WorldWideScience

Sample records for automatic cough analyser

  1. A Cough-Based Algorithm for Automatic Diagnosis of Pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, Renard Xaviero Adhi; Imtiaz, Syed Anas; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Pertussis is a contagious respiratory disease which mainly affects young children and can be fatal if left untreated. The World Health Organization estimates 16 million pertussis cases annually worldwide resulting in over 200,000 deaths. It is prevalent mainly in developing countries where it is difficult to diagnose due to the lack of healthcare facilities and medical professionals. Hence, a low-cost, quick and easily accessible solution is needed to provide pertussis diagnosis in such areas to contain an outbreak. In this paper we present an algorithm for automated diagnosis of pertussis using audio signals by analyzing cough and whoop sounds. The algorithm consists of three main blocks to perform automatic cough detection, cough classification and whooping sound detection. Each of these extract relevant features from the audio signal and subsequently classify them using a logistic regression model. The output from these blocks is collated to provide a pertussis likelihood diagnosis. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated using audio recordings from 38 patients. The algorithm is able to diagnose all pertussis successfully from all audio recordings without any false diagnosis. It can also automatically detect individual cough sounds with 92% accuracy and PPV of 97%. The low complexity of the proposed algorithm coupled with its high accuracy demonstrates that it can be readily deployed using smartphones and can be extremely useful for quick identification or early screening of pertussis and for infection outbreaks control. PMID:27583523

  2. Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... coughing helps your body heal or protect itself. Coughs can be either acute or chronic. Acute coughs begin suddenly and usually last no more than 2 to 3 weeks. Acute coughs are the kind you most often get with ...

  3. Cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keenleyside Georgina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cough is a common symptom in palliative medicine and the causes may be multifactorial. When problematic it invariably affects quality of life. Evaluation must begin with a detailed history and examination with consideration given to further tests and imaging. Treatment must begin with the identification and correction of any reversible causes in addition to emperic treatment. A logical approach and regular monitoring is advised.

  4. Automatic incrementalization of Prolog based static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Kahl, Matthias; Saha, Diptikalyan;

    2007-01-01

    Modem development environments integrate various static analyses into the build process. Analyses that analyze the whole project whenever the project changes are impractical in this context. We present an approach to automatic incrementalization of analyses that are specified as tabled logic...... incrementalizing a broad range of static analyses....

  5. Analysing the causes of chronic cough: relation to diesel exhaust, ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and other environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Ulrich

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Air pollution remains a leading cause of many respiratory diseases including chronic cough. Although episodes of incidental, dramatic air pollution are relatively rare, current levels of exposure of pollutants in industrialized and developing countries such as total articles, diesel exhaust particles and common cigarette smoke may be responsible for the development of chronic cough both in children and adults. The present study analyses the effects of common environmental factors as potential causes of chronic cough. Different PubMed-based researches were performed that related the term cough to various environmental factors. There is some evidence that chronic inhalation of diesel can lead to the development of cough. For long-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2, children were found to exhibit increased incidences of chronic cough and decreased lung function parameters. Although a number of studies did not show that outdoor pollution directly causes the development of asthma, they have demonstrated that high levels pollutants and their interaction with sunlight produce ozone (O3 and that repeated exposure to it can lead to chronic cough. In summary, next to the well-known air pollutants which also include particulate matter and sulphur dioxide, a number of other indoor and outdoor pollutants have been demonstrated to cause chronic cough and therefore, environmental factors have to be taken into account as potential initiators of both adult and pediatric chronic cough.

  6. A new methodology for studying dynamics of aerosol particles in sneeze and cough using a digital high-vision, high-speed video system and vector analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekazu Nishimura

    Full Text Available Microbial pathogens of respiratory infectious diseases are often transmitted through particles in sneeze and cough. Therefore, understanding the particle movement is important for infection control. Images of a sneeze induced by nasal cavity stimulation by healthy adult volunteers, were taken by a digital high-vision, high-speed video system equipped with a computer system and treated as a research model. The obtained images were enhanced electronically, converted to digital images every 1/300 s, and subjected to vector analysis of the bioparticles contained in the whole sneeze cloud using automatic image processing software. The initial velocity of the particles or their clusters in the sneeze was greater than 6 m/s, but decreased as the particles moved forward; the momentums of the particles seemed to be lost by 0.15-0.20 s and started a diffusion movement. An approximate equation of a function of elapsed time for their velocity was obtained from the vector analysis to represent the dynamics of the front-line particles. This methodology was also applied for a cough. Microclouds contained in a smoke exhaled with a voluntary cough by a volunteer after smoking one breath of cigarette, were traced as the visible, aerodynamic surrogates for invisible bioparticles of cough. The smoke cough microclouds had an initial velocity greater than 5 m/s. The fastest microclouds were located at the forefront of cloud mass that moving forward; however, their velocity clearly decreased after 0.05 s and they began to diffuse in the environmental airflow. The maximum direct reaches of the particles and microclouds driven by sneezing and coughing unaffected by environmental airflows were estimated by calculations using the obtained equations to be about 84 cm and 30 cm from the mouth, respectively, both achieved in about 0.2 s, suggesting that data relating to the dynamics of sneeze and cough became available by calculation.

  7. Night cough and general practice research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toop, L J; Howie, J G; Paxton, F M

    1986-02-01

    Thirty-four children, aged between three and nine years, presenting with nocturnal cough, were studied on successive nights using an automatic voice activated tape recorder system. Children with a family history of atopy coughed significantly more than children without such a family history. A wide variation in cough frequency was found both between and within subjects. No effects of treatment on cough frequency were demonstrated. Some of the physiological and pathological mechanisms underlying night cough are discussed.

  8. Whooping Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for infants. The coughing spells can be so bad that it is hard for infants to eat, drink, or breathe. To make a diagnosis, your doctor may do a physical exam, blood tests, chest x-rays, or nose or throat cultures. Before there was a vaccine, whooping cough was one of the most common ...

  9. Analysing solar-like oscillations with an automatic pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, S; Regulo, C; Ballot, J; Salabert, D; Chaplin, W J

    2009-01-01

    Kepler mission will provide a huge amount of asteroseismic data during the next few years, among which hundreds of solar-like stars will be targeted. The amount of stars and their observation length represent a step forward in the comprehension of the stellar evolution that has already been initiated by CoRoT and MOST missions. Up to now, the slow cadence of observed targets allowed an individual and personalized analysis of each star. During the survey phase of Kepler, this will be impossible. This is the reason why, within the AsteroFLAG team, we have been developing automatic pipelines for the Kepler solar-like oscillation stars. Our code starts by finding the frequency-range where p-mode power is present and, after fitting the background, it looks for the mode amplitudes as well as the central frequency of the p-mode hump. A good estimation of the large separation can thus be inferred in this region. If the signal to noise is high enough, the code obtains the characteristics of the p modes by doing a glob...

  10. Study of a bubble chamber's pictures automatic analyser: Coccinelle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automatic scanning and measuring system ''Coccinelle'' built in the Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire of College de France, is specially made for the pictures of the new large bubble chambers like BEBC and Mirabelle. This device uses the spot of a high precision cathode ray tube for the analysis of the picture according to a scanning window. The signal of a photomultiplier located behind the picture gives, after processing, the useful information in the form of coordinates of the analyzed points. Electronics, connected to a computer, generates the movements of the spot, the backward and forward movement of the films, and gives the right information for the programs of geometrical reconstruction of the tracks. The use of the device is based upon the collaboration of a programmed automaton and a human operator that have conversational facilities: TV display, light-pen and function keyboard. Beyond a detailed description of the whole device, this thesis insists especially on the following electronic parts: sweep generation of the spot, photomultiplier signal processing

  11. Chronic coughing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic coughing was acknowledged to result from pathological state of the respiratory organs. Cardiac diseases could be accompanied by coughing as well. It was recommended to perform x-ray examinations, including biomedical radiography of the chest, computerized tomography, scintiscanning with 67Ga-citrate, bronchi examination in order to exclude heart disease. The complex examination permitted to detect localization and type of the changes in the lungs and mediastinum, to distinguish benign tumor from malignant one

  12. Your Child's Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and when to go to the doctor. "Barky" Cough Barky coughs are usually caused by a swelling ... happens when the child inhales (breathes in). Whooping Cough Whooping cough is another name for pertussis, an ...

  13. Validation of the automatic image analyser to assess retinal vessel calibre (ALTAIR): a prospective study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Ortiz, Luis; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel A.; Recio-Rodríguez, Jose I; Maderuelo-Fernández, Jose A; Chamoso-Santos, Pablo; Rodríguez-González, Sara; de Paz-Santana, Juan F; Merchan-Cifuentes, Miguel A; Corchado-Rodríguez, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The fundus examination is a non-invasive evaluation of the microcirculation of the retina. The aim of the present study is to develop and validate (reliability and validity) the ALTAIR software platform (Automatic image analyser to assess retinal vessel calibre) in order to analyse its utility in different clinical environments. Methods and analysis A cross-sectional study in the first phase and a prospective observational study in the second with 4 years of follow-up. The study ...

  14. How Is Cough Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your doctor may recommend medicines such as: Prescription cough suppressants, also called antitussives. These medicines can help relieve ... works. No evidence shows that over-the-counter cough suppressants relieve a cough. Expectorants. These medicines may loosen ...

  15. Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... articles... Pregnant? Help Protect Your Baby from Whooping Cough frame support disabled and/or not supported in ... disease. Also available on YouTube. Pregnancy and Whooping Cough Learn more about whooping cough vaccination during pregnancy... ...

  16. Woes of Whooping Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... White House Lunch Recipes The Woes of Whooping Cough KidsHealth > For Kids > The Woes of Whooping Cough ... hospital if they get it. How Is Whooping Cough Spread? Pertussis bacteria can live in saliva in ...

  17. Currently available cough suppressants for chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kian Fan

    2008-01-01

    Chronic cough is a common symptom but only a fraction of patients seek medical attention. Addressing the causes of chronic cough may lead to control of cough; however, this approach is not always successful since there is a certain degree of failure even when the cause(s) of cough are adequately treated; in idiopathic cough, there is no cause to treat. Persistent cough may be associated with deterioration of quality of life, and treatment with cough suppressants is indicated. Currently available cough suppressants include the centrally acting opioids such as morphine, codeine, and dextromethorphan. Peripherally acting antitussives include moguisteine and levodropropizine. Early studies report success in reducing cough in patients with chronic bronchitis or COPD; however, a carefully conducted study showed no effect of codeine on cough of COPD. Success with these cough suppressants can be achieved at high doses that are associated with side effects. Slow-release morphine has been reported to be useful in controlling intractable cough with good tolerance to constipation and drowsiness. There have been case reports of the success of centrally acting drugs such as amitryptiline, paroxetine, gabapentin, and carbamezepine in chronic cough. New opioids such as nociceptin or antagonists of TRPV1 may turn out to be more effective. Efficacy of cough suppressants must be tested in double-blind randomised trials using validated measures of cough in patients with chronic cough not responding to specific treatments. Patients with chronic cough are in desperate need of effective antitussives that can be used either on demand or on a long-term basis.

  18. Currently available cough suppressants for chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kian Fan

    2008-01-01

    Chronic cough is a common symptom but only a fraction of patients seek medical attention. Addressing the causes of chronic cough may lead to control of cough; however, this approach is not always successful since there is a certain degree of failure even when the cause(s) of cough are adequately treated; in idiopathic cough, there is no cause to treat. Persistent cough may be associated with deterioration of quality of life, and treatment with cough suppressants is indicated. Currently available cough suppressants include the centrally acting opioids such as morphine, codeine, and dextromethorphan. Peripherally acting antitussives include moguisteine and levodropropizine. Early studies report success in reducing cough in patients with chronic bronchitis or COPD; however, a carefully conducted study showed no effect of codeine on cough of COPD. Success with these cough suppressants can be achieved at high doses that are associated with side effects. Slow-release morphine has been reported to be useful in controlling intractable cough with good tolerance to constipation and drowsiness. There have been case reports of the success of centrally acting drugs such as amitryptiline, paroxetine, gabapentin, and carbamezepine in chronic cough. New opioids such as nociceptin or antagonists of TRPV1 may turn out to be more effective. Efficacy of cough suppressants must be tested in double-blind randomised trials using validated measures of cough in patients with chronic cough not responding to specific treatments. Patients with chronic cough are in desperate need of effective antitussives that can be used either on demand or on a long-term basis. PMID:17909897

  19. Cough variant asthma and atopic cough

    OpenAIRE

    Magni Chiara; Chellini Elisa; Zanasi Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Chronic cough has been reported to be the fifth most common complaint seen by primary care physicians in the world, the third in Italy. Chronic cough in non-smoking, non-treated with ACE-inhibitor adults with normal chest radiogram could be a symptom of asthma and can be sub-classified into: cough-variant asthma, atopic cough, and eosinophilic bronchitis. This review discusses the differential diagnosis of these three disorders.

  20. Cough . 2: Chronic cough in children

    OpenAIRE

    de Jongste, Johan; Shields, M D

    2003-01-01

    textabstractChronic cough is a common problem in childhood. Viral infections are the most prevalent cause, but other rarer disorders should be excluded whenever cough appears unusually severe and/or frequent, and when there is evidence of failure to thrive and growth retardation. The younger the child, the more the need to exclude underlying disease at an early stage. Passive smoking is an important contributor to chronic cough in children. Chronic productive cough with purulent sputum is alw...

  1. Cough: Bronchospasm or Not?

    OpenAIRE

    Woolnough, K. V.; Ross, K. M.

    1985-01-01

    Cough is a frequent presenting complaint, often with a history very similar to that of asthma. This study examines the incidence of bronchospasm among coughers in a family practice. The pathophysiology of cough shows that the irritant receptors for cough and bronchospasm are identical; epithelial damage may result in cough, or bronchospasm, or both. Of 32 patients presenting with cough as their chief complaint, eight were found to have bronchospasm. Since effective treatment depends on correc...

  2. Cough expired volume and airflow rates during sequential induced cough

    OpenAIRE

    Hegland, Karen W.; Troche, Michelle S.; Davenport, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    Cough effectiveness is determined by a combination of volume of air expired and maximum expiratory airflow rate. Studies of cough sensitivity identify cough thresholds based on at least 2 or 5-cough re-accelerations to a stimulus, however, to date no study has examined the interplay between the distribution of cough expired air and cough airflow rates for these induced sequential coughs. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between reflex cough re-accelerations, cough ai...

  3. Cough expired volume and airflow rates during sequential induced cough

    OpenAIRE

    KarenWheelerHegland; PaulWDavenport

    2013-01-01

    Cough effectiveness is determined by a combination of volume of air expired and maximum expiratory airflow rate. Studies of cough sensitivity identify cough thresholds based on at least 2 or 5-cough re-accelerations to a stimulus, however to date no study has examined the interplay between the distribution of cough expired air and cough airflow rates for these induced sequential coughs. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between reflex cough re-accelerations, cough ...

  4. [Drug therapy for cough].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Heikki; Naaranlahti, Toivo

    2016-01-01

    An efficient therapy for cough usually requires identification and treatment of the underlying disease, like asthma. However an underlying disease in cough is not found in all cases and conventional treatment of the underlying disease is ineffective against cough. Drug therapy options are available also for these situations. Honey or menthol can be tried for cough associated with respitatory infections, antihistamines for cough associated with allergic rhinitis, blockers of the leukotriene receptor or muscarinic receptor for asthma-associated cough and morphine for cough associated with a malignant disease. Menthol, blockers of the muscarinic receptor, or dextrometorphan can be tried for prolonged idiopathic cough. Codeine is not necessary in the treatment of cough. Refraining from drug treatment should always be considered. PMID:27089619

  5. An annoying persistent cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cipollini

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cough is a stressful condition and can lead to extensive investigations. We report a case of a 48-year-old woman who had suffered from persistent chronic cough for more than 3 months. She had been treated with cough suppressant. However, her cough was not alleviated by these treatments, and the patient was referred to our hospital. She did not exhibit typical gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD symptoms heartburn and regurgitation. Esophagoscopy did not disclose reflux esophagitis. The patient was treated with a proton-pump inhibitor, which markedly alleviated her cough. Chronic cough due to GERD was diagnosed. Although the diagnosis of chronic cough due to GERD is not easy when traditionally symptoms are not present, our case report underscores the importance of this association to the differential diagnosis of chronic cough. In these cases a relatively simple test as high dose proton pump-inhibitors trial may be useful to confirm GERD related cough.

  6. Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... friendly Fact Sheet Pertussis Vaccination Pregnancy and Whooping Cough Clinicians Disease Specifics Treatment Clinical Features Clinical Complications ...

  7. Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tdap= Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Vaccination Pronounced (per-TUS-iss) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Whooping cough — known medically as pertussis — is a ...

  8. Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... friendly Fact Sheet Pertussis Vaccination Pregnancy and Whooping Cough Clinicians Disease Specifics Treatment Clinical Features Clinical Complications ...

  9. Pregnancy and Whooping Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancel Submit Search The CDC Pregnancy and Whooping Cough Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For Pregnant Women Whooping cough (pertussis) is a very contagious disease that can ...

  10. Cold and Cough Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking lots of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

  11. Cover Your Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Cover Your Cough Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Posters only available as PDF files. Cover Your Cough, Flyer for Health Care Settings English [324 KB] ...

  12. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... throat lozenges. But some people extract DXM from cough syrup and make it into a powder or capsule ... excessive sweating nausea and vomiting (large quantities of cough syrup almost always cause people to throw up) belly ...

  13. Cough . 2: Chronic cough in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. de Jongste (Johan); M.D. Shields

    2003-01-01

    textabstractChronic cough is a common problem in childhood. Viral infections are the most prevalent cause, but other rarer disorders should be excluded whenever cough appears unusually severe and/or frequent, and when there is evidence of failure to thrive and growth retardation. T

  14. Chronic Cough in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, David S.

    1982-01-01

    Persistent cough in children is a symptom, and the cause should be ascertained. Reactive airways disease is the most common reason for chronic cough in children over three to six months of age, especially at night. Under three months, the cause is likely to be more serious. Cough often disturbs parents more than the child, and physicians should consider parents' need for sleep and relief when deciding whether or not to prescribe cough suppressants. Investigations depend on the child's age, th...

  15. An annoying persistent cough

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Cipollini

    2007-01-01

    Chronic cough is a stressful condition and can lead to extensive investigations. We report a case of a 48-year-old woman who had suffered from persistent chronic cough for more than 3 months. She had been treated with cough suppressant. However, her cough was not alleviated by these treatments, and the patient was referred to our hospital. She did not exhibit typical gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms heartburn and regurgitation. Esophagoscopy did not disclose reflux esophagitis....

  16. Approaching chronic cough

    OpenAIRE

    Poulose, Vijo; Tiew, Pei Yee; How, Choon How

    2016-01-01

    Chronic cough is one of the most common reasons for referral to a respiratory physician. Although fatal complications are rare, it may cause considerable distress in the patient’s daily life. Western and local data shows that in patients with a normal chest radiograph, the most common causes are postnasal drip syndrome, postinfectious cough, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and cough variant asthma. Less common causes are the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, smoker’s cough an...

  17. Cough in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapy for this cough, which eventually goes away. Cough suppressant medications can be tried in school-age children, but they don't always solve the problem. Bacterial Infection of the ... and cause irritation and cough. It's unknown why this happens, and sometimes the ...

  18. Whooping Cough (Pertussis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Whooping Cough (Pertussis) KidsHealth > For Parents > Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Print A A A Text Size What's ... the Doctor en español La tos ferina Whooping cough (pertussis) is an infection of the respiratory system ...

  19. Development of automatic analyses for star-shot images using computed radiography (CR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent progress in radiation therapy has been greatly enhanced in many facilities by the development of new machines for treatment, improved computer technology for radiotherapy treatment planning systems (RTPs), increased accuracy of radiation therapy such as stereotactic irradiation, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Quality control (QC) of the isocenter, which has consisted of gantry rotation and limiting the radiation field, is important for greater accuracy of these radiation therapy technologies. Star-shot analyses using computed radiography (CR) for evaluation of the isocenter were employed in this study. Devices to support CR were created, and a method of automatically analyzing images obtained by the star-shot technique, which calculated the error (distance) from the isocenter and the incident beam angle, were developed. In terms of the accuracy of our method, the average maximum error was 0.33 mm (less than 2 pixels: 0.35 mm), the average absolute error and incident beam angle errors were 0.3 mm and 0.4 degrees at maximum and at one standard deviation (SD), respectively. In this study, the processing times were 16 sec at minimum, 152 sec at maximum, 18 sec at most frequencies, and 23.6 sec on average. In conclusion, it was considered that our newly developed method for analyzing star-shot images using CR enabled immediate, quantitative evaluation of the isocenter. (author)

  20. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Cold Medicine Abuse DrugFacts: Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised May 2014 Some ... diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines are usually consumed ...

  1. Cough in Children: Clinical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Banu Gülcan Öksüz

    2015-01-01

    Cough is an important reflex defense mechanism and it cleans the airways with the various stimuli. Children are more sensitive than adults to these environmental stimuli. Full mechanism of the cough reflex have not been completely analyzed. Causes of chronic cough in children are different from adults. Even cough is normal for most children, the presence of cough may be indicative of serious disorders and should be considered important because cough affects the child’s quali...

  2. Comparison of atopic cough with cough variant asthma: is atopic cough a precursor of asthma?

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimura, M; Ogawa, H; Nishizawa, Y; Nishi, K

    2003-01-01

    Background: We have described a group of patients who present with isolated chronic bronchodilator resistant non-productive cough with an atopic constitution, eosinophilic tracheobronchitis, and airway cough receptor hypersensitivity without bronchial hyperresponsiveness, which we have termed "atopic cough". Although cough variant asthma (in which the cough responds to bronchodilators) is recognised as a precursor of typical asthma, it is not known whether atopic cough is also a precursor of ...

  3. The larynx in cough

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhu, Guri S; Kuchai, Romana

    2013-01-01

    About 40% of the population will experience chronic cough at some point during their lives and it tends to be more common in women (Thorax 58:901–7, 2003). Post-nasal drip (or upper airway cough syndrome), gastro-esophageal reflux disease and asthma are considered the most common causes. Yet only a small percentage of patients with these common conditions experience chronic cough. Also there is no agreed measure of post-nasal drip and controversy exists about the diagnosis of reflux above the...

  4. The difficult coughing child: prolonged acute cough in children

    OpenAIRE

    Shields, Michael D.; Thavagnanam, Surendran

    2013-01-01

    Cough is one of the most common symptoms that patients bring to the attention of primary care clinicians. Cough can be designated as acute ( 8 weeks in duration). The use of the term ‘prolonged acute cough’ in a cough guideline allows a period of natural resolution to occur before further investigations are warranted. The common causes are in children with post viral or pertussis like illnesses causing the cough. Persistent bacterial bronchitis typically occurs when an initial dry acute cough...

  5. What Is Cough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Asthma Bronchiectasis Bronchitis COPD Pneumonia Send a link to NHLBI to ... irritate these nerve endings. A cough can be acute, subacute, or chronic, depending on how long it ...

  6. First Aid: Coughing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center The Woes of Whooping Cough Your Lungs & Respiratory System Chilling Out With Colds Flu Center Bronchitis Why Should I Care About Germs? Lungs and Respiratory System Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  7. Approaching chronic cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulose, Vijo; Tiew, Pei Yee; How, Choon How

    2016-01-01

    Chronic cough is one of the most common reasons for referral to a respiratory physician. Although fatal complications are rare, it may cause considerable distress in the patient’s daily life. Western and local data shows that in patients with a normal chest radiograph, the most common causes are postnasal drip syndrome, postinfectious cough, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and cough variant asthma. Less common causes are the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, smoker’s cough and nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis. A detailed history-taking and physical examination will provide a diagnosis in most patients, even at the primary care level. Some cases may need further investigations or specialist referral for diagnosis. PMID:26892615

  8. Cough in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Mirjam J G; Birring, Surinder S; Vancheri, Carlo; Cottin, Vincent; Renzoni, Elisabetta A; Russell, Anne-Marie; Wijsenbeek, Marlies S

    2016-09-01

    Many patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) complain of chronic refractory cough. Chronic cough is a distressing and disabling symptom with a major impact on quality of life. During recent years, progress has been made in gaining insight into the pathogenesis of cough in IPF, which is most probably "multifactorial" and influenced by mechanical, biochemical and neurosensory changes, with an important role for comorbidities as well. Clinical trials of cough treatment in IPF are emerging, and cough is increasingly included as a secondary end-point in trials assessing new compounds for IPF. It is important that such studies include adequate end-points to assess cough both objectively and subjectively. This article summarises the latest insights into chronic cough in IPF. It describes the different theories regarding the pathophysiology of cough, reviews the different methods to assess cough and deals with recent and future developments in the treatment of cough in IPF. PMID:27581827

  9. Cough in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam J.G. van Manen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF complain of chronic refractory cough. Chronic cough is a distressing and disabling symptom with a major impact on quality of life. During recent years, progress has been made in gaining insight into the pathogenesis of cough in IPF, which is most probably “multifactorial” and influenced by mechanical, biochemical and neurosensory changes, with an important role for comorbidities as well. Clinical trials of cough treatment in IPF are emerging, and cough is increasingly included as a secondary end-point in trials assessing new compounds for IPF. It is important that such studies include adequate end-points to assess cough both objectively and subjectively. This article summarises the latest insights into chronic cough in IPF. It describes the different theories regarding the pathophysiology of cough, reviews the different methods to assess cough and deals with recent and future developments in the treatment of cough in IPF.

  10. Chronic cough in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Johana B Castro; Pine, Harold S

    2013-08-01

    The management of chronic cough, a common complaint in children, is challenging for most health care professionals. Millions of dollars are spent every year on unnecessary testing and treatment. A rational approach based on a detailed interview and a thorough physical examination guides further intervention and management. Inexpensive and simple homemade syrups based on dark honey have proved to be an effective measure when dealing with cough in children. PMID:23905830

  11. Premature ventricular complex-induced chronic cough and cough syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stec, S; Dabrowska, M; Zaborska, B; Bielicki, P; Maskey-Warzechowska, M; Tarnowski, W; Chazan, R; Kulakowski, P

    2007-08-01

    The present case study reports a case of chronic cough and cough syncope associated with frequent premature ventricular complexes (PVCs). Careful analysis of cough-related symptoms and ECG monitoring led to the suspicion of PVC-induced cough. A coincidence between PVCs and episodes of cough was also documented by a portable multichannel recorder. Moreover, Doppler echocardiography revealed a PVC-induced transient increase in the pulmonary artery blood flow. After exclusion of other possible aetiologies, complete relief of chronic cough and cough syncope was achieved by radiofrequency ablation of the arrhythmogenic focus located in the right ventricular outflow tract. Premature ventricular complexes should be considered as a cause of chronic cough and cough syncope and an interdisciplinary cooperation can lead to successful diagnosis and treatment of this condition.

  12. AMME: an Automatic Mental Model Evaluation to analyse user behaviour traced in a finite, discrete state space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauterberg, M

    1993-11-01

    To support the human factors engineer in designing a good user interface, a method has been developed to analyse the empirical data of the interactive user behaviour traced in a finite discrete state space. The sequences of actions produced by the user contain valuable information about the mental model of this user, the individual problem solution strategies for a given task and the hierarchical structure of the task-subtasks relationships. The presented method, AMME, can analyse the action sequences and automatically generate (1) a net description of the task dependent model of the user, (2) a complete state transition matrix, and (3) various quantitative measures of the user's task solving process. The behavioural complexity of task-solving processes carried out by novices has been found to be significantly larger than the complexity of task-solving processes carried out by experts.

  13. A dangerous cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitnis, Abhishek Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    Patient X is a 48-year-old retired potteries worker who presented to his general practitioner (GP) with a non-productive cough, which had lasted over 1 month, and it was a television advert that he had seen that prompted him to visit his doctor. A cough is the most common presenting complaint for patients when they visit their GP and when considering differential diagnoses it is important to look at a patient's medical, drug and social history. It would have been easy for the GP to dismiss the cough as an exacerbation of the patient's asthma based on his medical history, but on further questioning into the patient's social history an emergency chest x-ray was ordered, which later revealed a bronchial carcinoma. This case highlights the importance of the media in healthcare advertising and describes how a fairly innocent presentation can later turn out to be a more sinister pathology. PMID:23456159

  14. Acupuncture Treatment of Cough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Case History Ms. Wang, 51 years old, a research fellow of a certain academy, paid her first visit on March 10, 2004, with the chief complaint of coughing for two weeks. She had had the problem for 10 years, usually with onset in autumn and winter times. She was once diagnosed to have 'chronic bronchitis', and had been treated with long-term administration of both Chinese and western medicines at several hospitals. The recent onset was induced by sudden change of the cold weather. At the moment, the patient had coughing with expectoration of profuse white watery sputum, chest distress, with coughing worse in the night, which seriously affected her sleep, dry mouth, aversion to cold, the appetite normal, loose stool 2~3 times a day, and the urine normal.

  15. Cough syrup psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaladoss, Alfred; O'Brien, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Over-the-counter medications are widely accessible and used. Cough suppressant syrups contain dextromethorphan (DM), which has the potential to be abused, with resultant psychiatric symptoms. This case report describes a young woman presenting with psychotic mania secondary to DM abuse. We also describe the treatment of this toxidrome and include the results of a literature search on this topic. The recognition of cough syrup as an agent of abuse and its toxidrome is important. This will facilitate early diagnostic clarification and promote efficient treatment strategies. PMID:21324299

  16. A dangerous cough

    OpenAIRE

    Chitnis, Abhishek Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    Patient X is a 48-year-old retired potteries worker who presented to his general practitioner (GP) with a non-productive cough, which had lasted over 1 month, and it was a television advert that he had seen that prompted him to visit his doctor. A cough is the most common presenting complaint for patients when they visit their GP and when considering differential diagnoses it is important to look at a patient's medical, drug and social history. It would have been easy for the GP to dismiss th...

  17. Chronic cough and pulmonary infiltrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case of chronic cough and pulmonary infiltrates, in patient feminine of 66 years who she consults for scheme of cough with mucous expectoration that it increases with the exhibition to the powder and the cold

  18. Cough responsiveness in neurogenic dysphagia

    OpenAIRE

    SMITH, P.; Wiles, C

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—In neurogenic dysphagia a good cough is important for airway protection. If triggering of cough, or its effectiveness, is impaired this might result in an increased aspiration risk. Capsaicin, an agent which induces cough through sensory nerve stimulation, was used to test cough sensitivity in groups of patients with and without neurogenic dysphagia.
METHODS—On the basis of swallowing speed (ml/s) in a validated water test 28 alert neurological inpatients (16 wome...

  19. Peripheral Neural Circuitry in Cough

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor-Clark, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    Cough is a reflex that serves to protect the airways. Excessive or chronic coughing is a major health issue that is poorly controlled by current therapeutics. Significant effort has been made to understand the mechanisms underlying the cough reflex. The focus of this review is the evidence supporting the role of specific airway sensory nerve (afferent) populations in the initiation and modulation of the cough reflex in health and disease.

  20. Cough management: a practical approach

    OpenAIRE

    De Blasio, Francesco; Virchow, Johann C; Polverino, Mario; Zanasi, Alessandro; Panagiotis K. Behrakis; Kilinç, Gunsely; Balsamo, Rossella; De Danieli, Gianluca; Lanata, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Cough is one of the most common symptoms for which patients seek medical attention from primary care physicians and pulmonologists. Cough is an important defensive reflex that enhances the clearance of secretions and particles from the airways and protects the lower airways from the aspiration of foreign materials. Therapeutic suppression of cough may be either disease-specific or symptom related. The potential benefits of an early treatment of cough could include the prevention of the viciou...

  1. Updated guidelines on cough launched

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zeng-li

    2006-01-01

    @@ Cough is the commonest symptom leading patients to consult with their doctor. What is clear is that at some stage, we all suffer from cough and at times, it is distressing and inhibits normal social activities. In a few subjects, chronic cough leads to a severe loss of quality of life.

  2. Acute cough in adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jochen W L Cals; Nick A Francis

    2010-01-01

    @@ A healthy, non-smoking 54 year old woman consults with a severe acute cough. It started two weeks ago with symptoms of a common cold, but she is worried about its duration and would like something to "clear it up. "

  3. Protocol for studying cough frequency in people with pulmonary tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravard, Marjory A; Tracey, Brian H; López, José W; Comina, German; Zimic, Mirko; Coronel, Jorge; O'Neill Lee, Gwenyth; Caviedes, Luz; Luis Cabrera, Jose; Salas, Antonio; Ticona, Eduardo; Kirwan, Daniela E; Friedland, Jon S; Evans, Carlton A; Moore, David A; Gilman, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cough is a key symptom of tuberculosis (TB) as well as the main cause of transmission. However, a recent literature review found that cough frequency (number of coughs per hour) in patients with TB has only been studied once, in 1969. The main aim of this study is to describe cough frequency patterns before and after the start of TB treatment and to determine baseline factors that affect cough frequency in these patients. Secondarily, we will evaluate the correlation between cough frequency and TB microbiological resolution. Methods This study will select participants with culture confirmed TB from 2 tertiary hospitals in Lima, Peru. We estimated that a sample size of 107 patients was sufficient to detect clinically significant changes in cough frequency. Participants will initially be evaluated through questionnaires, radiology, microscopic observation drug susceptibility broth TB-culture, auramine smear microscopy and cough recordings. This cohort will be followed for the initial 60 days of anti-TB treatment, and throughout the study several microbiological samples as well as 24 h recordings will be collected. We will describe the variability of cough episodes and determine its association with baseline laboratory parameters of pulmonary TB. In addition, we will analyse the reduction of cough frequency in predicting TB cure, adjusted for potential confounders. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from the ethics committees at each participating hospital in Lima, Peru, Asociación Benéfica PRISMA in Lima, Peru, the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru and Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, USA. We aim to publish and disseminate our findings in peer-reviewed journals. We also expect to create and maintain an online repository for TB cough sounds as well as the statistical analysis employed. PMID:27105713

  4. [Experimental whooping cough of nonhuman primate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubrava, D T; Medkova, A Iu; Siniashina, L N; Shevtsova, Z V; Matua, A Z; Kondzharia, I G; Barkaia, V S; Elistratova, Zh V; Karataev, G I; Mikvabia, Z Ia; Gintsburg, A L

    2013-01-01

    Despite considerable success in study of Bordetella pertussis virulence factors, pathogenesis of whooping cough, duration of B. pertussis bacteria persistence, types and mechanisms of immune response are still keep underinvestigated. It can be explained by the absence ofadequate experimental animal model for pertussis study. Our study estimates clinical and laboratory parameters of whooping cough in non-human primates of the Old World in the process of intranasan infection by virulent B. pertussis bacteria. Also the duration of B. pertussis bacteria persistence in animals was investigated. 14 animal units of 4 species of non-human primates of the Old World were used for intranasal infection. The examination of infect animals included: visual exploration of nasopharynx, thermometry, clinical and biochemical blood analyses, identification ofB. pertussis, using microbiologic and molecular genetic analyses, estimation of innate and adoptive immune factors. The development of infectious process was accompanied by generation of B. pertussis bacteria, catarrhal inflammation of nasopharyngeal mucosa, leucocytosis, hypoglycemia specific for pertussis, and activation of innate and adaptive immunity for all primates regardless of specie were seen. While repeated experimental infection in primates single bacterial colonies were registered during only first week after challenge. It occurs like the absence of inflammation of nasopharyngeal mucosa and the lack of laboratory marks of whooping cough, recorded after first challenge. The evident booster effect of humoral immunity was observed. As a model for investigation of B. pertussis bacteria persistence and immune response against whooping cough we suggest the usage of rhesus macaque as more available to experiments.

  5. Whooping Cough PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-22

    This 30 second PSA encourages pregnant women to get the whooping cough vaccine, called Tdap, during the third trimester of each pregnancy in order to pass antibodies to their babies so they are born with protection against this serious disease.  Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 1/22/2015.

  6. Chronic Cough in Otorhinolaryngologic Routine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palheta Neto, Francisco Xavier

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The chronic cough is sometimes manifested as an imprecise symptom, but of great importance for both the diagnosis and the prognosis. In an otorhinolaryngologic approach, several illnesses that can occur with it can be numbered, including 2 of the 3 main causes of chronic cough. Objective: To identify the main otorhinolaryngologic diseases showing the chronic cough as one of their manifestations. Method: A literature's revision was performed in several scientific articles, specialized books and consultation in Birene and Scielo databases. Literature's revision: cough production in the upper airways is usually associated with an inflammatory reaction by stimulating sensitive receptors of these areas or by mechanic stimulus. The main cause of the chronic cough in the otorhinolaryngology day-to-day is the post-nasal drip, gathering together by itself 02 of the most common diseases: rhinitis and sinusitis. Laryngitis as a result of gastroesophageal reflux (GER stands out in the index of chronic cough etiology, but it is not as severe as GER . Neoplasias are also somewhat frequent causes of cough, and the difficulty in diagnosing the cough cause is common in this disease group. Motility disorder, laryngeal irritation persistence, parasitic disease and injuries by inhalation of toxic products were also found as a cause of cough for longer than 03 months. Conclusion:Chronic cough is a frequent and important finding in otorhinolaryngology and cannot be underestimated, and a careful anamnesis is the best way to determine the etiology and perform a correct treatment for the patient's disease.

  7. A Prospective, Open Label, Observational Study to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of Herbal Cough Syrup Mykoff® in Patients Suffering from Cough of Varied Aetiologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh Bhalerao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A prospective, open label, observational study was conducted at general outpatient clinic to assess the safety and efficacy of herbal cough syrup Mykoff® in patients suffering from cough of varied aetiologies. The patients of either sex, age > 3yrs, suffering from cough due to common cold, mild to moderate upper respiratory tract infections, allergic cough and smoker’s cough were enrolled. The safety was evaluated by means of an analysis of adverse events. In addition, efficacy and tolerability were analysed from the following grades by patients and confirmed by doctor. Of 50 patients, 63% were diagnosed with cough due to upper respiratory tract infections, 17% common cold, 12% allergic cough and 8% smoker’s cough. Substantial improvement, i.e., excellent to good response, in relief of cough was noted in 42 (84% out of 50 patients and fair response in another 4 (8%. Only 4 out of 50 patients showed no relief in symptoms. Most of the patients (98% accepted the remedy well. Only one adverse event was reported. However, a relation to the medication was classified to be unlikely. The test drug Mykoff® is an effective and safe cough syrup that is highly acceptable for patients with cough of short duration.

  8. Design and implementation of an automatic acquisition card with direct memory incrementing intended for a multichannel analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents a contribution to the implementation of a multichannel analyser, based on recent technology in order to give elaborated results to the user. This instrument will be designed using modular cards compatible with an Intel, Multi-bus System. The main purpose of this thesis consists in the study and design of the logical card establishing automatically an histogram in the memory of a micro-computer (Direct Memory Increment or DMI). This card allows the connection of up to four analog to digital converters and does the incrementing of the data in memory at the address delivered by an analog to digital Wilkinson type converter (400 MHz) designed at CEA. It allows: - 4 independent inputs working simultaneously with an average input rate of 87500 events/second for 16000 channels of 232 bits and with a time resolution of 1 μs; - 3 acquisition modes: histogram, multi-scaling and list; - calculation of the real and live times independently for the 4 inputs. In addition, this card provides the interfacing capability for a line printer, a sample driver and a 'mouse'. (author)

  9. How much coughing is normal?

    OpenAIRE

    Munyard, P; Bush, A

    1996-01-01

    A new multiparametric device (RBC-7) was used for recording cough in ambulatory children over a 24 hour period. The number of coughs and the pattern of coughing can easily be studied with the aid of a personal computer and dedicated computer software. Forty one 'normal' children were recorded, identified from a primary school with the aid of a questionnaire. They were free from any respiratory infection for one month, and had a normal examination and spirometry immediately before recording. C...

  10. Analysis of Clinicians' Perceptual Cough Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laciuga, Helena; Brandimore, Alexandra E; Troche, Michelle S; Hegland, Karen W

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the relationships between subjective descriptors and objective airflow measures of cough. We hypothesized that coughs with specific airflow characteristics would share common subjective perceptual descriptions. Thirty clinicians (speech-language pathologists, otolaryngologists, and neurologists) perceptually evaluated ten cough audio samples with specific airflow characteristics determined by peak expiratory flow rate, cough expired volume, cough duration, and number of coughs in the cough epoch. Participants rated coughs by strength, duration, quality, quantity, and overall potential effectiveness for airway protection. Perception of cough strength and effectiveness was determined by the combination of presence of pre-expulsive compression phase, short peak expiratory airflow rate rise time, high peak expiratory flow rates, and high cough volume acceleration. Perception of cough abnormality was defined predominantly by descriptors of breathiness and strain. Breathiness was characteristic for coughs with either absent compression phases and relatively high expiratory airflow rates or coughs with significantly low expired volumes and reduced peak flow rates. In contrast, excessive strain was associated with prolonged compression phases and low expiratory airflow rates or the absence of compression phase with high peak expiratory rates. The study participants reached greatest agreement in distinguishing between single and multiple coughs. Their assessment of cough strength and effectiveness was less consistent. Finally, the least agreement was shown in determining the quality categories. Modifications of cough airflow can influence perceptual cough evaluation outcomes. However, the inconsistency of cough ratings among our participants suggests that a uniform cough rating system is required. PMID:27115759

  11. Cough management: a practical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blasio, Francesco; Virchow, Johann C; Polverino, Mario; Zanasi, Alessandro; Behrakis, Panagiotis K; Kilinç, Gunsely; Balsamo, Rossella; De Danieli, Gianluca; Lanata, Luigi

    2011-10-10

    Cough is one of the most common symptoms for which patients seek medical attention from primary care physicians and pulmonologists. Cough is an important defensive reflex that enhances the clearance of secretions and particles from the airways and protects the lower airways from the aspiration of foreign materials. Therapeutic suppression of cough may be either disease-specific or symptom related. The potential benefits of an early treatment of cough could include the prevention of the vicious cycle of cough. There has been a long tradition in acute cough, which is frequently due to upper respiratory tract infections, to use symptom-related anti-tussives. Suppression of cough (during chronic cough) may be achieved by disease-specific therapies, but in many patients it is often necessary to use symptomatic anti-tussives, too. According to the current guidelines of the American College of Chest Physician on "Cough Suppressants and Pharmacologic Protussive Therapy" and additional clinical trials on the most frequent anti-tussive drugs, it should be possible to diagnose and treat cough successfully in a majority of cases. Among drugs used for the symptomatic treatment of cough, peripherally acting anti-tussives such as levodropropizine and moguisteine show the highest level of benefit and should be recommended especially in children. By improving our understanding of the specific effects of these anti-tussive agents, the therapeutic use of these drugs may be refined. The present review provides a summary of the most clinically relevant anti-tussive drugs in addition to their potential mechanism of action.

  12. Cough management: a practical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blasio, Francesco; Virchow, Johann C; Polverino, Mario; Zanasi, Alessandro; Behrakis, Panagiotis K; Kilinç, Gunsely; Balsamo, Rossella; De Danieli, Gianluca; Lanata, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Cough is one of the most common symptoms for which patients seek medical attention from primary care physicians and pulmonologists. Cough is an important defensive reflex that enhances the clearance of secretions and particles from the airways and protects the lower airways from the aspiration of foreign materials. Therapeutic suppression of cough may be either disease-specific or symptom related. The potential benefits of an early treatment of cough could include the prevention of the vicious cycle of cough. There has been a long tradition in acute cough, which is frequently due to upper respiratory tract infections, to use symptom-related anti-tussives. Suppression of cough (during chronic cough) may be achieved by disease-specific therapies, but in many patients it is often necessary to use symptomatic anti-tussives, too. According to the current guidelines of the American College of Chest Physician on "Cough Suppressants and Pharmacologic Protussive Therapy" and additional clinical trials on the most frequent anti-tussive drugs, it should be possible to diagnose and treat cough successfully in a majority of cases. Among drugs used for the symptomatic treatment of cough, peripherally acting anti-tussives such as levodropropizine and moguisteine show the highest level of benefit and should be recommended especially in children. By improving our understanding of the specific effects of these anti-tussive agents, the therapeutic use of these drugs may be refined. The present review provides a summary of the most clinically relevant anti-tussive drugs in addition to their potential mechanism of action. PMID:21985340

  13. Chronic Cough in Adults (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Use ©2016 UpToDate, Inc. Patient education: Chronic cough in adults (Beyond the Basics) Authors Ronald C ... and helps to prevent infection. However, sometimes a cough can become a chronic condition. A chronic cough ...

  14. Defining Chronic Cough: A Systematic Review of the Epidemiological Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Woo-Jung; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Faruqi, Shoaib; Kang, Min-Koo; Kim, Ju-Young; Kang, Min-Gyu; Kim, Sujeong; Jo, Eun-Jung; Lee, Seung-Eun; Kim, Min-Hye; Plevkova, Jana; Park, Heung-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent evidence suggests a global burden of chronic cough in general populations. However, the definitions vary greatly among epidemiological studies, and none have been validated for clinical relevance. We aimed to examine previous epidemiological definitions in detail and explore the operational characteristics. Methods A systematic review was conducted for epidemiological surveys that reported the prevalence of chronic cough in general adult populations during the years 1980 to 2013. A literature search was performed on Pubmed and Embase without language restriction. Epidemiological definitions for chronic cough were classified according to their components, such as cutoff duration. Meta-analyses were performed for the male-to-female ratio of chronic cough prevalence to explore operational characteristics of epidemiological definitions. Results A total of 70 studies were included in the systematic review. The most common epidemiological definition was identified as 'cough ≥3 months' duration without specification of phlegm (n=50); however, it conflicted with the cutoff duration in current clinical guidelines (cough ≥8 weeks). Meta-analyses were performed for the male-to-female ratio of chronic cough among 28 studies that reported sex-specific prevalence using the most common definition. The pooled male-to-female odds ratio was 1.26 (95% confidence interval 0.92-1.73) with significant heterogeneity (I2=96%, P<0.001), which was in contrast to clinical observations of female predominance from specialist clinics. Subgroup analyses did not reverse the ratio or reduce the heterogeneity. Conclusions This study identified major issues in defining chronic cough in future epidemiological studies. The conflict between epidemiological and clinical diagnostic criteria needs to be resolved. The unexpected difference in the gender predominance between the community and clinics warrants further studies. Clinical validation of the existing definition is required

  15. Objective cough frequency in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Key, Angela L; Holt, Kimberley; Hamilton, Andrew; Smith, Jaclyn A; Earis, John E

    2010-01-01

    Background Cough is a common presenting symptom in patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF). This study measured cough rates in IPF patients and investigated the association between cough and measures of health related quality of life and subjective cough assessments. In addition, IPF cough rates were related to measures of physiological disease severity and compared to cough rates in health and other respiratory conditions. Methods Nineteen IPF patients, mean age 70.8 years ± 8.6, f...

  16. Chronic Cough and OSA: A New Association?

    OpenAIRE

    Sundar, Krishna M.; Daly, Sarah E

    2011-01-01

    Chronic cough is defined as cough lasting more than 2 months. Common causes for chronic cough in nonsmokers with normal chest radiographs and pulmonary functions include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), cough-variant asthma (CVA), and upper airway cough syndrome (UACS). Current guidelines recommend diagnosing the etiology of chronic cough based upon the results of therapy for suspected GERD, CVA, and UACS. Despite following current recommendations for diagnosis and treatment, the cause...

  17. Smoking reduction and cessation reduce chronic cough in a general population: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Charlotta; Godtfredsen, Nina; Jørgensen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    also attended the 1-year follow-up. We investigated if SR or SC had improved the self-reported pulmonary symptoms, using logistic regression analyses. Results: Almost 34% of the smokers had chronic cough at baseline and 24.5% had chronic phlegm. Thirty-seven persons with cough at baseline and 24......% of daily tobacco consumption) or smoking cessation (SC) had an effect on chronic cough and phlegm. Methods: A total of 2408 daily smokers were included in a Danish population-based intervention study, Inter99. In the analyses, we included smokers with self-reported chronic cough or phlegm at baseline who...... compared with continuous smoking. Conclusion: SC significantly improved self-reported chronic cough and phlegm as expected. Substantial SR was achieved by few smokers but had a significantly positive effect on chronic cough Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1...

  18. Relation between measurements of cough severity

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, A; Phelan, P.; Robertson, C.; Roberts, R; Sawyer, S

    2003-01-01

    Background: In asthma, measurements of airway inflammation correlate poorly with clinical markers and airway hyperresponsiveness. While the relation between determinants of asthma severity is known, that for cough is unknown. We hypothesised that cough sensitivity changes relate to changes in cough scores and objectively measured cough frequency.

  19. Coughs and Colds: Medicines or Home Remedies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has shown that honey is better than drugstore cough syrups at reducing the frequency and severity of nighttime coughing. Coughing Spasms: Expose your child to warm mist from a shower. ... making it easier to cough and blow the nose. Humidity : If the air ...

  20. Flow Field of a Human Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, Jean

    2005-11-01

    Cough generated infectious aerosols are of interest while developing strategies for the mitigation of disease risks ranging from the common cold to SARS. In this work, the velocity field of human cough was measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The project subjects (total 29) coughed into an enclosure seeded with stage fog for most measurements. Cough flow speed profiles, average widths of the cough jet, waveform, and maximum cough speeds were measured. Maximum cough speeds ranged from 1.5 m/s to 28.8 m/s. No correlation was found for maximum cough flow speeds to height or gender. The slow growth of the width of the cough flow suggests that a cough may penetrate farther into a room than a steady jet of similar volume. The velocity profile was found to scale with the square root of downstream distance.

  1. Determination of bromhexine in cough-cold syrups by absorption spectrophotometry and multivariate calibration using partial least-squares and hybrid linear analyses. Application of a novel method of wavelength selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicoechea, H C; Olivieri, A C

    1999-07-12

    The mucolitic bromhexine [N-(2-amino-3,5-dibromobenzyl)-N-methylcyclohexylamine] has been determined in cough suppressant syrups by multivariate spectrophotometric calibration, together with partial least-squares (PLS-1) and hybrid linear analysis (HLA). Notwithstanding the spectral overlapping between bromhexine and syrup excipients, as well as the intrinsic variability of the latter in unknown samples, the recoveries are excellent. A novel method of wavelength selection was also applied, based on the concept of net analyte signal regression, as adapted to the HLA methodology. This method allows one to improve the performance of both PLS-1 and HLA in samples containing nonmodeled interferences. PMID:18967655

  2. What is chronic cough in children?

    OpenAIRE

    FrancoisMarchal; JanaPlevkova; IvanPoliacek; DonaldCBolser; JocelyneDerelle; GiovanniFontana

    2014-01-01

    The cough reflex is modulated throughout growth and development. Cough – but not expiration reflex – appears to be absent at birth, but increases with maturation. Thus, acute cough is the most frequent respiratory symptom during the first few years of life. Later on, the pubertal development seems to play a significant role in changing of the cough threshold during childhood and adolescence resulting in sex-related differences in cough reflex sensitivity in adulthood. Asthma is the major caus...

  3. Headache associated with cough: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Cordenier, Ann; De Hertogh, Willem; De Keyser, Jacques; Versijpt, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Headache only triggered by coughing is a rather uncommon condition. The aim of the present review is to present an overview of the diagnosis, clinical characteristics, pathophysiology and treatment of both primary and symptomatic cough headache and discuss other relevant headache disorders affected by coughing. The diagnosis of primary cough headache is made when headache is brought on and occurs only in association with coughing, straining or a Valsalva manoeuvre and in the absence of any ab...

  4. What is chronic cough in children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia eIOAN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The cough reflex is modulated throughout growth and development. Cough – but not expiration reflex – appears to be absent at birth, but increases with maturation. Thus, acute cough is the most frequent respiratory symptom during the first few years of life. Later on, the pubertal development seems to play a significant role in changing of the cough threshold during childhood and adolescence resulting in sex-related differences in cough reflex sensitivity in adulthood. Asthma is the major cause of chronic cough in children. Prolonged acute cough is usually related to the long-lasting effects of a previous viral airway infection or to the particular entity called protracted bacterial bronchitis. Cough pointers and type may orient towards specific aetiologies, such as barking cough in croup or tracheomalacia, paroxystic whooping cough in Pertussis. Cough is productive in protracted bacterial bronchitis, sinusitis or bronchiectasis. Cough is usually associated with wheeze or dyspnea on exertion in asthma; however, it may be the sole symptom in cough variant asthma. Thus, paediatric cough has particularities differentiating it from adult cough, so the approach and management should be developmentally specific.

  5. Cough sensitivity and extrathoracic airway responsiveness to inhaled capsaicin in chronic cough patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, You Sook; Lee, Chang-Keun; Yoo, Bin; Moon, Hee-Bom

    2002-01-01

    Enhanced cough response has been frequently observed in chronic cough. Recently, extrathoracic airway constriction to inhaled histamine was demonstrated in some chronic cough patients. However, relation between extrathoracic airway hyperresponsiveness (EAHR) and cough sensitivity determined by capsaicin inhalation is unclear in each etiological entity of chronic cough. Seventy-seven patients, with dry cough persisting for 3 or more weeks, normal spirometry and chest radiography, and 15 contro...

  6. Sinusitis and chronic cough in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson NW

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nevin W Wilson, Mary Beth Hogan, Charles Bruce Harper, Kathy Peele, Sonia Budhecha, Vincent Loffredo, Vanessa WongUniversity of Nevada School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Allergy, Immunology and Pulmonology, Reno, NV, USABackground: Chronic cough in children is a common problem, and sinusitis is a common etiology. The diagnosis of sinusitis is often clinical, but confirmation is thought to require a CT scan due to the difficulty of interpreting a Water’s view sinus X-ray.Objectives: The purposes of the study were (1 to examine the frequency of an abnormal sinus X-ray in children with a chronic cough of more than 4 weeks duration; (2 to compare the interpretation of the sinus film between allergy/pulmonary clinicians and radiologists; and (3 to correlate symptoms with X-ray results.Methods: A chart review of 2- to 18-year-old patients with coughing exceeding 4 weeks was performed. Data was collected for patients who had received a Water’s view sinus film as part of their evaluation. Exam, X-ray results, and clinical outcomes were categorized and statistical analyses performed.Results: A total of 86 patients were included. Clinicians found that 65% of the children had positive Water’s view films, compared with the radiologist’s reading of 62% (non significant. Significant associations between post-tussive emesis (P = 0.01 and purulence (P = 0.03 were noted with a positive film. Positive sinus X-ray was highly associated with all findings except wheeze when present together (P < 0.001.Conclusions: Sinus abnormalities on X-ray are associated with prolonged cough in 65% of children. The Water’s view sinus film is a clinically useful screening tool for clinicians in the workup of chronic cough. Certain physical findings and clinical complaints, when present concurrently, correlate with the X-ray results.Keywords: Water’s view sinus X-ray, asthma, allergic rhinitis, radiologist, post-tussive emesis, wheezing

  7. Dynamics of Voluntary Cough Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naire, Shailesh

    2008-11-01

    Voluntary cough maneuvers are characterized by transient peak expiratory flows (PEF) exceeding the maximum expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curve. In some cases, these flows can be well in excess of the MEFV, generally referred to as supramaximal flows. Understanding the flow-structure interaction involved in these maneuvers is the main goal of this work. We present a simple theoretical model for investigating the dynamics of voluntary cough and forced expiratory maneuvers. The core modeling idea is based on a 1-D model of high Reynolds number flow through flexible-walled tubes. The model incorporates key ingredients involved in these maneuvers: the expiratory effort generated by the abdominal and expiratory muscles, the glottis and the flexibility and compliance of the lung airways. Variations in these allow investigation of the expiratory flows generated by a variety of single cough maneuvers. The model successfully reproduces PEF which is shown to depend on the cough generation protocol, the glottis reopening time and the compliance of the airways. The particular highlight is in simulating supramaximal PEF for very compliant tubes. The flow-structure interaction mechanisms behind these are discussed. The wave speed theory of flow limitation is used to characterize the PEF. Existing hypotheses of the origin of PEF, from cough and forced expiration experiments, are also tested using this model.

  8. Mechanical Stimulation by Postnasal Drip Evokes Cough.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Iwata

    Full Text Available Cough affects all individuals at different times, and its economic burden is substantial. Despite these widespread adverse effects, cough research relies on animal models, which hampers our understanding of the fundamental cause of cough. Postnasal drip is speculated to be one of the most frequent causes of chronic cough; however, this is a matter of debate. Here we show that mechanical stimuli by postnasal drip cause chronic cough. We distinguished human cough from sneezes and expiration reflexes by airflow patterns. Cough and sneeze exhibited one-peak and two-peak patterns, respectively, in expiratory airflow, which were also confirmed by animal models of cough and sneeze. Transgenic mice with ciliary dyskinesia coughed substantially and showed postnasal drip in the pharynx; furthermore, their cough was completely inhibited by nasal airway blockade of postnasal drip. We successfully reproduced cough observed in these mice by injecting artificial postnasal drip in wild-type mice. These results demonstrated that mechanical stimulation by postnasal drip evoked cough. The findings of our study can therefore be used to develop new antitussive drugs that prevent the root cause of cough.

  9. Mechanical Stimulation by Postnasal Drip Evokes Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Toshiyuki; Ito, Isao; Niimi, Akio; Ikegami, Koji; Marumo, Satoshi; Tanabe, Naoya; Nakaji, Hitoshi; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hisako; Kamei, Junzo; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Mishima, Michiaki

    2015-01-01

    Cough affects all individuals at different times, and its economic burden is substantial. Despite these widespread adverse effects, cough research relies on animal models, which hampers our understanding of the fundamental cause of cough. Postnasal drip is speculated to be one of the most frequent causes of chronic cough; however, this is a matter of debate. Here we show that mechanical stimuli by postnasal drip cause chronic cough. We distinguished human cough from sneezes and expiration reflexes by airflow patterns. Cough and sneeze exhibited one-peak and two-peak patterns, respectively, in expiratory airflow, which were also confirmed by animal models of cough and sneeze. Transgenic mice with ciliary dyskinesia coughed substantially and showed postnasal drip in the pharynx; furthermore, their cough was completely inhibited by nasal airway blockade of postnasal drip. We successfully reproduced cough observed in these mice by injecting artificial postnasal drip in wild-type mice. These results demonstrated that mechanical stimulation by postnasal drip evoked cough. The findings of our study can therefore be used to develop new antitussive drugs that prevent the root cause of cough. PMID:26581078

  10. Recognizing and Preventing Whooping Cough

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-22

    This podcast provides information about the symptoms of whooping cough and how vaccines can help prevent this serious disease for people of all ages. It is especially important for those who will have close contact with a baby to be up to date with their whooping cough vaccine.  Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 1/22/2015.

  11. [Approach of dry cough in community pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquet, N

    2012-12-01

    Cough is a common symptom, often experienced as troublesome. The cough reflex is a physiological defense of the respiratory tract, most often triggered by irritation or obstruction of the airways. Productive cough can expel bronchial secretions. This cough is certainly useful. An irritating, dry cough however, has no purpose and can justify the temporary use of a cough suppressant to relieve symptoms. The pharmacist is often the first person to whom the patient turns. Persistent cough generally indicates an underlying condition that requires a causal treatment. In this case, the pharmacist should refer the patient to the doctor. This article aims to provide guidelines for dealing with dry cough in the pharmacy. PMID:23350209

  12. FastStats: Whooping Cough or Pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Whooping Cough or Pertussis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... the U.S. Morbidity Reported number of new whooping cough cases: 28,639 (2013) Source: Health, United States, ...

  13. Help Protect Babies from Whooping Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emails CDC Features Help Protect Babies from Whooping Cough Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... few even die from the disease. Understanding Whooping Cough Vaccines: DTaP and Tdap There are two vaccines ...

  14. TCM Differential Treatment of Cough Variant Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhong-de; DENG Yi-qi; ZHANG Yu; HAN Yun; LIN Lin; CHAO En-xiang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Cough variant asthma (CVA), also called latent asthma or cough asthma, is a special type of asthma. With gradually deepened understanding of CVA in recent years, good curative effect has been achieved in TCM treatment of CVA.

  15. Chronic dry cough: Diagnostic and management approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Mahashur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cough is the most common symptom for which medical treatment is sought in the outpatient setting. Chronic dry cough poses a great diagnostic and management challenge due to myriad etiologies. Chronic cough has been commonly considered to be caused by gastroesophageal reflux, post-nasal drip or asthma. However, recent evidences suggest that many patients with these conditions do not have cough, and in those with cough, the response to specific treatments is unpredictable at best. This raises questions about the concept of a triad of treatable causes for chronic cough. This article discusses the mechanism and etiology of cough, along with recent advances in the field of cough, highlighting some of the diagnostic and management challenges.

  16. Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_158983.html Whooping Cough Shot Safe for Pregnant Women It also offers short-term protection to ... News) -- The whooping cough vaccine is safe for pregnant women, a new study indicates. The researchers also ...

  17. An automatic generation of non-uniform mesh for CFD analyses of image-based multiscale human airway models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Shinjiro; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2014-11-01

    The authors have developed a method to automatically generate non-uniform CFD mesh for image-based human airway models. The sizes of generated tetrahedral elements vary in both radial and longitudinal directions to account for boundary layer and multiscale nature of pulmonary airflow. The proposed method takes advantage of our previously developed centerline-based geometry reconstruction method. In order to generate the mesh branch by branch in parallel, we used the open-source programs Gmsh and TetGen for surface and volume meshes, respectively. Both programs can specify element sizes by means of background mesh. The size of an arbitrary element in the domain is a function of wall distance, element size on the wall, and element size at the center of airway lumen. The element sizes on the wall are computed based on local flow rate and airway diameter. The total number of elements in the non-uniform mesh (10 M) was about half of that in the uniform mesh, although the computational time for the non-uniform mesh was about twice longer (170 min). The proposed method generates CFD meshes with fine elements near the wall and smooth variation of element size in longitudinal direction, which are required, e.g., for simulations with high flow rate. NIH Grants R01-HL094315, U01-HL114494, and S10-RR022421. Computer time provided by XSEDE.

  18. Honey for treatment of cough in children

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2014-01-01

    Question Cough is a very common presentation among sick children in my clinic. There is almost no day without a child being examined for upper respiratory tract infection and cough. While I understand that no medications are recommended for relief of cough—prescribed or over the counter—is it true that honey might help relieve cough symptoms in children?

  19. Chronic cough and infiltrated Lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper tries about a patient of feminine sex, 66 years who consults for the first time to the 62 years for square of cough with mucous expectoration and three year with evolution of dyspnoea that are increased with the exhibition to the powder and the cold, being accompanied of dorsal pain and hoarseness. The paper includes their evolution and discussion of the case

  20. Cough During Infancy and Subsequent Childhood Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Eyal; Rothers, Janet; Stern, Debra A.; Morgan, Wayne J.; Halonen, Marilyn; Wright, Anne L.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Wheezing in infancy has been associated with subsequent asthma, but whether cough similarly influences asthma risk has been little studied. We sought to determine whether prolonged cough and cough without cold in the first year of life are associated with childhood asthma. METHODS Participants in the Infant Immune Study, a non-selected birth cohort, were surveyed 7 times in the first 9 months of life regarding presence of wheeze and cough. Cough for more than 28 days was defined as prolonged. Parents were asked at 1 year if the child ever coughed without a cold. Asthma was defined as parental report of physician diagnosis of asthma, with symptoms or medication use between 2–9 years. Logistic regression was used to assess adjusted odds for asthma associated with cough characteristics. RESULTS 24% (97) of children experienced prolonged cough and 23% (95) cough without cold in the first 9 months, respectively. Prolonged cough was associated with increased risk of asthma relative to brief cough (OR 3.57, CI: 1.88, 6.76), with the risk being particularly high among children of asthmatic mothers. Cough without cold (OR 3.13, 95% CI: 1.76, 5.57) was also independently associated with risk of childhood asthma. Both relations persisted after adjustment for wheeze and total IgE at age 1. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Prolonged cough in infancy and cough without cold are associated with childhood asthma, independent of infant wheeze. These findings suggest that characteristics of cough in infancy are early markers of asthma susceptibility, particularly among children with maternal asthma. PMID:26011047

  1. Somatic Cough Syndrome (Previously Referred to as Psychogenic Cough) and Tic Cough (Previously Referred to as Habit Cough) in Adults and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Mohammad H.; Pringsheim, Tamara; Feinstein, Anthony; Chang, Anne B.; Newcombe, Peter A.; Rubin, Bruce K.; McGarvey, Lorcan P.; Weir, Kelly; Altman, Kenneth W.; Weinberger, Miles; Irwin, Richard S.; Adams, Todd M.; Altman, Kenneth W.; Barker, Alan F.; Birring, Surinder S.; Blackhall, Fiona; Bolser, Donald C.; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Braman, Sidney S.; Brightling, Christopher; Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla; Canning, Brendan J.; Chang, Anne B.; Coeytaux, Remy; Cowley, Terrie; Davenport, Paul; Diekemper, Rebecca L.; Ebihara, Satoru; El Solh, Ali A.; Escalante, Patricio; Feinstein, Anthony; Field, Stephen K.; Fisher, Dina; French, Cynthia T.; Gibson, Peter; Gold, Philip; Gould, Michael K.; Grant, Cameron; Harding, Susan M.; Harnden, Anthony; Hill, Adam T.; Irwin, Richard S.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Keogh, Karina A.; Lane, Andrew P.; Lim, Kaiser; Malesker, Mark A.; Mazzone, Peter; Mazzone, Stuart; McCrory, Douglas C.; McGarvey, Lorcan; Molasiotis, Alex; Murad, M. Hassan; Newcombe, Peter; Nguyen, Huong Q.; Oppenheimer, John; Prezant, David; Pringsheim, Tamara; Restrepo, Marcos I.; Rosen, Mark; Rubin, Bruce; Ryu, Jay H.; Smith, Jaclyn; Tarlo, Susan M.; Vertigan, Anne E.; Wang, Gang; Weinberger, Miles; Weir, Kelly; Wiener, Renda Soylemez

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We conducted a systematic review on the management of psychogenic cough, habit cough, and tic cough to update the recommendations and suggestions of the 2006 guideline on this topic. METHODS: We followed the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) methodologic guidelines and the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework. The Expert Cough Panel based their recommendations on data from the systematic review, patients’ values and preferences, and the clinical context. Final grading was reached by consensus according to Delphi methodology. RESULTS: The results of the systematic review revealed only low-quality evidence to support how to define or diagnose psychogenic or habit cough with no validated diagnostic criteria. With respect to treatment, low-quality evidence allowed the committee to only suggest therapy for children believed to have psychogenic cough. Such therapy might consist of nonpharmacologic trials of hypnosis or suggestion therapy, or combinations of reassurance, counseling, and referral to a psychologist, psychotherapy, and appropriate psychotropic medications. Based on multiple resources and contemporary psychologic, psychiatric, and neurologic criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition and tic disorder guidelines), the committee suggests that the terms psychogenic and habit cough are out of date and inaccurate. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the 2006 CHEST Cough Guidelines, the major change in suggestions is that the terms psychogenic and habit cough be abandoned in favor of somatic cough syndrome and tic cough, respectively, even though the evidence to do so at this time is of low quality. PMID:25856777

  2. Efficacy of levodropropizine in pediatric cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blasio, Francesco; Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; De Danieli, Gianluca; Lanata, Luigi; Zanasi, Alessando

    2012-10-01

    Cough in children is among the most common problems managed by pediatricians, and occurs more frequently in preschool than in older children. Most acute episodes of cough are due to viral upper respiratory tract infections. The morbidity associated with acute cough in a child extends also to parents, teachers, and other family members and caregivers. Unfortunately, therapeutic options for acute cough in children are severely limited due to the absence of drugs shown to be effective antitussives with an acceptable safety profile. Agents used in the management of adult cough, such as narcotics (codeine, hydrocodone), the non-narcotic opioid dextromethorphan, first-generation, potentially sedating antihistamines, and decongestants such as pseudoephedrine, have all been deemed inadequate for treatment of acute pediatric cough on a risk/benefit basis. A growing body of evidence suggests that the peripherally acting antitussive, levodropropizine, may be an attractive alternative for the treatment of bothersome acute cough in children.

  3. Efficacy of levodropropizine in pediatric cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blasio, Francesco; Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; De Danieli, Gianluca; Lanata, Luigi; Zanasi, Alessando

    2012-10-01

    Cough in children is among the most common problems managed by pediatricians, and occurs more frequently in preschool than in older children. Most acute episodes of cough are due to viral upper respiratory tract infections. The morbidity associated with acute cough in a child extends also to parents, teachers, and other family members and caregivers. Unfortunately, therapeutic options for acute cough in children are severely limited due to the absence of drugs shown to be effective antitussives with an acceptable safety profile. Agents used in the management of adult cough, such as narcotics (codeine, hydrocodone), the non-narcotic opioid dextromethorphan, first-generation, potentially sedating antihistamines, and decongestants such as pseudoephedrine, have all been deemed inadequate for treatment of acute pediatric cough on a risk/benefit basis. A growing body of evidence suggests that the peripherally acting antitussive, levodropropizine, may be an attractive alternative for the treatment of bothersome acute cough in children. PMID:22771902

  4. A rare cause of specific cough in a child: the importance of following-up children with chronic cough

    OpenAIRE

    Barr, Richard Lloyd; McCrystal, David John; Perry, Christopher Francis; Chang, Anne B

    2005-01-01

    For many years, the term 'specific cough' has been used as a clinical cough descriptor in children to signify the likelihood of an underlying disease causing the cough. In this case study, we describe a child with specific cough caused by a rare carcinoma, a mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the bronchus. The cough only totally resolved after the primary cause was successfully treated. This report highlights the importance of following up children with cough, especially those with specific cough.

  5. Treatment of recalcitrant cough with baclofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Agostinis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic dry cough is a debilitating symptom often refractory to standard antitussive therapy. It may result from increased sensitivity of the cough reflex. Baclofen, an agonist of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, has been shown, in animals, to have antitussive activity via a central mechanism. In normal subjects baclofen has been revealed ability to inhibit capsaicininduced cough and cough due to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors. In addition, chronic therapy with baclofen has been shown to reduce cough reflex sensitivity in subjects with cervical spinal cord injury. Clinical cases: We describe two patients with chronic refractory cough who obtained symptomatic improvement after oral baclofen administration. The antitussive effect of baclofen, usually used for treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis and spinal cord lesions, can be explained by central inhibition, but may also involve peripheral inhibitory mechanisms.

  6. [Persistent coughs in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoist, G; Bidat, E

    2015-04-01

    A persistent cough lasting more than 4-8weeks should lead to a diagnostic workup. A detailed history and a full clinical examination, with a chest X-ray, are essential for initial assessment. Most reported causes of chronic cough in children are post-nasal drip syndrome, cough variant asthma (a spirometry with test of bronchodilator responsiveness should be attempted in children old enough to perform the manoeuvres). GERD is often suspected but a causal relationship is difficult to establish. Protracted bacterial bronchitis, post-infectious cough (B. pertussis, Mycoplasma) and somatoform respiratory disorders (including hyperventilation syndrome) are also common. Signs which are pointers suggesting an underlying respiratory or systemic disease require further investigation: inhaled foreign bodies, cystic fibrosis and chronic lung diseases with bronchiectasis, airway abnormalities, interstitial lung diseases need to be considered. Recent reports of refractory coughs have identified features of a sensory neuropathy disorder, and might explain persistent cough triggers. PMID:25669121

  7. Whooping cough in a renal transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbiras, M; Shabaka, A; Calvo, N; Martin, L; Moreno, M A; Lopez de la Manzanara, V; Sanchez-Fructuoso, A I

    2016-04-01

    Whooping cough is a respiratory infection with a severity that varies with age, immune status, and probably with other factors such as the degree of exposure and the virulence of the organism. The most frequent microorganism responsible for whooping cough is Bordetella pertussis. We present the case of a 62-year-old renal transplant recipient presenting with typical and severe manifestations of whooping cough caused by B. pertussis.

  8. Cough-induced Tracheobronchial Mucosal Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hira, Harmanjit Singh

    2011-01-01

    A 56-year-old man presented with moderate hemoptysis. It was preceded by a severe bout of cough. Flexible bronchoscopy showed diffuse tracheobronchial mucosal petechiae and bleeding. The patient was not suffering with any coagulopathies. He did not receive antiplatelet drugs. Hemoptysis resolved with cough suppressant. Subsequent bronchoscopy revealed the complete resolution of petechiae. The mechanism of bleeding after the bout of coughing is discussed. PMID:23169019

  9. Cough: are children really different to adults?

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Anne B

    2005-01-01

    Worldwide paediatricians advocate that children should be managed differently from adults. In this article, similarities and differences between children and adults related to cough are presented. Physiologically, the cough pathway is closely linked to the control of breathing (the central respiratory pattern generator). As respiratory control and associated reflexes undergo a maturation process, it is expected that the cough would likewise undergo developmental stages as well. Clinically, th...

  10. Gabapentin for Chronic Refractory Cancer Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Shrikant; Kumar, Gaurav; Datta, Soumitra Shankar

    2016-01-01

    Vagal sensory neuropathy or vagal hypersensitivity has been implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic cough. Earlier reports have shown gabapentin to be effective in sensory laryngeal neuropathy and symptom conditions that have a proven neural origin. We present a case report of a patient with chronic refractory cough due to a soft tissue mass in the lung that caused compression of the mediastinal structures. The patient was successfully treated with gabapentin with reduction in the cough intensity, duration, and frequency. PMID:26962287

  11. Gabapentin for Chronic Refractory Cancer Cough

    OpenAIRE

    Shrikant Atreya; Gaurav Kumar; Soumitra Shankar Datta

    2016-01-01

    Vagal sensory neuropathy or vagal hypersensitivity has been implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic cough. Earlier reports have shown gabapentin to be effective in sensory laryngeal neuropathy and symptom conditions that have a proven neural origin. We present a case report of a patient with chronic refractory cough due to a soft tissue mass in the lung that caused compression of the mediastinal structures. The patient was successfully treated with gabapentin with reduction in the cough ...

  12. Gabapentin for chronic refractory cancer cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant Atreya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vagal sensory neuropathy or vagal hypersensitivity has been implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic cough. Earlier reports have shown gabapentin to be effective in sensory laryngeal neuropathy and symptom conditions that have a proven neural origin. We present a case report of a patient with chronic refractory cough due to a soft tissue mass in the lung that caused compression of the mediastinal structures. The patient was successfully treated with gabapentin with reduction in the cough intensity, duration, and frequency.

  13. Capsaicin induced cough in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, M.; Mister, R; Pearson, M.; Calverley, P.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Cough is a common and troublesome symptom in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) but the mechanisms responsible are not known. The cough threshold to inhaled capsaicin is increased in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) where lung volumes are increased, but the relationship between cough response and symptom intensity has not been studied in CFA where lung volumes are reduced.
METHODS—Capsaicin challenge tests were performed on 15 subject...

  14. Gabapentin for Chronic Refractory Cancer Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Shrikant; Kumar, Gaurav; Datta, Soumitra Shankar

    2016-01-01

    Vagal sensory neuropathy or vagal hypersensitivity has been implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic cough. Earlier reports have shown gabapentin to be effective in sensory laryngeal neuropathy and symptom conditions that have a proven neural origin. We present a case report of a patient with chronic refractory cough due to a soft tissue mass in the lung that caused compression of the mediastinal structures. The patient was successfully treated with gabapentin with reduction in the cough intensity, duration, and frequency. PMID:26962287

  15. Workshop--cough: exercise, speech and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdicombe, John; Fontana, Giovanni; Gibson, Peter

    2009-04-01

    Twelve distinguished scientists attended the workshop, heard three presentations, and took part in the discussions. Fontana first described his unpublished studies on cough in exercise and during hyperventilation with healthy subjects. Both activities depressed cough induced by inhalation of distilled water aerosol (fog). The possible mechanisms were discussed. Gibson then described the successful use of speech therapy to treat chronic cough, and discussed the possible mechanisms, centering on the role of the larynx and its neural control. A comparison was made with the ability of speech and laughter to precipitate cough. Widdicombe discussed the scanty literature on the effect of singing and playing wind instruments on cough, most of the evidence being anecdotal. In the discussion periods several matters for future study arose. It is usually not clear if the modulation of cough, its depression, enhancement or excitation, arose primarily at peripheral sites (reflexes from the airways), or at a cortical level, or both. Nor is it clear whether the same results would be obtained with provoked cough and with spontaneous cough. But all three aspects of 'behavioual' changes in cough sensitivity (exercise, speech and music) could be further explored, and current techniques should make this possible. PMID:19135543

  16. The Validity and Precision of the Leicester Cough Questionnaire in COPD Patients with Chronic Cough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhof, Farida F.; Boom, Lisenka N.; ten Hertog, Nynke E.; Uil, Steven M.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; van den Berg, Jan W. K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A validated instrument to assess the effects of chronic cough on health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently not available. The Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) is a cough-specific health status questionnaire which is originally validated f

  17. Headache associated with cough : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordenier, Ann; De Hertogh, Willem; De Keyser, Jacques; Versijpt, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Headache only triggered by coughing is a rather uncommon condition. The aim of the present review is to present an overview of the diagnosis, clinical characteristics, pathophysiology and treatment of both primary and symptomatic cough headache and discuss other relevant headache disorders affected

  18. Cough in asthma triggered by reflux episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Devendra; He, Zhaoping; Padman, Raj

    2014-05-01

    With combined pH and impedance monitoring, non-acid, as well as acid reflux episodes, are more commonly detected immediately prior to cough in asthma in children. Gastroesophageal reflux should be evaluated as a trigger for cough in difficult childhood asthma.

  19. Efficacy of cough suppressants in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J A; Novack, A H; Almquist, J R; Rogers, J E

    1993-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that codeine and dextromethorphan are effective in alleviating the symptoms of acute cough, we conducted a randomized, controlled trial. Eligible patients were children 18 months to 12 years of age, seen in private pediatric practices, with significant night cough of less than 14 days' duration. Study patients were randomly selected to receive codeine, dextromethorphan, or placebo at bedtime for 3 consecutive nights. Outcomes were assessed by the use of a parent questionnaire rating the severity of symptoms at the initiation of therapy, and after each night of the study. Every patient had a cough score (range 0 to 4) and composite symptom score (range 0 to 9) computed for each day of the study. One hundred forty-one doses of study medication were evaluated in 49 patients, including 13 children receiving placebo, 19 dextromethorphan, and 17 codeine. Mean cough and composite symptom scores decreased in each of the three treatment groups on each day of the study; there were no significant differences. Regression analysis, with reduction in cough score as the outcome of interest, showed that neither dextromethorphan nor codeine was significantly more effective than placebo (p = 0.41 and 0.70, respectively). Reduction in cough score was positively correlated with the severity of cough at the start of treatment (p = 0.007). Our data suggest that, in the doses used, neither codeine nor dextromethorphan is superior to placebo in treating night cough in children. PMID:8496765

  20. Mechanisms of cough provocation and cough resolution in neonates with bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadcherla, Sudarshan R.; Hasenstab, Kathryn A.; Shaker, Reza; Castile, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cough and deglutition are protective mechanisms that defend against aspiration. We identified mechanisms associated with cough provocation as well as those associated with cough resolution in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Methods Manometry signatures of cough were recognized in 16 premature infants with BPD undergoing concurrent esophageal manometry, respiratory inductance plethysmography, and nasal air flow measurements. Pretussive and posttussive pharyngo-esophageal motility changes were analyzed. Mechanisms associated with cough and mechanisms that restored respiratory and esophageal normalcy were analyzed. Results We analyzed 312 cough events during 88 cough clusters; 97% were associated with recognizable manometric patterns. Initial mechanisms related with coughing included nonpropagating swallow (59%), upper esophageal sphincter (UES) reflex contraction (18%), and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation (14%). UES and LES dysfunction was present in 69% of nonpropagating swallow-associated cough clusters. Mechanisms restoring post-tussive normalcy included primary peristalsis (84%), secondary peristalsis (8%), and none recognized (8%). UES contraction reflex was associated with cough clusters more frequently in infants on nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) (OR = 9.13, 95% CI = 1.88–44.24). Conclusion Cough clusters in infants with BPD had identifiable etiologies associated with esophageal events; common initial mechanisms were of upper aerodigestive origin, while common clearing mechanisms were peristaltic reflexes. PMID:26151491

  1. Whooping cough: identification, assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Jackie; Pinfield, Jenny; Rouse, Jo

    Although there is a high uptake of vaccinations providing protection against Bordetella pertussis, the main cause of whooping cough, there has been an increase in the incidence of notifications of the disease in the UK and other developed countries in recent years. The increase in cases of whooping cough is mainly evident in older children and adults. While these individuals may experience persistent and unpleasant symptoms, most notably prolonged cough, symptoms may be mild, in part, because most older children and adults have been vaccinated against the disease. The most significant public health concern relating to whooping cough is that infected older children and adults may transmit the disease to unvaccinated infants who are most vulnerable to the symptoms. This article aims to develop the reader's understanding of whooping cough, including its prevention and management.

  2. Impact of current cough on health-related quality of life in patients with COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslee, Gaëtan; Burgel, Pierre-Régis; Escamilla, Roger; Chanez, Pascal; Court-Fortune, Isabelle; Nesme-Meyer, Pascale; Brinchault-Rabin, Graziella; Perez, Thierry; Jebrak, Gilles; Caillaud, Denis; Paillasseur, Jean-Louis; Roche, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Background Cough and sputum production are frequent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between cough and sputum production and health-related quality of life in COPD. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the French Initiatives COPD cohort and assessed cough and sputum production within the past 7 days using the cough and sputum assessment questionnaire (CASA-Q), health-related quality of life, spirometry, smoking status, dyspnea, exacerbations, anxiety and depression, and comorbidities. Results One hundred and seventy-eight stable COPD patients were included (age, 62 [56–69] years, 128 male, forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]: 57 [37–72] % predicted) (median [Q1–Q3]). In univariate analyses, health-related quality of life (Saint George’s respiratory questionnaire total score) was associated with each CASA-Q domain and with chronic bronchitis, exacerbations, dyspnea, FEV1, depression, and anxiety. All four domains introduced separately were independently associated with health-related quality of life. When introduced together in multivariate analyses, only the cough impact domain remained independently associated with health-related quality of life (R2=0.60). With chronic bronchitis (standard definition) instead of the CASA-Q, the R2 was lower (R2=0.54). Conclusion This study provides evidence that current cough in the previous 7 days is an important determinant of health-related quality of life impairment in stable COPD patients.

  3. Night cough counts and diary card scores in asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Archer, L N; Simpson, H

    1985-01-01

    A tape recording system for recording night cough in asthmatics at home is described. Objective cough counts and half hour periods containing cough did not correlate with diary card scores awarded to eight children on seven nights each. Night cough diary scores may mislead in the assessment of symptom severity.

  4. Use of cough swabs in a cystic fibrosis clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Equi, A; Pike, S.; Davies, J; Bush, A

    2001-01-01

    We audited prospectively 322 cough swabs taken from cystic fibrosis children and compared cough swabs with concomitant sputum samples in 30 expectorating patients. A positive cough swab is a strong predictor of sputum culture. However, a negative cough swab does not rule out infection. Persistent symptoms should be further investigated.



  5. Predictors of objective cough frequency in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumner, Helen; Woodcock, Ashley; Kolsum, Umme;

    2013-01-01

    Cough is one of the principal symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but the potential drivers of cough are likely to be multifactorial and poorly understood.......Cough is one of the principal symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but the potential drivers of cough are likely to be multifactorial and poorly understood....

  6. Accuracy of portable devices in measuring peak cough flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peak cough flow (PCF) measurements can be used as indicators of cough effectiveness. Portable peak flow meters and spirometers have been used to measure PCF, but little is known about their accuracy compared to pneumotachograph systems. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of four portable devices (Mini–Wright and Assess peak flow meters, SpiroUSB and Microlab spirometers) in measuring PCF with a calibrated laboratory based pneumotachograph system. Twenty healthy volunteers (mean (SD) age 45 (16) years) coughed through a pneumotachograph connected in series with each portable device in turn, and the differences in PCF readings were analysed. In addition, mechanically generated flow waves of constant peak flow were delivered through each device both independently and when connected in series with the pneumotachograph. Agreement between PCF readings obtained with the pneumotachograph and the portable devices was poor. Peak flow readings were on average lower by approximately 50 L min−1 when measured using the portable devices; 95% limits of agreement spanned approximately 150 L min−1. The findings highlight the potential for inaccuracy when using portable devices for the measurement of PCF. Depending on the measurement instrument used, absolute values of PCF reported in the literature may not be directly comparable. (paper)

  7. Arnold’s nerve cough reflex: evidence for chronic cough as a sensory vagal neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Nicole M; Gibson, Peter G; Birring, Surinder S.

    2014-01-01

    Arnold’s nerve ear-cough reflex is recognised to occur uncommonly in patients with chronic cough. In these patients, mechanical stimulation of the external auditory meatus can activate the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (Arnold’s nerve) and evoke reflex cough. This is an example of hypersensitivity of vagal afferent nerves, and there is now an increasing recognition that many cases of refractory or idiopathic cough may be due to a sensory neuropathy of the vagus nerve. We present two cas...

  8. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Immunizations Pertussis (Whooping Cough) One family's struggles with pertussis We provide this video in a variety of ... not possible without a visit to your doctor. Immunizations stop disease from spreading. Check with your family ...

  9. Chronic cough following cardiac transplantation: vagal Mitempfindung?

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, R R; Ebers, G C

    1992-01-01

    Since operation a cardiac transplant recipient has suffered from chronic, non-productive but intense coughing spells triggered by stimulation of the right external ear. This demonstrates the unusual phenomenon of acquired aberrant sensory referral.

  10. Paraneoplastic Cough and Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    A case of patient with intractable cough due to renal cell carcinoma is reported. The discussion reviews the literature regarding this unusual paraneoplastic manifestation of renal malignancy. PMID:27445553

  11. How Is the Cause of Cough Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical history, a physical exam, and test results. Medical History Your doctor will likely ask questions about your ... cough. Your doctor also may ask: About your medical history, including whether you have allergies, asthma , or other ...

  12. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cabinet. Keep an eye out not only for traditional-looking cough and cold remedies in your teen's ... Understanding Medications and What They Do Dealing With Addiction Drugs: What to Know Contact Us Print Resources ...

  13. Pharyngeal swallowing phase and chronic cough

    OpenAIRE

    Drozdz, Daniela Rejane Constantino; Costa, Cintia Conceição; Jesus, Paulo Roberto de Oliveira; Trindade, Mateus Silva; Weiss, Guilherme; M. Neto, Abdias Baptista; Silva, Ana Maria T. da; Mancopes, Renata

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: The act of swallowing depends on a complex and dynamic process which uses common structures to the act of breathing; respiratory problems can cause swallowing difficulties. Aim: To assess the swallowing pharyngeal phase in patients with chronic cough. Method: Retrospective study with 15 patients of both genders, patients with chronic cough and risk factors for aspiration defined by the pneumologic diagnosis. The patients were submitted to anamnesis on complaints related ...

  14. The Korean Cough Guideline: Recommendation and Summary Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Chin Kook; Jung, Ji Ye; Lee, Sei Won; Kim, Joo-Hee; Park, So Young; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Park, Dong Ah; Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Kim, Yee Hyung; Jeong, Ina; Kim, Je Hyeong; Kim, Deog Kyeom; Kim, Sung-Kyoung; Kim, Yong Hyun; Park, Jinkyeong; Choi, Eun Young; Jung, Ki-Suck; Kim, Hui Jung

    2016-01-01

    Cough is one of the most common symptom of many respiratory diseases. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases organized cough guideline committee and cough guideline was developed by this committee. The purpose of this guideline is to help clinicians to diagnose correctly and treat efficiently patients with cough. In this article, we have stated recommendation and summary of Korean cough guideline. We also provided algorithm for acute, subacute, and chronic cough. For chronic cough, upper airway cough syndrome (UACS), cough variant asthma (CVA), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) should be considered. If UACS is suspicious, first generation anti-histamine and nasal decongestant can be used empirically. In CVA, inhaled corticosteroid is recommended in order to improve cough. In GERD, proton pump inhibitor is recommended in order to improve cough. Chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis, lung cancer, aspiration, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, habit, psychogenic cough, interstitial lung disease, environmental and occupational factor, tuberculosis, obstructive sleep apnea, peritoneal dialysis, and idiopathic cough can be also considered as cause of chronic cough. Level of evidence for treatment is mostly low. Thus, in this guideline, many recommendations are based on expert opinion. Further study regarding treatment for cough is mandatory. PMID:26770230

  15. The Korean Cough Guideline: Recommendation and Summary Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Chin Kook; Jung, Ji Ye; Lee, Sei Won; Kim, Joo-Hee; Park, So Young; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Park, Dong Ah; Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Kim, Yee Hyung; Jeong, Ina; Kim, Je Hyeong; Kim, Deog Kyeom; Kim, Sung-Kyoung; Kim, Yong Hyun; Park, Jinkyeong; Choi, Eun Young; Jung, Ki-Suck

    2016-01-01

    Cough is one of the most common symptom of many respiratory diseases. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases organized cough guideline committee and cough guideline was developed by this committee. The purpose of this guideline is to help clinicians to diagnose correctly and treat efficiently patients with cough. In this article, we have stated recommendation and summary of Korean cough guideline. We also provided algorithm for acute, subacute, and chronic cough. For chronic cough, upper airway cough syndrome (UACS), cough variant asthma (CVA), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) should be considered. If UACS is suspicious, first generation anti-histamine and nasal decongestant can be used empirically. In CVA, inhaled corticosteroid is recommended in order to improve cough. In GERD, proton pump inhibitor is recommended in order to improve cough. Chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis, lung cancer, aspiration, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, habit, psychogenic cough, interstitial lung disease, environmental and occupational factor, tuberculosis, obstructive sleep apnea, peritoneal dialysis, and idiopathic cough can be also considered as cause of chronic cough. Level of evidence for treatment is mostly low. Thus, in this guideline, many recommendations are based on expert opinion. Further study regarding treatment for cough is mandatory. PMID:26770230

  16. Cough and asthma diagnosis: physicians’ diagnosis and treatment of patients complaining of acute, subacute and chronic cough in rural areas of Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yamasaki, Akira; Hanaki, Keichi; Tomita, Katsuyuki; WATANABE, MASANARI; Hasagawa, Yasuyuki; Okazaki, Ryota; Yamamura, Miki; Fukutani, Kouji; Sugimoto, Yuji; Kato, Kazuhiro; KODANI, MASAHIRO; Ikeda, Toshikazu; Konishi, Tatsuya; Kawasaki, Yuji; Tokuyasu, Hirokazu

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cough is one of the most common reasons for visiting a clinic. The causes of cough differ according to the duration of cough. Infectious disease is commonly observed in acute cough while noninfectious disease is commonly observed in chronic cough. On the other hand, cough is frequently observed in patients with asthma/cough variant asthma (CVA). Objective: In this study, we investigated the causes of cough in a rural region in Japan and the clinical examination and treatment for t...

  17. Expired breath condensate hydrogen peroxide concentration and pH for screening cough variant asthma among chronic cough

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Al Obaidi Amina

    2007-01-01

    The reported studies suggest a role for eosinophils in the pathogenesis of cough variant asthma. In the present study, the expired breath condensate level of hydrogen peroxide and pH were determined in patients with cough variant asthma and compared to subjects with classical asthma, with chronic cough nonasthmatic and healthy control. Twenty-seven patients with cough variant asthma, 43 patients with classical asthma, 32 patients with chronic cough and 27 healthy subjects were studied in a cr...

  18. In vivo trial results of a novel ultrasonic cough stimulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Nitz, PhD, MPhty, BPhty

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of these double-blind in-vivo trials of a prototype ultrasonic cough stimulator (CoughStim™ were to establish (1 whether ultrasound (US stimulation can be safely used to stimulate a cough, (2 the most efficient US frequency and power parameters to reliably stimulate a cough, (3 whether single- or dual-sided stimulation is more effective, and (4 whether a cough can be stimulated in adults unable to cough on demand. Fifteen nondisabled volunteers (18–59 yr and seven volunteers unable to cough on demand (85–102 yr were recruited. Stimulation was applied to the neck unilaterally at eight frequencies and two power levels and bilaterally at two frequencies and three power levels. Vital signs were monitored during testing with no adverse responses. CoughStim stimulated a cough in all nondisabled subjects, 80% of subjects at 0.58 MHz and 9 W unilaterally and 75% of subjects at 0.58 MHz and 6 W bilaterally. Of the subjects unable to cough, 71 percent responded to bilateral stimuli (0.54 MHz and 6 W with a strong cough. The CoughStim regularly and safely produced a moderately strong cough response in subjects with or without ability to cough and produced this effect without causing undue discomfort.

  19. [A new portable monitor for long-term cough recording].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, D; Klauke, M; Schönhofer, B

    1997-06-01

    Cough is a common symptom of pulmonary diseases. For a number of reasons it would be of interest to have information about the frequency of coughs over a given period of time. So far, the cough recorders which are available are either too expensive or unwieldy. Hence, we developed a cough recorder linked to a portable, commercially available actigraph (about the size of a pack of cigarettes) that records coughing as an acoustic signal and ventral thorax movement. The signals are filtered via a band pass and sampled by a peak detektor with different time constants to separate the impulse character of the cough signal from the background noise level. The cough recorder registers coughing cumulatively over a period of one minute and has a storage time of one week. Since the acoustic signals are essential for the interpretation of the recordings, the analogue circuit was subjected to a separate validation programme. For this purpose, the distinction between active coughs of 10 volunteers (total number of coughs 550) and background noises (male and female voices and other defined noises, total number of noises 336) was tested. The complete assembly was then tested over night on 7 hospitalised patients with chronic cough. An infrared video camera system was used to make a reference recording of the overnight coughing. The results show that nearly every cough of the 10 volunteers was recorded (r = 0.99). 97.1% of the background noise was correctly interpreted. The complete recorder assembly correctly recorded 98.9% of the coughs (total 870) in the 7 patients. 4.8% of the background noise was erroneously registered as coughing. Summing up, it can be said that the portable cough recorder affords accurate recording of coughing over a period of one week, correctly distinguishing coughing from background noise.

  20. Evidence-based Evaluation and Management of Chronic Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilleos, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Chronic cough is common and has a significant impact on the wellbeing of patients and the use and cost of health care services. Traditionally the approach to chronic cough in patients who are nonsmokers and are not taking an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor has focused on the diagnosis and management of the upper airway cough syndrome, asthma, and reflux disease. The evaluation of patients with chronic cough frequently involves trials of empiric therapy for these 3 conditions. Chronic cough may be perpetuated by abnormalities of the cough reflex and sensitization of its afferent and central components. PMID:27542423

  1. [Pertussis (Whooping cough)--an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ingo

    2015-12-01

    Whooping cough is a highly contagious respiratory disease which is caused predominantly by the gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Further Bordetella species such as B. parapertussis and the recently discovered species B. holmesii are also involved in whooping cough-like diseases. Depending on age, vaccination status and distance to pre-infection with B. pertussis, whooping cough shows a wide range of symptoms. The disease occurs at any age, leaving only short time immunity. During the last 15 years, in industrialized countries the number of reported pertussis cases has been increased markedly. The reason for this observation is still unclear Macrolides such as azithromycin and clarithromycin are regarded as antibiotics of first choice. In Germany, combination vaccines containing acellular pertussis vaccines is the most important strategy of prevention. To ensure the best possible protection against pertussis, booster doses at determined times should be given after primary vaccination in infancy.

  2. Cough Syncope due to ACE Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Koc

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Syncope is defined as a transient loss of consciousness due to sudden temporary decline in cerebral perfusion. Cough syncope is classically seen in middle aged obese men with obstructive pulmonary disease. In patients that use Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors, a dry persistent cough can emerge due to the side effects of this medication. Seventy years old male patient that use ACE inhibitor for hypertension accepted to the clinic with the complaint of syncope. A bout of coughing has developed during electroencephalography recording and 10 seconds in duration of subcortical like epileptiform discharges were viewed. The ACE inhibitor the patient was receiving was replaced with calcium channel blocker and no complaint was observed during the follow up period. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 619-622

  3. An undiagnosed cause of chronic cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvi, Ketan; Padmanabhan, Arjun; Hari, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Tracheomalacia (TM) refers to loss of tracheal rigidity and resulting susceptibility to collapse. It is usually an incidental finding during investigations of other illness. The main symptoms are dyspnoea, cough, sputum production and hemoptysis. Most cases are considered as respiratory infection and are treated symptomatically. Acquired TM results from damage to trachea due to various conditions such as inflammation, chronic pressure, or medical/surgical procedures. The diagnosis is done by end-expiratory dynamic tracheal imaging, which demonstrates typical crescentric narrowing of trachea and reduced antero-posterior diameter <50% of normal. Management include conservative measures like cough suppressants or surgical measures like tracheoplasty, stenting or surgical repair. We are reporting a case of chronic cough, which was subsequently diagnosed as TM. PMID:26985425

  4. Cough and environmental air pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingling; Qiu, Minzhi; Lai, Kefang; Zhong, Nanshan

    2015-12-01

    With fast-paced urbanization and increased energy consumption in rapidly industrialized modern China, the level of outdoor and indoor air pollution resulting from industrial and motor vehicle emissions has been increasing at an accelerated rate. Thus, there is a significant increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and decreased pulmonary function. Experimental exposure research and epidemiological studies have indicated that exposure to particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and environmental tobacco smoke have a harmful influence on development of respiratory diseases and are significantly associated with cough and wheeze. This review mainly discusses the effect of air pollutants on respiratory health, particularly with respect to cough, the links between air pollutants and microorganisms, and air pollutant sources. Particular attention is paid to studies in urban areas of China where the levels of ambient and indoor air pollution are significantly higher than World Health Organization recommendations.

  5. Cough: neurophysiology, methods of research, pharmacological therapy and phonoaudiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbani, Aracy Pereira Silveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The cough is the more common respiratory symptom in children and adults. Objective: To present a revision on the neurophysiology and the methods for study of the consequence of the cough, as well as the pharmacotherapy and phonoaudiology therapy of the cough, based on the works published between 2005 and 2010 and indexed in the bases Medline, Lilacs and Library Cochrane under them to keywords "cough" or "anti-cough". Synthesis of the data: The consequence of the cough involves activation of receiving multiples becomes vacant in the aerial ways and of neural projections of the nucleus of the solitary treatment for other structures of the central nervous system. Experimental techniques allow studying the consequence of the cough to the cellular and molecular level to develop new anti-cough agents. It does not have evidences of that anti-cough exempt of medical lapsing they have superior effectiveness to the one of placebo for the relief of the cough. The phonoaudiology therapy can benefit patients with refractory chronic cough to the pharmacological treatment, over all when paradoxical movement of the vocal folds coexists. Final Comments: The boarding to multidiscipline has basic paper in the etiological diagnosis and treatment of the cough. The otolaryngologist must inform the patients on the risks of the anti-cough of free sales in order to prevent adverse poisonings and effect, especially in children.

  6. Unusual cough related stress injuries - two case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of unusual cough related stress injuries of the ribs are described. Both were detected on a 2h delay bone scan. To our knowledge, cough stress injuries have been not previously described scintigraphically. (orig.)

  7. Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup) Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup) Street names: Candy, Drank, Robo Print What Are Cough and Cold Medicines? Also known as: robotripping, robo, tussin, triple c, ...

  8. Cough and exhaled nitric oxide levels: what happens with exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsky, Helen L; Kynaston, Jennifer Anne; McElrea, Margaret; Turner, Catherine; Isles, Alan; Chang, Anne B

    2013-01-01

    Cough associated with exertion is often used as a surrogate marker of asthma. However, to date there are no studies that have objectively measured cough in association with exercise in children. Our primary aim was to examine whether children with a pre-existing cough have an increase in cough frequency during and post-exercise. We hypothesized that children with any coughing illness will have an increase in cough frequency post-exercise regardless of the presence of exercise-induced broncho-constriction (EIB) or atopy. In addition, we hypothesized that Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels decreases post-exercise regardless of the presence of EIB or atopy. Children with chronic cough and a control group without cough undertook an exercise challenge, FeNO measurements and a skin prick test, and wore a 24-h voice recorder to objectively measure cough frequency. The association between recorded cough frequency, exercise, atopy, and presence of EIB was tested. We also determined if the change in FeNO post exercise related to atopy or EIB. Of the 50 children recruited (35 with cough, 15 control), 7 had EIB. Children with cough had a significant increase in cough counts (median 7.0, inter-quartile ranges, 0.5, 24.5) compared to controls (2.0, IQR 0, 5.0, p = 0.028) post-exercise. Presence of atopy or EIB did not influence cough frequency. FeNO level was significantly lower post-exercise in both groups but the change was not influenced by atopy or EIB. Cough post-exertion is likely a generic response in children with a current cough. FeNO level decreases post-exercise irrespective of the presence of atopy or EIB. A larger study is necessary confirm or refute our findings.

  9. Cough and exhaled nitric oxide levels: What happens with exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen ePetsky

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cough associated with exertion is often used as a surrogate marker of asthma. However, to date there are no studies that have objectively measured cough in association with exercise in children. Our primary aim was to examine whether children with a pre-existing cough have an increase in cough frequency during and post-exercise. We hypothesised that children with any coughing illness will have an increase in cough frequency post-exercise regardless of the presence of exercise induced broncho-constriction (EIB or atopy. In addition, we hypotheised that FeNO levels decreases post-exercise regardless of the presence of EIB or atopy.Children with chronic cough and a control group without cough undertook an exercise challenge, FeNO measurements and a skin prick test and wore a 24-hour voice recorder to objectively measure cough frequency. The association between recorded cough frequency, exercise, atopy and presence of EIB was tested. We also determined if the change in FeNO post exercise related to atopy or EIB.Of the 50 children recruited (35 with cough, 15 control, 7 had EIB. Children with cough had a significant increase in cough counts (median 7.0, IQR 0.5, 24.5 compared to controls (2.0, IQR 0, 5.0, p=0.028 post-exercise. Presence of atopy or EIB did not influence cough frequency. FeNO level was significantly lower post-exercise in both groups but the change was not influenced by atopy or EIB. Cough post-exertion is likely a generic response in children with a current cough. FeNO level decreases post-exercise irrespective of the presence of atopy or EIB. A larger study is necessary confirm or refute our findings.

  10. Impact of current cough on health-related quality of life in patients with COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslee, Gaëtan; Burgel, Pierre-Régis; Escamilla, Roger; Chanez, Pascal; Court-Fortune, Isabelle; Nesme-Meyer, Pascale; Brinchault-Rabin, Graziella; Perez, Thierry; Jebrak, Gilles; Caillaud, Denis; Paillasseur, Jean-Louis; Roche, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Background Cough and sputum production are frequent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between cough and sputum production and health-related quality of life in COPD. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the French Initiatives COPD cohort and assessed cough and sputum production within the past 7 days using the cough and sputum assessment questionnaire (CASA-Q), health-related quality of life, spirometry, smoking status, dyspnea, exacerbations, anxiety and depression, and comorbidities. Results One hundred and seventy-eight stable COPD patients were included (age, 62 [56–69] years, 128 male, forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]: 57 [37–72] % predicted) (median [Q1–Q3]). In univariate analyses, health-related quality of life (Saint George’s respiratory questionnaire total score) was associated with each CASA-Q domain and with chronic bronchitis, exacerbations, dyspnea, FEV1, depression, and anxiety. All four domains introduced separately were independently associated with health-related quality of life. When introduced together in multivariate analyses, only the cough impact domain remained independently associated with health-related quality of life (R2=0.60). With chronic bronchitis (standard definition) instead of the CASA-Q, the R2 was lower (R2=0.54). Conclusion This study provides evidence that current cough in the previous 7 days is an important determinant of health-related quality of life impairment in stable COPD patients. PMID:27695305

  11. EFFECT OF ENHANCED SUPRAMAXIMAL FLOWS ON COUGH CLEARANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Models of cough efficacy suggest that the efficiency of cough for clearing mucus from the lungs is a function of peak airflow velocities in the airways. nitial, transient supramaximal flows are characteristic of cough, especially in patients with chronic obstruction and these pea...

  12. Important drugs for cough in advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homsi, J; Walsh, D; Nelson, K A

    2001-11-01

    Cough is a defense mechanism that prevents the entry of noxious materials into the respiratory system and clears foreign materials and excess secretions from the lungs and respiratory tract. In advanced cancer, it is a common symptom that interferes with the patient's daily activity and quality of life. Empiric treatment with antitussive agents is often needed. Two classes of antitussive drugs are available: (1) centrally acting: (a) opioids and (b) non-opioids; (2) peripherally acting: (a) directly and (b) indirectly. Antitussive availability varies widely around the world. Many antitussives, such as benzonatate, codeine, hydrocodone, and dextromethorphan, were extensively studied in the acute and chronic cough settings and showed relatively high efficacy and safety profiles. Benzonatate, clobutinol, dihydrocodeine, hydrocodone, and levodropropizine were the only antitussives specifically studied in cancer and advanced cancer cough. They all have shown to be effective and safe in recommended daily dose for cough. In advanced cancer the patient's current medications, previous antitussive use, the availability of routes of administration, any history of drug abuse, the presence of other symptoms and other factors, all have a role in the selection of antitussives for prescription. A good knowledge of the pharmacokinetics, dosage, efficacy, and side effects of the available antitussives provides for better management.

  13. Recognizing and Preventing Whooping Cough 2 (Pertussis)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-16

    This podcast encourages everyone to get vaccinated against whooping cough (pertussis), especially those who will have close contact with an infant.  Created: 9/16/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/16/2010.

  14. Cough-induced electrostimulation in incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, R L; Sansen, W; VanNuland, T; Dhaene, P

    1994-01-01

    A new method for treatment of urinary stress incontinence is described. Through a vaginal plug the pelvic floor muscles receive a series of electric stimulations which are triggered by an increase of abdominal pressure, detected by an inbuilt pressure sensor. In this study the best parameters for the stimuli are determined during three successive coughs, which are the most common course of urine loss.

  15. Important drugs for cough in advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homsi, J; Walsh, D; Nelson, K A

    2001-11-01

    Cough is a defense mechanism that prevents the entry of noxious materials into the respiratory system and clears foreign materials and excess secretions from the lungs and respiratory tract. In advanced cancer, it is a common symptom that interferes with the patient's daily activity and quality of life. Empiric treatment with antitussive agents is often needed. Two classes of antitussive drugs are available: (1) centrally acting: (a) opioids and (b) non-opioids; (2) peripherally acting: (a) directly and (b) indirectly. Antitussive availability varies widely around the world. Many antitussives, such as benzonatate, codeine, hydrocodone, and dextromethorphan, were extensively studied in the acute and chronic cough settings and showed relatively high efficacy and safety profiles. Benzonatate, clobutinol, dihydrocodeine, hydrocodone, and levodropropizine were the only antitussives specifically studied in cancer and advanced cancer cough. They all have shown to be effective and safe in recommended daily dose for cough. In advanced cancer the patient's current medications, previous antitussive use, the availability of routes of administration, any history of drug abuse, the presence of other symptoms and other factors, all have a role in the selection of antitussives for prescription. A good knowledge of the pharmacokinetics, dosage, efficacy, and side effects of the available antitussives provides for better management. PMID:11762966

  16. EVALUATION OF ANTITUSSIVE ACTIVITY OF VASU COUGH SYRUP IN SULPHUR DIOXIDE (SO2) INDUCED COUGH MODEL IN MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Patel Hirenjal; Upadhyay Umesh; Upadhyay Siddhi; Soni Hardik; Patel Prateek

    2013-01-01

    Cough is the most common symptom of respiratory diseases. When cough becomes serious, opioid drugs are effective, but they have side effects like sedation, delirium, constipation etc.. Therefore, there is a need to search out effective anti-tussive agents that are free from previously mentioned side effects. The present study was carried out to evaluate acute oral toxicity study and anti-tussive activity of Vasu Cough Syrup in sulphur dioxide (SO2)-induced cough model in mice. Albino mice of ...

  17. Automatic sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Haeseler, Friedrich

    2003-01-01

    Automatic sequences are sequences which are produced by a finite automaton. Although they are not random they may look as being random. They are complicated, in the sense of not being not ultimately periodic, they may look rather complicated, in the sense that it may not be easy to name the rule by which the sequence is generated, however there exists a rule which generates the sequence. The concept automatic sequences has special applications in algebra, number theory, finite automata and formal languages, combinatorics on words. The text deals with different aspects of automatic sequences, in particular:· a general introduction to automatic sequences· the basic (combinatorial) properties of automatic sequences· the algebraic approach to automatic sequences· geometric objects related to automatic sequences.

  18. LONGITUDINAL ASSOCIATION BETWEEN RESPIRATORY MUSCLE STRENGTH AND COUGH CAPACITY IN PERSONS WITH SPINAL CORD INJURY : AN EXPLORATIVE ANALYSIS OF DATA FROM A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Karin; Vlemmix, Lonneke Y.; Haisma, Janneke A.; de Groot, Sonja; Sluis, Tebbe A. R.; Stam, Henk J.; Bussmann, Johannes B. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the longitudinal association between respiratory muscle strength and cough capacity in persons with recent spinal cord injury. Design: Longitudinal analyses. Subjects: Forty persons with recent spinal cord injury and impaired pulmonary function. Methods: Measurements were perfor

  19. EVALUATION OF ANTITUSSIVE ACTIVITY OF VASU COUGH SYRUP IN SULPHUR DIOXIDE (SO2 INDUCED COUGH MODEL IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Hirenjal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cough is the most common symptom of respiratory diseases. When cough becomes serious, opioid drugs are effective, but they have side effects like sedation, delirium, constipation etc.. Therefore, there is a need to search out effective anti-tussive agents that are free from previously mentioned side effects. The present study was carried out to evaluate acute oral toxicity study and anti-tussive activity of Vasu Cough Syrup in sulphur dioxide (SO2-induced cough model in mice. Albino mice of either sex, weighing 25-30 g were divided into four groups (n = 6. Group I served as Disease control, Group II received standard drug i.e. Codeine phosphate (10 mg/kg, p.o., group III to IV were given Vasu Cough Syrup 0.25mL/kg and 0.5mL/kg body wt. p.o., dose. After 30 minutes, the mice were exposed to Sulphur dioxide for 30 sec. The mice were then placed in an observation chamber for counting of cough bouts for five minutes. Vasu Cough Syrup showed 63.91% and 70.64% inhibition in frequency of cough at 0.25mL/kg and 0.5mL/kg dose level respectively. It proves significant anti-tussive activity of Vasu Cough Syrup in Sulphur dioxide induced cough model. Thus, Vasu Cough Syrup can be useful as an alternative medicine for cough.

  20. Is opiate action in cough due to sedation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Rebecca S.; Morjaria, Jaymin B.; Wright, Caroline E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Opiates have been used for cough suppression for centuries. It is unclear whether this antitussive action is due to their known sedative effects. We aimed to assess correlation between cough suppression and opiate usage. Methods: We performed a post hoc analysis of two published trials with three opioids. In study one, patients with chronic cough were treated with 4 weeks of modified release morphine sulphate (5 mg twice daily) or placebo in a double-blinded placebo-controlled fashion. Cough suppression was assessed subjectively by the Leicester Cough Questionnaire and objectively by citric acid aerosol (CAA) induced cough challenge. In study 2, normal volunteers were given single doses of placebo, codeine 30 mg or dextromethorphan 50 mg and cough suppression assessed using the CAA-induced cough challenge. Sedation was contemporaneously assessed by direct questioning. Results: There were 14 episodes of patient-reported sedation; 2 with modified release morphine sulphate, 9 with codeine and 3 with dextromethorphan. There was no correlation between change in the Leicester Cough Questionnaire or the CAA-induced cough challenge and reported sedation. Conclusion: This observational study suggests that sedation is unlikely to underlie the antitussive properties of these opioids. Eliciting the mechanism of these medications in cough may be a target for future tailored drug development. PMID:25177477

  1. Central administration of nicotine suppresses tracheobronchial cough in anesthetized cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliacek, I; Rose, M J; Pitts, T E; Mortensen, A; Corrie, L W; Davenport, P W; Bolser, D C

    2015-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that nicotine, which acts peripherally to promote coughing, might inhibit reflex cough at a central site. Nicotine was administered via the vertebral artery [intra-arterial (ia)] to the brain stem circulation and by microinjections into a restricted area of the caudal ventral respiratory column in 33 pentobarbital anesthetized, spontaneously breathing cats. The number of coughs induced by mechanical stimulation of the tracheobronchial airways; amplitudes of the diaphragm, abdominal muscle, and laryngeal muscles EMGs; and several temporal characteristics of cough were analyzed after administration of nicotine and compared with those during control and recovery period. (-)Nicotine (ia) reduced cough number, cough expiratory efforts, blood pressure, and heart rate in a dose-dependent manner. (-)Nicotine did not alter temporal characteristics of the cough motor pattern. Pretreatment with mecamylamine prevented the effect of (-)nicotine on blood pressure and heart rate, but did not block the antitussive action of this drug. (+)Nicotine was less potent than (-)nicotine for inhibition of cough. Microinjections of (-)nicotine into the caudal ventral respiratory column produced similar inhibitory effects on cough as administration of this isomer by the ia route. Mecamylamine microinjected in the region just before nicotine did not significantly reduce the cough suppressant effect of nicotine. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors significantly modulate functions of brain stem and in particular caudal ventral respiratory column neurons involved in expression of the tracheobronchial cough reflex by a mecamylamine-insensitive mechanism. PMID:25477349

  2. Pharmacological and clinical overview of cloperastine in treatment of cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonietta Catania

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Maria Antonietta Catania1, Salvatore Cuzzocrea1,21Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Messina; 2IRCCS Centro Neurolesi “Bonino-Pulejo”, Messina, ItalyAbstract: Cough constitutes an impressive expression of the normal defense mechanisms of the respiratory system. Productive cough associated with catarrh is an important protective system for the lung because it favors the upward movement of secretions and foreign bodies to the larynx and mouth. Cough may also appear without bronchial secretions, as dry cough, which may be persistent when inflammatory disease is chronic or when, in the early stages of respiratory disease, bronchial secretions are not yet fluid. Sometimes bronchitis-induced cough does not significantly affect quality of life, whilst in other cases cough may become so intense as to impair daily activities severely, resulting in permanent disability. This type of cough is one of the most frequent reasons for seeking medical advice. The use of cough suppressants may be appropriate for reaching a precise diagnosis and when dry cough is persistent. Cloperastine has been investigated in various types of cough and, unlike codeine, has been shown to possess dual activity. It also acts as a mild bronchorelaxant and has antihistaminic activity, without acting on the central nervous system or the respiratory center. Here we review the preclinical and clinical evidence of the efficacy and tolerability of cloperastine.Keywords: cough, cloperastine, inflammation, bronchitis

  3. A A common symptom in primary health care: The cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Akbulut

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cough is the common symptom consulted by primary health care providers. Although treatment of cough is usually simple, healing period could be longer if it diagnosed wrong. Basicly cough divide into two groups; acute and chronic. While the most common cause of acute cough is upper respiratory tract infections, causes of chronic cough are allergic rihinitis, chronic sinusitis, asthma and gastroeosefageal reflux diseases. Nonetheless cough could be the clinical evidence of highly mortal diseases like pulmonary embolism, tuberculosis and lung cancer. Consequently patients with cough symptom must be evaluated delicately and essential follow up protocol must be planned by primary health care providers. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(4.000: 333-337

  4. Bronchography in patients with persistent cough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronchography was performed together with a fibre-optic bronchoscopic study in 98 patients with persistent cough, 33 of whom also had haemoptysis. Finally there were chronic bronchitis in 62 patients, bronchiectasis in 21, subacute bronchitis in 9, inflammatory residuals in 3, pulmonary tuberculosis in 2 patients and metastases in one. In chronic bronchitis, the value of plain chest radiography was low. It was normal in 34 of 62 cases (55%), bronchography in 12 cases (19%). Mild cases of bronchitis were more numerous in bronchography than seen by scopist. Bronchiectasis was found in 21 patients, four of these unexpectedly (two in a tbc scar). Additionally, three cases were overdiagnosed by the radiologist on chest films and eight cases by the scopist with bronchoscopy. In patients with persistent cough and haemoptysis, bronchography mainly revealed alterations of bronchitis. (orig.)

  5. [Lung hernia provoked by a cough fit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguir, S; Boddaert, G; Weber, G; Hornez, E; Pons, F

    2015-02-01

    Lung hernias are rare and their pathogenesis is few described. They are defined as the protrusion of lung parenchyma through the chest wall: intercostal space, inter-costo-clavicular, supra-clavicular or diaphragmatic hiatus. Lung hernias are classically divided into congenital and acquired hernias. Those are usually post-traumatic or post-surgical but can be provoked by cough. Clinical diagnosis is often evident but is confirmed by chest radiograph and especially computed tomography. Major risks are lung incarceration and necrosis but also ventilatory distress due to paradoxical respiration, in case of large defect. Treatment is first and foremost surgical but debated and should consider the localization, the size, the length of evolution and the possible infectious context. We report the case of a right basi-thoracic lung hernia induced by a cough fit, in a patient with chronic bronchitis. PMID:25687819

  6. Spontaneous lung herniation after a single cough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herniation of the lung is commonly caused by congenital rib abnormalities, blunt trauma, or thoracic surgery. Spontaneous hernias are rarely described in the literature. We report a case of a spontaneous intercostal pulmonary hernia following a single cough. In addition, a review of the literature is presented which outlines the classification, causes, and incidence of lung hernias. Some reference is made to possible methods of treatment. (orig.)

  7. Effects of phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor on cough response in guinea pigs sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕寒静; 邱忠民; 魏为利; 余莉; 刘瑞麟; 张敏

    2004-01-01

    Background There is currently considerable interest in the potential value of selective inhibitors of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 4 in the treatment of asthma. However, whether they influence eosinophilic airway inflammation-associated cough remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of selective phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor SB207499 on cough response and airway inflammation in guinea pigs sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Methods Forty sensitized guinea pigs were randomly divided into four groups: control (n=10), challenge (n=10), SB207499 (n=10) and aminophylline (n=10), then challenged with aerosol of 1% ovalbumin or saline. Two hours later, animals were intraperitoneally injected with either saline, 25 mg/kg of SB207499 or aminophylline. At the 24th hour, the injection was repeated with 2.5 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg SB207499 or aminophylline, then cough response to inhaled capsaicin and airway responsiveness to methacholine inducing a 150% of the peak airway pressure to the baseline (PC150) was measured. Finally, total cell number and differentials in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were analysed. Results The cough frequency per 3 minutes and PC150 in the challenge group were (22±4) times/3 minutes and (198±54) μg/ml, which were significantly different from (6±2) times/3 minutes and (691±81) μg/ml in the control group (P<0.05, respectively). The injection of 25 mg/kg SB207499 significantly inhibited the increased cough response and airway hyperresponsiveness, the cough frequency and PC150 in guinea pigs were (13±2) times/3 minutes and (680±81) μg/ml (P<0.05), which differed significantly from (18±2) times/3 minutes and (400±86) μg/ml after the administration of the same dose of aminophylline (P<0.05). The inhibition of SB207499 on cough response was dose-dependent. Similarly, SB207499 decreased the total cell number and percentage of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid to (2.1±0.5)×106/ml and (20±5

  8. [Summary of Hui prescriptions for treating cough].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Jin; Xue, Ting; Fu, Xue-Yan; Zhang, Xin-Hui

    2015-01-01

    By using the method of philology, 65 Hui prescriptions for treating cough were been collected to compare Arabic and Chinese names of pennisetum, anemarrhenae, honey, pease, white mustard, perilla and towel gourd stem. The Countif function in Microsoft Excel 2007 was used to count frequency of drugs in the prescriptions and summarize eight common Hui medicine for treating cough, namely sugar, honey, almond, fritillaria, liquorice, orange peel, white mulberry root-bark and lily. According to the commonly used drugs, philological studies and theories of Hui medicines, pathology and therapy of Hui medicines for treating cough were preliminarily inferred. In this study, 35 practical prescriptions and 30 simple and convenient Halal dietary prescriptions were summarized from collected prescriptions according to relevant literatures. On the basis of the long-lasting unique dietary therapy culture developed for Hui people, the simple and practical dietary prescriptions were defined according indications, therapy, prescription name and composition, and eight types of drug-admixed foods were summarized to relieve pains and improve health awareness and quality of life. Meanwhile, this study could also enrich and perfect the prescriptions, provide new ideas for improving health of patients, and lay a certain realistic foundation for further study of Hui medicines. PMID:25993806

  9. The effect of codeine on the Urge-to-Cough response to inhaled capsaicin

    OpenAIRE

    Davenport, P.W.; Bolser, D. C.; Vickroy, T.; Berry, R.B.; Martin, A. D.; Hey, John A; Danzig, M.

    2006-01-01

    We have shown previously in normal subjects that a sensory measure, the Urge-to-Cough rating, increases at concentrations of inhaled capsaicin that are lower than those necessary to elicit reflex cough. This finding suggests that the Urge-to-Cough may represent an index of the cough response. Research on cough in the human has most often employed challenge with inhaled capsaicin to induce reflex cough. Current measures of cough sensitivity in the human provide no information regarding the int...

  10. An update on measurement and monitoring of cough: what are the important study endpoints?

    OpenAIRE

    Spinou, Arietta; Birring, Surinder S.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable progress has been achieved in the development of tools that assess cough. The visual analogue scale (VAS) for cough severity is widely used in clinical practice because it’s simple and practical. The Leicester cough questionnaire (LCQ) and the cough-specific quality of life questionnaire (CQLQ) are the most widely used health status questionnaires for adults with chronic cough. They are well validated for assessing the impact of cough. Cough can be assessed objectively with chall...

  11. TRPV1 and TRPM8 in Treatment of Chronic Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millqvist, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Chronic cough is common in the population, and among some there is no evident medical explanation for the symptoms. Such a refractory or idiopathic cough is now often regarded as a neuropathic disease due to dysfunctional airway ion channels, though the knowledge in this field is still limited. Persistent coughing and a cough reflex easily triggered by irritating stimuli, often in combination with perceived dyspnea, are characteristics of this disease. The patients have impaired quality of life and often reduced work capacity, followed by social and economic consequences. Despite the large number of individuals suffering from such a persisting cough, there is an unmet clinical need for effective cough medicines. The cough treatment available today often has little or no effect. Adverse effects mostly follow centrally acting cough drugs comprised of morphine and codeine, which demands the physician's awareness. The possibilities of modulating airway transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels may indicate new ways to treat the persistent cough "without a reason". The TRP ion channel vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and the TRP melastin 8 (TRPM8) appear as two candidates in the search for cough therapy, both as single targets and in reciprocal interaction. PMID:27483288

  12. Effects of Asian dust on daily cough occurrence in patients with chronic cough: A panel study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Tomomi; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Fujimura, Masaki; Nakai, Satoshi; Honda, Yasushi; Saijoh, Kiyofumi; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Michigami, Yoshimasa; Olando, Anyenda Enoch; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2014-08-01

    Asian dust, known as kosa in Japanese, is a major public health concern. In this panel study, we evaluated the effects of exposure to kosa on daily cough occurrence. The study subjects were 86 patients being treated for asthma, cough variant asthma, or atopic cough in Kanazawa University Hospital from January 2011 to June 2011. Daily mean concentrations of kosa and spherical particles were obtained from light detection and ranging (LIDAR) measurements, and were categorized from Grade 1 (0 μg/m3) to 5 (over 100 μg/m3). The association between kosa and cough was analyzed by logistic regression with a generalized estimating equation. Kosa effects on cough were seen for all Grades with potential time lag effect. Particularly at Lag 0 (the day of exposure), a dose-response relationship was observed: the odds ratios for Grades 2, 3, 4, and 5 above the referent (Grade 1) were 1.111 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.995-1.239), 1.171 (95% CI: 1.006-1.363), 1.357 (95% CI: 1.029-1.788), and 1.414 (95% CI: 0.983-2.036), respectively. Among the patients without asthma, the association was higher: the odds ratios for Grades 2, 3, 4 and 5 were 1.223 (95% CI: 0.999-1.497), 1.309 (95% CI: 0.987-1.737), 1.738 (95% CI: 1.029-2.935) and 2.403 (95% CI: 1.158-4.985), respectively. These associations remained after adjusting for the concentration of spherical particles or particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5). Our findings demonstrate that kosa is an environmental factor which induces cough in a dose-response relationship.

  13. Automatic Complexity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1989-01-01

    One way to analyse programs is to to derive expressions for their computational behaviour. A time bound function (or worst-case complexity) gives an upper bound for the computation time as a function of the size of input. We describe a system to derive such time bounds automatically using abstract...

  14. Do OTC remedies relieve cough in acute URIs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dealleaume, Lauren; Tweed, Beth; Neher, Jon O

    2009-10-01

    Dextromethorphan (DM) for adults and honey for children provide some relief. DM may modestly decrease cough in adults compared with placebo. The data supporting zinc for the common cold are mixed. Antihistamines, antihistamine-decongestant combinations, and guaifenesin do not provide greater relief than placebo in adults. In children, antihistamines, decongestants, DM, or combinations of them do not relieve cough better than placebo. Honey may modestly decrease frequency and severity of cough compared with DM or no treatment. PMID:19874728

  15. Central administration of nicotine suppresses tracheobronchial cough in anesthetized cats

    OpenAIRE

    Poliacek, I; Rose, M.J.; Pitts, T. E.; Mortensen, A.; CORRIE, L.W.; Davenport, P. W.; Bolser, D C

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that nicotine, which acts peripherally to promote coughing, might inhibit reflex cough at a central site. Nicotine was administered via the vertebral artery [intra-arterial (ia)] to the brain stem circulation and by microinjections into a restricted area of the caudal ventral respiratory column in 33 pentobarbital anesthetized, spontaneously breathing cats. The number of coughs induced by mechanical stimulation of the tracheobronchial airways; amplitudes of the diaphr...

  16. Anatomy and neuro-pathophysiology of the cough reflex arc

    OpenAIRE

    Polverino Mario; Polverino Francesca; Fasolino Marco; Andò Filippo; Alfieri Antonio; De Blasio Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Coughing is an important defensive reflex that occurs through the stimulation of a complex reflex arc. It accounts for a significant number of consultations both at the level of general practitioner and of respiratory specialists. In this review we first analyze the cough reflex under normal conditions; then we analyze the anatomy and the neuro-pathophysiology of the cough reflex arc. The aim of this review is to provide the anatomic and pathophysiologic elements of evaluation of the...

  17. Functional neuroanatomy of human voluntary cough and sniff production

    OpenAIRE

    Simonyan, Kristina; Saad, Ziad S.; Loucks, Torrey M.J.; Poletto, Christopher J.; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2007-01-01

    Cough and sniff are both spontaneous respiratory behaviors that can be initiated voluntarily in humans. Disturbances of cough may be life threatening, while inability to sniff impairs the sense of smell in neurological patients. Cortical mechanisms of voluntary cough and sniff production have been predicted to exist; however, the localization and function of supramedullary areas responsible for these behaviors are poorly understood. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify th...

  18. Effect of terbutaline sulphate in chronic "allergic" cough.

    OpenAIRE

    Ellul-Micallef, R

    1983-01-01

    The effects of terbutaline sulphate were studied in 30 patients who presented with chronic cough at an allergy clinic. After a three week baseline period terbutaline and its placebo were given for two periods of three weeks each in a randomised, double blind, crossover manner. Patients kept a daily record of day and night cough scores and peak expiratory flow readings. Twenty one patients responded to terbutaline; placebo produced no significant effect. Both day and night cough scores (p less...

  19. Effect of taste sensation on cough reflex sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Paul M; Breslin, Paul A S; Dalton, Pamela

    2014-02-01

    Cough is among the most common symptoms with which people present for medical attention, but evidence-based treatments remain limited. One issue compromising interpretation of clinical trials of cough preparations is that control formulations often are nearly as effective as those that contain active ingredients. This observation has caused some researchers to propose that one or more nominally inactive ingredients may have some physiological effects. For example, most liquid cough preparations are highly sweetened, and it has been suggested that sweet taste might modulate cough sensitivity. The fact that honey has been used for thousands of years as a cough remedy is consistent with this idea. However, empirical evidence for modulation of cough sensitivity by taste was lacking. Evidence is still sparse, but relevant experiments have now been published: rinsing the mouth with a sweet sucrose solution increased cough thresholds in a single-inhalation capsaicin challenge. Furthermore, rinsing the mouth with a bitter solution did not affect thresholds, an important demonstration of specificity. The underlying mechanisms of cough suppression by sweet taste are still unclear. However, extant data suggest that modulation of cough sensitivity by taste is a promising area for further investigation. Such work may lead to greater understanding of apparent placebo effects in clinical trials and provide empirical support for therapies based on stimulation of taste nerves. PMID:24173385

  20. Intravenous lidocaine as a suppressant of coughing during tracheal intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukioka, H; Yoshimoto, N; Nishimura, K; Fujimori, M

    1985-12-01

    Effects of intravenously administered lidocaine on cough suppression during tracheal intubation under general anesthesia were evaluated in two studies. In study 1, 100 patients received either a placebo or 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 mg/kg lidocaine intravenously 1 min before tracheal intubation. All visible coughs were classified as coughing. The incidence of coughing decreased as the dose of lidocaine increased. A dose of 1 mg/kg or more of intravenous lidocaine suppressed the cough reflex significantly (P less than 0.01). Coughing was suppressed completely by 2 mg/kg of intravenous lidocaine. In study 2, 108 patients received 2 mg/kg lidocaine intravenously or a placebo 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, or 15 min before intubation. The same criteria for determining whether a patient did or did not cough during tracheal intubation were used as in study 1. The incidence of coughing decreased significantly (P less than 0.01) when 2 mg/kg of lidocaine was injected intravenously between 1 and 5 min before our attempting intubation. Cough reflex was suppressed completely by plasma concentrations of lidocaine in excess of 3 micrograms/ml. PMID:4061901

  1. LECTURES ON ACUPUNCTURE Part Ⅱ Typical Cases of Cough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; DONG Hongying; XU Junfeng

    2002-01-01

    @@ Case Ⅰ Male, age of 57 years. History of cough:The patient suffered from cough with profuse sputum for 3 years more. His disorder attacked easily when the climate changed suddenly in autumn and winter. The symptoms such as cough with sticky sputum were more serious. Antibiotics did not work well due to repeated oral administration while the disease attacked. In the day time, the patient always had the symptoms of fullness in chest, poor appetite, and body heaviness. In recent two weeks, the patient had symptoms of cough with profuse white and sticky sputum, fullness in chest, dyspnea, dryness in the mouth but without desire for drinking water, and tiredness.

  2. Anatomy and neuro-pathophysiology of the cough reflex arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polverino Mario

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coughing is an important defensive reflex that occurs through the stimulation of a complex reflex arc. It accounts for a significant number of consultations both at the level of general practitioner and of respiratory specialists. In this review we first analyze the cough reflex under normal conditions; then we analyze the anatomy and the neuro-pathophysiology of the cough reflex arc. The aim of this review is to provide the anatomic and pathophysiologic elements of evaluation of the complex and multiple etiologies of cough.

  3. Evaluation of Antitussive activity of Polyherbomineral formulation on cough reflex induced by different cough induced models in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Reena; Gupta Mahesh Kumar; Bhandari Anil; Gupta Jitendra; Pathan Imran Khan

    2014-01-01

    Now day scientists focus the research to develop the novel cough suppressant therapies of herbomineral formulation because in respiratory disease cough is an important defensive pulmonary reflex. It removes fluids, irritants, or foreign substances. When cough becomes non-productive and require suppression and opioid receptor agonists which do not have respiratory suppressant activity but opoids produce side effects such as sedation, addiction potential and constipation, and also compromise th...

  4. Born with Protection against Whooping Cough

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-22

    This podcast provides information about whooping cough, a disease that can be deadly for babies, and CDC’s recommendation that all women receive the Tdap vaccine during the third trimester of every pregnancy so their babies can be born with protection from this serious disease.  Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 1/22/2015.

  5. Preliminary Evidence of Reduced Urge to Cough and Cough Response in Four Individuals following Remote Traumatic Brain Injury with Tracheostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sarah; Carnaby, Giselle; Tsai, Hsiu-Wen; Davenport, Paul W.

    2016-01-01

    Cough and swallow protect the lungs and are frequently impaired following traumatic brain injury (TBI). This project examined cough response to inhaled capsaicin solution challenge in a cohort of four young adults with a history of TBI within the preceding five years. All participants had a history of tracheostomy with subsequent decannulation and dysphagia after their injuries (resolved for all but one participant). Urge to cough (UTC) and cough response were measured and compared to an existing database of normative cough response data obtained from 32 healthy controls (HCs). Participants displayed decreased UTC and cough responses compared to HCs. It is unknown if these preliminary results manifest as a consequence of disrupted sensory (afferent) projections, an inability to perceive or discriminate cough stimuli, disrupted motor (efferent) response, peripheral weakness, or any combination of these factors. Future work should attempt to clarify if the observed phenomena are borne out in a larger sample of individuals with TBI, determine the relative contributions of central versus peripheral nervous system structures to cough sensory perceptual changes following TBI (should they exist), and formulate recommendations for systematic screening and assessment of cough sensory perception in order to facilitate rehabilitative efforts. This project is identified with the National Clinical Trials NCT02240329.

  6. Preliminary Evidence of Reduced Urge to Cough and Cough Response in Four Individuals following Remote Traumatic Brain Injury with Tracheostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Silverman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cough and swallow protect the lungs and are frequently impaired following traumatic brain injury (TBI. This project examined cough response to inhaled capsaicin solution challenge in a cohort of four young adults with a history of TBI within the preceding five years. All participants had a history of tracheostomy with subsequent decannulation and dysphagia after their injuries (resolved for all but one participant. Urge to cough (UTC and cough response were measured and compared to an existing database of normative cough response data obtained from 32 healthy controls (HCs. Participants displayed decreased UTC and cough responses compared to HCs. It is unknown if these preliminary results manifest as a consequence of disrupted sensory (afferent projections, an inability to perceive or discriminate cough stimuli, disrupted motor (efferent response, peripheral weakness, or any combination of these factors. Future work should attempt to clarify if the observed phenomena are borne out in a larger sample of individuals with TBI, determine the relative contributions of central versus peripheral nervous system structures to cough sensory perceptual changes following TBI (should they exist, and formulate recommendations for systematic screening and assessment of cough sensory perception in order to facilitate rehabilitative efforts. This project is identified with the National Clinical Trials NCT02240329.

  7. Extrathoracic airway hyperresponsiveness as a mechanism of post infectious cough: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Nicole M; Gibson, Peter G

    2008-01-01

    Post-infectious cough is a common diagnosis in people with chronic cough. However, the specific infectious aetiology and cough mechanisms are seldom identified. We report a case of chronic cough after Mycoplasma pneumoniae lower respiratory tract infection with extrathoracic airway hyperresponsiveness as the cough mechanism. Extrathoracic airway hyperresponsiveness may be a common mechanism in post-infectious cough which may be useful both diagnostically and therapeutically since chronic coug...

  8. Efficacy of fluticasone on cough: a randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponsioen, B.P.; Hop, W.C.J.; Vermue, N.A.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Bohnen, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Cough may be the consequence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and inflammation. This study was designed to investigate the short-term effects of an inhaled steroid (fluticasone propionate (FP)) on cough, and to determine the effects of smoking, BHR, allergy and forced expiratory volume in one

  9. PROCEDURES FOR MEASURING COUGH (GILL PURGE) RATES OF FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cough (gill purge) is an interruption in the normal ventilatory cycle of fish that serves to clean the gills of accumulated particulate matter. A review of the literature shows that the cough occurs in a variety of freshwater and marine fish; that both mechanical and chemical...

  10. Modelling of coughed droplets in a hospital ward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadrizadeh, Sasan; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    2016-01-01

    Coughing and its importance for spreading respiratory infectious diseases has been confirmed in many previous studies. The dispersion process of respiratory droplets released by the coughing of a patient in a hospital ward was studied using computational fluid dynamics simulation. Two relatively ...

  11. A Prospective, Open Label, Observational Study to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of Herbal Cough Syrup Mykoff® in Patients Suffering from Cough of Varied Aetiologies

    OpenAIRE

    Mangesh Bhalerao; Pradip Awale; Abhijeet Sawle; Dhananjay Sangle; Devendra B Sonawane; Vilas Chavan

    2013-01-01

    A prospective, open label, observational study was conducted at general outpatient clinic to assess the safety and efficacy of herbal cough syrup Mykoff® in patients suffering from cough of varied aetiologies. The patients of either sex, age > 3yrs, suffering from cough due to common cold, mild to moderate upper respiratory tract infections, allergic cough and smoker’s cough were enrolled. The safety was evaluated by means of an analysis of adverse events. In addition, efficacy and tolerabili...

  12. Questionnaire survey of chronic cough in asthmatic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏为利; 邱忠民; 吕寒静; 杨忠民; 洪光朝; 王岚; 刘兴元; 郑桂芬

    2004-01-01

    @@ Wheezing is a common symptom of asthma and a main reason for most patients to seek medical care. Although wheezing has long been considered the essential symptom of asthma, clinical observations have shown that chronic cough is also an important symptom of asthma, even the sole presenting manifestation in cough variant asthma.1 As a special form of asthma, cough variant asthma probably represents the milder end of the spectrum of asthma or the forerunner of asthma, and may develop into typical asthma when the state of the illness progresses.2 Therefore, there may be a natural course from chronic cough to wheezing in the pathogenesis of asthma. However, there is currently no data to show how many patients with asthma present chronic cough before the first onset of wheezing. To investigate this question, we performed this questionnaire survey.

  13. [Cough leading to the death of an infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannele, Pruikkonen; Outi, Peltoniemi; Marjo, Renko; Terhi, Tapiainen

    2016-01-01

    Death from infections among previously healthy infants is rare in our country. Occasionally, warning of a severe disease may in the initial phase of the disease become manifest only from the parents' description of the condition of their child. We describe two infants under the age of 3 months with paroxysmal cough, whose whooping cough progressed to require intensive care. A suspicion of whooping cough was not roused neither among those making the emergency care assessment nor by the attending physicians before the patients had to be placed on a ventilator as the illness progressed. One of our patients succumbed to the illness despite of intensive care. Whooping cough should be suspected in all unimmunized infants having paroxysmal cough.

  14. Human Syngamosis as an Uncommon Cause of Chronic Cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulcherio, Janaína Oliveira Bentivi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic cough may represent a diagnostic challenge. Chronic parasitism of upper airways is an unusual cause. Objective: To describe a case of human syngamosis as an uncommon cause of dry cough. Case Report: An endoscopic exam performed in a woman suffering of chronic cough revealed a Y-shaped worm in the larynx identified as Syngamus laryngeus. Discussion: This nematode parasitizes the upper respiratory tract of many animals including humans. The diagnosis is performed by the examination of the worm expelled by cough or by endoscopy. Endoscopic exam is easy to perform and is essential in the diagnosis of causes of chronic cough, even uncommon entities. Removal is the only efficient treatment.

  15. Application of Irwin diagnostic procedures for chronic cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-fang FENG

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the advantages and disadvantages of the diagnostic procedures suggested by the Irwin group,and summarize the experiences in diagnosis and treatment,and to beter understand the etiology,diagnosis,differential diagnosis and treatment of chronic cough.Methods Data of 118 patients,who were finally diagnosed as chronic cough according to the diagnostic procedures suggested by Irwin group in the First Affiliated Hospital of General Hospital of PLA in 2009,were retrospectivety analyzed.Results With the Irwin diagnostic procedures of chronic cough,118 patients were diagnosed definitely.The final diagnostic rate reached 100%.The duration to reach the final diagnosis was 1 day to 30 days.Of the 118 patients with chronic cough,113 were cured(96%.32 cases(27.1% were caused by asthma and related diseases(allergic rhinitis,allergic pharyngitis,cough variant asthma and eosinophilic bronchitis;28 cases(23.7% were due to upper airway cough syndrome and related diseases(chronic rhinitis,sinusitis,pharyngeal bursitis,postnasal drip syndrome,chronic laryngitis,and vocal cord polyps;23 cases(19.5% due to gastroesophageal reflux disease;14 cases(11.9% due to lower respiratory tract infection and related diseases(endobronchial tuberculosis,pulmonary tuberculosis,endotracheal mucosal adenocarcinoma,lung cancer,bronchiectasis,and pulmonary fibrosis;10 cases(8.5% due to cardiac insafficiency;6 cases(5.1% due to administration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor(ACEI-like antihypertensive agents;3 cases(2.5% were psychogenic cough,and 2 cases(1.7% were induced by other causes.Conclusions The Irwin diagnosis of chronic cough is a comprehensive and thorough procedure,and it should be used with delibcration in clinic.The etiology of chronic cough is complicated,mainly including asthma and related diseases,sinusitis and upper airway cough syndrome,and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  16. [Pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of cough variant asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Masaki

    2014-05-01

    Cough variant asthma (CVA) has been recognized as a precursor of asthma or a pre-asthmatic state because of the mildly heightened bronchial responsiveness and efficacy of bronchodilator therapy. Nevertheless, the accumulating evidence indicates that the pathophysiology is different between CVA and bronchial asthma. The most fundamental physiologic feature is a heightened cough response to methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction in CVA, while this response is rather reduced in bronchial asthma. The sensitivity of cough receptors located in the superficial layer of the airway wall is normal in CVA as well as bronchial asthma, but heightened in atopic cough. The pathologic feature of CVA is eosinophilic inflammation of the central to peripheral airway, reflected by eosinophilia in induced sputum, biopsied bronchial mucosa, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The diagnosis of CVA has been commonly made based on therapeutic diagnostic procedures, while pathophysiologic diagnosis is ideal. The reason is that measurements of the sensitivity of cough receptors to inhaled capsaicin and cough response to induced bronchoconstriction are not possible at most chest clinics in the world. The efficacy of a beta2-agonist for a patient's coughing is evaluated to make a diagnosis of CVA. When the bronchodilator therapy is judged as efficacious, a tentative diagnosis of CVA is made. Then, induction therapy is initiated for resolution of the cough. The induction therapy consists of beta2-agonists, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and inhaled corticosteroids. In some patients whose cough does not subside with the therapy, short-burst oral corticosteroids (1 to 3 weeks) may be added. If the cough still does not subside with the therapy, the patient should be referred to cough specialists. When the cough subsides with the induction therapy, long-term management is recommended using inhaled corticosteroids, because 30% of patients develop typical bronchial asthma within several years

  17. Exposure to daily ambient particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cough occurrence in adult chronic cough patients: A longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyenda, Enoch Olando; Higashi, Tomomi; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Thao, Nguyen Thi Thu; Michigami, Yoshimasa; Fujimura, Masaki; Hara, Johsuke; Tsujiguchi, Hiromasa; Kitaoka, Masami; Asakura, Hiroki; Hori, Daisuke; Yamada, Yohei; Hayashi, Koichiro; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    The specific components of airborne particulates responsible for adverse health effects have not been conclusively identified. We conducted a longitudinal study on 88 adult patients with chronic cough to evaluate whether exposure to daily ambient levels of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) has relationship with cough occurrence. Study participants were recruited at Kanazawa University Hospital, Japan and were physician-diagnosed to at least have asthma, cough variant asthma and/or atopic cough during 4th January to 30th June 2011. Daily cough symptoms were collected by use of cough diaries and simultaneously, particulate PAH content in daily total suspended particles collected on glass fiber filters were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector. Population averaged estimates of association between PAH exposure and cough occurrence for entire patients and subgroups according to doctor's diagnosis were performed using generalized estimating equations. Selected adjusted odds ratios for cough occurrence were 1.088 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.031, 1.147); 1.209 (95% CI: 1.060, 1.379) per 1 ng/m3 increase for 2-day lag and 6-day moving average PAH exposure respectively. Likewise, 5 ring PAH had higher odds in comparison to 4 ring PAH. On the basis of doctor's diagnosis, non-asthma group had slightly higher odds ratio 1.127 (95% CI: 1.033, 1.228) per 1 ng/m3 increase in 2-day lag PAH exposure. Our findings suggest that ambient PAH exposure is associated with cough occurrence in adult chronic cough patients. The association may be stronger in non-asthma patients and even at low levels although there is need for further study with a larger sample size of respective diagnosis and inclusion of co-pollutants.

  18. 肾咳辨析%Kidney Cough Differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喜梦; 张恒

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:Objective Medical history of kidney cough less systematically, and clinical renal cough a few patients. so people pen according to the clinical manifestations of the patient to kidney cough points for kidney empty cough, Yang deifciency cough, kidney deifciency cough, according to the type of syndrome of dialectical treatment, lfexibility in the use of name old doctor of traditional chinese medicine of clinical experience, the prescription of various, make kidney cough patients get better curative effect.%历代医家对肾咳较少有系统论述,而临床中肾咳病人并不在少数。故笔人根据病人的临床表现把肾咳分为肾阴虚咳、肾阳虚咳、肾气虚咳,根据其证型进行辩证论治,灵活运用名老中医之临证经验方,方药一体,使肾咳病人获得较好疗效。

  19. How does rhinovirus cause the common cold cough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Samantha K; Sadofsky, Laura R; Morice, Alyn H

    2016-01-01

    Cough is a protective reflex to prevent aspiration and can be triggered by a multitude of stimuli. The commonest form of cough is caused by upper respiratory tract infection and has no benefit to the host. The virus hijacks this natural defence mechanism in order to propagate itself through the population. Despite the resolution of the majority of cold symptoms within 2 weeks, cough can persist for some time thereafter. Unfortunately, the mechanism of infectious cough brought on by pathogenic viruses, such as human rhinovirus, during colds, remains elusive despite the extensive work that has been undertaken. For socioeconomic reasons, it is imperative we identify the mechanism of cough. There are several theories which have been proposed as the causative mechanism of cough in rhinovirus infection, encompassing a range of different processes. Those of which hold most promise are physical disruption of the epithelial lining, excess mucus production and an inflammatory response to rhinovirus infection which may be excessive. And finally, neuronal modulation, the most convincing hypothesis, is thought to potentiate cough long after the original stimulus has been cleared. All these hypotheses will be briefly covered in the following sections. PMID:26835135

  20. Laryngeal structure and function in dogs with cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lynelle R

    2016-07-15

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the prevalence and type of laryngeal abnormalities in dogs examined because of cough that did not have signs of upper airway disease and to compare the prevalence of those abnormalities among dogs with various respiratory tract diseases. DESIGN Prospective study. ANIMALS 138 dogs with cough that did not have signs of upper airway disease. PROCEDURES The study was conducted between July 2001 and October 2014 and included dogs examined for cough that had laryngoscopic and bronchoscopic examinations performed by 1 examiner. Laryngeal hyperemia and swelling were recorded, and laryngeal function was assessed before and after doxapram stimulation when indicated. Results were compared among dogs on the basis of cough duration (acute [ 2 months]) and disease diagnosed (inflammatory airway disease, airway collapse, lower respiratory tract infection, and eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy). RESULTS Laryngeal hyperemia was detected in 73 of 134 (54%) dogs with cough of subacute or chronic duration, and its prevalence did not vary significantly among dogs with various diseases. Thirteen dogs had laryngeal paresis, and 13 dogs had laryngeal paralysis; dysphonia (n = 2) and stridor (1) were uncommon findings in those dogs. The prevalence of laryngeal dysfunction (paresis or paralysis) did not differ significantly among diseases. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that 26 of 138 (19%) dogs examined because of cough alone had laryngeal dysfunction, which suggested that a complete laryngoscopic examination should be included in the diagnostic evaluation of dogs with cough. PMID:27379595

  1. Bronchodilating effect of deep inspirations in asthma and chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V Wasilewski, Nastasia; Fisher, Thomas; Turcotte, Scott E; Fisher, John T; Lougheed, M Diane

    2016-05-01

    The pathophysiologic processes distinguishing classic asthma (CA), cough-variant asthma (CVA), and methacholine (MCh)-induced cough but normal airway sensitivity (COUGH) are inadequately understood and may be a result of differences in the ability to bronchodilate following a deep inspiration (DI). The purpose of this study was to compare the bronchodilating effect of DIs in individuals with CA, CVA, and COUGH using high-dose MCh. Individuals aged 18-65 yr with CA or suspected CVA completed high-dose MCh testing to a maximum change in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of 50% from baseline (MAX). Impulse oscillometry (IOS) measurements and partial and maximal-flow volume curves (used to calculate a DI index) were recorded at baseline and at each dose of MCh. Body plethysmography was performed at baseline and MAX. Twenty-eight subjects [25 women, 39.8 ± 11.9 yr (means ± SD)] were studied (n = 11 CA, n = 10 CVA, and n = 7 COUGH). At MAX, the percent change in FEV1 was greater in subjects with CA compared with those with CVA (P IOS parameters were significantly increased from baseline to MAX, except for central respiratory resistance (R20). In individuals with COUGH, total respiratory resistance, R20, and resonant frequency were significantly increased from baseline. At MAX, the DI index was positive in all groups, suggesting preserved bronchodilation (CA, 0.67 ± 0.97; CVA, 0.51 ± 0.73; COUGH, 0.01 ± 0.36; P = 0.211). We conclude that the bronchodilating effect of DIs is preserved in individuals with CA, CVA, and borderline with COUGH; however, hyperinflation and gas trapping are avoided in subjects with COUGH alone. PMID:26940655

  2. Are pruritus and scratching the cough of the skin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misery, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Pruritus is not the equivalent of the cough of the skin, but itch and scratch can certainly be defined as such. In physiological conditions, they share the same function: to exclude a foreign body. Itch/scratching and cough could be selective responses for the same diseases, mainly atopic diseases, and their pathophysiology is similar (role of C fibers and mast cells; role of histamine, substance P and tachykinins). This is an intriguing analogy rather than a pathophysiological identity. It may be inappropriate for many disease settings. Itch and cough can be triggered or enhanced by stress. This similarity is very interesting because it could give rise to many new research ideas.

  3. Chronic cough: an Asian perspective. Part 1: Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Woo-Jung; Faruqi, Shoaib; Klaewsongkram, Jettanong; Lee, Seung-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Asia is one of the most diverse and dynamic continents. Due to recent rapid industrialisation and urbanisation, morbidity patterns are likely to be diverse in Asian populations. Chronic cough is a disease condition resulting from host-environmental interactions, and is associated with a high global epidemiological burden. However, the underlying epidemiology remains unclear, particularly in Asia. We performed a literature search to identify peer-reviewed articles on chronic cough in community-based adult Asian populations that have been published between January 2000 and June 2015. In this review, we aim to examine the epidemiological characteristics and determinants of chronic cough in several geographical areas of Asia. PMID:26240790

  4. Automatic Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡迪

    2007-01-01

    <正>Reading is the key to school success and,like any skill,it takes practice.A child learns to walk by practising until he no longer has to think about how to put one foot in front of the other.The great athlete practises until he can play quickly,accurately and without thinking.Ed- ucators call it automaticity.

  5. Evaluation of Antitussive activity of Polyherbomineral formulation on cough reflex induced by different cough induced models in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Reena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Now day scientists focus the research to develop the novel cough suppressant therapies of herbomineral formulation because in respiratory disease cough is an important defensive pulmonary reflex. It removes fluids, irritants, or foreign substances. When cough becomes non-productive and require suppression and opioid receptor agonists which do not have respiratory suppressant activity but opoids produce side effects such as sedation, addiction potential and constipation, and also compromise the respiratory function. The present study was carried out to evaluate the antitussive activity of polyherbomineral formulation on cough reflex induced by different cough induced models in mice. Healthy albino mice of either sex, weighing 25-30 g were divided into seven groups, (n = 6. Group I considered as control, Group II and III received lab prepared herbomineral formulation (LPHF (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o., Group VI and VII treated with marketed formulation (MF (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o., Group IV and V were positive control and treated with standard (10 and 20 mg/kg, p.o. at a dose of 0.3 ml/mice, orally. Antitussive activity of LPHF and MF were studied by sulphur dioxide gas and Ammonium liquor induced cough in mice. All the formulations used showed significant antitussive activity in sulphur dioxide induced cough model. Thus, these formulations can prove to be useful for alleviating cough. Therefore, the poly herbomineral formulation contains a major piperine active constituent which induces a cough suppressant pharmacological effect and represents an attractive approach in phytotherapeutic managements.

  6. AETIOLOGY OF SUBACUTE COUGH IN PATIENTS PRESENTING AT SLIMS ENT OUTPATIENT CLINIC – A CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cough is one of the most common complaint of patients seeking medical attention. A number of patients attend our OPD for complaint of Subacute cough lasting 3-8 weeks. Majority of such cough are due to ENT pathologies. This study aims to evaluate the Otolaryngological causes of Cough in these patients.

  7. Nebulized lidocaine in the treatment of intractable cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdale, Kelly; Jurdi, Adham

    2013-09-01

    Cough is one of the most common symptoms prompting patients to be seen by health care providers in the United States. Persistent cough can disrupt daily activities such as conversation, eating, breathing, and sleeping, and it can become extremely debilitating both physically and mentally. Pharmacological treatments include dextramethorphan, opioid cough suppressants, benzonatate, inhaled ipratropium, and guaifenesin. Successful cough suppression has also been demonstrated in several studies with the use of nebulized lidocaine. Nebulized lidocaine also appears to be well tolerated by patients with minimal side effects including dysphonia, oropharyngeal numbness, and bitter taste. Studies conducted thus far have been small, so larger randomized control trials comparing nebulized lidocaine to placebo need to be conducted in the future. PMID:22964341

  8. Clinical Implication of Cough CPR in Cardiac Cath Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monish S Rau

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A 60 year-old-male with inferoposterior ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI was shifted to cardiac cath lab for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Coronary angiography revealed right coronary artery (RCA dominance with complete occlusion of the RCA in mid vessel. During angioplasty, the patient developed reperfusion induced Bezold Jarisch Reflex (BJR with profound bradycardia along with decrease in systolic pressure. The patient was asked to cough. The use of cough-CPR maintained the consciousness as the patient was getting syncopal. This report focuses on BJR and cough-CPR specific to interventional cardiology practice within the catheterization laboratory. Awareness of the fact that BJR may develop due to successful restoration of flow which can be managed with cough CPR, atropine and fluids can avoid the administration of vasoconstrictors.

  9. Cough event classification by pretrained deep neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Cough is an essential symptom in respiratory diseases. In the measurement of cough severity, an accurate and objective cough monitor is expected by respiratory disease society. This paper aims to introduce a better performed algorithm, pretrained deep neural network (DNN), to the cough classification problem, which is a key step in the cough monitor. Method The deep neural network models are built from two steps, pretrain and fine-tuning, followed by a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) decoder to capture tamporal information of the audio signals. By unsupervised pretraining a deep belief network, a good initialization for a deep neural network is learned. Then the fine-tuning step is a back propogation tuning the neural network so that it can predict the observation probability associated with each HMM states, where the HMM states are originally achieved by force-alignment with a Gaussian Mixture Model Hidden Markov Model (GMM-HMM) on the training samples. Three cough HMMs and one noncough HMM are employed to model coughs and noncoughs respectively. The final decision is made based on viterbi decoding algorihtm that generates the most likely HMM sequence for each sample. A sample is labeled as cough if a cough HMM is found in the sequence. Results The experiments were conducted on a dataset that was collected from 22 patients with respiratory diseases. Patient dependent (PD) and patient independent (PI) experimental settings were used to evaluate the models. Five criteria, sensitivity, specificity, F1, macro average and micro average are shown to depict different aspects of the models. From overall evaluation criteria, the DNN based methods are superior to traditional GMM-HMM based method on F1 and micro average with maximal 14% and 11% error reduction in PD and 7% and 10% in PI, meanwhile keep similar performances on macro average. They also surpass GMM-HMM model on specificity with maximal 14% error reduction on both PD and PI. Conclusions In this paper, we

  10. Feasibility study: honey for treatment of cough in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Naveed Ahmed; Alastair Sutcliffe; Claire Tipper

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections are an important health problem because of high incidence and economic costs. The World Health Organization identifies honey as a potential demulcent treatment for cough. The aim of this study is to determine: i) patient public perceptions towards a proposed randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the effects of honey to placebo for treatment of cough in children; ii) potential participation rates for proposed trial; iii) whether age and gender of parent or ch...

  11. COUGH: A PRACTICAL APPROACH FOR THE PRIMARY CARE PHYSICIAN IN SAUDI ARABIA

    OpenAIRE

    Qutub, Hatem O.

    2000-01-01

    Cough is one of the cardinal symptoms of respiratory tract disorders and could be a manifestation of a serious non-respiratory tract disease. Cough is generated by an integrated mechanism between the central nervous and respiratory systems. The triggering factor of the above integration is an initial irritant, which stimulates the cough reflex and, hence, the mechanism of cough will take place. Persistent cough in a non-smoking adult is considered one of the most common presentations to physi...

  12. A cohort description and analysis of the effect of gabapentin on idiopathic cough

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Kerkhove, Charlotte; Goeminne, Pieter C; van Bleyenbergh, Pascal; Dupont, Lieven J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic idiopathic cough (known as cough hypersensitivity syndrome) is defined by cough in the absence of an identifiable cause. Gabapentin has been suggested as a treatment but evidence is scarce. The aim of our study was to describe the clinical features of patients with unexplained chronic cough and to investigate the effect of gabapentin (600 mg twice a day for a minimal duration of 4 weeks) in reducing cough symptoms. Methods A patient cohort analysis was performed. Patients w...

  13. Voluntary and reflex cough and the expiration reflex; implications for aspiration after stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Widdicombe, J G; Addington, W.R.; Fontana, G.A.; Stephens, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aspiration is a common result of stroke, and may lead to lung infections and pneumonia. Cough may prevent this aspiration and thus prevent the pneumonia. We review the four types of cough usually used to assess aspiration risk: voluntary cough (VC), reflex cough (RC), the laryngeal expiration reflex (LER), and cough on swallow (CoS). VC is easy to test but starts with an inspiration that may cause aspiration, and is controlled by cortico-brainstem pathways that may not be ...

  14. Reliability and validity of Leicester Cough Questionnaire Korean version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jong-Min; Jung, In-Chul; Kang, Weechang; Kim, Seung-Su; Yeo, Yoon; Park, Yang-Chun

    2014-06-01

    The Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) is a self-administered questionnaire developed in England and validated for reliability. We developed a Korean translation of this questionnaire by applying a sequential forward and backward translation approach. The purpose of this study is to validate the Korean version of the LCQ (LCQ-K) in Korean patients with chronic cough. A multicenter prospective study was undertaken with 100 chronic cough patients who consented to participate in the study. The LCQ-K includes eight physical items, seven psychological items, and four social items. Visual analog scale (VAS) of cough, Borg Cough Scale (BCS), and Short Form-36 (SF-36) were used as external comparators. Participants included 52 women and 48 men with ages ranging from 18 years to 69 years. The concurrent validity comparing LCQ-K to VAS, BCS, and SF-36 yielded statistically significant Pearson correlation coefficients. The LCQ-K showed good reliability in three domains, with Cronbach's α coefficients ranging from 0.84 to 0.87 (total: 0.91). Test-retest reliability was investigated with single measure intraclass correlation coefficients, which were found to be practically and statistically significant (p = 0.005). Responsiveness was validated by effective size ranging from 1.16 to 1.40 in each domain. LCQ-K is a reliable, valid, and responsive disease-specific questionnaire for assessing symptoms and quality of life of Korean patients with chronic cough. PMID:24906688

  15. Feasibility study: honey for treatment of cough in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Sutcliffe, Alastair; Tipper, Claire

    2013-06-13

    Respiratory tract infections are an important health problem because of high incidence and economic costs. The World Health Organization identifies honey as a potential demulcent treatment for cough. The aim of this study is to determine: i) patient public perceptions towards a proposed randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the effects of honey to placebo for treatment of cough in children; ii) potential participation rates for proposed trial; iii) whether age and gender of parent or child impacts on proposed cough assessment tools. Forty adult participants with children age 1-6 years presenting with an upper respiratory tract infection were enrolled. They underwent a structured interview regarding the proposed trial and assessed their child's cough using two validated questionnaires. Eighty-eight percent of those recruited were willing to participate in the proposed trial. The two independently validated cough scores correlated well. A relationship between age and gender of child or parent with cough assessment score was not found. We conclude that a RCT to determine the effects of honey versus placebo is feasible. The public find the outcome measures and trial design acceptable. PMID:23904963

  16. Suitability of ivy extract for the treatment of paediatric cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M; Thomsen, M; Schmidt, U

    2012-12-01

    Two galenical formulations of an ivy herbal extract, syrup and cough drops, were tested for their efficacy and safety in the paediatric treatment of cough and bronchitis in two independent open, non-interventional studies with identical design. Two-hundred and sixty-eight children aged 0-12 yr were treated with one of the two preparations for up to 14 days. The effects on cough-related symptoms were addressed on a verbal rating scale. At the end of the study the major symptoms rhinitis, cough and viscous mucus, were found to be only mildly expressed or absent in 93, 94.2 and 97.7% of cases. The global effect was rated as 'good' or 'very good' in 96.5% of cases. Tolerability and compliance were found 'good' to 'very good' in 99% (syrup) and 100% (drops) of patients on completion of the study. A subgroup analysis according to four different age and dosing groups did not reveal differences in treatment response. Safety was confirmed and corresponded to literature findings. Five adverse events classified as mild and non-serious were reported (1.9%). In conclusion, ivy leaf extract in the form of syrup and of cough drops was confirmed as an effective and safe treatment of cough in children. PMID:22532491

  17. Phenytoin-induced isolated chronic, nocturnal dry cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Fábio A; Takeshita, Bruno Toshio; Kowacs, Pedro A

    2016-01-01

    We report a 72-year-old man with a four-year history of dyscognitive seizures (with occasional secondary generalization) who developed isolated, nocturnal dry cough immediately after being started on PO phenytoin. The cough was not accompanied by any other symptom or sign as his physical exam was completely normal. Further investigation with chest CT and spirometry was unremarkable. This symptom persisted for six months and did not resolve until we weaned him off of phenytoin. According to the Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale, his cough was classified as being probably (score + 6) related to the use of this antiepileptic drug. To our knowledge, there has been only one study that reported phenytoin-triggered cough. It described a postoperative patient who developed cough and bronchospasm after receiving IV phenytoin. By reporting our case and discussing the literature on this specific topic, we have essentially two goals. First, we intend to remind clinicians that isolated persistent cough can be an adverse reaction to phenytoin. Second, we hope to encourage further studies that will be able to elucidate the association presented herein. PMID:27330990

  18. Feasibility study: honey for treatment of cough in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Ahmed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infections are an important health problem because of high incidence and economic costs. The World Health Organization identifies honey as a potential demulcent treatment for cough. The aim of this study is to determine: i patient public perceptions towards a proposed randomized controlled trial (RCT comparing the effects of honey to placebo for treatment of cough in children; ii potential participation rates for proposed trial; iii whether age and gender of parent or child impacts on proposed cough assessment tools. Forty adult participants with children age 1-6 years presenting with an upper respiratory tract infection were enrolled. They underwent a structured interview regarding the proposed trial and assessed their child’s cough using two validated questionnaires. Eighty-eight percent of those recruited were willing to participate in the proposed trial. The two independently validated cough scores correlated well. A relationship between age and gender of child or parent with cough assessment score was not found. We conclude that a RCT to determine the effects of honey versus placebo is feasible. The public find the outcome measures and trial design acceptable.

  19. Phenytoin-induced isolated chronic, nocturnal dry cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio A. Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 72-year-old man with a four-year history of dyscognitive seizures (with occasional secondary generalization who developed isolated, nocturnal dry cough immediately after being started on PO phenytoin. The cough was not accompanied by any other symptom or sign as his physical exam was completely normal. Further investigation with chest CT and spirometry was unremarkable. This symptom persisted for six months and did not resolve until we weaned him off of phenytoin. According to the Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale, his cough was classified as being probably (score +6 related to the use of this antiepileptic drug. To our knowledge, there has been only one study that reported phenytoin-triggered cough. It described a postoperative patient who developed cough and bronchospasm after receiving IV phenytoin. By reporting our case and discussing the literature on this specific topic, we have essentially two goals. First, we intend to remind clinicians that isolated persistent cough can be an adverse reaction to phenytoin. Second, we hope to encourage further studies that will be able to elucidate the association presented herein.

  20. The course of lung inflation alters the central pattern of tracheobronchial cough in cat-The evidence for volume feedback during cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliacek, Ivan; Simera, Michal; Veternik, Marcel; Kotmanova, Zuzana; Pitts, Teresa; Hanacek, Jan; Plevkova, Jana; Machac, Peter; Visnovcova, Nadezda; Misek, Jakub; Jakus, Jan

    2016-07-15

    The effect of volume-related feedback and output airflow resistance on the cough motor pattern was studied in 17 pentobarbital anesthetized spontaneously-breathing cats. Lung inflation during tracheobronchial cough was ventilator controlled and triggered by the diaphragm electromyographic (EMG) signal. Altered lung inflations during cough resulted in modified cough motor drive and temporal features of coughing. When tidal volume was delivered (via the ventilator) there was a significant increase in the inspiratory and expiratory cough drive (esophageal pressures and EMG amplitudes), inspiratory phase duration (CTI), total cough cycle duration, and the duration of all cough related EMGs (Tactive). When the cough volume was delivered (via the ventilator) during the first half of inspiratory period (at CTI/2-early over inflation), there was a significant reduction in the inspiratory and expiratory EMG amplitude, peak inspiratory esophageal pressure, CTI, and the overlap between inspiratory and expiratory EMG activity. Additionally, there was significant increase in the interval between the maximum inspiratory and expiratory EMG activity and the active portion of the expiratory phase (CTE1). Control inflations coughs and control coughs with additional expiratory resistance had increased maximum expiratory esophageal pressure and prolonged CTE1, the duration of cough abdominal activity, and Tactive. There was no significant difference in control coughing and/or control coughing when sham ventilation was employed. In conclusion, modified lung inflations during coughing and/or additional expiratory airflow resistance altered the spatio-temporal features of cough motor pattern via the volume related feedback mechanism similar to that in breathing. PMID:27125979

  1. Discrepancy between presumptive and definite causes of chronic cough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Li; QIU Zhi-hong; WEI Wei-li; LIU Bo; XU Xiang-huai; L(U) Han-jing; QIU Zhong-min

    2011-01-01

    Background The current diagnostic algorithms for chronic cough require the establishment of the primary presumptive causes followed by the confirmation of diagnosis with the specific therapies.The aim of the study was to investigate the discrepancy between presumptive and definite causes and its clinical implication.Methods A total of 109 patients with chronic cough underwent laboratory investigations to identify the cause of cough; including sinus computerized tomography (if needed),histamine bronchial provocation,induced sputum cytology and 24-hour esophageal pH or multi-channel intraluminal impedance combined with pH monitoring.The presumptive causes were confirmed by treating them sequentially.The difference between presumptive and definite causes of chronic cough was compared.Results Single cause was more frequent in the definite diagnosis than in the presumptive diagnosis (78.9% vs.54.1%,x2=15.01,P=0.0001).In contrast,multiple causes were significantly fewer in definite diagnosis than in the presumptive diagnosis (15.6% vs.37.6%,x2=13.53,P=0.0002).There was a discrepancy between definite and presumptive causes in 30 patients (27.5%).Compared with the presumptive causes,definite upper airway cough syndrome (24.8% vs.11.9%,x2=6.0,P=0.01) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (6.4% vs.0,x2=7.23,P=0.007) was more frequent as a single cause of chronic cough while cough variant asthma plus gastroesophageal reflux disease (3.7% vs.11.9%,x2=5.17,P=0.02) and upper airway cough syndrome plus nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis (0 vs.9.2%,x2=10.48,P=0.001) were fewer as multiple causes of chronic cough.Conclusions A discrepancy was common between presumptive and definite causes of chronic cough.To treat presumptive causes sequentially may be a suitable solution for avoidance of erroneous multiple causes and possible over-treatment.

  2. Detection of pulmonary tuberculosis among patients with cough attending outpatient departments in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania: does duration of cough matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandwalo Eliud R

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to WHO estimates, tuberculosis case detection rate in Tanzania is less than 50% and this poses a major challenge to control tuberculosis in the country. Currently, one of the defining criteria for suspecting tuberculosis is cough for two weeks or more. We wanted to find out whether the prevalence of tuberculosis was different in patients who reported cough for two weeks or more, compared to patients with cough for less than two weeks. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in six health facilities in Dar es Salaam, between September and October 2007. All patients aged five years and above with cough were screened for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB by smear microscopy. Patients were divided into two groups, those who coughed for less than two weeks ( Results A total of 65,530 patients attended outpatients department (OPD. Out of these, 2274 (3.5% patients reported cough. Among patients who reported cough, 2214 (97.4% remembered their cough duration. One thousand nine hundred and seventy three patients (89.1% coughed for ≥ 2 wks as compared to 241 (10.9% patients who coughed for Conclusion Detection of smear positive PTB among patients who coughed for less than two weeks was as high as for those who coughed for two weeks or more.

  3. Magnesium sulfate inhibits sufentanil-induced cough during anesthetic induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Li-Jun; Gui, Bo; Su, Zhen; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Hai-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Sufentanil-induced cough is a common phenomenon during the induction of anesthesia. This double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled study was designed to investigate the effects of prophylactic magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) on the incidence and severity of sufentanil-induced cough. A total of 165 patients who were scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia were allocated into three groups (I, II, and III; n = 55 each) that were injected with either 50 ml of normal saline, 30 or 50 mg/kg of MgSO4 (diluted with normal saline into 50 ml). One minute following the injection, all patients were injected with 1.0 μg/kg of sufentanil within 5 s. The incidence and severity of cough were recorded 30 s after the sufentanil injection. The hemodynamic parameters and plasma magnesium concentration of the patients were also noted. Three patients dropped out the study due to an obvious burning sensation during the injection of 50 mg/kg of MgSO4. Although the injection of 50 mg/kg of MgSO4 increased the plasma magnesium level, the increase remained within the therapeutic range (2-4 mmol/L). The incidence of cough was much higher in group I than in groups II and III (47.1% vs. 16.4% and 7.6%, respectively, P < 0.05). Compared with group I, group III had the lowest incidence of mild cough and both groups II and III had lower incidence of moderate and severe cough (P < 0.05). There were no differences in the hemodynamic data at three timepoints among the three groups. In conclusion, sufentanil-induced cough may be suppressed effectively and safely by prophylactic use of 30 mg/kg of MgSO4 during anesthetic induction. PMID:26550339

  4. Respiratory kinematic and airflow differences between reflex and voluntary cough in healthy young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandimore, Alexandra E.; Troche, Michelle S.; Huber, Jessica E.; Hegland, Karen W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cough is a defensive behavior that can be initiated in response to a stimulus in the airway (reflexively), or on command (voluntarily). There is evidence to suggest that physiological differences exist between reflex and voluntary cough; however, the output (mechanistic and airflow) differences between the cough types are not fully understood. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the lung volume, respiratory kinematic, and airflow differences between reflex and voluntary cough in healthy young adults. Methods: Twenty-five participants (14 female; 18–29 years) were recruited for this study. Participants were evaluated using respiratory inductance plethysmography calibrated with spirometry. Experimental procedures included: (1) respiratory calibration, (2) three voluntary sequential cough trials, and (3) three reflex cough trials induced with 200 μM capsaicin. Results: Lung volume initiation (LVI; p = 0.003) and lung volume excursion (LVE; p < 0.001) were significantly greater for voluntary cough compared to reflex cough. The rib cage and abdomen significantly influenced LVI for voluntary cough (p < 0.001); however, only the rib cage significantly impacted LVI for reflex cough (p < 0.001). LVI significantly influenced peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) for voluntary cough (p = 0.029), but not reflex cough (p = 0.610). Discussion: Production of a reflex cough results in significant mechanistic and airflow differences compared to voluntary cough. These findings suggest that detection of a tussigenic stimulus modifies motor aspects of the reflex cough behavior. Further understanding of the differences between reflex and voluntary cough in older adults and in persons with dystussia (cough dysfunction) will be essential to facilitate the development of successful cough treatment paradigms. PMID:26500560

  5. Experiments on the fluid dynamics of the human cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settles, Gary

    2011-11-01

    Human coughing is studied non-intrusively by high-speed schlieren videography, revealing a turbulent jet lasting up to 1 sec with a total expelled air volume of about 2 L. Velocimetry of eddy motion reveals a jet centerline airspeed of at least 8 m/sec. With Re roughly 18,000 the cough jet is inertia-driven and buoyancy is negligible. It shows typical round-turbulent-jet behavior, including a conical spreading angle of 24 deg, despite irregular initial conditions. The cough jet is projected several m into the surrounding air before it mixes out. It is well known that a cough can transmit infectious agents, and we are advised to cover our mouths in an apparent attempt to thwart the jet formation. Present experiments have shown that wearing a surgical mask or respirator designed to prevent the inhalation of infectious agents also interferes with the cough-jet formation, redirecting it into the person's rising thermal plume. (Tang et al., J. Royal. Soc. Interface 6, S727, 2009.)

  6. Cough Recognition Based on Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients and Dynamic Time Warping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunmei; Liu, Baojun; Li, Ping

    Cough recognition provides important clinical information for the treatment of many respiratory diseases, but the assessment of cough frequency over a long period of time remains unsatisfied for either clinical or research purpose. In this paper, according to the advantage of dynamic time warping (DTW) and the characteristic of cough recognition, an attempt is made to adapt DTW as the recognition algorithm for cough recognition. The process of cough recognition based on mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) and DTW is introduced. Experiment results of testing samples from 3 subjects show that acceptable performances of cough recognition are obtained by DTW with a small training set.

  7. Influence factors of cough reflex sensitivity in patients with chronic cough%慢性咳嗽患者咳嗽敏感性的影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈如冲; 赖克方; 罗炜; 钟南山

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence factors of cough reflex sensitivity in patients with chronic cough. Methods Patients with chronic cough were recruited by using a diagnostic program. Cough reflex sensitivity was examined through eapsaicin cough challenge and the LgC5 (C5, the concentration of capsaicin causing five or more coughs ) was used as the index of cough threshold. Score of the severity of cough, age,gender, course of disease, pulmonary ventilation function (FEV1/pred%, MMEF/pred% )and cell differential of induced sputum (the percent of neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, eosinophils)were also recorded for analysis. Results One hundred and fifty patients with different etiology of chronic cough involved in the study. Cough threshold of the patients was correlated with cough score at daytime (r=0.175, P0.05 ). Regression analysis showed that only gender and disease course were significantly corrclated with LgC5 ( all P0.05.多元线性回归分析显示,咳嗽阈值仅与性别、咳嗽病程有关(P均<0.01).结论咳嗽敏感性与咳嗽症状积分反映咳嗽程度的不同特征,性别与咳嗽病程可能影响慢性咳嗽患者的咳嗽敏感性.

  8. Evaluation of cough in dogs with mitral valve insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distinguishing between respiratory and cardiac causes of coughing in dogs is critical to successful treatment. Such a distinction is especially important in older, small-breed dogs, which often experience both chronic respiratory disease and mitral valve insufficiency. Cough most commonly results from upper airway disease, tracheobronchial disease, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary neoplasia, pneumonia, and cardiac disease. Using historical and physical findings in conjunction with routinely available ancillary diagnostic procedures, the cause of cough can usually be determined and often effectively treated. Special diagnostic tests routinely available in general practice include conventional thoracic radiographs supplemented by expiratory lateral thoracic and inspiratory lateral cervical views to evaluate airway stability, electrocardiography, transtracheal aspiration with culture and sensitivity as well as cytologic evaluation, serology, specialized fecal examinations, and fine-needle aspiration of the lung

  9. Indoor risk factors for cough and their relation to wheeze and sensitization in Chilean young adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, J.F.; Rona, R.J.; Oyarzun, M.J.; Amigo, H.; Bustos, P. [Kings College London, London (United Kingdom). Dept. for Public Health Science

    2008-04-15

    We assessed the effects of indoor risk factors, including smoking, on different types of cough and on cough and wheeze in combination. Our sample was composed of 1232 men and women residing in a semi-rural area of Chile. We used a standardized questionnaire, sensitization to 8 allergens, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine to assess cough and wheeze characteristics. Information was gathered on dampness, mold, ventilation, heating, housing quality, smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Most exposures were associated with cough alone or cough in combination with wheeze. Smoking, past smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure were strongly associated with dry cough and wheeze. The use of coal for heating was associated with dry cough. Leaks, mold, and lack of kitchen ventilation were associated with cough and wheeze. Nocturnal cough and productive cough were associated with specific types of sensitization, but dry cough was not. Productive cough was associated with hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Several different types of indoor exposures, including environmental tobacco smoke exposure, are important contributors to morbidity associated with cough and wheeze. A vigorous preventive strategy designed to lower exposures to indoor risk factors would lower rates of respiratory morbidity.

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic cough in China: an insight into the status quo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kefang; Luo, Wei; Zeng, Guangqiao; Zhong, Nanshan

    2012-07-28

    Chronic cough is a very common complaint in clinics throughout China. Clinical and basic science research on chronic cough started late, but in recent years the effort has yielded promising findings regarding the etiological diagnosis, treatment and pathogenesis. We found that inflammation in nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis has some similarities to cough variant asthma but also a number of distinct differences. Recent evidence has also suggested a mechanistic link between airway neurogenic inflammation and and gastroesophageal reflux cough (GERC). Cough-related animal models have been developed, including models for esophageal reflux, nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis and allergic rhinitis. Normal reference values for differential cell counts in induced sputum, cough sensitivity and esophageal 24-h pH monitoring in Chinese healthy subjects have been established. By using a modified algorithm for the etiological diagnosis of chronic cough, the causes of chronic cough have been investigated across a number of cities in China. The most common causes of chronic cough are cough variant asthma, eosinophilic bronchitis, upper airway cough symptoms, atopic cough and GERC, however, there are some regional variations. The Chinese National Guidelines on Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Cough were drafted in 2005, updated in 2009, and have been widely publicized and disseminated through many channels since their publication.

  11. Parainfluenza 3-Induced Cough Hypersensitivity in the Guinea Pig Airways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Zaccone

    Full Text Available The effect of respiratory tract viral infection on evoked cough in guinea pigs was evaluated. Guinea pigs were inoculated intranasally with either parainfluenza type 3 (PIV3 and cough was quantified in conscious animals. The guinea pigs infected with PIV3 (day 4 coughed nearly three times more than those treated with the viral growth medium in response to capsaicin, citric acid, and bradykinin. Since capsaicin, citric acid, and bradykinin evoked coughing in guinea pigs can be inhibited by drugs that antagonize the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1, it was reasoned that the virally-induced hypertussive state may involve alterations in TPRV1 activity. PIV3 infection caused a phenotypic switch in tracheal nodose Aδ "cough receptors" such that nearly 50% of neurons began to express, de novo, TRPV1 mRNA. There was also an increase TRPV1 expression in jugular C-fiber neurons as determined by qPCR. It has previously been reported that tracheal-specific nodose neurons express the BDNF receptor TrkB and jugular neurons express the NGF receptor TrkA. Jugular neurons also express the artemin receptor GFRα3. All these neurotrophic factors have been associated with increases in TRPV1 expression. In an ex vivo perfused guinea pig tracheal preparation, we demonstrated that within 8 h of PIV3 infusion there was no change in NGF mRNA expression, but there was nearly a 10-fold increase in BDNF mRNA in the tissue, and a small but significant elevation in the expression of artemin mRNA. In summary, PIV3 infection leads to elevations in TRPV1 expression in the two key cough evoking nerve subtypes in the guinea pig trachea, and this is associated with a hypertussive state with respect to various TRPV1 activating stimuli.

  12. Parainfluenza 3-Induced Cough Hypersensitivity in the Guinea Pig Airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Eric J; Lieu, TinaMarie; Muroi, Yukiko; Potenzieri, Carl; Undem, Blair E; Gao, Peisong; Han, Liang; Canning, Brendan J; Undem, Bradley J

    2016-01-01

    The effect of respiratory tract viral infection on evoked cough in guinea pigs was evaluated. Guinea pigs were inoculated intranasally with either parainfluenza type 3 (PIV3) and cough was quantified in conscious animals. The guinea pigs infected with PIV3 (day 4) coughed nearly three times more than those treated with the viral growth medium in response to capsaicin, citric acid, and bradykinin. Since capsaicin, citric acid, and bradykinin evoked coughing in guinea pigs can be inhibited by drugs that antagonize the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1), it was reasoned that the virally-induced hypertussive state may involve alterations in TPRV1 activity. PIV3 infection caused a phenotypic switch in tracheal nodose Aδ "cough receptors" such that nearly 50% of neurons began to express, de novo, TRPV1 mRNA. There was also an increase TRPV1 expression in jugular C-fiber neurons as determined by qPCR. It has previously been reported that tracheal-specific nodose neurons express the BDNF receptor TrkB and jugular neurons express the NGF receptor TrkA. Jugular neurons also express the artemin receptor GFRα3. All these neurotrophic factors have been associated with increases in TRPV1 expression. In an ex vivo perfused guinea pig tracheal preparation, we demonstrated that within 8 h of PIV3 infusion there was no change in NGF mRNA expression, but there was nearly a 10-fold increase in BDNF mRNA in the tissue, and a small but significant elevation in the expression of artemin mRNA. In summary, PIV3 infection leads to elevations in TRPV1 expression in the two key cough evoking nerve subtypes in the guinea pig trachea, and this is associated with a hypertussive state with respect to various TRPV1 activating stimuli. PMID:27213574

  13. Parainfluenza 3-Induced Cough Hypersensitivity in the Guinea Pig Airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, TinaMarie; Muroi, Yukiko; Potenzieri, Carl; Undem, Blair E.; Gao, Peisong; Han, Liang; Canning, Brendan J.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of respiratory tract viral infection on evoked cough in guinea pigs was evaluated. Guinea pigs were inoculated intranasally with either parainfluenza type 3 (PIV3) and cough was quantified in conscious animals. The guinea pigs infected with PIV3 (day 4) coughed nearly three times more than those treated with the viral growth medium in response to capsaicin, citric acid, and bradykinin. Since capsaicin, citric acid, and bradykinin evoked coughing in guinea pigs can be inhibited by drugs that antagonize the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1), it was reasoned that the virally-induced hypertussive state may involve alterations in TPRV1 activity. PIV3 infection caused a phenotypic switch in tracheal nodose Aδ “cough receptors” such that nearly 50% of neurons began to express, de novo, TRPV1 mRNA. There was also an increase TRPV1 expression in jugular C-fiber neurons as determined by qPCR. It has previously been reported that tracheal-specific nodose neurons express the BDNF receptor TrkB and jugular neurons express the NGF receptor TrkA. Jugular neurons also express the artemin receptor GFRα3. All these neurotrophic factors have been associated with increases in TRPV1 expression. In an ex vivo perfused guinea pig tracheal preparation, we demonstrated that within 8 h of PIV3 infusion there was no change in NGF mRNA expression, but there was nearly a 10-fold increase in BDNF mRNA in the tissue, and a small but significant elevation in the expression of artemin mRNA. In summary, PIV3 infection leads to elevations in TRPV1 expression in the two key cough evoking nerve subtypes in the guinea pig trachea, and this is associated with a hypertussive state with respect to various TRPV1 activating stimuli. PMID:27213574

  14. Cough Aerosol Cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Insights on TST / IGRA Discordance and Transmission Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-López, Edward C.; White, Laura F.; Kirenga, Bruce; Mumbowa, Francis; Ssebidandi, Martin; Moine, Stephanie; Mbabazi, Olive; Mboowa, Gerald; Ayakaka, Irene; Kim, Soyeon; Thornton, Christina S.; Okwera, Alphonse; Joloba, Moses; Fennelly, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale The diagnosis of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) is complicated by the absence of a gold standard. Discordance between tuberculin skin tests (TST) and interferon gamma release assays (IGRA) occurs in 10–20% of individuals, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Methods We analyzed data from a prospective household contact study that included cough aerosol culture results from index cases, environmental and contact factors. We assessed contacts for LTBI using TST and IGRA at baseline and six weeks. We examined TST/IGRA discordance in qualitative and quantitative analyses, and used multivariable logistic regression analysis with generalized estimating equations to analyze predictors of discordance. Measurements and Results We included 96 TB patients and 384 contacts. Discordance decreased from 15% at baseline to 8% by six weeks. In adjusted analyses, discordance was related to less crowding (p = 0.004), non-cavitary disease (OR 1.41, 95% CI: 1.02–1.96; p = 0.03), and marginally with BCG vaccination in contacts (OR 1.40, 95% CI: 0.99–1.98, p = 0.06). Conclusions We observed significant individual variability and temporal dynamism in TST and IGRA results in household contacts of pulmonary TB cases. Discordance was associated with a less intense infectious exposure, and marginally associated with a BCG-mediated delay in IGRA conversion. Cough aerosols provide an additional dimension to the assessment of infectiousness and risk of infection in contacts. PMID:26394149

  15. Cough Aerosol Cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Insights on TST / IGRA Discordance and Transmission Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C Jones-López

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of latent tuberculosis (TB infection (LTBI is complicated by the absence of a gold standard. Discordance between tuberculin skin tests (TST and interferon gamma release assays (IGRA occurs in 10-20% of individuals, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood.We analyzed data from a prospective household contact study that included cough aerosol culture results from index cases, environmental and contact factors. We assessed contacts for LTBI using TST and IGRA at baseline and six weeks. We examined TST/IGRA discordance in qualitative and quantitative analyses, and used multivariable logistic regression analysis with generalized estimating equations to analyze predictors of discordance.We included 96 TB patients and 384 contacts. Discordance decreased from 15% at baseline to 8% by six weeks. In adjusted analyses, discordance was related to less crowding (p = 0.004, non-cavitary disease (OR 1.41, 95% CI: 1.02-1.96; p = 0.03, and marginally with BCG vaccination in contacts (OR 1.40, 95% CI: 0.99-1.98, p = 0.06.We observed significant individual variability and temporal dynamism in TST and IGRA results in household contacts of pulmonary TB cases. Discordance was associated with a less intense infectious exposure, and marginally associated with a BCG-mediated delay in IGRA conversion. Cough aerosols provide an additional dimension to the assessment of infectiousness and risk of infection in contacts.

  16. Exophiala Pneumonia Presenting with a Cough Productive of Black Sputum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehuda Z. Cohen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exophiala species are black, yeast-like molds that can cause subcutaneous cysts as well as disseminated disease. Isolated pneumonia due to Exophiala species is extremely uncommon. We report a case of isolated Exophiala pneumonia in a patient with bronchiectasis who presented with worsening dyspnea and a cough productive of black sputum. The production of black sputum, known as melanoptysis, is an uncommon physical finding with a limited differential diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Exophiala pneumonia presenting with a cough productive of black sputum.

  17. Is honey an effective treatment for acute cough in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, María Pía; Carreño, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Cough represents one of the most common reasons for pediatrician consultations. There are many available treatments for symptomatic relief, including honey. Despite its wide availability, there is little knowledge about its benefits. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified three systematic reviews including three randomized trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded the use of honey probably decreases the severity and frequency of cough, improves the quality of parent's and patient's sleep, and does not have side effects. PMID:27280298

  18. Exophiala Pneumonia Presenting with a Cough Productive of Black Sputum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yehuda Z.; Stead, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Exophiala species are black, yeast-like molds that can cause subcutaneous cysts as well as disseminated disease. Isolated pneumonia due to Exophiala species is extremely uncommon. We report a case of isolated Exophiala pneumonia in a patient with bronchiectasis who presented with worsening dyspnea and a cough productive of black sputum. The production of black sputum, known as melanoptysis, is an uncommon physical finding with a limited differential diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Exophiala pneumonia presenting with a cough productive of black sputum. PMID:26075119

  19. FISH COUGH RESPONSE - A METHOD FOR EVALUATING QUALITY OF TREATED COMPLEX EFFLUENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) showed increases in cough frequency commensurate with effluent concentration when exposed for 24 h to different industrial and municipal effluents. Effluents known to be toxic caused steadily increasing cough rates in the fish as effluent co...

  20. 77 FR 68132 - Compliance Guidance for Small Business Entities on Labeling for Bronchodilators: Cold, Cough...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... the July 26, 2011, final rule (76 FR 44475) regarding OTC bronchodilator drug products, which makes... for Bronchodilators: Cold, Cough, Allergy, Bronchodilator, and Antiasthmatic Drug Products for Over... small business entities entitled ``Labeling for Bronchodilators: Cold, Cough, Allergy,...

  1. Do Not Give Infants Cough and Cold Products Designed for Older Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FDA Reminder for Parents: Do Not Give Infants Cough and Cold Products Designed for Older Children Share ... giving these products to young children. Alternatives to cough and cold medicines for infants Parents of infants ...

  2. FDA Researchers Advance Science for Vaccines to Prevent Mumps and Whooping Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advance Science for Vaccines to Prevent Mumps and Whooping Cough Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... in the FDA’s laboratories in Silver Spring, MD. Whooping Cough: Background and Key Findings The FDA is studying ...

  3. The Cough Cylinder : A tool to study measures against airborne spread of (myco-) bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessche, K. van den; Marais, B.J.; Wattenberg, M.; Magis-Escurra, C.; Reijers, M.; Tuinman, I.L.; Boeree, M.J.; Soolingen, D. van; Groot, R. de; Cotton, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: 'Covering your cough' reduces droplet number, but its effect on airborne pathogen transmission is less clear. The World Health Organization specifically recommends cough etiquette to prevent the spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but implementation is generally poor and evidence suppo

  4. The Cough Cylinder: a tool to study measures against airborne spread of (myco-) bacteria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandenDriessche, K.S.J.; Marais, B.J.; Wattenberg, M.; Magis-Escurra Ibanez, C.; Reijers, M.; Tuinman, I.L.; Boeree, M.J.; Soolingen, D. van; Groot, R. de; Cotton, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: 'Covering your cough' reduces droplet number, but its effect on airborne pathogen transmission is less clear. The World Health Organization specifically recommends cough etiquette to prevent the spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but implementation is generally poor and evidence suppo

  5. Proton pump inhibitor-responsive chronic cough without acid reflux: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobata Kouichi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because 24-h esophageal pH monitoring is quite invasive, the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD-associated cough has usually been made based merely on the clinical efficacy of treatment with proton pump inhibitor (PPI. Case presentation We recently encountered two patients with PPI-responsive chronic non-productive cough for whom switching from bronchodilators and glucocorticosteroids to PPI resulted in improvement of cough. The cough returned nearly to pre-administration level a few weeks after discontinuation of PPI. Though GERD-associated cough was suspected, 24-h esophageal pH monitoring revealed that the cough rarely involved gastric acid reflux. Following re-initiation of PPI, the cough disappeared again. Conclusion PPI may improve cough unrelated to gastric acid reflux.

  6. Impact of current cough on health-related quality of life in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deslee G

    2016-09-01

    [FEV1]: 57 [37–72] % predicted (median [Q1–Q3]. In univariate analyses, health-related quality of life (Saint George’s respiratory questionnaire total score was associated with each CASA-Q domain and with chronic bronchitis, exacerbations, dyspnea, FEV1, depression, and anxiety. All four domains introduced separately were independently associated with health-related quality of life. When introduced together in multivariate analyses, only the cough impact domain remained independently associated with health-related quality of life (R2=0.60. With chronic bronchitis (standard definition instead of the CASA-Q, the R2 was lower (R2=0.54.Conclusion: This study provides evidence that current cough in the previous 7 days is an important determinant of health-related quality of life impairment in stable COPD patients.Keywords: signs and symptoms, respiratory, sputum, questionnaires, dyspnea, multivariate analysis

  7. Reprint of: Effects of Asian dust on daily cough occurrence in patients with chronic cough: A panel study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Tomomi; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Fujimura, Masaki; Nakai, Satoshi; Honda, Yasushi; Saijoh, Kiyofumi; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Michigami, Yoshimasa; Olando, Anyenda Enoch; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    Asian dust, known as kosa in Japanese, is a major public health concern. In this panel study, we evaluated the effects of exposure to kosa on daily cough occurrence. The study subjects were 86 patients being treated for asthma, cough variant asthma, or atopic cough in Kanazawa University Hospital from January 2011 to June 2011. Daily mean concentrations of kosa and spherical particles were obtained from light detection and ranging (LIDAR) measurements, and were categorized from Grade 1 (0 μg/m3) to 5 (over 100 μg/m3). The association between kosa and cough was analyzed by logistic regression with a generalized estimating equation. Kosa effects on cough were seen for all Grades with potential time lag effect. Particularly at Lag 0 (the day of exposure), a dose-response relationship was observed: the odds ratios for Grades 2, 3, 4, and 5 above the referent (Grade 1) were 1.111 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.995-1.239), 1.171 (95% CI: 1.006-1.363), 1.357 (95% CI: 1.029-1.788), and 1.414 (95% CI: 0.983-2.036), respectively. Among the patients without asthma, the association was higher: the odds ratios for Grades 2, 3, 4 and 5 were 1.223 (95% CI: 0.999-1.497), 1.309 (95% CI: 0.987-1.737), 1.738 (95% CI: 1.029-2.935) and 2.403 (95% CI: 1.158-4.985), respectively. These associations remained after adjusting for the concentration of spherical particles or particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5). Our findings demonstrate that kosa is an environmental factor which induces cough in a dose-response relationship.

  8. Changes in vagal afferent drive alter tracheobronchial coughing in anesthetized cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simera, Michal; Poliacek, Ivan; Veternik, Marcel; Babalova, Lucia; Kotmanova, Zuzana; Jakus, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Unilateral cooling of the vagus nerve (blood pressure (p>0.05), however, cold block of vagal conduction reduced respiratory rate (ppump muscles during coughing and alters cough temporal features. Differences in the effects of unilateral vagal cooling and vagotomy on coughing support an inhibitory role of sensory afferents that are relatively unaffected by cooling of the vagus nerve to 5°C on mechanically induced cough. PMID:27184303

  9. Successful resolution of refractory chronic cough induced by gastroesophageal reflux with treatment of baclofen

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xianghuai; Chen, Qiang; Liang, Siwei; LÜ, Hanjing; Qiu, Zhongmin

    2012-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux induced cough is a common cause of chronic cough, and proton pump inhibitors are a standard therapy. However, the patients unresponsive to the standard therapy are difficult to treat and remain a challenge to doctors. Here, we summarized the experience of successful resolution of refractory chronic cough due to gastroesophageal reflux with baclofen in three patients. It is concluded that baclofen may be a viable option for gastroesophageal reflux induced cough unrespon...

  10. Levodropropizine for treating cough in adult and children: a meta-analysis of published studies

    OpenAIRE

    Zanasi, Alessandro; Lanata, Luigi; Fontana, Giovanni; Saibene, Federico; Dicpinigaitis, Peter; De Blasio, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background Cough is one of the most common symptoms for which patients seek medical attention from primary care physicians and lung specialists. About 40% of the population at any one time report cough. Cough is associated with significantly impaired health-related quality of life. Levodropropizine is an effective and very well tolerated peripheral antitussive drug. We want to compare it to central cough suppressants efficacy (opioids and non-opioids) that may be associated with side effects ...

  11. An observational study on cough in children: epidemiology, impact on quality of sleep and treatment outcome

    OpenAIRE

    De Blasio, Francesco; Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; Rubin, Bruce K; De Danieli, Gianluca; Lanata, Luigi; Zanasi, Alessando

    2012-01-01

    Background Cough is one of the most frequent symptoms in children and is the most common symptom for which children visit a health care provider. Methods This is an observational study on acute cough associated with upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in children. The study evaluates the epidemiology and impact of cough on quality of sleep and children's activities, and the outcome of cough with antitussive treatments in pediatric routine clinical practice. Study assessments were perform...

  12. Classification of voluntary cough sound and airflow patterns for detecting abnormal pulmonary function

    OpenAIRE

    Abaza, Ayman A; Day, Jeremy B; Reynolds, Jeffrey S.; Mahmoud, Ahmed M.; Goldsmith, W. Travis; McKinney, Walter G; Petsonk, E Lee; Frazer, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Involuntary cough is a classic symptom of many respiratory diseases. The act of coughing serves a variety of functions such as clearing the airways in response to respiratory irritants or aspiration of foreign materials. It has been pointed out that a cough results in substantial stresses on the body which makes voluntary cough a useful tool in physical diagnosis. Methods In the present study, fifty-two normal subjects and sixty subjects with either obstructive or restrictive lung ...

  13. Misdiagnosis and mistreatment of ace-inhibitor induced cough decreases therapy compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegter, S.; de Boer, P.; van Dijk, K. W.; Visser, S. T.; de Jong-van den Berg, L. T.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A common adverse effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) is a persistent dry cough. Physicians and pharmacists who fail to recognise dry cough to be ACEi related may prescribe cough suppressants (antitussives), instead of recommended ACEi substitution. The aim of this s

  14. Sixty-eight Cases of Child Chronic Cough Treated by Moxibustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xia; WANG Su-mei; WU Li-qun

    2009-01-01

    To observe the therapeutic effects of moxibustion for chronic cough in children. Methods: 68 child cases of chronic cough were treated by moxibustion. Results: 54 cases were cured, 13 cases improved, and one case failed. The cure rate was 79.2%, with a total effective rate of 98.5%. Conclusion: The moxibustion therapy has definite therapeutic effect for children chronic cough.

  15. Mucociliary and cough clearance as a biomarker for therapeutic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, William D; Daviskas, Evangelia; Hasani, Amir;

    2010-01-01

    A workshop/symposium on “Mucociliary and Cough Clearance (MCC/CC) as a Biomarker for Therapeutic Development” was held on October 21–22, 2008, in Research Triangle Park, NC, to discuss the methods for measurement of MCC/CC and how they may be optimized for assessing new therapies designed...

  16. Characteristics of children consulting for cough, sore throat, or earache

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.J.M. Uijen (Hans); H.J. van Duijn (Huug); M.M. Kuyvenhoven (Marijke); F.G. Schellevis (François); J.C. van der Wouden (Hans)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract BACKGROUND: GPs are often consulted for respiratory tract symptoms in children. AIM: To explore characteristics of children, their parents, and their GPs that are correlated with consulting a GP for cough, sore throat, or earache. DESIGN OF STUDY: Second Dutch National Survey o

  17. Characteristics of children consulting for cough, sore throat, or earache.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijen, H.J.M.; Duijn, H.J. van; Kuyvenhoven, M.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Wouden, J.C. van der

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: GPs are often consulted for respiratory tract symptoms in children. AIM: To explore characteristics of children, their parents, and their GPs that are correlated with consulting a GP for cough, sore throat, or earache. DESIGN OF STUDY: Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (DN

  18. Characteristics of children consulting for cough, sore throat, or earache

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijen, Johannes H. J. M.; van Duijn, Huug J.; Kuyvenhoven, Marijke M.; Schellevis, Francois G.; van der Wouden, Johannes C.

    2008-01-01

    Background GPs are often consulted for respiratory tract symptoms in children. Aim To explore characteristics of children, their parents, and their GPs that are correlated with consulting a GP for cough, sore throat, or earache. Design of study Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (DNSGP

  19. Effect of expiratory muscle strength training on elderly cough function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeock; Davenport, Paul; Sapienza, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Age-related loss of muscle strength, known as sarcopenia, in the expiratory muscles, along with reductions in lung elastic recoil and chest wall compliance decreases the intrathoacic airway pressure as well as expiratory flow rates and velocity, greatly impacting an elderly person's ability to generate the forces essential for cough. This study examined the effects of a 4-week expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) program on maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) and cough function in 18 healthy but sedentary elderly adults. MEP significantly increased after the EMST program from 77.14+/-20.20 to 110.83+/-26.11cmH(2)O. Parameters measured during reflexive coughs produced by capsaicin challenge, indicated that compression phase duration significantly decreased (from 0.35+/-0.19 to 0.16+/-0.17s), peak expiratory flow rate decreased (from 4.98+/-2.18 to 8.00+/-3.05l/s) and post-peak plateau integral amplitude significantly increased (from 3.49+/-2.46 to 6.83+/-4.16l/ss) with the EMST program. EMST seems to be an effective program to increase the expiratory muscle strength in the sedentary elderly, which contribute to an enhanced cough function. PMID:18457885

  20. Long-Term Productive Cough Caused by Tracheal Bronchus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Chen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We presented a 27-year-old man with a long-term productive cough and intermittent pneumonia without a remarkable medical history. Bronchoscopy revealed one tracheal bronchus with a narrow orifice. The patient\\s symptoms were later adequately controlled by mucolytics alone. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(2.000: 120-121

  1. Exposure of health care workers and occupants to coughed air in a hospital room with displacement air distribution: impact of ventilation rate and distance from coughing patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Kostadinov, Kamen;

    temperature distribution was used as the doctor standing 0.55, 1.1 or 2.8 m downstream the cough. A coughing thermal dummy, lying in one bed and a second thermal manikin in the other bed (1.3 m away), were used as the “sick” and the “exposed” patients. The cough consisted of 100% CO2. The doctor...... and the coughing patient faced each other. The Peak Cough Time (PCT) was around 6 s, when the doctor was 0.55 m downstream the cough and increased when the distance between the sick patient and the doctor increased. The highest Peak Concentration Level (PCL) for the doctor, i.e. excess of CO2 level in inhaled air...

  2. Incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the sputa of coughing inmates in selected Ghanaian prisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred and ninety-five (195) inmates, from eight (8) selected prisons within Ghana's penal system, each with an active cough of at least one week (as the inclusion criterion) were made to submit two sputum samples each for screening for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) using culture and subsequent microscopy and biochemical speciation tests. This sampling population was made up of 111 convicts and 84 remand prisoners. Forty eight (48) or 24.6% of these sputum samples returned a positive growth of MTB on Loweinstein-Jensen (LJ) slants. All growths harvested were also acid-fast on Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) microscopy. Out of the 111 convicted prisoners, 26 (or 23.4%) gave sputum samples which returned a positive growth on culture. On the other hand out of the 84 remanded inmates, 22 (or 26.2%) were positive on culture. Of all the total sputum samples returning a positive growth on culture, 54.2% (26/48) was from convicted inmates who made up 56.9% (111/195) of the sampling population whilst remanded inmates who made up only 39.3% (84/195) of our sampling population were responsible for 43.1% (22/54) of all positive culture growths. The percentage of MTB growths on culture in the sputa from coughing inmates domiciled in individual cells of selected prisons are interesting and instructive. The highest number of coughing inmates sampled in a single individual cell was 9 out of which 55.6% (5/9) had sputa giving a positive growth of MTB on culture. The percentage of positive growths of sputa obtained from coughing inmates in individual cells ranged from 20% (1/5) to 100% (1/1 and 2/2) for the selected prisons. A batch of samples (N=19) obtained from isolated inmates symptomatic for TB and at various stages of the DOTS chemotherapy were also analysed. Six (6) samples were positive on culture. Four (4) of these samples emanated from inmates on DOTS chemotherapy for periods between 69 and 290 days whilst the other 2 emanated from inmates on treatment for a period less than 60

  3. Impact of air pollution on age and gender related increase in cough reflex sensitivity of healthy children in Slovakia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eDemoulin-Alexikova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Numerous studies show higher cough reflex sensitivity (CRS and cough outcomes in children compared to adults and in females compared to males. Despite close link that exists between cough and environment the potential influence of environmental air pollution on age- and gender -related differences in cough has not been studied yet. Purpose. The purpose of our study was to analyse whether the effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS from parental smoking and PM10 from living in urban area are implied in age- and gender-related differences in cough outcomes of healthy, non asthmatic children. Assessment of CRS using capsaicin and incidence of dry and wet cough was performed in 290 children (mean age 13.3±2.6 yrs (138 females/152 males.Results. CRS was significantly higher in girls exposed to ETS [22.3 μmol/l (9.8 – 50.2 μmol/l] compared to not exposed girls [79.9 μmol/l (56.4 – 112.2 μmol/l, p=0.02] as well as compared to exposed boys [121.4 μmol/l (58.2 – 253.1 μmol/l, p=0.01]. Incidence of dry cough lasting more than 3 weeks was significantly higher in exposed compared to not exposed girls. CRS was significantly higher in school-aged girls living in urban area [22.0 μmol/l (10.6 – 45.6 μmol/l] compared to school-aged girls living in rural area [215.9 μmol/l (87.3 – 533.4 μmol/l; p=0.003], as well as compared to teenage girls living in urban area [108.8 μmol/l (68.7 – 172.9 μmol/l; p=0.007]. No CRS differences were found between urban and rural boys when controlled for age group. No CRS differences were found between school-aged and teenage boys when controlled for living area. Conclusions. Our results have shown that the effect of ETS on CRS was gender specific, linked to female gender and the effect of PM10 on CRS was both gender and age specific, related to female gender and school-age. We suggest that age and gender related differences in incidence of cough and CRS might be, at least

  4. Impact of Air Pollution on Age and Gender Related Increase in Cough Reflex Sensitivity of Healthy Children in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin-Alexikova, Silvia; Plevkova, Jana; Mazurova, Lenka; Zatko, Tomas; Alexik, Mikulas; Hanacek, Jan; Tatar, Milos

    2016-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies show higher cough reflex sensitivity (CRS) and cough outcomes in children compared to adults and in females compared to males. Despite close link that exists between cough and environment the potential influence of environmental air pollution on age- and gender -related differences in cough has not been studied yet. Purpose: The purpose of our study was to analyse whether the effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) from parental smoking and PM10 from living in urban area are implied in age- and gender-related differences in cough outcomes of healthy, non-asthmatic children. Assessment of CRS using capsaicin and incidence of dry and wet cough was performed in 290 children (mean age 13.3 ± 2.6 years (138 females/152 males). Results: CRS was significantly higher in girls exposed to ETS [22.3 μmol/l (9.8–50.2 μmol/l)] compared to not exposed girls [79.9 μmol/l (56.4–112.2 μmol/l), p = 0.02] as well as compared to exposed boys [121.4 μmol/l (58.2–253.1 μmol/l), p = 0.01]. Incidence of dry cough lasting more than 3 weeks was significantly higher in exposed compared to not exposed girls. CRS was significantly higher in school-aged girls living in urban area [22.0 μmol/l (10.6–45.6 μmol/l)] compared to school-aged girls living in rural area [215.9 μmol/l (87.3–533.4 μmol/l); p = 0.003], as well as compared to teenage girls living in urban area [108.8 μmol/l (68.7–172.9 μmol/l); p = 0.007]. No CRS differences were found between urban and rural boys when controlled for age group. No CRS differences were found between school-aged and teenage boys when controlled for living area. Conclusions: Our results have shown that the effect of ETS on CRS was gender specific, linked to female gender and the effect of PM10 on CRS was both gender and age specific, related to female gender and school-age. We suggest that age and gender related differences in incidence of cough and CRS might be, at least partially

  5. Personal Construction of Cough Medicine among Young Substance Abusers in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cough medicine abuse is a growing problem in many places, there is no study examining the views of young substance abusers toward cough medicine. The objective of this study was to examine personal constructions of cough medicine abusers via the repertory grid tests (=11. Several observations are highlighted from the study. First, personal constructions of cough medicine were mixed, including the benefits and harmful effects of its abuse. Second, although the informants perceived cough medicine to be addictive and harmful, they perceived cough medicine to be less addictive and less harmful than did heroin. Third, while the informants construed cough medicine to be similar to ketamine and marijuana, they also perceived cough medicine to possess some characteristics of heroin. Fourth, relative to the construed similarity between heroin and the gateway drugs (cigarette, beer, and liquor, the informants construed cough medicine to be more similar to the gateway drugs. Finally, a higher level of perceived dissimilarity between cough medicine and gateway drugs was related to a higher level of perceived harm of cough medicine abuse.

  6. Elimination of test particles from the human tracheobronchial tract by voluntary coughing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of coughing on the elimination of inhaled 6 μm radioactively tagged teflon particles in humans was studied by external measurements of the radioactivity retained in the lungs before and after 1-2 min of volontary coughing. In six healthy subjects coughing produced no substantial elimination of the particles. Six out of eight patients with lung disease produced expectorate and also eliminated particles from the lungs by coughing. The other two patients had no phlegm, did not produce any expectorate and did not eliminate particles by coughing. An increased amount of tracheobronchial secretion thus seems to be necessary for coughing to be effective. In the patients, the elimination of particles by coughing was fairly reproducible, suggesting that the test model may be useful for investigation of the influence of physiological and pharmacological factors on the elimination process. (author)

  7. Distinction between voluntary cough sound and speech in volunteers by spectral and complexity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinek, J; Tatar, M; Javorka, M

    2008-12-01

    Objective monitoring of cough sound for extended period is an important step toward a better understanding of this symptom. Because ambulatory cough monitoring systems are not commercially available, we prepared own monitoring system, which is able to distinguish between voluntary cough sound and speech in healthy volunteers. 20-min sound records were obtained using portable digital voice recorder. Characteristics of the sound events have been calculated in time and frequency domains and by a nonlinear analysis. Based on selected parameters, classification tree was constructed for the classification of cough and non-cough sound events. We validated the usefulness of our algorithm developed against manual counts of cough obtained by a trained observer. The median sensitivity value was 100% (the interquartile range was 98-100) and the median specificity was 95% (the interquartile range was 90-97). In conclusion, we developed an algorithm to distinguish between voluntary cough sound and speech with a high degree of accuracy.

  8. Use of Cough and Cold Medications in Severe Bronchiolitis Before and After a Health Advisory Warning against Their Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Donnell, Katherine; Mansbach, Jonathan M.; LoVecchio, Frank; Cheng, John; Piedra, Pedro A.; Clark, Sunday; Sullivan, Ashley F.; Camargo, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    We compared the use of cough and cold medications in two multicenter studies of young children hospitalized with bronchiolitis before and after the 2008 Food and Drug Administration cough and cold medications advisory. Although cough and cold medications use decreased after the advisory, nearly 20% of children age 12–23.9 months with severe bronchiolitis received cough and cold medications. PMID:25888349

  9. Use of cough and cold preparations during breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J L

    1999-12-01

    Adverse reactions in infants from maternal drug ingestion depend largely on the amount of milk consumed by the infant, timing of breastfeeding in relation to dosing, dose of the medication, dosing interval, and duration of therapy. When taking medications, breastfeeding mothers should be instructed to take their medication after breastfeeding, at the lowest effective dose and for the shortest duration. Overall, there are few data from human studies on the use of antihistamines, decongestants, and cough products during breastfeeding. Studies of pseudoephedrine, triprolidine, and loratadine in humans conclude that low levels of each drug would reach a breastfed infant. Since triprolidine and pseudoephedrine are also considered compatible with breastfeeding by the AAP, these 2 drugs should be the first-line choices. Codeine is considered compatible with breastfeeding by the AAP, and would be an acceptable choice for short-term use as a cough suppressant. It is important to note that many of the liquid cough and cold products contain alcohol. In addition, many of the combination products are a mixture of an antihistamine and a decongestant and may also contain aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or caffeine. It is preferable for nursing mothers to only take medications that are necessary and to avoid such combination products. The AAP considers alcohol, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and caffeine compatible with breastfeeding. Aspirin has been associated with significant negative effects on some nursing infants, and the AAP recommends giving aspirin to nursing mothers with caution. Mothers taking cough and cold products should watch for adverse events in their breastfed infants. Infants may experience paradoxical central nervous stimulation from antihistamines and irritability and insomnia from decongestants. PMID:10776186

  10. Whooping Cough Vaccine Recommendation for Preteens and Teens

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-22

    This podcast provides information about whooping cough and the recommendation that all preteens receive the Tdap vaccine when they are 11 or 12 to help protect them from this serious disease.  Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Infectious and Respiratory Disease (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Disease (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPD).   Date Released: 1/22/2015.

  11. Whooping Cough Vaccine Recommendation for Babies and Young Children

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-22

    This podcast provides information about whooping cough and the recommendation that all children receive the DTaP vaccine, according to CDC’s recommended schedule, to help protect them from this serious disease.  Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 1/22/2015.

  12. Whooping cough in adults: an update on a reemerging infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisley, Robert D; Blaylock, Jason; Hartzell, Joshua D

    2012-02-01

    Pertussis, or whooping cough, which is commonly thought of as a pediatric illness, is an underappreciated adult pathogen. Recent outbreaks highlight the significance of pertussis in adults and the risk of transmission to at-risk infants who are most susceptible to complications, including death. This article describes the recent epidemiologic shifts and reviews the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of pertussis. New vaccination recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices in response to recent outbreaks and infant deaths are highlighted.

  13. A case of cough variant asthma undiagnosed for 16 years

    OpenAIRE

    Sridaran, Sankar; Gonzalez-Estrada, Alexei; Aronica, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    A 64-year-old female patient presented with a 16-year history of persistent dry cough that was undiagnosed after workups at several healthcare facilities. The patient denies wheezing, shortness of breath or sputum production. Previous workups include chest imaging, transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE), laryngoscopy, spirometry and bronchoscopy, all of which were unremarkable. During her current evaluation, spirometry was ordered again for the patient, which showed a post-bronchodilator improvem...

  14. Persistent nocturnal cough in childhood: a population based study.

    OpenAIRE

    Ninan, T. K.; Macdonald, L; Russell, G.

    1995-01-01

    A cross sectional epidemiological study was carried out to investigate the validity of persistent nocturnal cough (PNC) as an independent marker of childhood asthma. A screening questionnaire on respiratory symptoms was applied to 4003 children attending primary schools in Aberdeen, after which 799 symptomatic children and a random selection of 229 asymptomatic children were invited to attend for a diagnostic interview. Six hundred and seven (359 boys and 248 girls) symptomatic children and 1...

  15. [Action mechanisms of cough suppressants and their clinical application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płusa, Tadeusz

    2014-01-01

    Inhaled particles or compacted secretions in the respiratory tract cause irritation of mechanoreceptors, subsequent stimulation of afferent fibers of the vagus nerve, triggering the cough reflex. Distribution of drugs used in the treatment of cough takes into account the pharmacokinetic activity, and this mainly affect on bronchial secretions--drugs that act directly, which destroy disulfide bonds mucous glucoproteins using free sulfhydryl groups and digesting enzymes, extracellular DNA, acting indirectly, that modify the secretion of mucus in the way of other mechanisms, as well as acting on the cough reflex (effects on receptors in the bronchial tree). Mucolytics reduce the viscosity of bronchial secretions by interrupting the sulfide bonds in the mucoprotein chain. Mucokinetic drugs are designed to reduce the adhesion of secretions and facilitate the process of mucociliary clearance by enhancing the potency of cilia. One of the ways of the increasing process is the stimulation of secretion by human neutrophil elastase gene and protein expression regulating this process. The pharmacokinetic properties of these drugs show their high clinical utility and effectiveness in the treatment of respiratory secretions dense clutter. This is possible to reduce the viscosity of mucus by bromhexine. This is obtained by acid depolymerization of the polysaccharide fibers in the bronchial secretions. Synergistic effect with antibiotics of these preparations indicates their permanent place in the treatment of patients with respiratory pathology. PMID:24645580

  16. Azithromycin and cough-specific health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic cough : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhof, Farida F.; Doornewaard-ten Hertog, Nynke E.; Uil, Steven M.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; van den Berg, Jan W. K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Macrolides reduce exacerbations in patients with COPD. Their effects on health status has not been assessed as primary outcome and is less clear. This study assessed the effects of prophylactic azithromycin on cough-specific health status in COPD-patients with chronic productive cough. M

  17. Intravenous lidocaine as a suppressant of coughing during tracheal intubation in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukioka, H; Hayashi, M; Terai, T; Fujimori, M

    1993-08-01

    The effects of intravenously administered lidocaine on cough suppression in elderly patients over the age of 60 yr during tracheal intubation under general anesthesia were evaluated in two studies. In the first study, 100 patients received a placebo of either 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 mg/kg lidocaine intravenously 1 min before tracheal intubation. All visible coughs were classified as coughing. The incidence of coughing decreased as the dose of lidocaine increased. A dose of 1.5 mg/kg or more of intravenous lidocaine suppressed the cough reflex significantly (P cough during tracheal intubation were used as in Study 1. The incidence of coughing decreased significantly (P cough reflex was almost entirely suppressed by plasma concentrations of lidocaine in excess of 4 micrograms/mL. The results suggest that intravenous administration of lidocaine is effective in suppressing the cough reflex during tracheal intubation in elderly patients under general anesthesia, but that relatively high plasma concentrations of lidocaine may be required for suppression of coughing. PMID:8346830

  18. Exposure to coughed airborne pathogens in a double bed hospital patient room with overhead mixing ventilation: impact of posture of coughing patient and location of doctor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierat, W.; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor;

    2010-01-01

    The exposure of a doctor and a patient to air coughed by a second infected patient was studied in a mock-up of two-bed hospital infectious ward with mixing ventilation at 22oC (71.6 F) room air temperature. The effect of posture of the coughing patient lying sideways or on back), position...... of the doctor (either facing the coughing patient or standing sideways) at three ventilation rates (3 h-1, 6 h-1 and 12 h-1) was examined. Thermal manikin with realistic body shape and surface temperature distribution was used to resemble the doctor. The coughing patient was simulated by a heated dummy...... Level) depends on the positioning relative to the cough direction: lying or standing still, facing or turned sideways and changed varied 194 to 10228 ppm. Ventilation rates of 12 h-1 (recommended by present hospital standards) resulted in increased background exposure levels and may suggest risk from...

  19. [The new possibility for the treatment of acute cough].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyachkina, I L

    2015-01-01

    Acute cough associated with influenza and acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI) is one of the most common complaints prompting the patient to visit a general practitioner or an otorhinolaryngologist based at the outpatient clinic. Acute cough during ARVI in the practically healthy subjects is as a rule non-productive, frequently dry, and becomes resolved within 2-3 weeks. In certain cases, however, the cough during ARVI can be productive with the well apparent abnormal expectoration of sputum especially in the aged and elderly subjects, young children, and patients suffering from the chest injuries, dry pleuritis, and other disorders. The early prescription of mucoactive preparations can prevent the development of subacute cough. In such cases, it is recommended to use the mucokinetic ambroxol that improves the mucociliary clearance (MCC) and does not require strong exertion for sputum expectoration. An important aspect in the mechanism of action of ambroxol is the stimulation of surfactant production, antioxidation effect, the improvement of rheological properties of bronchial mucus, ant-inflammatory and antiviral effects. The application of the new pharmaceutical dose form of ambroxol, neo-bronchol (orally disintegrating tablets), produces a very rapid effect (within 1 day after the intake) due to the fast absorption of this medication in the oral cavity, its rapid penetration into the circulatory system and achievement of the high concentration in blood plasma. The volatile metabolites of ambroxol that form as a result of tablet disintegration, such as ambroxol itself, menthol, and cineol, exert the mucolytic, antiseptic, and antibacterial actions, after they reach the trachea and bronchi. Irrigation of the receptors present in the inflamed mucous membrane of the larynx, pharynx, and nasal cavity, with these volatile substances produces an immediate cough-suppressive effect. It is concluded that the preparations of neo-bronchol (orally disintegrating tablets

  20. Automatic Radiation Monitoring in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The automatic radiation monitoring system in Slovenia started in early nineties and now it comprises measurements of: 1. External gamma radiation: For the time being there are forty-three probes with GM tubes integrated into a common automatic network, operated at the SNSA. The probes measure dose rate in 30 minute intervals. 2. Aerosol radioactivity: Three automatic aerosol stations measure the concentration of artificial alpha and beta activity in the air, gamma emitting radionuclides, radioactive iodine 131 in the air (in all chemical forms, - natural radon and thoron progeny, 3. Radon progeny concentration: Radon progeny concentration is measured hourly and results are displayed as the equilibrium equivalent concentrations (EEC), 4. Radioactive deposition measurements: As a support to gamma dose rate measurements - the SNSA developed and installed an automatic measuring station for surface contamination equipped with gamma spectrometry system (with 3x3' NaI(Tl) detector). All data are transferred through the different communication pathways to the SNSA. They are collected in 30 minute intervals. Within these intervals the central computer analyses and processes the collected data, and creates different reports. Every month QA/QC analysis of data is performed, showing the statistics of acquisition errors and availability of measuring results. All results are promptly available at the our WEB pages. The data are checked and daily sent to the EURDEP system at Ispra (Italy) and also to the Austrian, Croatian and Hungarian authorities. (author)

  1. Effectiveness of a personalized ventilation system in reducing personal exposure against directly released simulated cough droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantelic, J.; Tham, K. W.; Licina, Dusan

    2015-01-01

    The inhalation intake fraction was used as an indicator to compare effects of desktop personalized ventilation and mixing ventilation on personal exposure to directly released simulated cough droplets. A cough machine was used to simulate cough release from the front, back, and side of a thermal...... manikin at distances between 1 and 4m. Cough droplet concentration was measured with an aerosol spectrometer in the breathing zone of a thermal manikin. Particle image velocimetry was used to characterize the velocity field in the breathing zone. Desktop personalized ventilation substantially reduced...... the inhalation intake fraction compared to mixing ventilation for all investigated distances and orientations of the cough release. The results point out that the orientation between the cough source and the breathing zone of the exposed occupant is an important factor that substantially influences exposure...

  2. Antitussive effect of nociceptin/orphanin FQ in experimental cough models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Robbie L; Bolser, Donald C; Jia, Yanlin; Parra, Leonard E; Mutter, Jennifer C; Wang, Xin; Tulshian, Deen B; Egan, Robert W; Hey, John A

    2002-01-01

    Cough is an important defensive pulmonary reflex that removes irritants, fluids or foreign materials from the airways. However, often cough is non-productive and requires suppression. Opioid mu receptor agonists, such as codeine are commonly used as antitussive agents and are among the most widely administered drugs in the world. Codeine suppresses the responsiveness of one or more components of the central reflex pathway for cough and is an efficacious antitussive drug for cough due to diverse aetiologies. However, opioids produce side effects that include sedation, addiction potential and constipation. Therefore, novel cough suppressant therapies should maintain or improve upon the antitussive efficacy profile of opioids. Moreover, these novel therapies should have a safety profile significantly better than current antitussive therapies. Presently, we discuss preclinical findings showing that activation of the 'opioid-like' receptor (NOP(1)) inhibits cough in the guinea pig and cat. PMID:12099766

  3. Considering the influence of artificial environmental noise to study cough time-frequency features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hirtum, A.; Berckmans, D.

    2003-09-01

    In general the study of the cough mechanism and sound in both animal and human is performed by eliciting coughing in a reproducible way by nebulization of an irritating substance. Due to ventilation the controlled evaporation-protocol causes artificial noises from a mechanical origin. The resulting environmental low-frequency noises complicate cough time-frequency features. In order to optimize the study of the cough-sound the research described in this paper attempts on the one hand to characterize and model the environmental noises and on the other hand to evaluate the influence of the noise on the time-frequency representation for the intended cough sounds by comparing different de-noising approaches. Free field acoustic sound is continuously registered during 30 min citric acid cough-challenges on individual Belgian Landrace piglets and during respiratory infection experiments, with a duration of about 10 days, where room-ventilation was present.

  4. Evaluation of Clinical Efficacy and Tolerance of Khasceeze –SF Cough Syrup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Satam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty patients of either sex aged 15 - 65 years entered the study to test the efficacy and tolerability of a herbal preparation known as Khasceeze-SF Cough Syrup. They were studied for cough and related symptoms such as sore throat, sneezing, breathlessness and fever. Substantial improvement, i.e., excellent to good response, in relief of cough and other symptoms was noted over 84% out of 50 patients and fair response in 11.64%. Only 4.10% patients showed poor relief in symptoms hence suggested Khasceeze-SF Cough Syrup facilitated a healing touch to the diseased bronchial tree and helps alleviate the cough of any aetiology. No drowsiness, irritability, or dryness in mouth was seen with Khasceeze-SF Cough Syrup.

  5. Neural dysfunction following respiratory viral infection as a cause of chronic cough hypersensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory viral infections are a common cause of acute coughing, an irritating symptom for the patient and an important mechanism of transmission for the virus. Although poorly described, the inflammatory consequences of infection likely induce coughing by chemical (inflammatory mediator) or mechanical (mucous) activation of the cough-evoking sensory nerves that innervate the airway wall. For some individuals, acute cough can evolve into a chronic condition, in which cough and aberrant airway sensations long outlast the initial viral infection. This suggests that some viruses have the capacity to induce persistent plasticity in the neural pathways mediating cough. In this brief review we present the clinical evidence of acute and chronic neural dysfunction following viral respiratory tract infections and explore possible mechanisms by which the nervous system may undergo activation, sensitization and plasticity. PMID:26141017

  6. Classification of chronic cough by systematic treatment cascade trial starting with beta agonist

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Hideyasu; Hayashi, Masamichi; Saito, Yuji; Mieno, Yuki; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Sasaki, Fumihiko; Sakakibara, Hiroki; Naito, Kensei; Okazawa, Mitsushi

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic cough is one of the most challenging symptoms to diagnose and treat, not only because of the variety of underlying disorders but also its varying susceptibility to treatments. Etiological studies of chronic cough vary depending on the clinical settings and the particular interests of investigators. Objectives The purposes of this study were first to categorize the etiology of chronic cough by its response to systematic diagnostic treatments starting from the β2 agonist and ...

  7. Treating cough and cold: Guidance for caregivers of children and youth

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of over-the-counter (OTC) cough and cold medications (CCMs), the effectiveness of most CCMs has not been proven in children. A meta-analysis summarizing trials using OTC CCMs for viral-induced cough found no evidence for or against the use of OTC medicines in both paediatric and adult populations when cough frequency and severity, as well as physician assessments, were compared. Furthermore, North American data suggest that OTC CCMs may be associated with medication...

  8. Multi-centre retrospective analysis of clinical diagnosis and treatment for chronic cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ming CHENG

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the clinical characteristics and the present status of diagnosis and treatment of chronic cough.Methods The clinical data of 238 in-patients and out-patients of Departments of Respiratory Diseases from 4 teaching hospitals of Chongqing Municipality were collected from Oct.2008 to Dec.2009,and their clinical characteristics,diagnosis and therapeutic effects were retrospectively analyzed.Results A total of 238 patients were enrolled,most of them complained of dry cough and night cough.Throat symptoms were most common,including itching or foreign body sensation,throat discomfort and gastro-oesophageal reflux.Congestion of pharynx and cobblestone like changes in posterior pharyngeal wall were the most common signs in patients with chronic cough.Among all the supplementary examinations,bronchial provocation test resulted in highest positive rate.Etiological diagnosis was done in a total of 254 case-times for diseases leading to chronic cough,among them upper airway cough syndrome(UACS was suspected in 115 case-times.cough variant asthma(CVA in 42 case-times,and cough due to gastroesophageal reflux(GERC in 53 case-times.After the specific treatment targeting UACS,CVA and GERC,in 152 case-times improvement was found after follow-up,including 56,27 and 21 case-times,respectively,with an effective rate of 68.4%(104/152.The final diagnosis for the other 44 case-times with chronic cough was chronic tonsillitis,chronic bronchitis,eosinophilic bronchitis and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor(ACEI induced cough.A definite diagnosis was finally made in 148 out of a total of 254 casses,with a diagnostic rate of 58.3%(148/254.Conclusion The final diagnostic rate in etiology of chronic cough is still poor nowadays in our country,and empirical treatment is still the main practice for chronic cough.

  9. 基于行业标准的全自动生化分析仪性能评价%The performance evaluation of the automatic analyser based on the“Medical standard of the People's Republic of China"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳苹; 张莉萍; 毕小云; 邓小玲; 肖勤; 陈维蓓

    2011-01-01

    Objective The performance of Roche Modular DDP was evaluated according to the "Medical standard of the People's Republic of China-automatic chemistry analyzer" administered by the state food and drug administration(SFDA). Methods The stray light, the absorption linear range, the absorption accuracy, the absorption stability, the absorption reproducibility, the sample contamination rate,the sampling accuracy and the sampling reproducibility of the Roche Modular DDP were evaluated by multiple repetitive determination of standard substance reproducibility using the standard solution calibrated by national institute of metrology according to the requirement of the “Medical standard of the People's Republic of China-automatic chemistry analy zer". Results The highest stray light absorption was more than 23 000; The relative variation was less than 5 % when absorption was no less than 32 000;When the absorption were 5 000 and 10 000,the error were ± 300 and ± 700, respectively; The highest value minus the lowest value was less than 100; The CV was less than 1.5 % with the smallest reaction volume; The contamination rate was less than 0.5 %; The absorption of the CHKS was in the defined range and its CV was less than 1.5 %; The absorption of the CHKR1 and the CHKR2 were both in the defined ranges and the CVs of them were less than 0.5 % and less than 1.0 %, respectively. Conclusion The performance index of the Roche Modular DDP is live up to the requirement of "Medical standard of the People's Republic of China-automatic chemistry analyzer".%目的 对Roche Modular DDP全自动生化分析仪进行性能评价.方法 采用经中国计量科学研究所进行定值及校正过的标准溶液,据<中华人民共和国医药行业标准--全自动生化分析仪>要求,通过多次重复检测已知标准物质的重复性,评价Roche Modular DDP全自动生化分析仪的杂散光、吸光度线性范围、吸光度准确性、吸光度稳定性、

  10. Levocloperastine in the treatment of chronic nonproductive cough: comparative efficacy versus standard antitussive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliprandi, P; Castelli, C; Bernorio, S; Dell'Abate, E; Carrara, M

    2004-01-01

    The medical and social impact of cough is substantial. Current antitussive agents at effective doses have adverse events such as drowsiness, nausea and constipation that limit their use. There is also recent evidence that standard antitussive agents, such as codeine, may not reduce cough during upper respiratory infections. Therefore, there is a need for more effective and better-tolerated agents. The efficacy of levocloperastine, a novel antitussive, which acts both centrally on the cough center and on peripheral receptors in the tracheobronchial tree in treating chronic cough, was compared with that of other standard antitussive agents (codeine, levodropropizine and DL-cloperastine) in six open clinical trials. The studies enrolled patients of all ages with cough associated with various respiratory disorders including bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Levocloperastine significantly improved cough symptoms (intensity and frequency of cough) in all trials, and improvements were observed after the first day of treatment. In children, levocloperastine reduced nighttime awakenings and irritability, and in adults it was effective in treating cough induced by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. When compared with other antitussive agents, levocloperastine had improved or comparable efficacy, with a more rapid onset of action. Importantly, no evidence of central adverse events was recorded with levocloperastine, whereas drowsiness was reported by a significant number of patients receiving codeine. Levocloperastine is an effective antitussive agent for the treatment of cough in patients of all ages. It has a more rapid onset of action than standard agents with an improved tolerability profile.

  11. Efficacy and tolerability of levodropropizine in adult patients with non-productive cough. Comparison with dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, E; Daffonchio, L

    1997-01-01

    The results of a double-blind, randomized clinical trial involving 209 adult patients of either sex with moderate non-productive cough are reported. The therapeutic efficacy and the tolerability of levodropropizine syrup (60 mg t.i.d. for 5 days) was evaluated in comparison with dextromethorphan syrup (15 mg t.i.d. for 5 days). Efficacy was assessed by the number of coughing spells in a 6h period, the cough frequency classes, the cough intensity and the night awakenings due to cough. Tolerability was evaluated by laboratory results, vital signs and any adverse event occurred during the clinical trial, including presence or absence of somnolence. Independently from the underlying pathology and from the degree of baseline cough severity, the number of coughing spells was significantly (P levodropropizine and dextromethorphan already after the 2nd day of treatment, the effect and its time of onset being similar for both drugs. Cough intensity was significantly (P levodropropizine than with dextromethorphan. Concurrently with the relief of cough, the number of night awakenings was decreased remarkably and significantly (P levodropropizine displaying an improvement significantly higher (P levodropropizine (3.6%) group. Overall, somnolence was reported for a low percentage of patients with both drugs, with the percentage of patients experiencing this side effect being one half in the group treated with levodropropizine (4.6%) as compared with dextromethorphan (10.4%). These results confirm the antitussive effectiveness of levodropropizine and point out a more favourable benefit/risk profile when compared to dextromethorphan.

  12. Comparison of meglumine-sodium diatrizoate and loxaglate in cough stimulation during pulmonary arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-five patients were prospectively observed in a crossover study in an effort to determine if meglumine/sodium ioxaglate (Hexabrix 320) was less likely than megulumine/sodium diatrizoate (Renografin 76) to produce coughing during pulmonary arteriography. Selective pulmonary arteriograms (two views each side) were obtained, with the two agents alternated. Sixteen of 25 patients coughed on at least one injection of diatrizoate, while one of 25 patients coughed on injection of ioxaglate. This difference is statistically significant (P <.0001, based on a t-test for paired data). The authors conclude that ioxaglate is useful in pulmonary arteriography because of its lack of cough stimulation

  13. A dynamic study of the mechanism of expectoration by coughing using aerosol inhalation cine-scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of expectoration by coughing was studied using aerosol inhalation cine-scintigraphy which enables us to visualize the movements of inhaled aerosol in the airway of patients. The aerosol bolus (bolus) movements by coughing were observed in 26 cases, the analysis of which led to the following results. First, bolus movements of aerosol by coughing were classified into three groups: group 1, expectoration; group 2, cephalad movements that stopped halfway; and group 3, regurgitation. Expectoration by coughing was more effective when the bolus was in the distal part of the trachea. Patients with obstructive pulmonary disease had lower efficiency of expectoration by coughing. Second, a certain amount of mucus was required to generate coughing and expectoration. The bolus movements by intentional coughing were observed in 5 cases which suggests that abundant mechanical cough receptors existed in two areas: one area was from the larynx to the upper trachea, and the other from the lower trachea to the carina. Thus, aerosol inhalation cine-scintigraphy enabled the direct visualization of the fate of sputum in a non-invasive manner under the physiolosical condition. This report seems to be the first in which aerosol inhalation cine-scintigraphy was used to analyze the cough mechanism in humans. (author)

  14. Chocolate as a cough suppressant: rationale and justification for an upcoming clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R; Jatoi, Aminah

    2007-01-01

    Cough is a troubling symptom for many patients with cancer. Current cough suppressants can cause side effects and, at the same time, might not provide absolute cough palliation. Suprisingly, accumulating evience suggests that dark chocolate can carry antitussive effects. Although mechanisms remain unknown, it is thought that theobromine, a methylxanthine intrinsic to dark chocolate, might potentially suppress cough. To date, clinical trials with dark chocolate have not been undertaken. This article describes an upcoming trial to determine whether dark chocolate might serve as an antitussive in patients with cancer. PMID:18632476

  15. Cough quality in children: a comparison of subjective vs. bronchoscopic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Nancy C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cough is the most common symptom presenting to doctors. The quality of cough (productive or wet vs dry is used clinically as well as in epidemiology and clinical research. There is however no data on the validity of cough quality descriptors. The study aims were to compare (1 cough quality (wet/dry and brassy/non-brassy to bronchoscopic findings of secretions and tracheomalacia respectively and, (2 parent's vs clinician's evaluation of the cough quality (wet/dry. Methods Cough quality of children (without a known underlying respiratory disease undergoing elective bronchoscopy was independently evaluated by clinicians and parents. A 'blinded' clinician scored the secretions seen at bronchoscopy on pre-determined criteria and graded (1 to 6. Kappa (K statistics was used for agreement, and inter-rater and intra-rater agreement examined on digitally recorded cough. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to determine if cough quality related to amount of airway secretions present at bronchoscopy. Results Median age of the 106 children (62 boys, 44 girls enrolled was 2.6 years (IQR 5.7. Parent's assessment of cough quality (wet/dry agreed with clinicians' (K = 0.75, 95%CI 0.58–0.93. When compared to bronchoscopy (bronchoscopic secretion grade 4, clinicians' cough assessment had the highest sensitivity (0.75 and specificity (0.79 and were marginally better than parent(s. The area under the ROC curve was 0.85 (95%CI 0.77–0.92. Intra-observer (K = 1.0 and inter-clinician agreement for wet/dry cough (K = 0.88, 95%CI 0.82–0.94 was very good. Weighted K for inter-rater agreement for bronchoscopic secretion grades was 0.95 (95%CI 0.87–1. Sensitivity and specificity for brassy cough (for tracheomalacia were 0.57 and 0.81 respectively. K for both intra and inter-observer clinician agreement for brassy cough was 0.79 (95%CI 0.73–0.86. Conclusions Dry and wet cough in children, as determined by clinicians and

  16. Propofol-induced violent coughing in a patient with Becker′s muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Propofol anesthesia is often associated with decreased incidence of gagging, coughing or laryngospasm, and provides intense suppression on airway reflex during tracheal intubation and laryngeal mask airway insertion. Propofol pretreatment is also effective in reducing the occurrence of opioid-induced coughing. These benefits are often attributed to bronchodilator and sedative effects of propofol. However, severe coughing following sedative doses of 1% propofol has not been reported so far. We report a rare case of violent coughing following low-dose propofol infusion in a patient with Becker′s muscular dystrophy.

  17. Levocloperastine in the treatment of chronic nonproductive cough: comparative efficacy versus standard antitussive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliprandi, P; Castelli, C; Bernorio, S; Dell'Abate, E; Carrara, M

    2004-01-01

    The medical and social impact of cough is substantial. Current antitussive agents at effective doses have adverse events such as drowsiness, nausea and constipation that limit their use. There is also recent evidence that standard antitussive agents, such as codeine, may not reduce cough during upper respiratory infections. Therefore, there is a need for more effective and better-tolerated agents. The efficacy of levocloperastine, a novel antitussive, which acts both centrally on the cough center and on peripheral receptors in the tracheobronchial tree in treating chronic cough, was compared with that of other standard antitussive agents (codeine, levodropropizine and DL-cloperastine) in six open clinical trials. The studies enrolled patients of all ages with cough associated with various respiratory disorders including bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Levocloperastine significantly improved cough symptoms (intensity and frequency of cough) in all trials, and improvements were observed after the first day of treatment. In children, levocloperastine reduced nighttime awakenings and irritability, and in adults it was effective in treating cough induced by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. When compared with other antitussive agents, levocloperastine had improved or comparable efficacy, with a more rapid onset of action. Importantly, no evidence of central adverse events was recorded with levocloperastine, whereas drowsiness was reported by a significant number of patients receiving codeine. Levocloperastine is an effective antitussive agent for the treatment of cough in patients of all ages. It has a more rapid onset of action than standard agents with an improved tolerability profile. PMID:15553659

  18. Exacerbation of daily cough and allergic symptoms in adult patients with chronic cough by Asian dust: A hospital-based study in Kanazawa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Tomomi; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Fujimura, Masaki; Nakanishi, Sayaka; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu; Saijoh, Kiyofumi; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Michigami, Yoshimasa; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    The health effects associated with Asian dust have attracted attention due to the rapid increase in the number of Asian dust events in East Asia in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between Asian dust and daily cough, as well as allergic symptoms, in adult patients who suffer from chronic cough. We enrolled 86 adult patients from Kanazawa University Hospital, Japan, who were diagnosed with asthma, cough variant asthma, atopic cough or a combination of these conditions. From January to June 2011, subjects recorded their symptoms in a diary every day. Asian dust and non-Asian dust periods were defined according to the dust extinction coefficient, measured using the light detection and ranging (LIDAR). The daily levels of total suspended particulates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and coexisting factors related to allergies, such as the Japanese cedar pollen count, were measured. McNemar's test showed that there were significantly more cough-positive patients during Asian dust periods than during the non-Asian dust period (p = 0.022). In addition, during Asian dust periods when the daily levels of Japanese cedar pollen, Japanese cypress pollen and PAHs were elevated, there were significantly more patients who experienced itchy eyes than during the non-Asian dust period (p triggers cough and allergic symptoms in adult patients with chronic cough.

  19. Bordetella pertussis, B. parapertussis, vaccines and cycles of whooping cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchez, Valérie; Guiso, Nicole

    2015-10-01

    Whooping cough is a vaccine-preventable disease due to Bordetella pertussis and B. parapertussis. This highly contagious respiratory disease occurs through epidemic cycles every 3-5 years and vaccination did not change this frequency. Models suggest that the cyclic increase of susceptibles is linked to demographic differences and different vaccine coverage. However, differences in surveillance of the disease as well as adaptation of the agents of the disease to their human hosts and to vaccine pressure might also play an important role. These parameters are discussed in this review.

  20. Stability studies on a cough syrup in plastic containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Renuka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Packaging of pharmaceuticals is a critical process. Plastics are unanimously used for solid dosage packaging. Due to their numerous advantages over glass, they are now being considered as an alternative to packaging of liquid dosage forms also. Cough syrups are preparations containing antitussive drugs, and are most commonly packaged in glass bottles. The interactive nature of plastics makes it essential that a detailed study be carried out before their use for any pharmaceutical packaging. The present work reports the stability and suitability of packaging antitussive syrup in plastic containers.

  1. Angiotensin receptor blockers = angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors minus dry cough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Kamath

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blockade of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS is an important pharmacological intervention in cardiovascular (CV diseases. Hypertension, heart failure (HF and myocardial infarction are important indications for use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs, which potentially decrease morbidity and prolong survival. Dry cough is an important adverse effect seen in about 20% of the patients which might require discontinuation of the drug. In such situations, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs serve as replacement drugs in all the indications, as they are largely devoid of this limiting adverse effect. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 813-814

  2. Automatic Fiscal Stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis Eduard Mitu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Policies or institutions (built into an economic system that automatically tend to dampen economic cycle fluctuations in income, employment, etc., without direct government intervention. For example, in boom times, progressive income tax automatically reduces money supply as incomes and spendings rise. Similarly, in recessionary times, payment of unemployment benefits injects more money in the system and stimulates demand. Also called automatic stabilizers or built-in stabilizers.

  3. Automatic input rectification

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Fan; Ganesh, Vijay; Carbin, Michael James; Sidiroglou, Stelios; Rinard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel technique, automatic input rectification, and a prototype implementation, SOAP. SOAP learns a set of constraints characterizing typical inputs that an application is highly likely to process correctly. When given an atypical input that does not satisfy these constraints, SOAP automatically rectifies the input (i.e., changes the input so that it satisfies the learned constraints). The goal is to automatically convert potentially dangerous inputs into typical inputs that the ...

  4. An investigation into the stability and sterility of citric acid solutions used for cough reflex testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, James R; Wu, Zimei; Lau, Hugo; Suen, Joanna; Wang, Lucy; Pottinger, Sarah; Lee, Elaine; Alazawi, Nawar; Kallesen, Molly; Gargiulo, Derryn A; Swift, Simon; Svirskis, Darren

    2014-10-01

    Citric acid is used in cough reflex testing in clinical and research settings to assess reflexive cough in patients at risk of swallowing disorders. To address a lack of knowledge in this area, this study investigated the stability and sterility of citric acid solutions. Triplicate solutions of citric acid (0.8 M) in isotonic saline were stored at 4 ± 2 °C for up to 28 days and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Microbiological sterility of freshly prepared samples and bulk samples previously used for 2 weeks within the hospital was determined using a pour plate technique. Microbial survival in citric acid was determined by inoculating Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, or Candida albicans into citric acid solution and monitoring the number of colony-forming units/mL over 40 min. Citric acid solutions remained stable at 4 °C for 28 days (98.4 ± 1.8 % remained). The freshly prepared and clinical samples tested were sterile. However, viability studies revealed that citric acid solution allows for the survival of C. albicans but not for S. aureus or E. coli. The microbial survival study showed that citric acid kills S. aureus and E. coli but has no marked effect on C. albicans after 40 min. Citric acid samples at 0.8 M remained stable over the 4-week testing period, with viable microbial cells absent from samples tested. However, C. albicans has the ability to survive in citric acid solution if inadvertently introduced in practice. For this reason, in clinical and research practice it is suggested to use single-use aliquots prepared aseptically which can be stored for up to 28 days at 4 °C.

  5. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, G.F. (comp.)

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  6. Determination of cough sensitivities of patients with different causes of cough%不同病因咳嗽患者的咳嗽敏感性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张巧; 马千里; 龙舟; 黄赞胜; 唐咸军; 吴颖; 王长征

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the sensitivities of patients with different causes of cough to capsaicin-stimulated cough and to investigate the clinical significance of capsaicin cough provocation test in diagnosis and treatment of different causes of cough. Methods We selected 169 patients with different causes of cough from the outpatients in Chongqing Xinqiao Hospital of Third Military Medical University, including upper airway cough syndrome (UACS) , cough variability asthma (CVA) , gastro-esophageal regurgitation cough (GERC) , cough after a cold, occupational irritant cough and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ( ACEI) -related cough. Thirty-eight healthy volunteers of our hospital were enrolled as controls. All the subjects were examined by capsaicin cough provocation test, and the results were analyzed to compare the differences of the qualitative (positive rate) and quantitative (log C2 and log C5) indices in different causes of cough. Results A total of 148 patients who were diagnosed as cough by different causes completed the study. Nearly half of the patients (47.4% , 18/38) in the normal control group were cough provocation positive. GERC group had the highest positive rate among the groups with different causes of cough, and the GERC group and cough after a cold group had a significant difference compared with the control group ( P 0.05 ) were not significantly different. Comparison of C2 values in different groups was similar to that of C5 values. According to the 95% confidence intervals of log C5 values, no overlap was detected between the normal control group and the GERC group and cough after a cold group, but there was some overlap between the normal control group and the CVA group. More overlaps were detected between the normal control group and the UACS group, occupational irritant cough group and ACEI-related cough group. Coclusion Cough sensitivities of patients with different causes ofcough are significantly different. Capsaicin cough

  7. Cough Variant Asthma in Medical Outpatient Department of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Bangladesh

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    Rukhsana Parvin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cough variant asthma (CVA is a subset of asthma where the only symptom is chronic persistent cough. Many cases go unrecognized due to lack of proper evaluation. Response to asthma medication with features supportive of airway hypersensitivity helps in management of this disease. Objective: To find out the proportion of cough variant asthma among the patients attending medicine outpatient department of Enam Medical College, Savar, Dhaka. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Enam Medical College Hospital, Savar, Dhaka over a period of two years from July 2009 to July 2011. Cough variant asthma was diagnosed mainly on clinical ground as chronic cough without wheezing, fever, weight loss, shortness of breath or sputum or any other apparent cause that persisted for more than eight weeks with absolutely normal physical examination of chest, normal chest radiography and blood count except raised eosinophil count and IgE level. Patients who met these criteria were given 2 weeks course of inhaler beclomethasone propionate and were assessed for improvement. Those who improved after steroid inhalation were categorised as having cough variant asthma. Results: Out of purposively selected 148 patients complaining only of chronic dry cough for more than eight weeks, 92 patients met the primary selection criteria for cough variant asthma. These 92 patients were given 2 weeks trial of 250 ìgm beclomethasone inhalation twice daily. Seventy nine patients reported almost complete recovery from chronic cough after 2 weeks and were categorized as having CVA. Thirteen patients did not improve and were not categorized as CVA. Conclusion: These findings suggest that cough variant asthma is the most common among the patients with chronic cough not due to any apparent cause. The efficacy of inhaled corticosteroid suggests that early intervention is effective in the treatment of this disease.

  8. [Clinical study of BRON-L syrup (cough suppressant) abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, Ryosuke; Doi, Tomoko; Date, Kenji; Naitoh, Tomomichi; Suwaki, Hiroshi

    2002-02-01

    In 1980s, abuse and dependence of BRON-W syrup (cough suppressant), which contains methylephedrine, dihydrocodeine, chlorpheniramine and caffeine, were prevalent in Japan. Pharmacological and clinical studies suggest that methylephedrine and dihydrocodeine cause dependence. Although BRON-L syrup, newly modified cough suppressant contains only chlorpheniramine and caffeine, there still are abuse and dependence of this drug. In this report, three cases of BRON-L syrup abuse are demonstrated. All cases started using BRON-L syrup in the late teens in their peer groups, and dropped out from school. Case 1 misused only BRON-L syrup, but case 2 and 3 were multi-drug abusers (case 2: amphetamine, cocaine, and marijuana, case 3: solvent, alcohol, bromovalerylurea), and had kept in tough with the peer groups. Case 2 and 3 hospitalized more than 2 times. Withdrawal symptoms, such as headache, insomnia, and irritability were mild and improved in a few weeks after drug use was stopped. These findings suggest that 1) psychosocial backgrounds of these cases are in common with those of BRON-W syrup abusers, but 2) the clinical course and prognosis of multi-drug abusers are different from the BRON single abuser, 3) chlorpheniramine and caffeine possibly cause dependence, 4) abusers are likely to choose BRON brand although two main dependence-producing constituents are removed from it now. Therefore, prevention and care of BRON-L abusers requires both psychosocial and pharmacological aspects. PMID:11915306

  9. Cough and Arabinogalactan Polysaccharide from the Bark of Terminalia Arjuna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivová, V; Bera, K; Ray, B; Nosáľ, S; Nosáľová, G

    2016-01-01

    In this work we investigated the antitussive activity of the medicinal tree Terminalia arjuna. We used the stem bark for extraction and preparation of water extracted isolate and its two fractions: acetone-soluble (TA-S) and acetone precipitated (TA-P) fraction. The presence of a pectic arabinogalactan was confirmed in TA-P fraction by chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis. The antitussive activity of samples was assessed after oral administration in a dose of 50 mg.kg(-1) in healthy guinea pigs, in which cough was elicited by inhalation of citric acid (0.3 mol/L) in body plethysmograph. The water extracted isolate showed a significant ability to decrease the number of cough efforts by 64.2 %; the antitussive activity on par with that of codeine phosphate. The TA-P fraction showed the antitussive activity of 54.8 %. In contrast, TA-S fraction had only a mild antitussive activity. No changes in in vivo airway resistance were noted. We conclude that arabinogalactan is an essential component of Terminalia arjuna that underlies its antitussive action. PMID:27334729

  10. Automatic transcription of polyphonic singing

    OpenAIRE

    Paščinski, Uroš

    2015-01-01

    In this work we focus on automatic transcription of polyphonic singing. In particular we do the multiple fundamental frequency (F0) estimation. From the terrain recordings a test set of Slovenian folk songs with polyphonic singing is extracted and manually transcribed. On the test set we try the general algorithm for multiple F0 detection. An interactive visualization of the main parts of the algorithm is made to analyse how it works and try to detect possible issues. As the data set is ne...

  11. Análise comparativa entre a refração clínica subjetiva e a automatizada obtida por sensor de frentes de onda Comparative analyses between clinical refraction and automatic refraction obtained through a wave front sensor

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    Wilson de Freitas

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar e comparar os resultados obtidos da refração estática clínica com a obtida por sensor de frentes de onda. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo, não seqüencial, de 279 olhos de 147 pacientes. Todos os pacientes foram examinados sob cicloplegia. Primeiro realizamos a refração clínica e a seguir a automatizada por sensor de frentes de onda. Os dados refracionais obtidos foram decompostos para análise vetorial. Foram analisados separadamente os dados de um olho por paciente e dos dois olhos. RESULTADOS: A diferença entre a refração clínica e a automatizada foi de -0,19 DE combinada com -0,06 DC no eixo de 15º para os dados de um olho por paciente e -0,17 DE combinada com -0,05 DC no eixo de 3º para todos os olhos da amostra. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados da refração clínica são comparáveis com os da refração obtida por um sensor de frentes de onda.PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare refractive errors obtained through clinical subjective and automatized wavefront refraction analyses in eyes under cycloplegia. METHODS: Prospective study of 147 patients, 279 eyes, undergoing preoperative examination for refractive surgery. Clinical subjective refraction was performed first followed by wavefront refraction. Results on astigmatism obtained from refraction were decomposed in power vectors for statistical analyses. Data were first analyzed in one eye and then in both eyes. RESULTS: The mean difference between clinical subjective refraction and automatized wavefront refraction on cycloplegic eyes was of -0.19 SD combined with -0.06 CD in the 15º axis for data in one eye, and -0.17 SD combined with -0.05 CD in the 3º axis for data in both eyes of the same patient. CONCLUSION: In the present study clinical subjective refraction and automatized wavefront refraction under cycloplegia had similar numerical values.

  12. Diagnostic yield of oesophageal pH monitoring in patients with chronic unexplained cough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogte, Auke; Bredenoord, Arjan J.; Smout, Andre J. P. M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective. One of the main causes of persistent cough is gastro-oesophageal reflux. In these patients, excessive oesophageal acid exposure and/or a temporal association between gastro-oesophageal reflux and cough can be demonstrated during 24-h pH monitoring. Impedance pH monitoring may have a highe

  13. Self-medication for cough and the common cold : Information needs of consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterboer, Sanne Maartje; McGuire, Treasure; Deckx, Laura; Moses, Geraldine; Verheij, Theo; van Driel, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the high use of over-the-counter (OTC) cough and cold medicines, little is known about Australia's cough and cold medicines information needs. The aim of this study was to identify gaps in consumers' perceived knowledge and concerns, to better target consumer medicines informatio

  14. Pharmacogenetics of ACE inhibitor-induced angioedema and cough : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoudpour, Seyed Hamidreza; Leusink, Maarten; van der Putten, Lisa; Terreehorst, Ingrid; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; de Boer, Anthonius; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Angioedema and cough are the two most important adverse effects of ACE inhibitors (ACEIs). Evidence exists that ACEI-related angioedema/cough is partly genetically determined and several genes have been identified to play a role in the development of ACEI-related adverse effects. Materials & me

  15. Possible involvement of tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels in cough reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Junzo; Nakanishi, Yuki; Ishikawa, Yoko; Hayashi, Shun-Suke; Asato, Megumi; Ohsawa, Masahiro

    2011-02-10

    We examined the involvement of tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant sodium channels in the peripheral mechanisms of the cough reflex in mice. We also examined the possibility of using ambroxol as an effective antitussive agent, and found that it produced antitussive effects through the inhibition of TTX-resistant sodium channels. The inhalation of fenvalerate, at concentrations of 0.3, 1 and 3μg/ml, for 5min produced coughs in a concentration-dependent manner. Pretreatment with tetrodotoxin, at a dose of 1μg/kg, s.c., slightly but significantly reduced the number of fenvalerate (3μg/ml)-induced coughs. However, the number of fenvalerate-induced coughs in tetorodotoxin-treated mice was still significantly greater than those in vehicle (0.4% DMSO) alone inhaled mice. On the other hand, pretreatment with tetrodotoxin, at a dose of 1μg/kg, s.c., almost completely reduced the number of citric acid (0.25M)-induced coughs to the level in vehicle (saline) alone inhaled mice. Pretreatment with ambroxol, at doses of 10, 30, 100 and 300mg/kg, p.o., dose-dependently and significantly reduced the number of fenvalerate (3μg/ml)-induced coughs. The present findings indicate that TTX-resistant sodium channels may play an important role in the enhancement of C-fiber-mediated cough pathways. Furthermore, ambroxol may prove to be a useful cough suppressant. PMID:21130084

  16. OTC Cough and Cold Products: Not for Infants and Children Under 2 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The terms on the label include "nasal decongestants", "cough suppressants", "expectorants" and "antihistamines." Q. How did FDA arrive at its decision to issue these recommendations? A. FDA’s ... determined that OTC cough and cold medicines, which treat symptoms and not ...

  17. Tussiphonographic analysis of cough sound recordings performed by Schmidt-Voigt and Hirschberg and Szende.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpás, J; Kelemen, S

    1987-01-01

    The cough sound records published by Schmidt-Voigt and Hirschberg and Szende were submitted to tussiphonographic analysis. It has been established that all the recordings of various types of cough sounds registered in airway disease were of pathological character in the tussiphonographic recordings. It has repeatedly been confirmed that tussiphonography is a suitable means for screening of respiratory diseases. PMID:3434295

  18. Analysis of Dextromethorphan in Cough Drops and Syrups: A Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Todd M.; Wiseman, Frank L., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is used to determine the quantity of dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DM) in over-the-counter (OTC) cough drops and syrups. This experiment is appropriate for an undergraduate medicinal chemistry laboratory course when studying OTC medicines and active ingredients. Students prepare the cough drops and syrups for analysis,…

  19. 咳嗽从瘀血论治经验%The experiences of the treatment on cough from blood stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马献中; 王世彪; 王保平

    2014-01-01

    Cough lung disease is one of the most common syndromes caused by many reasons, cough, a cough and internal cough points, most doctors more responsibility in the lung, spleen, liver, kidney damage, or due to feel the wind, cold, heat, dryness, fire evil and hair, or phlegm due to spleen deficiency, liver fire attacking lung, deficiency of kidney qi and other causes. In recent years, the study found, blood stasis caused one of the main causes of chronic cough, especially in chronic cough patients. Our clinical treatment of chronic bronchitis, cough asthma, pulmonary heart disease, bronchiectasis patients, each with blood stasis of TCM, often obtain good effect. The blood stasis cough experience summarized as follows.

  20. CLINICAL EFFICACY OF CRUX SYRUP IN THE MANAGEMENT OF COUGH DUE TO VARIOUS ETIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

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    Patel Girish

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cough associated with acute and chronic respiratory conditions is common in patients of all ages. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical efficacy of CRUX syrup, a proprietary mixture of herbal ingredients in the management of cough of various etiological conditions in open label, uncontrolled, prospective cohort study. 55 Patients aged 9 - 64 years with cough of more than 1 day but less than 14 days duration was recruited. They were prescribed dose of CRUX syrup according to severity of cough for three days. Treatment results were assessed on the basis of Investigator’s evaluation. At the end of three days prescribed treatment, evaluator’s assessment shown that 29 % patient gave excellent, 55 % patient gave good, 11 % patient gave fair and 5 % patient gave poor response to treatment. The results demonstrate that CRUX treatment has significant decrease in the frequency and severity of cough without any significant side effect in patients of all ages.

  1. Towards improving the diagnosis and management of chronic cough in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Guang-qiao; SUN Bao-qing; ZHONG Nan-shan

    2011-01-01

    Cough is a common condition in clinical settings.Importantly,chronic cough without obvious abnormal chest X-ray findings accounts for about 20%-30% of respiratory clinic visits,and yields a high rate of misdiagnosis and mistreatment.1 Up to 80% of patients with chronic cough were diagnosed with other disorders,such as “chronic bronchitis” or “chronic pharyngolaryngitis”.2,3 As many as 50% of female patients with cough may develop urinary incontinence,which can interfere seriously with their daily living,including work and school performance.4 Along with the increasing demand for a high-quality life among Chinese people,cough as an important issue should be properly addressed by both clinicians and patients.

  2. Fuzzy approach for improved recognition of citric acid induced piglet coughing from continuous registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hirtum, A.; Berckmans, D.

    2003-09-01

    A natural acoustic indicator of animal welfare is the appearance (or absence) of coughing in the animal habitat. A sound-database of 5319 individual sounds including 2034 coughs was collected on six healthy piglets containing both animal vocalizations and background noises. Each of the test animals was repeatedly placed in a laboratory installation where coughing was induced by nebulization of citric acid. A two-class classification into 'cough' or 'other' was performed by the application of a distance function to a fast Fourier spectral sound analysis. This resulted in a positive cough recognition of 92%. For the whole sound-database however there was a misclassification of 21%. As spectral information up to 10000 Hz is available, an improved overall classification on the same database is obtained by applying the distance function to nine frequency ranges and combining the achieved distance-values in fuzzy rules. For each frequency range clustering threshold is determined by fuzzy c-means clustering.

  3. Cough syncope in a 43-year-old woman with glomus jugulare tumor

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    Susanta Bandyopadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of recurrent cough syncope in a 43-year-old woman, which was initially thought to be seizures. Syncopal episodes were triggered by paroxysms of cough and were characterized by unresponsiveness and myoclonic jerks in her extremities. She had a left-sided glomus jugulare tumor that extended into the posterior cranial fossa with evidence of worsening communicating hydrocephalus on brain imaging. We postulate that bouts of cough produced increased intracranial pressure both by raising intrathoracic and intraabdominal pressures as well as by transient obstruction to cerebrospinal fluid flow secondary to intermittent tonsillar herniation during cough. This resulted in diffuse decrease in cerebral blood flow causing syncope. The patient's syncopal episodes decreased in frequency once an external ventricular drain was placed followed by a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Search for factors that can increase intracranial pressure seems warranted in patients with recurrent cough syncope.

  4. 不同病因慢性咳嗽的咳嗽程度比较%Cough score in patients with different etiology of chronic cough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈如冲; 赖克方; 罗炜; 刘春丽; 钟南山

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨不同病因慢性咳嗽患者咳嗽程度的异同及可能的影响因素.方法 按慢性咳嗽病因诊断程序进行病因诊断,收集单一病因慢性咳嗽患者150例,通过咳嗽积分评价,比较不同病因患者日间及夜间咳嗽程度的差异及其与年龄、性别、病程的关系.结果 纳入患者包括鼻后滴流综合征24例,咳嗽变异型哮喘26例、胃食管反流性咳嗽20例,嗜酸细胞性支气管炎31例,变应性咳嗽30例及感染后咳嗽19例.各组间的日间咳嗽积分比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).咳嗽变异型哮喘组的夜间积分明显高于鼻后滴流综合征、胃食管反流性咳嗽、嗜酸粒细胞性支气管炎、变应性咳嗽及感染后咳嗽组(均P<0.01).分别对日间咳嗽积分和夜间咳嗽积分进行有序分类logistic回归分析,显示年龄与日间咳嗽积分有关(P<0.05),性别与夜间咳嗽积分有关(P<0.01).结论 不同病因慢性咳嗽的日间咳嗽程度类似,但咳嗽变异型哮喘夜间咳嗽程度显著高于其他病因的咳嗽.%Objective To investigate the severity of cough in patients with different etiology of chronic cough and its related factors. Methods One hundred and fifty patients with chronic cough were recruited. The diagnosis of the patients was as follows: 24 cases with post nasal drip syndrome (PNDs), 26 cough variant asthma (CVA), 20 gastroesophageal reflux-induced cough (GERC), 31 eosinophilic bronchitis (EB), 30 atopic cough (AC) and 19 cough post infection (CPI). The severity of cough at daytime and night-time were scored by the doctor and the patient at the first visit. The correlation between cough score and age, gender and course duration of patients was analyzed. Results There was no significantly difference of cough score at daytime among different groups. Cough score at night in CVA group was significantly higher than that of other five groups (all P <0.01). Regression analysis showed that cough score at daytime

  5. Exhaled air dispersion during coughing with and without wearing a surgical or N95 mask.

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    David S Hui

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We compared the expelled air dispersion distances during coughing from a human patient simulator (HPS lying at 45° with and without wearing a surgical mask or N95 mask in a negative pressure isolation room. METHODS: Airflow was marked with intrapulmonary smoke. Coughing bouts were generated by short bursts of oxygen flow at 650, 320, and 220L/min to simulate normal, mild and poor coughing efforts, respectively. The coughing jet was revealed by laser light-sheet and images were captured by high definition video. Smoke concentration in the plume was estimated from the light scattered by smoke particles. Significant exposure was arbitrarily defined where there was ≥ 20% of normalized smoke concentration. RESULTS: During normal cough, expelled air dispersion distances were 68, 30 and 15 cm along the median sagittal plane when the HPS wore no mask, a surgical mask and a N95 mask, respectively. In moderate lung injury, the corresponding air dispersion distances for mild coughing efforts were reduced to 55, 27 and 14 cm, respectively, p < 0.001. The distances were reduced to 30, 24 and 12 cm, respectively during poor coughing effort as in severe lung injury. Lateral dispersion distances during normal cough were 0, 28 and 15 cm when the HPS wore no mask, a surgical mask and a N95 mask, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Normal cough produced a turbulent jet about 0.7 m towards the end of the bed from the recumbent subject. N95 mask was more effective than surgical mask in preventing expelled air leakage during coughing but there was still significant sideway leakage.

  6. Prevalence of cough among patients treated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors

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    Gebrehiwot Teklay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of cough, its causality and impact on patient adherence in patients taking angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Methods - A cross sectional study was conducted in Ayder Referral Hospital, northern Ethiopia from April to June 2014. Patients who started either captopril or enalapril were interviewed for the occurrence of cough and its characteristics. Data were entered to EPI-info and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16 statistical software. Logistic regression model was used to analyze variations in occurrence of cough among different factors. P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results - One hundred two patients were participated in this study. Of which, 54(52.9% were females. About half of the respondents (53% were between the ages of 40 to 60. Cough was observed in 30 (29.4% patients. According to World Health Organizations causality scale, the reported cough was certain (drug induced in 5 (7.1% patients; possible in 10 (25% patients; probable in 12 (10.7% patients and unlikely in 3 (57.1% patients. Significant statistical difference was observed between occurrence of cough and durations of treatment (P<0.05. There was no statistically significant difference in occurrence of cough with age, sex, ethnicity, residence, dose and type of ACEI. Conclusion – In this study, dry cough was more prevalent among patients on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Troublesome cough may affect patient’s sleep and overall adherence to treatment. Health professionals should aware of the characteristics cough and manage accordingly.

  7. Capsaicin cough sensitivity and the association with clinical parameters in bronchiectasis.

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    Wei-jie Guan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cough hypersensitivity has been common among respiratory diseases. OBJECTIVE: To determine associations of capsaicin cough sensitivity and clinical parameters in adults with clinically stable bronchiectasis. METHODS: We recruited 135 consecutive adult bronchiectasis patients and 22 healthy subjects. History inquiry, sputum culture, spirometry, chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT, Leicester Cough Questionnaire scoring, Bronchiectasis Severity Index (BSI assessment and capsaicin inhalation challenge were performed. Cough sensitivity was measured as the capsaicin concentration eliciting at least 2 (C2 and 5 coughs (C5. RESULTS: Despite significant overlap between healthy subjects and bronchiectasis patients, both C2 and C5 were significantly lower in the latter group (all P<0.01. Lower levels of C5 were associated with a longer duration of bronchiectasis symptoms, worse HRCT score, higher 24-hour sputum volume, BSI and sputum purulence score, and sputum culture positive for P. aeruginosa. Determinants associated with increased capsaicin cough sensitivity, defined as C5 being 62.5 µmol/L or less, encompassed female gender (OR: 3.25, 95%CI: 1.35-7.83, P<0.01, HRCT total score between 7-12 (OR: 2.57, 95%CI: 1.07-6.173, P = 0.04, BSI between 5-8 (OR: 4.05, 95%CI: 1.48-11.06, P<0.01 and 9 or greater (OR: 4.38, 95%CI: 1.48-12.93, P<0.01. CONCLUSION: Capsaicin cough sensitivity is heightened in a subgroup of bronchiectasis patients and associated with the disease severity. Gender and disease severity, but not sputum purulence, are independent determinants of heightened capsaicin cough sensitivity. Current testing for cough sensitivity diagnosis may be limited because of overlap with healthy subjects but might provide an objective index for assessment of cough in future clinical trials.

  8. Epidemiology of whooping cough & typing of Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegerle, Nicolas; Guiso, Nicole

    2013-11-01

    Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative human-restricted bacterium that evolved from the broad-range mammalian pathogen, Bordetella bronchiseptica. It causes whooping cough or pertussis in humans, which is the most prevalent vaccine-preventable disease worldwide. The introduction of the pertussis whole-cell vaccination for young children, followed by the introduction of the pertussis acellular vaccination (along with booster vaccination) for older age groups, has affected the bacterial population and epidemiology of the disease. B. pertussis is relatively monomorphic worldwide, but nevertheless, different countries are facing different epidemiological evolutions of the disease. Although it is tempting to link vaccine-driven phenotypic and genotypic evolution of the bacterium to epidemiology, many other factors should be considered and surveillance needs to continue, in addition to studies investigating the impact of current clinical isolates on vaccine efficacy.

  9. A 35-year old woman with productive cough and breathlessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umasankar Kalai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old lady was seen in the outpatient clinic owing to fever, cough with mucopurulent expectoration, and breathlessness for the duration of 1 month. She had history of similar episodes treated with antibiotics four times during last 2 years. There was no history of recurrent sinusitis, diarrhea, and skin or soft tissue infection. She had no history of diabetes mellitus or steroid intake. She denied any history of facial trauma or dental infection in the past. There was no history of tuberculosis in her or in the family. Radiograph and CT scan of the chest revealed right upper lobe consolidation. Flexible fibreoptic bronchoscopy revealed multiple nodules at opening of right upper lobe bronchus. This clinicopathological conference describes the details of differential diagnoses, difficulties in achieving the final diagnosis and management of such patient.

  10. A 35-year old woman with productive cough and breathlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai, Umasankar; Hadda, Vijay; Madan, Karan; Arava, Sudheer; Ali, Firdaus; Jain, Neetu; Mohan, Anant

    2015-01-01

    A 35-year-old lady was seen in the outpatient clinic owing to fever, cough with mucopurulent expectoration, and breathlessness for the duration of 1 month. She had history of similar episodes treated with antibiotics four times during last 2 years. There was no history of recurrent sinusitis, diarrhea, and skin or soft tissue infection. She had no history of diabetes mellitus or steroid intake. She denied any history of facial trauma or dental infection in the past. There was no history of tuberculosis in her or in the family. Radiograph and CT scan of the chest revealed right upper lobe consolidation. Flexible fibreoptic bronchoscopy revealed multiple nodules at opening of right upper lobe bronchus. This clinicopathological conference describes the details of differential diagnoses, difficulties in achieving the final diagnosis and management of such patient. PMID:26664183

  11. Effects of Schisandra chinensis extracts on cough and pulmonary inflammation in a cough hypersensitivity guinea pig model induced by cigarette smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shan; Nie, Yi-chu; Gan, Zhen-yong; Liu, Xiao-dong; Fang, Zhang-fu; Zhong, Bo-nian; Tian, Jin; Huang, Chu-qin; Lai, Ke-fang; Zhong, Nan-shan

    2015-05-13

    Schisandra chinensis (S. chinensis) is a traditional Chinese medicine commonly used in prescription medications for the treatment of chronic cough. However, the material basis of S. chinensis in relieving cough has not been completely elucidated yet. This study established a guinea pig model of cough hypersensitivity induced by 14 days of cigarette smoke (CS) exposure, to evaluate the antitussive, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects of three S. chinensis extracts. And then the function of four lignans in reducing expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1 was examined using A549 cells induced by cigarette smoke extract (CSE). The results demonstrated that both ethanol extract (EE) and ethanol-water extract (EWE) of S. chinensis, but not water extract (WE), significantly reduced the cough frequency enhanced by 0.4M citric acid solution in these cough hypersensitivity guinea pigs. Meanwhile, pretreatment with EE and EWE both significantly attenuated the CS-induced increase in infiltration of pulmonary neutrophils and total inflammatory cells, as well as pulmonary MDA, TNF-α, and IL-8, while remarkably increased activities of pulmonary SOD and GSH. According to H&E and immunofluorescence staining assays, airway epithelium hyperplasia, smooth muscle thickening, inflammatory cells infiltration, as well as expression of TRPV1 and TRPA1, were significantly attenuated in animals pretreatment with 1g/kg EE. Moreover, four lignans of EE, including schizandrin, schisantherin A, deoxyschizandrin and γ-schisandrin, significantly inhibited CSE-induced expression of TRPV1, TRPA1 and NOS3, as well as NO release in A549 cells. In conclusion, S. chinensis reduces cough frequency and pulmonary inflammation in the CS-induced cough hypersensitivity guinea pigs. Lignans may be the active components.

  12. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  13. Objective assessment of cough suppressants under normal and pathological experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosál'ová, G; Strapková, A; Korpás, J; Criscuolo, D

    1989-01-01

    The influences of the antitussive activity of glaucine were studied in 56 non-anaesthetized cats under normal and pathological conditions. Cough was induced by mechanical stimulation of the airways with a nylon fibre. The authors found that if glaucine was administered at a dose of 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 mg/kg b.w., i.p., it evoked statistically significant suppression on single cough components. After inflammation of the airways was induced with unsoluted croton oil, no decrease in antitussive activity of glaucine could be observed, according to the number of cough efforts, frequency, intensity of maximal cough effort, and intensity of cough attack during expiration. Glaucine used under such conditions was not found to be powerful enough to suppress either the intensity of maximal cough effort or the intensity of cough attack during inspiration. The antitussive effect of glaucine was stronger under pathological conditions (Staphylococcus-induced inflammation). The antitussive effect of glaucine was approximately the same as with codeine if administered in equal doses. PMID:2737083

  14. The effect of titrated fentanyl on suppressed cough reflex in healthy adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, H E; Shaw, G M; Brett, C N; Greenwood, F M; Huckabee, M L

    2016-05-01

    Cough suppression is part of the pharmacodynamic profile of opioids. We investigated the impact of clinical doses of fentanyl on suppressing the cough reflex. Thirteen volunteers received 2 μg.kg(-1) of fentanyl in a divided administration protocol. Three minutes after each administration and at 10 min intervals during washout, suppressed cough reflex testing with nebulised citric acid was performed and compared with fentanyl effect-site concentration. Mean (SD) citric acid concentration provoking cough increased from 0.5 (0.28) mol.l(-1) at baseline to 1.2 (0.50) mol.l(-1) after 2 μg.kg(-1) of fentanyl (p = 0.01). Mean (SD) fentanyl effect-site concentration after the final dose of fentanyl was 1.89 (0.05) ng.ml(-1) . A strong positive correlation was found between suppressed cough reflex thresholds and fentanyl effect-site concentrations during both fentanyl administration and washout phases of the study (r(2) = 0.79, p = 0.01). The mean (SD) length of time for return of suppressed cough response was 44.6 (18.8) min. Clinically relevant doses of fentanyl produced cough reflex suppression in healthy volunteers.

  15. Determination of Microbial Load in Multivitamin and Cough Syrups Sold in Dhaka City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al Mamun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The production of substandard drugs and use of inappropriate methods in manufacturing medical products in pharmaceutical industries may cause non-therapeutic effect in patients particularly in children. Hence this study was conducted to determine the microbiological quality of multivitamin and cough syrups of different brands sold in local pharmacy in Dhaka city. Microbiological analysis was carried out using spread plate technique on different culture media including nutrient agar, mannitol salt agar, MacConkey agar, mFC agar, TCBS agar and SS agar for the determination of total viable bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, total coliforms, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. respectively from eleven multivitamin and twelve cough syrups. The results revealed that 50% of the cough syrup and 91% of the multivitamin syrup showed compliance with the official requirement of microbiological quality as they did not show any growth or their microbiological count is within the USP permissible limit (<102 cfu/ml. While the major contaminants in cough syrup were Staphylococcus aureus (75%, Escherichia coli (17% and total coliforms (42%, multivitamin syrup (9% contained only Staphylococcus aureus. Other pathogens like Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. could not be detected in both cough and multivitamin syrups. Although most of the multivitamin syrup (91% samples are free from potential microbial threat, some of the cough syrup (75% samples are contaminated with pathogenic bacteria. Hence potential safety measurement should be taken during the production and use of cough syrups to maintain the microbiological quality.

  16. Efficacy and tolerability of levodropropizine in adult patients with non-productive cough. Comparison with dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, E; Daffonchio, L

    1997-01-01

    The results of a double-blind, randomized clinical trial involving 209 adult patients of either sex with moderate non-productive cough are reported. The therapeutic efficacy and the tolerability of levodropropizine syrup (60 mg t.i.d. for 5 days) was evaluated in comparison with dextromethorphan syrup (15 mg t.i.d. for 5 days). Efficacy was assessed by the number of coughing spells in a 6h period, the cough frequency classes, the cough intensity and the night awakenings due to cough. Tolerability was evaluated by laboratory results, vital signs and any adverse event occurred during the clinical trial, including presence or absence of somnolence. Independently from the underlying pathology and from the degree of baseline cough severity, the number of coughing spells was significantly (P levodropropizine and dextromethorphan already after the 2nd day of treatment, the effect and its time of onset being similar for both drugs. Cough intensity was significantly (P levodropropizine than with dextromethorphan. Concurrently with the relief of cough, the number of night awakenings was decreased remarkably and significantly (P levodropropizine displaying an improvement significantly higher (P levodropropizine (3.6%) group. Overall, somnolence was reported for a low percentage of patients with both drugs, with the percentage of patients experiencing this side effect being one half in the group treated with levodropropizine (4.6%) as compared with dextromethorphan (10.4%). These results confirm the antitussive effectiveness of levodropropizine and point out a more favourable benefit/risk profile when compared to dextromethorphan. PMID:9425640

  17. Associations of Cough Prevalence with Ambient Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Nitrogen and Sulphur Dioxide: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyenda, Enoch Olando; Higashi, Tomomi; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Nguyen, Thao Thi Thu; Michigami, Yoshimasa; Fujimura, Masaki; Hara, Johsuke; Tsujiguchi, Hiromasa; Kitaoka, Masami; Asakura, Hiroki; Hori, Daisuke; Yamada, Yohei; Hayashi, Koichiro; Hayakawa, Kazuichi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Information on potential cough triggers including environmental irritants is vital for successful management of chronic cough in patients. We investigated the relationship between ambient levels of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) and sulphur dioxide (SO₂) exposures with cough prevalence. Eighty-three adult patients, who had been physician diagnosed with at least asthma, cough variant asthma and/or atopic cough, were divided into asthma and non-asthma groups. They recorded daily cough symptoms during 4 January-30 June 2011 study period while daily samples of total suspended particles were simultaneously collected by use of glass fiber filters and the particulate PAH content determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a fluorescence detector. Ambient concentrations of NO₂ and SO₂ were obtained from a local monitoring site. Logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations were used to determine population-averaged estimates of association between cough prevalence and ambient pollutant exposures for the two groups. Fully adjusted odds ratios from single pollutant models were 1.083 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.029, 1.140) and 1.097 (95% CI: 1.016, 1.185) per 0.57 ng/m³ for lag2 PAH exposure, while only for asthma group had significant associations with NO₂ and SO₂ exposures for both lag2 and lag02. Similar associations were observed in multipollutant models. This finding suggests that ambient PAH, NO₂, and SO₂ exposure even at low levels is related to cough prevalence in adult chronic cough patients and may be considered as aggravating factor during clinical management of the condition. PMID:27517941

  18. SLCO1B1 Variants and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor (Enalapril) -Induced Cough: a Pharmacogenetic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian-Quan; He, Fa-Zhong; Wang, Zhen-Min; Sun, Ning-Ling; Wang, Lu-Yan; Tang, Gen-Fu; Liu, Mou-Ze; Li, Qing; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Clinical observations suggest that incidence of cough in Chinese taking angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors is much higher than other racial groups. Cough is the most common adverse reaction of enalapril. We investigate whether SLCO1B1 genetic polymorphisms, previously reported to be important determinants of inter-individual variability in enalapril pharmacokinetics, are associated with the enalapril-induced cough. A cohort of 450 patients with essential hypertension taking 10 mg enalapril maleate were genotyped for the functional SLCO1B1 variants, 388A > G (Asn130Asp, rs2306283) and 521T > C (Val174Ala, rs4149056). The primary endpoint was cough, which was recorded when participants were bothered by cough and respiratory symptoms during enalapril treatment without an identifiable cause. SLCO1B1 521C allele conferred a 2-fold relative risk of enalapril-induced cough (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.34–3.04, P = 6.2 × 10−4), and haplotype analysis suggested the relative risk of cough was 6.94-fold (95% CI = 1.30–37.07, P = 0.020) in SLCO1B1*15/*15 carriers. Furthermore, there was strong evidence for a gene-dose effect (percent with cough in those with 0, 1, or 2 copy of the 521C allele: 28.2%, 42.5%, and 71.4%, trend P = 6.6 × 10−4). Our study highlights, for the first time, SLCO1B1 variants are strongly associated with an increased risk of enalapril-induced cough. The findings will be useful to provide pharmacogenetic markers for enalapril treatment. PMID:26607661

  19. An Experimental Study of Human Exhalation during Breathing and Coughing in a Mixing Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Lia, Yuguo; Nielsen, Peter V.;

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation during breathing and coughing. Experiments employing one breathing thermal manikin are conducted in a full-scale test room with a mixing ventilation system. Two artificial lungs are used to generate discontinuous airflows with specific...... flow rates and temperatures for breathing and coughing, respectively. Smoke visualizations are conducted to show the formation, movement and vanishing of the exhalation jets from nose and mouth separately. The transient velocity distribution generated by breathing and coughing in different places...

  20. Evaluation of Clinical Efficacy and Tolerance of Khasceeze –SF Cough Syrup

    OpenAIRE

    S Satam; Jain, R; J Dagaonkar; C Chotalia; Suthar, A.; Joshi, R

    2011-01-01

    Fifty patients of either sex aged 15 - 65 years entered the study to test the efficacy and tolerability of a herbal preparation known as Khasceeze-SF Cough Syrup. They were studied for cough and related symptoms such as sore throat, sneezing, breathlessness and fever. Substantial improvement, i.e., excellent to good response, in relief of cough and other symptoms was noted over 84% out of 50 patients and fair response in 11.64%. Only 4.10% patients showed poor relief in symptoms hence suggest...

  1. Automatic energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysing apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention discloses a number of improvements for an energy dispersive X-ray analysis system having computer supervised data collection, display and processing. The systems with which the improved circuitry and methods may be used include a dual interlocking bus structure so that the analyzer and computer functions communicate directly with each other and the user has immediate keyboard control of both. Such a system normally includes a system base control, a control console and a display console. The portions of the system which have been improved include a new type of ratemeter which gives a voltage output proportional to the intensity of the energy window or windows under consideration, an output which is an absolute digital representation of the intensity count rate, circuitry for input multiplexing and multiple output voltage buffering of the ratemeter to accomodate multiple single channel signals, and a new dead time correction to enable meaningful single channel intensity data to be handled by the system. An extension of the ratemeter is also disclosed for use in conjunction with X-ray mapping, enabling enhancements to be made on mapping SCA data

  2. Treating cough and cold: Guidance for caregivers of children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ran D

    2011-11-01

    Despite the widespread use of over-the-counter (OTC) cough and cold medications (CCMs), the effectiveness of most CCMs has not been proven in children. A meta-analysis summarizing trials using OTC CCMs for viral-induced cough found no evidence for or against the use of OTC medicines in both paediatric and adult populations when cough frequency and severity, as well as physician assessments, were compared. Furthermore, North American data suggest that OTC CCMs may be associated with medication errors and adverse events, resulting in visits to emergency departments and even leading to death. The present article provides information on current evidence for cough and cold therapies, including fluid intake, humidified air, antihistamines, echinacea, zinc, honey and vitamin C, for caregivers of children and youth. PMID:23115499

  3. Differential diagnostics of cardiac and pulmonary chronic cough and dyspnoe in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathophysiological aspects of chronic cough and dyspnoe in dogs are outlined. Techniques of clinical, radiological, sonographic, and elecrocardiographic examination are described and interpretation of findings is discussed in detail

  4. The capsaicin cough reflex in patients with symptoms elicited by odorous chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, H; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Mosbech, H;

    2010-01-01

    Patients with multiple chemical sensitivity and eczema patients with airway symptoms elicited by odorous chemicals have enhanced cough reflex to capsaicin when applying the tidal breathing method. The aims of the present study were to test whether the capsaicin induced cough reflex was enhanced...... when applying the single breath inhalation method in similar groups of patients with symptoms related to odorous chemicals e.g. other persons wearing of perfume; and to investigate to what extent the reporting of lower airway symptoms influenced the cough reflex. Sixteen patients fulfilling Cullen......'s criteria for multiple chemical sensitivity and 15 eczema patients with airway symptoms elicited by odorous chemicals were compared with 29 age-matched, healthy controls. We measured C5--the capsaicin concentration causing five coughs or more--using the single breath inhalation test. No difference was found...

  5. The Chinese national guidelines on diagnosis and management of cough (December 2010)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Ke-fang

    2011-01-01

    Cough is a defensive physiological reflex of the human body that enables vital clearance of secretions and harmful elements from the respiratory tract;however,frequent and intense coughing may adversely impact on a patient's work,daily life and social activities.Cough is one of the most commonly observed symptoms in clinical practice arising from a wide range of aetiologies.A chronic cough may be overlooked by clinicians,particularly if reassured by the normal appearance on a chest radiograph.Furthermore,70%-80% of these patients are readily mislabelled or diagnosed with “chronic bronchitis” or “bronchitis” in China,then typically treated with substantial but ineffective courses of antibiotics,or subjected to repeated investigations as a result of a diagnosis that is unclear,and may thus suffer more discomfort and fimancial burden from their disease.

  6. Whooping cough in South-East Romania: a 1-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, Sorin; Guillot, Sophie; Dragomirescu, Cristiana Cerasella; Brun, Delphine; Lazăr, Stefan; Vancea, Geta; Ionescu, Biatrice Mariana; Gherman, Mariana Felicia; Bjerkestrand, Andreea-Florina-Dana; Ungureanu, Vasilica; Guiso, Nicole; Damian, Maria

    2014-03-01

    The incidence of whooping cough in Romania is substantially underestimated, and, as noted by the health authorities, this is mostly due to the lack of both awareness and biological diagnosis. We conducted a 1-year study in Bucharest in order to assess the circulation of Bordetella pertussis, the main etiological agent of whooping cough. Fifty-one subjects suspected of whooping cough were enrolled. Culture, real-time PCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for laboratory diagnosis. Whooping cough patients (63%) were distributed among all age groups, and most were unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or had been vaccinated more than 5 years previously. Bordetella holmesii DNA was detected in 22% of the bordetellosis cases; these patients included adults; teenagers; and, surprisingly, young children. B. pertussis isolates were similar to the clinical isolates currently circulating elsewhere in Europe. One isolate does not express pertactin, an antigen included in some acellular pertussis vaccines.

  7. Codeine cough syrup use among African-American crack cocaine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ronald J; Williams, Mark; Ross, Michael W; Atkinson, John; Yacoubian, George S

    2007-03-01

    While studies show evidence of a clear problem with the prevalence of crack cocaine and codeine cough syrup use separately, the relationship between these substances of abuse and concurrent polydrug use is unknown. In an attempt to ascertain beyond anecdotal evidence, the authors carried out a cross-sectional study among 482 African-American crack users to investigate the differences between those who were concurrently codeine cough syrup users and those who were not codeine cough syrup users in Houston, Texas. Logistic regression indicated that codeine use was significantly associated with lower participant age and lower education; codeine cough syrup users were significantly more likely than nonusers to not have a main sexual partner. In addition, codeine users had significantly higher odds of ever trading sex for money, marijuana use, and fry use. These findings are important in determining the "cultural novelties" relative to crack and codeine use among younger African Americans. PMID:17523589

  8. Investigation of chronic cough in tropics:A cost effective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadri F

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To ascertain the validity of anatomic diagnostic protocol in determin-ing the etiology of chronic cough in tropics and a cost analysis of the protocol to ascertain effective ways of managing patients with chronic cough. Methods: A prospective, descriptive, study of non-smoking patients with chronic cough. All patients were evaluated by a validated anatomic diagnostic protocol. The diagnostic protocol was modified to include sputum examination for acid-fast bacilli, absolute eosinophil count and stool examination. The final diagnosis was based on radiological, laboratory findings and a successful response to therapy. Results: Eighty-seven consecutive patients with chronic cough were evaluated from February 2000 to February 2002 using the modified diagnostic protocol. The mean age ±S.D. was 35.00±11.85 years. Forty-nine patients were males. Etiology of chronic cough was established in 86 (99% patients. Cough resolved in 99% of patients after successful diagnosis and treatment. The three most common causes were Postnasal drip syndrome (PNDS, 52%, Asthma, 41%, and Loeffler′s syn-drome, 8%. Pulmonary tuberculosis was confirmed in 5% of patients. Hence, 13% of patients had conditions more prevalent in the tropics. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD was seen in 6%. Rare causes of chronic cough included congestive cardiac failure (CCF 2%. Cough was due to multiple causes in 15%. The average cost per patient was Rupees (RS 878.55 (1US$=RS 45. However if we use the pro-tocol proposed at the end of study the average cost per patient will be RS 743.55. Using the modified diagnostic protocol 90% of patients were diagnosed with mini-mal investigations making it cost effective. Conclusion: The three most common causes of chronic cough in the tropics are different from the west. Pulmonary tuberculosis and Loeffler′s syndrome are more prevalent and need to be considered. Using a modified diagnostic protocol etiology of chronic cough can be

  9. Professor Wang Zhen’s Experience of Herb Pairs in Treating Cough Caused by Wind%王真教授治疗“风咳”药对浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩佳颖; 王真

    2016-01-01

    Objective]To summarize Professor Wang’s clinical thoughts and experience of herb pairs in treating“cough caused by wind”. [Methods]To collect and analyse the theory of Wang’s experience of herb pairs in treating“cough caused by wind”by studying from him for a long time. [Results] Professor considered that“cough caused by wind”is a kind of disease characterized by nature of “wind”, which is mainly cough, with wind syndrome unique performance. It is similar to airway hyperresponsiveness diseases,including modern medicine on the infection cough, cough variant asthma, gastroesophageal reflux cough, upper airway cough syndrome, eosinophilic bronchitis, allergic cough, etc, which should be treated by the way of “dispelling wind ventilating lung and relieving cough ”. According to different wind cough sydromes, choose different herb couples.“Feixingcao-Zicao-Xiancao”,“Jiegeng-Shegan”,“Zhipipaye -Zhiziwan -Zhidonghua”,“Zhimahuang -Suye”,“Xinreng -Zhebei”,“Shengbaishao -Shenggancao”are the most commonly used herb pairs in practice.[Conclusion] Professor’s experience of herb pairs in treating“cough caused by wind”is well worth learning for it always gets outstanding effect.%[目的]总结王真教授治疗风咳的诊疗思维及常用药对。[方法]通过跟师侍诊,分析归纳王真教授治疗风咳的理论及常用药对。[结果]王师认为,“风咳”是一类表现为“风性”的疾病,以咳嗽为主,具有风证的独特表现。类似于现代医学的气道高反应性咳嗽,包括现代医学上的感染后咳嗽、咳嗽变异性哮喘、胃食管反流性咳嗽、上气道咳嗽综合征、嗜酸性支气管炎、过敏性咳嗽等。临证当采用“疏风宣肺、解痉止咳”之法,根据风咳兼证之不同,选用相应的药对。其常用药对,有“肺形草、紫草、茜草”、“桔梗配射干”、“炙枇杷叶、炙紫菀、炙冬花”、“炙麻黄配苏

  10. Prostaglandin I2 enhances cough reflex sensitivity to capsaicin in the asthmatic airway

    OpenAIRE

    Ishiura, Yoshihisa; Fujimura, Masaki; Nobata, Kouichi; Oribe, Yoshitaka; Abo, Miki; Myou, Shigeharu

    2007-01-01

    Inflammatory mediators are involved in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation, but the role of prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) remains obscure. This study was designed to investigate the role of PGI2 in cough reflex sensitivity of the asthmatic airway, which is characterized by chronic eosinophilic airway inflammation. The effect of beraprost, a chemically and biologically stable analogue of PGI2, on cough response to inhaled capsaicin was examined in 21 patients with stable asthma in a randomized, ...

  11. Respiratory function and the mechanism of cough in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrid de Castro Bolina Faria; Renata Menezes Dalmonch

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the relationship between the inefficiency of the mechanism of cough and the degradation of respiratory function in patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Methods: A documentary study carried out from the following databases: Pubmed, Cochrane and Scielo. The terms “Duchenne muscular Dystrophy”, “Respiratory Function” and “Peak Cough Flow” were used as descriptors, individually or in association. Articles that addressed other types of muscular dystrophy or were ...

  12. Use of Antitussive Drugs in The Treatment of Cough With Acute Onset in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Kasapçopur, Özgür; CEYLAN, Abdullah; İngöl, Hüseyin; Sarp, Adil; Sungurtekin, Necdet

    1992-01-01

    The effect of anti tussive therapy on cough with sudden onset in childhood period was investigated 105 children were studied Children were randomly divided into 3 groups An antitussive combination was administered to the first group antitussive and beta sympathomimetic combination was administered to the second group No drug was administered to the third group but general supportive measures were taken Patients were evaluated both before and during treatment in respect to cough and general ap...

  13. Antitussive activity of ethanolic extract of Curcuma aromatica rhizomes on sulfur dioxide induced cough in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, G.D.; Kekuda, T.R Prashith; Sudarshan, S.J

    2008-01-01

    Ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Curcuma aromatica (Zingiberaceae) was investigated for its antitussive effect on Sulfur dioxide induced cough model in mice. The extract exhibited significant antitussive activity in a dose dependant manner. The activity was compared with the prototype antitussive agent codeine phosphate. The ethanolic extract at the dose of lOOmg. 200mg and 400mg/kg body weight, po, showed 68%, 74% and 79% of inhibition of cough with respect to control group. PMID:22557276

  14. Curative Effects of Suhuang Zhike Capsule on Postinfectious Cough: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Objective. In this paper, we intended to systematically evaluate the efficacy of Suhuang Zhike Capsule (SZC) on postinfectious cough (PIC) in adults (age > 18). Methods. MEDLINE (PubMed), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Cqvip Database (VIP), and Wanfang Database were researched for the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of SZC for PIC. The search was limited to human studies, using the search keywords or free-text terms “cough,” “post-infectious cough,” “postinfectious cough,” “post-cold cough,” “postviral cough,” “postcold cough,” “Suhuang Zhike capsule,” “Chinese Medicine,” and “randomized clinical trials”. Two reviewers individually extracted data from the included RCTs and then the extracted data were analyzed using Review Manager 5.3 software. Results. Seven RCTs involving 573 patients entered the inclusion criteria. Findings suggested that, compared with western conventional medicine (WCM) and other Chinese medicine, SZC could effectively improve the efficacy rate (OR 2.68, 95%  CI, 1.48–4.84, P = 0.001; OR 4.86, 95%  CI, 1.50–15.73, P = 0.008, separately). Moreover, SZC could also improve the efficacy rate of Chinese medicine symptom (MD −0.74, 95%  CI, −1.46~−0.02, P = 0.04). However, in terms of cough relief time, more evidence is needed to prove that SZC have an earlier antitussive effect (MD −1.31, 95%  CI, −3.06~0.45, P = 0.14). Conclusion. The current evidence shows that SZC is effective in the treatment of PIC in adults and can significantly improve the effective rate of Chinese medicine symptoms.

  15. Pertussis prevalence and its determinants among children with persistent cough in urban Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Kayina

    Full Text Available We determined prevalence of pertussis infection and its associated host and environmental factors to generate information that would guide strategies for disease control.In a cross-sectional study, 449 children aged 3 months to 12 years with persistent cough lasting ≥14 days were enrolled and evaluated for pertussis using DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR and ELISA serology tests.Pertussis prevalence was 67 (15% (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 12-18 and 81 (20% (95% CI: 16-24 by PCR and ELISA, respectively among 449 participating children. The prevalence was highest in children with >59 months of age despite high vaccination coverage of 94% in this age group. Study demographic and clinical characteristics were similar between pertussis and non-pertussis cases. Of the 449 children, 133 (30% had a coughing household member and 316 (70% did not. Among 133 children that had a coughing household member, sex of child, sharing bed with a coughing household member and having a coughing individual in the neighborhood were factors associated with pertussis. Children that had shared a bed with a coughing household individual had seven-fold likelihood of having pertussis compared to children that did not (odds ratio (OR 7.16 (95% CI: 1.24-41.44. Among the 316 children that did not have a coughing household member, age 40 years of age were the factors associated with pertussis. Age 59 months of age, suggesting the possibility of waning immunity. The factors associated with pertussis varied by presence or absence of a coughing household member.

  16. Curative Effects of Suhuang Zhike Capsule on Postinfectious Cough: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Pinpin; Wang, Qian; Yao, Jing; Zhou, Xian-Mei; Zhu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Objective. In this paper, we intended to systematically evaluate the efficacy of Suhuang Zhike Capsule (SZC) on postinfectious cough (PIC) in adults (age > 18). Methods. MEDLINE (PubMed), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Cqvip Database (VIP), and Wanfang Database were researched for the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of SZC for PIC. The search was limited to human studies, using the search keywords or free-text terms "cough," "post-infectious cough," "postinfectious cough," "post-cold cough," "postviral cough," "postcold cough," "Suhuang Zhike capsule," "Chinese Medicine," and "randomized clinical trials". Two reviewers individually extracted data from the included RCTs and then the extracted data were analyzed using Review Manager 5.3 software. Results. Seven RCTs involving 573 patients entered the inclusion criteria. Findings suggested that, compared with western conventional medicine (WCM) and other Chinese medicine, SZC could effectively improve the efficacy rate (OR 2.68, 95%  CI, 1.48-4.84, P = 0.001; OR 4.86, 95%  CI, 1.50-15.73, P = 0.008, separately). Moreover, SZC could also improve the efficacy rate of Chinese medicine symptom (MD -0.74, 95%  CI, -1.46~-0.02, P = 0.04). However, in terms of cough relief time, more evidence is needed to prove that SZC have an earlier antitussive effect (MD -1.31, 95%  CI, -3.06~0.45, P = 0.14). Conclusion. The current evidence shows that SZC is effective in the treatment of PIC in adults and can significantly improve the effective rate of Chinese medicine symptoms. PMID:27648104

  17. Assessment and Management of Patients with Chronic Cough by Certified Respiratory Educators: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen K Field

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The value of other health care professionals is increasingly being recognized to compensate for the shortage of physicians in Canada. Chronic cough is one of the most common reasons for consultation with a respirologist. In the present study, a prospective, randomized, controlled study was undertaken to determine whether Certified Respiratory Educators (CREs could manage screened patients with chronic cough as effectively as respirologists.

  18. Pertussis Prevalence and Its Determinants among Children with Persistent Cough in Urban Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayina, Vincent; Kyobe, Samuel; Katabazi, Fred A.; Kigozi, Edgar; Okee, Moses; Odongkara, Beatrice; Babikako, Harriet M.; Whalen, Christopher C.; Joloba, Moses L.; Musoke, Philippa M.; Mupere, Ezekiel

    2015-01-01

    Background We determined prevalence of pertussis infection and its associated host and environmental factors to generate information that would guide strategies for disease control. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 449 children aged 3 months to 12 years with persistent cough lasting ≥14 days were enrolled and evaluated for pertussis using DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ELISA serology tests. Results Pertussis prevalence was 67 (15% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 12–18)) and 81 (20% (95% CI: 16–24)) by PCR and ELISA, respectively among 449 participating children. The prevalence was highest in children with >59 months of age despite high vaccination coverage of 94% in this age group. Study demographic and clinical characteristics were similar between pertussis and non-pertussis cases. Of the 449 children, 133 (30%) had a coughing household member and 316 (70%) did not. Among 133 children that had a coughing household member, sex of child, sharing bed with a coughing household member and having a coughing individual in the neighborhood were factors associated with pertussis. Children that had shared a bed with a coughing household individual had seven-fold likelihood of having pertussis compared to children that did not (odds ratio (OR) 7.16 (95% CI: 1.24–41.44)). Among the 316 children that did not have a coughing household member, age 40 years of age were the factors associated with pertussis. Age 59 months of age, suggesting the possibility of waning immunity. The factors associated with pertussis varied by presence or absence of a coughing household member. PMID:25874411

  19. ObserveClinicalEffectofHeatCoughSyrupwiththeClinicalEffectofAcupunctureinTreatingCoughCooperatewith AcupunctureTreatmentofCough%热咳糖浆配合针灸治疗咳嗽的临床效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力文; 廖侃华; 杜洁挺

    2013-01-01

      目的观察临床中给予热咳糖浆配合针灸治疗咳嗽的临床效果。方法将我院2012年1月至2012年12月之间收录的200例咳嗽患者随机分为两组,对照组患者给予常规热咳糖浆进行治疗,而观察组的患者给予热咳糖浆配合针灸治疗,观察两组的患者临床治疗效果。结果通过两组的患者临床治疗效果对比分析,观察组的患者临床治疗总有效率明显的高于对照组的患者临床治疗总有效率(P<0.05),统计学有意义;两组的患者不良反应发生率比较无明显的差异(P>0.05),统计学无意义。结论临床中对于咳嗽患者给予热咳糖浆配合针灸治疗具有较好的临床疗效,值得临床中应用。%Objective To observe the clinical give heat cough syrup with the clinical effect of acupuncture in treating cough. Methods Between January to 2012 2012 in our hospital were collected in December 200 cases of cough patients were randomly divided into two groups, the control group were given routine heat cough syrup for treatment, while patients in observation group given heat cough syrup with acupuncture treatment, observe the effect of clinical treatment of the two groups. Results Through comparative analysis of clinical therapeutic effect in the two groups of patients with clinical observation and treatment group, the total efifciency of treatment were signiifcantly higher than control group in the total efifciency(P0.05), statistics no signiifcance. Conclusion In clinical practice, cough were treated with heat cough syrup has better clinical curative effect of acupuncture treatment, worthy of clinical application.

  20. Automatic text summarization

    CERN Document Server

    Torres Moreno, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This new textbook examines the motivations and the different algorithms for automatic document summarization (ADS). We performed a recent state of the art. The book shows the main problems of ADS, difficulties and the solutions provided by the community. It presents recent advances in ADS, as well as current applications and trends. The approaches are statistical, linguistic and symbolic. Several exemples are included in order to clarify the theoretical concepts.  The books currently available in the area of Automatic Document Summarization are not recent. Powerful algorithms have been develop

  1. Automatic utilities auditing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Colin Boughton [Energy Metering Technology (United Kingdom)

    2000-08-01

    At present, energy audits represent only snapshot situations of the flow of energy. The normal pattern of energy audits as seen through the eyes of an experienced energy auditor is described. A brief history of energy auditing is given. It is claimed that the future of energy auditing lies in automatic meter reading with expert data analysis providing continuous automatic auditing thereby reducing the skill element. Ultimately, it will be feasible to carry out auditing at intervals of say 30 minutes rather than five years.

  2. Automatic Camera Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Preuss, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Automatically generating computer animations is a challenging and complex problem with applications in games and film production. In this paper, we investigate howto translate a shot list for a virtual scene into a series of virtual camera configurations — i.e automatically controlling the virtual...... camera. We approach this problem by modelling it as a dynamic multi-objective optimisation problem and show how this metaphor allows a much richer expressiveness than a classical single objective approach. Finally, we showcase the application of a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm to generate a shot...

  3. Whooping cough in 2014 and beyond: an update and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, Joshua D; Blaylock, Jason M

    2014-07-01

    Pertussis, or whooping cough, has had a dramatic resurgence in the past several years and is the most common vaccine-preventable disease in the world. The year 2012 marked the most cases in the United States in > 50 years. Large outbreaks have occurred in multiple states, and infant deaths have drawn the attention of not only health-care providers but also the media. Although the disease is theoretically preventable by vaccination, it remains a challenge to control. New vaccination strategies have been implemented across different age groups and populations of patients, but vaccine coverage remains dismally low. Acellular vaccines, although safe, do not afford the same long-lasting immunity as the previously used whole-cell vaccine. Ultimately, improvements in the development of vaccines and in vaccination coverage will be essential to decrease the burden of pertussis on society. This article provides a review of pertussis infection and discusses advances related to the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of infection, as well as continued areas of uncertainty.

  4. Pertussis vaccination and whooping cough: and now what?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiso, Nicole

    2014-10-01

    Pertussis or whooping cough is a respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis or Bordetella parapertussis that are only known to infect humans. This severe and acute respiratory disease presents epidemic cycles and became a vaccine-preventable disease in the 1940s/1950s when developed countries introduced vaccination. The first type of vaccine developed against this disease was a whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccine containing inactivated B. pertussis bacteria. Most developed countries produced their own vaccine and given the pediatric nature of the disease at the time of licensure, infants and toddlers were the primary targets and were thus massively vaccinated. The characterization of few virulence factors produced by B. pertussis enabled the development of second-generation pertussis vaccines called the acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines. These only contain 1-5 purified, detoxified B. pertussis proteins and were first introduced in Japan around 30 years ago. Australia, Europe and North America introduced aP vaccines approximately 15 years later, which replaced wP vaccines since then.

  5. Shattering a myth - Whooping cough susceptible to antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Muhammad Ali; Jamil, Bushra; Bokhari, Habib

    2016-05-01

    Bordetella parapertussis is the causative agent of a milder form of pertussis or whooping cough. Little is reported about the antibiotic resistance patterns and mechanism of drug resistance of Bordetella parapertussis. The objective of this study has been to investigate antimicrobial resistance, distribution of integrons and presence of gene cassettes to quinolones (qnr) and sulfonamides (sul) among B. parapertussis strains' isolated from Pakistan. Thirty-five (35) samples were collected from various hospitals of Pakistan from children (median age 3 years) with pertussis-like symptoms, all were tested and confirmed to be B. Parapertussis. Resistance profile of Ampicillin, Cephalexin, Sulphamethoxazole, Chloramphenicol, Ofloxacin, Nalidixic acid, Gentamycin and Erythromycin were investigated through all samples. Majority of the isolates were found to be resistant to the afore-mentioned antibiotics except erythromycin. All isolates were resistant to quinolones phenotypically, but qnr genes were detected in only 25.7% (9/35) of isolates. On the other hand, 71.4% (25/35) isolates were resistant to sulfonamides phenotypically. From these 71% strains showing phenotypical resistance, 96% (24/25) were found to possess sul genes. Only two isolates were carrying class 1 integrons, which also harbored sul gene and qnr gene cassettes. It can be safely concluded that the phenotypic resistance patterns seemed mostly independent of presence of integrons. However, interestingly both integrons harboring strains were resistant to quinolones and sulfonamides and also possessed qnr and sul genes.

  6. Shattering a myth - Whooping cough susceptible to antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Muhammad Ali; Jamil, Bushra; Bokhari, Habib

    2016-05-01

    Bordetella parapertussis is the causative agent of a milder form of pertussis or whooping cough. Little is reported about the antibiotic resistance patterns and mechanism of drug resistance of Bordetella parapertussis. The objective of this study has been to investigate antimicrobial resistance, distribution of integrons and presence of gene cassettes to quinolones (qnr) and sulfonamides (sul) among B. parapertussis strains' isolated from Pakistan. Thirty-five (35) samples were collected from various hospitals of Pakistan from children (median age 3 years) with pertussis-like symptoms, all were tested and confirmed to be B. Parapertussis. Resistance profile of Ampicillin, Cephalexin, Sulphamethoxazole, Chloramphenicol, Ofloxacin, Nalidixic acid, Gentamycin and Erythromycin were investigated through all samples. Majority of the isolates were found to be resistant to the afore-mentioned antibiotics except erythromycin. All isolates were resistant to quinolones phenotypically, but qnr genes were detected in only 25.7% (9/35) of isolates. On the other hand, 71.4% (25/35) isolates were resistant to sulfonamides phenotypically. From these 71% strains showing phenotypical resistance, 96% (24/25) were found to possess sul genes. Only two isolates were carrying class 1 integrons, which also harbored sul gene and qnr gene cassettes. It can be safely concluded that the phenotypic resistance patterns seemed mostly independent of presence of integrons. However, interestingly both integrons harboring strains were resistant to quinolones and sulfonamides and also possessed qnr and sul genes. PMID:27166543

  7. Nonmedical Use of Cough Syrup Among Secondary Vocational School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingfeng; Yu, Jincong; Yang, Chengwu; Chen, Jiayan; Yang, Longyu; Zhang, Hui; Teng, Shiwei; Li, Jiang; Yan, Dong; Cao, Jiepin; Zhao, Yanting; Wang, Zengzhen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nonmedical use of cough syrup (NUCS) among secondary vocational school (SVS) students has been an increasing concern for public health in China, but no data were available. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the epidemiological characters of NUCS as well as its risk factors among SVS students in China. From September 2013 to December 2014, a total of 13,614 SVS students were purposively selected through multistage sampling in 6 cities of China. Information on NUCS, demographics, family background, smoking and alcohol consumption, impulsiveness, sensation seeking, and parental monitoring were collected. Logistic regression was used to explore factors related to NUCS. The 12,923 (94.9%) valid responses (16.3 ± 1.0 years old, and 52.6% men) reported 3.47% (95% confidence interval: 3.15–3.79%) lifetime NUCS. Logistic regression indicated that smoking, part-time job experience, high level of impulsiveness, and sensation seeking were risk factors for NUCS, whereas urban living and high parental monitoring were protective ones. NUCS was prevalent among SVS students. Interventions that target on smoking, impulsiveness and sensation seeking control, improvement on parental monitoring may have considerable impact on NUCS among SVS students. PMID:26962800

  8. Peripheral site of action of levodropropizine in experimentally-induced cough: role of sensory neuropeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavezzo, A; Melillo, G; Clavenna, G; Omini, C

    1992-06-01

    The mechanism of action of levodropropizine has been investigated in different models of experimentally-induced cough in guinea-pigs. In particular it has been demonstrated that the antitussive drug has a peripheral site of action by injecting the drug intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). In these experiments levodropropizine (40 micrograms/50 microliters i.c.v.) did not prevent electrically-induced cough. On the other hand, codeine (5 micrograms/50 microliters i.c.v.) markedly prevented coughing. A difference in the potency ratio of levodropropizine and codeine has been demonstrated in capsaicin-induced cough; after oral administration, codeine was about two to three times more potent than levodropropizine. However, after aerosol administration the two compounds were equipotent. These data might suggest a peripheral site of action for levodropropizine which is related to sensory neuropeptides. Further support for the role of sensory neuropeptides in the mechanism of action of levodropropizine comes from the results obtained in capsaicin-desensitized animals. In this experimental model levodropropizine failed to prevent the vagally elicited cough in neuropeptide-depleted animals, whereas codeine did not differentiate between control and capsaicin-treated animals. In conclusion, our results support the suggestion that levodropropizine has a peripheral site of action. In addition, the interference with the sensory neuropeptide system may explain, at least in part, its activity in experimentally-induced cough.

  9. Dynamic study of the tracheal cavity by fast MRI with coughing in patients with tracheomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with coughing was performed in 3 patients with tracheomalacia (TM) and 10 healthy volunteers, and its usefulness was evaluated. Twenty serial images were obtained using two-dimensional-turbo fast low angle shot (FLASH) sequences and the image data were transferred to a graphic workstation connected on-line. The maximum and minimum cross-sectional areas of the trachea were measured during deep breathing (forced expiration and inspiration) and during coughing, and the collapsibility index (CI)==(maximum cross-sectional area-minimum cross-sectional area)/maximum cross-sectional area= x 100 (%) was calculated. In the healthy volunteers, CI was 36±15% (mean±SD) during forced expiration and inspiration and 48±15% during coughing, and the difference was not significant. In the TM patients, it was 68±6% and 85±5%, respectively, with the value during coughing being significantly higher (p=0.019). CI was significantly higher in the TM patients than in the normal volunteers both during forced expiration and inspiration (P=0.006) and during coughing (P=0.002). Fast MRI with coughing may facilitate the evaluation of the tracheal collapsibility in TM. (author)

  10. 咳嗽高敏感性综合征%Cough hypersensitivity syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张怡; 邱忠民

    2015-01-01

    Cough hypersensitivity syndrome is a new diagnostic concept for chronic cough and tries to label chronic cough caused by the diverse etiologies under the umbrella of cough hypersensitivity,which may result in a change in the strategy for the management of chronic cough in the future.However,there currently is a controversy on the benefit of cough hypersensitivity syndrome and many issues remain to be solved.Its value of clinical application needs to be clarified by the further study.%咳嗽高敏感性综合征是慢性咳嗽的诊断新概念,试图从咳嗽高敏感性的角度对不同病因导致的慢性咳嗽进行统一的归纳和认识,可能对今后慢性咳嗽的诊治带来观念上的改变.不过,咳嗽高敏感性综合征的益处目前尚有争议,还有许多问题尚待解决,其临床应用价值尚需进一步的研究阐明.

  11. Emergence of whooping cough: notes from three early epidemics in Persia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanabadi, Arash; Ghabili, Kamyar; Shad, Kaveh; Khalili, Majid; Sajadi, Mohammad M

    2015-12-01

    Whooping cough is a relatively new infectious disease afflicting human beings, compared with other infectious diseases, and is undergoing a resurgence despite decades of vaccination. The oldest known epidemic is thought to be the Paris outbreak of 1578. In this Historical Review, we describe three epidemics of whooping cough in Persia, which although arising roughly one century before the Paris outbreak, have not been examined in detail. A great amount of epidemiological detail was reported that not only distinguishes the various stages and complications of whooping cough, but also reveals unique immunological aspects of this disease. The first of these epidemics is the oldest recorded whooping cough epidemic. On the basis of epidemiological features, we propose that this whooping cough epidemic was the first to have taken place in Persia and might have been part of the first pandemic. This theory pushes back the date of first documented emergence of whooping cough by almost a century, which matches molecular data about its spread. Here, we discuss features of these early epidemics in relation to their initial emergence, potential origins, and spread to Europe.

  12. In-vivo Antitussive Activity of Cressa cretica Linn. using Cough Model in Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sunita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cressa cretica Linn. Voigt. (Convolulaceae, has also been extensively used to get relief from asthma and cough by the indigenous people of India. In the present study the antitussive effect of the plant was evaluated in two different experimental models. The antitussive effect of aerosols of two different concentrations (2.5%w/v, 5%w/vof methanolic extract of Cressa cretica Linn. (CME, codeine(0.03g/ml, and normal saline were tested by counting the numbers of coughs produced due to aerosols of citric acid 10 min after exposing the male guinea pigs to aerosols of different solutions (n=6. In another set of experiment CME was investigated for its therapeutic efficacy on a cough model induced by sulfur dioxide gas in mice. The results showed significant reduction of cough number obtained in the presence of both concentrations of CME and codeine. The antitussive effect on guinea pigs of higher concentration of CME was significantly (p< 0.01 greater than those of lower concentration and the prototype antitussive agent codeine phosphate (p< 0.01. It exhibited significant anti tussive activity as that of codeine phosphate, when compared with control in a dose dependent manner in sulfur dioxide gas induced cough model. The extract at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. showed inhibition of cough by 22.1, 34.35 and 55.44 % within 90 min of performing the experiment.

  13. Peripheral site of action of levodropropizine in experimentally-induced cough: role of sensory neuropeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavezzo, A; Melillo, G; Clavenna, G; Omini, C

    1992-06-01

    The mechanism of action of levodropropizine has been investigated in different models of experimentally-induced cough in guinea-pigs. In particular it has been demonstrated that the antitussive drug has a peripheral site of action by injecting the drug intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). In these experiments levodropropizine (40 micrograms/50 microliters i.c.v.) did not prevent electrically-induced cough. On the other hand, codeine (5 micrograms/50 microliters i.c.v.) markedly prevented coughing. A difference in the potency ratio of levodropropizine and codeine has been demonstrated in capsaicin-induced cough; after oral administration, codeine was about two to three times more potent than levodropropizine. However, after aerosol administration the two compounds were equipotent. These data might suggest a peripheral site of action for levodropropizine which is related to sensory neuropeptides. Further support for the role of sensory neuropeptides in the mechanism of action of levodropropizine comes from the results obtained in capsaicin-desensitized animals. In this experimental model levodropropizine failed to prevent the vagally elicited cough in neuropeptide-depleted animals, whereas codeine did not differentiate between control and capsaicin-treated animals. In conclusion, our results support the suggestion that levodropropizine has a peripheral site of action. In addition, the interference with the sensory neuropeptide system may explain, at least in part, its activity in experimentally-induced cough. PMID:1611233

  14. Automatic summarising factors and directions

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, K S

    1998-01-01

    This position paper suggests that progress with automatic summarising demands a better research methodology and a carefully focussed research strategy. In order to develop effective procedures it is necessary to identify and respond to the context factors, i.e. input, purpose, and output factors, that bear on summarising and its evaluation. The paper analyses and illustrates these factors and their implications for evaluation. It then argues that this analysis, together with the state of the art and the intrinsic difficulty of summarising, imply a nearer-term strategy concentrating on shallow, but not surface, text analysis and on indicative summarising. This is illustrated with current work, from which a potentially productive research programme can be developed.

  15. A stepwise protocol for the treatment of refractory gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghuai; Lv, Hanjing; Yu, Li; Chen, Qiang; Liang, Siwei

    2016-01-01

    Background Refractory gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough (GERC) is difficult to manage. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of a novel stepwise protocol for treating this condition. Methods A total of 103 consecutive patients with suspected refractory reflux-induced chronic cough failing to a standard anti-reflux therapy were treated with a stepwise therapy. Treatment commences with high-dose omeprazole and, if necessary, is escalated to subsequent sequential treatment with ranitidine and finally baclofen. The primary end-point was overall cough resolution, and the secondary end-point was cough resolution after each treatment step. Results High-dose omeprazole eliminated or improved cough in 28.1% of patients (n=29). Further stepwise of treatment with the addition of ranitide yielded a favorable response in an additional 12.6% (n=13) of patients, and subsequent escalation to baclofen provoked response in another 36.9% (n=38) of patients. Overall, this stepwise protocol was successful in 77.6% (n=80) of patients. The diurnal cough symptom score fell from 3 [1] to 1 [0] (Z=6.316, P=0.000), and the nocturnal cough symptom score decreased from 1 [1] to 0 [1] (Z=–4.511, P=0.000), with a corresponding reduction in the Gastroesophageal Reflux Diagnostic Questionnaire score from 8.6±1.7 to 6.8±0.7 (t=3.612, P=0.000). Conversely, the cough threshold C2 to capsaicin was increased from 0.49 (0.49) µmol/L to 1.95 (2.92) µmol/L (Z=–5.892, P=0.000), and the cough threshold C5 was increased from 1.95 (2.92) µmol/L to 7.8 (5.85) µmol/L (Z=–5.171, P=0.000). Conclusions Sequential stepwise anti-reflux therapy is a useful therapeutic strategy for refractory reflux-induced chronic cough. PMID:26904227

  16. Automatic Gait Recognition by Symmetry Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hayfron-Acquah, James B.; Nixon, Mark S.; Carter, John N.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a new method for automatic gait recognition based on analysing the symmetry of human motion, by using the Generalised Symmetry Operator. This operator, rather than relying on the borders of a shape or on general appearance, locates features by their symmetrical properties. This approach is reinforced by the psychologists' view that gait is a symmetrical pattern of motion and by other works. We applied our new method to two different databases and derived gait signatures for silhou...

  17. 100 cases Cough Powder Treating Chronic cough clinical analysis%止嗽散加减治疗慢性咳嗽100例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光华

    2012-01-01

      目的:就止嗽散加减治疗慢性咳嗽100例临床分析进行探讨。方法:选择2008年1月至2011年12月在我院收治的慢性咳嗽患者100例,100例患者均采用止嗽散加减治疗,每天都煎1剂,水煎400 mL,早中晚3次空腹温服,儿童要酌情减少剂量,1个疗程为6剂,连续服用3-5个疗程。结果:经过上述治疗之后,100例慢性咳嗽患者显效(症状较治疗前明显减轻)90例(90%),有效(症状有所减轻)8例(8%),无效(治疗前后临床症状无改善)2例(2%),总有效率98%。结论:止嗽散加减治疗慢性咳嗽疗效较好,值得大力推广。%  Objective: Cough Powder Treating clinical analysis 100 cases of chronic cough explore. Method:: Select admitted to a hospital from January 2008 to December 2011, 100 cases of patients with chronic cough, 100 patients were Cough Powder Treating a daily fried, decoction 400 mL, early in the evening 3 times of fasting, warm clothes, children should, where appropriate, to reduce the dose, a treatment for six consecutive taking 3-5 courses. Results: After the above treatment, 100 patients with chronic cough markedly (significantly aleviate the symptoms before treatment) and 90 patients (90%) and effective (symptoms eased) in 8 cases (8%), invalid (no improvement in clinical symptoms before and after treatment ) 2 (2%), with a total efficiency of 98%. Conclusion: Cough Powder Treating chronic cough better effect, is worth promoting.

  18. Speed and automaticity of word recognition - inseparable twins?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Asmussen, Vibeke; Elbro, Carsten

    'Speed and automaticity' of word recognition is a standard collocation. However, it is not clear whether speed and automaticity (i.e., effortlessness) make independent contributions to reading comprehension. In theory, both speed and automaticity may save cognitive resources for comprehension...... processes. Hence, the aim of the present study was to assess the unique contributions of word recognition speed and automaticity to reading comprehension while controlling for decoding speed and accuracy. Method: 139 Grade 5 students completed tests of reading comprehension and computer-based tests of speed...... developmental sources. However, multiple regression analyses indicated that both automaticity (effortlessness) and speed of word recognition (word-specific orthographic knowledge) contributed unique variance to reading comprehension when word decoding accuracy and speed was controlled. Conclusion: The results...

  19. Efficacy and safety of levodropropizine and dihydrocodeine on nonproductive cough in primary and metastatic lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luporini, G; Barni, S; Marchi, E; Daffonchio, L

    1998-07-01

    Nonproductive cough is a frequent and distressing symptom in patients with lung cancer, and it is not even relieved by palliative chemotherapy. A double-blind, randomized clinical trial regarding the treatment of nonproductive cough was performed in 140 adults with primary lung cancer or metastatic cancer of the lungs. The therapeutic efficacy and the tolerability of a 7-day treatment with levodropropizine drops (75 mg t.i.d.) were evaluated in comparison with dihydrocodeine drops (10 mg t.i.d.; 7 days). Efficacy was assessed on the basis of cough severity scores, number of night awakenings due to cough, and overall estimate of antitussive efficacy. Tolerability was evaluated by laboratory results, vital signs and any adverse event occurring during the clinical trial, including presence or absence of somnolence. Subjective cough severity was significantly reduced during treatment with either levodropropizine and dihydrocodeine, the antitussive effect and its time-profile being similar for both drugs. Also, according to the investigator's evaluation, both levodropropizine and dihydrocodeine produced a significant decrease in cough severity. Concurrently with the relief of cough, the number of night awakenings was decreased significantly by both drugs, with no difference between the two treatments. No change in laboratory test values was considered clinically relevant, and vital signs were not clinically affected. The number of patients reporting adverse events was similar in the levodropropizine (n=6) and dihydrocodeine (n=4) group. However, the percentage of patients experiencing somnolence in the group receiving levodropropizine (8%) was significantly lower as compared with that of the dihydrocodeine group (22%). These results confirm the antitussive effectiveness of levodropropizine and suggest a more favourable benefit/risk profile when compared to dihydrocodeine.

  20. Mast cells in citric acid-induced cough of guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was demonstrated previously that mast cells play an important role in citric acid (CA)-induced airway constriction. To investigate the role of mast cells in CA-induced cough, three experiments were carried out in this study. In the first experiment, 59 guinea pigs were employed and we used compound 48/80 to deplete mast cells, cromolyn sodium to stabilize mast cells, MK-886 to inhibit leukotriene synthesis, pyrilamine to antagonize histamine H1 receptor, methysergide to antagonize serotonin receptor, and indomethacin to inhibit cyclooxygenase. In the second experiment, 56 compound 48/80-pretreated animals were divided into two parts; the first one was used to test the role of exogenous leukotriene (LT) C4, while the second one to test the role of exogenous histamine in CA-induced cough. Each animal with one of the above pretreatments was exposed sequentially to saline (baseline) and CA (0.6 M) aerosol, each for 3 min. Then, cough was recorded for 12 min using a barometric body plethysmograph. In the third experiment, the activation of mast cells upon CA inhalation was investigated by determining arterial plasma histamine concentration in 17 animals. Exposure to CA induced a marked increase in cough number. Compound 48/80, cromolyn sodium, MK-886 and pyrilamine, but not indomethacin or methysergide, significantly attenuated CA-induced cough. Injection of LTC4 or histamine caused a significant increase in CA-induced cough in compound 48/80-pretreated animals. In addition, CA inhalation caused significant increase in plasma histamine concentration, which was blocked by compound 48/80 pretreatment. These results suggest that mast cells play an important role in CA aerosol inhalation-induced cough via perhaps mediators LTs and histamine

  1. The role of the methacholine inhalation challenge in adult patients presenting with chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongtim, S; Mogmeud, S; Limthongkul, S; Chareonlap, P; Udompanich, V; Nuchprayoon, C; Chochaipanichnont, L

    1997-03-01

    One hundred and twenty two patients who were presenting with chronic persistent cough for more than 3-4 weeks were studied. Using anatomical and stepwise approach, we could identify the cause of chronic cough in 96% of the patients. The most common causes were due to postnasal drip syndrome (PND) (45%) and bronchial asthma (26%). We also demonstrated the important role of methacholine inhalation challenge in the diagnostic work up. The procedure could identify the patients who had bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) in 52% of the cases. The severity degree of the BHR was classified into three levels. Mild or nonspecific BHR was defined as PC20 16-25 mg/ml. This could be found in many diseases such as PND and bronchiectasis. Moderate degree of BHR (PC20 8-16 mg/ml) was found in patients with PND and asthma. PC20 of less than 8 mg/ml was considered to be the most severe degree and it seemed to be specific for the diagnosis of asthma (positive predictive value 100%). Other condition that caused chronic cough were drug-induced, especially angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, subgottic cancer and idiopathic cough. These conditions may require invasive diagnostic work up, such as fiberoptic bronchoscopy and tissue biopsy. The treatment of chronic cough was according to the etiology. Thus, the patients presenting with chronic cough should be investigated to identify the cause, and it was not just only the administration of cough suppressant drugs in these patients. PMID:9251842

  2. 慢性咳嗽的临床分析%The clinical analysis of chronic cough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋勤军

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨慢性咳嗽患者的病因及临床治疗方法。方法对58例慢性咳嗽患者按照咳嗽流程进行检查诊断分析,再根据诊断结果,针对不同病因采取不同治疗方法。结果本组患者咳嗽原因诊断明确87.93%、不明原因12.07%,其中变异性哮喘咳嗽占25.86%、鼻咽喉疾病引起咳嗽占20.69%。临床针对不同病因及病情采取不同治疗方法,治疗有效率为94.83%。结论重视慢性咳嗽的早诊断、早治疗,是提高治疗效果及患者生活质量的有效方法。%objective to explore the etiology and clinical treatment of patients with chronic cough. Methods 58 cases of patients with chronic cough according to cough process inspection diagnosis analysis, according to diagnosis, according to different causes different treatment methods. Results this group of patients cough reason clear diagnosis, unknown reason, 12.07%, 87.93% of cough variability asthma (25.86%), nose and throat diseases cause cough (20.69%). Clinical treatment according to different causes and different treatment methods, treatment effective rate was 94.83%. Conclusion emphasis on early diagnosis and early treatment of chronic cough, is to improve the treatment effect and quality of life of patients with effective methods.

  3. The role of mast cells in citric acid-induced airway constriction and cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yih-Loong; Wu, Li-Ling; Lin, Tai-Yin; Lin, Chien-He

    2009-11-30

    Inhalation of citric acid (CA) causes airway constriction and coughing. To investigate the role of mast cells in CA-induced airway constriction and cough, three experiments using guinea pigs were carried out. In the first experiment, we used compound 48/80 to deplete mast cells, cromolyn sodium to stabilize mast cells, MK-886 to inhibit synthesis of leukotrienes, pyrilamine to antagonize histamine H1 receptor, methysergide to antagonize serotonin receptor, and indomethacin to inhibit cyclooxygenase. In the second experiment, compound 48/80-pretreated animals were divided into 2 parts; the first one was used to test the role of exogenous leukotriene (LT) C4, while the second one to test the role of exogenous histamine. Decreases in respiratory compliance (Crs) and forced expiratory volume in 0.1 sec (FEV0.1) were used as indicators for airway constriction in anesthetized guinea pigs. CA-induced cough was recorded for 12 min using a barometric body plethysmograph in conscious animals. In the third experiment, the activation of mast cells upon CA inhalation was investigated by determining lung tissue or arterial plasma histamine concentration in animals. Exposure to CA induced marked airway constriction and increase in cough number. Compound 48/80, cromolyn sodium, MK-886 and pyrilamine, but not indomethacin or methysergide, significantly attenuated CA-induced airway constriction and cough. Injection of LTC4 or histamine caused a significant increase in CA-induced airway constriction and cough in compound 48/80-pretreated animals. In addition, CA inhalation caused significant increase in lung tissue and plasma histamine concentrations, which were blocked by compound 48/80 pretreatment. These results suggest that mast cells play an important role in CA aerosol inhalation-induced airway constriction and cough via perhaps mediators including LTs and histamine. PMID:20359123

  4. Efficacy and safety of levodropropizine and dihydrocodeine on nonproductive cough in primary and metastatic lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luporini, G; Barni, S; Marchi, E; Daffonchio, L

    1998-07-01

    Nonproductive cough is a frequent and distressing symptom in patients with lung cancer, and it is not even relieved by palliative chemotherapy. A double-blind, randomized clinical trial regarding the treatment of nonproductive cough was performed in 140 adults with primary lung cancer or metastatic cancer of the lungs. The therapeutic efficacy and the tolerability of a 7-day treatment with levodropropizine drops (75 mg t.i.d.) were evaluated in comparison with dihydrocodeine drops (10 mg t.i.d.; 7 days). Efficacy was assessed on the basis of cough severity scores, number of night awakenings due to cough, and overall estimate of antitussive efficacy. Tolerability was evaluated by laboratory results, vital signs and any adverse event occurring during the clinical trial, including presence or absence of somnolence. Subjective cough severity was significantly reduced during treatment with either levodropropizine and dihydrocodeine, the antitussive effect and its time-profile being similar for both drugs. Also, according to the investigator's evaluation, both levodropropizine and dihydrocodeine produced a significant decrease in cough severity. Concurrently with the relief of cough, the number of night awakenings was decreased significantly by both drugs, with no difference between the two treatments. No change in laboratory test values was considered clinically relevant, and vital signs were not clinically affected. The number of patients reporting adverse events was similar in the levodropropizine (n=6) and dihydrocodeine (n=4) group. However, the percentage of patients experiencing somnolence in the group receiving levodropropizine (8%) was significantly lower as compared with that of the dihydrocodeine group (22%). These results confirm the antitussive effectiveness of levodropropizine and suggest a more favourable benefit/risk profile when compared to dihydrocodeine. PMID:9701421

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Association between Heavy Metals and Itchy Eyes, Coughing in Chronic Cough Patients: Related with Non-Immunoglobulin E Mediated Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao Thi Thu Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between heavy metals exposure and respiratory diseases or allergic sensitization showing high serum immunoglobulin E (IgE has been suggested. However, previous findings have been inconsistent and the mechanisms responsible remain unclear. We evaluated heavy metal exposure and its association with coughing, itchy eyes in chronic cough patients with different IgE levels. Ninety outpatients in Kanazawa University Hospital were recruited between January–June 2011. Subjects whose total IgE measured by radioimmunosorbent test were asked to record their daily symptoms. We collected daily total suspended particles (TSP from which concentrations of calcium (Ca, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, nickel (Ni, and lead (Pb were determined then divided into high and low level groups. Generalized estimating equations were applied to compute the relationship between concentrations of these metals and symptoms. All metals at high levels were significantly associated with itchy eyes compared with low levels, with exception of Ca, the six others were significant in patients with IgE < 250 IU/mL. Cd, Fe, Mn had association with coughing (odds ratio-OR (95% confidence interval-CI: 1.13 (1.03, 1.24, 1.22 (1.05, 1.42, and 1.13 (1.01, 1.27, respectively, this relationship remained significant for Cd (OR (95% CI: 1.14 (1.03, 1.27 and Mn (OR (95% CI: 1.15 (1.00, 1.31 in patients with lower IgE. Our findings demonstrate the relationship between aerial heavy metals and itchy eyes, coughing in chronic cough patients, suggesting these symptoms may be due to a non-IgE mediated mechanism.

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Association between Heavy Metals and Itchy Eyes, Coughing in Chronic Cough Patients: Related with Non-Immunoglobulin E Mediated Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao Thi Thu; Higashi, Tomomi; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Anyenda, Enoch Olando; Michigami, Yoshimasa; Hara, Johsuke; Fujimura, Masaki; Tsujiguchi, Hiromasa; Kitaoka, Masami; Asakura, Hiroki; Hori, Daisuke; Hibino, Yuri; Konoshita, Tadashi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The association between heavy metals exposure and respiratory diseases or allergic sensitization showing high serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) has been suggested. However, previous findings have been inconsistent and the mechanisms responsible remain unclear. We evaluated heavy metal exposure and its association with coughing, itchy eyes in chronic cough patients with different IgE levels. Ninety outpatients in Kanazawa University Hospital were recruited between January–June 2011. Subjects whose total IgE measured by radioimmunosorbent test were asked to record their daily symptoms. We collected daily total suspended particles (TSP) from which concentrations of calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) were determined then divided into high and low level groups. Generalized estimating equations were applied to compute the relationship between concentrations of these metals and symptoms. All metals at high levels were significantly associated with itchy eyes compared with low levels, with exception of Ca, the six others were significant in patients with IgE < 250 IU/mL. Cd, Fe, Mn had association with coughing (odds ratio-OR (95% confidence interval-CI): 1.13 (1.03, 1.24), 1.22 (1.05, 1.42), and 1.13 (1.01, 1.27), respectively), this relationship remained significant for Cd (OR (95% CI): 1.14 (1.03, 1.27)) and Mn (OR (95% CI): 1.15 (1.00, 1.31)) in patients with lower IgE. Our findings demonstrate the relationship between aerial heavy metals and itchy eyes, coughing in chronic cough patients, suggesting these symptoms may be due to a non-IgE mediated mechanism. PMID:26751467

  7. Involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in cough reflex sensitivity between non-sensitized and OVA-sensitized guinea pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Hori, Akihiro; Fujimura, Masaki; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Tokuda, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Background Exhaled nitric oxide (ENO) is elevated in bronchial asthma patients, and inhaled corticosteroid therapy lowers the elevated ENO levels in such patients. ENO appears to be an inflammatory marker, but its role in the pathophysiology of cough remains unclear. This study aimed to elucidate the relationship between NO and increased cough reflex sensitivity induced by allergic airway reactions. Methods Cough reflex sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin was observed under NO depletion caused b...

  8. Fentanyl enhances the excitability of rapidly adapting receptors to cause cough via the enhancement of histamine release in the airways

    OpenAIRE

    Kamei, Junzo; Nakanishi, Yuki; ASATO, MEGUMI; Ikeda, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the mechanism of fentanyl-induced cough is unclear, several lines of evidence suggest that allergic mediators, such as histamine, may play a role in the production of fentanyl-induced coughs. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of fentanyl on cough sensitivity to inhaled citric acid and on histamine release in BALF in mice. Methods The cough reflex was induced by the inhalation of citric acid. Male ICR mice were exposed to a nebulized solution of citric acid a...

  9. Feed-forward and reciprocal inhibition for gain and phase timing control in a computational model of repetitive cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Teresa; Morris, Kendall F; Segers, Lauren S; Poliacek, Ivan; Rose, Melanie J; Lindsey, Bruce G; Davenport, Paul W; Howland, Dena R; Bolser, Donald C

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the hypothesis, motivated in part by a coordinated computational cough network model, that second-order neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) act as a filter and shape afferent input to the respiratory network during the production of cough. In vivo experiments were conducted on anesthetized spontaneously breathing cats. Cough was elicited by mechanical stimulation of the intrathoracic airways. Electromyograms of the parasternal (inspiratory) and rectus abdominis (expiratory) muscles and esophageal pressure were recorded. In vivo data revealed that expiratory motor drive during bouts of repetitive coughs is variable: peak expulsive amplitude increases from the first cough, peaks about the eighth or ninth cough, and then decreases through the remainder of the bout. Model simulations indicated that feed-forward inhibition of a single second-order neuron population is not sufficient to account for this dynamic feature of a repetitive cough bout. When a single second-order population was split into two subpopulations (inspiratory and expiratory), the resultant model produced simulated expiratory motor bursts that were comparable to in vivo data. However, expiratory phase durations during these simulations of repetitive coughing had less variance than those in vivo. Simulations in which reciprocal inhibitory processes between inspiratory-decrementing and expiratory-augmenting-late neurons were introduced exhibited increased variance in the expiratory phase durations. These results support the prediction that serial and parallel processing of airway afferent signals in the NTS play a role in generation of the motor pattern for cough. PMID:27283917

  10. Automatic trend estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Vamos¸, C˘alin

    2013-01-01

    Our book introduces a method to evaluate the accuracy of trend estimation algorithms under conditions similar to those encountered in real time series processing. This method is based on Monte Carlo experiments with artificial time series numerically generated by an original algorithm. The second part of the book contains several automatic algorithms for trend estimation and time series partitioning. The source codes of the computer programs implementing these original automatic algorithms are given in the appendix and will be freely available on the web. The book contains clear statement of the conditions and the approximations under which the algorithms work, as well as the proper interpretation of their results. We illustrate the functioning of the analyzed algorithms by processing time series from astrophysics, finance, biophysics, and paleoclimatology. The numerical experiment method extensively used in our book is already in common use in computational and statistical physics.

  11. Automatic Program Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Lígia Maria da Silva Ribeiro; Gabriel de Sousa Torcato David

    2007-01-01

    To profit from the data collected by the SIGARRA academic IS, a systematic setof graphs and statistics has been added to it and are available on-line. Thisanalytic information can be automatically included in a flexible yearly report foreach program as well as in a synthesis report for the whole school. Somedifficulties in the interpretation of some graphs led to the definition of new keyindicators and the development of a data warehouse across the university whereeffective data consolidation...

  12. Automatic food decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone

    Consumers' food decisions are to a large extent shaped by automatic processes, which are either internally directed through learned habits and routines or externally influenced by context factors and visual information triggers. Innovative research methods such as eye tracking, choice experiments...... and food diaries allow us to better understand the impact of unconscious processes on consumers' food choices. Simone Mueller Loose will provide an overview of recent research insights into the effects of habit and context on consumers' food choices....

  13. Automatic Differentiation Variational Inference

    OpenAIRE

    Kucukelbir, Alp; Tran, Dustin; Ranganath, Rajesh; Gelman, Andrew; Blei, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Probabilistic modeling is iterative. A scientist posits a simple model, fits it to her data, refines it according to her analysis, and repeats. However, fitting complex models to large data is a bottleneck in this process. Deriving algorithms for new models can be both mathematically and computationally challenging, which makes it difficult to efficiently cycle through the steps. To this end, we develop automatic differentiation variational inference (ADVI). Using our method, the scientist on...

  14. Baclofen vs. Dextromethorphan in the treatment of coughing: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Cough is one of the most common symptoms for which outpatient care is sought. Since, a few research evaluated efficacy and therapeutic effect of baclofen in remedy of cough (especially chronic cough, In this study we compared the efficacy of oral Baclofen 20 mg with Dextromethorphan to improvement of cough in two groups."n"nMethods: In this double blind randomized clinical trial, 120 patients with chronic cough (up to three weeks that were referred to respiratory diseases clinic of Ali Ebn-e Abitaleb (AS hospital in Zahedan, Iran at 2007 were randomly devided to two groups. 60 peoples in each, (baclofen recipient group with mean age 32.32±6.51 and dextromethorphan recipient group with mean age 31.54±5.06 year were evaluated for qualitative decline of severity, period and duration of cough for 14 days. "n"nResults: In baclofen recipient group 73.3% and in dextromethorphan recipient group 65% all patients had decline of severity, period and duration of the cough. Statistically, there were no significant differences between two groups in regard to qualitative decline of severity, period and duration of cough (p>0.05. Also, there were no drug related side effects in the patients."n"nConclusions: Baclofen

  15. Automatic Calculation of Dimension Chains in AutoCAD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In the course of mechanical part designing, process p lanning and assembling designing, we often have to calculate and analyse a dimen sion chain. Traditionally, a dimension chain is established and calculated m anually. With wide computer application in the field of mechanical design and ma nufacture, people began to use a computer to acquire and calculate a dimension c hain automatically. In reported work, a dimension chain can be established and c alculated automatically. However, dimension text value...

  16. The cough response to ultrasonically nebulized distilled water in heart-lung transplantation patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of clinical heart-lung transplantation, the lungs are denervated below the level of the tracheal anastomosis. It has been questioned whether afferent vagal reinnervation occurs after surgery. Here we report the cough frequency, during inhalation of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water, of 15 heart-lung transplant patients studied 6 wk to 36 months after surgery. They were compared with 15 normal subjects of a similar age and sex. The distribution of the aerosol was studied in five normal subjects using 99mtechnetium diethylene triamine pentaacetate (99mTc-DTPA) in saline. In seven patients, the sensitivity of the laryngeal mucosa to instilled distilled water (0.2 ml) was tested at the time of fiberoptic bronchoscopy by recording the cough response. Ten percent of the aerosol was deposited onto the larynx and trachea, 56% on the central airways, and 34% in the periphery of the lung. The cough response to the aerosol was strikingly diminished in the patients compared with normal subjects (p less than 0.001), but all seven patients coughed when distilled water was instilled onto the larynx. As expected, the laryngeal mucosa of heart-lung transplant patients remains sensitive to distilled water. However, the diminished coughing when the distilled water is distributed by aerosol to the central airways supports the view that vagal afferent nerves do not reinnervate the lungs after heart-lung transplantation, up to 36 months after surgery

  17. Voluntary Cough Airflow Differentiates Safe Versus Unsafe Swallowing in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowman, Emily K; Watts, Stephanie A; Robison, Raele; Tabor, Lauren; Dion, Charles; Gaziano, Joy; Vu, Tuan; Gooch, Clifton

    2016-06-01

    Dysphagia and aspiration are prevalent in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and contribute to malnutrition, aspiration pneumonia, and death. Early detection of at risk individuals is critical to ensure maintenance of safe oral intake and optimal pulmonary function. We therefore aimed to determine the discriminant ability of voluntary cough airflow measures in detecting penetration/aspiration status in ALS patients. Seventy individuals with ALS (El-Escorial criteria) completed voluntary cough spirometry testing and underwent a standardized videofluoroscopic swallowing evaluation (VFSE). A rater blinded to aspiration status derived six objective measures of voluntary cough airflow and evaluated airway safety using the penetration-aspiration scale (PAS). A between groups ANOVA (safe vs. unsafe swallowers) was conducted and sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve (AUC) and likelihood ratios were calculated. VFSE analysis revealed 24 penetrator/aspirators (PAS ≥3) and 46 non-penetrator/aspirators (PAS ≤2). Cough volume acceleration (CVA), peak expiratory flow rise time (PEFRT), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were significantly different between airway safety groups (p 76 ms had sensitivities of 91.3, 82.6, and 73.9 %, respectively, and specificities of 82.2, 73.9, and 78.3 % for identifying ALS penetrator/aspirators. Voluntary cough airflow measures identified ALS patients at risk for penetration/aspiration and may be a valuable screening tool with high clinical utility. PMID:26803772

  18. The capsaicin cough reflex in eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberling, Jesper; Dirksen, Asger; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Mosbech, Holger

    2006-03-01

    Respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume are common in the population but have unclear pathophysiology. Increased capsaicin cough responsiveness has been associated with the symptoms, but it is unknown whether the site of the symptoms in the airways influences this association. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the site of airway symptoms elicited by perfume and cough responsiveness to bronchial challenge with capsaicin. 21 eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire and underwent a bronchial challenge with capsaicin. Lower, but not upper, respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were associated with increased capsaicin cough responsiveness. Having severe symptoms to perfume (n=11) did not relate to the site of the symptoms in the airways and was not associated with increased capsaicin cough responsiveness. In conclusion, respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume may reflect local hyperreactivity related to defensive reflexes in the airways, and measurements of the capsaicin cough reflex are relevant when patients with lower respiratory symptoms related to environmental perfume exposures are investigated.

  19. Barium swallow study in routine clinical practice: a prospective study in patients with chronic cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Shuler Nin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the routine use of barium swallow study in patients with chronic cough.METHODS: Between October of 2011 and March of 2012, 95 consecutive patients submitted to chest X-ray due to chronic cough (duration > 8 weeks were included in the study. For study purposes, additional images were obtained immediately after the oral administration of 5 mL of a 5% barium sulfate suspension. Two radiologists systematically evaluated all of the images in order to identify any pathological changes. Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for categorical data were used in the comparisons.RESULTS: The images taken immediately after barium swallow revealed significant pathological conditions that were potentially related to chronic cough in 12 (12.6% of the 95 patients. These conditions, which included diaphragmatic hiatal hernia, esophageal neoplasm, achalasia, esophageal diverticulum, and abnormal esophageal dilatation, were not detected on the images taken without contrast. After appropriate treatment, the symptoms disappeared in 11 (91.6% of the patients, whereas the treatment was ineffective in 1 (8.4%. We observed no complications related to barium swallow, such as contrast aspiration.CONCLUSIONS: Barium swallow improved the detection of significant radiographic findings related to chronic cough in 11.5% of patients. These initial findings suggest that the routine use of barium swallow can significantly increase the sensitivity of chest X-rays in the detection of chronic cough-related etiologies.

  20. Diagnosis of pertussis in vaccinated children of Khairpur, Sindh, Pakistan by Cough Plate Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Habib Bukhari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pertussis or whooping cough is a communicable infection of upper respiratory tract that mainly affects children. Reports regarding resurgence of pertussis in vaccinated children mainly motivated us to document pertussis in the children. The aim of the study was to explore pertussis in vaccinated children using an alternative method for pertussis diagnosis.Materials and methods: A total of 700 clinical samples were collected during study period (2006-2009, from suspected whooping cough cases of Diphtheria-tetanus- whole cell pertussis (DTwP vaccinated children both male and female aged from 6 months to 84 months The classical ‘Cough Plate Method’ instead of Nasopharyngeal Swab was used for sampling to find out its potential in diagnosis of pertussis.Results: Present study reports the presence of pertussis in vaccinated children using Cough Plate Method. The method successfully isolated Bordetella pertussis from suspected patients of pertussis. A total of 28 culture confirmed cases were detected among 700 samples tested. (Total Isolation rate: 4%.The peak incidence age under risk was 48 months. However, pertussis was detected in children aged as young as 6 and 12 months.Conclusion: The ‘Cough plate’ method used for isolation proved successful and simple instead of nasopharyngeal swabs that is difficult to perform and children may be reluctant to this sampling method when tried. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2011;1 (2 : 68-72

  1. MARZ: Manual and automatic redshifting software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, S. R.; Davis, Tamara M.; Lidman, C.; Glazebrook, K.; Lewis, G. F.

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Dark Energy Survey (OzDES) is a 100-night spectroscopic survey underway on the Anglo-Australian Telescope using the fibre-fed 2-degree-field (2dF) spectrograph. We have developed a new redshifting application MARZ with greater usability, flexibility, and the capacity to analyse a wider range of object types than the RUNZ software package previously used for redshifting spectra from 2dF. MARZ is an open-source, client-based, Javascript web-application which provides an intuitive interface and powerful automatic matching capabilities on spectra generated from the AAOmega spectrograph to produce high quality spectroscopic redshift measurements. The software can be run interactively or via the command line, and is easily adaptable to other instruments and pipelines if conforming to the current FITS file standard is not possible. Behind the scenes, a modified version of the AUTOZ cross-correlation algorithm is used to match input spectra against a variety of stellar and galaxy templates, and automatic matching performance for OzDES spectra has increased from 54% (RUNZ) to 91% (MARZ). Spectra not matched correctly by the automatic algorithm can be easily redshifted manually by cycling automatic results, manual template comparison, or marking spectral features.

  2. Butorphanol suppresses fentanyl-induced cough during general anesthesia induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao-Yan; Lun, Xiao-Qin; Li, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Zhi-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fentanyl-induced cough (FIC) is unwanted in the patients requiring stable induction of general anesthesia. This study was designed to evaluate the suppressive effects of butorphanol pretreatment on the incidence and severity of FIC during the induction of general anesthesia. A total of 315 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II, scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia were randomized into 3 equally sized groups (n = 0105). Two minutes before fentanyl bolus, group I received intravenously 5 mL normal saline, groups II and III received butorphanol 0.015 and 0.03 mg/kg (diluted with saline to 5 mL), respectively. Patients were then administrated with fentanyl 2.5 μg/kg within 5 s. The incidence and severity of FIC was recorded for 2 minutes after fentanyl bolus. During experimental period, the mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) were recorded before the administration of butorphanol or normal saline (T0), 2 minutes (T1) after butorphanol injection, and 2 minutes (T2) after fentanyl injection. The incidence of FIC was 31.4% in group I, 11.4% in group II, and 3.8% in group III. Group III had a lowest incidence of FIC among 3 groups (P < 0.001, vs group I; P < 0.05, vs group II). The severe FIC was not observed in groups II and III, but was recoded from 6 patients in group I. At 2 minutes after fentanyl injection (T2), the mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in group I than that in groups II and III (P < 0.01, vs group II; P < 0.05, vs group III), but the values remained within safe limits. In conclusion, pretreatment with butorphanol could effectively and safely suppress FIC during anesthesia induction. PMID:27367987

  3. The effect of pheniramine on fentanyl-induced cough: a randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakir Arslan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: There are many studies conducted on reducing the frequency and severity of fentayl-induced cough during anesthesia induction. We propose that pheniramine maleate, an antihistaminic, may suppress this cough. We aim to observe the effect of pheniramine on fentanyl-induced cough during anesthesia induction. Methods: This is a double-blinded, prospective, three-arm parallel, randomized clinical trial of 120 patients with ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status III and IV who aged ≥18 and scheduled for elective open heart surgery during general anesthesia. Patients were randomly assigned to three groups of 40 patients, using computer-generated random numbers: placebo group, pheniramine group, and lidocaine group. Results: Cough incidence differed significantly between groups. In the placebo group, 37.5% of patients had cough, whereas the frequency was significantly decreased in pheniramine group (5% and lidocaine group (15% (Fischer exact test, p = 0.0007 and p = 0.0188, respectively. There was no significant change in cough incidence between pheniramine group (5% and lidocaine group (15% (Fischer exact test, p = 0.4325. Cough severity did also change between groups. Post Hoc tests with Bonferroni showed that mean cough severity in placebo differed significantly than that of pheniramine group and lidocaine group (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.009, respectively. There was no significant change in cough severity between pheniramine group and lidocaine group (p = 0.856. Conclusion: Intravenous pheniramine is as effective as lidocaine in preventing fentayl-induced cough. Our results emphasize that pheniramine is a convenient drug to decrease this cough.

  4. Therapeutic options for acute cough due to upper respiratory infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ian M

    2012-02-01

    Cough due to upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) is one of the most frequent complaints encountered by pediatric health-care providers, and one of the most disruptive symptoms for children and families. Despite the frequency of URIs, there is limited evidence to support the few therapeutic agents currently available in the United States (US) to treat acute cough due to URI. Published, well-designed, contemporary research supporting the efficacy of narcotics (codeine, hydrocodone) and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved over-the-counter (OTC) oral antitussives and expectorants (dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, chlophedianol, and guaifenesin) is absent for URI-associated pediatric cough. Alternatively, honey and topically applied vapor rubs may be effective antitussives.

  5. Cough urethrocystography: The best radiological evaluation of female stress urinary incontinence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urethrocystography and simultaneous urethrocystometry were performed on 40 women with primary urinary incontinence. The posterior urethrovesical angle, inclination angle, urethropelvic angle, and an orifice descent angle, not earlier described, were measured on radiographs obtained at rest, during coughing and during straining. The orifice descent angle was used to describe the descent of the internal urethral orifice in the cough radiographs, and was the only measurement that provided a significant correlation with urethrocystometry. The other angles measured, and radiographs obtained at rest or during straining were not useful in the evaluation of female stress urinary incontinence. The authors conclude that the best imaging method for the evaluation of female stress urinary incontinence is urethrocystography employing a single lateral view taken during coughing, with measurement of the orifice descent angle. (orig.)

  6. Effect of downsampling and compressive sensing on audio-based continuous cough monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaseca-de-la-Higuera, Pablo; Lesso, Paul; McKinstry, Brian; Pinnock, Hilary; Rabinovich, Roberto; McCloughan, Lucy; Monge-Álvarez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient cough detection system based on simple decision-tree classification of spectral features from a smartphone audio signal. Preliminary evaluation on voluntary coughs shows that the system can achieve 98% sensitivity and 97.13% specificity when the audio signal is sampled at full rate. With this baseline system, we study possible efficiency optimisations by evaluating the effect of downsampling below the Nyquist rate and how the system performance at low sampling frequencies can be improved by incorporating compressive sensing reconstruction schemes. Our results show that undersampling down to 400 Hz can still keep sensitivity and specificity values above 90% despite of aliasing. Furthermore, the sparsity of cough signals in the time domain allows keeping performance figures close to 90% when sampling at 100 Hz using compressive sensing schemes.

  7. Therapeutic options for acute cough due to upper respiratory infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ian M

    2012-02-01

    Cough due to upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) is one of the most frequent complaints encountered by pediatric health-care providers, and one of the most disruptive symptoms for children and families. Despite the frequency of URIs, there is limited evidence to support the few therapeutic agents currently available in the United States (US) to treat acute cough due to URI. Published, well-designed, contemporary research supporting the efficacy of narcotics (codeine, hydrocodone) and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved over-the-counter (OTC) oral antitussives and expectorants (dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, chlophedianol, and guaifenesin) is absent for URI-associated pediatric cough. Alternatively, honey and topically applied vapor rubs may be effective antitussives. PMID:21892785

  8. Stability of cough linctus (streptol) formulated from named medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwu, Maurice; Okunji, Christopher; Tchimene, Michel; Anele, Ngozi; Chah, Kennedy; Osonwa, Uduma; Akpa, Paul Achile; Onunkwo, Godswill Chukwunweike

    2009-03-01

    Extracts of named medicinal herbs (Garcinia kola, Zingiber oificinale, Aframonum melequeta and Ocimum viride) were formulated into an antitussive preparation to alleviate cough. Some physical properties of the cough syrup formulation evaluated were: specific gravity, pH, viscosity, content uniformity, and shelf life. The specific gravity and viscosity of the formulations were stable on storage, with glycerin-based formulations having higher values. The pH of the formulation varied from 4.2 to 5.3 and was also stable on storage. Glycerin-based formulations had lower pH values. The total flavonoids content of Streptol was calculated based on GB1 and found to be 46 mg. The estimated shelf life of the Streptol cough syrup was 4.5 years. PMID:19252311

  9. Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder: Mismanagement, Misdiagnosis, Chronic Cough Following Sexual Abuse: A Rare Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidaki, Reza; Zarepur, Ehsan; Akrami, Maryam; Mohammad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objective Conversion disorder (CD) is a mental disorder in which patient displays neurological symptoms such as blindness, mutism, paralysis and seizure. It starts when our mind converts our mental stress into a physical symptom. A 15-year-old single white female with chronic cough, which had begun 5 months ago, was brought to our clinic. She had no history of hospitalization. His daily cough was without sputum production or fever, rhinorrhea and stopped during sleep. There was no recent exposure to tobacco smoke or a person with a chronic productive cough. Laboratory tests were normal. She had engaged 4 months ago. Doing sex during engagement is prohibited in her culture but and had anal sex, because of her spouse's trend. Psychotherapy was done and complete recovery was accomplished. PMID:27247590

  10. Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder: Mismanagement, Misdiagnosis, Chronic Cough Following Sexual Abuse: A Rare Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIDAKI, Reza; ZAREPUR, Ehsan; AKRAMI, Maryam; Mohammad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objective Conversion disorder (CD) is a mental disorder in which patient displays neurological symptoms such as blindness, mutism, paralysis and seizure. It starts when our mind converts our mental stress into a physical symptom. A 15-year-old single white female with chronic cough, which had begun 5 months ago, was brought to our clinic. She had no history of hospitalization. His daily cough was without sputum production or fever, rhinorrhea and stopped during sleep. There was no recent exposure to tobacco smoke or a person with a chronic productive cough. Laboratory tests were normal. She had engaged 4 months ago. Doing sex during engagement is prohibited in her culture but and had anal sex, because of her spouse’s trend. Psychotherapy was done and complete recovery was accomplished. PMID:27247590

  11. Automatic Analysis of Critical Incident Reports: Requirements and Use Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denecke, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly, critical incident reports are used as a means to increase patient safety and quality of care. The entire potential of these sources of experiential knowledge remains often unconsidered since retrieval and analysis is difficult and time-consuming, and the reporting systems often do not provide support for these tasks. The objective of this paper is to identify potential use cases for automatic methods that analyse critical incident reports. In more detail, we will describe how faceted search could offer an intuitive retrieval of critical incident reports and how text mining could support in analysing relations among events. To realise an automated analysis, natural language processing needs to be applied. Therefore, we analyse the language of critical incident reports and derive requirements towards automatic processing methods. We learned that there is a huge potential for an automatic analysis of incident reports, but there are still challenges to be solved. PMID:27139389

  12. Efficacy and tolerability of levodropropizine and dropropizine in children with non-productive cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banderali, G; Riva, E; Fiocchi, A; Cordaro, C I; Giovannini, M

    1995-01-01

    The antitussive efficacy and tolerability of dropropizine and of its enantiomer levodropropizine were evaluated in children with non-productive cough; 258 were evaluable for tolerability and 254 for efficacy. Patients randomly received either 1 mg/kg dropropizine or 2 mg/kg levodropropizine orally, three times daily for 3 days. There were statistically significant decreases in the frequency of coughing spells and nocturnal awakenings after both levodropropizine and dropropizine treatments (P Levodropropizine is as effective as an antitussive as dropropizine, but appears to carry a lower risk of daytime somnolence.

  13. Honey with Coffee: A new finding in the treatment of Persistent Postinfectious Cough

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad-Ali Raeessi; Jafar Aslani; Homa Gharaie; Ali-Akbar Karimi Zarchi; Neda Raeessi; Shervin Assari

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Persistent postinfectious cough (PPC) is a cough that persists longer than 3 weeks or perhaps for many months after a common cold or an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). PPC has poor response to routine treatment modalities, so it can be a vexing problem for the patient and the physician alike. Our hypothesis was that honey and/or coffee have some beneficial effects in the treatment of PPC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of coffee and/or ho...

  14. 327 Transition from Cough Variant Asthma to Asthma With Reduced FEV1

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, June-Hyuk; Park, Sung Woo; Jang, An-Soo; Kim, DoJin; Park, Choon-Sik

    2012-01-01

    Background Cough variant asthma (CVA) is one of the most common causes of chronic cough. It may have been thought to be as a pre-asthmatic condition. Some CVA patients show decreased lung function after diagnosed as a CVA. This study aimed to see differences of clinical characteristics between CVA with preserved FEV1 and CVA with reduced FEV1 after diagnosis of CVA. Methods We searched medical records from January 2007 to May 2011. Thousand six hundred sixty two patients were diagnosed as CVA...

  15. Efficacy and tolerability of levodropropizine and dropropizine in children with non-productive cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banderali, G; Riva, E; Fiocchi, A; Cordaro, C I; Giovannini, M

    1995-01-01

    The antitussive efficacy and tolerability of dropropizine and of its enantiomer levodropropizine were evaluated in children with non-productive cough; 258 were evaluable for tolerability and 254 for efficacy. Patients randomly received either 1 mg/kg dropropizine or 2 mg/kg levodropropizine orally, three times daily for 3 days. There were statistically significant decreases in the frequency of coughing spells and nocturnal awakenings after both levodropropizine and dropropizine treatments (P Levodropropizine is as effective as an antitussive as dropropizine, but appears to carry a lower risk of daytime somnolence. PMID:7649341

  16. Cough induced rib fracture, rupture of the diaphragm and abdominal herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wurl Peter

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cough can be associated with many complications. In this article, we present a 59 year old male patient with a very rare combination of a cough related stress fracture of the ninth rib, a traumatic rupture of the diaphragm, and an abdominal wall herniation. The hernia was repaired through surgical treatment without bowel resection, the diaphragm and the internal and oblique abdominal muscle were adapted, and the abdomen was reinforced with a prolene net. Although each individual injury is well documented in the literature, the combination of rib fracture, abdominal herniation and diaphragm rupture has not been reported.

  17. Refractory chronic cough due to gastroesophageal reflux: Definition, mechanism and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Han-Jing; Qiu, Zhong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Refractory chronic cough due to gastroesophageal reflux is a troublesome condition unresponsive to the standard medical anti-reflux therapy. Its underlying mechanisms may include incomplete acid suppression, non-acid reflux, transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations and esophageal hypersensitivity. The diagnosis of this disorder depends on both the findings of multi-channel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring and the subsequent intensified anti-reflux therapy. The strategies of pharmacological treatment for refractory chronic cough due to reflux include the optimization of proton pump inhibitors and add-on therapies with histamine H2 receptor antagonists, baclofen and gabapentin. However, the further study is needed to satisfy its management. PMID:26413488

  18. Automatic Configuration in NTP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Zongli(蒋宗礼); Xu Binbin

    2003-01-01

    NTP is nowadays the most widely used distributed network time protocol, which aims at synchronizing the clocks of computers in a network and keeping the accuracy and validation of the time information which is transmitted in the network. Without automatic configuration mechanism, the stability and flexibility of the synchronization network built upon NTP protocol are not satisfying. P2P's resource discovery mechanism is used to look for time sources in a synchronization network, and according to the network environment and node's quality, the synchronization network is constructed dynamically.

  19. Analysis of the evidence of efficacy and safety of over-the-counter cough medications registered in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Max Moreira Reis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the level of evidence regarding the efficacy, effectiveness and safety of over-the-counter (OTC cough medications registered in Brazil. The National Health Surveillance Agency database was used to identify the drugs. Clinical trials, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and studies on safety were searched on the Medline baseline, the Cochrane Library and SIETES (System of Essential Information in Therapeutics and Health; database in Spanish. Most drugs (62.5% were sold as a fixed-dose combination of two or more drugs. Randomized clinical trials were found for only three drugs: bromhexine, dextromethorphan and guaifenesin. No clinical trials were found for fixed-dose combinations. Systematic reviews on Cochrane did not report any evidence in favor of or against the effectiveness of cough drugs. Efficacy is also unclear, especially regarding fixed-dose combinations. The evidence for the efficacy of OTC cough medications available in Brazil is poor due to the lack of quality studies. Pharmacovigilance of OTC cough medications should be encouraged.O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o nível de evidências sobre a eficácia, a efetividade e a segurança dos medicamentos para tosse registrados no Brasil. A base de dados da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária foi empregada para identificar os medicamentos. Os ensaios clínicos, as revisões sistemáticas, as metanálises e os estudos de segurança foram pesquisados no Medline, the Cochrane Library e SIETES (Sistema de Informações Essenciais em Terapêutica e Saúde, base de dados em espanhol. A maioria dos medicamentos (62,5% eram comercializados como associação em dose fixa com dois ou mais fármacos. Ensaios clínicos randomizados foram encontrados apenas para três fármacos: bromexina, dextrometorfano e guaifenesina; para associações a dose fixa não foram encontrados ensaios clínicos. Revisões sistemáticas publicadas pela Cochrane n

  20. Nocturnal dry cough in the first 7 years of life is associated with asthma at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudewijn, Ilse M; Savenije, Olga E M; Koppelman, Gerard H; Wijga, Alet H; Smit, Henriëtte A; de Jongste, Johan C; Gehring, Ulrike; Postma, Dirkje S; Kerkhof, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood wheeze is an important, well-known risk factor for asthma, yet little is known about the contribution of nocturnal dry cough. We investigated the association of nocturnal dry cough at ages 1-7 years with doctor-diagnosed asthma at 8 years of age, both in the presence and absenc

  1. Nocturnal Dry Cough in the First 7 Years of Life is Associated With Asthma at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudewijn, Ilse M.; Savenije, Olga E. M.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Wijga, Alet H.; Smit, Henriette A.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Gehring, Ulrike; Postma, Dirkje S.; Kerkhof, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood wheeze is an important, well-known risk factor for asthma, yet little is known about the contribution of nocturnal dry cough. We investigated the association of nocturnal dry cough at ages 1-7 years with doctor-diagnosed asthma at 8 years of age, both in the presence and absenc

  2. A genome-wide association study identifies variants in KCNIP4 associated with ACE inhibitor-induced cough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosley, J D; Shaffer, C M; Van Driest, S L; Weeke, P E; Wells, Q S; Karnes, J H; Velez Edwards, D R; Wei, W-Q; Teixeira, P L; Bastarache, L; Crawford, D C; Li, R; Manolio, T A; Bottinger, E P; McCarty, C A; Linneman, J G; Brilliant, M H; Pacheco, J A; Thompson, W; Chisholm, R L; Jarvik, G P; Crosslin, D R; Carrell, D S; Baldwin, E; Ralston, J; Larson, E B; Grafton, J; Scrol, A; Jouni, H; Kullo, I J; Tromp, G; Borthwick, K M; Kuivaniemi, H; Carey, D J; Ritchie, M D; Bradford, Y; Verma, S S; Chute, C G; Veluchamy, A; Siddiqui, M K; Palmer, C N A; Doney, A; Mahmoud Pour, Seyed Hamidreza; Maitland-van der Zee, A H; Morris, A D; Denny, J C; Roden, D M

    2015-01-01

    The most common side effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) drugs is cough. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ACEi-induced cough among 7080 subjects of diverse ancestries in the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) network. Cases were subjects diagn

  3. A genome-wide association study identifies variants in KCNIP4 associated with ACE inhibitor-induced cough

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosley, J D; Shaffer, C M; Van Driest, S L;

    2016-01-01

    The most common side effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) drugs is cough. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ACEi-induced cough among 7080 subjects of diverse ancestries in the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) network. Cases were subjects di...

  4. The Abuse of Dextromethorphan-Based Cough Syrup: A Pilot Study of the Community of Waynesboro, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momodou, N. Darboe; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the emergence of a new type of abused drug, dextromethorphan, which is used in cough syrup. Presents the results of the first phase of a comprehensive investigation of this phenomenon in the Waynesboro, Pa. school district. Survey data indicate abuse of cough syrup has increased over the years and is increasingly perceived as a problem…

  5. Automatic personnel contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United Nuclear Industries, Inc. (UNI) has developed an automatic personnel contamination monitor (APCM), which uniquely combines the design features of both portal and hand and shoe monitors. In addition, this prototype system also has a number of new features, including: micro computer control and readout, nineteen large area gas flow detectors, real-time background compensation, self-checking for system failures, and card reader identification and control. UNI's experience in operating the Hanford N Reactor, located in Richland, Washington, has shown the necessity of automatically monitoring plant personnel for contamination after they have passed through the procedurally controlled radiation zones. This final check ensures that each radiation zone worker has been properly checked before leaving company controlled boundaries. Investigation of the commercially available portal and hand and shoe monitors indicated that they did not have the sensitivity or sophistication required for UNI's application, therefore, a development program was initiated, resulting in the subject monitor. Field testing shows good sensitivity to personnel contamination with the majority of alarms showing contaminants on clothing, face and head areas. In general, the APCM has sensitivity comparable to portal survey instrumentation. The inherit stand-in, walk-on feature of the APCM not only makes it easy to use, but makes it difficult to bypass. (author)

  6. Investigation on diagnosis and treatment of cough variant asthma during subacute cough%亚急性咳嗽中咳嗽变异性哮喘诊治之探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建民

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the cough variant asthma in subacute cough prevalence and importance in the group.Methods Nearly 5 years in our hospital respiratory department of internal medicine clinic patients in subacute cough group and chronic cough group in incidence of cough variant asthma do comparative analysis . 2009 June to 2013 November were collected , subacute cough group 920 cases,246 cases of chronic cough group , two groups were not included X-ray lung disease , such as chronic bronchitis , chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis, tuberculosis, lung cancer, pneumonia.The two groups were diagnosed as cough variant asthma, and got comparative analysis .Results The two group confirmed the diagnosis of cough variant asthma patients in group 146 cases, subacute cough, cough variant asthma accounted for 15.87%, 46 cases of chronic cough were cough variant asthma , accounted for 18.69%, two sets of cough variant asthma incidence rate ,no significant differences , P>0.05.Conclusions Cough variant asthma in subacute cough group in incidence rate is relatively high, and the chronic cough group incidence .Therefore, early diagnosis and early treatment of cough variant asthma in subacute cough group has important significance .%目的:探讨咳嗽变异哮喘在亚急性咳嗽组中的发病情况及重要性。方法将近5年时间我院呼吸内科门诊就诊患者亚急性咳嗽组与慢性咳嗽组中咳嗽变异性哮喘的发病比例做对比分析。分别采集2009年6月至2013年11月,亚急性咳嗽组920例,慢性咳嗽组246例,两组均不包含X线肺部有病变的疾病,如慢性支气管炎急性发作、慢性阻塞性肺疾病、支气管扩张、肺结核、肺癌、肺炎等。两组均做肺功能组胺激发试验,阳性结果确诊为咳嗽变异性哮喘,并做对比分析。结果两组确诊为咳嗽变异性哮喘病例中,亚急性咳嗽组咳嗽变异性哮喘发病人数146例,占该组15.87%

  7. Fourier transform infrared and near-infrared spectroscopic methods for the detection of toxic Diethylene Glycol (DEG) contaminant in glycerin based cough syrup

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, M. Khalique; McLeod, Michael P.; Nézivar, Jean; Giuliani, Allison W.

    2010-01-01

    Recently there have been reports of the contamination of cough syrups with Diethylene Glycol (DEG). The consumption of such cough syrups has devastating effects on the health. In this paper we report evidence that Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic techniques are viable, simple, cost effective, rapid and fool proof methods for the identification and quantification of DEG in glycerin based cough syrups. The FT-IR and NIR spectra of the glycerin based cough...

  8. Olodaterol attenuates citric acid-induced cough in naïve and ovalbumin-sensitized and challenged guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wex, Eva; Bouyssou, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Excessive coughing is a common feature of airway diseases. Different G-protein coupled receptors, including β2-adrenergic receptors (β2-AR), have been implicated in the molecular mechanisms underlying the cough reflex. However, the potential antitussive property of β2-AR agonists in patients with respiratory disease is a matter of ongoing debate. The aim of our study was to test the efficacy of the long-acting β2-AR agonist olodaterol with regard to its antitussive property in a pre-clinical model of citric acid-induced cough in guinea pigs and to compare the results to different clinically relevant β2-AR agonists. In our study β2-AR agonists were intratracheally administered, as dry powder, into the lungs of naïve or ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs 15 minutes prior to induction of cough by exposure to citric acid. Cough events were counted over 15 minutes during the citric acid exposure. Olodaterol dose-dependently inhibited the number of cough events in naïve and even more potently and with a greater maximal efficacy in ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs (p citric acid-induced cough in naïve and ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs. This is in agreement with pre-clinical and clinical studies showing antitussive efficacy of β2-AR agonists. Indacaterol increased the number of coughs in this model, which concurs with clinical data where a transient cough has been observed after indacaterol inhalation. While the antitussive properties of β2-AR agonists can be explained by their ability to lead to the cAMP-induced hyperpolarization of the neuron membrane thereby inhibiting sensory nerve activation and the cough reflex, the mechanism underlying the pro-tussive property of indacaterol is not known.

  9. Can a management pathway for chronic cough in children improve clinical outcomes: protocol for a multicentre evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masters IB

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic cough is common and is associated with significant economic and human costs. While cough can be a problematic symptom without serious consequences, it could also reflect a serious underlying illness. Evidence shows that the management of chronic cough in children needs to be improved. Our study tests the hypothesis that the management of chronic cough in children with an evidence-based management pathway is feasible and reliable, and improves clinical outcomes. Methods/Design We are conducting a multicentre randomised controlled trial based in respiratory clinics in 5 major Australian cities. Children (n = 250 fulfilling inclusion criteria (new patients with chronic cough are randomised (allocation concealed to the standardised clinical management pathway (specialist starts clinical pathway within 2 weeks or usual care (existing care until review by specialist at 6 weeks. Cough diary, cough-specific quality of life (QOL and generic QOL are collected at baseline and at 6, 10, 14, 26, and 52 weeks. Children are followed-up for 6 months after diagnosis and cough resolution (with at least monthly contact from study nurses. A random sample from each site will be independently examined to determine adherence to the pathway. Primary outcomes are group differences in QOL and proportion of children that are cough free at week 6. Discussion The clinical management pathway is based on data from Cochrane Reviews combined with collective clinical experience (250 doctor years. This study will provide additional evidence on the optimal management of chronic cough in children. Trial registration ACTRN12607000526471

  10. Investigating the Relationship between Stable Personality Characteristics and Automatic Imitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E Butler

    Full Text Available Automatic imitation is a cornerstone of nonverbal communication that fosters rapport between interaction partners. Recent research has suggested that stable dimensions of personality are antecedents to automatic imitation, but the empirical evidence linking imitation with personality traits is restricted to a few studies with modest sample sizes. Additionally, atypical imitation has been documented in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but the mechanisms underpinning these behavioural profiles remain unclear. Using a larger sample than prior studies (N=243, the current study tested whether performance on a computer-based automatic imitation task could be predicted by personality traits associated with social behaviour (extraversion and agreeableness and with disorders of social cognition (autistic-like and schizotypal traits. Further personality traits (narcissism and empathy were assessed in a subsample of participants (N=57. Multiple regression analyses showed that personality measures did not predict automatic imitation. In addition, using a similar analytical approach to prior studies, no differences in imitation performance emerged when only the highest and lowest 20 participants on each trait variable were compared. These data weaken support for the view that stable personality traits are antecedents to automatic imitation and that neural mechanisms thought to support automatic imitation, such as the mirror neuron system, are dysfunctional in autism spectrum disorders or schizophrenia. In sum, the impact that personality variables have on automatic imitation is less universal than initial reports suggest.

  11. 慢性咳嗽的相关疾病及其治疗现状%Related diseases and treatment status of chronic cough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐俪颖; 骆仙芳; 王会仍

    2010-01-01

    This article classified the chronic cough by its properties of dry cough or wet cough and summarizes the etiology and pathogenesis,the diagnosis and differentiation as well as the treatment status of related diseases of chronic cough for clinical reference,such as cough variant asthma,eosinophilic bronchitis,gastro-esophageal reflux cough,upper airway cough syndrome,postinfectious cough,atopic cough,cough related by ACEI,psychogenic cough,chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other organic pulmonary disease with low incidence of cough.%本文对慢性咳嗽干性或湿性的性质进行病因分类,并对咳嗽变异性哮喘、嗜酸粒细胞性支气管炎、胃食管反流性咳嗽、上呼吸道咳嗽综合征、感染后咳嗽、特应性咳嗽、血管紧张素转换酶抑制剂所致的咳嗽、心理性咳嗽、慢性阻塞性肺疾病及其他咳嗽发生率较少的器质性肺部疾病的病因病机、临床诊断和鉴别诊断及其治疗现状进行综述,以供临床参考.

  12. Exposure of health care workers and occupants to coughed airborne pathogens in a double-bed hospital patient room with overhead mixing ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho D.; Melikov, Arsen K.; Brand, Marek;

    2012-01-01

    person, the posture of the coughing patient (lying sideways facing the doctor or on back), and the position of the doctor (facing the coughing patient or standing sideways) was examined with respect to exposure to coughed air. A thermal manikin with realistic body shape and surface temperature...

  13. Antitussive effect of naringin on experimentally induced cough in Guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Sen; Li, Peibo; Yang, Hongliang; Fang, Siqi; Su, Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of action of naringin has been investigated in different models of experimentally induced cough in guinea pigs. In contrast to codeine phosphate (6 mg/kg, intravenous administration [i. v.]), naringin (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg, i. v.) had no central antitussive effect on cough elicited by electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve. Naringin (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 µmol) could not prevent the cough reflex induced by stimulation of the trachea after intracerebroventricular injection (i. c. v.), while codeine phosphate (0.5 µmol) was highly effective. Further characterizing the peripheral mechanism of naringin, we found that its effect (50 mg/kg, i. v.) was not affected by the depletion of sensory neuropeptides, whereas levodropropizine (10 mg/kg, i. v.) lost its capacity to prevent cough in the capsaicin-desensitized guinea pig. Furthermore, pretreatment with glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i. p.]) significantly reduced the antitussive effect of pinacidil (5 mg/kg, subcutaneous [s. c.]), but could not antagonize the antitussive effect of naringin (30 mg/kg, s. c.). Our present results suggest that naringin is not a central antitussive drug. And naringin does not exert its peripheral antitussive effect through either the sensory neuropeptides system or the modulation of ATP-sensitive K (+) channels.

  14. The capsaicin cough reflex in patients with symptoms elicited by odorous chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, H.; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Mosbech, H.;

    2010-01-01

    when applying the single breath inhalation method in similar groups of patients with symptoms related to odorous chemicals e.g. other persons wearing of perfume; and to investigate to what extent the reporting of lower airway symptoms influenced the cough reflex. Sixteen patients fulfilling Cullen...

  15. LECTURES ON ACUPUNCTURE Part Ⅰ Clinical Acupuncture Lecture Twenty-Eight COUGH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li; SHANG Xiukui; PAN Xingfang

    2002-01-01

    @@ Cough, a main symptom of the lung problems, may result either from invasion of the exogenous factors induced dysfunction of the lungqi in dispersion or from disorders of the lung itself or from dysfunction of other zang-fu organs affecting the lung.

  16. Chronic or recurring cough in children—a presentation of asthma?

    OpenAIRE

    Spelman, Reginald

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-five children between the ages of one year and 11 years who presented with chronic or recurring cough over a two-year period were treated for asthma. They were given bronchodilator syrup for a trial period of one month. All the children improved symptomatically.

  17. Yellow Nails, Lymphedema and Chronic Cough: Yellow Nail Syndrome in an Eight-Year-Old Girl

    OpenAIRE

    Ishita Siddiq; Daniel Hughes

    2012-01-01

    Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease and reported mainly in adults. A case of yellow nail syndrome involving an eight-year-old girl with associated discoloured yellowish nails on the fingers and toes, lymphedema and chronic cough, and sputum production is reported.

  18. Pro-Con Debate: Protracted Bacterial Bronchitis as a Cause of Chronic Cough in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidiwala, Aneela; Krilov, Leonard R; Pirzada, Melodi; Patel, Sameer J

    2015-08-01

    Pro: Children with chronic cough present a diagnostic challenge. Protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) is a chronic, persistent bacterial infection of conducting airways defined by the presence of cough for longer than 4 weeks that resolves with antimicrobial therapy and without an alternative diagnosis. The diagnosis is made by the findings of increased bronchial secretions and edema of the lower airways on flexible bronchoscopy and positive cultures on bronchoalveolar lavage. It is speculated that an initial respiratory insult such as viral infection disrupts normal surface morphology and ciliary function, which leads to chronic self-perpetuating inflammation with the formation of bacterial biofilms, leading to PBB. PBB is often misdiagnosed as asthma, leading to inappropriate and excessive use of steroids. The importance of timely diagnosis should be emphasized due to the potential that PBB may be a precursor to chronic suppurative lung disease or bronchiectasis if left untreated; however, every patient should be adequately assessed to exclude other causes of chronic cough. Con: Clinical criteria for the diagnosis of PBB are nonspecific and may not distinguish it from other known causes of chronic cough, including viral infections. Benefits from antibiotic therapy (particularly prolonged therapy) have not been demonstrated. Respiratory conditions are the most common reason for antibiotic prescriptions during ambulatory visits in the United States, and many of these prescriptions are inappropriate and/or unnecessary. The proposed diagnostic criteria and recommendations for the treatment of PBB will lead to unnecessary overuse of antibiotics.

  19. Personal exposure to cough released droplets in quiescent environment and ventilated spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licina, Dusan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Pantelic, Jovan;

    2014-01-01

    This study shows the results of an experimental investigation of personal exposure to cough released droplets. Human body is resembled by a thermal manikin with a body shape and surface temperature distribution of a real person. The objective of the study is to examine personal exposure of the ma...... uniform flows is most of the scenarios decrease the exposure to cough droplets, however not in all scenarios. Study results show that understanding of the air patterns should be prioritized in ventilation design practice.......This study shows the results of an experimental investigation of personal exposure to cough released droplets. Human body is resembled by a thermal manikin with a body shape and surface temperature distribution of a real person. The objective of the study is to examine personal exposure...... of the manikin exposed to cough released droplets in a calm indoor environment and under uniform air patterns relative to a human body. The findings show that human body orientation relative to the direction and magnitude of invading flow from the surroundings considerably modifies personal exposure. Surrounding...

  20. Antitussive effect of naringin on experimentally induced cough in Guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Sen; Li, Peibo; Yang, Hongliang; Fang, Siqi; Su, Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of action of naringin has been investigated in different models of experimentally induced cough in guinea pigs. In contrast to codeine phosphate (6 mg/kg, intravenous administration [i. v.]), naringin (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg, i. v.) had no central antitussive effect on cough elicited by electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve. Naringin (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 µmol) could not prevent the cough reflex induced by stimulation of the trachea after intracerebroventricular injection (i. c. v.), while codeine phosphate (0.5 µmol) was highly effective. Further characterizing the peripheral mechanism of naringin, we found that its effect (50 mg/kg, i. v.) was not affected by the depletion of sensory neuropeptides, whereas levodropropizine (10 mg/kg, i. v.) lost its capacity to prevent cough in the capsaicin-desensitized guinea pig. Furthermore, pretreatment with glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i. p.]) significantly reduced the antitussive effect of pinacidil (5 mg/kg, subcutaneous [s. c.]), but could not antagonize the antitussive effect of naringin (30 mg/kg, s. c.). Our present results suggest that naringin is not a central antitussive drug. And naringin does not exert its peripheral antitussive effect through either the sensory neuropeptides system or the modulation of ATP-sensitive K (+) channels. PMID:20645246

  1. The capsaicin cough reflex in eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Jesper; Dirksen, Asger; Johansen, Jeanne Duus;

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume are common in the population but have unclear pathophysiology. Increased capsaicin cough responsiveness has been associated with the symptoms, but it is unknown whether the site of the symptoms in the airways influences this association. The aim of this st......Respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume are common in the population but have unclear pathophysiology. Increased capsaicin cough responsiveness has been associated with the symptoms, but it is unknown whether the site of the symptoms in the airways influences this association. The aim...... of this study was to investigate the association between the site of airway symptoms elicited by perfume and cough responsiveness to bronchial challenge with capsaicin. 21 eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case...... control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire and underwent a bronchial challenge with capsaicin. Lower, but not upper, respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were associated with increased capsaicin cough responsiveness. Having severe symptoms to perfume (n=11) did not relate...

  2. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor associated cough: a population-based case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, L.E.; Stricker, B.H.C.; Velden, J. van der; Paes, A.H.P.; Bakker, A.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the risk for coughing as an adverse reaction to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors under everyday circumstances in a large population and to study whether this adverse effect is more common in women. A population-based case-control study was

  3. [Differential diagnostics of the causes responsible for a cough in the pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabova, M A; Shumilova, N A; Lavrova, O V; Pestakova, L V; Fedotova, Yu S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the causes responsible for a cough in the pregnant women. It involved 92 patients including 23 ones presenting with bronchial asthma and 69 having no manifestations of asthma in their medical histories but suffering from dry cough that started after the beginning of pregnancy. All the patients were given counseling by the otorhinolaryngology and pulmonology specialists. The degree of endoscopic manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux was estimated based on a scoring scale. The study revealed the correlation between cough duration and gestational age. The signs of reflux-induced changes in the larynx were documented in 91% cases among the patients with bronchial asthma and in 97% cases in the pregnant women having no bronchial pathology in their medical histories. The main cause behind the cough during pregnancy in women without bronchial pathology was sluggish bronchitis (7%), arising asthma (12%), gastroesophageal reflux (77%), and allergic rhinitis (4%). This conclusion was confirmed by the results of therapy. PMID:27500580

  4. Yellow Nails, Lymphedema and Chronic Cough: Yellow Nail Syndrome in an Eight-Year-Old Girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Siddiq

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease and reported mainly in adults. A case of yellow nail syndrome involving an eight-year-old girl with associated discoloured yellowish nails on the fingers and toes, lymphedema and chronic cough, and sputum production is reported.

  5. Relation of the Timing of Onset of Rhinitis and Cough to Asthma Attack in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Tetsu; Ozaki, Yukiko; Tananari, Yoshifumi; Yamakawa, Rumi; Hirata, Rumiko

    2016-01-01

    If the risk of progression to asthma could be predicted in patients with rhinitis, prevention of asthma might become possible. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between the duration of rhinitis symptoms and acute asthma attacks in children with a history of asthma who were not on treatment for asthma. In 94 children with a history of asthma who were asymptomatic after completing asthma treatment, we investigated the onset and duration of nasal discharge and cough related to allergic rhinitis. Then the children were followed up for 2 weeks and were classified into either an asthma attack group (Group A) or non-asthma group(Group B). A total of 78 subjects were evaluated after 16 were excluded. The duration of nasal discharge was significantly shorter in Group A than in Group B (5.5±1.9 days vs. 10.4±3.1 days, P<0.0001). The interval between the onset of cough and nasal discharge was -1.0±3.1 days in Group A and -5.7±4.1 days in Group B (P<0.0001). The risk of progression to asthma attack may be higher when the onset of cough precedes nasal discharge or when nasal discharge has a short duration and cough shows an early onset. These results may provide assistance when selecting patients for early anti-allergy therapy from among those presenting with upper respiratory tract symptoms. PMID:27237939

  6. Reflex cough PEF as a predictor of successful extubation in neurological patients*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutchak, Fernanda Machado; Debesaitys, Andressa Maciel; Rieder, Marcelo de Mello; Meneguzzi, Carla; Skueresky, Amanda Soares; Alberto, Luiz; Bianchin, Marino Muxfeldt

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the use of reflex cough PEF as a predictor of successful extubation in neurological patients who were candidates for weaning from mechanical ventilation. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 135 patients receiving mechanical ventilation for more than 24 h in the ICU of Cristo Redentor Hospital, in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Reflex cough PEF, the rapid shallow breathing index, MIP, and MEP were measured, as were ventilatory, hemodynamic, and clinical parameters. Results: The mean age of the patients was 47.8 ± 17 years. The extubation failure rate was 33.3%. A reflex cough PEF of < 80 L/min showed a relative risk of 3.6 (95% CI: 2.0-6.7), and the final Glasgow Coma Scale score showed a relative risk of 0.64 (95% CI: 0.51-0.83). For every 1-point increase in a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 8, there was a 36% reduction in the risk of extubation failure. Conclusions: Reflex cough PEF and the Glasgow Coma Scale score are independent predictors of extubation failure in neurological patients admitted to the ICU. PMID:26398756

  7. Cough Is Dangerous: Neural Correlates of Implicit Body Symptoms Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier, Daniela; Witthöft, Michael; Bailer, Josef; Ofer, Julia; Kerstner, Tobias; Rist, Fred; Diener, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    The negative interpretation of body sensations (e.g., as sign of a severe illness) is a crucial cognitive process in pathological health anxiety (HA). However, little is known about the nature and the degree of automaticity of this interpretation bias. We applied an implicit association test (IAT) in 20 subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate behavioral and neural correlates of implicit attitudes toward symptom words. On the behavioral level, body symptom words elicited strong negative implicit association effects, as indexed by slowed reaction times, when symptom words were paired with the attribute “harmless” (incongruent condition). fMRI revealed increased activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and posterior parietal cortex for the comparison of incongruent words with control words, as well as with a lower significance threshold also in comparison to congruent words. Moreover, activation in the DLPFC, posterior parietal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and cerebellum varied with individual levels of HA (again, in comparison to control words, as well as with a lower significance threshold also in comparison to congruent words). Slowed reaction times as well as increased activation in dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex point to increased inhibitory demands during the incongruent IAT condition. The positive association between HA severity and neural activity in nucleus accumbens, dorsolateral prefrontal, and posterior parietal cortex suggests that HA is characterized by both intensified negative implicit attitudes and hampered cognitive control mechanisms when confronted with body symptoms. PMID:26973558

  8. Evaluation of Methacholine Challenge Test Results in Chronic Cough Patients Referring to Clinic of Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derakhshan Deilami Gholamreza

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cough is a common problem in patients visiting physicians and its prevalence in different populations range from 3 to 40%. Postnasal drip, asthma and gastroesophageal reflux are the known cause of chronic cough. Although diagnosis of asthma is usually made by clinical signs and spirometeric results, methacholine challenge test is a good diagnostic test in patients who show normal physical examination and spirometeric results. In this study, the results of methacholine challenge test in chronic cough patients are investigated. This is a cross sectional study performed on patients suffering from chronic cough (over 8 weeks, who went to Pulmonary Disease Clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital in 2006. Postnasal drip, gastroesophageal reflux was evaluated and ruled out in all patients. Then they were tested by methacholine inhalation using low to high doses of methacholine. The results of test was defined as 20% fall in FEV1 and its relationship with age, sex, history of allergic disease, family history of asthma and smoking status was investigated. 81 patients (36 female and 45 male entered this study who had mean age of 32.5 ± 13.06 years. 81.5% of patients had never smoked or closed contact with smokers, 6.2% were passive smokers, 8.6% were smokers and 3.7% had quit smoking. 37% had suffered from chronic cough less than 6 months, 11% for 6-11 months and 52% for more than 12 months. In 26% of patients, family history of asthma was present and 34.5% had a history of one type of allergy. In 29.5% the results of methacholine challenge test was positive, among them 45.8% showed an intense response and 54.2% a moderate response. The test results and its intensity had no statistically significant relationship with age, sex, smoking status, the duration of cough and family history of asthma, but the relationship between methacholine challenge test and the history of allergic disease was significant. Methacholine challenge test can be used as a

  9. Antitussive activity of Vasa Avaleha formulations on sulfur dioxide-induced coughing in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit M Paneliya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vasa Avaleha is a well-known Ayurvedic compound formulation, known for its usefulness in respiratory disorders like cough, cold, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, etc. Though Adhatoda vasica individually studied for antitussive activity in animals, no scientific evidence was available for Vasa Avaleha. This prompted us to initiate a comparative antitussive activity of Vasa Avaleha and granules of Vasa Avaleha in sulfur dioxide-induced coughing in mice. Materials and Methods: The test drugs were prepared as per classical guidelines and standards in the Departmental Laboratory of the Institute. The test drugs were administered orally at a dose of 1.56 g/kg and tested against sulfur dioxide-induced coughing in mice for 5 min. Results : Vasa Avaleha significantly (P < 0.001 inhibited the sulfur dioxide-induced cough reflexes in mice compared to control group. The effect was comparable to the standard drug Recodex, which contain codeine phosphate and chlorpheniramine maleate. Granules of Vasa Avaleha also produced significant (P < 0.001 decrease in cough reflexes compared to control group. The magnitude of the antitussive effect was more pronounced and significant in Vasa Avaleha treated group in comparison to granules of Vasa Avaleha. Conclusions: From the present study, it is concluded that Vasa Avaleha and granules of Vasa Avaleha may prove as useful and an effective antitussive agent which provides experimental evidence in support of the Ayurvedic ancient claim. Further, Avaleha form of test formulation can be converted to granule form and further evaluated in clinical studies for better human therapeutic uses.

  10. Honey with Coffee: A new finding in the treatment of Persistent Postinfectious Cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Ali Raeessi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Persistent postinfectious cough (PPC is a cough that persists longer than 3 weeks or perhaps for many months after a common cold or an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI. PPC has poor response to routine treatment modalities, so it can be a vexing problem for the patient and the physician alike. Our hypothesis was that honey and/or coffee have some beneficial effects in the treatment of PPC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of coffee and/or honey in the treatment of patients with PPC. Materials and Methods: This was a double blind randomized clinical trial, conducted on adult patients during a 6-year period from 2003 to 2009. Included in this study were 84 adult participants that had experienced PPC longer than 3 weeks. All of them had the history of several referrals to different physicians and despite treatment, their cough had persisted. Patients with other causes of chronic cough, or systemic disease or with abnormal routine laboratory tests were excluded. All the included 84 participants were distributed into three groups. For all the participants, a jam-like paste was prepared. Each 600 grams of the product consisted of "70 grams original instant coffee" in the first regimen, "500 grams of honey" in the second regimen and "70 grams of instant coffee plus 500 grams of honey" in the third regimen. These participants were told to dissolve 25 grams of the prescribed product in about 200 CC of warm water (under 60o C, and drink this solution every 8 hours for one week. All the participants were evaluated before and at the end of the first week of their treatment, to measure the frequency of their cough. In addition they were under observation for the first month. Results: Comparing the effectiveness of all three treatment regimens, this study found "honey with coffee" as the most effective treatment modality for PPC (P

  11. Effect of Different Levels of Pressure Relieving Air-Mattress Firmness on Cough Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamikawa, Norimichi; Taito, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Makoto; Sekikawa, Kiyokazu; Hamada, Hironobu

    2016-01-01

    Cough is an important host-defense mechanism. The elderly and patients who are severely ill cannot cough effectively when lying in the supine position. Furthermore, pressure relieving air-mattresses are recommended for preventing the development of pressure ulcers. In this study, we clarified whether or not the cough peak flow (CPF), an index of cough strength, is affected by different firmness levels of a pressure relieving air-mattress in healthy volunteers in the supine position. Fifty-two healthy young men participated. All the measurements were carried out on each participant in the supine position on a pressure relieving air-mattress. The participants were assessed at two firmness levels, a “hard” and “soft” mode. The CPF, forced vital capacity (FVC), maximal expiratory pressure (PEmax), and maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax) were determined for each mode. The sinking distance of the body into the mattress was measured without any activity and the difference between the sinking distances of the two firmness levels was determined. The CPF, FVC, PEmax, and PImax were determined for each mode. The sinking distance of the body into the mattress was measured and the difference between the sinking distances of the two firmness levels was determined. The CPF, FVC, PEmax and PImax values of the participants coughing on the mattress were significantly lower when the mattress was in “soft” than in “hard” mode. The differences between the sinking distances of the mattress in “soft” and “hard” modes were larger for the anterior superior iliac spine. A harder mattress may lead to increased CPF in healthy young men lying in the supine position, and increased CPF may be important for host defense. PMID:26741497

  12. Changes and implications of cough sensitivity in upper airway cough syndrome%上气道咳嗽综合征的咳嗽敏感性改变及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岚; 余莉; 邱志宏; 吕寒静; 邱忠民

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨上气道咳嗽综合征咳嗽敏感性的改变和临床意义.方法 用辣椒素咳嗽敏感性试验检测94例上气道咳嗽综合征的咳嗽阈值C5,分析治疗后咳嗽阈值C5的改变.结果 94例上气道咳嗽综合征的辣椒素咳嗽阚值C5为3.9 (0.98,7.8)μmol/L,位于正常值范围,仅36例(36/94,38.30%)患者存在咳嗽高敏感性.经治疗咳嗽症状消失后30例患者接受了随访复查,治疗前辣椒素咳嗽阈值C5为5.85 (1.95,31.2) μmol/L,与治疗后的7.8 (0.98,7.8) μmol/L相比,差别无统计学意义(Z=-0.72,P=0.47).其中12例治疗前咳嗽敏感性增高者中有6例降至正常.结论 上气道咳嗽综合征的咳嗽敏感性存在不均一性,与正常值存在较大的重叠和交叉,大部分不符合咳嗽高敏感性综合征的概念.%Objective To investigate the changes and clinical implications of cough sensitivity in upper airway cough syndrome ( UACS ). Methods Cough threshold C5 was measured by capsaicin cough sensitivity test in 94 patients with upper airway cough syndrome; it was also measured in 30 patients after cough completely resolved with specific therapy. Results The mean cough threshold C5 was 5. 85 (1. 95, 31. 2) μmol/L and within the normal range; however, 36 patients (38.30% ) presented cough hypersensitivity. Thirty patients received re-examination of cough sensitivity to capsaicin after cough disappeared, there was no significant difference in cough threshold C5 between pre-and post-treatment [ 5.85 (1.95,31.2) μmol/L vs7.8 (0.98, 7.8)μmol/L, Z= -0.72,P = 0.47 ]. The effective treatment resulted in the recover of cough threshold C5 to normal level in 6 of 12 patients with increased cough sensitivity to capsaicin. Conclusion Cough sensitivity in upper airway cough syndrome is heterogeneous and overlapped with normal value. Therefore, upper airway cough syndrome is not always consistent with the concept of cough hypersensitivity syndrome.

  13. EVALUATION OF ANTI- TUSSIVE ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF CAESALPINIA BONDUCELLA F. IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED COUGH IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Jain*, Rakesh Barik, Nidhi Yadav and Shivpal Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cough is a natural reflex expulsive defense mechanism of the body, for clearing excess secretions, mucous, inhaled irritants, toxins or foreign substance in the respiratory tract. It is the most common symptom of respiratory disease. When cough becomes serious, opioids are effective, but they have side effects like sedation, constipation, some addiction liability and also compromise the respiratory function. Therefore, there is a need to have effective anti-tussive agent which do not have respiratory suppressant activity. The present study was carried out to evaluate anti-tussive activity of leaves of Caesalpinia bonducella in ammonium hydroxide induced cough model in mice.

  14. Efficacy and safety of Linkus, Aminophylline diphenhydramine and acefyllin piperazine for the treatment of cough in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Hina; Naveed, Safila; Usmanghani, Khan

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Linkus, Aminophylline with Diphenhydramine group and Acefyllin Piperazine with Diphenhydramine cough syrup on children having cough and sleep difficulty associated with cough. To determine the effects of Linkus polyherbal syrup (group A) and compared with other parallel allopathic groups (Group B and C) for cough on children and associated sleep quality and improvement. 360 children having cough inducted in 3 different groups randomly selected. Three parallel groups were the part of the study. The first study group was the herbal syrup Linkus, second group of children were taking a syrup of multinational pharmaceutical industry having Aminophylline plus Diphenhydramine however the third group received another famous brand having Acefyllin Piperazine with Diphenhydramine. Informed assent and informed consent have taken from the study subjects and their parents. Subjects with acute cough were included in the study however the subjects with chronic cough considered to be excluded. Every group of individual in the study was informed about the investigational drugs provided. Ethnic groups, frequency of cough and diseases illness (<0.05) were determine on every group on the investigational syrup. Cough impact on child and its sleep of three different syrups (every group) were assessed on day1 and day 14(p<0.001) via a likert scale. For the evaluation of pain assessment Wong baker face scale were used and level of significance in each group (p<0.001). Significant results were observed in the Linkus Group as compared to the other parallel groups including Aminophylline plus Diphenhydramine and Acefyllin Piperazine with Diphenhydramine on day 14 (p<0.001). Side effects on group B and group C (Aminophylline with Diphenhydramine and Acefyllin Piperazine with Diphenhydramine) were almost similar in number however Linkus syrup has minimum side effects on study duration. Polyherbal syrup Linkus shows better results in treatment of cough

  15. Methods and Prospects of Road and Linear Structure Automatic Extraction from Remote Sensing Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhengrong

    2003-01-01

    Automatic extraction of road and linear structure from remote sensing images is a very important problem. This paper analyses several existing methods of the automatic road and linear structure extraction by using some multi-spectral remote sensing images acquired from different spatial resolutions, districts and road characteristics. Their advantages and disadvantages have been generalized.

  16. Automatic Kurdish Dialects Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hassani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Automatic dialect identification is a necessary Lan guage Technology for processing multi- dialect languages in which the dialects are linguis tically far from each other. Particularly, this becomes crucial where the dialects are mutually uni ntelligible. Therefore, to perform computational activities on these languages, the sy stem needs to identify the dialect that is the subject of the process. Kurdish language encompasse s various dialects. It is written using several different scripts. The language lacks of a standard orthography. This situation makes the Kurdish dialectal identification more interesti ng and required, both form the research and from the application perspectives. In this research , we have applied a classification method, based on supervised machine learning, to identify t he dialects of the Kurdish texts. The research has focused on two widely spoken and most dominant Kurdish dialects, namely, Kurmanji and Sorani. The approach could be applied to the other Kurdish dialects as well. The method is also applicable to the languages which are similar to Ku rdish in their dialectal diversity and differences.

  17. Electronic amplifiers for automatic compensators

    CERN Document Server

    Polonnikov, D Ye

    1965-01-01

    Electronic Amplifiers for Automatic Compensators presents the design and operation of electronic amplifiers for use in automatic control and measuring systems. This book is composed of eight chapters that consider the problems of constructing input and output circuits of amplifiers, suppression of interference and ensuring high sensitivity.This work begins with a survey of the operating principles of electronic amplifiers in automatic compensator systems. The succeeding chapters deal with circuit selection and the calculation and determination of the principal characteristics of amplifiers, as

  18. The Automatic Telescope Network (ATN)

    CERN Document Server

    Mattox, J R

    1999-01-01

    Because of the scheduled GLAST mission by NASA, there is strong scientific justification for preparation for very extensive blazar monitoring in the optical bands to exploit the opportunity to learn about blazars through the correlation of variability of the gamma-ray flux with flux at lower frequencies. Current optical facilities do not provide the required capability.Developments in technology have enabled astronomers to readily deploy automatic telescopes. The effort to create an Automatic Telescope Network (ATN) for blazar monitoring in the GLAST era is described. Other scientific applications of the networks of automatic telescopes are discussed. The potential of the ATN for science education is also discussed.

  19. A Network-Based Systematic Study for the Mechanism of the Treatment of Zhengs Related to Cough Variant Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has shown significant efficacy in the treatment of cough variant asthma (CVA, a special type of asthma. However, there is shortage of explanations for relevant mechanism of treatment. As Zhengs differentiation is a critical concept in TCM, it is necessary to explain the mechanism of treatment of Zhengs. Based on TCM clinical cases, this study illustrated the mechanism of the treatment of three remarkably relevant Zhengs for CVA: “FengXieFanFei,” “FeiQiShiXuan”, and “QiDaoLuanJi.” To achieve this goal, five steps were carried out: (1 determining feature Zhengs and corresponding key herbs of CVA by analyses of clinical cases; (2 finding out potential targets of the key herbs and clustering them based on their functional annotations; (3 constructing an ingredient-herb network and an ingredient network; (4 identifying modules of the ingredient network; (5 illustrating the mechanism of the treatment by further mining the latent biological implications within each module. The systematic study reveals that the treatment of “FengXieFanFei,” “FeiQiShiXuan,” and “QiDaoLuanJi” has effects on the regulation of multiple bioprocesses by herbs containing different ingredients with functions of steroid metabolism regulation, airway inflammation, and ion conduction and transportation. This network-based systematic study will be a good way to boost the scientific understanding of mechanism of the treatment of Zhengs.

  20. Reducing unnecessary prescriptions of antibiotics for acute cough: Adaptation of a leaflet aimed at Turkish immigrants in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchs Angela

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reduction in the number of unnecessary prescriptions of antibiotics has become one of the most important objectives for primary health care. German GPs report that they are under "pressure to prescribe" antibiotics particularly in consultations with Turkish immigrants. And so a qualitative approach was used to learn more about the socio-medical context of Turkish patients in regard to acute coughs. A German leaflet designed to improve the doctor-patient communication has been positively tested and then adapted for Turkish patients. Methods The original leaflet was first translated into Turkish. Then 57 patients belonging to 8 different GPs were interviewed about the leaflet using a semi-standardised script. The material was audio recorded, fully transcribed, and analysed by three independent researchers. As a first step a comprehensive content analysis was performed. Secondly, elements crucial to any Turkish version of the leaflet were identified. Results The interviews showed that the leaflets' messages were clearly understood by all patients irrespective of age, gender, and educational background. We identified no major problems in the perception of the translated leaflet but identified several minor points which could be improved. We found that patients were starting to reconsider their attitudes after reading the leaflet. Conclusion The leaflet successfully imparted relevant and new information to the target patients. A qualitative approach is a feasible way to prove general acceptance and provides additional information for its adaptation to medico-cultural factors.

  1. 慢性咳嗽常见病因之间咳嗽敏感性的差异%Difference of Capsaicin Cough Sensitivity in Common Causes of Chronic Cough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈如冲; 刘春丽; 罗炜; 赖克方; 钟南山

    2013-01-01

    目的 慢性咳嗽常表现为对理化刺激因子呈异常增高的咳嗽反应,但不同病因间慢性咳嗽敏感性的差异及机制尚未完全清晰.方法 收集2005年至2010年于广州呼吸疾病研究所咳嗽专科就诊的慢性咳嗽患者,通过慢性咳嗽病因诊断程序确诊其常见病因,进行辣椒素咳嗽激发试验,以咳嗽阈值评估咳嗽敏感性,观察咳嗽敏感性与咳嗽病程、咳嗽严重度、肺通气功能、诱导痰细胞的关系.结果 通过慢性咳嗽诊断程序进行病因诊断后,纳入病例133例,其中上气道咳嗽综合征(UACS) 24例,咳嗽变异型哮喘(CVA) 26例,嗜酸粒细胞性支气管炎(EB)31例,变应性咳嗽(AC)30例、胃食管反流性咳嗽(GERC) 22例.另有同期正常健康志愿者30例作为正常对照.AC、CVA、EB、GERC以及UACS组患者的咳嗽阈值LgC5分别1.70±0.70、2.12±0.67、2.13±0.69、1.69 ±0.73、2.16±0.66,较正常对照(2.63±0.39)均有不同程度的降低(P均<0.05).其中以GERC、AC患者咳嗽阈值降低尤为显著(分别显著低于CVA、EB、UACS组,P均<0.05),其咳嗽阈值低于正常对照单侧95%参考值(125 μmol/L)的比例较CVA、EB、UACS组为多(P均<0.05).慢性咳嗽患者的咳嗽阈值LgC5与咳嗽病程及日间咳嗽积分相关(r值分别为-0.280、-0.168,P均<0.05),但与肺通气功能以及痰细胞分类无关(P均>0.05).结论 慢性咳嗽常见病因患者辣椒素咳嗽敏感性有不同程度的增高,这种差异可能反映了不同病因的咳嗽发病机制不一,可能与支配咳嗽敏感性的神经纤维类型有关.%Objective Chronic cough is often present as increasing cough reaction to various physical and chemical stimulating factors.This study is aimed to investigate the difference of cough sensitivity and its mechanisms which are not clear among different causes of chronic cough.Methods Patients with chronic cough were recruited from cough clinic of Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory

  2. 舒肺止咳糖浆治疗感染后咳嗽的临床观察%Clinical observation on treating post infectious cough with cough syrup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱颖文; 缪晓路

    2013-01-01

      目的:观察舒肺止咳糖浆对感染后咳嗽的临床疗效.方法:选择感染后咳嗽患者75例,给予强力安喘通口服3d后,联用舒肺止咳糖浆口服,治疗3d,观察临床疗效.结果:第1个疗程后总有效率为66.7%;第2个疗程后总有效率为82.5%.两个疗程总有效率比较有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:联用舒肺止咳糖浆对感染后咳嗽有较好的疗效.%Objective: To observe the clinical therapeutic effect of cough syrup in treating post infectious cough. Methods: 75 cases of post infectious cough patients were selected, given Asmeton’strong’ Capsules orally for 3 days and given cough syrup for another 3 days. Results: The total effective rate after the first course of treatment was 66.7%, and that of the second course of treatment was 82.5%. A significant difference were detected between the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: Combination use of cough syrup had an expected effect in treating post infectious cough.

  3. [A coughing patients makes a visit to the otorhinolaryngologist's office: the practical aspects of diagnostics and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosulya, E V

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes the modern concepts of the most common causes and mechanism underlying the development of cough. The significance of pathogenetic cough-suppressant therapy is emphasized with special reference to the following aspects: the importance of reducing the thickness or bronchial secretions, its more efficient removal from the lumen of the respiratory passages, creation of the prerequisites for regression of the inflammatory process, lowering the intensity of cough, improvement of subjective feelings and the quality of life of a given patient. The advantages of the application of the compounded preparations containing synergic components responsible for the high therapeutic effectiveness of these medicines is demonstrated as exemplified by the ingredients of the ascoril expectorant. It is concluded that this medication should be recommended for the treatment of patients suffering from cough of the known nature. PMID:27367353

  4. Automatic pattern recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Petheram, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    In this thesis the author presents a new method for the location, extraction and normalisation of discrete objects found in digital images. The extraction is by means of sub-pixcel contour following around the object. The normalisation obtains and removes the information concerning size, orientation and location of the object within an image. Analyses of the results are carried out to determine the confidence in recognition of patterns, and methods of cross correlation of object descriptions ...

  5. Automatic programming of simulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroer, Bernard J.; Tseng, Fan T.; Zhang, Shou X.; Dwan, Wen S.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of automatic programming is to improve the overall environment for describing the program. This improved environment is realized by a reduction in the amount of detail that the programmer needs to know and is exposed to. Furthermore, this improved environment is achieved by a specification language that is more natural to the user's problem domain and to the user's way of thinking and looking at the problem. The goal of this research is to apply the concepts of automatic programming (AP) to modeling discrete event simulation system. Specific emphasis is on the design and development of simulation tools to assist the modeler define or construct a model of the system and to then automatically write the corresponding simulation code in the target simulation language, GPSS/PC. A related goal is to evaluate the feasibility of various languages for constructing automatic programming simulation tools.

  6. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  7. Chiari I malformation associated with atlanto-occipital assimilation presenting as orthopnea and cough syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangubat, Erwin Zeta; Wilson, Tom; Mitchell, Brian A; Byrne, Richard W

    2014-02-01

    Although it is not uncommon for patients with Chiari I malformations to present with respiratory complaints, cough syncope is a rare presenting symptom. We report an adult patient who had both a Chiari I malformation and atlanto-occipital assimilation, and complained of cough syncope, orthopnea, and central sleep apnea. The patient underwent decompressive craniectomy of the posterior fossa and a cervical level 2 laminectomy. However, due to an initial under-appreciation of the profound narrowing of the foramen magnum as a result of these concomitant pathologies, the patient had continued impaired cerebrospinal fluid flow, leading to a symptomatic pseudomeningocele and required a more extensive decompression that included a cervical level 3 laminectomy as well as a temporary lumbar drain. On 2 year follow-up, he remained asymptomatic.

  8. Whooping cough in Pakistan: Bordetella pertussis vs Bordetella parapertussis in 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Habib; Said, Fahad; Syed, Muhammad A; Mughal, Amjad; Kazi, Yasmeen F; Heuvelman, Kees; Mooi, Frits R

    2011-10-01

    Pertussis, or whooping cough, is an acute respiratory disease mainly affecting infants and children and is caused by Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis. The aim of this study was to investigate the share of Bordetella species from potential whooping cough cases during 2005-2009. Eight hundred and two samples from suspected pertussis cases were collected, mainly from 2 provinces of Pakistan. Bacterial culture, identification, DNA extraction and routinely used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods using IS1001, IS1002 and IS481 were used to identify the Bordetella species. The results were unexpected, because all of the isolates collected from the different cities were identified as B. parapertussis (7.4%); B. pertussis was not isolated from any sample. However, PCR results indicated the presence of a small percentage (0.6%) of B. pertussis among the total cases studied. This study suggests that vaccines to protect against both B. pertussis and B. parapertussis should be considered.

  9. Cough and fear of sleep: early clinical signs of Bordetella pertussis in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. Jones

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Pertussis is increasing in frequency among adults, but early diagnosis requires special attention to details in the medical history. We describe a 64 year-old male with classic signs and symptoms of pertussis and documented Bordetella pertussis infection that were overlooked because he presented with a chief complaint of cough and fear of falling asleep. Coughing paroxysms and a feeling of suffocation (30-60 seconds only occurred at night after short periods of deep sleep (30-45 minutes. The physicians did not observe these episodes during daytime examinations, and the basis of the patient's fear of sleep was not explored. We recommend reassessment of how adults describe symptoms of pertussis, including fear of sleep, and we suggest the use of PCR technology to allow early diagnosis and prompt treatment.

  10. A comparison of risk factors for wheeze and recurrent cough in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Christian; Westergaard, Tine; Pedersen, Bo V;

    2005-01-01

    In a study of 2,978 Danish children aged 5 years from two suburban counties of Copenhagen, carried out in 1998, the authors compared risk factor profiles for wheeze and recurrent cough without wheeze by using polytomous logistic regression to clarify whether the two conditions are likely to have .......0002), maternal history of asthma (p = 0.0008), and standard of housing condition (p = 0.04)-all risk factors for WH but not RC. Results may suggest that the two conditions have different etiologies....... the same etiology. Data were obtained 1) by a mailed parental questionnaire (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questions and supplementary questions on cough, sociodemography, perinatal factors, and environmental exposure); 2) through general practitioners (familial allergic disease...

  11. A 29-Year-Old Man With Nonproductive Cough, Exertional Dyspnea, and Chest Discomfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpenny, Darragh; Suh, James; Garofano, Suzette; Alpert, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    A 29-year-old man presented with a 5-month history of worsening dry cough, exertional dyspnea, chest tightness, and palpitations. He had been treated by his primary care physician with trials of guaifenesin/codeine, azithromycin, albuterol, and omeprazole without improvement. He denied wheezing, fever, sweats, anorexia, joint pain, swelling, or rash. He had no past medical history. He denied a history of tobacco smoking or IV drug use. He kept no pets, worked as a manager in an office environment, and had no history of occupational inhalational exposure. He reported using aerosolized insect spray to eradicate bed bugs in his house shortly before the cough began but did not report any acute symptoms when using the spray. PMID:26324141

  12. Simultaneous Estimation of Four Antitussive Components from Herbal Cough Syrup by HPTLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deore, Sharada L; Jaju, Payal S; Baviskar, Bhushan A

    2014-01-01

    A new simple, rapid, selective and precise high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of vasicine, glycyrrhizin, eugenol, and cineole in herbal cough syrup. The retention factors of vasicine, glycyrrhizin, eugenol, and cineole are 0.53, 0.44, 0.75, and 0.77, respectively. Chromatography was performed on 60F254 percolated TLC plate using n-hexane : ethyl acetate : glacial acetic acid (8.5 : 1.0 : 0.5 v/v/v). Methods are validated according to ICH guidelines and can be adopted for the routine analysis of vasicine, glycyrrhizin, eugenol and cineole in herbal cough syrup. PMID:27382629

  13. Occult pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis presenting as 'chronic cough' with a normal HRCT chest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen K. Jinnur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A diagnosis of ‘chronic cough’ (CC requires the exclusion of sinister pulmonary pathology, including infection and malignancy. We present a patient with a 3 month history of CC who had an extensive workup including a normal high resolution computed tomography of the chest (HRCT 6 weeks prior to consultation at our center. He subsequently developed constitutional symptoms including weight loss and loss of appetite 5 weeks after initial consultation. A repeat HRCT chest and a subsequent whole body PET scan found that he had developed extensive pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis (PLC from a colon primary. Treatment of the colon cancer resulted in significant decrease in metastatic disease burden and cough resolution. PLC is a very rare cause of ‘chronic cough’ and incipient/occult PLC presenting with chronic cough and a normal initial HRCT chest has not been previously reported.

  14. Occult pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis presenting as 'chronic cough' with a normal HRCT chest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinnur, Praveen K.; Pannu, Bibek S.; Boland, Jennifer M.; Iyer, Vivek N.

    2016-01-01

    A diagnosis of ‘chronic cough’ (CC) requires the exclusion of sinister pulmonary pathology, including infection and malignancy. We present a patient with a 3 month history of CC who had an extensive workup including a normal high resolution computed tomography of the chest (HRCT) 6 weeks prior to consultation at our center. He subsequently developed constitutional symptoms including weight loss and loss of appetite 5 weeks after initial consultation. A repeat HRCT chest and a subsequent whole body PET scan found that he had developed extensive pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis (PLC) from a colon primary. Treatment of the colon cancer resulted in significant decrease in metastatic disease burden and cough resolution. PLC is a very rare cause of ‘chronic cough’ and incipient/occult PLC presenting with chronic cough and a normal initial HRCT chest has not been previously reported. PMID:26958342

  15. Semi-Microscale Williamson Ether Synthesis and Simultaneous Isolation of an Expectorant from Cough Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Ryan G.; Dicks, Andrew P.

    2003-03-01

    The synthesis of racemic 3-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-1,2-propanediol (guaifenesin), an expectorant found in well-known cough syrups such as Benylin, is undertaken by a Williamson ether synthesis reaction. The same compound is simultaneously isolated and characterized from commercially available Guai-Aid cough tablets. The experiment is well-suited towards the introductory part of an advanced organic laboratory course and complements typical lecture topics in a stimulating manner. Consideration is given towards reaction mechanisms, stereochemistry, optical activity, pharmaceutical synthesis, and spectroscopic analysis. Discussion of the merits or disadvantages of marketing a drug as a racemic mixture, with reference to the notorious thalidomide case study, and the concept of enantioselective synthesis is possible.

  16. Automatic Number Plate Recognition System

    OpenAIRE

    Rajshree Dhruw; Dharmendra Roy

    2014-01-01

    Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) is a mass surveillance system that captures the image of vehicles and recognizes their license number. The objective is to design an efficient automatic authorized vehicle identification system by using the Indian vehicle number plate. In this paper we discus different methodology for number plate localization, character segmentation & recognition of the number plate. The system is mainly applicable for non standard Indian number plates by recognizing...

  17. Dystonia as acute adverse reaction to cough suppressant in a 3-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzi, A; Incorpora, G; Ruggieri, M

    2001-01-01

    Cough suppressant preparations containing mixtures of dextromethorphan or codeine with antihistamines, decongestants (sympathomimetic), expectorants and antipyretics with either sedative or anticholinergic activity have been associated with dystonic reactions in children. We report on a 3-year-old girl who presented with episodic stiffness and abnormal posturing with rigidity after arbitrary maternal administration of a mixture of methylcodeine and extract from Hedera plant. PMID:11587381

  18. Bullous mastocytosis in an infant associated with the use of a nonprescription cough suppressant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J; Stith, M; Sahn, E E

    1996-01-01

    Bullous mastocytosis is an unusual expression of mastocytosis typically seen in young children, and many causes of the acute mast cell degranulation with bulla formation have been identified. We report a 6-month-old boy with urticaria pigmentosa and an extensive bullous eruption associated with the ingestion of a nonprescription cough suppressant containing dextromethorphan. The pathogenesis of mastocytosis and the care of patients with this disease are discussed. PMID:8893244

  19. Determination of Microbial Load in Multivitamin and Cough Syrups Sold in Dhaka City

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Al Mamun; Tapas Kumar Shaha; Md. Murad Khan; Md. Shahidul Kabir

    2014-01-01

    The production of substandard drugs and use of inappropriate methods in manufacturing medical products in pharmaceutical industries may cause non-therapeutic effect in patients particularly in children. Hence this study was conducted to determine the microbiological quality of multivitamin and cough syrups of different brands sold in local pharmacy in Dhaka city. Microbiological analysis was carried out using spread plate technique on different culture media including nutrient agar, mannitol ...

  20. Fat Dogs and Coughing Horses: K-12 Programming for Veterinary Workforce Development

    OpenAIRE

    San Miguel, Sandra F.; Parker, Loran Carleton; Adedokun, Omolola A; Burgess, Wilella D.; Cipriani Davis, Kauline S.; Blossom, Thaddaeus D.; Schneider, Jessica L.; Mennonno, Ann M.; Ruhl, Joseph D.; Veatch, Jennifer H.; Wackerly, Amy J.; Shin, Soo Yeon; Ratliff, Timothy L.

    2013-01-01

    Workforce development strategies to educate, inform, and diversify the veterinary profession of the future must begin with children in elementary school. This manuscript provides a description of the Fat Dogs and Coughing Horses program, which takes a multifaceted approach toward informing young students, beginning in first grade, about the interesting work and career opportunities available in the field of veterinary medicine. The program, a collaboration among Purdue University and Indiana ...

  1. Mechanical insufflation-exsufflation. Comparison of peak expiratory flows with manually assisted and unassisted coughing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, J R

    1993-11-01

    Pulmonary complications are major causes of morbidity and mortality for patients with severe expiratory muscle weakness. The purpose of this study was to compare peak cough expiratory flows (PCEFs) during unassisted and assisted coughing and review the long-term use of mechanical insufflation-exsufflation (MI-E) for 46 neuromuscular ventilator users. These individuals used noninvasive methods of ventilatory support for a mean of 21.1 h/d for 17.3 +/- 15.5 years. They relied on manually assisted coughing and/or MI-E during periods of productive airway secretion. They reported a mean of 0.7 +/- 1.2 cases of pneumonia and other serious pulmonary complications and 2.8 +/- 5.6 hospitalizations during the 16.4-year period and no complications of MI-E. A sample of 21 of these patients with a mean forced vital capacity of 490 +/- 370 ml had a mean maximum insufflation capacity (MIC) achieved by a combination of air stacking of ventilator insufflations and glossopharyngeal breathing of 1,670 +/- 540 ml. The PCEFs for this sample were: following an unassisted inspiration, 1.81 +/- 1.03 L/s; following a MIC maneuver, 3.37 +/- 1.07 L/s; with manual assistance by abdominal compression following a MIC maneuver, 4.27 +/- 1.29 L/s; and with MI-E, 7.47 +/- 1.02 L/s. Each PCEF was significantly greater than the preceding, respectively (p < 0.01). We conclude that manually assisted coughing and MI-E are effective and safe methods for facilitating airway secretion clearance for neuromuscular ventilator users who would otherwise be managed by endotracheal suctioning. Severely decreased MIC, but not necessarily vital capacity, is an indication for tracheostomy.

  2. The effect of intracuff alkalinized 2% lidocaine on emergence coughing, sore throat, and hoarseness in smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Helena Camacho Navarro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether endotracheal tube (ETT intracuff alkalinized lidocaine was superior to saline in blunting emergence coughing, postoperative sore throat, and hoarseness in smokers. METHODS: In our prospective, double-blind trial, we enrolled 50 smoking patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia including nitrous oxide (N2O. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either ETT intracuff 2% lidocaine plus 8.4% sodium bicarbonate (L group, or ETT intracuff 0.9% saline (S group. The ETT cuff was inflated to achieve a cuff pressure that prevented air leak during positive pressure ventilation. Incidence of emergence coughing, sore throat, and hoarseness were analyzed. The volume of inflation solution, the intracuff pressure, the duration of anesthesia, the time elapsed to extubation after discontinuation of anesthesia, and the volume of the inflation solution and the air withdrawn from the ETT cuff were also recorded. RESULTS: Intracuff alkalinized 2% lidocaine was superior to saline in blunting emergence coughing (p < 0.001. The incidence of sore throat was significantly lower in the L group at the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU (p = 0.02. However, at 24 hours after extubation, sore throat incidence was similar in both groups (p = 0.07. Incidence of hoarseness was similar in both groups. Intracuff pressure in the saline group increased with time while the intracuff pressure in the lidocaine group remained constant. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that the intracuff alkalinized 2% lidocaine was superior to saline in decreasing the incidence of emergence coughing and sore throat during the postoperative period in smokers.

  3. Chronic cough with normal sweat chloride: Phenotypic descriptions of two rare cystic fibrosis genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Hemang Yadav; Kaiser G. Lim

    2016-01-01

    While our understanding of cystic fibrosis genetics has expanded in recent decades, the genetics and clinical manifestations of the disease remains highly heterogeneous. Diagnosis of CF in non-classical mutations remains a clinical challenge. We describe the clinical presentation of two patients with chronic cough found to have normal sweat chlorides. We discuss the subsequent evaluation that lead to the diagnosis of two rare CF mutations. We briefly discuss the use of the expanded 106-panel ...

  4. Chronic cough with normal sweat chloride: Phenotypic descriptions of two rare cystic fibrosis genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Hemang; Kaiser G. Lim

    2015-01-01

    While our understanding of cystic fibrosis genetics has expanded in recent decades, the genetics and clinical manifestations of the disease remains highly heterogeneous. Diagnosis of CF in non-classical mutations remains a clinical challenge. We describe the clinical presentation of two patients with chronic cough found to have normal sweat chlorides. We discuss the subsequent evaluation that lead to the diagnosis of two rare CF mutations. We briefly discuss the use of the expanded 106-panel ...

  5. Epidemiological study of wheeze, doctor diagnosed asthma, and cough in preschool children in Leicestershire.

    OpenAIRE

    Luyt, D K; Burton, P. R.; Simpson, H

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the cumulative prevalences of wheeze and doctor diagnosed asthma and the point prevalences of recurrent cough and wheeze in children aged 5 years and under. DESIGN--Questionnaire survey of population based random sample of children registered on regional authority's child health index for immunisation; questionnaire completed by parents. SETTING--Leicestershire. SUBJECTS--1650 white children born in 1985-9 who were surveyed in 1990. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Cumulative pr...

  6. Pertussis Prevalence and Its Determinants among Children with Persistent Cough in Urban Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Kayina; Samuel Kyobe; Katabazi, Fred A; Edgar Kigozi; Moses Okee; Beatrice Odongkara; Babikako, Harriet M; Whalen, Christopher C.; Joloba, Moses L.; Musoke, Philippa M.; Ezekiel Mupere

    2015-01-01

    Background We determined prevalence of pertussis infection and its associated host and environmental factors to generate information that would guide strategies for disease control. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 449 children aged 3 months to 12 years with persistent cough lasting ≥14 days were enrolled and evaluated for pertussis using DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ELISA serology tests. Results Pertussis prevalence was 67 (15% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 12–18)) and 81 (20%...

  7. A Multicenter Study of Pertussis Infection in Adults with Coughing in Korea: PCR-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sunghoon; Lee, Myung-Gu; Lee, Kwan Ho; Park, Yong Bum; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Park, Jeong-Woong; Kim, Changhwan; Lee, Yong Chul; Park, Jae Seuk; Kwon, Yong Soo; Seo, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Hui Jung; Kwak, Seung Min; Kim, Ju-Ock; Lim, Seong Yong

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited data on the incidence and clinical characteristics of adult pertussis infections are available in Korea. Methods Thirty-one hospitals and the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collaborated to investigate the incidence and clinical characteristics of pertussis infections among adults with a bothersome cough in non-outbreak, ordinary outpatient settings. Nasopharyngeal aspirates or nasopharyngeal swabs were collected for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cul...

  8. Reversal of functional disorders by aspiration, expiration, and cough reflexes and their voluntary counterparts

    OpenAIRE

    ZoltanTomori

    2012-01-01

    Agonal gasping provoked by asphyxia can save ~15% of mammals even from untreated ventricular fibrillation (VF), but it fails to revive infants with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Our systematic study of airway reflexes in cats and other animals indicated that in addition to cough, there are two distinct airway reflexes that may contribute to auto-resuscitation. Gasp- and sniff-like spasmodic inspirations (SIs) can be elicited by nasopharyngeal stimulation, strongly activating the brains...

  9. EVALUATION OF ANTI- TUSSIVE ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF CAESALPINIA BONDUCELLA F. IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED COUGH IN MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Jain*, Rakesh Barik, Nidhi Yadav and Shivpal Singh

    2013-01-01

    Cough is a natural reflex expulsive defense mechanism of the body, for clearing excess secretions, mucous, inhaled irritants, toxins or foreign substance in the respiratory tract. It is the most common symptom of respiratory disease. When cough becomes serious, opioids are effective, but they have side effects like sedation, constipation, some addiction liability and also compromise the respiratory function. Therefore, there is a need to have effective anti-tussive agent which do not have res...

  10. Evaluation of microbial and physico-chemical qualities of some cough syrups marketed in Sana’a city, Yemen.

    OpenAIRE

    Ali G. Al−Kaf; Alghalibi, Saeed M.; Wadhah H. Edrees

    2015-01-01

    Context: Microbial contamination of cough syrups can bring clinical hazards to the users or patients as well as physical and chemical changes in the product. Aims: To evaluate the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of two hundred samples of four different types of cough syrups marketed in Sana’a city, Yemen. Methods: All collected samples were subjected to the following examinations: the total microbial count, type of isolated microorganisms, physical parameters, and concen...

  11. GABAA- and glycine-mediated inhibitory modulation of the cough reflex in the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinelli, Elenia; Iovino, Ludovica; Bongianni, Fulvia; Pantaleo, Tito; Mutolo, Donatella

    2016-09-01

    Cough-related sensory inputs from rapidly adapting receptors (RARs) and C fibers are processed by second-order neurons mainly located in the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). Both GABAA and glycine receptors have been proven to be involved in the inhibitory control of second-order cells receiving RAR projections. We investigated the role of these receptors within the caudal NTS in the modulation of the cough reflex induced by either mechanical or chemical stimulation of the tracheobronchial tree in pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rabbits. Bilateral microinjections (30-50 nl) of the receptor antagonists bicuculline and strychnine as well as of the receptor agonists muscimol and glycine were performed. Bicuculline (0.1 mM) and strychnine (1 mM) caused decreases in peak abdominal activity and marked increases in respiratory frequency due to decreases in both inspiratory time (Ti) and expiratory time (Te), without concomitant changes in arterial blood pressure. Noticeably, these microinjections induced potentiation of the cough reflex consisting of increases in the cough number associated with decreases either in cough-related Ti after bicuculline or in both cough-related Ti and Te after strychnine. The effects caused by muscimol (0.1 mM) and glycine (10 mM) were in the opposite direction to those produced by the corresponding antagonists. The results show that both GABAA and glycine receptors within the caudal NTS mediate a potent inhibitory modulation of the pattern of breathing and cough reflex responses. They strongly suggest that disinhibition is one important mechanism underlying cough regulation and possibly provide new hints for novel effective antitussive strategies. PMID:27402692

  12. Mechanisms of Altitude-Related Cough/Mécanismes de la Toux Liée à l’Altitude

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The original work presented in this thesis investigates some of the mechanisms that may be responsible for the aetiology of altitude-related cough. Particular attention is paid to its relationship to the long recognised, but poorly understood, changes in lung volumes that occur on ascent to altitude. The literature relevant to this thesis is reviewed in Chapter 1. Widespread reports have long existed of a debilitating cough affecting visitors to high altitude that can incapacitate the suff...

  13. Persistent cough in patients using an urban chest clinic in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwanyanwu, O; Nyangulu, D; Salaniponi, F

    1996-10-01

    In many sub-Saharan African countries, tuberculosis (TB) cases have been increasing steadily since 1985. In Malawi, they have increased by 38% from 1990 to 1993, and extrapulmonary TB increased by 79%. Among 385 patients with a history of persistent cough presumed to be TB, 360 (94%) initially consented to be tested for both HIV and TB. Of these, 301 completed testing and 95% returned for their test results. Among test completers (n = 301), 280 (93%) were found to be HIV-infected. Seropositivity rates were similar for males and females, and higher for urban dwellers than for rural dwellers (94% versus 79%). TB was found in only 48 (16%) patients. Among TB patients, 33 (77%) were HIV positive. This study suggests that TB may not be the main cause of persistent cough among persons using urban chest clinics in Malawi; HIV without sputum positive TB appears to be a major contributor. Clinicians in areas of high HIV prevalence should therefore suspect other HIV-related infections in a patient with persistent cough and in whom TB has been ruled out.

  14. The clinical spectrum of laryngeal dystonia includes dystonic cough: observations of a large series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Susannah; Tisch, Stephen; Cole, Ian; Brake, Helen; Rough, Judy; Darveniza, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Laryngeal dystonia is a movement disorder of the muscles within the larynx, which most commonly manifests as spasmodic dysphonia (SD). Rarer reported manifestations include dystonic respiratory stridor and dyscoordinate breathing. Laryngeal dystonia has been treated successfully with botulinum neurotoxin (BTX) injections since 1984. We reviewed prospectively collected data in a consecutive series of 193 patients with laryngeal dystonia who were seen at St. Vincent's Hospital between 1991 and 2011. Patient data were analyzed in Excel, R, and Prism. Laryngeal dystonia manifested as SD (92.7%), stridor (11.9%), dystonic cough (6.2%), dyscoordinate breathing (4.1%), paroxysmal hiccups (1.6%), and paroxysmal sneezing (1.6%). There were more women (68.4%) than men (31.6%), and the average age at onset was 47 years. A positive family history of dystonia was present in 16.1% of patients. A higher incidence of extra-laryngeal dystonia (ie, torticollis and blepharospasm) and concurrent manifestations of laryngeal dystonia were present in patients with dystonic cough, dyscoordinate breathing, paroxysmal sneezing, and hiccups than in other patients (P = 0.003 and P Technical failures were rare (1.1%). Dysphonia secondary to vocal cord paresis followed 38.7% of treatments. Laryngeal dystonia manifests predominantly as SD, but other manifestations include stridor, dyscoordinate breathing, paroxysmal cough, hiccups, and sneezing. BTX injections are very effective across all subgroups. Severe adverse events are rare. PMID:24753288

  15. Comparison of intravenous and topical lidocaine as a suppressant of coughing after bronchoscopy during general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, C J; Ahlburg, P; Holdgård, H O; Olsen, K H; Thomsen, A

    1991-04-01

    Twenty-four consecutive patients scheduled for fiberbronchoscopy were randomized to receive double-blind either intravenous (1.5 mg/kg) or laryngotracheal (3 mg/kg) lidocaine to evaluate the influence on post-bronchoscopic laryngospasm, pain in the throat and coughing. Plasma lidocaine concentrations were analyzed 5, 15, 30 and 60 min after administration. None of the patients demonstrated laryngospasm or pain in the throat during the first hour after bronchoscopy. Patients receiving topical lidocaine coughed significantly more than patients receiving intravenous lidocaine, with a median number of coughs of 20 compared to 4, during the first hour (P less than 0.01). The plasma lidocaine concentrations were significantly higher after intravenous than after topical administration (P less than 0.001). After intravenous administration the plasma lidocaine concentrations exceeded the accepted level for potential toxicity in five out of 11 patients, but none of the patients developed toxic symptoms and no side-effects were observed. PMID:2038931

  16. Cough and dyspnoea may discriminate allergic and infectious respiratory phenotypes in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancière, Fanny; Clarisse, Bénédicte; Nikasinovic, Lydia; Just, Jocelyne; Momas, Isabelle

    2012-06-01

    Asthma symptoms are non-specific during infancy, making the identification of different subgroups among preschool children with early respiratory manifestations an important challenge. We previously used a clustering approach to identify bronchial obstructive phenotypes in 1-yr-old infants from the Pollution and Asthma Risk: an Infant Study (PARIS) birth cohort. In the present study, we examined whether these phenotypes were stable at 3 yr and studied their comorbidity and risk factors. Partitioning around medoids (PAM) method was applied at 1 and 3 yr of age to cluster children according to wheezing, dry night cough, dyspnoea with sleep disturbance and breathlessness. The resulting groups were used to derive phenotypes in 2084 children during their first 3 yr of life. Analysis of associated comorbidity and risk factors was conducted using multinomial logistic regression. PAM groups were similarly defined at both ages so that two respiratory phenotypes were identified between birth and 3 yr: cough phenotype (CP) and dyspnoea phenotype (DP) including 14.1% and 30.7% of children, respectively. CP infants experienced more often allergic features than DP, dominated by respiratory infections. Parental history of allergy, potential allergen exposure and psychosocial factors were associated with CP. Day care centre attendance was more frequent in DP as well as exposure to domestic chemical pollution, suggesting a greater vulnerability to pathogens. Finally, dry night cough and dyspnoea disturbing the sleep appear to be markers of two respiratory profiles potentially allergic and infectious before 3 yr old. PMID:22300433

  17. [Chronic cough in the elderly is associated with expiratory flow limitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frappé, E; Gautier-Guillot, M; Barthélémy, J-C; Maudoux, D; Roche, F; Costes, F

    2013-03-01

    As chronic respiratory symptoms and the presence of expiratory flow limitation (EFL) are commonly reported in the elderly, we investigated whether they were associated in a population of 75 years old volunteers. We analyzed the results of a prevalence survey of chronic respiratory symptoms and respiratory infections, and performed spirometry and measured EFL after application of a negative expiratory pressure at the mouth (NEP). EFL was present in 170 (46%) subjects, a chronic cough in 49 (13%), chronic sputum in 58 (29%) and a history of respiratory infection in 62 (17%). Chronic cough and the composite outcome "chronic cough or sputum" were significantly associated with the presence of EFL (respectively 60% vs. 43%, OR=2.04 [1.09 to 3.78], P=0.023, and 56% vs. 43%, OR=1.74 [1.05 to 2.87], P=0.04), after controlling for smoking or airway obstruction. History of respiratory infections were not associated with an increased prevalence of EFL. We concluded that the presence of a LED could be an interesting indicator of respiratory aging. Its detection could be advocated in elderly subjects presenting with respiratory symptoms. PMID:23497927

  18. Right sided arcus aorta as a cause of dyspnea and chronic cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkaya Sevket

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Right sided arcus aorta (RSAA is a rare condition that is usually asymptomatic. Patients may present with exertional dyspnea and chronic cough. A recent article suggested that RSAA should be included in the differential diagnosis of asthma, especially in patients with intractable exertional dyspnea. We aimed to present the clinical, radiologic and spirometric features of thirteen patients with RSAA observed in four years at the Rize Education and Research Hospital and Samsun Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Hospital. Methods The characteristics of patients with RSAA, including age, gender, symptoms, radiologic and spirometric findings, were retrospectively evaluated. Results A total of thirteen patients were diagnosed with RSAA. Their ages ranged from 17 to 86 years and the male to female ratio was 11:2. Seven of the patients (54% were symptomatic. The most common symptoms were exertional dyspnea, dysphagia and chronic cough. Five patients had received treatment for asthma with bronchodilators. Spirometry showed intrathoracic tracheal obstruction in five patients. Conclusions The RSAA anomaly occurs more frequently than might be estimated from the number of patients who are detected. Patients with intractable exertional dyspnea and chronic cough should be evaluated for the RSAA anomaly by thoracic CT.

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of patients with nonacid gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghuai; Yu, Li; Chen, Qiang; Lv, Hanjing; Qiu, Zhongmin

    2015-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is one of the most common causes of chronic cough, and chronic cough due to GER represents a subtype of GER-related diseases. Gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough (GERC) can be divided into two subgroups based on the pH of the GER. Nonacid GERC is less common than acid GERC, and its diagnosis and treatment strategy have not been standardized. However, nonacid GERC usually presents with its unique set of characteristics and features upon diagnosis and treatment in the clinic. Although the underlying molecular mechanism of nonacid GERC is not fully understood, it is considered to be associated with reflux theory, reflex theory and airway hypersensitivity. Multi-channel intraluminal impedance combined with pH monitoring is a promising new technique that can detect both acid and nonacid reflux, and our findings as well as those of others have shown its usefulness in diagnosing nonacid GERC. Development of new diagnostic techniques has led to an increased rate of nonacid GERC diagnosis. We summarize our experience in the diagnosis and treatment of nonacid GERC and provide a guide for future therapeutic approaches. PMID:26759577

  20. Evaluation of antitussive activity of formulations with herbal extracts in sulphur dioxide (SO2) induced cough model in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Y K; Katyal, Jatinder; Kumar, Gajendra; Mehla, Jogender; Katiyar, C K; Sharma, Naveen; Yadav, Satpal

    2009-01-01

    Cough is the most common symptom of respiratory diseases. When cough becomes serious, opioids are effective, but they have side effects like sedation, constipation, some addiction liability and also compromise the respiratory function. Therefore, there is need to have effective anti-tussive agent which do not have respiratory suppressant activity. The present study was carried out to evaluate anti-tussive activity of combination of herbal drugs as formulations in sulphur dioxide (SO2)-induced cough model in mice. Albino mice of either sex, weighing 25-30 g were divided into eight groups, (n = 6). Group 1 served as normal control, group 2 mice were given distilled water, group 3 was positive control and received codeine sulphate (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and group 4, 5, 6, 7 received coded 1 formulations 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively at a dose of 0.3 ml/mice, orally, while group VIII was the vehicle control. Thirty minutes later, the mice were exposed to sulphur dioxide again for 45 sec. The mice were then placed in an observation chamber for counting of cough bouts, by two independent observers, for five minutes. All the formulations used showed significant antitussive activity in sulphur dioxide induced cough model. Thus, these formulations can prove to be useful for alleviating cough. PMID:19810578