agreements in 2003 affecting design of restraint systems and structures for side impact protection. A combination of all the above influences shows that vehicles in the US are being designed to more demanding and comprehensive requirements than in any other region of the world. The crash environment in the US related to side impacts was defined based on data in the nationally representative crash database NASS. Crash environment factors, including the distribution of cars, light trucks and vans (LTV's), and medium-to-heavy vehicles (MHV's) in the fleet, and the frequency of their interactions with one another in side impacts, were considered. Other factors like, crash severity in terms of closing velocity between two vehicles involved in crash, gender and age of involved drivers in two-vehicle and single vehicle crashes, were also examined. Injury risks in side impacts to drivers and passengers were determined in various circumstances such as near-side, far-side, and single vehicle crashes as a function of crash severity, in terms of estimated closing speed or lateral delta-V. Also injury risks in different pairs of striking and struck cars and LTV's, were estimated. A logistic regression model for studying injury risks in two vehicle crashes was developed. The risk factors included in the model include case and striking vehicles, consisting of cars, SUV's, vans, and pickup trucks, delta-V, damage extent, occupant proximity to the impact side, age and gender of the occupant, and belt use. Results show that car occupants make up the vast majority of serious-to-fatally injured occupants. Injury rates of car occupants in two-vehicle collision are highest when the car is struck by a

  20. Effects from airplane crashes and gas explosions to Leningrad nuclear plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junttila, K.; Varpasuo, P. [IVO Power Engineering Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    In this study the effects of aircraft crash and gas explosion to Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant has been researched. One of the two reactor buildings is modeled with finite element method using the pre-processor program MSC/PATRAN and analyzed with MSC/NASTRAN analysis program. In MSC/PATRAN or FEMAP, which is a pre-processor program of MSC/NASTRAN for Windows, the reactor building of the plant has been modeled with shell and beam elements and the load sets describing the aircraft crash and gas explosion have been developed. The crash loads are from Cessna 210 civil airplane crash with impact velocity 360 km/h and maximum impact force of 7 MN and Phantom RF-43 military airplane crash with impact velocity 215 m/s and with maximum impact force of 110 MN. The gas explosion pressure wave simulates the deflagration wave with maximum pressure of 0,045 MPa. Seven Cessna 210 airplane crash locations, two Phantom RF-43 airplane crash locations and one gas explosion load case is modeled. Airplane crash loads were from different directions and to different points of impact in the reactor building. The gas explosion load was assumed to affect the reactor building from one side parallel to one of the global coordinate axes of the model. With MSC/NASTRAN reactions from loads are analyzed. All loads were timedependent; their magnitude varied with time and consequently the analysis was carried out with the aid of transient response analysis. Time step in Cessna 210 analysis was 0,003 s and in Phantom RF-43 and gas explosion analyses 0,01 s. The greatest displacement from Cessna 210 loads was 12 mm and from Phantom RF-43 load 344 mm. The last value shows that construction would fail with that load. The greatest displacement from gas explosion load was 68 mm. Stresses are not so interesting in this preliminary analysis of the effects, but they are shown in pictures embedded in the report text. Displacements were greatest in upper part of the reactor building, where no intersections

  1. Patologia da comunicação: Crash sem pentecostes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgária Chain Féres Matos

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do ensaio é mostrar a metrópole como o sujeito histórico da contemporaneidade, por meio da análise do filme Crash. Ela é o microcosmo em que se comunicam indivíduos pela mediação do automóvel. Nela inscrevem-se as relações sociais e seus conflitos: xenofobia, racismo, particularismos legais e desregulamentações políticas. Mundo menos dominado por pessoas e mais pelo acaso, ele resulta da determinação de todas as esferas da vida pelo fator econômico e pelas derivas do mercado mundial, forma moderna do destino. Palavras-chave: crash; estado de direito; estado de exceção; fundamentalismos Abstract: The Pathology of Communication: Crash without Pentecost — The purpose of this essay is to portray the metropolis as the historical subject of contemporaneousness, based on an analysis of the movie Crash, which illustrates the microcosm in which individual communications are mediated by the automobile and which is marked by social relations and their conflicts: xenophobia, racism, legal particularities and political deregulation. A world ruled by fortuitousness rather than by human will, it is the product of the determination of all spheres of life by economic factors and by global market trends, seen as the modern depiction of fate. Keywords: Crash; rule of law; rule of exception; fundamentalism

  2. A mixed logit analysis of two-vehicle crash severities involving a motorcycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheed, Mohammad Saad B; Gkritza, Konstantina; Zhang, Wei; Hans, Zachary

    2013-12-01

    Using motorcycle crash data for Iowa from 2001 to 2008, this paper estimates a mixed logit model to investigate the factors that affect crash severity outcomes in a collision between a motorcycle and another vehicle. These include crash-specific factors (such as manner of collision, motorcycle rider and non-motorcycle driver and vehicle actions), roadway and environmental conditions, location and time, motorcycle rider and non-motorcycle driver and vehicle attributes. The methodological approach allows the parameters to vary across observations as opposed to a single parameter representing all observations. Our results showed non-uniform effects of rear-end collisions on minor injury crashes, as well as of the roadway speed limit greater or equal to 55mph, the type of area (urban), the riding season (summer) and motorcyclist's gender on low severity crashes. We also found significant effects of the roadway surface condition, clear vision (not obscured by moving vehicles, trees, buildings, or other), light conditions, speed limit, and helmet use on severe injury outcomes. PMID:23830505

  3. Analyzing and modeling risk exposure of pedestrian children to involvement in car crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Wafa; Shiftan, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the various variables affecting pedestrian children road crashes, placing emphasis on the effect of daily activity patterns and the built environment, including the children's residential neighborhoods and the land use of the places where they conduct their activities. Two complementary data sources from the case study of an Arab town in northern Israel were used to provide a holistic picture of child-pedestrian road crashes: police files providing detailed analyzes of the reason for each crash, its location, and the characteristics of the driver involved; and a survey of 199 households with both involved and not involved children in road crashes, including a one-day travel diary. The study found that a combination of three groups of variables affects child-pedestrian road crashes: socio-economic status, travel patterns, and land use. Most vulnerable are boys from a low socio-economic group who live in areas of high density and mixed land use near a major road and who tend to walk to and from school and additional activities after school. PMID:23915471

  4. Experimental Photogrammetric Techniques Used on Five Full-Scale Aircraft Crash Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin D.

    2016-01-01

    Between 2013 and 2015, full-scale crash tests were conducted on five aircraft at the Landing and Impact Research Facility (LandIR) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Two tests were conducted on CH-46E airframes as part of the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) project, and three tests were conduced on Cessna 172 aircraft as part of the Emergency Locator Transmitter Survivability and Reliability (ELTSAR) project. Each test served to evaluate a variety of crashworthy systems including: seats, occupants, restraints, composite energy absorbing structures, and Emergency Locator Transmitters. As part of each test, the aircraft were outfitted with a variety of internal and external cameras that were focused on unique aspects of the crash event. A subset of three camera was solely used in the acquisition of photogrammetric test data. Examples of this data range from simple two-dimensional marker tracking for the determination of aircraft impact conditions to entire full-scale airframe deformation to markerless tracking of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs, a.k.a. crash test dummies) during the crash event. This report describes and discusses the techniques used and implications resulting from the photogrammetric data acquired from each of the five tests.

  5. Design of lightweight magnesium car body structure under crash and vibration constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Kiani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Car body design in view of structural performance and lightweighting is a challenging task due to all the performance targets that must be satisfied such as vehicle safety and ride quality. In this paper, material replacement along with multidisciplinary design optimization strategy is proposed to develop a lightweight car body structure that satisfies the crash and vibration criteria while minimizing weight. Through finite element simulations, full frontal, offset frontal, and side crashes of a full car model are evaluated for peak acceleration, intrusion distance, and the internal energy absorbed by the structural parts. In addition, the first three fundamental natural frequencies are combined with the crash metrics to form the design constraints. The wall thicknesses of twenty-two parts are considered as the design variables. Latin Hypercube Sampling is used to sample the design space, while Radial Basis Function methodology is used to develop surrogate models for the selected crash responses at multiple sites as well as the first three fundamental natural frequencies. A nonlinear surrogate-based optimization problem is formulated for mass minimization under crash and vibration constraints. Using Sequential Quadratic Programming, the design optimization problem is solved with the results verified by finite element simulations. The performance of the optimum design with magnesium parts shows significant weight reduction and better performance compared to the baseline design.

  6. Application of the Hyper-Poisson Generalized Linear Model for Analyzing Motor Vehicle Crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazraee, S Hadi; Sáez-Castillo, Antonio Jose; Geedipally, Srinivas Reddy; Lord, Dominique

    2015-05-01

    The hyper-Poisson distribution can handle both over- and underdispersion, and its generalized linear model formulation allows the dispersion of the distribution to be observation-specific and dependent on model covariates. This study's objective is to examine the potential applicability of a newly proposed generalized linear model framework for the hyper-Poisson distribution in analyzing motor vehicle crash count data. The hyper-Poisson generalized linear model was first fitted to intersection crash data from Toronto, characterized by overdispersion, and then to crash data from railway-highway crossings in Korea, characterized by underdispersion. The results of this study are promising. When fitted to the Toronto data set, the goodness-of-fit measures indicated that the hyper-Poisson model with a variable dispersion parameter provided a statistical fit as good as the traditional negative binomial model. The hyper-Poisson model was also successful in handling the underdispersed data from Korea; the model performed as well as the gamma probability model and the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson model previously developed for the same data set. The advantages of the hyper-Poisson model studied in this article are noteworthy. Unlike the negative binomial model, which has difficulties in handling underdispersed data, the hyper-Poisson model can handle both over- and underdispersed crash data. Although not a major issue for the Conway-Maxwell-Poisson model, the effect of each variable on the expected mean of crashes is easily interpretable in the case of this new model. PMID:25385093

  7. Macroscopic modeling of pedestrian and bicycle crashes: A cross-comparison of estimation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoh-Gyimah, Richard; Saberi, Meead; Sarvi, Majid

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a cross-comparison of different estimation methods to model pedestrian and bicycle crashes. The study contributes to macro level safety studies by providing further methodological and empirical evidence on the various factors that influence the frequency of pedestrian and bicycle crashes at the planning level. Random parameter negative binomial (RPNB) models are estimated to explore the effects of various planning factors associated with total, serious injury and minor injury crashes while accounting for unobserved heterogeneity. Results of the RPNB models were compared with the results of a non-spatial negative binomial (NB) model and a Poisson-Gamma-CAR model. Key findings are, (1) the RPNB model performed best with the lowest mean absolute deviation, mean squared predicted error and Akaiki information criterion measures and (2) signs of estimated parameters are consistent if these variables are significant in models with the same response variables. We found that vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT), population, percentage of commuters cycling or walking to work, and percentage of households without motor vehicles have a significant and positive correlation with the number of pedestrian and bicycle crashes. Mixed land use is also found to have a positive association with the number of pedestrian and bicycle crashes. Results have planning and policy implications aimed at encouraging the use of sustainable modes of transportation while ensuring the safety of pedestrians and cyclist. PMID:27209153

  8. Origin of crashes in three US stock markets: shocks and bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Anders

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents an exclusive classification of the largest crashes in Dow Jones industrial average, SP500 and NASDAQ in the past century. Crashes are objectively defined as the top-rank filtered drawdowns (loss from the last local maximum to the next local minimum disregarding noise fluctuations), where the size of the filter is determined by the historical volatility of the index. It is shown that all crashes can be linked to either an external shock, e.g., outbreak of war, or a log-periodic power law (LPPL) bubble with an empirically well-defined complex value of the exponent. Conversely, with one sole exception all previously identified LPPL bubbles are followed by a top-rank drawdown. As a consequence, the analysis presented suggest a one-to-one correspondence between market crashes defined as top-rank filtered drawdowns on one hand and surprising news and LPPL bubbles on the other. We attribute this correspondence to the efficient market hypothesis effective on two quite different time scales depending on whether the market instability the crash represent is internally or externally generated.

  9. Serious head and neck injury as a predictor of occupant position in fatal rollover crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, M D; Dobbertin, K; Kohles, S S; Uhrenholt, L; Eriksson, A

    2012-10-10

    Serious head and neck injuries are a common finding in fatalities associated with rollover crashes. In some fatal rollover crashes, particularly when ejection occurs, the determination of which occupant was driving at the time of the crash may be uncertain. In the present investigation, we describe the analysis of rollover crash data from the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System for the years 1997 through 2007 in which we examined the relationship between a serious head and neck injury in an occupant and a specified degree of roof deformation at the occupant's seating position. We found 960 occupants who qualified for the analysis, with 142 deaths among the subjects. Using a ranked composite head and neck injury score (the HNISS) we found a strong relationship between HNISS and the degree of roof crush. As a result of the analysis, we arrived at a predictive model, in which each additional unit increase in HNISS equated to an increased odds of roof crush as follows: for ≥8 cm of roof crush compared with occupant position in a rollover crash-related fatality. PMID:22742739

  10. Comparison of risk factors for cervical spine, head, serious, and fatal injury in rollover crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, James R; Cormier, Joseph M; Manoogian, Sarah J

    2012-03-01

    Previous epidemiological studies of rollover crashes have focused primarily on serious and fatal injuries in general, while rollover crash testing has focused almost exclusively on cervical spine injury. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the risk factors for cervical spine, head, serious, and fatal injury in real world rollover crashes. Rollover crashes from 1995-2008 in the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) were investigated. A large data set of 6015 raw cases (2.5 million weighted) was generated. Nonparametric univariate analyses, univariate logistic regression, and multivariate logistic regression were conducted. Complete or partial ejection, a lack of seatbelt use, a greater number of roof inversions, and older occupant age significantly increased the risk of all types of injuries studied (phead, and cervical spine injury (pinjury in general. Higher BMI was associated with an increased risk of fatal, serious, and cervical spine injury (phead injury. Greater roof crush was associated with a higher rate of fatal and cervical spine injury (poccupant height, and occupant gender had inconsistent and generally non-significant effects on injury. This study demonstrates both common and unique risk factors for different types of injuries in rollover crashes. PMID:22269486

  11. Robust human body model injury prediction in simulated side impact crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golman, Adam J; Danelson, Kerry A; Stitzel, Joel D

    2016-01-01

    This study developed a parametric methodology to robustly predict occupant injuries sustained in real-world crashes using a finite element (FE) human body model (HBM). One hundred and twenty near-side impact motor vehicle crashes were simulated over a range of parameters using a Toyota RAV4 (bullet vehicle), Ford Taurus (struck vehicle) FE models and a validated human body model (HBM) Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS). Three bullet vehicle crash parameters (speed, location and angle) and two occupant parameters (seat position and age) were varied using a Latin hypercube design of Experiments. Four injury metrics (head injury criterion, half deflection, thoracic trauma index and pelvic force) were used to calculate injury risk. Rib fracture prediction and lung strain metrics were also analysed. As hypothesized, bullet speed had the greatest effect on each injury measure. Injury risk was reduced when bullet location was further from the B-pillar or when the bullet angle was more oblique. Age had strong correlation to rib fractures frequency and lung strain severity. The injuries from a real-world crash were predicted using two different methods by (1) subsampling the injury predictors from the 12 best crush profile matching simulations and (2) using regression models. Both injury prediction methods successfully predicted the case occupant's low risk for pelvic injury, high risk for thoracic injury, rib fractures and high lung strains with tight confidence intervals. This parametric methodology was successfully used to explore crash parameter interactions and to robustly predict real-world injuries. PMID:26158552

  12. Can a video-based hazard perception test used for driver licensing predict crash involvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horswill, Mark S; Hill, Andrew; Wetton, Mark

    2015-09-01

    In 2008, the state of Queensland in Australia introduced a video-based hazard perception test as part of the licensing process for new drivers. A key validity check for such a test is whether scores are associated with crash involvement. We present data demonstrating that drivers who failed the hazard perception test (based on a ROC curve-derived pass mark) were 25% [95% confidence interval (CI) 6%, 48%] more likely to be involved in an active crash (defined as a crash occurring while the driver's vehicle was moving but they were not engaged in parking or reversing) during a one year period following the test (controlling for driving exposure, age, and sex). Failing drivers were also 17% (95% CI 6%, 29%) more likely to have been involved in active crashes prior to the test, in the period since obtaining their provisional license. These data support the proposal that the hazard perception test is a valid measure of crash-related driving performance. PMID:26093097

  13. Structural integrity analysis of an Ignalina nuclear power plant building subjected to an airplane crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent terrorist attacks using commandeered commercial airliners on civil structures have raised the issue of the ability of nuclear power plants to survive the consequences of an airliner crash. The structural integrity analysis due to the effects of an aircraft crash on an Ignalina nuclear power plant (INPP) accident localization system (ALS) building is the subject of this paper. A combination of the finite element method and empirical relationships were used for the analysis. A global structural integrity analysis was performed for a portion of the ALS building using the dynamic loading from an aircraft crash impact model. The local effects caused by impact of the aircraft's engine on the building wall were evaluated independently by using an empirical formula. The results from the crash analysis of a twin engine commercial aircraft show that the impacted reinforced concrete wall of the ALS building will not have through-the-wall concrete failure, and the reinforcement will not fail. Strain-rate effects were found to delay the onset of cracking. Therefore, the structural integrity of the impacted wall of the INPP ALS building will be maintained during the crash event studied

  14. Iowa trial court blocks parental notification law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-31

    The US District Court for the Southern District of Iowa issued a preliminary injunction on January 22 that prohibits enforcement of that state's parental notification requirement for young women seeking abortions. Under the law, which was passed by the Iowa legislature in March 1996, one parent of a woman under the age of 18 must be notified at least 48 hours before the procedure (see RFN V/6). Alternatively, the young woman may seek a court waiver of the mandate. Judge Ronald Longstaff found that the women's health care providers challenging the law were likely to prevail in their claim that the statute presents an unconstitutional obstacle to young women's right to choose abortion. Affirming findings made in a temporary restraining order that prevented the law from taking effect earlier in the month, Judge Longstaff held that the law would put doctors who provide emergency abortions to young women at risk of liability, a possibility that could discourage physicians from providing abortion services (see RFN VI/1). The court also found that the judicial bypass laid out in the statute failed to sufficiently protect a young woman's confidentiality or guarantee an expeditious procedure. The plaintiffs in Planned Parenthood of Greater Iowa vs. Miller are represented by Dara Klassel and Roger Evans of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America, CRLP's Priscilla Smith and Michael Erdos, Mark Lambert of Planned Parenthood of Greater Iowa, and Randall Wilson of the Iowa Civil Liberties Union. PMID:12292101

  15. Notification of occupational disease and the risk of work disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik A; Christensen, Michael V; Jensen, Lone Donbæk;

    2012-01-01

    , occupational, and social characteristics that predict poorer vocational prognosis. Analyses that adjusted for these differences showed an increased risk of work disability following notification for patients who were working when notified at baseline (HR (adj)1.46, 95% CI 1.17-1.82). No effect was seen for...... of 564 patients were notified of an occupational disease when they were examined at baseline and 1740 patients were not. We obtained weekly information on sick payment, unemployment payment, disability pension, rehabilitation benefit, and other social benefits during the two years of follow-up from a...... national register. Using Cox regression models, we analyzed notification and adjusted hazard ratios (HR (adj)) of work disability (defined as >12 weeks of social benefits during the first or second year of follow-up). RESULTS: Prior to notification, notified patients had higher levels of clinical...

  16. Influence of equilibrium shear flow on peeling-ballooning instability and edge localized mode crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The E × B shear flow plays a dual role on peeling-ballooning modes and their subsequently triggered edge localized mode (ELM) crashes. On one hand, the flow shear can stabilize high-n modes and twist the mode in the poloidal direction, constraining the mode's radial extent and reducing the size of the corresponding ELM. On the other hand, the shear flow also introduces the Kelvin-Helmholtz drive, which can destabilize peeling-ballooning modes. The overall effect of equilibrium shear flow on peeling-ballooning modes and ELM crashes depends on the competition between these two effects. When the flow shear is either small or very large, it can reduce ELM size. However, for moderate values of flow shear, the destabilizing effect from the Kelvin-Helmholtz term is dominant and leads to larger ELM crashes.

  17. Effects of sawtooth crashes on beam ions and fusion product tritons in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, F.B.; Hone, M.A.; Jarvis, O.N.; Loughlin, M.J.; Sadler, G. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Adams, J.M.; Bond, D.S.; Watkins, N. [UKAEA Harwell Lab. (United Kingdom). Energy Technology Div.; Howarth, P.J.A. [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1994-07-01

    The effect of a sawtooth crash on the radial distribution of the slowing down fusion product tritons and on beams ions, is examined with measurements of the 2.5 MeV and 14 MeV neutron emission line-integrals before and after sawtooth crashes. In deuterium discharges, the 14 MeV neutron production was wholly attributable to burnup of the 1 MeV fusion product tritons from d-d fusion. The local emissivity of 14 MeV neutrons, and hence of the profile of thermalizing tritons, is shown to be only weakly affected by crashes in the discharges studied. This is in contradiction with the apparent behaviour of injected beam ions as deduced from a study of the considerable changes in local emissivity of the 2.5 MeV neutrons. Nevertheless, the behaviour of the fusion product tritons is consistent with the scaling of the beam injected deuterium. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  18. Regression Model for Light Weight and Crashworthiness Enhancement Design of Automotive Parts in Frontal CAR Crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Gihyun; Huh, Hoon; Park, Sungho

    This paper deals with a regression model for light weight and crashworthiness enhancement design of automotive parts in frontal car crash. The ULSAB-AVC model is employed for the crash analysis and effective parts are selected based on the amount of energy absorption during the crash behavior. Finite element analyses are carried out for designated design cases in order to investigate the crashworthiness and weight according to the material and thickness of main energy absorption parts. Based on simulations results, a regression analysis is performed to construct a regression model utilized for light weight and crashworthiness enhancement design of automotive parts. An example for weight reduction of main energy absorption parts demonstrates the validity of a regression model constructed.

  19. Optimization of Car Body under Constraints of Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH), and Crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodiyalam, Srinivas; Yang, Ren-Jye; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    To be competitive on the today's market, cars have to be as light as possible while meeting the Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) requirements and conforming to Government-man dated crash survival regulations. The latter are difficult to meet because they involve very compute-intensive, nonlinear analysis, e.g., the code RADIOSS capable of simulation of the dynamics, and the geometrical and material nonlinearities of a thin-walled car structure in crash, would require over 12 days of elapsed time for a single design of a 390K elastic degrees of freedom model, if executed on a single processor of the state-of-the-art SGI Origin2000 computer. Of course, in optimization that crash analysis would have to be invoked many times. Needless to say, that has rendered such optimization intractable until now. The car finite element model is shown. The advent of computers that comprise large numbers of concurrently operating processors has created a new environment wherein the above optimization, and other engineering problems heretofore regarded as intractable may be solved. The procedure, shown, is a piecewise approximation based method and involves using a sensitivity based Taylor series approximation model for NVH and a polynomial response surface model for Crash. In that method the NVH constraints are evaluated using a finite element code (MSC/NASTRAN) that yields the constraint values and their derivatives with respect to design variables. The crash constraints are evaluated using the explicit code RADIOSS on the Origin 2000 operating on 256 processors simultaneously to generate data for a polynomial response surface in the design variable domain. The NVH constraints and their derivatives combined with the response surface for the crash constraints form an approximation to the system analysis (surrogate analysis) that enables a cycle of multidisciplinary optimization within move limits. In the inner loop, the NVH sensitivities are recomputed to update the NVH

  20. Recession depression: mental health effects of the 2008 stock market crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Melissa; Mellor, Jennifer M; Nicholas, Lauren Hersch

    2013-12-01

    Do sudden, large wealth losses affect mental health? We use exogenous variation in the interview dates of the 2008 Health and Retirement Study to assess the impact of large wealth losses on mental health among older U.S. adults. We compare cross-wave changes in wealth and mental health for respondents interviewed before and after the October 2008 stock market crash. We find that the crash reduced wealth and increased feelings of depression and use of antidepressant drugs, and that these effects were largest among respondents with high levels of stock holdings prior to the crash. These results suggest that sudden wealth losses cause immediate declines in subjective measures of mental health. However, we find no evidence that wealth losses lead to increases in clinically-validated measures of depressive symptoms or indicators of depression. PMID:24113241

  1. Multifractal analysis and instability index of prior-to-crash market situations

    CERN Document Server

    Piacquadio, M

    2009-01-01

    We take prior-to-crash market prices (NASDAQ, Dow Jones Industrial Average) as a signal, a function of time, we project these discrete values onto a vertical axis, thus obtaining a Cantordust. We study said cantordust with the tools of multifractal analysis, obtaining spectra by definition and by lagrangian coordinates. These spectra have properties that typify the prior-to-crash market situation. Any of these spectra entail elaborate processing of the raw signal data. With the unprocessed raw data we obtain an instability index, also with properties that typify the prior-to-crisis market situation. Both spectra and the instability index agree in characterizing such crashes, and in giving an early warning of them.

  2. Collective Behavior of Stock Prices as a Precursor to Market Crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskawa, J.

    We study precursors to the global market crash that occurred onall main stock exchanges throughout the world in October 2008 about three weeks after the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. on 15 September. We examine the collective behavior of stock returns and analyze the market mode, which is a market-wide collective mode, with constituent issues of the FTSE 100 index listed on the London Stock Exchange. Before the market crash, a sharp rise in a measure of the collective behavior was observed. It was shown to be associated with news including the words ``financial crisis". They did not impact stock prices severely alone, but they exacerbated the pessimistic mood that prevailed among stock market participants. Such news increased after the Lehman shock preceding the market crash. The variance increased along with the cumulative amount of news according to a power law.

  3. Automatic radioactive waste recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of a plutonium ingot by calcium reduction process at CEA/Valduc generates a residue called 'slag'. This article introduces the recycling unit which is dedicated to the treatment of slags. The aim is to separate and to recycle the plutonium trapped in this bulk on the one hand, and to generate a disposable waste from the slag on the other hand. After a general introduction of the facilities, some elements will be enlightened, particularly the dissolution step, the filtration and the drying equipment. Reflections upon technological constraints will be proposed, and the benefits of a fully automatic recycling unit of nuclear waste will also be stressed. (authors)

  4. Automatic Configuration in NTP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Zongli(蒋宗礼); Xu Binbin

    2003-01-01

    NTP is nowadays the most widely used distributed network time protocol, which aims at synchronizing the clocks of computers in a network and keeping the accuracy and validation of the time information which is transmitted in the network. Without automatic configuration mechanism, the stability and flexibility of the synchronization network built upon NTP protocol are not satisfying. P2P's resource discovery mechanism is used to look for time sources in a synchronization network, and according to the network environment and node's quality, the synchronization network is constructed dynamically.

  5. Effect of forming rate on the impact tensile properties of the steels under crash test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grumbach

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main objective of this study is to examine the mechanical and metallurgical behaviour of thetailored blanks and base metals for thin sheet steels used in the car industry by using a new type of crash test/impact (ITT. It exposes the effect of forming rate on the toughness of thin welded joints (tailored blanks forInterstitial Free (IFS steels used in the automotive industry.Design/methodology/approach: A special crash test device is used in different temperature and the simulatedcrash tests are performed at a constant speed of 5.52 m/s (strain rate about 250 s−1.Findings: The specimen is submitted to impact tensile test at different temperatures. According to testingtemperature, fracture mode varies: At low temperatures, brittle fracture occurs: Due to stress concentration,fracture always occurs in the notched section. At high temperatures, the specimen fails by ductile fracture.Toughness of the steel sheets (base metals, BM or tailored blanks, TBs after forming at certain levels is wellcompared at different materials and test conditions.Practical implications: This study gives very useful data for the crash test. This is a new conception ofspecimen and of the impact/crash machine. It is easily used in automotive industry for practical and economicreason to give rapid answers to designer and also steel makers for ranking the materials.Originality/value: This research used a new developed test called simplified crash test for evaluating theeffect of forming rate on the toughness of thin welded joints (tailored blanks / mechanical assemblies in highformability steel sheets for stamping submitted to dynamic loads such as experienced in real crash tests.

  6. Are drivers aware of sleepiness and increasing crash risk while driving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ann; Friswell, Rena; Olivier, Jake; Grzebieta, Raphael

    2014-09-01

    Drivers are advised to take breaks when they feel too tired to drive, but there is question over whether they are able to detect increasing fatigue and sleepiness sufficiently to decide when to take a break. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which drivers have access to cognitive information about their current state of sleepiness, likelihood of falling asleep, and the implications for driving performance and the likelihood of crashing. Ninety drivers were recruited to do a 2h drive in a driving simulator. They were divided into three groups: one made ratings of their sleepiness, likelihood of falling asleep and likelihood of crashing over the next few minutes at prompts occurring at 200s intervals throughout the drive, the second rated sleepiness and likelihood of falling asleep at prompts but pressed a button on the steering wheel at any time if they felt they were near to crashing and the third made no ratings and only used a button-press if they felt a crash was likely. Fatigue and sleepiness was encouraged by monotonous driving conditions, an imposed shorter than usual sleep on the night before and by afternoon testing. Drivers who reported that they were possibly, likely or very likely to fall asleep in the next few minutes, were more than four times more likely to crash subsequently. Those who rated themselves as sleepy or likely to fall asleep had a more than 9-fold increase in the hazards of a centerline crossing compared to those who rated themselves as alert. The research shows clearly that drivers can detect changes in their levels of sleepiness sufficiently to make a safe decision to stop driving due to sleepiness. Therefore, road safety policy needs to move from reminding drivers of the signs of sleepiness and focus on encouraging drivers to respond to obvious indicators of fatigue and sleepiness and consequent increased crash risk. PMID:24803170

  7. Rural casualty crashes on the Kings Highway: A new approach for road safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alian, Sahar; Baker, R G V; Wood, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    This paper will consider the contribution that changes in road geometry and driver visual information make to the incidence and distribution of road casualties in different driving environments. This relationship will be explored specifically for the Kings Highway, a major arterial road connecting Queanbeyan with coastal southern New South Wales, Australia. It introduces and suggests a new empirical approach of plotting crashes with road segmentation, calculating sinuosity indices and grades as key features of road geometry, and critical visual points as a behavioural component of road curvature, within a GIS context. It is an approach that might be used when detailed road geometry data is not available. The visualisation and segmentation approach in this research might be used for summarising crash rates and road geometry factors, and for comparing day/night and eastbound/westbound driving conditions. The results suggest some early interpretations for detailed road safety studies that might be considered at local or national levels. The rate of crashes increases according to changes in road geometry factors during the day and for eastbound travel. This is not the case for night driving where the incidence of crashes is similar on both straight and curved roads segments due to the headlight effect and limited background visual field. Crash clusters at day-time may be due to the stronger effect of road geometry (e.g. combination of curvature and vertical grade) on driver behaviour travelling eastbound. The outcomes suggest that it might be essential to consider the effect of environmental factors in any road safety and crash analysis studies. PMID:27372441

  8. Utilizing computed tomography scans for analysis of motorcycle helmets in real-world crashes - biomed 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftis, Kathryn L; Moreno, Daniel P; Tan, Joshua; Gabler, Hampton C; Stitzel, Joel D

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, there were more than 5,000 motorcycle crash fatalities in the United States. Many states have motorcycle helmet laws that are meant to protect riders during a crash. After recruiting motorcycle occupants injured in crashes, a protocol was established to scan three different types of motorcycle helmets commonly worn (cap, ¾ shield, and full face shield) using a computed tomography (CT) scanner. The protocol developed was for a GE 64 slice PET/CT Discovery VCT scanner with axial images from anterior to posterior helmet acquired in helical mode. It had 512x512 resolution and the full face and ¾ face shield helmets were scanned with greater voxels in the axial plane compared to the skull cap helmets. New helmets were scanned as exemplary images for comparison with helmets involved in motorcycle crashes. After CT scans were gathered, three-dimensional reconstructions were made to visualize scratches and impacts to the exterior of the helmets. Initial work was also conducted in analyzing interior components, and a trend was seen in decreased thickness between the interior foam and shell with sides of the exterior helmet thought to have contacted roadside barriers or the ground during motorcycle crashes. These helmet analysis methods have been established, and will be used to investigate multiple motorcycle crashes in conjunction with occupant injuries and direct head impacts to improve helmet design and the understanding of head injuries. This work also establishes the basis for development of finite element models of three of the most common helmet types. PMID:21525626

  9. A multinomial logit model-Bayesian network hybrid approach for driver injury severity analyses in rear-end crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Zhang, Guohui; Tarefder, Rafiqul; Ma, Jianming; Wei, Heng; Guan, Hongzhi

    2015-07-01

    Rear-end crash is one of the most common types of traffic crashes in the U.S. A good understanding of its characteristics and contributing factors is of practical importance. Previously, both multinomial Logit models and Bayesian network methods have been used in crash modeling and analysis, respectively, although each of them has its own application restrictions and limitations. In this study, a hybrid approach is developed to combine multinomial logit models and Bayesian network methods for comprehensively analyzing driver injury severities in rear-end crashes based on state-wide crash data collected in New Mexico from 2010 to 2011. A multinomial logit model is developed to investigate and identify significant contributing factors for rear-end crash driver injury severities classified into three categories: no injury, injury, and fatality. Then, the identified significant factors are utilized to establish a Bayesian network to explicitly formulate statistical associations between injury severity outcomes and explanatory attributes, including driver behavior, demographic features, vehicle factors, geometric and environmental characteristics, etc. The test results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid approach performs reasonably well. The Bayesian network reference analyses indicate that the factors including truck-involvement, inferior lighting conditions, windy weather conditions, the number of vehicles involved, etc. could significantly increase driver injury severities in rear-end crashes. The developed methodology and estimation results provide insights for developing effective countermeasures to reduce rear-end crash injury severities and improve traffic system safety performance. PMID:25888994

  10. 77 FR 46154 - Announcing the Twentieth Public Meeting of the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ...This notice announces the Twentieth Public Meeting of members of the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network. CIREN is a collaborative effort to conduct research on crashes and injuries at six Level I Trauma Centers across the United States linked by a computer network. The current CIREN model utilizes two types of centers, medical and engineering. Medical centers are based at Level I......

  11. Airplane crash modelling: assessment of the riera model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Riera approach is the most common method of defining a loading curve of a missile impacting a structure. After a brief reminder of the Riera assumptions (soft crash for crushed parts, instantaneous deceleration of uncrushed part due to local crushing strength of crushing part), some physical insights are developed. According to this model, the loading curve F(x, t), where the section S(x) at distance x (x=x (t)) from missile nose is under crushing, is given by the sum of a term Re(x), corresponding to the mechanical crushing strength of the section S(x), and of a term μ(x)*v(t)2, corresponding to the inertial force exerted at section S(x) by mass elements of density μ(x), whose velocity decreases from v to zero. Some analytical considerations are proposed regarding the missile motion when impacting a rigid target and its energy dissipation. Results from models of missile and target structures performed with the fast dynamic Finite Element code RADIOSS are used to assess the robustness, accuracy and limits of Riera model. Significant discrepancies between these approaches are found for commercial aircraft. Models by fast dynamic explicit code display loading curves characterised by higher and sharper peaks, whereas the velocity decrease of the uncrushed part is delayed. Riera model assumptions are therefore questioned and analysed. Those discrepancies are mainly due to higher distribution peaks of crushing strength and mass density and due to some hard inclusions in aircraft structure, like the engines and the junction of wing to fuselage. Soft impact is no longer relevant for such parts, whose action is then characterised by high peaks of short duration. When rounding the loading curve and spreading the impact area, the shear rupture is underestimated. Regarding concrete damaging, the Riera approach appears too optimistic. In order to keep the simplicity of the Riera approach and to improve its accuracy, the authors propose to evaluate the loading curve by

  12. HTR confinement/containment and the protection against aircraft crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    during accidental conditions), the diffusion data, the dust data and the deposition/lift off mechanisms. For modern modular HTRs, the last confinement barrier performances will have to be determined in accordance with the set of accidents to be considered in the design including internal and external hazards and the limits targeted for the public and the environment protection. Further more the paper presents an analysis of effects of a deliberate crash of a large commercial airliner on a former German HTR design. (authors)

  13. Exploring the effects of roadway characteristics on the frequency and severity of head-on crashes: case studies from Malaysian federal roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour, Mehdi; Yahaya, Ahmad Shukri; Sadullah, Ahmad Farhan

    2014-01-01

    Head-on crashes are among the most severe collision types and of great concern to road safety authorities. Therefore, it justifies more efforts to reduce both the frequency and severity of this collision type. To this end, it is necessary to first identify factors associating with the crash occurrence. This can be done by developing crash prediction models that relate crash outcomes to a set of contributing factors. This study intends to identify the factors affecting both the frequency and severity of head-on crashes that occurred on 448 segments of five federal roads in Malaysia. Data on road characteristics and crash history were collected on the study segments during a 4-year period between 2007 and 2010. The frequency of head-on crashes were fitted by developing and comparing seven count-data models including Poisson, standard negative binomial (NB), random-effect negative binomial, hurdle Poisson, hurdle negative binomial, zero-inflated Poisson, and zero-inflated negative binomial models. To model crash severity, a random-effect generalized ordered probit model (REGOPM) was used given a head-on crash had occurred. With respect to the crash frequency, the random-effect negative binomial (RENB) model was found to outperform the other models according to goodness of fit measures. Based on the results of the model, the variables horizontal curvature, terrain type, heavy-vehicle traffic, and access points were found to be positively related to the frequency of head-on crashes, while posted speed limit and shoulder width decreased the crash frequency. With regard to the crash severity, the results of REGOPM showed that horizontal curvature, paved shoulder width, terrain type, and side friction were associated with more severe crashes, whereas land use, access points, and presence of median reduced the probability of severe crashes. Based on the results of this study, some potential countermeasures were proposed to minimize the risk of head-on crashes. PMID:24172088

  14. Missile crash simulation with the computer program HEMP-ESI. Pt. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the study is to simulate by a precalculation the crash of a soft cylindrical missile on reinforced concrete slabs. The corresponding experiments will be performed at the Meppen test facilities (West Germany). The study has shown that the program used (HEMP-ESI with explicit finite difference zones and finite shells) can realistically simulate the crash problem when three phenomena were correctly controlled. The actual comparison with the experiments will allow a quantitative evaluation of the numerical model. The main results for the two cases are given. (orig./HP)

  15. Effect of forming rate on the impact tensile properties of the steels under crash test

    OpenAIRE

    Grumbach, M; Bayraktar, E.; Kaplan, D.(Department of Physics, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois, 60616, U.S.A.)

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this study is to examine the mechanical and metallurgical behaviour of thetailored blanks and base metals for thin sheet steels used in the car industry by using a new type of crash test/impact (ITT). It exposes the effect of forming rate on the toughness of thin welded joints (tailored blanks) forInterstitial Free (IFS) steels used in the automotive industry.Design/methodology/approach: A special crash test device is used in different temperature and the simula...

  16. Firefly Optimization and Mathematical Modeling of a Vehicle Crash Test Based on Single-Mass

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Klausen; Sondre Sanden Tørdal; Hamid Reza Karimi; Robbersmyr, Kjell G.; Mladen Jecmenica; Ole Melteig

    2014-01-01

    In this paper mathematical modeling of a vehicle crash test based on a single-mass is studied. The model under consideration consists of a single-mass coupled with a spring and/or a damper. The parameters for the spring and damper are obtained by analyzing the measured acceleration in the center of gravity of the vehicle during a crash. A model with a nonlinear spring and damper is also proposed and the parameters will be optimized with different damper and spring characteristics and optimiza...

  17. Frontal Crash Analysis of a Fully Detailed Car Model Based on Finite Element Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Shan-Ling; Zhu Ping; Lin Zhong-Qin; Shi Yu-Liang

    2004-01-01

    This paper sets up a highly detailed finite element model of a car for frontal crashworthiness applications, and then explains the characteristics of it. The geometry model is preprocessed by Hypermesh software. The finite element method solver program selected for the simulation is LS-DYNA. After the crash simulation is carefully analyzed, the frontal crash experiment is aimed to validate the finite element model. The simulation results are basically in agreement with the experimental results. The validation of the finite element model is crucial for the further research in optimization of the automotive structure or lightweighting of the vehicle.

  18. Time-Efficient Read/Write Register in Crash-prone Asynchronous Message-Passing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mostefaoui, Achour; Raynal, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The atomic register is certainly the most basic object of computing science. Its implementation on top of an n-process asynchronous message-passing system has received a lot of attention. It has been shown that t \\textless{} n/2 (where t is the maximal number of processes that may crash) is a necessary and sufficient requirement to build an atomic register on top of a crash-prone asynchronous message-passing system. Considering such a context, this paper visits the notion of a fast implementa...

  19. Automatic readout micrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range

  20. Automatic personnel contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United Nuclear Industries, Inc. (UNI) has developed an automatic personnel contamination monitor (APCM), which uniquely combines the design features of both portal and hand and shoe monitors. In addition, this prototype system also has a number of new features, including: micro computer control and readout, nineteen large area gas flow detectors, real-time background compensation, self-checking for system failures, and card reader identification and control. UNI's experience in operating the Hanford N Reactor, located in Richland, Washington, has shown the necessity of automatically monitoring plant personnel for contamination after they have passed through the procedurally controlled radiation zones. This final check ensures that each radiation zone worker has been properly checked before leaving company controlled boundaries. Investigation of the commercially available portal and hand and shoe monitors indicated that they did not have the sensitivity or sophistication required for UNI's application, therefore, a development program was initiated, resulting in the subject monitor. Field testing shows good sensitivity to personnel contamination with the majority of alarms showing contaminants on clothing, face and head areas. In general, the APCM has sensitivity comparable to portal survey instrumentation. The inherit stand-in, walk-on feature of the APCM not only makes it easy to use, but makes it difficult to bypass. (author)