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Sample records for automatic cough analyser

  1. [Automatic Classification of Dry Cough and Wet Cough Based on Improved Reverse Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunmei; Liu, Baojun; Li, Ping; Mo, Hongqiang; Zheng, Zeguang

    2016-04-01

    Automatic classification of different types of cough plays an important role in clinical.In the previous research of cough classification or cough recognition,traditional Mel frequency cepstrum coefficients(MFCC)which extracts feature mainly from low frequency band is usually used as feature expression.In this paper,by analyzing the distributions of spectral energy of dry/wet cough,it is found that spectral difference of two types of cough exits mainly in middle frequency band and high frequency band.To better reflect the spectral difference of dry cough and wet cough,an improved method of extracting reverse MFCC is proposed.In this method,reverse Mel filter-bank in which filters are allocated in reverse Mel scale is adopted and is improved by placing filters only in the frequency band with high spectral energy.As a result,features are mainly extracted from the frequency band where two types of cough show both high spectral energy and distinguished difference.Detailed process of accessing improved reverse MFCC was introduced and hidden Markov models trained by 60 dry cough and 60 wet cough were used as cough classification model.Classification experiment results for 120 dry cough and 85 wet cough showed that,compared to traditional MFCC,better classification performance was achieved by the proposed method and the total classification accuracy was raised from 89.76%to 93.66%.

  2. Automatic cough episode detection using a vibroacoustic sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynczak, Marcel; Pariaszewska, Katarzyna; Cybulski, Gerard

    2015-08-01

    Cough monitoring is an important element of the diagnostics of respiratory diseases. The European Respiratory Society recommends objective assessment of cough episodes and the search for methods of automatic analysis to make obtaining the quantitative parameters possible. The cough "events" could be classified by a microphone and a sensor that measures the vibrations of the chest. Analysis of the recorded signals consists of calculating the features vectors for selected episodes and of performing automatic classification using them. The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy of classification based on an artificial neural networks using vibroacoustic signals collected from chest. Six healthy, young men and eight healthy, young women carried out an imitated cough, hand clapping, speech and shouting. Three methods of parametrization were used to prepare the vectors of episode features - time domain, time-frequency domain and spectral modeling. We obtained the accuracy of 95% using artificial neural networks.

  3. A Cough-Based Algorithm for Automatic Diagnosis of Pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, Renard Xaviero Adhi; Imtiaz, Syed Anas; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Pertussis is a contagious respiratory disease which mainly affects young children and can be fatal if left untreated. The World Health Organization estimates 16 million pertussis cases annually worldwide resulting in over 200,000 deaths. It is prevalent mainly in developing countries where it is difficult to diagnose due to the lack of healthcare facilities and medical professionals. Hence, a low-cost, quick and easily accessible solution is needed to provide pertussis diagnosis in such areas to contain an outbreak. In this paper we present an algorithm for automated diagnosis of pertussis using audio signals by analyzing cough and whoop sounds. The algorithm consists of three main blocks to perform automatic cough detection, cough classification and whooping sound detection. Each of these extract relevant features from the audio signal and subsequently classify them using a logistic regression model. The output from these blocks is collated to provide a pertussis likelihood diagnosis. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated using audio recordings from 38 patients. The algorithm is able to diagnose all pertussis successfully from all audio recordings without any false diagnosis. It can also automatically detect individual cough sounds with 92% accuracy and PPV of 97%. The low complexity of the proposed algorithm coupled with its high accuracy demonstrates that it can be readily deployed using smartphones and can be extremely useful for quick identification or early screening of pertussis and for infection outbreaks control. PMID:27583523

  4. Automatic incrementalization of Prolog based static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Kahl, Matthias; Saha, Diptikalyan

    2007-01-01

    Modem development environments integrate various static analyses into the build process. Analyses that analyze the whole project whenever the project changes are impractical in this context. We present an approach to automatic incrementalization of analyses that are specified as tabled logic prog...

  5. Automatic incrementalization of Prolog based static analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Kahl, Matthias; Saha, Diptikalyan

    2007-01-01

    Modem development environments integrate various static analyses into the build process. Analyses that analyze the whole project whenever the project changes are impractical in this context. We present an approach to automatic incrementalization of analyses that are specified as tabled logic...... programs and evaluated using incremental tabled evaluation, a technique for efficiently updating memo tables in response to changes in facts and rules. The approach has been implemented and integrated into the Eclipse IDE. Our measurements show that this technique is effective for automatically...

  6. Analysing the causes of chronic cough: relation to diesel exhaust, ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and other environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Ulrich

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Air pollution remains a leading cause of many respiratory diseases including chronic cough. Although episodes of incidental, dramatic air pollution are relatively rare, current levels of exposure of pollutants in industrialized and developing countries such as total articles, diesel exhaust particles and common cigarette smoke may be responsible for the development of chronic cough both in children and adults. The present study analyses the effects of common environmental factors as potential causes of chronic cough. Different PubMed-based researches were performed that related the term cough to various environmental factors. There is some evidence that chronic inhalation of diesel can lead to the development of cough. For long-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2, children were found to exhibit increased incidences of chronic cough and decreased lung function parameters. Although a number of studies did not show that outdoor pollution directly causes the development of asthma, they have demonstrated that high levels pollutants and their interaction with sunlight produce ozone (O3 and that repeated exposure to it can lead to chronic cough. In summary, next to the well-known air pollutants which also include particulate matter and sulphur dioxide, a number of other indoor and outdoor pollutants have been demonstrated to cause chronic cough and therefore, environmental factors have to be taken into account as potential initiators of both adult and pediatric chronic cough.

  7. [The maintenance of automatic analysers and associated documentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjidé, V; Fournier, P; Vassault, A

    2010-12-01

    The maintenance of automatic analysers and associated documentation taking part in the requirements of the ISO 15189 Standard and the French regulation as well have to be defined in the laboratory policy. The management of the periodic maintenance and documentation shall be implemented and fulfilled. The organisation of corrective maintenance has to be managed to avoid interruption of the task of the laboratory. The different recommendations concern the identification of materials including automatic analysers, the environmental conditions to take into account, the documentation provided by the manufacturer and documents prepared by the laboratory including procedures for maintenance.

  8. A new methodology for studying dynamics of aerosol particles in sneeze and cough using a digital high-vision, high-speed video system and vector analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekazu Nishimura

    Full Text Available Microbial pathogens of respiratory infectious diseases are often transmitted through particles in sneeze and cough. Therefore, understanding the particle movement is important for infection control. Images of a sneeze induced by nasal cavity stimulation by healthy adult volunteers, were taken by a digital high-vision, high-speed video system equipped with a computer system and treated as a research model. The obtained images were enhanced electronically, converted to digital images every 1/300 s, and subjected to vector analysis of the bioparticles contained in the whole sneeze cloud using automatic image processing software. The initial velocity of the particles or their clusters in the sneeze was greater than 6 m/s, but decreased as the particles moved forward; the momentums of the particles seemed to be lost by 0.15-0.20 s and started a diffusion movement. An approximate equation of a function of elapsed time for their velocity was obtained from the vector analysis to represent the dynamics of the front-line particles. This methodology was also applied for a cough. Microclouds contained in a smoke exhaled with a voluntary cough by a volunteer after smoking one breath of cigarette, were traced as the visible, aerodynamic surrogates for invisible bioparticles of cough. The smoke cough microclouds had an initial velocity greater than 5 m/s. The fastest microclouds were located at the forefront of cloud mass that moving forward; however, their velocity clearly decreased after 0.05 s and they began to diffuse in the environmental airflow. The maximum direct reaches of the particles and microclouds driven by sneezing and coughing unaffected by environmental airflows were estimated by calculations using the obtained equations to be about 84 cm and 30 cm from the mouth, respectively, both achieved in about 0.2 s, suggesting that data relating to the dynamics of sneeze and cough became available by calculation.

  9. A data management program for the Electra 800 automatic analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambus, J P; Nguyen, F; de Graeve, J; Aragon, B; Valdiguie, P

    1994-10-01

    The Electra 800 automatic coagulation analyser rapidly performs most chronometric coagulation tests with high precision. To facilitate data handling, software, adaptable to any PC running under MS-DOS, was written to manage the analyser. Data are automatically collected via the RS232 interface or can be manually input. The software can handle 64 different analyses, all entirely 'user defined'. An 'electronic worksheet' presents the results in pages of ten patients. This enables the operator to assess the data and to perform verifications or complementary tests if necessary. All results outside a predetermined range can be flagged and results can be deleted, modified or added. A patient's previous files can be recalled as the data are archived at the end of the day. A 120 Mb disk can store approximately 130,000 patient files. A daily archive function can print the day's work in alphabetical order. A communication protocol allows connection to a mainframe computer. This program and the user's manual are available on request, free of charge, from the authors.

  10. Analysing Solar-like Oscillations with an Automatic Pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, S.; Garcia, R. A.; Regulo, C.; Ballot, J.; Salabert, D.; Chaplin, W. J.

    2009-01-01

    The Kepler mission will provide a huge amount of asteroseismic data during the next few years, among which hundreds of solar-like stars will be targeted. The amount of stars and their observation length represent a step forward in the comprehension of the stellar evolution that has already been initiated by CoRoT and MOST missions. Up to now, the slow cadence of observed targets allowed an individual and personalized analysis of each star. During the survey phase of Kepler, this will be impossible. This is the reason why, within the AsteroFLAG team, we have been developing automatic pipelines for the Kepler solar-like oscillation stars. Our code starts by finding the frequency-range where p-mode power is present and, after fitting the background, it looks for the mode amplitudes as well as the central frequency of the p-mode hump. A good estimation of the large separation can thus be inferred in this region. If the signal to noise is high enough, the code obtains the characteristics of the p modes by doing a global fitting on the power spectrum. Here, we will first describe a few features of this pipeline and its application to AsteroFLAG synthetic data to check the validity of the code.

  11. Study of a bubble chamber's pictures automatic analyser: Coccinelle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, J.-J.

    1974-01-01

    The automatic scanning and measuring system ''Coccinelle'' built in the Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire of College de France, is specially made for the pictures of the new large bubble chambers like BEBC and Mirabelle. This device uses the spot of a high precision cathode ray tube for the analysis of the picture according to a scanning window. The signal of a photomultiplier located behind the picture gives, after processing, the useful information in the form of coordinates of the analyzed points. Electronics, connected to a computer, generates the movements of the spot, the backward and forward movement of the films, and gives the right information for the programs of geometrical reconstruction of the tracks. The use of the device is based upon the collaboration of a programmed automaton and a human operator that have conversational facilities: TV display, light-pen and function keyboard. Beyond a detailed description of the whole device, this thesis insists especially on the following electronic parts: sweep generation of the spot, photomultiplier signal processing [fr

  12. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth / For Teens / Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... resfriado Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  13. Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... guidelines, articles... Pregnant? Help Protect Your Baby from Whooping Cough frame support disabled and/or not supported in ... the disease. Also available on YouTube. Pregnancy and Whooping Cough Learn more about whooping cough vaccination during pregnancy… ...

  14. Analysing and evaluating the task of automatic tweet generation: Knowledge to business

    OpenAIRE

    Lloret, Elena; Palomar, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a study concerning the evaluation and analysis of natural language tweets is presented. Based on our experience in text summarisation, we carry out a deep analysis on user's perception through the evaluation of tweets manual and automatically generated from news. Specifically, we consider two key issues of a tweet: its informativeness and its interestingness. Therefore, we analyse: (1) do users equally perceive manual and automatic tweets?; (2) what linguistic features a good tw...

  15. The impact of harmfulness information on citric acid induced cough and urge-to-cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Thomas; Brepoels, Sarah; Dupont, Lieven; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2015-04-01

    The cough reflex is an automatic protective reflex, which can be modulated by conscious effort or other forms of top-down control. In this experiment, we investigated whether information about harmfulness of a cough-inducing substance would augment cough reflex sensitivity and associated urge-to-cough. Healthy participants (N = 39) were randomized to receive information that they were to inhale a harmless substance (natural citric acid), or a potentially harmful substance (a potent agro-chemical acid). Using dosimeter-controlled inhalations, the dose of citric acid eliciting at least three coughs (C3) was determined. Next, participants received 4 blocks of randomized presentations of citric acid at the C3 dose, a sub-threshold dose of citric acid and saline control. C3 was reached for 27/39 participants, and C3 thresholds were not influenced by harmfulness information. During repeated citric acid presentations, framing the cough-inducing substance as a potentially harmful chemical resulted in a greater urge-to-cough compared to information framing it as natural citric acid (p < .01). The experimental manipulation did not influence cough frequencies. Our findings show that harmfulness information influences urge-to-cough, corroborating the role of cortical mechanisms in modulating the urge-to-cough and suggesting that cognitive manipulations may contribute to cough treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Coughing (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually don't prescribe antibiotics because these only work against bacteria. Unless a cough won't let your child sleep, cough medicines are not needed. They might help a child stop coughing, but they don't treat the cause of the cough. If you do use an ...

  17. Theory and Application of Audio-Based Assessment of Cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Shi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cough is a common symptom of many respiratory diseases. Many medical literatures underline that a system for the automatic, objective, and reliable detection of cough events is important and very promising to detect pathology severity in chronic cough disease. In order to track the development status of an audio-based cough monitoring system, we briefly described the history of objective cough detection and then illustrated the cough sound generating principle. The probable endpoints of cough clinical studies, including cough frequency, intensity of coughing, and acoustic properties of cough sound, were analyzed in this paper. Finally, we introduce some successful cough monitoring equipment and their recognition algorithm in detail. It can be obtained that, firstly, acoustic variability of cough sounds within and between individuals makes it difficult to assess the intensity of coughing. Furthermore, now great progress in audio-based cough detection is being made. Moreover, accurate portable objective monitoring systems will be available and widely used in home care and clinical trials in the near future.

  18. An annoying persistent cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Cipollini

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cough is a stressful condition and can lead to extensive investigations. We report a case of a 48-year-old woman who had suffered from persistent chronic cough for more than 3 months. She had been treated with cough suppressant. However, her cough was not alleviated by these treatments, and the patient was referred to our hospital. She did not exhibit typical gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD symptoms heartburn and regurgitation. Esophagoscopy did not disclose reflux esophagitis. The patient was treated with a proton-pump inhibitor, which markedly alleviated her cough. Chronic cough due to GERD was diagnosed. Although the diagnosis of chronic cough due to GERD is not easy when traditionally symptoms are not present, our case report underscores the importance of this association to the differential diagnosis of chronic cough. In these cases a relatively simple test as high dose proton pump-inhibitors trial may be useful to confirm GERD related cough.

  19. Mobile Genome Express (MGE: A comprehensive automatic genetic analyses pipeline with a mobile device.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hee Yoon

    Full Text Available The development of next-generation sequencing (NGS technology allows to sequence whole exomes or genome. However, data analysis is still the biggest bottleneck for its wide implementation. Most laboratories still depend on manual procedures for data handling and analyses, which translates into a delay and decreased efficiency in the delivery of NGS results to doctors and patients. Thus, there is high demand for developing an automatic and an easy-to-use NGS data analyses system. We developed comprehensive, automatic genetic analyses controller named Mobile Genome Express (MGE that works in smartphones or other mobile devices. MGE can handle all the steps for genetic analyses, such as: sample information submission, sequencing run quality check from the sequencer, secured data transfer and results review. We sequenced an Actrometrix control DNA containing multiple proven human mutations using a targeted sequencing panel, and the whole analysis was managed by MGE, and its data reviewing program called ELECTRO. All steps were processed automatically except for the final sequencing review procedure with ELECTRO to confirm mutations. The data analysis process was completed within several hours. We confirmed the mutations that we have identified were consistent with our previous results obtained by using multi-step, manual pipelines.

  20. Mobile Genome Express (MGE): A comprehensive automatic genetic analyses pipeline with a mobile device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jun-Hee; Kim, Thomas W; Mendez, Pedro; Jablons, David M; Kim, Il-Jin

    2017-01-01

    The development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology allows to sequence whole exomes or genome. However, data analysis is still the biggest bottleneck for its wide implementation. Most laboratories still depend on manual procedures for data handling and analyses, which translates into a delay and decreased efficiency in the delivery of NGS results to doctors and patients. Thus, there is high demand for developing an automatic and an easy-to-use NGS data analyses system. We developed comprehensive, automatic genetic analyses controller named Mobile Genome Express (MGE) that works in smartphones or other mobile devices. MGE can handle all the steps for genetic analyses, such as: sample information submission, sequencing run quality check from the sequencer, secured data transfer and results review. We sequenced an Actrometrix control DNA containing multiple proven human mutations using a targeted sequencing panel, and the whole analysis was managed by MGE, and its data reviewing program called ELECTRO. All steps were processed automatically except for the final sequencing review procedure with ELECTRO to confirm mutations. The data analysis process was completed within several hours. We confirmed the mutations that we have identified were consistent with our previous results obtained by using multi-step, manual pipelines.

  1. Whooping Cough (Pertussis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Whooping Cough (Pertussis) KidsHealth / For Parents / Whooping Cough (Pertussis) What's in this article? Signs & Symptoms Contagiousness ...

  2. An automatic system to search, acquire, and analyse chromosomal aberrations obtained using FISH technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Chromosomal aberrations (CA) analysis in peripheral blood lymphocytes is useful both in prenatal diagnoses and cancer cytogenetics, as well as in toxicology to determine the biologically significant dose of specific, both physical and chemical, genotoxic agents to which an individual is exposed. A useful cytogenetic technique for CAs analysis is Fluorescence-in-situ-Hybridization (FISH) which simplifies the automatic Identification and characterisation of aberrations, allowing the visualisation of chromosomes as bright signals on a dark background, and a fast analysis of stable aberrations, which are particularly interesting for late effects. The main limitation of CA analysis is the rarity with which these events occur, and therefore the time necessary to single out a statistically significant number of aberrant cells. In order to address this problem, a prototype system, capable of automatically searching, acquiring, and recognising chromosomal images of samples prepared using FISH, has been developed. The system is able to score large number of samples in a reasonable time using predefined search criteria. The system is based on the appropriately implemented and characterised automatic metaphase finder Metafer4 (MetaSystems), coupled with a specific module for the acquisition of high magnification metaphase images with any combination of fluorescence filters. These images are then analysed and classified using our software. The prototype is currently capable of separating normal metaphase images from presumed aberrant ones. This system is currently in use in our laboratories both by ourselves and by other researchers not involved in its development, in order to carry out analyses of CAs induced by ionising radiation. The prototype allows simple acquisition and management of large quantities of images and makes it possible to carry out methodological studies -such as the comparison of results obtained by different operators- as well as increasing the

  3. Cough in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Adelaida; Ruiz de Valbuena, Marta; Máiz, Luis

    2014-07-01

    Cough during childhood is very common, and is one of the most frequent reasons for consultation in daily pediatric practice. The causes differ from those in adults, and specific pediatric guidelines should be followed for correct diagnosis and treatment. The most common cause of cough in children is viral infection producing "normal cough", but all children with persistent cough, i.e. a cough lasting more than 4-8weeks or "chronic cough", must be carefully evaluated in other to rule out specific causes that may include the entire pediatric pulmonology spectrum. The treatment of cough should be based on the etiology. Around 80% of cases can be diagnosed using an optimal approach, and treatment will be effective in 90% of them. In some cases of "nonspecific chronic cough", in which no underlying condition can be found, empirical treatment based on the cough characteristics may be useful. There is no scientific evidence to justify the use of over-the-counter cough remedies (anti-tussives, mucolytics and/or antihistamines), as they could have potentially serious side effects, and thus should not be prescribed in children. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Pregnancy and Whooping Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cough vaccine recommendation for pregnant women, infants and children, preteens and teens, and adults. You may print ... Vaccinating Pregnant Patients Answering Patient Questions Making a Strong ...

  5. Automatic image-based analyses using a coupled quadtree-SBFEM/SCM approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravenkamp, Hauke; Duczek, Sascha

    2017-10-01

    Quadtree-based domain decomposition algorithms offer an efficient option to create meshes for automatic image-based analyses. Without introducing hanging nodes the scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM) can directly operate on such meshes by only discretizing the edges of each subdomain. However, the convergence of a numerical method that relies on a quadtree-based geometry approximation is often suboptimal due to the inaccurate representation of the boundary. To overcome this problem a combination of the SBFEM with the spectral cell method (SCM) is proposed. The basic idea is to treat each uncut quadtree cell as an SBFEM polygon, while all cut quadtree cells are computed employing the SCM. This methodology not only reduces the required number of degrees of freedom but also avoids a two-dimensional quadrature in all uncut quadtree cells. Numerical examples including static, harmonic, modal and transient analyses of complex geometries are studied, highlighting the performance of this novel approach.

  6. First Aid: Coughing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Flu Center Asthma Center Your Child's Immunizations: Diphtheria, Tetanus & Pertussis Vaccine (DTaP) Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Is It a Cold or the Flu? Why Is Hand Washing So ... Asthma Center Flu Center Whooping Cough Your Lungs & Respiratory ...

  7. Preventing Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes a whooping sound. They may gag on mucus and throw up after they cough. Not every ... your baby through the placenta and your breast milk. Your baby can get protection from pertussis for ...

  8. Whooping Cough PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 30 second PSA encourages pregnant women to get the whooping cough vaccine, called Tdap, during the third trimester of each pregnancy in order to pass antibodies to their babies so they are born with protection against this serious disease.

  9. Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Search Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Pertussis Home About Pertussis Causes & Transmission Signs & Symptoms Complications ...

  10. Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Search Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Pertussis Home About Pertussis Causes & Transmission Signs & Symptoms Complications ...

  11. Cough in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam J.G. van Manen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Many patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF complain of chronic refractory cough. Chronic cough is a distressing and disabling symptom with a major impact on quality of life. During recent years, progress has been made in gaining insight into the pathogenesis of cough in IPF, which is most probably “multifactorial” and influenced by mechanical, biochemical and neurosensory changes, with an important role for comorbidities as well. Clinical trials of cough treatment in IPF are emerging, and cough is increasingly included as a secondary end-point in trials assessing new compounds for IPF. It is important that such studies include adequate end-points to assess cough both objectively and subjectively. This article summarises the latest insights into chronic cough in IPF. It describes the different theories regarding the pathophysiology of cough, reviews the different methods to assess cough and deals with recent and future developments in the treatment of cough in IPF.

  12. Recognising safety critical events: can automatic video processing improve naturalistic data analyses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozza, Marco; González, Nieves Pañeda

    2013-11-01

    New trends in research on traffic accidents include Naturalistic Driving Studies (NDS). NDS are based on large scale data collection of driver, vehicle, and environment information in real world. NDS data sets have proven to be extremely valuable for the analysis of safety critical events such as crashes and near crashes. However, finding safety critical events in NDS data is often difficult and time consuming. Safety critical events are currently identified using kinematic triggers, for instance searching for deceleration below a certain threshold signifying harsh braking. Due to the low sensitivity and specificity of this filtering procedure, manual review of video data is currently necessary to decide whether the events identified by the triggers are actually safety critical. Such reviewing procedure is based on subjective decisions, is expensive and time consuming, and often tedious for the analysts. Furthermore, since NDS data is exponentially growing over time, this reviewing procedure may not be viable anymore in the very near future. This study tested the hypothesis that automatic processing of driver video information could increase the correct classification of safety critical events from kinematic triggers in naturalistic driving data. Review of about 400 video sequences recorded from the events, collected by 100 Volvo cars in the euroFOT project, suggested that drivers' individual reaction may be the key to recognize safety critical events. In fact, whether an event is safety critical or not often depends on the individual driver. A few algorithms, able to automatically classify driver reaction from video data, have been compared. The results presented in this paper show that the state of the art subjective review procedures to identify safety critical events from NDS can benefit from automated objective video processing. In addition, this paper discusses the major challenges in making such video analysis viable for future NDS and new potential

  13. Attentional modulation of reflex cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Thomas; Silva, Mitchell; Davenport, Paul W; Van Diest, Ilse; Dupont, Lieven J; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2014-07-01

    Reflex cough is a defensive response generated in the brainstem in response to chemical and mechanical stimulation of the airways. However, converging evidence shows that reflex cough is also influenced by central neural control processes. In this study, we investigate whether reflex cough can be modulated by attentional focus on either external stimuli or internal cough-related stimuli. Healthy volunteers (N = 24; seven men; age range, 18-25 years) completed four blocks of citric acid-induced cough challenges while, simultaneously, auditory stimuli were presented. Within each block, four concentrations were administered (30, 100, 300 and 1,000 mM, randomized). During two subsequent blocks, participants focused their attention externally (counting tones). During the other two blocks, participants focused their attention internally (counting coughs). The order of attentional focus was counterbalanced across participants. Ratings of the urge to cough were collected after each challenge. Cough frequency was determined by audio recording. Cough frequency was higher when participants focused their attention internally vs externally (P Reflex cough can be modulated by attentional focus. Internally focused attention may be a mechanism involved in excessive (idiopathic) cough, while an external focus may be introduced as part of treatments targeting excessive cough.

  14. Psychological profile of individuals presenting with chronic cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Hulme

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic refractory cough (CRC is a common problem in respiratory clinics. Adverse effects on quality of life are documented in the literature, but relatively little is known about the underlying psychological factors in this patient population. We aimed to investigate the association of psychological factors with chronic cough, comparing CRC to explained cough and non-cough groups. 67 patients attending a specialist cough clinic (CRC, n=25; explained cough, n=42 and 22 non-cough individuals participated. All participants completed the Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale, Big Five Inventory (Personality, Chalder Fatigue Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire-15. Cough patients also completed the Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised. Appropriate statistical analyses were used to compare participant groups. Chronic refractory coughers displayed significantly higher levels of anxiety, depression, fatigue and somatic physical symptoms than non-cough participants. Compared to explained coughers, there were higher depression and fatigue scores and significantly more negative illness representations (specifically, strong beliefs regarding negative consequences, lower illness coherence and higher emotional representations. “Explained” coughers reported significantly increased fatigue and somatic symptoms in comparison to non-coughers. The prevalence of fatigue, low mood, negative illness beliefs and increased physical symptom reporting should be considered in consultations and in developing novel interventions for CRC patients.

  15. Sex differences in cough reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevkova, J; Buday, T; Kavalcikova-Bogdanova, N; Ioan, I; Demoulin-Alexikova, S

    2017-11-01

    Majority of patients visiting cough clinics are postmenopausal women, who are affected by intractable cough for years. Why the cough reflex becomes exaggerated in women is not known. Basic research excludes females from the studies contributing to the sex bias which may be responsible for lack of understanding of "hypersensitive" cough in women. Biological and behavioural differences between women and men are the factors affecting cough physiology. Gender also shapes the patterns of behaviour and determines the character of environmental exposures which differs between sexes. The article offers an insight into the physiology of the cough, differences in the maturation of it and biological, social and behavioural factors contributing to the sex differences in cough. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Whooping Cough PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-22

    This 30 second PSA encourages pregnant women to get the whooping cough vaccine, called Tdap, during the third trimester of each pregnancy in order to pass antibodies to their babies so they are born with protection against this serious disease.  Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 1/22/2015.

  17. Chronic Cough in Otorhinolaryngologic Routine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palheta Neto, Francisco Xavier

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The chronic cough is sometimes manifested as an imprecise symptom, but of great importance for both the diagnosis and the prognosis. In an otorhinolaryngologic approach, several illnesses that can occur with it can be numbered, including 2 of the 3 main causes of chronic cough. Objective: To identify the main otorhinolaryngologic diseases showing the chronic cough as one of their manifestations. Method: A literature's revision was performed in several scientific articles, specialized books and consultation in Birene and Scielo databases. Literature's revision: cough production in the upper airways is usually associated with an inflammatory reaction by stimulating sensitive receptors of these areas or by mechanic stimulus. The main cause of the chronic cough in the otorhinolaryngology day-to-day is the post-nasal drip, gathering together by itself 02 of the most common diseases: rhinitis and sinusitis. Laryngitis as a result of gastroesophageal reflux (GER stands out in the index of chronic cough etiology, but it is not as severe as GER . Neoplasias are also somewhat frequent causes of cough, and the difficulty in diagnosing the cough cause is common in this disease group. Motility disorder, laryngeal irritation persistence, parasitic disease and injuries by inhalation of toxic products were also found as a cause of cough for longer than 03 months. Conclusion:Chronic cough is a frequent and important finding in otorhinolaryngology and cannot be underestimated, and a careful anamnesis is the best way to determine the etiology and perform a correct treatment for the patient's disease.

  18. Cough mixtures: rational or irrational prescribing in Hong Kong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, William C W; Dickinson, James; Chan, Cynthia

    2005-08-01

    To investigate the extent and how cough mixtures are prescribed, and what conditions or specific groups of people would contribute to its prescription in Hong Kong. Using diagnosis and drug data obtained from logbooks submitted by participants in the diploma in family medicine course between 1999 and 2003, we selected and analysed all patients with a diagnosis of cough or cough-related illnesses as well as cough mixtures that were used to treat them. This study confirmed that cough-related illnesses were common in the Hong Kong primary care setting and cough mixtures were used quite liberally irrespective of the patients' age and sex. Combination preparations accounted for over half of the prescriptions and cough mixture was used less in severe cases when antibiotics were given. Private doctors working in the public sector. Given the current health care system, inappropriate and over-prescribing of cough mixtures can be improved by promoting health education and awareness among patients seeking medical help for this common medical condition.

  19. Benefit Analyses of Technologies for Automatic Identification to Be Implemented in the Healthcare Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, Mike; Schlatter, Ueli

    The tasks and objectives of automatic identification (Auto-ID) are to provide information on goods and products. It has already been established for years in the areas of logistics and trading and can no longer be ignored by the German healthcare sector. Some German hospitals have already discovered the capabilities of Auto-ID. Improvements in quality, safety and reductions in risk, cost and time are aspects and areas where improvements are achievable. Privacy protection, legal restraints, and the personal rights of patients and staff members are just a few aspects which make the heath care sector a sensible field for the implementation of Auto-ID. Auto-ID in this context contains the different technologies, methods and products for the registration, provision and storage of relevant data. With the help of a quantifiable and science-based evaluation, an answer is sought as to which Auto-ID has the highest capability to be implemented in healthcare business.

  20. From rainfall to slope instability: an automatic GIS procedure for susceptibility analyses over wide areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Federici

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes an automatic procedure in geographic information system (GIS for the analysis and prediction of landslides due to rainfall events over wide areas. It runs, for each unit cell, a hydrological balance based on the Curve Number method (USDA-SCS 1985–1986, computing the evolution of groundwater as a result of precipitation and then checks the overcoming, or not, of limit equilibrium conditions of the land in the domain of interest. The mathematical model was implemented in the free and open source GIS GRASS. For any sequence of consecutive days of rain, according to the conditions of soil moisture prior to the time history under study, the hydro-geotechnical model allows (1 the determination of the oscillations of the phreatic table, (2 the part of saturated soil and (3 the slope stability analysis, by taking into proper account the pore pressures buildup. The results of this procedure are returned in raster format, allowing an easy and intuitive interpretation of the land mass sensitivity to meteoric actions. The suggested procedure was applied on an extensive kinematic phenomenon surrounding the city of Santo Stefano d’Aveto (Liguria, Italy. The realized maps of landslide susceptibility are in excellent agreement with what is evident on site.

  1. Recognizing and Preventing Whooping Cough

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast provides information about the symptoms of whooping cough and how vaccines can help prevent this serious disease for people of all ages. It is especially important for those who will have close contact with a baby to be up to date with their whooping cough vaccine.

  2. Persistent cough in an adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, M T; Harper, G; Chen, J

    1999-12-01

    Jessica, a 14-year-old girl with a history of asthma, went to her pediatrician's office because of a persistent cough. She had been coughing for at least 3 months with occasional cough-free periods of less than a few days. The cough was nonproductive and was not accompanied by fever, rhinorrhea, or facial or chest pain. Jessica and her mother observed that the cough increased with exercise and typically was not present during sleep. She has used two metered-dose inhalers--albuterol and cromolyn--without any change in the cough pattern. For the past 5 years, Jessica has had mild asthma responsive to albuterol. She enjoys running on the cross-country team, soccer, and dancing. She is an average student and denies any change in academic performance. She has never been hospitalized or had an emergency department visit for asthma or pneumonia. There has been no recent travel or exposure to a person with a chronic productive cough, tobacco smoke, or a live-in pet. Jessica lives with her mother and younger sister in a 10-year-old, carpeted apartment without any evidence of mold or recent renovation. In the process of taking the history, the pediatrician noticed that Jessica coughed intermittently, with two or three coughs during each episode. At times, the cough was harsh; at other times, it was a quiet cough, as if she were clearing her throat. She was cooperative, without overt anxiety or respiratory distress. After a complete physical examination with normal findings, the pediatrician interviewed Jessica and her mother alone. Jessica's parents had been divorced for the past 6 years. She lived with her mother but visited her father, and his new family with two young children, every weekend. She spoke about this arrangement comfortably and said that she loved her father and mother but didn't like the tension she experienced at her father's home. "I don't like adults arguing when kids are around." When asked why she thought the cough persisted so long, she commented in a

  3. Automatically visualise and analyse data on pathways using PathVisioRPC from any programming environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohler, Anwesha; Eijssen, Lars M T; van Iersel, Martijn P; Leemans, Christ; Willighagen, Egon L; Kutmon, Martina; Jaillard, Magali; Evelo, Chris T

    2015-08-23

    Biological pathways are descriptive diagrams of biological processes widely used for functional analysis of differentially expressed genes or proteins. Primary data analysis, such as quality control, normalisation, and statistical analysis, is often performed in scripting languages like R, Perl, and Python. Subsequent pathway analysis is usually performed using dedicated external applications. Workflows involving manual use of multiple environments are time consuming and error prone. Therefore, tools are needed that enable pathway analysis directly within the same scripting languages used for primary data analyses. Existing tools have limited capability in terms of available pathway content, pathway editing and visualisation options, and export file formats. Consequently, making the full-fledged pathway analysis tool PathVisio available from various scripting languages will benefit researchers. We developed PathVisioRPC, an XMLRPC interface for the pathway analysis software PathVisio. PathVisioRPC enables creating and editing biological pathways, visualising data on pathways, performing pathway statistics, and exporting results in several image formats in multiple programming environments. We demonstrate PathVisioRPC functionalities using examples in Python. Subsequently, we analyse a publicly available NCBI GEO gene expression dataset studying tumour bearing mice treated with cyclophosphamide in R. The R scripts demonstrate how calls to existing R packages for data processing and calls to PathVisioRPC can directly work together. To further support R users, we have created RPathVisio simplifying the use of PathVisioRPC in this environment. We have also created a pathway module for the microarray data analysis portal ArrayAnalysis.org that calls the PathVisioRPC interface to perform pathway analysis. This module allows users to use PathVisio functionality online without having to download and install the software and exemplifies how the PathVisioRPC interface can be

  4. PHYTOTHERAPY OF COUGH IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Danilyuk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of treatment of cough in children with herbal medications are presented in this article. Poly therapeutic effect of medicinal plants, its high biological activity, relatively low toxicity and wide therapeutic index explain a need of phyto therapy use in treatment of cough. Advantages of phyto therapy are described, children's doses, ways of application of herbal extracts are given. The use of plants depending on the stage of disease and principles of combination of herbal medications during treatment are described.Key words: phyto therapy, cough, medicinal plants.

  5. The influence of bilirubin, haemolysis and turbidity on 20 analytical tests performed on automatic analysers. Results of an interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafmeyer, D; Bondon, M; Manchon, M; Levillain, P

    1995-01-01

    The director of a laboratory has to be sure to give out reliable results for routine tests on automatic analysers regardless of the clinical context. However, he may find hyperbilirubinaemia in some circumstances, parenteral nutrition causing turbidity in others, and haemolysis occurring if sampling is difficult. For this reason, the Commission for Instrumentation of the Société Française de Biologie Clinique (SFBC) (president Alain Feuillu) decided to look into "visible" interferences--bilirubin, haemolysis and turbidity--and their effect on 20 major tests: 13 substrates/chemistries: albumin, calcium, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, total bilirubin, total proteins, triacylglycerols, uric acid, urea, and 7 enzymatic activities: alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, alpha-amylase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, gamma-glutamyl transferase and lactate dehydrogenase measured on 15 automatic analysers representative of those found on the French market (Astra 8, AU 510, AU 5010, AU 5000, Chem 1, CX 7, Dax 72, Dimension, Ektachem, Hitachi 717, Hitachi 737, Hitachi 747, Monarch, Open 30, Paramax, Wako 30 R) and to see how much they affect the accuracy of results under routine conditions in the laboratory. The study was carried out following the SFBC protocol for the validation of techniques using spiked plasma pools with bilirubin, ditauro-bilirubin, haemoglobin (from haemolysate) and Intralipid (turbidity). Overall, the following results were obtained: haemolysis affects tests the most often (34.5% of cases); total bilirubin interferes in 21.7% of cases; direct bilirubin and turbidity seem to interfere less at around 17%. The different tests are not affected to the same extent; enzyme activity is hardly affected at all; on the other hand certain major tests are extremely sensitive, increasingly so as we go through the following: creatinine (interference of bilirubin), triacylglycerols (interference of bilirubin and

  6. What is chronic cough in children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia eIOAN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The cough reflex is modulated throughout growth and development. Cough – but not expiration reflex – appears to be absent at birth, but increases with maturation. Thus, acute cough is the most frequent respiratory symptom during the first few years of life. Later on, the pubertal development seems to play a significant role in changing of the cough threshold during childhood and adolescence resulting in sex-related differences in cough reflex sensitivity in adulthood. Asthma is the major cause of chronic cough in children. Prolonged acute cough is usually related to the long-lasting effects of a previous viral airway infection or to the particular entity called protracted bacterial bronchitis. Cough pointers and type may orient towards specific aetiologies, such as barking cough in croup or tracheomalacia, paroxystic whooping cough in Pertussis. Cough is productive in protracted bacterial bronchitis, sinusitis or bronchiectasis. Cough is usually associated with wheeze or dyspnea on exertion in asthma; however, it may be the sole symptom in cough variant asthma. Thus, paediatric cough has particularities differentiating it from adult cough, so the approach and management should be developmentally specific.

  7. Cough-induced rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanak, Viktor; Hartman, Thomas E; Ryu, Jay H

    2005-07-01

    To define the demographic, clinical, and radiological features of patients with cough-induced rib fractures and to assess potential risk factors. For this retrospective, single-center study, we identified all cases of cough-induced rib fractures diagnosed at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn, over a 9-year period between January 1, 1996, and January 31, 2005. Bone densitometry data from patients' medical records were analyzed, and T scores were used to classify patients into bone density categories. The mean +/- SD age of the 54 study patients at presentation was 55+/-17 years, and 42 patients (78%) were female. Patients presented with chest wall pain after onset of cough. Rib fracture was associated with chronic cough (> or =3 weeks' duration) in 85% of patients. Rib fractures were documented by chest radiography, rib radiography, computed tomography, or bone scan. Chest radiography had been performed in 52 patients and revealed rib fracture in 30 (58%). There were 112 fractured ribs in 54 patients. One half of patients had more than one fractured rib. Right-sided rib fractures alone were present in 17 patients (26 fractured ribs), left-sided in 23 patients (35 fractured ribs), and bilateral in 14 patients (51 fractured ribs). The most commonly fractured rib on both sides was rib 6. The fractures were most common at the lateral aspect of the rib cage. Bone densitometry was done in 26 patients and revealed osteopenia or osteoporosis in 17 (65%). Cough-induced rib fractures occur primarily in women with chronic cough. Middle ribs along the lateral aspect of the rib cage are affected most commonly. Although reduced bone density is likely a risk factor, cough-induced rib fractures can occur in the presence of normal bone density.

  8. Cough-induced rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Atsushi; Tashiro, Ken; Fukuda, Tsutomu

    2015-10-01

    Occasionally, patients who complain of chest pain after the onset of coughing are diagnosed with rib fractures. We investigated the characteristics of cough-induced rib fractures. Between April 2008 and December 2013, 17 patients were referred to our hospital with chest pain after the onset of coughing. Rib radiography was performed, focusing on the location of the chest pain. When the patient had other signs and symptoms such as fever or persistent cough, computed tomography of the chest was carried out. We analyzed the data retrospectively. Rib fractures were found in 14 of the 17 patients. The age of the patients ranged from 14 to 86 years (median 39.5 years). Ten patients were female and 4 were male. Three patients had chronic lung disease. There was a single rib fracture in 9 patients, and 5 had two or more fractures. The middle and lower ribs were the most commonly involved; the 10th rib was fractured most frequently. Cough-induced rib fractures occur in every age group regardless of the presence or absence of underlying disease. Since rib fractures often occur in the lower and middle ribs, rib radiography is useful for diagnosis. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Design and implementation of an automatic acquisition card with direct memory incrementing intended for a multichannel analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ani, Tarik Hesen

    1984-01-01

    This study presents a contribution to the implementation of a multichannel analyser, based on recent technology in order to give elaborated results to the user. This instrument will be designed using modular cards compatible with an Intel, Multi-bus System. The main purpose of this thesis consists in the study and design of the logical card establishing automatically an histogram in the memory of a micro-computer (Direct Memory Increment or DMI). This card allows the connection of up to four analog to digital converters and does the incrementing of the data in memory at the address delivered by an analog to digital Wilkinson type converter (400 MHz) designed at CEA. It allows: - 4 independent inputs working simultaneously with an average input rate of 87500 events/second for 16000 channels of 2 32 bits and with a time resolution of 1 μs; - 3 acquisition modes: histogram, multi-scaling and list; - calculation of the real and live times independently for the 4 inputs. In addition, this card provides the interfacing capability for a line printer, a sample driver and a 'mouse'. (author) [fr

  10. Recognizing and Preventing Whooping Cough

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-22

    This podcast provides information about the symptoms of whooping cough and how vaccines can help prevent this serious disease for people of all ages. It is especially important for those who will have close contact with a baby to be up to date with their whooping cough vaccine.  Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 1/22/2015.

  11. An overview of post infectious coughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samrad Mehrabi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coughs lasting more than 3 weeks after airway infections are likely regarded as post-infectious coughs. A normal chest radiography unfavors possibility of pulmonary infection. These coughs are selflimited. This study reviews conducted studies in order to identify and define prevalence, pathogenesis, and cure of post-infectious constant coughs. The necessary data and guidelines are gained from English articles in PubMed website. Post-infectious and cough are searched. Post-infectious cough pathogenesis are not known; nevertheless, inflammation, epithelial damages of upper and lower airways, increased mucus secretion, and an increased reactivity of airways can cause these coughs. Despite self-limitedness of these coughs; dextromethorphan, antihistamines, ipratropium bromide, and decongestant are usually prescribed for cure of these coughs. Conversely, antibiotics play no significant role in this regard. These coughs constitutes smaller percentage of chronic coughs and are primarily classified in subacute coughs. Further studies should cover sub-acute and chronic properties of these coughs as well as their prevalence in different age groups and their determinants.

  12. Chronic dry cough: Diagnostic and management approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Mahashur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cough is the most common symptom for which medical treatment is sought in the outpatient setting. Chronic dry cough poses a great diagnostic and management challenge due to myriad etiologies. Chronic cough has been commonly considered to be caused by gastroesophageal reflux, post-nasal drip or asthma. However, recent evidences suggest that many patients with these conditions do not have cough, and in those with cough, the response to specific treatments is unpredictable at best. This raises questions about the concept of a triad of treatable causes for chronic cough. This article discusses the mechanism and etiology of cough, along with recent advances in the field of cough, highlighting some of the diagnostic and management challenges.

  13. Cough during infancy and subsequent childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, E; Rothers, J; Stern, D A; Morgan, W J; Halonen, M; Wright, A L

    2015-09-01

    Wheezing in infancy has been associated with subsequent asthma, but whether cough similarly influences asthma risk has been little studied. We sought to determine whether prolonged cough and cough without cold in the first year of life are associated with childhood asthma. Participants in the Infant Immune Study, a non-selected birth cohort, were surveyed 7 times in the first 9 months of life regarding the presence of wheeze and cough. Cough for more than 28 days was defined as prolonged. Parents were asked at 1 year if the child ever coughed without a cold. Asthma was defined as parental report of physician diagnosis of asthma, with symptoms or medication use between 2 and 9 years. Logistic regression was used to assess adjusted odds for asthma associated with cough characteristics. A total of 24% (97) of children experienced prolonged cough and 23% (95) cough without cold in the first 9 months, respectively. Prolonged cough was associated with increased risk of asthma relative to brief cough (OR 3.57, CI: 1.88, 6.76), with the risk being particularly high among children of asthmatic mothers. Cough without cold (OR 3.13, 95% CI: 1.76, 5.57) was also independently associated with risk of childhood asthma. Both relations persisted after adjustment for wheeze and total IgE at age 1. Prolonged cough in infancy and cough without cold are associated with childhood asthma, independent of infant wheeze. These findings suggest that characteristics of cough in infancy are early markers of asthma susceptibility, particularly among children with maternal asthma. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Comparison of cough reflex test against instrumental assessment of aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Anna; Moore, Sara; McFarlane, Mary; Lee, Fiona; Allen, Jacqueline; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2013-06-13

    Silent aspiration is associated with pneumonia and mortality, and is poorly identified by traditional clinical swallowing evaluation (CSE). The aim of this study was to validate cough reflex testing (CRT) for identification of silent aspiration against aspiration confirmed by instrumental assessment. Cough reflex threshold testing was completed on all patients using inhaled, nebulised citric acid. Within an hour, 80 patients underwent videofluoroscopic study of swallowing (VFSS) and 101 patients underwent fibreoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). All tests were recorded and analysed by two researchers blinded to the result of the alternate test. Significant associations between CRT result and cough response to aspiration on VFSS (X(2) (2)=11.046, p=.003) and FEES (X(2) (2)=34.079, pacid provide a better predictive measure of silent aspiration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ineffective cough and mechanical mucociliary clearance techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Carmona, A; Olivencia-Peña, L; Yuste-Ossorio, M E; Peñas-Maldonado, L

    Cough is a fundamental defense mechanism for keeping the airway free of foreign elements. Life-threatening situations may arise when cough proves ineffective as a result of muscle weakness or altered mucociliary function. When a patient is unable to cough effectively, techniques are required to either reinforce or replace cough capacity. The use of mechanical systems that facilitate or substitute cough function is increasingly common in Intensive Care Units, where it is relatively frequent to find situations of ineffective cough due to different clinical causes. This review examines the current clinical practice recommendations referred to the indication and use of mechanical cough assist and intrapulmonary percussive ventilation systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  16. Cough reflex sensitization from esophagus and nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennel, Michal; Brozmanova, Mariana; Kollarik, Marian

    2015-12-01

    The diseases of the esophagus and nose are among the major factors contributing to chronic cough although their role in different patient populations is debated. Studies in animal models and in humans show that afferent C-fiber activators applied on esophageal or nasal mucosa do not initiate cough, but enhance cough induced by inhaled irritants. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that activation of esophageal and nasal C-fibers contribute to cough reflex hypersensitivity observed in chronic cough patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and chronic rhinitis, respectively. The afferent nerves mediating cough sensitization from the esophagus are probably the neural crest-derived vagal jugular C-fibers. In addition to their responsiveness to high concentration of acid typical for gastroesophageal reflux (pH acidic reflux such as receptors highly sensitive to acid and receptors for bile acids. The nature of sensory pathways from the nose and their activators relevant for cough sensitization are less understood. Increased cough reflex sensitivity was also reported in many patients with GERD or rhinitis who do not complain of cough indicating that additional endogenous or exogenous factors may be required to develop chronic coughing in these diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Treatment of recalcitrant cough with baclofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Agostinis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic dry cough is a debilitating symptom often refractory to standard antitussive therapy. It may result from increased sensitivity of the cough reflex. Baclofen, an agonist of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, has been shown, in animals, to have antitussive activity via a central mechanism. In normal subjects baclofen has been revealed ability to inhibit capsaicininduced cough and cough due to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors. In addition, chronic therapy with baclofen has been shown to reduce cough reflex sensitivity in subjects with cervical spinal cord injury. Clinical cases: We describe two patients with chronic refractory cough who obtained symptomatic improvement after oral baclofen administration. The antitussive effect of baclofen, usually used for treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis and spinal cord lesions, can be explained by central inhibition, but may also involve peripheral inhibitory mechanisms.

  18. Antibiotics for whooping cough (pertussis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunaiji, S; Kukuruzovic, R; Curtis, N; Massie, J

    2007-07-18

    Whooping cough is a highly contagious disease. Infants are at highest risk of severe disease and death. Erythromycin for 14 days is currently recommended for treatment and contact prophylaxis, but is of uncertain benefit. To study the benefits and risks of antibiotic treatment of and contact prophylaxis against whooping cough. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2007); MEDLINE (January 1966 to March 2007); EMBASE (January 1974 to March 2007). All randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of antibiotics for treatment of, and contact prophylaxis against, whooping cough. Three to four review authors independently extracted data and assessed the quality of each trial. Thirteen trials with 2197 participants met the inclusion criteria: 11 trials investigated treatment regimens; 2 investigated prophylaxis regimens. The quality of the trials was variable.Short-term antibiotics (azithromycin for three to five days, or clarithromycin or erythromycin for seven days) were as effective as long-term (erythromycin for 10 to 14 days) in eradicating Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) from the nasopharynx (relative risk (RR) 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98 to 1.05), but had fewer side effects (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.83). Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for seven days was also effective. Nor were there differences in clinical outcomes or microbiological relapse between short and long-term antibiotics. Contact prophylaxis of contacts older than six months of age with antibiotics did not significantly improve clinical symptoms or the number of cases developing culture-positive B. pertussis. Although antibiotics were effective in eliminating B. pertussis, they did not alter the subsequent clinical course of the illness. There is insufficient evidence to determine the benefit of prophylactic treatment of pertussis contacts.

  19. Gastro-oesophageal reflux and cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulqawi, Rayid; Houghton, Lesley A; Smith, Jaclyn A

    2013-05-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux, either singly or in association with postnasal drip and/or asthma is considered to be a cause of chronic cough. The amount and nature of gastro-oesophageal reflux however is often normal with acid suppression having very little, if any therapeutic effect in these patients. This review examines the challenges posed when exploring the reflux-cough link, and discusses the merits and limitations of the proposed mechanisms of reflux leading to cough.

  20. Afferent nerves regulating the cough reflex: Mechanisms and Mediators of Cough in Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Brendan J.

    2010-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary C-fibers and acid-sensitive, capsaicin-insensitive mechanoreceptors innervating the larynx, trachea and large bronchi regulate the cough reflex. These vagal afferent nerves may interact centrally with sensory input arising from afferent nerves innervating the intrapulmonary airways or even extrapulmonary afferents such as those innervating the nasal mucosa and esophagus to produce chronic cough or enhanced cough responsiveness. The mechanisms of cough initiation in health and in disease are briefly described. PMID:20172253

  1. Change in Psychological, Physiological, and Situational Factors in Adults After Treatment of Chronic Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Cynthia L; Crawford, Sybil L; Bova, Carol; Irwin, Richard S

    2017-09-01

    We hypothesized that addressing anxiety and depressive mood disorders will improve chronic cough severity and cough quality of life (CQOL). Major tenets of the theory of unpleasant symptoms were examined in a longitudinal observational study of consecutive adults with cough of > 8 weeks' duration treated in our cough clinic. At baseline and 3 and 6 months, subjects completed 3 Punum Ladders rating cough severity, the CQOL Questionnaire, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales-21, and the Duke Functional Social Support Questionnaire. Cross-sectional baseline and longitudinal regression analyses were conducted. Eighty subjects (55 women) with a mean age of 58.5 ± 11.1 years and a cough duration of 86.0 ± 123.7 months were enrolled. At baseline, worse cough severity was significantly associated with less education and worse ability to speak bothered by cough and the urge to cough. Worse CQOL was significantly associated with worse depression symptoms, urinary incontinence, and ability to speak; use of self-prescribed remedies; and younger age. Significant improvements in depression and stress symptoms occurred at 3 and 6 months. Anxiety symptoms improved, particularly in the first 3 months. Improvement in cough severity was significantly associated with less education, male sex, and improvement in ability to speak and urge to cough. Improvement in CQOL was significantly associated with improvement in urinary incontinence, urge to cough, anxiety symptoms, and use of self-prescribed remedies. Using the theory of unpleasant symptoms, we have come to appreciate that managing psychological, physiological, and situational factors in addition to focusing on identifying the cause of cough is important to maximize improvement in CQOL. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Could patients' coughing have communicative significance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Julia V

    2008-01-01

    Medical discourse positions patients with coughs and colds negatively, so consulting health services with 'minor' respiratory illness is therefore more accountable than for other medical problems. Patients face dilemmas since they must persuade doctors of the doctorability of their illness without being seen as hypochondriacal, and they risk losing face if doctors decide that there is nothing much wrong. It is known that the placement of non-lexical features of talk such as laughing or crying can have interactional meaning. Using a data set of video-recorded doctor-patient cough and cold consultations, this study explores whether patients' coughing could have communicative significance. The study is a qualitative analysis of 33 consultations drawing on a constructionist, sociolinguistic analytic approach. Coughing is co-ordinated with talk rather than occurring randomly. Coughing helps patients to demonstrate the doctorability of their symptoms and to legitimize their claims for medical attention. Coughing is also associated with resistance to 'no problem' diagnoses, resulting in changes in the trajectory of talk (for example, soliciting more explanation from doctors and/or re-negotiation of doctors' investigation or treatment plans). Coughing is undoubtedly a manifestation of respiratory illness, but also has communicative significance in consultations for coughs and colds.

  3. Headache associated with cough : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordenier, Ann; De Hertogh, Willem; De Keyser, Jacques; Versijpt, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Headache only triggered by coughing is a rather uncommon condition. The aim of the present review is to present an overview of the diagnosis, clinical characteristics, pathophysiology and treatment of both primary and symptomatic cough headache and discuss other relevant headache disorders affected

  4. Design and characterization of a cough simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhu, Chao; Ji, Zhiming; Lin, Chao-Hsin

    2017-02-23

    Expiratory droplets from human coughing have always been considered as potential carriers of pathogens, responsible for respiratory infectious disease transmission. To study the transmission of disease by human coughing, a transient repeatable cough simulator has been designed and built. Cough droplets are generated by different mechanisms, such as the breaking of mucus, condensation and high-speed atomization from different depths of the respiratory tract. These mechanisms in coughing produce droplets of different sizes, represented by a bimodal distribution of 'fine' and 'coarse' droplets. A cough simulator is hence designed to generate transient sprays with such bimodal characteristics. It consists of a pressurized gas tank, a nebulizer and an ejector, connected in series, which are controlled by computerized solenoid valves. The bimodal droplet size distribution is characterized for the coarse droplets and fine droplets, by fibrous collection and laser diffraction, respectively. The measured size distributions of coarse and fine droplets are reasonably represented by the Rosin-Rammler and log-normal distributions in probability density function, which leads to a bimodal distribution. To assess the hydrodynamic consequences of coughing including droplet vaporization and polydispersion, a Lagrangian model of droplet trajectories is established, with its ambient flow field predetermined from a computational fluid dynamics simulation.

  5. A novel reflex cough testing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Kazunori; Kawamoto, Katsuyuki; Shimizu, Yoko; Fukuhara, Takahiro; Koyama, Satoshi; Kataoka, Hideyuki; Kitano, Hiroya; Takeuchi, Hiromi

    2017-01-18

    The reflex cough test is useful for detecting silent aspiration, a risk factor for aspiration pneumonia. However, assessing the risk of aspiration pneumonia requires measuring not only the cough reflex but also cough strength. Currently, no reflex cough testing device is available that can directly measure reflex cough strength. We therefore developed a new testing device that can easily and simultaneously measure cough strength and the time until the cough reflex, and verified whether screening with this new instrument is feasible for evaluating the risk of aspiration pneumonia. This device consists of a special pipe with a double lumen, a nebulizer, and an electronic spirometer. We used a solution of prescription-grade L-tartaric acid to initiate the cough reflex. The solution was inhaled through a mouthpiece as a microaerosol produced by an ultrasonic nebulizer. The peak cough flow (PCF) of the induced cough was measured with the spirometer. The 70 patients who participated in this study comprised 49 patients without a history of pneumonia (group A), 21 patients with a history of pneumonia (group B), and 10 healthy volunteers (control group). With the novel device, PCF and time until cough reflex could be measured without adverse effects. The PCF values were 118.3 ± 64.0 L/min, 47.7 ± 38.5 L/min, and 254.9 ± 83.8 L/min in group A, group B, and the control group, respectively. The PCF of group B was significantly lower than that of group A and the control group (p reflex was 4.2 ± 5.9 s, 7.0 ± 7.0 s, and 1 s in group A, group B, and the control group, respectively. This duration was significantly longer for groups A and B than for the control group (A: p reflex and the strength of involuntary coughs for assessment of patients at risk of aspiration pneumonia.

  6. Help Protect Babies from Whooping Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Help Protect Babies from Whooping Cough Language: English (US) ... Emails Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, ...

  7. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

    Medline Plus

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  8. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... getvaxed about GETVAXED print ads go to GETVAXED.ORG cme Immunizations Pertussis (Whooping Cough) One family's struggles ... free-of-charge. Branded videos contain the "PKIDs.ORG" end slate; unbranded videos are provided for organizations ...

  9. Theobromine inhibits sensory nerve activation and cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmani, Omar S; Belvisi, Maria G; Patel, Hema J; Crispino, Natascia; Birrell, Mark A; Korbonits, Márta; Korbonits, Dezso; Barnes, Peter J

    2005-02-01

    Cough is a common and protective reflex, but persistent coughing is debilitating and impairs quality of life. Antitussive treatment using opioids is limited by unacceptable side effects, and there is a great need for more effective remedies. The present study demonstrates that theobromine, a methylxanthine derivative present in cocoa, effectively inhibits citric acid-induced cough in guinea-pigs in vivo. Furthermore, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in man, theobromine suppresses capsaicin-induced cough with no adverse effects. We also demonstrate that theobromine directly inhibits capsaicin-induced sensory nerve depolarization of guinea-pig and human vagus nerve suggestive of an inhibitory effect on afferent nerve activation. These data indicate the actions of theobromine appear to be peripherally mediated. We conclude theobromine is a novel and promising treatment, which may form the basis for a new class of antitussive drugs.

  10. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

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  11. Cough Medicine: Understanding Your OTC Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CorrectlyPain Relievers: Understanding Your OTC OptionsAntacids and Acid Reducers: OTC Relief for Heartburn and Acid RefluxOTC Cough ... Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics ...

  12. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

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    Full Text Available ... freed meet keri russell posters grand article rich media video/audio pneumonia tb overview links & resources families ... hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus shingles media room Flu's Gonna Lose M.O.V.E. ...

  13. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... GETVAXED print ads go to GETVAXED.ORG cme Immunizations Pertussis (Whooping Cough) One family's struggles with pertussis ... not possible without a visit to your doctor. Immunizations stop disease from spreading. Check with your family ...

  14. Predictors of objective cough frequency in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumner, Helen; Woodcock, Ashley; Kolsum, Umme

    2013-01-01

    Cough is one of the principal symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but the potential drivers of cough are likely to be multifactorial and poorly understood.......Cough is one of the principal symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but the potential drivers of cough are likely to be multifactorial and poorly understood....

  15. Accuracy of portable devices in measuring peak cough flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulnik, Stefan Tino; Kalra, Lalit; MacBean, Victoria; Birring, Surinder Singh; Moxham, John; Rafferty, Gerrard Francis

    2015-01-01

    Peak cough flow (PCF) measurements can be used as indicators of cough effectiveness. Portable peak flow meters and spirometers have been used to measure PCF, but little is known about their accuracy compared to pneumotachograph systems. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of four portable devices (Mini–Wright and Assess peak flow meters, SpiroUSB and Microlab spirometers) in measuring PCF with a calibrated laboratory based pneumotachograph system. Twenty healthy volunteers (mean (SD) age 45 (16) years) coughed through a pneumotachograph connected in series with each portable device in turn, and the differences in PCF readings were analysed. In addition, mechanically generated flow waves of constant peak flow were delivered through each device both independently and when connected in series with the pneumotachograph. Agreement between PCF readings obtained with the pneumotachograph and the portable devices was poor. Peak flow readings were on average lower by approximately 50 L min −1 when measured using the portable devices; 95% limits of agreement spanned approximately 150 L min −1 . The findings highlight the potential for inaccuracy when using portable devices for the measurement of PCF. Depending on the measurement instrument used, absolute values of PCF reported in the literature may not be directly comparable. (paper)

  16. Cough-variant asthma: a diagnostic dilemma in the occupational setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipińska-Ojrzanowska, A; Wiszniewska, M; Walusiak-Skorupa, J

    2015-03-01

    Cough-variant asthma (Corrao's syndrome) is defined as the presence of chronic non-productive cough in patients with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and response to bronchodilator therapy. This variant of asthma may present a diagnostic problem in occupational medicine. To describe additional evaluation of cough-variant asthma in a cyanoacrylate-exposed worker in whom standard diagnostic testing was negative. A female beautician was evaluated for suspected occupational allergic rhinitis and asthma. A specific inhalation challenge test (SICT) was performed with cyanoacrylate glues used for applying artificial eyelashes and nails. Spirometry and peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements were recorded hourly for 24h; methacholine challenge testing was performed and nasal lavage (NL) samples were analysed for eosinophilia. After SICT, the patient developed sneezing, nasal airflow obstruction and cough. Declines in forced expiratory volume in 1 s and PEF were not observed. Eosinophil proportions in NL fluid increased markedly at 4 and 24h after SICT. A significant increase in BHR also occurred 24h after SICT. Clinical symptoms, post-challenge BHR and increased NL eosinophil counts confirmed a positive response to SICT and validated the diagnosis of cough-variant occupational asthma. SICT may be useful in cases where history and clinical data suggest cough-variant asthma and spirometric indices are negative. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Characterization of urge to cough and cough symptoms associated with the common cold: results of a US internet survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Ron; Dicpinigaitis, Peter; Turner, Ronald B; Druce, Howard M; Adeleke, Maryann; Mann, Ashley L

    2016-06-01

    Our knowledge of cough physiology is limited despite years of study. Even less is known about the sensation of urge to cough. Given that limited clinical data are available about urge to cough and cough attributes during a common cold, we sought to gain insights into experiences and perceptions related to these symptoms. An internet survey consisting of 51 questions was fielded in the United States. Eligible survey participants included men and women aged 18 years and older who had suffered from a cold with cough within the three months preceding the survey. Participants who confirmed suffering from recurrent cough, asthma, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, or gastrointestinal reflux were excluded. Of 19,530 initial respondents, 8011 had a cold in the past three months. Of these, 6484 (81%) had experienced cough symptoms; 2708 respondents with cough due to cold and no exclusionary condition made up the analysis sample. Most respondents (62%) reported that cough developed one to two days after the onset of cold symptoms, and 45% felt that cough worsened their other cold symptoms. In 69% of respondents, cough outlasted other cold symptoms. Urge to cough was reported by 98% of respondents, and among these respondents, 64% described it as uncontrollable and 65% rated severity as moderate. More than half of respondents (57%) considered the sensation of urge to cough and the act of coughing as equally bothersome. Although urge to cough and inability to control cough were the most bothersome aspects of cough due to cold, few (<20%) respondents asked healthcare providers for treatment recommendations. Symptoms of urge to cough and cough are common and have a significant impact on cold sufferers. Understanding attributes of these symptoms may provide insights for effective management and the development of novel treatment strategies.

  18. Cough and environmental air pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingling; Qiu, Minzhi; Lai, Kefang; Zhong, Nanshan

    2015-12-01

    With fast-paced urbanization and increased energy consumption in rapidly industrialized modern China, the level of outdoor and indoor air pollution resulting from industrial and motor vehicle emissions has been increasing at an accelerated rate. Thus, there is a significant increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and decreased pulmonary function. Experimental exposure research and epidemiological studies have indicated that exposure to particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and environmental tobacco smoke have a harmful influence on development of respiratory diseases and are significantly associated with cough and wheeze. This review mainly discusses the effect of air pollutants on respiratory health, particularly with respect to cough, the links between air pollutants and microorganisms, and air pollutant sources. Particular attention is paid to studies in urban areas of China where the levels of ambient and indoor air pollution are significantly higher than World Health Organization recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Pertussis (Whooping cough)--an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ingo

    2015-12-01

    Whooping cough is a highly contagious respiratory disease which is caused predominantly by the gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Further Bordetella species such as B. parapertussis and the recently discovered species B. holmesii are also involved in whooping cough-like diseases. Depending on age, vaccination status and distance to pre-infection with B. pertussis, whooping cough shows a wide range of symptoms. The disease occurs at any age, leaving only short time immunity. During the last 15 years, in industrialized countries the number of reported pertussis cases has been increased markedly. The reason for this observation is still unclear Macrolides such as azithromycin and clarithromycin are regarded as antibiotics of first choice. In Germany, combination vaccines containing acellular pertussis vaccines is the most important strategy of prevention. To ensure the best possible protection against pertussis, booster doses at determined times should be given after primary vaccination in infancy.

  20. Prevalence of cough throughout childhood: A cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Jurca

    Full Text Available Cough in children is a common reason for medical consultations and affects quality of life. There are little population-based data on the epidemiology of recurrent cough in children and how this varies by age and sex, or between children with and without wheeze. We determined the prevalence of cough throughout childhood, comparing several standardised cough questions. We did this for the entire population and separately for girls and boys, and for children with and without wheeze.In a population-based prospective cohort from Leicestershire, UK, we assessed prevalence of cough with repeated questionnaires from early childhood to adolescence. We asked whether the child usually coughed more than other children, with or without colds, had night-time cough or cough triggered by various factors (triggers, related to increased breathing effort, allergic or food triggers. We calculated prevalence from age 1 to 18 years using generalised estimating equations for all children, and for children with and without wheeze.Of 7670 children, 10% (95% CI 10-11% coughed more than other children, 69% (69-70% coughed usually with a cold, 34% to 55% age-dependently coughed without colds, and 25% (25-26% had night-time cough. Prevalence of coughing more than peers, with colds, at night, and triggered by laughter varied little throughout childhood, while cough without colds and cough triggered by exercise, house dust or pollen became more frequent with age. Cough was more common in boys than in girls in the first decade of life, differences got smaller in early teens and reversed after the age of 14 years. All symptoms were more frequent in children with wheeze.Prevalence of cough in children varies with age, sex and with the questions used to assess it, suggesting that comparisons between studies are only valid for similar questions and age groups.

  1. Cough: neurophysiology, methods of research, pharmacological therapy and phonoaudiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbani, Aracy Pereira Silveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The cough is the more common respiratory symptom in children and adults. Objective: To present a revision on the neurophysiology and the methods for study of the consequence of the cough, as well as the pharmacotherapy and phonoaudiology therapy of the cough, based on the works published between 2005 and 2010 and indexed in the bases Medline, Lilacs and Library Cochrane under them to keywords "cough" or "anti-cough". Synthesis of the data: The consequence of the cough involves activation of receiving multiples becomes vacant in the aerial ways and of neural projections of the nucleus of the solitary treatment for other structures of the central nervous system. Experimental techniques allow studying the consequence of the cough to the cellular and molecular level to develop new anti-cough agents. It does not have evidences of that anti-cough exempt of medical lapsing they have superior effectiveness to the one of placebo for the relief of the cough. The phonoaudiology therapy can benefit patients with refractory chronic cough to the pharmacological treatment, over all when paradoxical movement of the vocal folds coexists. Final Comments: The boarding to multidiscipline has basic paper in the etiological diagnosis and treatment of the cough. The otolaryngologist must inform the patients on the risks of the anti-cough of free sales in order to prevent adverse poisonings and effect, especially in children.

  2. [Development of cough-relieving herbal teas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puodziūniene, Gene; Janulis, Valdimaras; Milasius, Arvydas; Budnikas, Vytautas

    2005-01-01

    Cough-relieving medicinal herbs in tea are used from ancient times. Mucilage present in them or secretion produced under the influence of the active substances covers the oral and throat mucosa soothing its irritability and relieving dry, tiresome cough. It is known that the mixtures of medicinal herbs (Specias) have a complex influence on the human organism and the rational combination of medicinal herbs can improve their curative action and decrease the undesirable side effects. Having summarized the properties of those medicinal herbs we decided to create two formulations of cough-relieving herbal tea. The first formulation consists of marshmallow roots, liquorice roots and lime flowers, the second -- of marshmallow roots, Iceland moss and lime flowers. The methods for identification and assay of the active substances in the compounds were applied. The purity of the mixtures was regulated by limitation of the loss on drying, total ash, microbial contamination, contamination with radionuclides, heavy metals, pesticides and foreign matter. The expiry date of both cough-relieving herbal teas was approved to be 2 years.

  3. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... thimerosal vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus shingles media room Flu's Gonna Lose M.O.V.E. newsfeeds PSAs publications infectious disease workshop pediatric hepatitis report someone you know has hbv/hcv standard ...

  4. Born with Protection against Whooping Cough

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast provides information about whooping cough, a disease that can be deadly for babies, and CDC’s recommendation that all women receive the Tdap vaccine during the third trimester of every pregnancy so their babies can be born with protection from this serious disease.

  5. Recognizing and Preventing Whooping Cough 2 (Pertussis)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-16

    This podcast encourages everyone to get vaccinated against whooping cough (pertussis), especially those who will have close contact with an infant.  Created: 9/16/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/16/2010.

  6. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... immunizations about immunizations current news Flu's Gonna Lose hepatitis a & b vaccines im/sq how to do kids ... abcs of mmr & dtp thimerosal vaccine safety q & a videos chickenpox (varicella) hepatitis b hib hpv pertussis (whooping cough) pneumococcal rotavirus ...

  7. Face Masks and Cough Etiquette Reduce the Cough Aerosol Concentration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in People with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michelle E; Stockwell, Rebecca E; Johnson, Graham R; Ramsay, Kay A; Sherrard, Laura J; Jabbour, Nassib; Ballard, Emma; O'Rourke, Peter; Kidd, Timothy J; Wainwright, Claire E; Knibbs, Luke D; Sly, Peter D; Morawska, Lidia; Bell, Scott C

    2018-02-01

    People with cystic fibrosis (CF) generate Pseudomonas aeruginosa in droplet nuclei during coughing. The use of surgical masks has been recommended in healthcare settings to minimize pathogen transmission between patients with CF. To determine if face masks and cough etiquette reduce viable P. aeruginosa aerosolized during coughing. Twenty-five adults with CF and chronic P. aeruginosa infection were recruited. Participants performed six talking and coughing maneuvers, with or without face masks (surgical and N95) and hand covering the mouth when coughing (cough etiquette) in an aerosol-sampling device. An Andersen Cascade Impactor was used to sample the aerosol at 2 meters from each participant. Quantitative sputum and aerosol bacterial cultures were performed, and participants rated the mask comfort levels during the cough maneuvers. During uncovered coughing (reference maneuver), 19 of 25 (76%) participants produced aerosols containing P. aeruginosa, with a positive correlation found between sputum P. aeruginosa concentration (measured as cfu/ml) and aerosol P. aeruginosa colony-forming units. There was a reduction in aerosol P. aeruginosa load during coughing with a surgical mask, coughing with an N95 mask, and cough etiquette compared with uncovered coughing (P masks during coughing; yet, participants rated the surgical masks as more comfortable (P = 0.013). Cough etiquette provided approximately half the reduction of viable aerosols of the mask interventions during voluntary coughing. Talking was a low viable aerosol-producing activity. Face masks reduce cough-generated P. aeruginosa aerosols, with the surgical mask providing enhanced comfort. Cough etiquette was less effective at reducing viable aerosols.

  8. Cough reflex sensitivity and airway inflammation in patients with chronic cough due to non-acid gastro-oesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhihong; Yu, Li; Xu, Shuchang; Liu, Bo; Zhao, Ting; Lü, Hanjing; Qiu, Zhongmin

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the pathogenesis of chronic cough caused by non-acid reflux. Seven patients with chronic cough due to non-acid reflux, 12 patients with chronic cough due to acid reflux, 10 patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease without cough and 12 healthy volunteers were recruited for the study. All subjects underwent oesophageal multi-channel intraluminal impedance measurements combined with pH monitoring, and assessment of cough reflex sensitivity to capsaicin and induced sputum cytology. The concentrations of substance P, mast cell tryptase, prostaglandin D2 and histamine in induced sputum were measured by ELISA. Cough threshold C2 and C5 did not differ between patients with chronic cough due to non-acid or acid reflux, but the values were significantly lower than those for patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease without cough and healthy volunteers. Weakly acidic reflux episodes were obviously more frequent in patients with chronic cough due to non-acid reflux than in the other three groups. Sputum substance P and mast cell tryptase concentrations were remarkably increased in patients with chronic cough, but were similar for those with cough due to non-acid or acid reflux. There were significant inverse correlations between substance P levels and cough threshold C2 or C5 in patients with cough due to non-acid or acid reflux, and between mast cell tryptase levels and cough threshold C2 in patients with cough due to acid reflux. Chronic cough due to non-acid reflux may be related to cough reflex hypersensitivity caused by neurogenic airway inflammation and mast cell activation, in which weakly acidic reflux is possibly a major factor. © 2011 The Authors. Respirology © 2011 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  9. Cough response to citric acid aerosol in occasional smokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Pounsford, J C; Saunders, K B

    1986-01-01

    Twenty two normal women volunteers underwent a standard cough provocation test by inhaling solutions of citric acid of progressively increasing concentration. Eight were non-smokers, eight moderate smokers, and six occasional smokers. All the non-smokers and moderate smokers coughed. Moderate smokers tended to cough more than non-smokers, but not significantly so. None of the occasional smokers coughed at all (p less than 0.001). Possibly the ability to smoke occasionally with enjoyment is a ...

  10. Efficacy of face shields against cough aerosol droplets from a cough simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsley, William G; Noti, John D; Blachere, Francoise M; Szalajda, Jonathan V; Beezhold, Donald H

    2014-01-01

    Health care workers are exposed to potentially infectious airborne particles while providing routine care to coughing patients. However, much is not understood about the behavior of these aerosols and the risks they pose. We used a coughing patient simulator and a breathing worker simulator to investigate the exposure of health care workers to cough aerosol droplets, and to examine the efficacy of face shields in reducing this exposure. Our results showed that 0.9% of the initial burst of aerosol from a cough can be inhaled by a worker 46 cm (18 inches) from the patient. During testing of an influenza-laden cough aerosol with a volume median diameter (VMD) of 8.5 μm, wearing a face shield reduced the inhalational exposure of the worker by 96% in the period immediately after a cough. The face shield also reduced the surface contamination of a respirator by 97%. When a smaller cough aerosol was used (VMD = 3.4 μm), the face shield was less effective, blocking only 68% of the cough and 76% of the surface contamination. In the period from 1 to 30 minutes after a cough, during which the aerosol had dispersed throughout the room and larger particles had settled, the face shield reduced aerosol inhalation by only 23%. Increasing the distance between the patient and worker to 183 cm (72 inches) reduced the exposure to influenza that occurred immediately after a cough by 92%. Our results show that health care workers can inhale infectious airborne particles while treating a coughing patient. Face shields can substantially reduce the short-term exposure of health care workers to large infectious aerosol particles, but smaller particles can remain airborne longer and flow around the face shield more easily to be inhaled. Thus, face shields provide a useful adjunct to respiratory protection for workers caring for patients with respiratory infections. However, they cannot be used as a substitute for respiratory protection when it is needed. [Supplementary materials are

  11. Perception of urge-to-cough and dyspnea in healthy smokers with decreased cough reflex sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Kanezaki, Masashi; Ebihara, Satoru; Nikkuni, Etsuhiro; Gui, Peijun; Suda, Chihiro; Ebihara, Takae; Yamasaki, Miyako; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    Background Although cigarette smoking has been implicated as an important risk factor for the development of respiratory symptoms, the perceptional aspects of two symptoms in smokers have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we simultaneously evaluated the cough reflex sensitivity, the cognition of urge-to-cough and perception of dyspnea in both healthy smokers and non-smokers. Methods Fourteen male healthy never-smokers and 14 age-matched male healthy current-smokers were recruited via publ...

  12. Comparative analysis of case screening with varying cough duration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The sensitivity analysis of the study showed that using .2 weeks cough with two sputum samples gives almost similar values as .3 weeks cough with three sputum samples, but this needs further confirmatory results of culture sensitivity. Hence, using .2 weeks cough with two sputum samples as the diagnostic ...

  13. Management of Cough: a practical approach | Vally | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On a regular day, healthcare providers will be contacted by one or more health seekers presenting with cough as a symptom. Cough has been considered an important physiological reflex that protects the airways from aspiration of foreign materials. Cough is one of the most common symptoms for which people seek ...

  14. COUGH IN CHILDREN: NEW DECISION OF OLD PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Spichak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cough in children: new decision of old problem the mechanism of development of cough, classification of its types and main reasons of it are described in this article. Special attention was given to the problem of diagnostics of chronic cough, to peculiarities of modern instrumental diagnostic methods and to principles of therapeutic tactics. The results of treatment with anti inflammatory medication fenspiride (eurespal are presented. Russian and foreign literature data and information from american guideline in cough treatment was used in this article.Key words: cough, children, fenspiride.

  15. Reflex Cough and Disease Duration as Predictors of Swallowing Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troche, Michelle S; Schumann, Beate; Brandimore, Alexandra E; Okun, Michael S; Hegland, Karen W

    2016-12-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have progressive and pervasive disorders of airway protection. Recent work has highlighted the relationship between reflex and voluntary cough and swallowing safety. The goal of this study was to test the sensitivity and specificity of several airway protective and disease-specific factors for predicting swallowing safety outcomes in PD. Sixty-four participants (44 males) completed measures of voluntary and reflex cough, and swallowing safety. Clinical predictors included disease severity and duration, and cough airflow and sensitivity measures. ROC and Chi-square analyses identified predictors of swallowing safety (penetration-aspiration score) in PD. Disease duration significantly discriminated between patients with normal and abnormal swallowing safety (p = 0.027, sensitivity: 71 %, specificity: 55.4 %). Cough reflex sensitivity significantly discriminated between patients who penetrated above the level of the vocal folds and those with more severe penetration/aspiration (p = 0.021, sensitivity: 71.0 %, specificity 57.6 %). Urge-to-cough sensitivity (log-log linear slope) was the only variable which significantly discriminated between patients with penetration versus aspiration (p = 0.017, sensitivity: 85.7 %, specificity 73.2 %). It is important to identify the factors which influence airway protective outcomes in PD especially given that aspiration pneumonia is a leading cause of death. Results from this study highlight the ecological validity of reflex cough in the study of airway protection and this study further identifies important factors to consider in the screening of airway protective deficits in PD.

  16. Longitudinal association between respiratory muscle strength and cough capacity in persons with spinal cord injury: : An explorative analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Karin; Vlemmix, Lonneke Y.; Haisma, Janneke A.; de Groot, Sonja; Sluis, Tebbe A. R.; Stam, Henk J.; Bussmann, Johannes B. J.

    Objective: To assess the longitudinal association between respiratory muscle strength and cough capacity in persons with recent spinal cord injury. Design: Longitudinal analyses. Subjects: Forty persons with recent spinal cord injury and impaired pulmonary function. Methods: Measurements were

  17. Born with Protection against Whooping Cough

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-22

    This podcast provides information about whooping cough, a disease that can be deadly for babies, and CDC’s recommendation that all women receive the Tdap vaccine during the third trimester of every pregnancy so their babies can be born with protection from this serious disease.  Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 1/22/2015.

  18. Pharmacology of Bradykinin-Evoked Coughing in Guinea Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Hewitt, Matthew M.; Adams, Gregory; Mazzone, Stuart B.; Mori, Nanako; Yu, Li; Canning, Brendan J.

    2016-01-01

    Bradykinin has been implicated as a mediator of the acute pathophysiological and inflammatory consequences of respiratory tract infections and in exacerbations of chronic diseases such as asthma. Bradykinin may also be a trigger for the coughing associated with these and other conditions. We have thus set out to evaluate the pharmacology of bradykinin-evoked coughing in guinea pigs. When inhaled, bradykinin induced paroxysmal coughing that was abolished by the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonis...

  19. A Whooping Cough Education Module for WIC Clients in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthy, Karlen E; Anderson, Alicia; Macintosh, Janelle; Beckstrand, Renea L; Eden, Lacey M; Amy, Ryan; Macintosh, Christopher I

    Clients in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) are required to complete education modules quarterly to maintain eligibility. The purposes of this project were to: (1) create a whooping cough vaccination education module for WIC clients; (2) evaluate baseline perceptions of WIC clients on the whooping cough vaccine and disease; and (3) evaluate whooping cough knowledge following completion of the module. A decline in vaccination rates among infants and children using WIC services was reported by a local WIC program director who requested whooping cough vaccination education materials. This quality improvement project included development of a whooping cough education module and evaluation of learning. Learning was evaluated using a pre- and posttest design. Client feedback was solicited via open-ended questions. Quantitative analysis was performed on visual analog-type questions with paired t-tests and a Cohen's d. Content analysis was conducted on open-ended items. The module was designed by a team of vaccination experts and included general definitions, signs and symptoms during the three stages of disease, recommendations to prevent whooping cough, and vaccination recommendations. Learning of users of the module was then evaluated. After using the module, clients indicated they were significantly more likely to vaccinate themselves and their child against whooping cough, and to recommend the vaccination to their family members. The greatest concern of participants about whooping cough was how it affected infants. Participants reported they learned new information on disease seriousness, recognition of symptoms, and treatment options but still requested additional information on the whooping cough disease and vaccine. A whooping cough education module is an effective strategy to improve whooping cough knowledge and promote the whooping cough vaccine.

  20. Correlation between voluntary cough and laryngeal cough reflex flows in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Chul; Kang, Seong-Woong; Kim, Min Tae; Kim, Yong Kyun; Chang, Won Hyuk; Im, Sang Hee

    2013-08-01

    To correlate voluntary cough and laryngeal cough reflex (LCR) flows in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Cross-sectional study. University rehabilitation hospital. Patients with TBI (n=25) and healthy controls (n=48). Not applicable. Peak cough flows (PCFs) and LCR flows were measured using a peak flow meter at the oral-nasal interface. The largest value of 3 attempts was recorded for PCF and LCR, respectively. LCR was elicited by 20% solution of pharmaceutic-grade citric acid dissolved in sterile .15M NaCl solution that was inhaled from a nebulizer. PCF was 447.4 ± 99.0 L/min in the control group and 211.7 ± 58.2 L/min in the patient group. LCR was 209.2 ± 63.8L/min in the control group and 170.0 ± 59.7 L/min in the patient group. Both PCF (P=.000) and LCR (P=.013) were significantly reduced in patients with TBI compared to that of the control group. LCR was strongly related to the PCF in both control (R=.645; P=.000) and patient (R=.711; P=.000) groups. As LCR can be measured as a numerical value and significantly correlates with PCF, LCR can be used to estimate cough ability of patients with TBI who cannot cooperate with PCF measurement. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Symptom research on chronic cough: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, R S; Madison, J M

    2001-05-01

    This review provides a perspective on how research on the management of cough has evolved, looks at key methodologic lessons that have been learned from this research and how they may relate to the management of other symptoms, identifies important methodologic challenges that remain to be solved, and lists important questions that still need to be answered. Three important methodologic lessons have been learned. First, cough must be evaluated systematically and according to a neuroanatomic framework. Second, the response to specific therapy must be noted to determine the cause or causes of cough and to characterize the strengths and limitations of diagnostic testing. Third, multiple conditions can simultaneously cause cough. Among the three methodologic challenges that still need to be solved are 1) definitively determining the diagnostic accuracy and reliability of 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring and how best to interpret pH test results, 2) definitively determining the role of nonacid reflux in cough due to gastroesophageal reflux disease, and 3) developing reliable and reproducible subjective and objective methods with which to assess the efficacy of cough therapy. Numerous important clinical questions are still unanswered: What role do empirical therapeutic trials play in diagnosing the cause of chronic cough? What is the most cost-effective approach to the diagnosis and treatment of chronic cough: empirical therapeutic trials or laboratory testing-directed therapeutic trials? How often is environmental air pollution, unrelated to allergies or smoking, responsible for chronic cough?

  2. Preliminary Evidence of Reduced Urge to Cough and Cough Response in Four Individuals following Remote Traumatic Brain Injury with Tracheostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Silverman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cough and swallow protect the lungs and are frequently impaired following traumatic brain injury (TBI. This project examined cough response to inhaled capsaicin solution challenge in a cohort of four young adults with a history of TBI within the preceding five years. All participants had a history of tracheostomy with subsequent decannulation and dysphagia after their injuries (resolved for all but one participant. Urge to cough (UTC and cough response were measured and compared to an existing database of normative cough response data obtained from 32 healthy controls (HCs. Participants displayed decreased UTC and cough responses compared to HCs. It is unknown if these preliminary results manifest as a consequence of disrupted sensory (afferent projections, an inability to perceive or discriminate cough stimuli, disrupted motor (efferent response, peripheral weakness, or any combination of these factors. Future work should attempt to clarify if the observed phenomena are borne out in a larger sample of individuals with TBI, determine the relative contributions of central versus peripheral nervous system structures to cough sensory perceptual changes following TBI (should they exist, and formulate recommendations for systematic screening and assessment of cough sensory perception in order to facilitate rehabilitative efforts. This project is identified with the National Clinical Trials NCT02240329.

  3. The effect of mindfulness meditation on cough reflex sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, E C; Brammer, C; Owen, E; Brown, N; Lowe, J; Johnson, C; Calam, R; Jones, S; Woodcock, A; Smith, J A

    2009-11-01

    Chronic cough is common, and medical treatment can be ineffective. Mindfulness is a psychological intervention that aims to teach moment-to-moment non-judgemental awareness of thoughts, feelings and sensations. 30 healthy subjects and 30 patients with chronic cough were studied in two sequential trials. For both studies, cough reflex sensitivity to citric acid (C5) was measured on two occasions, with urge to cough rated following each inhalation; between challenges subjects were randomised to (1) no intervention, (2) mindfulness or (3) no intervention but modified cough challenge (subjects suppress coughing). For the healthy volunteers, measures were 1 h apart and mindfulness was practised for 15 min. For the patients with chronic cough measures were 1 week apart and mindfulness was practised daily for 30 min. In healthy volunteers, median change (interquartile range (IQR)) in cough reflex sensitivity (logC5) for no intervention, mindfulness and suppression was +1.0 (0.0 to +1.3), +2.0 (+1.0 to +3.0) and +3.0 (+2.8 to +3.0) doubling concentrations (p = 0.003); there were significant reductions for both mindfulness (p = 0.043) and suppression (p = 0.002) over no intervention. In patients with cough, median change (IQR) in logC5 for no intervention, mindfulness training and voluntary suppression was 0.0 (-1.0 to +1.0), +1.0 (-0.3 to +1.0) and +1.0 (+1.0 to +2.0) doubling concentrations (p = 0.046); there was a significant reduction for suppression (p = 0.02) but not mindfulness (p = 0.35). Urge to cough did not change after mindfulness compared with control in either healthy subjects (p = 0.33) or those with chronic cough (p = 0.47). Compared with control, mindfulness decreased cough reflex sensitivity in healthy volunteers, but did not alter cough threshold in patients with chronic cough. Both groups were able to suppress cough responses to citric acid inhalation.

  4. Automatic Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    "Automatic imitation" is a type of stimulus-response compatibility effect in which the topographical features of task-irrelevant action stimuli facilitate similar, and interfere with dissimilar, responses. This article reviews behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging research on automatic imitation, asking in what sense it is "automatic"…

  5. Modelling of coughed droplets in a hospital ward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadrizadeh, Sasan; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    2016-01-01

    Coughing and its importance for spreading respiratory infectious diseases has been confirmed in many previous studies. The dispersion process of respiratory droplets released by the coughing of a patient in a hospital ward was studied using computational fluid dynamics simulation. Two relatively ...

  6. Evaluation of Fractioned Nitric Oxide in Chronic Cough Patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice ¦ Volume 21 ¦ Issue 1 ¦ January 2018 bronchitis (PBB), upper airway cough syndrome, and natural healing. ... chronic cough and NO in asthmatic patients, none have investigated FeNO in ...

  7. Human Syngamosis as an Uncommon Cause of Chronic Cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulcherio, Janaína Oliveira Bentivi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic cough may represent a diagnostic challenge. Chronic parasitism of upper airways is an unusual cause. Objective: To describe a case of human syngamosis as an uncommon cause of dry cough. Case Report: An endoscopic exam performed in a woman suffering of chronic cough revealed a Y-shaped worm in the larynx identified as Syngamus laryngeus. Discussion: This nematode parasitizes the upper respiratory tract of many animals including humans. The diagnosis is performed by the examination of the worm expelled by cough or by endoscopy. Endoscopic exam is easy to perform and is essential in the diagnosis of causes of chronic cough, even uncommon entities. Removal is the only efficient treatment.

  8. Impact of chronic cough on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, C L; Irwin, R S; Curley, F J; Krikorian, C J

    Cough is the most common complaint for which adult patients seek medical care in the United States; however, the reason(s) for this is unknown. To determine whether chronic cough was associated with adverse psychosocial or physical effects on the quality of life and whether the elimination of chronic cough with specific therapy improved these adverse effects. The study design was a prospective before-and-after intervention trial with patients serving as their own controls. Study subjects were a convenience sample of 39 consecutive and unselected adult patients referred for evaluation and management of a chronic, persistently troublesome cough. Baseline data were available for 39 patients and follow-up for 28 patients (22 women and 6 men). At baseline, demographic, Adverse Cough Outcome Survey (ACOS), and Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) data were collected and patients were managed according to a validated, systematic protocol. Following specific therapy for cough, ACOS and SIP instruments were readministered. The ages, sex, duration, and spectra and frequencies of the causes of cough were similar to multiple other studies. At baseline, patients reported a mean +/- SD of 8.6 +/- 4.8 types of adverse occurrences related to cough. There were significant correlations between multiple ACOS items and total, physical, and psychosocial SIP scores. Psychosocial score correlated with total number of symptoms (PSIP scores. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that 54% of variability of the psychosocial SIP score was explained by 4 ACOS items while none of the physical score was explained. Chronic cough was associated with deterioration in patients' quality of life. The health-related dysfunction was most likely psychosocial. The ACOS and SIP appear to be valid tools in assessing the impact of chronic cough.

  9. Inhibitory effect of cervical trachea and chest wall vibrations on cough reflex sensitivity and perception of urge-to-cough in healthy male never-smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Kashiwazaki, Naohiro; Ebihara, Satoru; Gui, Peijun; Katayama, Norihiro; Ito, Kumiko; Sato, Ryuhei; Oyama, Chika; Ebihara, Takae; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-pharmacological options for symptomatic management of cough are desired. Although chest wall mechanical vibration is known to ameliorate cough reflex sensitivity, the effect of mechanical vibrations on perceptions of urge-to-cough has not been studied. Therefore, we investigated the effect of mechanical vibration of cervical trachea, chest wall and femoral muscle on cough reflex sensitivity, perceptions of urge-to-cough as well as dyspnea. Methods Twenty-four healthy male never...

  10. Importance of placebo effect in cough clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Cough is a unique symptom because, unlike sneeze and other symptoms, it can be under voluntary control and this complicates clinical trials on cough medicines. All over-the-counter cough medicines (OTC) are very effective treatments because of their placebo effect. The placebo effect is enhanced by expectancy related to advertising, brand, packaging, and formulation. This placebo effect creates a problem for the conduct of clinical trials on OTC cough medicines that attempt to demonstrate the efficacy of a pharmacological agent above that of any placebo effect. Up to 85% of the efficacy of some cough medicines can be attributed to a placebo effect. The placebo effect apparent in clinical trials consists of several components: natural recovery, regression of cough response toward mean, demulcent effect, effect of sweetness, voluntary control, and effects related to expectancy and meaning of the treatment. The placebo effect has been studied most in the pain model, and placebo analgesia is reported to depend on the activation of endogenous opioid systems in the brain; this model may be applicable to cough. A balanced placebo design may help to control for the placebo effect, but this trial design may not be acceptable due to deception of patients. The placebo effect in clinical trials may be controlled by use of a crossover design, where feasible, and the changes in the magnitude of the placebo effect in this study design are discussed.

  11. Pharmacology of Bradykinin-Evoked Coughing in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Matthew M; Adams, Gregory; Mazzone, Stuart B; Mori, Nanako; Yu, Li; Canning, Brendan J

    2016-06-01

    Bradykinin has been implicated as a mediator of the acute pathophysiological and inflammatory consequences of respiratory tract infections and in exacerbations of chronic diseases such as asthma. Bradykinin may also be a trigger for the coughing associated with these and other conditions. We have thus set out to evaluate the pharmacology of bradykinin-evoked coughing in guinea pigs. When inhaled, bradykinin induced paroxysmal coughing that was abolished by the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist HOE 140. These cough responses rapidly desensitized, consistent with reports of B2 receptor desensitization. Bradykinin-evoked cough was potentiated by inhibition of both neutral endopeptidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme (with thiorphan and captopril, respectively), but was largely unaffected by muscarinic or thromboxane receptor blockade (atropine and ICI 192605), cyclooxygenase, or nitric oxide synthase inhibition (meclofenamic acid and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine). Calcium influx studies in bronchopulmonary vagal afferent neurons dissociated from vagal sensory ganglia indicated that the tachykinin-containing C-fibers arising from the jugular ganglia mediate bradykinin-evoked coughing. Also implicating the jugular C-fibers was the observation that simultaneous blockade of neurokinin2 (NK2; SR48968) and NK3 (SR142801 or SB223412) receptors nearly abolished the bradykinin-evoked cough responses. The data suggest that bradykinin induces coughing in guinea pigs by activating B2 receptors on bronchopulmonary C-fibers. We speculate that therapeutics targeting the actions of bradykinin may prove useful in the treatment of cough. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  12. Consumer attitudes on cough and cold: US (ACHOO) survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiss, M S; Dicpinigaitis, P V; Eccles, R; Wingertzahn, M A

    2015-08-01

    The Attitudes of Consumers Toward Health, Cough, and Cold (ACHOO) survey was developed to better inform health care providers on the natural history and impact of common cold and cough, and related consumer experience and behaviors. Randomly selected US Internet/mobile device users were invited to participate in an online survey (N = 3333) in October 2012. Response quotas modeled upon 2010 US Census data ensured a demographically representative sample. To reduce potential bias from the quota design, 75% of the completed surveys were randomly selected as the primary analysis pool. Survey questions assessed participant demographics, frequency and duration of cough/cold symptoms, impact of symptoms on daily life, treatment preferences, and knowledge about cough/cold pathophysiology. In the past year, 84.6% of respondents had experienced at least one cold. Colds typically started with sore/scratchy throat (39.2%), nasal congestion (9.8%), and runny nose (9.3%) and lasted 3-7 days. Cough, the most common cold symptom (73.1%), had a delayed onset (typically 1-5 days after cold onset) and a long duration (>6 days in 35.2%). Nasal congestion and cough were the most bothersome symptoms. Many respondents waited until symptoms were 'bad enough' (42.6%) or multiple symptoms were present (20.2%) before using nonprescription medications. Drivers of choice included effectiveness in relieving symptoms, safety, and past experience. Respondents rarely consulted clinicians regarding treatment, and more than three-quarters had never received instructions from a clinician on how to choose a nonprescription cough/cold medication. Misperceptions regarding etiology and treatment of the common cold were prevalent. The main limitation is potential recall bias, since respondents had to recall cough/cold episodes over the prior year. The ACHOO survey confirms that cold is a common, bothersome experience and that there are gaps in consumers' knowledge of pathophysiology and appropriate

  13. Downregulation of cough by exercise and voluntary hyperpnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Giovanni A

    2010-01-01

    No information exists on the effects of hyperpnea on the sensory and cognitive aspects of coughing evoked by inhalation of tussigenic agents. The threshold for the cough reflex induced by inhalation of increasing concentrations of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (fog), and the index of cough reflex sensitivity, was assessed in 12 healthy humans in control conditions, during exercise, and during voluntary isocapnic hyperventilation (VIH) to the same level as the exercise. The intensity of the urge-to-cough (UTC), a cognitive component of coughing, was also recorded throughout the trials. The log-log relationship between inhaled fog concentrations and the correspondingly evoked UTC values, an index of the perceptual magnitude of the UTC sensitivity, was also calculated. Cough appearance was always assessed audiovisually. At an exercise level of 80% of anaerobic threshold, the mean cough threshold was increased from a control value of 1.03 +/- 0.65 to 2.25 +/- 1.14 ml/min (p VIH, the mean (+/-SD) threshold increased from 1.03 +/- 0.65 to 2.42 +/- 1.16 ml/min (p VIH compared with control, mean UTC values at cough threshold were not significantly changed: control, 3.83 +/- 1.11 cm; exercise, 3.12 +/- 0.82 cm; VIH, 4.08 +/- 1.67 cm. Since the slopes of the log fog concentration/log UTC value were approximately halved during exercise and VIH compared with control, the UTC sensitivity to fog was depressed (p < 0.01). The results indicate that the adjustments brought into action by exercise-induced or voluntary hyperventilation exert inhibitory influences on the sensory and cognitive components of fog-induced cough.

  14. Characteristics of Chinese patients with cough in primary care centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Chunxue

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cough is one of the most common respiratory symptoms and is well characterized in specialized cough clinics with high success rates of diagnosis and treatment. However, there is a paucity of data regarding cough in primary care settings. The present study aimed at investigating clinical epidemiology of cough through a national study of two questionnaire surveys sent to primary care physicians in China. Methods Approximately 18,000 subjects recruited were having daytime or night symptoms of cough and diagnoses of respiratory disease from February 2005 to April 2006 as Survey 1 and from June 2007 to December 2007 as Survey 2. Patients suffering from respiratory malignancy, hyperthyroidism, hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, severe hypohepatia or renal dysfunction, pregnancy, possible pregnancy or lactation, neutropenia were not eligible. Information regarding demography, history of allergies, symptomatic profile, treatment and curative effects for cough was elicited. Results 8216 questionnaires were collected in Survey 1 and 9711 in Survey 2. The mean values of ages were 25.7 and 22.3 years old, respectively. Symptoms included expectoration (74% and 76%, wheeze (59% and 74%, breathlessness (22% and 26%, chest pain (9% and 13% and fever (15% and 18%. About 15% and 23% patients had hypersusceptibility, of whom 6% to 17% had a family history. More than 50% of the cases had histories of allergic rhinitis, asthma, conjunctivitis or atopic dermatitis. Asthma, COPD, and bronchitis were dominant etiologies of cough. Procaterol or the combination of antibiotics and steroids were used as the treatment. Conclusion Causes and outcomes of cough differed with ages and time in this particular national study, while successful and precise diagnosis and management of cough in primary care settings need to be further improved in China.

  15. Modified Valsalva test differentiates primary from secondary cough headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Russell J M; Davies, Paul T G

    2013-03-28

    The current definition of cough headache includes provocation of the symptom by Valsalva manoeuvre, and it is generally believed that all cough headache results from a sudden increase in intracranial pressure. We sought to question that presumption and to determine whether the Valsalva test might distinguish primary from secondary cough headache. We examined 16 consecutive cough headache patients using a modified Valsalva test (exhalation into the connecting tube of a standard anaeroid sphygmomanometer to 60 mm Hg for 10 seconds). A positive response was recorded if the manoeuvre provoked headache. All patients subsequently underwent brain MRI. None of the patients had neurological signs. Eleven had positive modified Valsalva tests. Ten were found subsequently to have posterior fossa pathologies (secondary cough headache: 8 Chiari Type 1 malformations, 2 posterior fossa meningiomas). The cough headache was relieved following surgery in all cases. One patient with a positive Valsalva test had an apparently normal brain MRI but measurements of hindbrain and posterior fossa dimensions were consistent with 'posterior fossa crowdedness'. The remaining 5 patients had negative (4 patients) or equivocal (1 patient) Valsalva tests and normal MRI scans (primary cough headache). These findings suggest that secondary cough headache results from a transient increase in intracranial CSF pressure during exertion in the presence of obstruction to normal cerebrospinal fluid dynamics. The modified Valsalva test can also determine whether tonsillar herniation found on brain MRI is symptomatic. Primary cough headache appears to be caused by a different mechanism, possibly through congestion of the orbital venous plexus in the presence of jugular venous incompetence and a reduced threshold for trigeminal sensory activation.

  16. Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causing a range of effects from lack of motivation to serious health problems. Repeatedly seeking to experience ... misuse cough and cold medicines. Swipe left or right to scroll. Monitoring the Future Study: Trends in ...

  17. Whooping Cough Vaccine Recommendation for Babies and Young Children

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast provides information about whooping cough and the recommendation that all children receive the DTaP vaccine, according to CDC’s recommended schedule, to help protect them from this serious disease.

  18. Dry night cough as a marker of allergy in preschool children: the PARIS birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancière, Fanny; Nikasinovic, Lydia; Momas, Isabelle

    2013-03-01

    Early detection of children at risk for developing allergy is an important challenge. Our first analyses in infants from the Pollution and Asthma Risk: an Infant Study (PARIS) birth cohort suggested that dry night cough was associated with parental-reported allergic disorders. The aim of the present study was to refine this finding by investigating the time course of dry night cough from birth to age 4 yr in relation to blood markers of atopy and allergic morbidity. Health outcomes were regularly assessed by parental self-administered questionnaires. Blood markers of atopy were measured at age 18 months. Children with similar patterns of dry night cough over the first 4 yr of life were grouped together using k-means clustering. Associations with atopy/allergy were studied using multinomial logistic regression. Three trajectories of dry night cough were identified in 1869 children. Besides the never/infrequent pattern (72.4%), the transient pattern (8.8%) was composed of children who coughed in the first year and recovered by age 4 yr, while the rising pattern (18.8%) included all symptomatic children at age 4 yr, whether they were persistent or late coughers. Compared with the never/infrequent pattern, the rising pattern was significantly associated with elevated total immunoglobulin E (IgE) level (odds ratio [OR] = 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21-2.39) and inhalant allergens sensitization (OR = 2.66, 95% CI = 1.26-5.61) at age 18 months, and with doctor-diagnosed allergic diseases over the first 4 yr such as hay fever (OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.49-4.26) and eczema (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.00-1.66). This study provides evidence that persistent/late dry night cough may indicate allergy in preschool children. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Cough event classification by pretrained deep neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Ming; You, Mingyu; Wang, Zheng; Li, Guo-Zheng; Xu, Xianghuai; Qiu, Zhongmin

    2015-01-01

    Cough is an essential symptom in respiratory diseases. In the measurement of cough severity, an accurate and objective cough monitor is expected by respiratory disease society. This paper aims to introduce a better performed algorithm, pretrained deep neural network (DNN), to the cough classification problem, which is a key step in the cough monitor. The deep neural network models are built from two steps, pretrain and fine-tuning, followed by a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) decoder to capture tamporal information of the audio signals. By unsupervised pretraining a deep belief network, a good initialization for a deep neural network is learned. Then the fine-tuning step is a back propogation tuning the neural network so that it can predict the observation probability associated with each HMM states, where the HMM states are originally achieved by force-alignment with a Gaussian Mixture Model Hidden Markov Model (GMM-HMM) on the training samples. Three cough HMMs and one noncough HMM are employed to model coughs and noncoughs respectively. The final decision is made based on viterbi decoding algorihtm that generates the most likely HMM sequence for each sample. A sample is labeled as cough if a cough HMM is found in the sequence. The experiments were conducted on a dataset that was collected from 22 patients with respiratory diseases. Patient dependent (PD) and patient independent (PI) experimental settings were used to evaluate the models. Five criteria, sensitivity, specificity, F1, macro average and micro average are shown to depict different aspects of the models. From overall evaluation criteria, the DNN based methods are superior to traditional GMM-HMM based method on F1 and micro average with maximal 14% and 11% error reduction in PD and 7% and 10% in PI, meanwhile keep similar performances on macro average. They also surpass GMM-HMM model on specificity with maximal 14% error reduction on both PD and PI. In this paper, we tried pretrained deep neural network in

  20. Intravenous lidocaine suppresses fentanyl-induced cough in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gecaj-Gashi, Agreta; Nikolova-Todorova, Zorica; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Gashi, Musli

    2013-01-01

    Objective Fentanyl-induced cough is usually mild and transitory, but it can be undesirable in patients with increased intracranial pressure, open wounds of the eye, dissecting aortic aneurism, pneumothorax, and reactive airway disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of lidocaine in suppressing fentanyl-induced cough in children during induction in general anesthesia. Methods One hundred and eighty-six children of both sexes, aged between 4?10?years, ASA physical status I an...

  1. Habit-tic cough: Presentation and outcome with simple reassurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Marie F A; Balfour-Lynn, Ian M

    2018-04-01

    Our therapeutic approach to a habit/tic cough is simple reassurance in a single consultation. To quality assure our practice, we followed up children to determine outcomes at least 3 months after diagnosis. Consecutive children diagnosed over 6 years were studied. Medical records were analyzed retrospectively and parents answered a scripted verbal survey. Fifty-five patients were diagnosed (median age 9.9 years), with a median cough duration of 3 months (IQR 2-7.5 months, range up to 3 years). In 51/55 (93%) cases, cough was absent during sleep. 51/55 (93%) received prior medications with median 3 therapeutic trials, none of which resolved the cough. Follow-up was possible in 39/55 (71%) children after a median duration of 1.9 years. In 32/39 (82%), the cough had resolved completely (59% within 4 weeks, including 12% on the day), and it improved in 6/39 (15%). In the 26/39 (67%) parents who said they believed the diagnosis, there was 96% resolution of the cough, versus the 13/39 (33%) who were sceptical or disbelieving, when there was only 54% resolution. 7/39 (18%) children were later diagnosed with a tic disorder, functional symptoms, or a behavioural/psychiatric disorder. Habit cough can be diagnosed from the characteristic history; the crucial question is whether the cough disappears during sleep. We have shown successful long term outcomes following a single consultation with simple reassurance, but it is important that the child and parents believe the explanation. It is not uncommon for subsequent tic disorders or behavioral issues to emerge. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Phenytoin-induced isolated chronic, nocturnal dry cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio A. Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 72-year-old man with a four-year history of dyscognitive seizures (with occasional secondary generalization who developed isolated, nocturnal dry cough immediately after being started on PO phenytoin. The cough was not accompanied by any other symptom or sign as his physical exam was completely normal. Further investigation with chest CT and spirometry was unremarkable. This symptom persisted for six months and did not resolve until we weaned him off of phenytoin. According to the Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale, his cough was classified as being probably (score +6 related to the use of this antiepileptic drug. To our knowledge, there has been only one study that reported phenytoin-triggered cough. It described a postoperative patient who developed cough and bronchospasm after receiving IV phenytoin. By reporting our case and discussing the literature on this specific topic, we have essentially two goals. First, we intend to remind clinicians that isolated persistent cough can be an adverse reaction to phenytoin. Second, we hope to encourage further studies that will be able to elucidate the association presented herein.

  3. Managing patients with chronic cough: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perotin JM

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Jeanne-Marie Perotin,1,2 Claire Launois,1 Maxime Dewolf,1 Antoine Dumazet,1 Sandra Dury,1 François Lebargy,1 Valérian Dormoy,2 Gaëtan Deslee1,2 1Department of Respiratory Diseases, University Hospital of Reims, Reims, France; 2INSERM UMRS 1250, University Hospital of Reims, Reims, France Abstract: Chronic cough is a common complaint and a frequent cause of medical consultation. Its management can be difficult. We present here an overview of the current guidelines for the management of chronic cough. Different steps are detailed, including the initial research of an obvious etiology and alert signs that should lead to further investigation of underlying condition. The diagnosis of the most frequent causes: asthma, non-asthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease and upper airway cough syndrome should be considered, assessed and treated accordingly. Recent advances have been made in the comprehension of refractory chronic cough pathophysiology as well as its pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment, especially speech pathology therapy. Keywords: asthma, gastroesophageal reflux, upper airway cough syndrome, chronic hypersensitivity syndrome, refractory chronic cough, speech pathology therapy

  4. Smoking reduction and cessation reduce chronic cough in a general population: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Charlotta; Godtfredsen, Nina; Jørgensen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    % CI: 1.7-8.0), respectively, compared with unchanged smoking habits. It was also significantly more likely not to report phlegm at 1-year follow-up for those who had quit (OR: 7.1; 95% CI: 2.8-18.0), whereas SR was not significantly associated with termination of phlegm (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 0.9-6.4) when......Background: Chronic cough can be the first sign of chronic obstructive disease. A few, and mostly selected, studies exploring the effect of reduced daily tobacco consumption have shown a small effect on pulmonary symptoms. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine if smoking reduction (SR) (>= 50......% of daily tobacco consumption) or smoking cessation (SC) had an effect on chronic cough and phlegm. Methods: A total of 2408 daily smokers were included in a Danish population-based intervention study, Inter99. In the analyses, we included smokers with self-reported chronic cough or phlegm at baseline who...

  5. Geographical differences in whooping cough in Catalonia, Spain, from 1990 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Whooping cough is a communicable disease whose incidence has increased in recent years in some countries with vaccination. Since 1981, in Catalonia (Spain), cases must be reported to the Public Health Department. In 1997, surveillance changed from aggregated counts to individual report and the surveillance system was improved after 2002. Catalan public health is universal with equal coverage geographically. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences in whooping cough incidence in rural and urban counties. Methods Cases in 1990–2010 were classified as rural or urban. Incidences and risk ratios (RR) between urban and rural counties and 95% CI were calculated. Associations between rural and urban counties and structural changes during the study period were analysed. Results Twelve years of the whole study period showed differences in incidence between rural and urban counties. The incidence was higher in urban counties in seven years and rural counties in five years. There was a positive association of whooping cough incidence in rural and urban counties in four-week periods. Structural changes were detected in the following four-week periods: 4th in 1993, 7th in 1996 and 3rd 2005 in rural counties and 5th 1993, 9th in 1996 and 8th in 2007 in urban counties. Conclusions Differences in whooping cough between rural and urban counties were found. In most years, the incidence was higher in urban than in rural counties. Rural and urban counties show similar cyclic behaviour when four-week periods were considered. PMID:24649975

  6. Effect of e-Cigarette Use on Cough Reflex Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; Lee Chang, Alfredo; Dicpinigaitis, Alis J; Negassa, Abdissa

    2016-01-01

    E-cigarettes (e-cigs) have attained widespread popularity, yet knowledge of their physiologic effects remains minimal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single exposure to e-cig vapor on cough reflex sensitivity. Thirty healthy nonsmokers underwent cough reflex sensitivity measurement using capsaicin cough challenge at baseline, 15 min, and 24 h after e-cig exposure (30 puffs 30 s apart). The end point of cough challenge is the concentration of capsaicin inducing five or more coughs (C5). The number of coughs induced by each e-cig inhalation was counted. A subgroup of subjects (n = 8) subsequently underwent an identical protocol with a non-nicotine-containing e-cig. Cough reflex sensitivity was significantly inhibited (C5 increased) 15 min after e-cig use (?0.29; 95% CI, ?0.43 to ?0.15; P < .0001); 24 h later, C5 returned to baseline (0.24; 95% CI, 0.10-0.38; P = .0002 vs post-15-min value). A subgroup of eight subjects demonstrating the largest degree of cough reflex inhibition had no suppression after exposure to a non-nicotine-containing e-cig (P = .0078 for comparison of ?C5 after nicotine vs non-nicotine device). Furthermore, more coughing was induced by the nicotine-containing vs non-nicotine-containing device (P = .0156). A single session of e-cig use, approximating nicotine exposure of one tobacco cigarette, induces significant inhibition of cough reflex sensitivity. Exploratory analysis of a subgroup of subjects suggests that nicotine is responsible for this observation. Our data, consistent with previous studies of nicotine effect, suggest a dual action of nicotine: an immediate, peripheral protussive effect and a delayed central antitussive effect. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT02203162; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Parental representations of children's cough and expectations on its management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventaja, G; Steyer, E; Machu, J-L; Boivin, J-M

    2016-04-01

    Providing medications for the management of acute cough in infants less than 24 months, a frequent reason for medical consultation, has recently been reduced by the contraindication of various antitussive specialties in France. The objective of this study was to assess the expectations and fears of coughing infants' parents, to determine their representations of coughing, and to quantify the use of self-medication and the risk of a deferral requests to prescribe other drug classes. An opinion and cross-survey was carried out with parents of infants under 24 months of age. A multiple-choice questionnaire was proposed to them in day care centers and Mother and Infant Welfare centers. The data collected were analyzed descriptively and using the Chi(2) test. Logistic regression enabled us to interpret some of the results. Sixty-four percent of parents expect an antitussive treatment from the doctor. For most parents, lifestyle modifications are well integrated (nasal irrigation, considered effective cough relief, hydration, smoking cessation). For 33 % of parents, corticosteroids are an alternative therapy to stop cough. Nearly half (43 %) of parents have sought treatment from their doctor, usually nasal suspensions, corticosteroids, and saline irrigation. Regarding self-medication, 30 % of parents have already given cough syrup or an antitussive suppository without a prescription, in order to stop the cough rapidly for 66 % of them. These parents seem more worried by coughing than other parents (P=0.0110, CI: 0.217; 1.751) as did those who had only one child (P=0.0029, CI: 0.120; 0.582). This study suggests that a large majority of parents understand and accept the new recommendations. But one-third of parents are still worried, not knowing what to do without prescribed medications, which led them to give nonprescription cough syrups and ask for inappropriate treatments. It seems essential to inform parents about the natural history of infant coughing and educate them

  8. Automatic Complexity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1989-01-01

    One way to analyse programs is to to derive expressions for their computational behaviour. A time bound function (or worst-case complexity) gives an upper bound for the computation time as a function of the size of input. We describe a system to derive such time bounds automatically using abstract...

  9. Recursive automatic classification algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, E V; Dorofeyuk, A A

    1982-03-01

    A variational statement of the automatic classification problem is given. The dependence of the form of the optimal partition surface on the form of the classification objective functional is investigated. A recursive algorithm is proposed for maximising a functional of reasonably general form. The convergence problem is analysed in connection with the proposed algorithm. 8 references.

  10. Aging deteriorated perception of urge-to-cough without changing cough reflex threshold to citric acid in female never-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Satoru; Ebihara, Takae; Kanezaki, Masashi; Gui, Peijun; Yamasaki, Miyako; Arai, Hiroyuki; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2011-06-28

    The effect of aging on the cognitive aspect of cough has not been studied yet. The purpose of this study is to investigate the aging effect on the perception of urge-to-cough in healthy individuals. Fourteen young, female, healthy never-smokers were recruited via public postings. Twelve elderly female healthy never-smokers were recruited from a nursing home residence. The cough reflex threshold and the urge-to-cough were evaluated by inhalation of citric acid. The cough reflex sensitivities were defined as the lowest concentration of citric acid that elicited two or more coughs (C2) and five or more coughs (C5). The urge-to-cough was evaluated using a modified the Borg scale. There was no significant difference in the cough reflex threshold to citric acid between young and elderly subjects. The urge-to-cough scores at the concentration of C2 and C5 were significantly smaller in the elderly than young subjects. The urge-to-cough log-log slope in elderly subjects (0.73 ± 0.71 point · L/g) was significantly gentler than those of young subjects (1.35 ± 0.53 point · L/g, p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the urge-to-cough threshold estimated between young and elderly subjects. The cough reflex threshold did not differ between young and elderly subjects whereas cognition of urge-to-cough was significantly decreased in elderly subjects in female never-smokers. Objective monitoring of cough might be important in the elderly people.

  11. Cough Recognition Based on Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients and Dynamic Time Warping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunmei; Liu, Baojun; Li, Ping

    Cough recognition provides important clinical information for the treatment of many respiratory diseases, but the assessment of cough frequency over a long period of time remains unsatisfied for either clinical or research purpose. In this paper, according to the advantage of dynamic time warping (DTW) and the characteristic of cough recognition, an attempt is made to adapt DTW as the recognition algorithm for cough recognition. The process of cough recognition based on mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) and DTW is introduced. Experiment results of testing samples from 3 subjects show that acceptable performances of cough recognition are obtained by DTW with a small training set.

  12. Dextromethorphan in Cough Syrup: The Poor Man’s Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Martinak, Bridgette; Bolis, Ramy A.; Black, Jeffrey Ryne; Fargason, Rachel E.; Birur, Badari

    2017-01-01

    Dextromethorphan (3-methoxy-N-methylmorphinan), also known as “DXM” and “the poor man’s PCP,” is a synthetically produced drug that is available in more than 140 over-the-counter cough and cold preparations. Dextromethorphan (DXM) has overtaken codeine as the most widely used cough suppressant due to its availability, efficacy, and safety profile at directed doses. However, DXM is subject to abuse. When consumed at inappropriately high doses (over 1500 mg/day), DXM can induce a state of psych...

  13. Indoor risk factors for cough and their relation to wheeze and sensitization in Chilean young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, James F; Rona, Roberto J; Oyarzun, Manuel J; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia

    2008-04-01

    We assessed the effects of indoor risk factors, including smoking, on different types of cough and on cough and wheeze in combination. Our sample was composed of 1232 men and women residing in a semirural area of Chile. We used a standardized questionnaire, sensitization to 8 allergens, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine to assess cough and wheeze characteristics. Information was gathered on dampness, mold, ventilation, heating, housing quality, smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Most exposures were associated with cough alone or cough in combination with wheeze. Smoking, past smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure were strongly associated with dry cough and wheeze. The use of coal for heating was associated with dry cough. Leaks, mold, and lack of kitchen ventilation were associated with cough and wheeze. Nocturnal cough and productive cough were associated with specific types of sensitization, but dry cough was not. Productive cough was associated with hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Several different types of indoor exposures, including environmental tobacco smoke exposure, are important contributors to morbidity associated with cough and wheeze. A vigorous preventive strategy designed to lower exposures to indoor risk factors would lower rates of respiratory morbidity.

  14. Indoor risk factors for cough and their relation to wheeze and sensitization in Chilean young adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, J.F.; Rona, R.J.; Oyarzun, M.J.; Amigo, H.; Bustos, P. [Kings College London, London (United Kingdom). Dept. for Public Health Science

    2008-04-15

    We assessed the effects of indoor risk factors, including smoking, on different types of cough and on cough and wheeze in combination. Our sample was composed of 1232 men and women residing in a semi-rural area of Chile. We used a standardized questionnaire, sensitization to 8 allergens, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine to assess cough and wheeze characteristics. Information was gathered on dampness, mold, ventilation, heating, housing quality, smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Most exposures were associated with cough alone or cough in combination with wheeze. Smoking, past smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure were strongly associated with dry cough and wheeze. The use of coal for heating was associated with dry cough. Leaks, mold, and lack of kitchen ventilation were associated with cough and wheeze. Nocturnal cough and productive cough were associated with specific types of sensitization, but dry cough was not. Productive cough was associated with hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Several different types of indoor exposures, including environmental tobacco smoke exposure, are important contributors to morbidity associated with cough and wheeze. A vigorous preventive strategy designed to lower exposures to indoor risk factors would lower rates of respiratory morbidity.

  15. Indoor Risk Factors for Cough and Their Relation to Wheeze and Sensitization in Chilean Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, James F.; Rona, Roberto J.; Oyarzun, Manuel J.; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effects of indoor risk factors, including smoking, on different types of cough and on cough and wheeze in combination. Methods. Our sample was composed of 1232 men and women residing in a semirural area of Chile. We used a standardized questionnaire, sensitization to 8 allergens, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine to assess cough and wheeze characteristics. Information was gathered on dampness, mold, ventilation, heating, housing quality, smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Results. Most exposures were associated with cough alone or cough in combination with wheeze. Smoking, past smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure were strongly associated with dry cough and wheeze. The use of coal for heating was associated with dry cough. Leaks, mold, and lack of kitchen ventilation were associated with cough and wheeze. Nocturnal cough and productive cough were associated with specific types of sensitization, but dry cough was not. Productive cough was associated with hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Conclusions. Several different types of indoor exposures, including environmental tobacco smoke exposure, are important contributors to morbidity associated with cough and wheeze. A vigorous preventive strategy designed to lower exposures to indoor risk factors would lower rates of respiratory morbidity. PMID:17666696

  16. Revealing the functional structure of a new PLA2 K49 from Bothriopsis taeniata snake venom employing automatic "de novo" sequencing using CID/HCD/ETD MS/MS analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carregari, Victor Corasolla; Dai, Jie; Verano-Braga, Thiago; Rocha, Thalita; Ponce-Soto, Luis Alberto; Marangoni, Sergio; Roepstorff, Peter

    2016-01-10

    Snake venoms are composed of approximately 90% of proteins with several pharmacological activities having high potential in research as biological tools. One of the most abundant compounds is phospholipases A2 (PLA2), which are the most studied venom protein due to their wide pharmacological activity. Using a combination of chromatographic steps, a new PLA2 K49 was isolated and purified from the whole venom of the Bothriopsis taeniata and submitted to analyses mass spectrometry. An automatic “de novo” sequencing of this new PLA2 K49 denominated Btt-TX was performed using Peaks Studio 6 for analysis of the spectra. Additionally, a triplex approach CID/HCD/ETD has been performed, to generate higher coverage of the sequence of the protein. Structural studies correlating biological activities were made associating specific Btt-TX regions and myotoxic activity. Lysine acetylation was performed to better understand the mechanism of membrane interaction, identifying the extreme importance of the highly hydrophobic amino acids L, P and F for disruption of the membrane. Our myotoxical studies show a possible membrane disruption mechanism by Creatine Kinase release without a noticeable muscle damage, that probably occurred without phospholipid hydrolyses, but with a probable penetration of the hydrophobic amino acids present in the C-terminal region of the protein.

  17. Caring for cough : guiding diagnosis in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, S.F.

    2013-01-01

    Proper diagnosis in the very common presented acute cough or other LRTI-like symptoms allows GPs to adequately treat and inform their patients about the expected course of their disease. Management depends on the assumed cause of the LRTI, which includes potentially life threatening pneumonia, as

  18. Evaluation of Fractioned Nitric Oxide in Chronic Cough Patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... due to its high positive predictive value, its practical nature, the fact that it is a ..... Eosinophilia at complete blood count. 37. 41.1. 8 .... REFERENCES. 1. Massie J. Cough in children: When does it matter? Paediatr. Respir Rev 2006;7:9-14. 2. Chang AB, Landau LI, Van Asperen PP, Glasgow NJ, Robertson.

  19. Proton pump inhibitor-responsive chronic cough without acid reflux: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobata Kouichi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because 24-h esophageal pH monitoring is quite invasive, the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD-associated cough has usually been made based merely on the clinical efficacy of treatment with proton pump inhibitor (PPI. Case presentation We recently encountered two patients with PPI-responsive chronic non-productive cough for whom switching from bronchodilators and glucocorticosteroids to PPI resulted in improvement of cough. The cough returned nearly to pre-administration level a few weeks after discontinuation of PPI. Though GERD-associated cough was suspected, 24-h esophageal pH monitoring revealed that the cough rarely involved gastric acid reflux. Following re-initiation of PPI, the cough disappeared again. Conclusion PPI may improve cough unrelated to gastric acid reflux.

  20. Cough in Children: Current Approaches to the Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Rechkina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cough is one of the most common symptoms in the practice of doctors of various specialties, including pediatricians. Cough treatment should be started with the identification of its cause and correct diagnosis. Most often, cough in children is due to the increased viscosity of bronchial secretions, i.e. violation of sputum transport in the bronchial tree, and insufficient activity of ciliated epithelium. The main objective of the treatment of productive cough is dilution of sputum, bronchial secretion and excretion, thus necessitating the administration of mucolytics. Currently, one of the most famous mucolytics is acetylcysteine, cysteine amino acid product, such as ACC®. However, today the question of ACC® (acetylcysteine application in infants and young children is still debatable. This article presents a study whose objective was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and tolerability of ACC® (20 mg/ml solution in the treatment of bronchopulmonary diseases in children aged 2 to 6 years. Materials and methods. The study involved 60 children with acute tracheitis, simple bronchitis, acute obstructive bronchitis, recurrent bronchitis in the acute phase, community-acquired pneumonia, asthma exacerbation, cystic fibrosis. Patients of the main groups (n = 40 received ACC® (20 mg/ml solution at the age-specific dosage 3 times a day in combined treatment. Therapy of patients in the control group (n = 20 was conducted without ACC®. Results. During follow-up, patients who received ACC® had significant positive changes in the nature of cough, sputum viscosity and its amount as opposed to a comparison group of patients. Complete disappearance of cough was achieved on day 5–8 from the beginning of treatment, while in the control group patients, this time was longer. The evaluation of the effectiveness of the study drug showed that very good efficacy was achieved in 75 % of patients and good — in 20 %, and among patients who

  1. The lateralizing and localizing value of peri-ictal cough in epileptic seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Korkmaz, Bektaş; Erşen, Gülsün; Delil, Şakir; Özkara, Çiğdem; Yeni, S. Naz

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Coughing may be observed as an epiphenomenon during or after epileptic seizures. Aim. In this paper we discuss the lateralization and localization value of cough as an epileptic peri/post ictal semiological phenomenon. Material and Methods. Seven patients presenting cough as a part of their symptomatology are presented. We will discuss cough in the context of these seven patients. Results. Six out of these seven patients were multidrug resistant temporal lobe epilepsy patient...

  2. Cough Aerosol Cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Insights on TST / IGRA Discordance and Transmission Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C Jones-López

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of latent tuberculosis (TB infection (LTBI is complicated by the absence of a gold standard. Discordance between tuberculin skin tests (TST and interferon gamma release assays (IGRA occurs in 10-20% of individuals, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood.We analyzed data from a prospective household contact study that included cough aerosol culture results from index cases, environmental and contact factors. We assessed contacts for LTBI using TST and IGRA at baseline and six weeks. We examined TST/IGRA discordance in qualitative and quantitative analyses, and used multivariable logistic regression analysis with generalized estimating equations to analyze predictors of discordance.We included 96 TB patients and 384 contacts. Discordance decreased from 15% at baseline to 8% by six weeks. In adjusted analyses, discordance was related to less crowding (p = 0.004, non-cavitary disease (OR 1.41, 95% CI: 1.02-1.96; p = 0.03, and marginally with BCG vaccination in contacts (OR 1.40, 95% CI: 0.99-1.98, p = 0.06.We observed significant individual variability and temporal dynamism in TST and IGRA results in household contacts of pulmonary TB cases. Discordance was associated with a less intense infectious exposure, and marginally associated with a BCG-mediated delay in IGRA conversion. Cough aerosols provide an additional dimension to the assessment of infectiousness and risk of infection in contacts.

  3. Impact of current cough on health-related quality of life in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deslee G

    2016-09-01

    [FEV1]: 57 [37–72] % predicted (median [Q1–Q3]. In univariate analyses, health-related quality of life (Saint George’s respiratory questionnaire total score was associated with each CASA-Q domain and with chronic bronchitis, exacerbations, dyspnea, FEV1, depression, and anxiety. All four domains introduced separately were independently associated with health-related quality of life. When introduced together in multivariate analyses, only the cough impact domain remained independently associated with health-related quality of life (R2=0.60. With chronic bronchitis (standard definition instead of the CASA-Q, the R2 was lower (R2=0.54.Conclusion: This study provides evidence that current cough in the previous 7 days is an important determinant of health-related quality of life impairment in stable COPD patients.Keywords: signs and symptoms, respiratory, sputum, questionnaires, dyspnea, multivariate analysis

  4. pH and Titratable Acidity of different Cough Syrups in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cough linctuses are liquid oral medicines widely used in children to treat cough and related conditions. Some of their constituents are acidic and dental erosive. Objectives: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the endogenous pH and titratable acidity of Nigerian cough syrups and also determine their erosive ...

  5. Description of nighttime cough epochs in patients with stable COPD GOLD II-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Patrick; Gross, Volker; Kroenig, Johannes; Weissflog, Andreas; Hildebrandt, Olaf; Sohrabi, Keywan; Koehler, Ulrich

    Chronic cough is one of the main symptoms of COPD. Ambulatory objective monitoring provides novel insights into the determinants and characteristics of nighttime cough in COPD. Nighttime cough was monitored objectively by LEOSound lung sound monitor in patients with stable COPD II-IV. In 30 patients, with 10 patients in each stage group, nighttime cough was analyzed for epoch frequency, epoch severity (epoch length and coughs per epoch), and pattern (productive or nonproductive). Cough was found in all patients ranging from 1 to 294 events over the recording period. In 29 patients, cough epochs were monitored, ranging from 1 to 75 epochs. The highest amount of cough epochs was found in patients with COPD stage III. Active smokers had significantly more productive cough epochs (61%) than nonsmokers (24%). We found a high rate of nighttime cough epochs in patients with COPD, especially in those in stage III. Productive cough was predominantly found in patients with persistent smoking. LEOSound lung sound monitor offers a practical and valuable opportunity to evaluate cough objectively.

  6. Incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the sputa of coughing inmates in selected Ghanaian prisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyamfi, O.K.; Bedzra, K.D.; Biney, E.; Marfo, K.; Khan, B.K.; Bonsu, F.A.; Addo, K. K.

    2007-01-01

    One hundred and ninety-five (195) inmates, from eight (8) selected prisons within Ghana's penal system, each with an active cough of at least one week (as the inclusion criterion) were made to submit two sputum samples each for screening for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) using culture and subsequent microscopy and biochemical speciation tests. This sampling population was made up of 111 convicts and 84 remand prisoners. Forty eight (48) or 24.6% of these sputum samples returned a positive growth of MTB on Loweinstein-Jensen (LJ) slants. All growths harvested were also acid-fast on Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) microscopy. Out of the 111 convicted prisoners, 26 (or 23.4%) gave sputum samples which returned a positive growth on culture. On the other hand out of the 84 remanded inmates, 22 (or 26.2%) were positive on culture. Of all the total sputum samples returning a positive growth on culture, 54.2% (26/48) was from convicted inmates who made up 56.9% (111/195) of the sampling population whilst remanded inmates who made up only 39.3% (84/195) of our sampling population were responsible for 43.1% (22/54) of all positive culture growths. The percentage of MTB growths on culture in the sputa from coughing inmates domiciled in individual cells of selected prisons are interesting and instructive. The highest number of coughing inmates sampled in a single individual cell was 9 out of which 55.6% (5/9) had sputa giving a positive growth of MTB on culture. The percentage of positive growths of sputa obtained from coughing inmates in individual cells ranged from 20% (1/5) to 100% (1/1 and 2/2) for the selected prisons. A batch of samples (N=19) obtained from isolated inmates symptomatic for TB and at various stages of the DOTS chemotherapy were also analysed. Six (6) samples were positive on culture. Four (4) of these samples emanated from inmates on DOTS chemotherapy for periods between 69 and 290 days whilst the other 2 emanated from inmates on treatment for a period less than 60

  7. Sequential voluntary cough and aspiration or aspiration risk in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegland, Karen Wheeler; Okun, Michael S; Troche, Michelle S

    2014-08-01

    Disordered swallowing, or dysphagia, is almost always present to some degree in people with Parkinson's disease (PD), either causing aspiration or greatly increasing the risk for aspiration during swallowing. This likely contributes to aspiration pneumonia, a leading cause of death in this patient population. Effective airway protection is dependent upon multiple behaviors, including cough and swallowing. Single voluntary cough function is disordered in people with PD and dysphagia. However, the appropriate response to aspirate material is more than one cough, or sequential cough. The goal of this study was to examine voluntary sequential coughing in people with PD, with and without dysphagia. Forty adults diagnosed with idiopathic PD produced two trials of sequential voluntary cough. The cough airflows were obtained using pneumotachograph and facemask and subsequently digitized and recorded. All participants received a modified barium swallow study as part of their clinical care, and the worst penetration-aspiration score observed was used to determine whether the patient had dysphagia. There were significant differences in the compression phase duration, peak expiratory flow rates, and amount of air expired of the sequential cough produced by participants with and without dysphagia. The presence of dysphagia in people with PD is associated with disordered cough function. Sequential cough, which is important in removing aspirate material from large- and smaller-diameter airways, is also impaired in people with PD and dysphagia compared with those without dysphagia. There may be common neuroanatomical substrates for cough and swallowing impairment in PD leading to the co-occurrence of these dysfunctions.

  8. Influence of Polysaccharides from Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller, Liliaceae on Mechanically Induced Cough in Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Šutovská

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Different plants have been reported to be a source of polysaccharides that possess a great variety of biological activities, including cough suppression. The experiments were aimed on the influence of two polysaccharides isolated from the gel (A, HF1-Z and one from the epidermis (SL-1 of Aloe vera leaves, characterized by chemical composition and structural properties, on the cough reflex. The method of mechanically induced cough was used in conscious cats. A nylon fibre directed individually into the mucous area of the laryngopharyngeal and tracheobronchial airways via endotracheal cannula elicited the cough reflex. Statistical evaluation registered cough reflex indicators (number of cough efforts - NE, cough frequency - NE min–1 intensity of cough attacks during expiration and inspiration - IA+ and IA-, intensity of maximal inspiratory and expiratory cough efforts - IME- and IME+ showed that gel polysaccharide HF1-Z possessed higher cough-suppressing activity than dropropizine, a nonnarcotic peripheral cough suppressant. Their antitussive activity was accompanied mainly with a decrease of NE, IA+ and IA- from both laryngopharyngeal and tracheobronchial mucous areas of the airways. Results of the presented study also showed minimal influence of polysaccharide HF1-Z on expectoration predictor, IME- and IME+. New pharmacodynamic property of polysaccharides isolated from Aloe vera was shown during experiments, which could be a base of their possible therapeutic use in this indication in future.

  9. Personal Construction of Cough Medicine among Young Substance Abusers in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cough medicine abuse is a growing problem in many places, there is no study examining the views of young substance abusers toward cough medicine. The objective of this study was to examine personal constructions of cough medicine abusers via the repertory grid tests (=11. Several observations are highlighted from the study. First, personal constructions of cough medicine were mixed, including the benefits and harmful effects of its abuse. Second, although the informants perceived cough medicine to be addictive and harmful, they perceived cough medicine to be less addictive and less harmful than did heroin. Third, while the informants construed cough medicine to be similar to ketamine and marijuana, they also perceived cough medicine to possess some characteristics of heroin. Fourth, relative to the construed similarity between heroin and the gateway drugs (cigarette, beer, and liquor, the informants construed cough medicine to be more similar to the gateway drugs. Finally, a higher level of perceived dissimilarity between cough medicine and gateway drugs was related to a higher level of perceived harm of cough medicine abuse.

  10. Butorphanol suppresses fentanyl-induced cough during general anesthesia induction

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Xiao-Yan; Lun, Xiao-Qin; Li, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Zhi-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fentanyl-induced cough (FIC) is unwanted in the patients requiring stable induction of general anesthesia. This study was designed to evaluate the suppressive effects of butorphanol pretreatment on the incidence and severity of FIC during the induction of general anesthesia. A total of 315 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II, scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia were randomized into 3 equally sized groups (n = 0105). Two minut...

  11. Use of cough and cold preparations during breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J L

    1999-12-01

    Adverse reactions in infants from maternal drug ingestion depend largely on the amount of milk consumed by the infant, timing of breastfeeding in relation to dosing, dose of the medication, dosing interval, and duration of therapy. When taking medications, breastfeeding mothers should be instructed to take their medication after breastfeeding, at the lowest effective dose and for the shortest duration. Overall, there are few data from human studies on the use of antihistamines, decongestants, and cough products during breastfeeding. Studies of pseudoephedrine, triprolidine, and loratadine in humans conclude that low levels of each drug would reach a breastfed infant. Since triprolidine and pseudoephedrine are also considered compatible with breastfeeding by the AAP, these 2 drugs should be the first-line choices. Codeine is considered compatible with breastfeeding by the AAP, and would be an acceptable choice for short-term use as a cough suppressant. It is important to note that many of the liquid cough and cold products contain alcohol. In addition, many of the combination products are a mixture of an antihistamine and a decongestant and may also contain aspirin, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or caffeine. It is preferable for nursing mothers to only take medications that are necessary and to avoid such combination products. The AAP considers alcohol, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and caffeine compatible with breastfeeding. Aspirin has been associated with significant negative effects on some nursing infants, and the AAP recommends giving aspirin to nursing mothers with caution. Mothers taking cough and cold products should watch for adverse events in their breastfed infants. Infants may experience paradoxical central nervous stimulation from antihistamines and irritability and insomnia from decongestants.

  12. Whooping Cough Vaccine Recommendation for Preteens and Teens

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-22

    This podcast provides information about whooping cough and the recommendation that all preteens receive the Tdap vaccine when they are 11 or 12 to help protect them from this serious disease.  Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Infectious and Respiratory Disease (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Disease (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPD).   Date Released: 1/22/2015.

  13. Whooping Cough Vaccine Recommendation for Babies and Young Children

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-22

    This podcast provides information about whooping cough and the recommendation that all children receive the DTaP vaccine, according to CDC’s recommended schedule, to help protect them from this serious disease.  Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 1/22/2015.

  14. Evaluation of etiology of chronic cough in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Yildiz

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The patients who was admitted with chronic cough should be questioned in history for exposure to smoke, nutrition, atopy in the family and postnasal drip, the length of expiration, wheezing like symptoms should be examined in physical examination. Thus, by preventing the delay in the diagnosis of patients with stage the rates of unnecessary diagnostic procedures will be reduced. Also we would be able to prevent the excessive use of drugs. [Cukurova Med J 2017; 42(1.000: 66-72

  15. Exposure to coughed airborne pathogens in a double bed hospital patient room with overhead mixing ventilation: impact of posture of coughing patient and location of doctor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierat, W.; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2010-01-01

    The exposure of a doctor and a patient to air coughed by a second infected patient was studied in a mock-up of two-bed hospital infectious ward with mixing ventilation at 22oC (71.6 F) room air temperature. The effect of posture of the coughing patient lying sideways or on back), position...

  16. Cough reflex sensitivity is increased in the guinea pig model of allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozmanova, M; Plevkova, J; Tatar, M; Kollarik, M

    2008-12-01

    Increased cough reflex sensitivity is found in patients with allergic rhinitis and may contribute to cough caused by rhinitis. We have reported that cough to citric acid is enhanced in the guinea pig model of allergic rhinitis. Here we address the hypothesis that the cough reflex sensitivity is increased in this model. The data from our previous studies were analyzed for the cough reflex sensitivity. The allergic inflammation in the nose was induced by repeated intranasal instillations of ovalbumin in the ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs. Cough was induced by inhalation of doubling concentrations of citric acid (0.05-1.6 M). Cough threshold was defined as the lowest concentration of citric acid causing two coughs (C2, expressed as geometric mean [95% confidence interval]). We found that the cough threshold was reduced in animals with allergic rhinitis. C2 was 0.5 M [0.36-0.71 M] and 0.15 M [0.1-0.23 M] prior and after repeated intranasal instillations of ovalbumin, respectively, Preflex sensitivity. C2 was reduced in animals with allergic rhinitis treated orally with vehicle (0.57 M [0.28-1.1] vs. 0.09 M [0.04-0.2 M], Preflex sensitivity is increased in the guinea pig model of allergic rhinitis. Our results suggest that guinea pig is a suitable model for mechanistic studies of increased cough reflex sensitivity in rhinitis.

  17. An automatic measuring system of internal friction at low frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, K.

    1979-01-01

    An inverted torsion pendulum is automatized by means of Tectanel electronic system. Internal friction and the period of vibration are measured fully automatically as a function of temperature and the data obtained are analysed with a computer. (Author) [pt

  18. Tic disorders in the differential diagnosis of chronic cough in children in relation to four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Işık; Şişmanlar, Şahika Gülen

    2015-09-01

    Chronic cough is a frequent reason for medical referrals in childhood. In patients who do not have signs or symptoms of an underlying respiratory system disease and who do not respond to experimental treatment, psychogenic cough should be considered. In this paper, four patients who were referred to our department with a prediagnosis of psychogenic cough, found to have tic disorder as a result of the assessments performed and improved with antipsychotic medication are presented. The differantial diagnosis of chronic cough in children should include tic disorders as well as psychogenic cough. Tic disorders can be diagnosed easily with detailed history and their response to medical treatment is rather satisfactory. Recognition of these disorders by pediatricians will minimize erroneous diagnoses and inappropriate therapies in children with a complaint of chronic cough.

  19. High frequency of pertussis in older children and adolescents with prolonged cough in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Aslı; Kurugöl, Zafer; Aydemir, Şöhret; Gürsel, Derya; Koturoğlu, Güldane

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency of B. pertussis infection among Turkish children with prolonged cough. Nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from 7-18 year old children, presenting with prolonged cough of two to four weeks' duration. Specimens were examined for B. pertussis by PCR. Of 101 children with prolonged cough, 20 (19.8%) had a positive PCR testing for B. pertussis. Children who were vaccinated ≥5 years previously had a 6.13-fold higher risk of PCR-confirmed pertussis than those who were vaccinated pertussis (paroxysmal cough, whooping and post-tussive vomiting) were seen in 30%, 15% and 25% of the patients with positive PCR, respectively; 55% of them had only a prolonged cough without any classic symptoms. Pertussis is common among Turkish children with prolonged cough, even after implementation of a fifth dose of pertussis vaccination and despite high vaccination coverage.

  20. Anatomy and neurophysiology of cough: CHEST Guideline and Expert Panel report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Brendan J; Chang, Anne B; Bolser, Donald C; Smith, Jaclyn A; Mazzone, Stuart B; McGarvey, Lorcan

    2014-12-01

    Bronchopulmonary C-fibers and a subset of mechanically sensitive, acid-sensitive myelinated sensory nerves play essential roles in regulating cough. These vagal sensory nerves terminate primarily in the larynx, trachea, carina, and large intrapulmonary bronchi. Other bronchopulmonary sensory nerves, sensory nerves innervating other viscera, as well as somatosensory nerves innervating the chest wall, diaphragm, and abdominal musculature regulate cough patterning and cough sensitivity. The responsiveness and morphology of the airway vagal sensory nerve subtypes and the extrapulmonary sensory nerves that regulate coughing are described. The brainstem and higher brain control systems that process this sensory information are complex, but our current understanding of them is considerable and increasing. The relevance of these neural systems to clinical phenomena, such as urge to cough and psychologic methods for treatment of dystussia, is high, and modern imaging methods have revealed potential neural substrates for some features of cough in the human.

  1. Detection of explosive cough events in audio recordings by internal sound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, B M; Mendes, L; Couceiro, R; Henriques, J; Carvalho, P; Paiva, R P

    2017-07-01

    We present a new method for the discrimination of explosive cough events, which is based on a combination of spectral content descriptors and pitch-related features. After the removal of near-silent segments, a vector of event boundaries is obtained and a proposed set of 9 features is extracted for each event. Two data sets, recorded using electronic stethoscopes and comprising a total of 46 healthy subjects and 13 patients, were employed to evaluate the method. The proposed feature set is compared to three other sets of descriptors: a baseline, a combination of both sets, and an automatic selection of the best 10 features from both sets. The combined feature set yields good results on the cross-validated database, attaining a sensitivity of 92.3±2.3% and a specificity of 84.7±3.3%. Besides, this feature set seems to generalize well when it is trained on a small data set of patients, with a variety of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and tested on a bigger data set of mostly healthy subjects: a sensitivity of 93.4% and a specificity of 83.4% are achieved in those conditions. These results demonstrate that complementing the proposed feature set with a baseline set is a promising approach.

  2. Safety Profile of Cough and Cold Medication Use in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jody L; Wang, George Sam; Reynolds, Kate M; Banner, William; Bond, G Randall; Kauffman, Ralph E; Palmer, Robert B; Paul, Ian M; Dart, Richard C

    2017-06-01

    The safety of cough and cold medication (CCM) use in children has been questioned. We describe the safety profile of CCMs in children pediatric (75.5%), and single-ingredient (77.5%) formulations were most commonly involved. AEs occurring in >20% of all cases included tachycardia, somnolence, hallucinations, ataxia, mydriasis, and agitation. Twenty cases (0.6%) resulted in death; most were in children pediatric liquid formulations were the most commonly reported products. These characteristics present an opportunity for targeted prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Whooping Cough: A Brief History to the 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the history of whooping cough (pertussis) from its first recorded mention in 1190 to the time when its microbial cause was identified. The historical records of the disease are complicated by the variation in the nomenclature employed and through using the same name for disorders with different symptoms. During the early-modern period it was considered to be a disease new to Europe-contagious, dangerous, and potentially epidemic. Believed to be confined to children, its significance was limited until the 18th century when its incidence increased markedly. This essay argues pertussis may have occurred in the late medieval period in individual, though not epidemical, cases.

  4. Mucociliary and cough clearance as a biomarker for therapeutic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, William D; Daviskas, Evangelia; Hasani, Amir

    2010-01-01

    or therapeutic evaluation presented details of their methodologies. Attendees participating in the workshop discussions included those interested in the physiology of MCC/CC, some of who use in vitro or animal methods for its study, pharmaceutical companies developing muco-active therapies, and many who were......A workshop/symposium on “Mucociliary and Cough Clearance (MCC/CC) as a Biomarker for Therapeutic Development” was held on October 21–22, 2008, in Research Triangle Park, NC, to discuss the methods for measurement of MCC/CC and how they may be optimized for assessing new therapies designed...

  5. CODEINE CONTAINING COUGH SYRUP ADDICTION IN ASSAM AND NAGALAND

    OpenAIRE

    Wairagkar, Niteen S.; Das, J.; Kumar, S.; Mahanta, J.; Satyanarayana, K.; Phukan, R.K.; Chetia, M.; Goswami, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    The drug abuse monitoring study of Regional Medical Research Center, Dibrugarh, reported 181 and 395 addicts from the states of Assam and Nagaland respectively in one year. Of these, 48 (26.5%) and 49(12.4%) cases were contributed by the primary abuse of codeine containing cough syrups. A11 addicts were males in their early twenties. Most of the addicts were unmarried and educated up to matriculation. The majority of addicts in Assam were Hindus (85.4%) and in Nagaland Christians (81.63%). Un...

  6. Intranasal vaccine trial for canine infectious tracheobronchitis (kennel cough).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickman, L T; Appel, M J

    1981-08-01

    Two field trials were conducted during periods of endemic (summer) and epizootic (winter) canine infectious tracheobronchitis activity to evaluate the efficacy of three intranasal vaccines in a closed commercial beagle breeding kennel. A trivalent vaccine containing Bordetella bronchiseptica, canine parainfluenza, and canine adenovirus-2 was administered at 3 weeks of age. The vaccine was 71.2% and 81.8% effective in decreasing the incidence of coughing during the winter and summer trials, respectively. The number of deaths was lower in each of the vaccine groups than in the placebo groups. No adverse reactions were observed with any of the intranasal vaccines.

  7. Bordetella pertussis, B. parapertussis, vaccines and cycles of whooping cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchez, Valérie; Guiso, Nicole

    2015-10-01

    Whooping cough is a vaccine-preventable disease due to Bordetella pertussis and B. parapertussis. This highly contagious respiratory disease occurs through epidemic cycles every 3-5 years and vaccination did not change this frequency. Models suggest that the cyclic increase of susceptibles is linked to demographic differences and different vaccine coverage. However, differences in surveillance of the disease as well as adaptation of the agents of the disease to their human hosts and to vaccine pressure might also play an important role. These parameters are discussed in this review. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Cough aerosol in healthy participants: fundamental knowledge to optimize droplet-spread infectious respiratory disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Gustavo; Chiang, Ming C; Wong, Eric; MacDonald, Fred; Lange, Carlos F; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; King, Malcolm

    2012-03-21

    The Influenza A H1N1 virus can be transmitted via direct, indirect, and airborne route to non-infected subjects when an infected patient coughs, which expels a number of different sized droplets to the surrounding environment as an aerosol. The objective of the current study was to characterize the human cough aerosol pattern with the aim of developing a standard human cough bioaerosol model for Influenza Pandemic control. 45 healthy non-smokers participated in the open bench study by giving their best effort cough. A laser diffraction system was used to obtain accurate, time-dependent, quantitative measurements of the size and number of droplets expelled by the cough aerosol. Voluntary coughs generated droplets ranging from 0.1 - 900 microns in size. Droplets of less than one-micron size represent 97% of the total number of measured droplets contained in the cough aerosol. Age, sex, weight, height and corporal mass have no statistically significant effect on the aerosol composition in terms of size and number of droplets. We have developed a standard human cough aerosol model. We have quantitatively characterized the pattern, size, and number of droplets present in the most important mode of person-to-person transmission of IRD: the cough bioaerosol. Small size droplets (< 1 μm) predominated the total number of droplets expelled when coughing. The cough aerosol is the single source of direct, indirect and/or airborne transmission of respiratory infections like the Influenza A H1N1 virus. Open bench, Observational, Cough, Aerosol study. © 2012 Zayas et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  9. Protease-activated receptor-2 activation exaggerates TRPV1-mediated cough in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Raffaele; Andre, Eunice; Amadesi, Silvia; Dinh, Thai Q; Fischer, Axel; Bunnett, Nigel W; Harrison, Selena; Geppetti, Pierangelo; Trevisani, Marcello

    2006-08-01

    A lowered threshold to the cough response frequently accompanies chronic airway inflammatory conditions. However, the mechanism(s) that from chronic inflammation results in a lowered cough threshold is poorly understood. Irritant agents, including capsaicin, resiniferatoxin, and citric acid, elicit cough in humans and in experimental animals through the activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) activation plays a role in inflammation and sensitizes TRPV1 in cultured sensory neurons by a PKC-dependent pathway. Here, we have investigated whether PAR2 activation exaggerates TRPV1-dependent cough in guinea pigs and whether protein kinases are involved in the PAR2-induced cough modulation. Aerosolized PAR2 agonists (PAR2-activating peptide and trypsin) did not produce any cough per se. However, they potentiated citric acid- and resiniferatoxin-induced cough, an effect that was completely prevented by the TRPV1 receptor antagonist capsazepine. In contrast, cough induced by hypertonic saline, a stimulus that provokes cough in a TRPV1-independent manner, was not modified by aerosolized PAR2 agonists. The PKC inhibitor GF-109203X, the PKA inhibitor H-89, and the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin did not affect cough induced by TRPV1 agonists, but abated the exaggeration of this response produced by PAR2 agonists. In conclusion, PAR2 stimulation exaggerates TRPV1-dependent cough by activation of diverse mechanism(s), including PKC, PKA, and prostanoid release. PAR2 activation, by sensitizing TRPV1 in primary sensory neurons, may play a role in the exaggerated cough observed in certain airways inflammatory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  10. Multi-centre retrospective analysis of clinical diagnosis and treatment for chronic cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ming CHENG

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the clinical characteristics and the present status of diagnosis and treatment of chronic cough.Methods The clinical data of 238 in-patients and out-patients of Departments of Respiratory Diseases from 4 teaching hospitals of Chongqing Municipality were collected from Oct.2008 to Dec.2009,and their clinical characteristics,diagnosis and therapeutic effects were retrospectively analyzed.Results A total of 238 patients were enrolled,most of them complained of dry cough and night cough.Throat symptoms were most common,including itching or foreign body sensation,throat discomfort and gastro-oesophageal reflux.Congestion of pharynx and cobblestone like changes in posterior pharyngeal wall were the most common signs in patients with chronic cough.Among all the supplementary examinations,bronchial provocation test resulted in highest positive rate.Etiological diagnosis was done in a total of 254 case-times for diseases leading to chronic cough,among them upper airway cough syndrome(UACS was suspected in 115 case-times.cough variant asthma(CVA in 42 case-times,and cough due to gastroesophageal reflux(GERC in 53 case-times.After the specific treatment targeting UACS,CVA and GERC,in 152 case-times improvement was found after follow-up,including 56,27 and 21 case-times,respectively,with an effective rate of 68.4%(104/152.The final diagnosis for the other 44 case-times with chronic cough was chronic tonsillitis,chronic bronchitis,eosinophilic bronchitis and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor(ACEI induced cough.A definite diagnosis was finally made in 148 out of a total of 254 casses,with a diagnostic rate of 58.3%(148/254.Conclusion The final diagnostic rate in etiology of chronic cough is still poor nowadays in our country,and empirical treatment is still the main practice for chronic cough.

  11. Occupational and Environmental Contributions to Chronic Cough in Adults: Chest Expert Panel Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlo, Susan M; Altman, Kenneth W; Oppenheimer, John; Lim, Kaiser; Vertigan, Anne; Prezant, David; Irwin, Richard S

    2016-10-01

    In response to occupational and environmental exposures, cough can be an isolated symptom reflecting exposure to an irritant with little physiological consequence, or it can be a manifestation of more significant disease. This document reviews occupational and environmental contributions to chronic cough in adults, focusing on aspects not previously covered in the 2006 ACCP Cough Guideline or our more recent systematic review, and suggests an approach to investigation of these factors when suspected. MEDLINE and TOXLINE literature searches were supplemented by articles identified by the cough panel occupational and environmental subgroup members, to identify occupational and environmental aspects of chronic cough not previously covered in the 2006 ACCP Cough Guideline. Based on the literature reviews and the Delphi methodology, the cough panel occupational and environmental subgroup developed guideline suggestions that were approved after review and voting by the full cough panel. The literature review identified relevant articles regarding: mechanisms; allergic environmental causes; chronic cough and the recreational and involuntary inhalation of tobacco and marijuana smoke; nonallergic environmental triggers; laryngeal syndromes; and occupational diseases and exposures. Consensus-based statements were developed for the approach to diagnosis due to a lack of strong evidence from published literature. Despite increased understanding of cough related to occupational and environmental triggers, there remains a gap between the recommended assessment of occupational and environmental causes of cough and the reported systematic assessment of these factors. There is a need for further documentation of occupational and environmental causes of cough in the future. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cough Variant Asthma in Medical Outpatient Department of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rukhsana Parvin; Shekhar Bhattacharjee; Swapna Bhattacharjee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cough variant asthma (CVA) is a subset of asthma where the only symptom is chronic persistent cough. Many cases go unrecognized due to lack of proper evaluation. Response to asthma medication with features supportive of airway hypersensitivity helps in management of this disease. Objective: To find out the proportion of cough variant asthma among the patients attending medicine outpatient department of Enam Medical College, Savar, Dhaka. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional...

  13. High frequency analysis of cough sounds in pediatric patients with respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosasih, K; Abeyratne, U R; Swarnkar, V

    2012-01-01

    Cough is a common symptom in a range of respiratory diseases and is considered a natural defense mechanism of the body. Despite its critical importance in the diagnosis of illness, there are no golden methods to objectively assess cough. In a typical consultation session, a physician may briefly listen to the cough sounds using a stethoscope placed against the chest. The physician may also listen to spontaneous cough sounds via naked ears, as they naturally propagate through air. Cough sounds carry vital information on the state of the respiratory system but the field of cough analysis in clinical medicine is in its infancy. All existing cough analysis approaches are severely handicapped by the limitations of the human hearing range and simplified analysis techniques. In this paper, we address these problems, and explore the use of frequencies covering a range well beyond the human perception (up to 90 kHz) and use wavelet analysis to extract diagnostically important information from coughs. Our data set comes from a pediatric respiratory ward in Indonesia, from subjects diagnosed with asthma, pneumonia and rhinopharyngitis. We analyzed over 90 cough samples from 4 patients and explored if high frequencies carried useful information in separating these disease groups. Multiple regression analysis resulted in coefficients of determination (R(2)) of 77-82% at high frequencies (15 kHz-90 kHz) indicating that they carry useful information. When the high frequencies were combined with frequencies below 15kHz, the R(2) performance increased to 85-90%.

  14. Effectiveness of a personalized ventilation system in reducing personal exposure against directly released simulated cough droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelic, J; Tham, K W; Licina, D

    2015-12-01

    The inhalation intake fraction was used as an indicator to compare effects of desktop personalized ventilation and mixing ventilation on personal exposure to directly released simulated cough droplets. A cough machine was used to simulate cough release from the front, back, and side of a thermal manikin at distances between 1 and 4 m. Cough droplet concentration was measured with an aerosol spectrometer in the breathing zone of a thermal manikin. Particle image velocimetry was used to characterize the velocity field in the breathing zone. Desktop personalized ventilation substantially reduced the inhalation intake fraction compared to mixing ventilation for all investigated distances and orientations of the cough release. The results point out that the orientation between the cough source and the breathing zone of the exposed occupant is an important factor that substantially influences exposure. Exposure to cough droplets was reduced with increasing distance between cough source and exposed occupant. The results from this study show that an advanced air distribution system such as personalized ventilation reduces exposure to cough-released droplets better than commonly applied overhead mixing ventilation. This work can inform HVAC engineers about different aspects of air distribution systems’ performance and can serve as an aid in making critical design decisions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effectiveness of a personalized ventilation system in reducing personal exposure against directly released simulated cough droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantelic, J.; Tham, K. W.; Licina, Dusan

    2015-01-01

    manikin at distances between 1 and 4m. Cough droplet concentration was measured with an aerosol spectrometer in the breathing zone of a thermal manikin. Particle image velocimetry was used to characterize the velocity field in the breathing zone. Desktop personalized ventilation substantially reduced......The inhalation intake fraction was used as an indicator to compare effects of desktop personalized ventilation and mixing ventilation on personal exposure to directly released simulated cough droplets. A cough machine was used to simulate cough release from the front, back, and side of a thermal...

  16. Cough quality in children: a comparison of subjective vs. bronchoscopic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Nancy C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cough is the most common symptom presenting to doctors. The quality of cough (productive or wet vs dry is used clinically as well as in epidemiology and clinical research. There is however no data on the validity of cough quality descriptors. The study aims were to compare (1 cough quality (wet/dry and brassy/non-brassy to bronchoscopic findings of secretions and tracheomalacia respectively and, (2 parent's vs clinician's evaluation of the cough quality (wet/dry. Methods Cough quality of children (without a known underlying respiratory disease undergoing elective bronchoscopy was independently evaluated by clinicians and parents. A 'blinded' clinician scored the secretions seen at bronchoscopy on pre-determined criteria and graded (1 to 6. Kappa (K statistics was used for agreement, and inter-rater and intra-rater agreement examined on digitally recorded cough. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to determine if cough quality related to amount of airway secretions present at bronchoscopy. Results Median age of the 106 children (62 boys, 44 girls enrolled was 2.6 years (IQR 5.7. Parent's assessment of cough quality (wet/dry agreed with clinicians' (K = 0.75, 95%CI 0.58–0.93. When compared to bronchoscopy (bronchoscopic secretion grade 4, clinicians' cough assessment had the highest sensitivity (0.75 and specificity (0.79 and were marginally better than parent(s. The area under the ROC curve was 0.85 (95%CI 0.77–0.92. Intra-observer (K = 1.0 and inter-clinician agreement for wet/dry cough (K = 0.88, 95%CI 0.82–0.94 was very good. Weighted K for inter-rater agreement for bronchoscopic secretion grades was 0.95 (95%CI 0.87–1. Sensitivity and specificity for brassy cough (for tracheomalacia were 0.57 and 0.81 respectively. K for both intra and inter-observer clinician agreement for brassy cough was 0.79 (95%CI 0.73–0.86. Conclusions Dry and wet cough in children, as determined by clinicians and

  17. Whooping cough in school age children presenting with persistent cough in UK primary care after introduction of the preschool pertussis booster vaccination: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kay; Fry, Norman K; Campbell, Helen; Amirthalingam, Gayatri; Harrison, Timothy G; Mant, David; Harnden, Anthony

    2014-06-24

    To estimate the prevalence and clinical severity of whooping cough (pertussis) in school age children presenting with persistent cough in primary care since the introduction and implementation of the preschool pertussis booster vaccination. Prospective cohort study (November 2010 to December 2012). General practices in Thames Valley, UK. 279 children aged 5 to 15 years who presented in primary care with a persistent cough of two to eight weeks' duration. Exclusion criteria were cough likely to be caused by a serious underlying medical condition, known immunodeficiency or immunocompromise, participation in another clinical research study, and preschool pertussis booster vaccination received less than one year previously. Evidence of recent pertussis infection based on an oral fluid anti-pertussis toxin IgG titre of at least 70 arbitrary units. Cough frequency was measured in six children with laboratory confirmed pertussis. 56 (20%, 95% confidence interval 16% to 25%) children had evidence of recent pertussis infection, including 39 (18%, 13% to 24%) of 215 children who had been fully vaccinated. The risk of pertussis was more than three times higher (21/53; 40%, 26% to 54%) in children who had received the preschool pertussis booster vaccination seven years or more previously than in those who had received it less than seven years previously (20/171; 12%, 7% to 17%). The risk of pertussis was similar between children who received five and three component preschool pertussis booster vaccines (risk ratio for five component vaccine 1.14, 0.64 to 2.03). Four of six children in whom cough frequency was measured coughed more than 400 times in 24 hours. Pertussis can still be found in a fifth of school age children who present in primary care with persistent cough and can cause clinically significant cough in fully vaccinated children. These findings will help to inform consideration of the need for an adolescent pertussis booster vaccination in the United Kingdom. UK

  18. Utility of tests used to diagnose asthma, gastroesophageal reflux and upper airway cough syndrome in patients with chronic cough and normal chest radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E. Mansour

    2012-07-01

    Conclusion: Asthma, UACS, GERD, or some combination of these represent 78% of the causes of chronic cough in our sample. Therefore, these conditions should be considered first during diagnostic evaluation of patients with chronic cough and normal CXR. Inspite of some discrepancy between initial and final diagnoses, the study identifies the group of diagnostic methods best able to identify the cause in the vast majority of cases of chronic cough including sinuses CT scan, rhinoscopy, pulmonary function tests, and esophageal pH monitoring.

  19. Dextromethorphan in Cough Syrup: The Poor Man's Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinak, Bridgette; Bolis, Ramy A; Black, Jeffrey Ryne; Fargason, Rachel E; Birur, Badari

    2017-09-15

    Dextromethorphan (3-methoxy-N-methylmorphinan), also known as "DXM" and "the poor man's PCP," is a synthetically produced drug that is available in more than 140 over-the-counter cough and cold preparations. Dextromethorphan (DXM) has overtaken codeine as the most widely used cough suppressant due to its availability, efficacy, and safety profile at directed doses. However, DXM is subject to abuse. When consumed at inappropriately high doses (over 1500 mg/day), DXM can induce a state of psychosis characterized by Phencyclidine (PCP)-like psychological symptoms, including delusions, hallucinations, and paranoia. We report a noteworthy case of severe dextromethorphan use disorder with dextromethorphan-induced psychotic disorder in a 40-year-old Caucasian female, whose symptoms remitted only following treatment with a combination of an antipsychotic and mood stabilizer. While some states have begun to limit the quantity of DXM sold or restrict sales to individuals over 18-years of age, there is currently no federal ban or restriction on DXM. Abuse of DXM, a readily available and typically inexpensive agent that is not detected on a standard urine drug screen, may be an under-recognized cause of substance-induced psychosis. It is imperative that clinicians are aware of the potential psychiatric sequelae of recreational DXM use.

  20. Dextromethorphan in Cough Syrup: The Poor Man’s Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinak, Bridgette; Bolis, Ramy A.; Black, Jeffrey Ryne; Fargason, Rachel E.; Birur, Badari

    2017-01-01

    Dextromethorphan (3-methoxy-N-methylmorphinan), also known as “DXM” and “the poor man’s PCP,” is a synthetically produced drug that is available in more than 140 over-the-counter cough and cold preparations. Dextromethorphan (DXM) has overtaken codeine as the most widely used cough suppressant due to its availability, efficacy, and safety profile at directed doses. However, DXM is subject to abuse. When consumed at inappropriately high doses (over 1500 mg/day), DXM can induce a state of psychosis characterized by Phencyclidine (PCP)-like psychological symptoms, including delusions, hallucinations, and paranoia. We report a noteworthy case of severe dextromethorphan use disorder with dextromethorphan-induced psychotic disorder in a 40-year-old Caucasian female, whose symptoms remitted only following treatment with a combination of an antipsychotic and mood stabilizer. While some states have begun to limit the quantity of DXM sold or restrict sales to individuals over 18-years of age, there is currently no federal ban or restriction on DXM. Abuse of DXM, a readily available and typically inexpensive agent that is not detected on a standard urine drug screen, may be an under-recognized cause of substance-induced psychosis. It is imperative that clinicians are aware of the potential psychiatric sequelae of recreational DXM use. PMID:28936010

  1. Pertussis-associated persistent cough in previously vaccinated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Nicola; Litt, David; Terranova, Leonardo; Picca, Marina; Malvaso, Concetta; Vitale, Cettina; Fry, Norman K; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the role of Bordetella pertussis infection, 96 otherwise healthy 7- to 17-year-old subjects who were suffering from a cough lasting from 2 to 8 weeks were prospectively recruited. At enrolment, a nasopharyngeal swab and an oral fluid sample were obtained to search for pertussis infection by the detection of B. pertussis DNA and/or an elevated titre of anti-pertussis toxin IgG. Evidence of pertussis infection was found in 18 (18.7 %; 95 % confidence interval, 11.5-28.0) cases. In 15 cases, the disease occurred despite booster administration. In two cases, pertussis was diagnosed less than 2 years after the booster injection, whereas in the other cases it was diagnosed between 2 and 9 years after the booster dose. This study used non-invasive testing to show that pertussis is one of the most important causes of long-lasting cough in school-age subjects. Moreover, the protection offered by acellular pertussis vaccines currently wanes more rapidly than previously thought.

  2. Cough Variant Asthma in Medical Outpatient Department of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukhsana Parvin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cough variant asthma (CVA is a subset of asthma where the only symptom is chronic persistent cough. Many cases go unrecognized due to lack of proper evaluation. Response to asthma medication with features supportive of airway hypersensitivity helps in management of this disease. Objective: To find out the proportion of cough variant asthma among the patients attending medicine outpatient department of Enam Medical College, Savar, Dhaka. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Enam Medical College Hospital, Savar, Dhaka over a period of two years from July 2009 to July 2011. Cough variant asthma was diagnosed mainly on clinical ground as chronic cough without wheezing, fever, weight loss, shortness of breath or sputum or any other apparent cause that persisted for more than eight weeks with absolutely normal physical examination of chest, normal chest radiography and blood count except raised eosinophil count and IgE level. Patients who met these criteria were given 2 weeks course of inhaler beclomethasone propionate and were assessed for improvement. Those who improved after steroid inhalation were categorised as having cough variant asthma. Results: Out of purposively selected 148 patients complaining only of chronic dry cough for more than eight weeks, 92 patients met the primary selection criteria for cough variant asthma. These 92 patients were given 2 weeks trial of 250 ìgm beclomethasone inhalation twice daily. Seventy nine patients reported almost complete recovery from chronic cough after 2 weeks and were categorized as having CVA. Thirteen patients did not improve and were not categorized as CVA. Conclusion: These findings suggest that cough variant asthma is the most common among the patients with chronic cough not due to any apparent cause. The efficacy of inhaled corticosteroid suggests that early intervention is effective in the treatment of this disease.

  3. Intraesophageal pressure recording improves the detection of cough during multichannel intraluminal impedance testing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Rachel; Amirault, Janine; Giligan, Emily; Khatwa, Umakanth; Nurko, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    One of the primary reasons for referral for reflux testing is to correlate reflux events with symptoms such as cough. Adult studies have suggested that symptom recording is flawed and pediatricians feel this is an even more significant problem because there may be errors in both parental and patient reports. We hypothesize that intraesophageal pressure recording (IEPR) provides an objective method to identify coughs during reflux testing in children. We recruited 20 children undergoing multichannel intraluminal impedance with pH (pH-MII) testing for the evaluation of cough. We placed simultaneous intraesophageal pressure and pH-MII catheters. Tracings were blindly scored by 2 observers without knowledge of patient/parent symptom report. After the blinded scoring, patient/parent report of symptoms was recorded. Ninety-four percent of all coughs were detected by IEPR and only 48% of all coughs were reported by patients/parents. The mean time from the IEPR cough to the patient/parent cough was 11±16 seconds. Using IEPR as the criterion standard for the detection of cough, the sensitivity of patient report for the detection of cough is 46%. Using varying symptom windows because of the increased precision of IEPR, the number of patients with a positive symptom index could be reduced from 30% to 0%, preventing children from being falsely categorized as having reflux-related lung disease. Parental and patient symptom recording in children is inadequate for making the diagnosis of reflux-related lung disease. If patients undergo pH-MII testing for reflux-related cough, IEPR should become the new standard by which to correlate reflux with cough.

  4. An investigation into the stability and sterility of citric acid solutions used for cough reflex testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, James R; Wu, Zimei; Lau, Hugo; Suen, Joanna; Wang, Lucy; Pottinger, Sarah; Lee, Elaine; Alazawi, Nawar; Kallesen, Molly; Gargiulo, Derryn A; Swift, Simon; Svirskis, Darren

    2014-10-01

    Citric acid is used in cough reflex testing in clinical and research settings to assess reflexive cough in patients at risk of swallowing disorders. To address a lack of knowledge in this area, this study investigated the stability and sterility of citric acid solutions. Triplicate solutions of citric acid (0.8 M) in isotonic saline were stored at 4 ± 2 °C for up to 28 days and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Microbiological sterility of freshly prepared samples and bulk samples previously used for 2 weeks within the hospital was determined using a pour plate technique. Microbial survival in citric acid was determined by inoculating Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, or Candida albicans into citric acid solution and monitoring the number of colony-forming units/mL over 40 min. Citric acid solutions remained stable at 4 °C for 28 days (98.4 ± 1.8 % remained). The freshly prepared and clinical samples tested were sterile. However, viability studies revealed that citric acid solution allows for the survival of C. albicans but not for S. aureus or E. coli. The microbial survival study showed that citric acid kills S. aureus and E. coli but has no marked effect on C. albicans after 40 min. Citric acid samples at 0.8 M remained stable over the 4-week testing period, with viable microbial cells absent from samples tested. However, C. albicans has the ability to survive in citric acid solution if inadvertently introduced in practice. For this reason, in clinical and research practice it is suggested to use single-use aliquots prepared aseptically which can be stored for up to 28 days at 4 °C.

  5. Comparison of the Effect of Two Kinds of Iranian Honey and Diphenhydramine on Nocturnal Cough and the Sleep Quality in Coughing Children and Their Parents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Ayazi

    Full Text Available Coughing in a child induced by upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs can be a problem, both for the child and its parents. Current studies show a lack of proven efficacy for over-the counter (OTC medications, but promising data support the use of honey for children. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two kinds of Iranian honey with diphenhydramine (DPH on nocturnal pediatric coughs and the sleep quality of children and their parents. This was a clinical trial (registered in IRCT; No.: 28.20.7932, 15 October 2013. The study consisted of 87 patients. All the parents completed a standard previously validated questionnaire. The children were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: Group 1, Honey type 1 (Kimia Company, Iran (n = 42, Group 2, Honey type 2 (Shahde-Golha, Iran (n = 25, and Group 3, DPH (n = 20. Each group received double doses of the respective treatments on two successive nights. A second survey was then administered via a telephone interview in which the parents were asked the same questions. The mean scores for all aspects of coughs were significantly decreased in each group before and after the treatment. All three treatments improved the cough and sleep scores. Honey type 1 was superior to DPH in improving all aspects of coughs, except the frequency, and Honey type 2 was more effective than DPH in improving all aspects of coughs, except the sleep quality of the child. There was no significant difference between Honey type 1 and 2 in any aspects of cough relief in the present study. The results suggest that honey may provide better cough relief than DPH in children and improve the sleep quality of children and their parents.

  6. Successful use of guanfacine in a patient with chronic refractory cough: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory W. Kirschen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic idiopathic cough is a common and often frustrating complaint for patients as well as providers. When common etiologies of cough are ruled out and/or do not respond to usual treatments, neurogenic cough should be considered as a diagnosis of exclusion. Here, we report on a 58-year-old woman with an 8-year history of chronic, treatment-refractory cough of unknown etiology that we diagnosed as neurogenic cough and successfully treated with guanfacine monotherapy, with rapid and durable improvement in symptoms. This case was particularly challenging for a number of reasons, including a distant past smoking history and previous pneumonia, a significant psychiatric history, and a mildly deviated nasal septum and nasal osteophyte, all or some of which could have contributed to the etiology of the cough. This case illustrates that neurogenic cough should be a diagnostic consideration in patients presenting with chronic cough in whom other treatment modalities have failed, and also suggests that the therapeutic use of guanfacine in this clinical setting warrants future investigation.

  7. Voluntary Cough Production and Swallow Dysfunction in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolser, Donald; Rosenbek, John; Troche, Michelle; Sapienza, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Cough is important for airway clearance, particularly if penetration/aspiration of foreign material occurs during swallow. Measures of voluntary cough production from ten male participants with stage II–III Parkinson’s disease (PD) who showed no videofluorographic evidence of penetration/aspiration (Group 1) were examined and compared with those of ten male participants with stage II–III PD who showed videofluorographic evidence of penetration/aspiration (Group 2). The degree of penetration/ aspiration was expertly judged from the videofluorographic examinations of the participants’ sequential swallow of a thin, 30-cc bolus. Measured cough parameters included inspiratory phase duration, inspiratory peak flow, compression phase duration, expiratory peak flow, expiratory rise time, and cough volume acceleration. Results indicated significant group differences for the majority of cough measures, except for inspiratory phase duration and inspiratory peak flow. A modest relationship existed between voluntary cough parameters and penetration/aspiration scores. Decreased ability to adequately clear material from the airway with voluntary cough may exacerbate symptoms resulting from penetration/aspiration, particularly for those with neurodegenerative disease. Measurement of voluntary cough may be useful for the evaluation of airway clearance ability. PMID:18483823

  8. Improved voluntary cough immediately following office-based vocal fold medialization injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, Bari H; Pitts, Teresa E; Lehman, Jeff; Spector, Brian; Lewis, Vicki; Sapienza, Christine M

    2014-07-01

    This study examined changes in voluntary cough airflow measures immediately following in-office injection of Radiesse in patients diagnosed with glottic insufficiency. Due to significant comorbidities, these patients were poor candidates for medialization under general anesthesia. Each patient presented with dysphonia and dysphagia and ineffective voluntary cough, resulting in a poor clearing of secretions and a presence of ingested fluids on examination. Prospective cohort and case series study. Three patients with a diagnosis of glottic insufficiency were included for study based on flexible endoscopy and laryngostroboscopic examination. Voluntary cough airflow measures were obtained approximately 30 minutes before and after the Radiesse injections. The airflow measures were: compression phase duration (CPD), expiratory rise time (EPRT), expiratory phase peak airflow (EPPF), and cough volume acceleration (CVA). Injection of Radiesse was found to improve voluntary cough airflow measures. The immediate increase in the objective airflow measures obtained from voluntary cough production after Radiesse injections can be used to document airway protection improvements. Cough airflow is a straightforward measure to obtain and is considered an objective measure of cough function. 4. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Analysis of Dextromethorphan in Cough Drops and Syrups: A Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Todd M.; Wiseman, Frank L., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is used to determine the quantity of dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DM) in over-the-counter (OTC) cough drops and syrups. This experiment is appropriate for an undergraduate medicinal chemistry laboratory course when studying OTC medicines and active ingredients. Students prepare the cough drops and syrups for analysis,…

  10. Chronic cough management: dealing with a sensation of irritation in the throat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Haruhiko; Fujimura, Masaki; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Makimura, Koichi

    2013-11-01

    Among the various types of laryngeal paraesthesia suffered by chronic cough patients, we often encounter 'a sensation of irritation in the throat (SIT)'. Our study indicated that capsaicin cough threshold was significantly (P sensation. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  11. Velocity Field Measurements of Human Coughing Using Time Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, T.; Marr, D. R.; Higuchi, H.; Glauser, M. N.

    2003-11-01

    Quantitative fluid mechanics analysis of human coughing has been carried out using new Time Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (TRPIV). The study involves measurement of velocity vector time-histories and velocity profiles. It is focused on the average normal human coughing. Some work in the past on cough mechanics has involved measurement of flow rates, tidal volumes and sub-glottis pressure. However, data of unsteady velocity vector field of the exiting highly time-dependent jets is not available. In this study, human cough waveform data are first acquired in vivo using conventional respiratory instrumentation for various volunteers of different gender/age groups. The representative waveform is then reproduced with a coughing/breathing simulator (with or without a manikin) for TRPIV measurements and analysis. The results of this study would be useful not only for designing of indoor air quality and heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems, but also for devising means of protection against infectious diseases.

  12. Epidemiology of whooping cough & typing of Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegerle, Nicolas; Guiso, Nicole

    2013-11-01

    Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative human-restricted bacterium that evolved from the broad-range mammalian pathogen, Bordetella bronchiseptica. It causes whooping cough or pertussis in humans, which is the most prevalent vaccine-preventable disease worldwide. The introduction of the pertussis whole-cell vaccination for young children, followed by the introduction of the pertussis acellular vaccination (along with booster vaccination) for older age groups, has affected the bacterial population and epidemiology of the disease. B. pertussis is relatively monomorphic worldwide, but nevertheless, different countries are facing different epidemiological evolutions of the disease. Although it is tempting to link vaccine-driven phenotypic and genotypic evolution of the bacterium to epidemiology, many other factors should be considered and surveillance needs to continue, in addition to studies investigating the impact of current clinical isolates on vaccine efficacy.

  13. Concordance and discriminatory power of cough measurement devices for individuals with Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Erin P; Carnaby-Mann, Giselle; Pitts, Teresa; Davenport, Paul; Okun, Michael S; Sapienza, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Dysphagia and aspiration pneumonia are two causes of morbidity in Parkinson disease (PD). In PD, impaired airway clearance can lead to penetration of foreign material, resulting in a high prevalence of aspiration pneumonia and death. This study examines three different devices for measurement of peak airflow during voluntary cough in healthy control subjects and those with PD. Two simple and low-cost devices for measuring peak cough airflow were compared with the "gold standard" pneumotachograph. Thirty-five healthy control subjects and 35 individuals with PD produced voluntary cough at three perceived strengths (weak, moderate, and strong cough) for each of the three devices. A significant difference in mean peak cough airflow was demonstrated for disease (F[1,56] = 4.0, P < .05) and sex (F[1,56] = 9.59, P < .003) across devices. The digital and analog meters were comparable to the gold standard demonstrating no significant difference (statistical) by device (digital vs analog) in receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Both devices were discriminative of the presence of PD. The analog and digital peak airflow meters are suitable alternatives to the gold standard pneumotachograph due to their low cost, portability, ease of use, and high sensitivity relative to normative peak cough airflows. Voluntary cough airflow measures may serve as a noninvasive means of screening for aspiration risk in target populations. Additionally, quantification of cough strength through use of predetermined limens for weak, moderate, and strong cough may assist clinicians in better describing and tracking cough strength as a contributing factor to aspiration risk.

  14. Effectiveness of assisted and unassisted cough capacity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Jesús; Servera, Emilio; Bañuls, Pilar; Marín, Julio

    2017-11-01

    Decreased cough capacity during a respiratory infection is one of the main causes of acute respiratory failure and hospitalisation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To determine whether a respiratory measurement could identify the effectiveness of cough capacity in ALS during a respiratory infection. This was a prospective study of all ALS patients who were treated at a respiratory care unit due to a respiratory infection from 2012 to 2016. The effectiveness of unassisted and assisted coughing was evaluated and respiratory function tests were performed during the acute episode. Forty-eight ALS patients were enrolled, with only four having an effective unassisted cough. The variable which predicted unassisted cough effectiveness was peak cough flow (PCF) (OR 4499.27; 95%CI 3.60-3219086.19; p = 0.022) with a cut-off point of 2.77 L/s (166 L/min). For manually assisted coughing, the predictor of cough effectiveness was manually assisted PCF (cut-off point of 2.82-169 L/min) (OR 2198.602; 95% CI 3.750-1351691.42; p = 0.019). Mechanically assisted PCF (cut-off point of 2.95-177 L/min) was found to be the predictor of mechanically assisted coughing effectiveness (OR 23.40; 95% CI 2.11-258.96; p = 0.010). During a respiratory infection in ALS patients, the effectiveness of assisted and unassisted cough capacity depends on the PCF generated.

  15. Nerve growth factor enhances cough via a central mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hashim, Ahmed Z; Jaffal, Sahar M; Al-Rashidi, Fatma T; Luqmani, Yunus A; Akhtar, Saghir

    2013-08-01

    The mechanisms involved in enhanced cough induced by central and inhaled NGF in guinea pigs were investigated. Cough and airway function were assessed by plethysmography following inhaled or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) NGF treatment. Expression of TrkA and/or TRPV1 was determined in bronchi and/or brainstem by real-time PCR and immunoblotting. I.c.v. and inhaled NGF enhanced citric acid induced-cough and airway obstruction. Pretreatment (i.c.v.) with antagonists of TrkA (K252a) or TRPV1 (IRTX) significantly reduced both the NGF (i.c.v.) enhanced cough and airway obstruction whereas the NK1 antagonist (FK888) inhibited only cough. The H1 antagonist (cetirizine) did not affect either. Inhaled NGF increased phosphorylation of TrkA receptors in the bronchi but not the brainstem at 0.5h post-treatment. TrkA mRNA was elevated at 0.5h in the bronchi and at 24h in the brainstem while TRPV1 mRNA was elevated from 0.5h to 24h in brainstem and at 24h in the bronchi. Pretreatment (i.c.v.) with IRTX, but not K252a, significantly inhibited the inhaled NGF-enhanced cough. Central NGF administration enhances cough and airway obstruction by mechanisms dependent on central activation of TrkA, TRPV1 and NK1 receptors while inhaled NGF enhances cough via a mechanism dependent on central TRPV1 and not TrkA receptors. These data show that NGF, in addition to its effects on the airways, has an important central mechanism of action in the enhancement of cough. Therefore, therapeutic strategies targeting NGF signaling in both the airways and CNS may be more effective in the management of cough. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Suppression of the cough reflex by α2-adrenergic receptor agonists in the rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinelli, Elenia; Bongianni, Fulvia; Pantaleo, Tito; Mutolo, Donatella

    2013-01-01

    The α2-adrenergic receptor agonist clonidine has been shown to inhibit citric acid-induced cough responses in guinea pigs when administered by aerosol, but not orally. In contrast, oral or inhaled clonidine had no effect on capsaicin-induced cough and reflex bronchoconstriction in humans. In addition, intravenous administration of clonidine has been shown to depress fentanyl-induced cough in humans. We investigated the effects of the α2-adrenergic receptor agonists, clonidine and tizanidine, on cough responses induced by mechanical and chemical (citric acid) stimulation of the tracheobronchial tree. Drugs were microinjected (30–50 nL) into the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii (cNTS) and the caudal ventral respiratory group (cVRG) as well as administered intravenously in pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rabbits. Bilateral microinjections of clonidine into the cNTS or the cVRG reduced cough responses at 0.5 mmol/L and abolished the cough reflex at 5 mmol/L. Bilateral microinjections of 0.5 mmol/L tizanidine into the cNTS completely suppressed cough responses, whereas bilateral microinjections of 5 mmol/L into the cVRG only caused mild reductions in them. Depressant effects on the cough reflex of clonidine and tizanidine were completely reverted by microinjections of 10 mmol/L yohimbine. Intravenous administration of clonidine (80–120 μg/kg) or tizanidine (150–300 μg/kg) strongly reduced or completely suppressed cough responses. These effects were reverted by intravenous administration of yohimbine (300 μg/kg). The results demonstrate that activation of α2-adrenergic receptors in the rabbit exerts potent inhibitory effects on the central mechanism generating the cough motor pattern with a clear action at the level of the cNTS and the cVRG. PMID:24400133

  17. Automatic quantitative metallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcelos, E.J.B.V.; Ambrozio Filho, F.; Cunha, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    The quantitative determination of metallographic parameters is analysed through the description of Micro-Videomat automatic image analysis system and volumetric percentage of perlite in nodular cast irons, porosity and average grain size in high-density sintered pellets of UO 2 , and grain size of ferritic steel. Techniques adopted are described and results obtained are compared with the corresponding ones by the direct counting process: counting of systematic points (grid) to measure volume and intersections method, by utilizing a circunference of known radius for the average grain size. The adopted technique for nodular cast iron resulted from the small difference of optical reflectivity of graphite and perlite. Porosity evaluation of sintered UO 2 pellets is also analyzed [pt

  18. Automatic inspection of oil and gas pipe welded joints by radiographic images analyses; Analise automatica de imagens radiologicas aplicada a inspecao de juntas soldadas em tubulacoes de oleo e gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Guilherme A.; Felisberto, Marcelo K.; Pilkel, Lucas V.; Centeno, Tania M.; Arruda, Lucia V.R. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Parana (CEFET-PR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica e Informatica (CPGEI). Lab. de Automacao e Sistemas de Controle Avancado

    2004-07-01

    The reliability and integrity evaluation of structures and equipment on the petroleum and gas industry is an absolute necessary care due to economic reasons and safety. As a consequence, new supporting technologies for well known nondestructive test and evaluation methods have been developed in order to automate these inspection processes, improving their robustness, accuracy and quickness. On this way, the present work introduces solutions to overcome some obstacles to the automation of the radiographic image analysis task for the pipeline weld joint inspection, on radiographic non-destructive tests and evaluations. The main contributions are related to the improvements to techniques for the automatic weld bean segmentation and the development of an effective algorithm for the weld bean defect detection and extraction of relevant defect descriptors. (author)

  19. Is Bjerkandera adusta Important to fungus-associated chronic cough as an allergen? Eight cases' reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Haruhiko; Fujimura, Masaki; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Makimura, Koichi

    2009-10-01

    Recently, we have reported a new clinical disease concept called fungus-associated chronic cough (FACC), which entailed the following manifestations: (1) chronic cough; (2) the presence of environmental fungi, particularly basidiomycetous (BM) fungi, in the sputum; and (3) good clinical response to antifungal drugs. To clarify the relationship between the exposure to environmental fungi and the development of cough attacks, we reviewed the clinical records of patients with FACC and performed a molecular biological analysis of the BM fungi. We successfully selected 8 patients with chronic cough, wherein a sputum culture yielded B. adusta beforehand; moreover, we conducted allergological tests such as the immediate-type skin test, a serological test, bronchoprovocation test, and lymphocyte stimulation test (LST), using the antigenic solution of B. adusta. The efficacy of individualized therapy and the clinical manifestations in the eight patients were examined. All the eight patients were diagnosed with FACC. Although three patients who did not show a positive reaction to the bronchoprovocation test or LST showed excellent clinical response to anti-fungal drugs; other 5 patients who showed a positive reaction to the bronchoprovocation test and/or LST seemed to be more intractable because of taking a longer time for complete remission and more frequent recurrence of cough. It was suggested that so-called allergic fungal cough (AFC), which is characterized by sensitization to B. adusta, may be included in a part of chronic intractable cough.

  20. The effect of titrated fentanyl on suppressed cough reflex in healthy adult volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, H E; Shaw, G M; Brett, C N; Greenwood, F M; Huckabee, M L

    2016-05-01

    Cough suppression is part of the pharmacodynamic profile of opioids. We investigated the impact of clinical doses of fentanyl on suppressing the cough reflex. Thirteen volunteers received 2 μg.kg(-1) of fentanyl in a divided administration protocol. Three minutes after each administration and at 10 min intervals during washout, suppressed cough reflex testing with nebulised citric acid was performed and compared with fentanyl effect-site concentration. Mean (SD) citric acid concentration provoking cough increased from 0.5 (0.28) mol.l(-1) at baseline to 1.2 (0.50) mol.l(-1) after 2 μg.kg(-1) of fentanyl (p = 0.01). Mean (SD) fentanyl effect-site concentration after the final dose of fentanyl was 1.89 (0.05) ng.ml(-1) . A strong positive correlation was found between suppressed cough reflex thresholds and fentanyl effect-site concentrations during both fentanyl administration and washout phases of the study (r(2) = 0.79, p = 0.01). The mean (SD) length of time for return of suppressed cough response was 44.6 (18.8) min. Clinically relevant doses of fentanyl produced cough reflex suppression in healthy volunteers. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. Does diurnal variation in cough reflex testing exist in healthy young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sarah; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether diurnal variation in cough reflex sensitivity exists in healthy young adults when a tidal-breathing method is used. Fifty-three participants (19-37 years) underwent cough reflex testing on two occasions: once in the morning (between 9 am - midday) and once in the afternoon (between 2-5 pm). The order of testing was counter-balanced. Within each assessment, participants inhaled successively higher citric acid concentrations via a facemask, with saline solution randomly interspersed to control for a placebo response. The lowest concentration that elicited a reflexive cough response was recorded. Morning cough thresholds (mean=0.6mol/L) were not different from afternoon cough thresholds (mean=0.6mol/L), p=0.16, T=101, r=-0.14. We found no evidence of diurnal variability in cough reflex testing. There was, however, an order effect irrespective of time of day, confirming that healthy participants are able to volitionally modulate their cough response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Coordination of cough and swallow: a meta-behavioral response to aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Teresa; Rose, Melanie J; Mortensen, Ashley N; Poliacek, Ivan; Sapienza, Christine M; Lindsey, Bruce G; Morris, Kendall F; Davenport, Paul W; Bolser, Donald C

    2013-12-01

    Airway protections is the prevention and/or removal of material by behaviors such as cough and swallow. We hypothesized these behaviors are coordinated to respond to aspiration. Anesthetized animals were challenged with simulated aspiration that induced both coughing and swallowing. Electromyograms of upper airway and respiratory muscles together with esophageal pressure were recorded to identify and evaluate cough and swallow. During simulated aspiration, both cough and swallow intensity increased and swallow duration decreased consistent with rapid pharyngeal clearance. Phase restriction between cough and swallow was observed; swallow was restricted to the E2 phase of cough. These results support three main conclusions: 1) the cough and swallow pattern generators are tightly coordinated so as to generate a protective meta-behavior; 2) the trachea provides feedback on swallow quality, informing the brainstem about aspiration incidences; and 3) the larynx and upper esophageal sphincter act as two separate valves controlling the direction of positive and negative pressures from the upper airway into the thorax. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Finding weak points automatically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archinger, P.; Wassenberg, M.

    1999-01-01

    Operators of nuclear power stations have to carry out material tests at selected components by regular intervalls. Therefore a full automaticated test, which achieves a clearly higher reproducibility, compared to part automaticated variations, would provide a solution. In addition the full automaticated test reduces the dose of radiation for the test person. (orig.) [de

  4. Desensitization of the cough reflex by exercise and voluntary isocapnic hyperpnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavorini, Federico; Fontana, Giovanni A; Chellini, Elisa; Magni, Chiara; Duranti, Roberto; Widdicombe, John

    2010-05-01

    Little is known about the effects of exercise on the sensory and cognitive aspects of coughing evoked by inhalation of tussigenic agents. The threshold for the cough reflex induced by inhalation of increasing nebulizer outputs of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water (fog), an index of cough reflex sensitivity, was assessed in twelve healthy humans in control conditions, during exercise and during voluntary isocapnic hyperpnea (VIH) at the same ventilatory level as the exercise. The intensity of the urge to cough (UTC), a cognitive component of coughing, was recorded throughout the trials on a linear scale. The relationships between inhaled fog nebulizer outputs and the correspondingly evoked UTC values, an index of the perceptual magnitude of the UTC sensitivity, were also calculated. Cough appearance was always assessed audiovisually. At an exercise level of 80% of anaerobic threshold, the median cough threshold was increased from a control value of 0.73 to 2.22 ml/min (PVIH, the threshold increased from 0.73 to 2.22 ml/min (PVIH compared with control, mean UTC values at cough threshold were unchanged, i.e., control, 3.83 cm; exercise, 3.12 cm; VIH, 4.08 cm. The relationship of the fog nebulizer output/UTC value was linear in control conditions and logarithmic during both exercise and VIH. The perception of the magnitude of the UTC seems to be influenced by signals or sensations arising from exercising limb and thoracic muscles and/or by higher nervous (cortical) mechanisms. The results indicate that the adjustments brought into action by exercise-induced or voluntary hyperpnea exert inhibitory influences on the sensory and cognitive components of fog-induced cough.

  5. Establishment and clinical applications of a portable system for capturing influenza viruses released through coughing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatagishi, Etsuko; Okamoto, Michiko; Ohmiya, Suguru; Yano, Hisakazu; Hori, Toru; Saito, Wakana; Miki, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Yasushi; Saito, Reiko; Yamamoto, Taro; Shoji, Makoto; Morisaki, Yoshihisa; Sakata, Soichiro; Nishimura, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Coughing plays an important role in influenza transmission; however, there is insufficient information regarding the viral load in cough because of the lack of convenient and reliable collection methods. We developed a portable airborne particle-collection system to measure the viral load; it is equipped with an air sampler to draw air and pass it through a gelatin membrane filter connected to a cone-shaped, megaphone-like device to guide the cough airflow to the membrane. The membrane was dissolved in a medium, and the viral load was measured using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and a plaque assay. The approximate viral recovery rate of this system was 10% in simulation experiments to collect and quantify the viral particles aerosolized by a nebulizer. Using this system, cough samples were collected from 56 influenza A patients. The total viral detection rate was 41% (23/56), and the viral loads varied significantly (from <10, less than the detection limit, to 2240 viral gene copies/cough). Viable viruses were detected from 3 samples with ≤18 plaque forming units per cough sample. The virus detection rates were similar among different groups of patients infected with different viral subtypes and during different influenza seasons. Among patients who did not receive antiviral treatment, viruses were detected in one of six cases in the vaccinated group and four of six cases in the unvaccinated group. We found cases with high viral titers in throat swabs or oral secretions but very low or undetectable in coughs and vice versa suggesting other possible anatomical sites where the viruses might be mixed into the cough. Our system is easy to operate, appropriate for bedside use, and is useful for comparing the viral load in cough samples from influenza patients under various conditions and settings. However, further large-scale studies are warranted to validate our results.

  6. The oesophagus and cough: laryngo-pharyngeal reflux, microaspiration and vagal reflexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is generally considered to be one of the commonest causes of chronic cough, however randomised controlled trials of proton pump inhibitors have often failed to support this notion. This article reviews the most recent studies investigating the mechanisms thought to link reflux and cough, namely laryngo-pharyngeal reflux, micro-aspiration and neuronal cross-organ sensitisation. How recent evidence might shed light on the failure of acid suppressing therapies and suggest new approaches to treating reflux related cough are also discussed. PMID:23590893

  7. Comparison of Two Methods for Inducing Reflex Cough in Patients With Parkinson's Disease, With and Without Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegland, Karen W; Troche, Michelle S; Brandimore, Alexandra; Okun, Michael S; Davenport, Paul W

    2016-02-01

    Aspiration pneumonia is a common cause of death in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Dysfunctional swallowing occurs in the majority of people with PD, and research has shown that cough function is also impaired. Previous studies suggest that testing reflex cough by having participants inhale a cough-inducing stimulus through a nebulizer may be a reliable indicator of swallowing dysfunction, or dysphagia. The primary goal of this study was to determine the cough response to two different cough-inducing stimuli in people with and without PD. The second goal of this study was to compare the cough response to the two different stimuli in people with PD, with and without swallowing dysfunction. Seventy adults (49 healthy and 21 with PD) participated in the study. Aerosolized water (fog) and 200 μM capsaicin were used to induce cough. Each substance was placed in a small, hand-held nebulizer, and presented to the participant. Each cough stimulus was presented three times. The total number of coughs produced to each stimulus trial was recorded. All participants coughed more to capsaicin versus fog (p dysphagia. The data show a differential response of the PD participants to the capsaicin versus fog stimuli. Clinically, this finding may allow for earlier identification of people with PD who are in need of a swallowing evaluation. As well, there are implications for the neural control of cough in this patient population.

  8. A causal relationship between cough and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been established: a pro/con debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrilas, Peter J; Smith, Jaclyn A; Dicpinigaitis, Peter V

    2014-02-01

    Along with upper airway cough syndrome (formerly, postnasal drip syndrome) and eosinophilic airway inflammation (asthma, nonasthmatic eosinophilic bronchitis), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is generally considered among the most common etiologies of chronic cough. Indeed, cough management guidelines published by numerous respiratory societies worldwide recommend evaluation and treatment of GERD as an integral component of the diagnostic/therapeutic algorithm for the management of chronic cough. However, a significant number of patients with chronic cough presumed due to GERD do not report improvement despite aggressive acid-suppressive therapy. Some of these refractory cases may be due to the recently appreciated entity of nonacid or weakly acidic reflux. Further contributing to the controversy are recent studies that demonstrate that patients with chronic cough do not have excessive reflux events relative to healthy volunteers. Although a temporal relationship between cough and reflux events has been suggested by studies utilizing impedance-pH monitoring of reflux events and objective cough recording, consensus is lacking in terms of whether this temporal relationship proves a causal link between reflux and cough. The fourth American Cough Conference (New York, June 2013) provided an ideal forum for the debate of this issue between two internationally recognized experts in the field of reflux and chronic cough.

  9. Pertussis vaccination and whooping cough: and now what?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiso, Nicole

    2014-10-01

    Pertussis or whooping cough is a respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussis or Bordetella parapertussis that are only known to infect humans. This severe and acute respiratory disease presents epidemic cycles and became a vaccine-preventable disease in the 1940s/1950s when developed countries introduced vaccination. The first type of vaccine developed against this disease was a whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccine containing inactivated B. pertussis bacteria. Most developed countries produced their own vaccine and given the pediatric nature of the disease at the time of licensure, infants and toddlers were the primary targets and were thus massively vaccinated. The characterization of few virulence factors produced by B. pertussis enabled the development of second-generation pertussis vaccines called the acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines. These only contain 1-5 purified, detoxified B. pertussis proteins and were first introduced in Japan around 30 years ago. Australia, Europe and North America introduced aP vaccines approximately 15 years later, which replaced wP vaccines since then.

  10. Cough associated with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD): Japanese experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Akio

    2017-12-01

    Differences in the aetiology as well as patient background of chronic cough have been recognised among US, UK, and Japan. One of the marked differences has been the prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), which has been one of the top three causes in Western countries. It was indeed uncommon or rare in Japan, but, with the increasing prevalence of GOR itself, chronic cough associated with GORD seems to have become more common. In this article, cough associated with GORD will be reviewed based on literature and our Japanese experience. Further, potentially broader relevance of GORD in chronic cough will also be mentioned, highlighting the potential importance of dysmotiliy/non-acid reflux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The capsaicin cough reflex in patients with symptoms elicited by odorous chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, H; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Mosbech, H

    2010-01-01

    Patients with multiple chemical sensitivity and eczema patients with airway symptoms elicited by odorous chemicals have enhanced cough reflex to capsaicin when applying the tidal breathing method. The aims of the present study were to test whether the capsaicin induced cough reflex was enhanced...... when applying the single breath inhalation method in similar groups of patients with symptoms related to odorous chemicals e.g. other persons wearing of perfume; and to investigate to what extent the reporting of lower airway symptoms influenced the cough reflex. Sixteen patients fulfilling Cullen......'s criteria for multiple chemical sensitivity and 15 eczema patients with airway symptoms elicited by odorous chemicals were compared with 29 age-matched, healthy controls. We measured C5--the capsaicin concentration causing five coughs or more--using the single breath inhalation test. No difference was found...

  12. Dos and Don'ts of Giving OTC Cough and Cold Medicines to Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... workers, extended family members, or babysitters) knows what medicines your child is taking and when he or she should ... ts Don’t give OTC cough and cold medicines to a child younger than 4 years of age unless your ...

  13. Diagnostic utility of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in prolonged and chronic cough according to atopic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamitsu Asano

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: Although high FeNO levels suggested the existence of AC, lower FeNO levels had limited diagnostic significance. Atopic status affects the utility of FeNO levels in the differential diagnosis of prolonged and chronic cough.

  14. Developing control algorithms of a voluntary cough for an artificial bioengineered larynx using surface electromyography of chest muscles: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banus, M S; Birchall, M A; Graveston, J A

    2018-04-01

    This prospective cohort study investigates the prediction of a voluntary cough using surface electromyography (EMG) of intercostal and diaphragm muscles, to develop control algorithms for an EMG-controlled artificial larynx. The Ear Institute, London. Electromyography onset compared to voluntary cough exhalation onset and to 100 ms (to give the artificial larynx the time to close the bioengineered vocal cords) before voluntary cough exhalation onset, in twelve healthy participants. In the 189 EMG of intercostal muscle-detected voluntary coughs, 172 coughs (91% CI 70-112) were detected before onset of cough exhalation and 128 coughs (67.6% CI 33.7-101.7) 100 ms before onset of cough exhalation. In the 158 EMG of diaphragm muscle-detected voluntary coughs, 149 coughs (94.3% CI 76.3-112.3) were detected before onset of cough exhalation and 102 coughs (64.6% CI 26.6-102.6) 100 ms before onset of cough exhalation. More coughs were detected before onset of cough exhalation when combining EMG activity of intercostal and diaphragm muscles and comparing this to intercostal muscle activity alone (183 coughs [96.8% CI 83.8-109.8] vs 172 coughs, P = .0294). When comparing the mentioned combination to diaphragm muscle activity alone, the higher percentage of detected coughs before cough exhalation onset was not found to be significant (183 coughs vs 149 coughs, P = .295). In addition, more coughs were detected 100 ms before onset of cough exhalation with the mentioned combination of EMG activity and comparing this to intercostal muscles alone (149 coughs [78.8% CI 48.8-108.8] vs 128 coughs, P = .0198) and to diaphragm muscles alone (149 coughs vs 102 coughs, P = .0038). Most voluntary coughs can be predicted based on combined EMG signals of intercostal and diaphragm muscles, and therefore, these two muscle groups will be useful in controlling the bioengineered vocal cords within the artificial larynx during a voluntary cough. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Regulating cough through modulation of sensory nerve function in the airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, D; Page, C P

    2013-10-01

    Whilst local anaesthetics when applied directly to laryngeal nerves or topically to the lung can suppress cough, their chronic use is constrained because of dose limiting side effects. However, the effectiveness of local anaesthetics suggests that selectivity targeting nerves in the airway may provide novel approaches for the treatment of cough in the future. There is a considerable wealth of evidence showing that there are different afferent nerve subtypes in the airways. Traditionally C-fibres have been the focus of much research in the cough field since the stimulation of these afferents by capsaicin is able to elicit cough in guinea-pigs and in man, and drugs targeting various proteins expressed in these nerves (e.g. mu-opioid, NOP1, TRPV1, sodium channels) have been shown to be anti-tussive in preclinical models of cough. However, interest in Aδ fibres has increased recently in light of the discovery of a specific cough receptor in the guinea-pig that is provoked by citric acid and punctate stimulation, but not capsaicin and which has been anatomically linked to Aδ fibres. There is also some evidence that as a result of inflammation in the airways, Aδ fibres can begin to express neuropeptides and TRPV1 receptors so that they can become responsive to endogenous activators of this ion channel and to irritants like capsaicin. Consequently, there is considerable interest in targeting either one or both afferent nerve types for the treatment of chronic cough. However, to date the translation of preclinical studies into man has largely been disappointing and certainly there is a need for better preclinical models in this field. There also remain many challenges to overcome at a clinical level, such as what patient group(s) should be used to assess anti-tussive drugs and whether the use of irritants that induce cough in healthy volunteers (such as citric acid or capsaicin) is of any value in the assessment of novel anti-tussive drugs. The development of several

  16. Frequency of cough during therapy with ACE inhibitors in Greek hypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstratopoulos, A D; Meikopoulos, M; Voyaki, S

    1993-12-01

    Persistent dry cough is one of the most common side-effects during therapy with ACE inhibitors. The frequency of cough ranges widely (from 0.2% to 15%) in different series, being higher in small studies and smaller in retrospective studies with large number of patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the true frequency of cough induced by treatment with ACE inhibitors in Greek hypertensives and to determine various possibly correlated parameters, including sex, duration of therapy and kind and dose of ACE inhibitors. All hypertensive patients followed in our Hypertension Clinic and treated with ACE inhibitors participated in the study. A total of 228 patients, 103 males and 125 females, 24-80 years of age, were treated with ACE inhibitors for a period of 1-41 months: 121 with enalapril, 40 with captopril, 39 with lisinopril, 25 with perindopril and 3 with ramipril. During treatment with ACE inhibitors persistent dry cough occurred in 15 patients, 12 women and 3 men, giving a frequency of 6.58%. Eleven patients (4.82%) volunteered the information and three after questioning. The mean age of these 15 patients with cough was significantly higher from that of the group (n = 213) without cough (64.27 +/- 2.5 vs. 57.9 +/- 0.74 years, mean +/- SEM, P = 0.024). The 12 women with cough were significantly older than the 113 without cough (67.77 +/- 2.8 vs. 57.8 +/- 1.04 years, P = 0.032).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Barium swallow study in routine clinical practice: a prospective study in patients with chronic cough

    OpenAIRE

    Nin, Carlos Shuler; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Paludo, Artur de Oliveira; Alves, Giordano Rafael Tronco; Hochhegger, Daniela Reis; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the routine use of barium swallow study in patients with chronic cough.METHODS: Between October of 2011 and March of 2012, 95 consecutive patients submitted to chest X-ray due to chronic cough (duration > 8 weeks) were included in the study. For study purposes, additional images were obtained immediately after the oral administration of 5 mL of a 5% barium sulfate suspension. Two radiologists systematically evaluated all of the images in order to identify any pathological...

  18. Patient education about cough: effect on the consulting behaviour of general practice patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, G; Van Eijk, J; Beek, M; Van der Velden, H

    1991-07-01

    The aim of this general practice study was to examine how the consulting behaviour of patients with a cough was affected when the tasks and responsibilities of patients, practice nurses and general practitioners were reorganized. In four 'average' single-handed general practices the effects on the consulting behaviour of patients of a rational practice policy on cough and the provision of systematic patient education on cough were compared with patient behaviour in four matched control practices. Changes of behaviour were measured in 548 patients who consulted for cough at least twice, in two successive autumn-winter periods. Significantly more patients in the experimental practice changed their behaviour to follow the practice guidelines than did patients in the control practices (56% versus 30%, P less than 0.001). The proportion of patients who continued to consult in the approved manner was greater among patients receiving intervention (66% versus 29%, P less than 0.001). This was equally true for patients who had suffered less than four episodes of cough or more than four episodes. The more often the patients received the education, the more effective it was. All patients who consulted the general practitioner for cough during the first autumn-winter period filled in a cough diary during the second period. From this it appeared that the intervention did not result in patients delaying consultation when they had a cough lasting longer than three weeks or one with 'serious' symptoms. It would appear that a rational practice policy and the provision of patient education can stimulate patients to modify their consulting behaviour. This could result in a reduction in the costs of health care.

  19. Pertussis prevalence and its determinants among children with persistent cough in urban Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Kayina

    Full Text Available We determined prevalence of pertussis infection and its associated host and environmental factors to generate information that would guide strategies for disease control.In a cross-sectional study, 449 children aged 3 months to 12 years with persistent cough lasting ≥14 days were enrolled and evaluated for pertussis using DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR and ELISA serology tests.Pertussis prevalence was 67 (15% (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 12-18 and 81 (20% (95% CI: 16-24 by PCR and ELISA, respectively among 449 participating children. The prevalence was highest in children with >59 months of age despite high vaccination coverage of 94% in this age group. Study demographic and clinical characteristics were similar between pertussis and non-pertussis cases. Of the 449 children, 133 (30% had a coughing household member and 316 (70% did not. Among 133 children that had a coughing household member, sex of child, sharing bed with a coughing household member and having a coughing individual in the neighborhood were factors associated with pertussis. Children that had shared a bed with a coughing household individual had seven-fold likelihood of having pertussis compared to children that did not (odds ratio (OR 7.16 (95% CI: 1.24-41.44. Among the 316 children that did not have a coughing household member, age 40 years of age were the factors associated with pertussis. Age 59 months of age, suggesting the possibility of waning immunity. The factors associated with pertussis varied by presence or absence of a coughing household member.

  20. Clinical features of Japanese patients with chronic cough induced by gastroesophageal reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Fujimori

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux (GER has been reported as a cause of chronic cough (CC in the United States. It has been reported that 5–21% of CC cases are induced by GER. In Japan, however, detailed clinical features of CC induced by GER have not been described. The present study reports on six Japanese patients with GER-induced CC. The subjects were all females, with a mean age of 72 years. The average body mass index was 37 kg/m2, indicating obesity. No abnormalities were found with regard to concentrations of C-reactive protein, peripheral eosinophil counts, serum IgE concentrations, serum titers of cold agglutinins or antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae, chest radiograph findings, respiratory function tests or blood gas analyses. Bronchial biopsy was performed in three patients and showed chronic inflammation characterized by lymphocytic infiltration, squamous metaplasia and mucosal basement membrane thickening. In the study population (Japanese patients, GER-induced CC tended to occur in elderly obese women and may be attributable to airway inflammation.

  1. Classification of voluntary coughs applied to the screening of respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Christian; Chamberlain, Daniel B; Kodgule, Rahul; Fletcher, Richard Ribon

    2017-07-01

    Pulmonary and respiratory diseases (e.g. asthma, COPD, allergies, pneumonia, tuberculosis, etc.) represent a large proportion of the global disease burden, mortality, and disability. In this context of creating automated diagnostic tools, we explore how the analysis of voluntary cough sounds may be used to screen for pulmonary disease. As a clinical study, voluntary coughs were recorded using a custom mobile phone stethoscope from 54 patients, of which 7 had COPD, 15 had asthma, 11 had allergic rhinitis, 17 had both asthma and allergic rhinitis, and four had both COPD and allergic rhinitis. Data were also collected from 33 healthy subjects. These patients also received full auscultation at 11 sites, given a clinical questionnaire, and underwent full pulmonary function testing (spirometer, body plethysmograph, DLCO) which culminated in a diagnosis provided by an experienced pulmonologist. From machine learning analysis of these data, we show that it is possible to achieve good classification of cough sounds in terms of Wet vs Dry, yielding an ROC curve with AUC of 0.94, and show that voluntary coughs can serve as an effective test for determining Healthy vs Unhealthy (sensitivity=35.7% specificity=100%). We also show that the use of cough sounds can enhance the performance of other diagnostic tools such as a patient questionnaire and peak flow meter; however voluntary coughs alone provide relatively little value in determining specific disease diagnosis.

  2. The effect of vocal fold augmentation on cough symptoms in the presence of glottic insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litts, Juliana K; Fink, Daniel S; Clary, Matthew S

    2017-10-08

    To determine the effect of injection augmentation of the vocal folds on chronic cough symptoms in patients with glottic insufficiency. Medical records from 146 consecutive patients who underwent vocal fold injection augmentation by a fellowship-trained laryngologist between 2013 and 2015 were reviewed. Twenty-three patients (12 male) met inclusion criteria of a vocal fold augmentation injection, cough symptoms lasting more than 8 weeks, and glottic insufficiency as determined by shortened closed phase on stroboscopy. Exclusion criteria included lack of cough complaints, diagnosis of vocal fold immobility, previous history of vocal fold augmentation, and incomplete data sets. Data collected included age, gender, pre- and 1-month postinjection Cough Severity Index (CSI) scores, location of injection (unilateral or bilateral), and patient statement of percent change in symptoms that was recorded at 1-month postinjection visit. Paired t test indicated a significant decrease in CSI scores from pre- (m = 18.5) to 1-month postinjection (m = 12.1) (P = 0.004). Eighteen patients (78.2%) reported a 50% or greater improvement in cough symptoms at the 1-month postinjection visit. Injection augmentation of the vocal folds in the presence of glottic insufficiency appears to improve cough symptoms, as was reported by CSI in patients who are refractory to other medical and behavioral treatments. 4. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Comparison of cough reflex testing with videoendoscopy in recently extubated intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallesen, Molly; Psirides, Alex; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2016-06-01

    Orotracheal intubation is known to impair cough reflex, but the validity of cough reflex testing (CRT) as a screening tool for silent aspiration in this population is unknown. One hundred and six participants in a tertiary-level intensive care unit (ICU) underwent CRT and videoendoscopic evaluation of swallowing (VES) within 24 hours of extubation. Cough reflex threshold was established for each participant using nebulized citric acid. Thirty-nine (37%) participants had an absent cough to CRT. Thirteen (12%) participants aspirated on VES, 9 (69%) without a cough response. Sensitivity of CRT to identify silent aspiration was excellent, but specificity was poor. There was a significant correlation between intubation duration and presence of aspiration on VES (P= .0107). There was no significant correlation between silent aspiration on VES and length of intubation, age, sex, diagnosis at intensive care unit admission, indication for intubation, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III score, morphine equivalent dose, or time of testing postextubation. Intensive care unit patients are at increased risk of aspiration in the 24 hours following extubation, and an impaired cough reflex is common. However, CRT overidentifies risk of silent aspiration in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Features of Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella spp. infection and whopping cough in Córdoba province, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giayetto, Víctor O; Blanco, Sebastián; Mangeaud, Arnaldo; Barbás, María G; Cudolá, Analía; Gallego, Sandra V

    2017-04-01

    Whooping cough is a re-emerging infection in the world and Latin America. It was considered relevant to investigate the clinical and epidemiological profile of Bordetella spp. and Bordetella pertussis infection in Córdoba province, Argentina; evaluating, at the same time, the co-infection with virus producing respiratory infections that may be confused with whooping cough. All whooping cough suspected cases were studied by Polimerase Chain Reaction, amplifying the repeated insertion sequence (IS) 481 and the promoter gene encoding pertussis toxin, between 2011 and 2013. The data were obtained from the clinical and epidemiological records. From 2,588 whooping cough suspected cases, 11.59% was infected by Bordetella spp. and 9.16% was confirmed as Bordetella pertussis infection. The rate of infection was 7.22 and 1.84 per 100,000 for 2011 and 2012, respectively. The infection presented a seasonal tendency and it was mainly found on the group of children between 13 and 24 months old. The co-infection with virus producing respiratory infections, were uncommon. Paroxysmal cough, cyanosis and/or vomiting were predictors of the infection for Bordetella pertussis. To deal with the re-emergence of whooping cough is important the knowledge of the regional epidemiological situation. This paper shows the situation of these infections in the regional clinical and epidemiological context, and makes the information available for health decision-making.

  5. Pheniramine Maleate is more effective than Lidocaine on Fentanyl Induced Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Ozgur; Kara, Duygu; Karaman, Emine Uzlas; Karakoc, Fatma; Karakaya, Muhammet Ahmet; Arslan, Zakir

    2016-01-01

    Fentanyl is frequently used during anesthesia induction. The use of fentanyl can cause cough through different mechanisms. Here, we aimed to investigate effects of pheniramine maleate (PM), an antihistaminic agent, and compare it with lidocaine on fentanyl induced cough. This is a randomized double-blind prospective clinical study of ASA I-II, 120 patients scheduled for elective abdominal surgery. Patients were administered drugs intravenously and randomly allocated into three groups: Group C (2 ml 0.9 % normal saline), Group L (1mg/kg lidocaine), and Group F (PM 45.5 mg). 90 seconds after administration, 2µ/kg fentanyl was applied in three seconds to all patients. Severity of cough (mild: 1-2, moderate: 3-5, severe> 5), time of the cough and vital parameters were recorded 90 seconds after fentanyl injection. Eight patients (25%) in Group C had fentanyl induced cough whereas three patients (7.5%) in Group L and one patient (2.5%) in Group F experienced this phenomenon. There was statistically significant difference between Group F and Group C (p0.05). Pheniramine Maleate 45.5 mg is better that placebo and as effective as lidocaine to prevent fentanyl induced cough.

  6. Automatic Photoelectric Telescope Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genet, R.M.; Boyd, L.J.; Kissell, K.E.; Crawford, D.L.; Hall, D.S.; BDM Corp., McLean, VA; Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ; Dyer Observatory, Nashville, TN)

    1987-01-01

    Automatic observatories have the potential of gathering sizable amounts of high-quality astronomical data at low cost. The Automatic Photoelectric Telescope Service (APT Service) has realized this potential and is routinely making photometric observations of a large number of variable stars. However, without observers to provide on-site monitoring, it was necessary to incorporate special quality checks into the operation of the APT Service at its multiple automatic telescope installation on Mount Hopkins. 18 references

  7. Automatic Fiscal Stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis Eduard Mitu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Policies or institutions (built into an economic system that automatically tend to dampen economic cycle fluctuations in income, employment, etc., without direct government intervention. For example, in boom times, progressive income tax automatically reduces money supply as incomes and spendings rise. Similarly, in recessionary times, payment of unemployment benefits injects more money in the system and stimulates demand. Also called automatic stabilizers or built-in stabilizers.

  8. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, G.F. [comp.

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  9. Automatic computation of radioimmunoassay data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyota, Takayoshi; Kudo, Mikihiko; Abe, Kanji; Kawamata, Fumiaki; Uehata, Shigeru.

    1975-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay provided dose response curves which showed linearity by the use of logistic transformation (Rodbard). This transformation which was applicable to radioimmunoassay should be useful for the computer processing of insulin and C-peptide assay. In the present studies, standard curves were analysed by testing the fit of analytic functions to radioimmunoassay of insulin and C-peptides. A program for use in combination with the double antibody technique was made by Dr. Kawamata. This approach was evidenced to be useful in order to allow automatic computation of data derived from the double antibody assays of insulin and C-peptides. Automatic corrected calculations of radioimmunoassay data of insulin was found to be satisfactory. (auth.)

  10. [PCR testing for Bordetella pertussis in household contacts as a diagnostic tool for atypical whooping cough in unvaccinated young infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosnes-Lambe, Cecile; Raymond, Josette; Vallet, Christelle; Armengaud, Jean-Baptiste; Bosdure, Emmanuelle; Catalano-Pons, Charlotte; Chalumeau, Martin; El Hajje, Marie-Joelle; Moulin, Florence; de Suremain, Nathalie; Reglier-Poupet, Hélène; Poyart, Claire; Gendrel, Dominique

    2008-10-01

    False-negative findings of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for genuine pertussis as well as the numerous atypical forms of whooping cough make it difficult to diagnose this disease in young babies. For two years, real-time PCR was performed to test for Bordetella pertussis in 86 infants younger than 6 months hospitalized for apnea or paroxysmal and/or vomiting cough and in 205 of their household contacts, whether or not they coughed. Group 1 included 30 infants for whom PCR detected B. pertussis (25 of whom were also RSV+). PCR was also positive for at least one household contact in 25/30 families. This group included 16 babies with apnea and 12 who developed a whooping cough during follow-up. Group 2 comprised 12 infants whose PCR was negative while at least one household contact had positive results. Five of these infants had severe apnea and 6 developed a whooping cough. Group 3 included 44 infants (28 RSV +) for whom PCR was negative in the index case and in the household contacts: none developed a whooping cough during follow-up. Only 3 of the 54 positive household contacts had a paroxysmal cough or a typical whooping cough and 12 had no cough at all. Positive PCR in a household contact, symptomatic or not, is helpful for the diagnosis of atypical whooping cough in young infants.

  11. Evaluation of Occupational and Environmental Factors in the Assessment of Chronic Cough in Adults: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlo, Susan M; Altman, Kenneth W; French, Cynthia T; Diekemper, Rebecca L; Irwin, Richard S

    2016-01-01

    Several recent cough guidelines have advised consideration of occupational or environmental causes for chronic cough, but it is unclear how frequently this recommendation has been routinely applied. Therefore, we undertook a systematic review to address this aspect. Cough guidelines and protocols were reviewed to identify recommendations for assessment of occupational and environmental aspects of chronic cough. The systematic search previously used to identify intervention fidelity to the use of protocols for diagnosis and management of chronic cough in adults was used for this review after extension to June 2015. PubMed, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library were searched using the same search terms and inclusion criteria as previously. Papers that met our criteria were then reviewed to identify methods used to assess occupational and environmental aspects of chronic cough and the outcomes of these assessments. Among the 10 general chronic cough guidelines and protocols identified, only the three published since 2006 included details advising detailed occupational and environmental assessments. One additional cough statement focused entirely on occupational cough. Of the 28 cohort studies of patients with chronic cough that specifically noted that they followed guidelines or protocols, none provided details of occupational and environmental assessments. Despite published recommendations, it is not apparent that occupational and environmental causes for chronic cough are addressed in detail during assessments of patients with chronic cough. This leaves open to speculation whether lack of recognition of an occupational cause may delay important preventive measures, put additional workers at risk, and/or be the reason why a chronic cough may remain unexplained. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Exposure of health care workers and occupants to coughed air in a hospital room with displacement air distribution: impact of ventilation rate and distance from coughing patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Kostadinov, Kamen

    above background concentration (ppm), for the three measured distances was at 6 h-1. PCL decreased with distance. The exposure of the second patient was low when the doctor was at 0.55 or 1.1 m downstream the cough (blocking effect), but was quite high when at 2.8 m. 6 h-1, recommended in present...

  13. A stepwise protocol for the treatment of refractory gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghuai; Lv, Hanjing; Yu, Li; Chen, Qiang; Liang, Siwei

    2016-01-01

    Background Refractory gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough (GERC) is difficult to manage. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of a novel stepwise protocol for treating this condition. Methods A total of 103 consecutive patients with suspected refractory reflux-induced chronic cough failing to a standard anti-reflux therapy were treated with a stepwise therapy. Treatment commences with high-dose omeprazole and, if necessary, is escalated to subsequent sequential treatment with ranitidine and finally baclofen. The primary end-point was overall cough resolution, and the secondary end-point was cough resolution after each treatment step. Results High-dose omeprazole eliminated or improved cough in 28.1% of patients (n=29). Further stepwise of treatment with the addition of ranitide yielded a favorable response in an additional 12.6% (n=13) of patients, and subsequent escalation to baclofen provoked response in another 36.9% (n=38) of patients. Overall, this stepwise protocol was successful in 77.6% (n=80) of patients. The diurnal cough symptom score fell from 3 [1] to 1 [0] (Z=6.316, P=0.000), and the nocturnal cough symptom score decreased from 1 [1] to 0 [1] (Z=–4.511, P=0.000), with a corresponding reduction in the Gastroesophageal Reflux Diagnostic Questionnaire score from 8.6±1.7 to 6.8±0.7 (t=3.612, P=0.000). Conversely, the cough threshold C2 to capsaicin was increased from 0.49 (0.49) µmol/L to 1.95 (2.92) µmol/L (Z=–5.892, P=0.000), and the cough threshold C5 was increased from 1.95 (2.92) µmol/L to 7.8 (5.85) µmol/L (Z=–5.171, P=0.000). Conclusions Sequential stepwise anti-reflux therapy is a useful therapeutic strategy for refractory reflux-induced chronic cough. PMID:26904227

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Association between Heavy Metals and Itchy Eyes, Coughing in Chronic Cough Patients: Related with Non-Immunoglobulin E Mediated Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao Thi Thu Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between heavy metals exposure and respiratory diseases or allergic sensitization showing high serum immunoglobulin E (IgE has been suggested. However, previous findings have been inconsistent and the mechanisms responsible remain unclear. We evaluated heavy metal exposure and its association with coughing, itchy eyes in chronic cough patients with different IgE levels. Ninety outpatients in Kanazawa University Hospital were recruited between January–June 2011. Subjects whose total IgE measured by radioimmunosorbent test were asked to record their daily symptoms. We collected daily total suspended particles (TSP from which concentrations of calcium (Ca, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, nickel (Ni, and lead (Pb were determined then divided into high and low level groups. Generalized estimating equations were applied to compute the relationship between concentrations of these metals and symptoms. All metals at high levels were significantly associated with itchy eyes compared with low levels, with exception of Ca, the six others were significant in patients with IgE < 250 IU/mL. Cd, Fe, Mn had association with coughing (odds ratio-OR (95% confidence interval-CI: 1.13 (1.03, 1.24, 1.22 (1.05, 1.42, and 1.13 (1.01, 1.27, respectively, this relationship remained significant for Cd (OR (95% CI: 1.14 (1.03, 1.27 and Mn (OR (95% CI: 1.15 (1.00, 1.31 in patients with lower IgE. Our findings demonstrate the relationship between aerial heavy metals and itchy eyes, coughing in chronic cough patients, suggesting these symptoms may be due to a non-IgE mediated mechanism.

  15. Comparison of voice quality in patients with GERD-related dysphonia or chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeracka-Kołodziej, Anna; Grabczak, Elżbieta M; Dąbrowska, Marta; Arcimowicz, Magdalena; Lachowska, Magdalena; Osuch-Wójcikiewicz, Ewa; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare a voice quality in patients with GERD-related dysphonia or chronic cough and to determine whether there is a relationship between the main symptom reported and voice quality. 249 consecutive patients diagnosed with GERD-related chronic cough or dysphonia were involved in this retrospective study and were divided into two main groups of men and women, and furthermore into groups of chronic cough and dysphonia. Laryngeal lesions were evaluated with videolaryngostroboscopy using Reflux Finding Score. Voice quality was assessed using GRBAS scale, sonograms, and multidimensional voice program (MDVP). All subjects were found to have vocal abnormalities both in subjective and objective voice analysis. Perceptual assessment of voice (GRBAS) did not reveal any differences between analyzed groups depending on the reported symptom. In MDVP analysis, the group of women with cough as the main symptom demonstrated significantly less abnormalities in VTI value. In men with cough as their main complaint, significantly less MDVP abnormalities were found in Jita, Jitt, RAP, PPQ, and sPPQ parameters. The comparison of voice perceptual assessment in patients with GERD-related dysphonia or chronic cough revealed no differences between analyzed groups. In objective voice analysis, the latter group presented lower degree of hoarseness in Yanagihara's scale. In objective MDVP analysis, the chronic cough group presented lower degree of abnormalities only in one of the noise related parameters in females and five frequency perturbation parameters in males. Copyright © 2013 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  16. Mast cells in citric acid-induced cough of guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Y.-L.; Lin, T.-Y.

    2005-01-01

    It was demonstrated previously that mast cells play an important role in citric acid (CA)-induced airway constriction. To investigate the role of mast cells in CA-induced cough, three experiments were carried out in this study. In the first experiment, 59 guinea pigs were employed and we used compound 48/80 to deplete mast cells, cromolyn sodium to stabilize mast cells, MK-886 to inhibit leukotriene synthesis, pyrilamine to antagonize histamine H 1 receptor, methysergide to antagonize serotonin receptor, and indomethacin to inhibit cyclooxygenase. In the second experiment, 56 compound 48/80-pretreated animals were divided into two parts; the first one was used to test the role of exogenous leukotriene (LT) C 4 , while the second one to test the role of exogenous histamine in CA-induced cough. Each animal with one of the above pretreatments was exposed sequentially to saline (baseline) and CA (0.6 M) aerosol, each for 3 min. Then, cough was recorded for 12 min using a barometric body plethysmograph. In the third experiment, the activation of mast cells upon CA inhalation was investigated by determining arterial plasma histamine concentration in 17 animals. Exposure to CA induced a marked increase in cough number. Compound 48/80, cromolyn sodium, MK-886 and pyrilamine, but not indomethacin or methysergide, significantly attenuated CA-induced cough. Injection of LTC 4 or histamine caused a significant increase in CA-induced cough in compound 48/80-pretreated animals. In addition, CA inhalation caused significant increase in plasma histamine concentration, which was blocked by compound 48/80 pretreatment. These results suggest that mast cells play an important role in CA aerosol inhalation-induced cough via perhaps mediators LTs and histamine

  17. Identification of genetic factors associated with susceptibility to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors-induced cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Antonio; Sáez-Rosas, María P; Santos-Morano, Juan; Sánchez, Elena; Moreno-Rey, Concha; Real, Luis M; Ramírez-Lorca, Reposo; Sáez, María E

    2011-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) are the first selected drugs for hypertensive patients because of its protective properties against heart and kidney diseases. Persistent cough is a common adverse reaction associated with ACEi, which can bind to the treatment cessation, but its etiology remains an unresolved issue. The most accepted mechanism is that the inhibition of ACEi increases kinins levels, resulting in the activation of proinflammatory mechanisms and nitric oxide generation. However, relatively little is known about the genetic susceptibility to ACEi-induced cough in hypertensive patients. We carried out a monogenic association analysis of 39 polymorphisms and haplotypes in genes encoding key proteins related to ACEi activity with the occurrence of ACEi-induced cough. We also carried out a digenic association analysis and investigated the existence of epistatic interactions between the analyzed polymorphisms using a logistic regression procedure. Finally, we investigated the predictive value of the identified associations for ACEi-induced cough. We found that genetic polymorphisms in MME [rs2016848, P=0.002, odds ratio (OR)=1.795], BDKRB2 (rs8012552, P=0.012, OR=1.609), PTGER3 (rs11209716, P=0.002, OR=0.565), and ACE (rs4344) genes are associated with ACEi-related cough. For the latter, the effect is sex specific, having a protective effect in males (P=0.027, OR=0.560) and increasing the risk in females (P=0.031, OR=1.847). In addition, genetic interactions between peptidases involved in kinins levels (CPN1 and XPNPEP1) and proteins related to prostaglandin metabolism (PTGIS and PTGIR) strongly modify the risk of ACEi-induced cough presentation (0.102≤OR≤0.384 for protective combinations and 2.732≤OR≤7.216 for risk combinations). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the mechanism of cough is related to the accumulation of bradykinin, substance P, and prostaglandins.

  18. Pilot study for home monitoring of cough capacity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paneroni, M; Trainini, D; Winck, J C; Vitacca, M

    2014-01-01

    Cough capacity derangement is associated with a high risk of pulmonary complications in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients when cough assistance is not routinely performed at home. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a long-term home based daily self-monitoring cough capacity. Eighteen subjects were enrolled in a 9-month study at home. Changes in peak cough expiratory flow, oxygen saturation, respiratory discomfort and incidence of respiratory deterioration events were evaluated. In subjects presenting respiratory deterioration events, decline in the abovementioned respiratory variables was evaluated (#NCT00613899). During an average follow-up of 125±102 days, a total of 1175 measures were performed on 12 subjects. Mean compliance to proposed evaluations was 37±32% which worsened over time. Peak cough expiratory flow decreased by 15.08±32.43L/min monthly. Five subjects reported 6 episodes of respiratory deterioration events, after a mean period of 136±108 days. They had poor respiratory function and more years of disease. There was no difference in peak cough expiratory flow and its decline whether subjects presented respiratory deterioration events or not. In 4 subjects the respiratory discomfort score significantly worsened after respiratory deterioration events from 3.0±1.41 to 4.25±1.71. Daily self-monitoring of peak cough expiratory flow, oxygen saturation and respiratory discomfort seems difficult to obtain because of poor adherence to measures; this protocol does not seem to add anything to current practice of advising on clinical derangements. Confirmatory larger studies are necessary. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of clinical characteristics of chronic cough due to non-acid and acid gastroesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghuai; Yang, Zhongmin; Chen, Qiang; Yu, Li; Liang, Siwei; Lü, Hanjing; Qiu, Zhongmin

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about non-acid gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough (GERC). The purpose of the study is to explore the clinical characteristics of non-acid GERC. Clinical symptoms, cough symptom score, capsaicin cough sensitivity, gastroesophageal reflux diagnostic questionnaire (GerdQ) score, findings of multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring (MII-pH) and response to pharmacological anti-reflux therapy were retrospectively reviewed in 38 patients with non-acid GERC and compared with those of 49 patients with acid GERC. Non-acid GERC had the similar cough character, cough symptom score, and capsaicin cough sensitivity to acid GERC. However, non-acid GERC had less frequent regurgitation (15.8% vs 57.1%, χ(2)  = 13.346, P = 0.000) and heartburn (7.9% vs 32.7%, χ(2)  = 7.686, P  = 0.006), and lower GerdQ score (7.4 ± 1.4 vs 10.6 ± 2.1, t = -6.700, P = 0.003) than acid GERC. Moreover, MII-pH revealed more weakly acidic reflux episodes, gas reflux episodes and a higher symptom association probability (SAP) for non-acid reflux but lower DeMeester score, acidic reflux episodes and SAP for acid reflux in non-acid GERC than in acid GERC. Non-acid GERC usually responded to the standard anti-reflux therapy but with delayed cough resolution or attenuation when compared with acid GERC. Fewer patients with non-acid GERC needed an augmented acid suppressive therapy or treatment with baclofen. There are some differences in the clinical manifestations between non-acid and acid GERC, but MII-pH is essential to diagnose non-acid GERC. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Prevalence of chronic cough, chronic phlegm & associated factors in Mysore, Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, P A; Jayaraj, B S; Prabhakar, A K; Chaya, S K; Vijayasimha, R

    2011-07-01

    Chronic cough and chronic phlegm are important indicators of respiratory morbidity, accelerated lung function decline, increased hospitalization and mortality. This study was planned to estimate the prevalence of chronic cough and phlegm in the absence of dyspneoa and wheezing and to study its associated factors in a representative population of Mysore district. A cross-sectional survey was planned in a representative population of Mysore taluk. Eight villages were randomly selected based on the list of villages from census 2001. Trained field workers using the Burden of Obstructive Diseases questionnaire carried out a house-to-house survey. A total of 4333 adult subjects were enrolled in the study with 2333 males and 2000 females. The prevalence of chronic cough in the community was 2.5 per cent and that of chronic phlegm was 1.2 per cent. A significant association was observed between chronic cough and age, gender, occupation and smoking and chronic phlegm with age, gender, occupation, indoor animals and smoking. A multivariate analysis confirmed independent association of age, occupation and smoking for chronic cough and age and smoking for chronic phlegm. On sub-group analysis of males, heavy smokers had higher prevalence of chronic cough and chronic phlegm as compared to light smokers and non smokers. The prevalence of chronic cough was 2.5 per cent and chronic phlegm was 1.2 per cent in the general population in Mysore which is lower than that observed in other studies. Heavy smoking was an important preventable risk factor identified in this study and efforts towards smoking cessation are crucial to achieve good respiratory health in the community.

  1. Neural Bases of Automaticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, Mathieu; Cassey, Peter; Woodman, Geoffrey F.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2018-01-01

    Automaticity allows us to perform tasks in a fast, efficient, and effortless manner after sufficient practice. Theories of automaticity propose that across practice processing transitions from being controlled by working memory to being controlled by long-term memory retrieval. Recent event-related potential (ERP) studies have sought to test this…

  2. Automatic control systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Yun Gi

    2004-01-01

    This book gives descriptions of automatic control for electrical electronics, which indicates history of automatic control, Laplace transform, block diagram and signal flow diagram, electrometer, linearization of system, space of situation, state space analysis of electric system, sensor, hydro controlling system, stability, time response of linear dynamic system, conception of root locus, procedure to draw root locus, frequency response, and design of control system.

  3. Automatic Camera Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Preuss, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Automatically generating computer animations is a challenging and complex problem with applications in games and film production. In this paper, we investigate howto translate a shot list for a virtual scene into a series of virtual camera configurations — i.e automatically controlling the virtual...

  4. Automatic differentiation of functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, S.R.

    1990-06-01

    Automatic differentiation is a method of computing derivatives of functions to any order in any number of variables. The functions must be expressible as combinations of elementary functions. When evaluated at specific numerical points, the derivatives have no truncation error and are automatically found. The method is illustrated by simple examples. Source code in FORTRAN is provided

  5. Análise comparativa entre a refração clínica subjetiva e a automatizada obtida por sensor de frentes de onda Comparative analyses between clinical refraction and automatic refraction obtained through a wave front sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson de Freitas

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar e comparar os resultados obtidos da refração estática clínica com a obtida por sensor de frentes de onda. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo, não seqüencial, de 279 olhos de 147 pacientes. Todos os pacientes foram examinados sob cicloplegia. Primeiro realizamos a refração clínica e a seguir a automatizada por sensor de frentes de onda. Os dados refracionais obtidos foram decompostos para análise vetorial. Foram analisados separadamente os dados de um olho por paciente e dos dois olhos. RESULTADOS: A diferença entre a refração clínica e a automatizada foi de -0,19 DE combinada com -0,06 DC no eixo de 15º para os dados de um olho por paciente e -0,17 DE combinada com -0,05 DC no eixo de 3º para todos os olhos da amostra. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados da refração clínica são comparáveis com os da refração obtida por um sensor de frentes de onda.PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare refractive errors obtained through clinical subjective and automatized wavefront refraction analyses in eyes under cycloplegia. METHODS: Prospective study of 147 patients, 279 eyes, undergoing preoperative examination for refractive surgery. Clinical subjective refraction was performed first followed by wavefront refraction. Results on astigmatism obtained from refraction were decomposed in power vectors for statistical analyses. Data were first analyzed in one eye and then in both eyes. RESULTS: The mean difference between clinical subjective refraction and automatized wavefront refraction on cycloplegic eyes was of -0.19 SD combined with -0.06 CD in the 15º axis for data in one eye, and -0.17 SD combined with -0.05 CD in the 3º axis for data in both eyes of the same patient. CONCLUSION: In the present study clinical subjective refraction and automatized wavefront refraction under cycloplegia had similar numerical values.

  6. Baclofen vs. Dextromethorphan in the treatment of coughing: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Cough is one of the most common symptoms for which outpatient care is sought. Since, a few research evaluated efficacy and therapeutic effect of baclofen in remedy of cough (especially chronic cough, In this study we compared the efficacy of oral Baclofen 20 mg with Dextromethorphan to improvement of cough in two groups."n"nMethods: In this double blind randomized clinical trial, 120 patients with chronic cough (up to three weeks that were referred to respiratory diseases clinic of Ali Ebn-e Abitaleb (AS hospital in Zahedan, Iran at 2007 were randomly devided to two groups. 60 peoples in each, (baclofen recipient group with mean age 32.32±6.51 and dextromethorphan recipient group with mean age 31.54±5.06 year were evaluated for qualitative decline of severity, period and duration of cough for 14 days. "n"nResults: In baclofen recipient group 73.3% and in dextromethorphan recipient group 65% all patients had decline of severity, period and duration of the cough. Statistically, there were no significant differences between two groups in regard to qualitative decline of severity, period and duration of cough (p>0.05. Also, there were no drug related side effects in the patients."n"nConclusions: Baclofen

  7. Automatic imitation: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cracco, Emiel; Bardi, Lara; Desmet, Charlotte; Genschow, Oliver; Rigoni, Davide; De Coster, Lize; Radkova, Ina; Deschrijver, Eliane; Brass, Marcel

    2018-05-01

    Automatic imitation is the finding that movement execution is facilitated by compatible and impeded by incompatible observed movements. In the past 15 years, automatic imitation has been studied to understand the relation between perception and action in social interaction. Although research on this topic started in cognitive science, interest quickly spread to related disciplines such as social psychology, clinical psychology, and neuroscience. However, important theoretical questions have remained unanswered. Therefore, in the present meta-analysis, we evaluated seven key questions on automatic imitation. The results, based on 161 studies containing 226 experiments, revealed an overall effect size of g z = 0.95, 95% CI [0.88, 1.02]. Moderator analyses identified automatic imitation as a flexible, largely automatic process that is driven by movement and effector compatibility, but is also influenced by spatial compatibility. Automatic imitation was found to be stronger for forced choice tasks than for simple response tasks, for human agents than for nonhuman agents, and for goalless actions than for goal-directed actions. However, it was not modulated by more subtle factors such as animacy beliefs, motion profiles, or visual perspective. Finally, there was no evidence for a relation between automatic imitation and either empathy or autism. Among other things, these findings point toward actor-imitator similarity as a crucial modulator of automatic imitation and challenge the view that imitative tendencies are an indicator of social functioning. The current meta-analysis has important theoretical implications and sheds light on longstanding controversies in the literature on automatic imitation and related domains. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Automatic alignment of radionuclide images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    The variability of the position, dimensions and orientation of a radionuclide image within the field of view of a gamma camera hampers attempts to analyse the image numerically. This paper describes a method of using a set of training images of a particular type, in this case right lateral brain images, to define the likely variations in the position, dimensions and orientation for that type of image and to provide alignment data for a program that automatically aligns new images of the specified type to a standard position, size and orientation. Examples are given of the use of this method on three types of radionuclide image. (author)

  9. Natural products for chronic cough: Text mining the East Asian historical literature for future therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shergis, Johannah Linda; Wu, Lei; May, Brian H; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Guo, Xinfeng; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2015-08-01

    Chronic cough is a significant health burden. Patients experience variable benefits from over the counter and prescribed products, but there is an unmet need to provide more effective treatments. Natural products have been used to treat cough and some plant compounds such as pseudoephedrine from ephedra and codeine from opium poppy have been developed into drugs. Text mining historical literature may offer new insight for future therapeutic development. We identified natural products used in the East Asian historical literature to treat chronic cough. Evaluation of the historical literature revealed 331 natural products used to treat chronic cough. Products included plants, minerals and animal substances. These natural products were found in 75 different books published between AD 363 and 1911. Of the 331 products, the 10 most frequently and continually used products were examined, taking into consideration findings from contemporary experimental studies. The natural products identified are promising and offer new directions in therapeutic development for treating chronic cough. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Barium swallow study in routine clinical practice: a prospective study in patients with chronic cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Shuler Nin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the routine use of barium swallow study in patients with chronic cough.METHODS: Between October of 2011 and March of 2012, 95 consecutive patients submitted to chest X-ray due to chronic cough (duration > 8 weeks were included in the study. For study purposes, additional images were obtained immediately after the oral administration of 5 mL of a 5% barium sulfate suspension. Two radiologists systematically evaluated all of the images in order to identify any pathological changes. Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for categorical data were used in the comparisons.RESULTS: The images taken immediately after barium swallow revealed significant pathological conditions that were potentially related to chronic cough in 12 (12.6% of the 95 patients. These conditions, which included diaphragmatic hiatal hernia, esophageal neoplasm, achalasia, esophageal diverticulum, and abnormal esophageal dilatation, were not detected on the images taken without contrast. After appropriate treatment, the symptoms disappeared in 11 (91.6% of the patients, whereas the treatment was ineffective in 1 (8.4%. We observed no complications related to barium swallow, such as contrast aspiration.CONCLUSIONS: Barium swallow improved the detection of significant radiographic findings related to chronic cough in 11.5% of patients. These initial findings suggest that the routine use of barium swallow can significantly increase the sensitivity of chest X-rays in the detection of chronic cough-related etiologies.

  11. Voluntary Cough Airflow Differentiates Safe versus Unsafe Swallowing in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowman, Emily K.; Watts, Stephanie A.; Robison, Raele; Tabor, Lauren; Dion, Charles; Gaziano, Joy; Vu, Tuan; Gooch, Clifton

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia and aspiration are prevalent in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and contribute to malnutrition, aspiration pneumonia and death. Early detection of at risk individuals is critical to ensure maintenance of safe oral intake and optimal pulmonary function. We therefore aimed to determine the discriminant ability of voluntary cough airflow measures in detecting penetration/aspiration status in ALS patients. Seventy individuals with ALS (El-Escorial criteria) completed voluntary cough spirometry testing and underwent a standardized videofluoroscopic swallowing evaluation (VFSE). A rater blinded to aspiration status derived six objective measures of voluntary cough airflow and evaluated airway safety using the Penetration Aspiration Scale (PAS). A between groups ANOVA (safe vs. unsafe swallowers) was conducted and sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve (AUC) and likelihood ratios were calculated. VFSE analysis revealed 24 penetrator/aspirators (PAS ≥3) and 46 non-penetrator/aspirators (PAS ≤2). Cough volume acceleration (CVA), peak expiratory flow rise time (PEFRT), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were significantly different between airway safety groups (p 76ms had sensitivities of 91.3%, 82.6% and 73.9% respectively and specificities of 82.2%, 73.9%, and 78.3% for identifying ALS penetrator/aspirators. Voluntary cough airflow measures identified ALS patients at risk for penetration/aspiration and may be a valuable screening tool with high clinical utility. PMID:26803772

  12. Barium swallow study in routine clinical practice: a prospective study in patients with chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nin, Carlos Shuler; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Paludo, Artur de Oliveira; Alves, Giordano Rafael Tronco; Hochhegger, Daniela Reis; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    To assess the routine use of barium swallow study in patients with chronic cough. Between October of 2011 and March of 2012, 95 consecutive patients submitted to chest X-ray due to chronic cough (duration > 8 weeks) were included in the study. For study purposes, additional images were obtained immediately after the oral administration of 5 mL of a 5% barium sulfate suspension. Two radiologists systematically evaluated all of the images in order to identify any pathological changes. Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for categorical data were used in the comparisons. The images taken immediately after barium swallow revealed significant pathological conditions that were potentially related to chronic cough in 12 (12.6%) of the 95 patients. These conditions, which included diaphragmatic hiatal hernia, esophageal neoplasm, achalasia, esophageal diverticulum, and abnormal esophageal dilatation, were not detected on the images taken without contrast. After appropriate treatment, the symptoms disappeared in 11 (91.6%) of the patients, whereas the treatment was ineffective in 1 (8.4%). We observed no complications related to barium swallow, such as contrast aspiration. Barium swallow improved the detection of significant radiographic findings related to chronic cough in 11.5% of patients. These initial findings suggest that the routine use of barium swallow can significantly increase the sensitivity of chest X-rays in the detection of chronic cough-related etiologies.

  13. The capsaicin cough reflex in eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberling, Jesper; Dirksen, Asger; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Mosbech, Holger

    2006-03-01

    Respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume are common in the population but have unclear pathophysiology. Increased capsaicin cough responsiveness has been associated with the symptoms, but it is unknown whether the site of the symptoms in the airways influences this association. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the site of airway symptoms elicited by perfume and cough responsiveness to bronchial challenge with capsaicin. 21 eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire and underwent a bronchial challenge with capsaicin. Lower, but not upper, respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were associated with increased capsaicin cough responsiveness. Having severe symptoms to perfume (n=11) did not relate to the site of the symptoms in the airways and was not associated with increased capsaicin cough responsiveness. In conclusion, respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume may reflect local hyperreactivity related to defensive reflexes in the airways, and measurements of the capsaicin cough reflex are relevant when patients with lower respiratory symptoms related to environmental perfume exposures are investigated.

  14. Rib fractures induced by coughing: an unusual cause of acute chest pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maeseneer, M; De Mey, J; Debaere, C; Meysman, M; Osteaux, M

    2000-03-01

    We report three patients with stress fractures of the ribs induced by coughing. Standard radiographs of the chest and ribs did not reveal evidence of rib fractures in any of the patients. Bone scintigraphy, performed 1 to 2 weeks after initial onset of symptoms, showed a focal area of increased uptake along the chest wall in all cases. Thin section angulated helical CT directly visualized the subtle rib fractures. Initial diagnosis of a cough-induced fracture of the rib may be difficult because of the associated underlying disorder, and unnecessary examinations are commonly performed. Identification of a cough-induced fracture of the rib using helical CT may be clinically important to avoid unnecessary concern and additional examinations.

  15. The capsaicin cough reflex in patients with symptoms elicited by odorous chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, H.; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Mosbech, H.

    2010-01-01

    between groups in age, body mass index or pulmonary function. The median C5 were 129 micromol/L (control group), 48 micromol/L (multiple chemical sensitivity patients), 32 micromol/L (eczema patients). The reporting of lower airway symptoms from odorous chemicals was significantly (p......Patients with multiple chemical sensitivity and eczema patients with airway symptoms elicited by odorous chemicals have enhanced cough reflex to capsaicin when applying the tidal breathing method. The aims of the present study were to test whether the capsaicin induced cough reflex was enhanced...... when applying the single breath inhalation method in similar groups of patients with symptoms related to odorous chemicals e.g. other persons wearing of perfume; and to investigate to what extent the reporting of lower airway symptoms influenced the cough reflex. Sixteen patients fulfilling Cullen...

  16. Cough urethrocystography: The best radiological evaluation of female stress urinary incontinence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varpula, M.; Maekinen, J.; Kiilholma, P.

    1989-01-01

    Urethrocystography and simultaneous urethrocystometry were performed on 40 women with primary urinary incontinence. The posterior urethrovesical angle, inclination angle, urethropelvic angle, and an orifice descent angle, not earlier described, were measured on radiographs obtained at rest, during coughing and during straining. The orifice descent angle was used to describe the descent of the internal urethral orifice in the cough radiographs, and was the only measurement that provided a significant correlation with urethrocystometry. The other angles measured, and radiographs obtained at rest or during straining were not useful in the evaluation of female stress urinary incontinence. The authors conclude that the best imaging method for the evaluation of female stress urinary incontinence is urethrocystography employing a single lateral view taken during coughing, with measurement of the orifice descent angle. (orig.)

  17. Long-lasting cough in an adult German population: incidence, symptoms, and related pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Raphael; Riffelmann, Marion; Kennerknecht, Nicole; Hülße, Christel; Littmann, Martina; O'Brien, Judith; von Kries, Rüdiger; von König, Carl Heinz Wirsing

    2018-04-01

    Studies of the incidence of pertussis in adults have shown that it accounts for only 5-15% cases of prolonged coughing. We assessed the burden of suffering related to prolonged coughing and tried to identify further causative agents. Based on a sentinel study with 35 general practitioners in two German cities (Krefeld, Rostock), with 3,946 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria, we estimated the incidence of prolonged coughing in adults. In 975 of these outpatients, PCR and/or serology for adenovirus, Bordetella pertussis and B. parapertussis, human metapneumovirus, influenza virus A and rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, Mycoplasma pneumonia, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were performed. Treatment data were extracted for a subgroup of 138 patients. Descriptive statistics, including Kaplan-Maier curves were generated. Yearly incidence ranged between 1.4 and 2.1% per population in the two cities. Adult patients sought medical attention only after a median of 3 weeks of coughing. Irrespective of smoking and unrelated to the identified pathogens, the median duration of coughing was 6 weeks, with an interquartile range of 4-11 weeks. In 48.3% of patients, possible pathogens were identified, among which adenovirus (15.1%), RSV (7.5%), B. pertussis (5.6%), and influenza viruses (4.0%) were most often found. Symptoms were not indicative of a specific agent and a total of 64% of patients received antibiotics. Prolonged adult coughing requiring medical attention prompts substantial healthcare use. Apart from B. pertussis, a broad range of pathogens was associated with the symptoms. However, patients sought medical attention too late to guide efficacious therapeutic interventions using the diagnostic tests.

  18. Chest radiography in supporting the diagnosis of asthma in children with persistent cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halaby, Claudia; Feuerman, Martin; Barlev, Dan; Pirzada, Melodi

    2014-03-01

    To establish whether chest radiographic findings suggestive of lower airway obstruction (LAO) disease support the diagnosis of asthma in pediatric patients with persistent cough in an outpatient setting. 180 patient charts were reviewed. The patients were children aged 1 to 18 years referred over a 3-year period to a pediatric pulmonary subspecialty clinic for evaluation of cough lasting ≥ 4 weeks. Chest radiographic images obtained after the initial evaluation of 90 patients diagnosed with cough-variant asthma and 90 patients diagnosed with persistent cough from nonasthma origins were compared with radiologic findings of a control group consisting of patients with a positive tuberculin skin test and no respiratory symptoms. Increased peribronchial markings/peribronchial cuffing and hyperinflation were considered radiographically suggestive findings of LAO disease. Children diagnosed with cough-variant asthma at the initial evaluation had higher rates of chest radiographic findings suggestive of LAO disease (30.00%) than children with persistent cough from other causes (17.80%) or those with a positive tuberculin skin test and no respiratory symptoms (8.16%) (overall P value = 0.0063). They also had higher rates of spirometry abnormalities suggestive of an LAO defect. Children with chest radiographic findings suggestive of LAO disease were found to be younger than those with normal chest radiographic findings (5.0 ± 2.7 years vs 8.6 ± 4.7 years; P < 0.0001). This study suggests that chest radiographic findings indicative of an LAO in correlation with the clinical presentation can support the diagnostic suspicion of asthma, especially in younger children unable to perform spirometry.

  19. Thai Automatic Speech Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suebvisai, Sinaporn; Charoenpornsawat, Paisarn; Black, Alan; Woszczyna, Monika; Schultz, Tanja

    2005-01-01

    .... We focus on the discussion of the rapid deployment of ASR for Thai under limited time and data resources, including rapid data collection issues, acoustic model bootstrap, and automatic generation of pronunciations...

  20. Automatic Payroll Deposit System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The Automatic Payroll Deposit System in Yakima, Washington's Public School District No. 7, directly transmits each employee's salary amount for each pay period to a bank or other financial institution. (Author/MLF)

  1. Automatic Test Systems Aquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1994-01-01

    We are providing this final memorandum report for your information and use. This report discusses the efforts to achieve commonality in standards among the Military Departments as part of the DoD policy for automatic test systems (ATS...

  2. The effect of pheniramine on fentanyl-induced cough: a randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakir Arslan

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: There are many studies conducted on reducing the frequency and severity of fentayl-induced cough during anesthesia induction. We propose that pheniramine maleate, an antihistaminic, may suppress this cough. We aim to observe the effect of pheniramine on fentanyl-induced cough during anesthesia induction. Methods: This is a double-blinded, prospective, three-arm parallel, randomized clinical trial of 120 patients with ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status III and IV who aged ≥18 and scheduled for elective open heart surgery during general anesthesia. Patients were randomly assigned to three groups of 40 patients, using computer-generated random numbers: placebo group, pheniramine group, and lidocaine group. Results: Cough incidence differed significantly between groups. In the placebo group, 37.5% of patients had cough, whereas the frequency was significantly decreased in pheniramine group (5% and lidocaine group (15% (Fischer exact test, p = 0.0007 and p = 0.0188, respectively. There was no significant change in cough incidence between pheniramine group (5% and lidocaine group (15% (Fischer exact test, p = 0.4325. Cough severity did also change between groups. Post Hoc tests with Bonferroni showed that mean cough severity in placebo differed significantly than that of pheniramine group and lidocaine group (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.009, respectively. There was no significant change in cough severity between pheniramine group and lidocaine group (p = 0.856. Conclusion: Intravenous pheniramine is as effective as lidocaine in preventing fentayl-induced cough. Our results emphasize that pheniramine is a convenient drug to decrease this cough.

  3. ANSYS-MATLAB co-simulation of mucus flow distribution and clearance effectiveness of a new simulated cough device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shuai; Shi, Yan; Cai, Maolin; Zhao, Hongmei; Zhang, Zhaozhi; Zhang, Xiaohua Douglas

    2018-03-05

    Coughing is an irritable reaction that protects the respiratory system from infection and improves mucus clearance. However, for the patients who cannot cough autonomously, an assisted cough device is essential for mucus clearance. Considering the low efficiency of current assisted cough devices, a new simulated cough device based on the pneumatic system is proposed in this paper. Given the uncertainty of airflow rates necessary to clear mucus from airways, the computational fluid dynamics Eulerian wall film model and cough efficiency (CE) were used in this study to simulate the cough process and evaluate cough effectiveness. The Ansys-Matlab co-simulation model was set up and verified through experimental studies using Newtonian fluids. Next, model simulations were performed using non-Newtonian fluids, and peak cough flow (PCF) and PCF duration time were analyzed to determine their influence on mucus clearance. CE growth rate (λ) was calculated to reflect the CE variation trend. From the numerical simulation results, we find that CE rises as PCF increases while the growth rate trends to slow as PCF increases; when PCF changes from 60 to 360 L/min, CE changes from 3.2% to 51.5% which is approximately 16 times the initial value. Meanwhile, keeping a long PCF duration time could greatly improve CE under the same cough expired volume and PCF. The results indicated that increasing the PCF and PCF duration time can improve the efficiency of mucus clearance. This paper provides a new approach and a research direction for control strategy in simulated cough devices for airway mucus clearance. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Effective speed management through automatic enforcement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyses several aspects of the Dutch experience of speed enforcement, and presents the results of some speed management experiments in The Netherlands, using automatic warning of speeders and enforcement of speeding. Traditional approaches to manage speed there have not resulted in

  5. Brand and automaticity

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, J.

    2008-01-01

    A presumption of most consumer research is that consumers endeavor to maximize the utility of their choices and are in complete control of their purchasing and consumption behavior. However, everyday life experience suggests that many of our choices are not all that reasoned or conscious. Indeed, automaticity, one facet of behavior, is indispensable to complete the portrait of consumers. Despite its importance, little attention is paid to how the automatic side of behavior can be captured and...

  6. Position automatic determination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This book tells of method of position determination and characteristic, control method of position determination and point of design, point of sensor choice for position detector, position determination of digital control system, application of clutch break in high frequency position determination, automation technique of position determination, position determination by electromagnetic clutch and break, air cylinder, cam and solenoid, stop position control of automatic guide vehicle, stacker crane and automatic transfer control.

  7. Automatic intelligent cruise control

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, NA; Young, MS

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a study on the evaluation of automatic intelligent cruise control (AICC) from a psychological perspective. It was anticipated that AICC would have an effect upon the psychology of driving—namely, make the driver feel like they have less control, reduce the level of trust in the vehicle, make drivers less situationally aware, but might reduce the workload and make driving might less stressful. Drivers were asked to drive in a driving simulator under manual and automatic inte...

  8. A Comparison of Risk Factors for Wheeze and Recurrent Cough in Preschool Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Christian; Westergaard, T.; Pedersen, B. V.

    2005-01-01

    the same etiology. Data were obtained 1) by a mailed parental questionnaire (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questions and supplementary questions on cough, sociodemography, perinatal factors, and environmental exposure); 2) through general practitioners (familial allergic disease......In a study of 2,978 Danish children aged 5 years from two suburban counties of Copenhagen, carried out in 1998, the authors compared risk factor profiles for wheeze and recurrent cough without wheeze by using polytomous logistic regression to clarify whether the two conditions are likely to have...

  9. Cough induced rib fracture, rupture of the diaphragm and abdominal herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wurl Peter

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cough can be associated with many complications. In this article, we present a 59 year old male patient with a very rare combination of a cough related stress fracture of the ninth rib, a traumatic rupture of the diaphragm, and an abdominal wall herniation. The hernia was repaired through surgical treatment without bowel resection, the diaphragm and the internal and oblique abdominal muscle were adapted, and the abdomen was reinforced with a prolene net. Although each individual injury is well documented in the literature, the combination of rib fracture, abdominal herniation and diaphragm rupture has not been reported.

  10. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PERCEPTION OF PARENTS ON THE USE OF COUGH AND COLD MEDICATIONS IN CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Chew Chin; Islahudin, Farida; Shah, Noraida Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the knowledge, attitude and perception of parents on the use of cough and cold medications in children. Questionnaires were distributed to parents of children aged parents (n=248) was satisfactory with a mean score of 5.87 +/- 1.70 (from a total of 10) and the overall attitude was positive with a mean score of 41.15 +/- 6.72 (from a total of 50). Ten percent of parents admitted administering cough and cold medications in children aged parents, education level and monthly income were found to significantly influence knowledge level (pchildren from the parents' perspectives.

  11. Honey with Coffee: A new finding in the treatment of Persistent Postinfectious Cough

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad-Ali Raeessi; Jafar Aslani; Homa Gharaie; Ali-Akbar Karimi Zarchi; Neda Raeessi; Shervin Assari

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Persistent postinfectious cough (PPC) is a cough that persists longer than 3 weeks or perhaps for many months after a common cold or an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). PPC has poor response to routine treatment modalities, so it can be a vexing problem for the patient and the physician alike. Our hypothesis was that honey and/or coffee have some beneficial effects in the treatment of PPC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of coffee and/or ho...

  12. CITRIC-ACID COUGH THRESHOLD AND AIRWAY RESPONSIVENESS IN ASTHMATIC-PATIENTS AND SMOKERS WITH CHRONIC AIR-FLOW OBSTRUCTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AUFFARTH, B; DEMONCHY, JGR; VANDERMARK, TW; POSTMA, DS; KOETER, GH

    The relation between citric acid cough threshold and airway hyperresponsiveness was investigated in 11 non-smoking patients with allergic asthma (mean FEV1 94% predicted) and 25 non-atopic smokers with chronic airflow obstruction (mean FEV1 65% predicted). Cough threshold was determined on two

  13. The Abuse of Dextromethorphan-Based Cough Syrup: A Pilot Study of the Community of Waynesboro, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momodou, N. Darboe; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the emergence of a new type of abused drug, dextromethorphan, which is used in cough syrup. Presents the results of the first phase of a comprehensive investigation of this phenomenon in the Waynesboro, Pa. school district. Survey data indicate abuse of cough syrup has increased over the years and is increasingly perceived as a problem…

  14. Evaluation of Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae as etiologic agents of persistent cough in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadowsky, Robert M; Castilla, Elias A; Laus, Stella; Kozy, Anita; Atchison, Robert W; Kingsley, Lawrence A; Ward, Joel I; Greenberg, David P

    2002-02-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae were evaluated as agents of persistent cough in adolescents and adults (n = 491). Tests of 473 respiratory specimens by culture or PCR or both identified four episodes (0.8%) of M. pneumoniae-associated illness and no episodes of C. pneumoniae illness, suggesting that these bacteria do not frequently cause persistent cough.

  15. Automatic energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysing apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russ, J.C.; Carey, R.; Chopra, V.K.

    1983-01-01

    The invention discloses a number of improvements for an energy dispersive X-ray analysis system having computer supervised data collection, display and processing. The systems with which the improved circuitry and methods may be used include a dual interlocking bus structure so that the analyzer and computer functions communicate directly with each other and the user has immediate keyboard control of both. Such a system normally includes a system base control, a control console and a display console. The portions of the system which have been improved include a new type of ratemeter which gives a voltage output proportional to the intensity of the energy window or windows under consideration, an output which is an absolute digital representation of the intensity count rate, circuitry for input multiplexing and multiple output voltage buffering of the ratemeter to accomodate multiple single channel signals, and a new dead time correction to enable meaningful single channel intensity data to be handled by the system. An extension of the ratemeter is also disclosed for use in conjunction with X-ray mapping, enabling enhancements to be made on mapping SCA data

  16. Analysis of the evidence of efficacy and safety of over-the-counter cough medications registered in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Max Moreira Reis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the level of evidence regarding the efficacy, effectiveness and safety of over-the-counter (OTC cough medications registered in Brazil. The National Health Surveillance Agency database was used to identify the drugs. Clinical trials, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and studies on safety were searched on the Medline baseline, the Cochrane Library and SIETES (System of Essential Information in Therapeutics and Health; database in Spanish. Most drugs (62.5% were sold as a fixed-dose combination of two or more drugs. Randomized clinical trials were found for only three drugs: bromhexine, dextromethorphan and guaifenesin. No clinical trials were found for fixed-dose combinations. Systematic reviews on Cochrane did not report any evidence in favor of or against the effectiveness of cough drugs. Efficacy is also unclear, especially regarding fixed-dose combinations. The evidence for the efficacy of OTC cough medications available in Brazil is poor due to the lack of quality studies. Pharmacovigilance of OTC cough medications should be encouraged.O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o nível de evidências sobre a eficácia, a efetividade e a segurança dos medicamentos para tosse registrados no Brasil. A base de dados da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária foi empregada para identificar os medicamentos. Os ensaios clínicos, as revisões sistemáticas, as metanálises e os estudos de segurança foram pesquisados no Medline, the Cochrane Library e SIETES (Sistema de Informações Essenciais em Terapêutica e Saúde, base de dados em espanhol. A maioria dos medicamentos (62,5% eram comercializados como associação em dose fixa com dois ou mais fármacos. Ensaios clínicos randomizados foram encontrados apenas para três fármacos: bromexina, dextrometorfano e guaifenesina; para associações a dose fixa não foram encontrados ensaios clínicos. Revisões sistemáticas publicadas pela Cochrane n

  17. A simple method for automatic measurement of excitation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, M.; Adachi, M.; Arai, E.

    1975-01-01

    An apparatus has been constructed to perform the sequence control of a beam-analysing magnet for automatic excitation function measurements. This device is also applied to the feedback control of the magnet to lock the beam energy. (Auth.)

  18. Development and preliminary validation of an automatic digital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amanda Chulayo

    2017-10-02

    Oct 2, 2017 ... based on an automatic digital analysis system (ADAS) that allows the capture of a series of real-time ... image analysing technology, with the accelerated advance of the hardware and software ..... Enables use of car battery.

  19. Influence of viscous Rhodella grisea (Rhodophyceae) proteoglycan on chemically induced cough reflex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nosál´ová, G.; Capek, P.; Flešková, D.; Jureček, L´.; Hindák, F.; Lukavský, Jaromír; Cepák, Vladislav; Ray, B.; Breierová, E.; Turjan, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2011), 1046-1050 ISSN 0141-8130 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Rhodella griesea * proteoglykan * cough Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.453, year: 2011

  20. Increasing Efficiency in Evaluation of Chronic Cough: A Multidisciplinary, Collaborative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Cynthia M; Lim, Kaiser G; Ramlow, Luke W; White, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic cough is the most common reason for medical office visits in the United States. The typical patient has coughed more than 8 years and seen many specialists. This quality improvement project is an ambulatory clinic redesign to deliver efficient, patient-centered care with interspecialty collaboration. Methodology included the Institute for Healthcare Improvement collaborative model focused on Lean/Six Sigma and ADKAR (Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Ability, Reinforcement) Change Management. Interventions targeted education to referring providers, implementation of software changes, building a collaborative interdepartmental scheduling decision tree, and an interclinic dashboard enhancing communication and decision support. Outcome measures compare group resource utilization, evidenced by the total number of specialist referrals for same indication of chronic cough (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision: 786.2), and length of time to complete evaluation. A retrospective review of 165 medical records yielded 2 groups, "current care" (n = 67) and "intervention" (n = 68). The number of specialist referrals per patient was reduced in the intervention group (M = 1.22, SD = 0.48) compared with the current care group (M = 3.33, SD = 1.02). Length of itinerary was reduced in the intervention group (M = 11.90, SD = 12.13, GM = 6.82) compared with the current care group (M = 126.93, SD = 158.13, GM = 54.8). Multidisciplinary collaboration, communication, coordinating diagnosis, and management of multifactorial conditions, such as chronic cough, are associated with lower costs and decreased utilization of health care resources.

  1. The capsaicin cough reflex in eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Jesper; Dirksen, Asger; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume are common in the population but have unclear pathophysiology. Increased capsaicin cough responsiveness has been associated with the symptoms, but it is unknown whether the site of the symptoms in the airways influences this association. The aim of this st......Respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume are common in the population but have unclear pathophysiology. Increased capsaicin cough responsiveness has been associated with the symptoms, but it is unknown whether the site of the symptoms in the airways influences this association. The aim...... of this study was to investigate the association between the site of airway symptoms elicited by perfume and cough responsiveness to bronchial challenge with capsaicin. 21 eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case...... control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire and underwent a bronchial challenge with capsaicin. Lower, but not upper, respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were associated with increased capsaicin cough responsiveness. Having severe symptoms to perfume (n=11) did not relate...

  2. Obesity and stress urinary incontinence in women: compromised continence mechanism or excess bladder pressure during cough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Carolyn W; Kolenic, Giselle E; Trowbridge, Elisa R; Berger, Mitchell B; Lewicky-Gaupp, Christina; Margulies, Rebecca U; Morgan, Daniel M; Fenner, Dee E; DeLancey, John O

    2017-09-01

    We compared two hypotheses as to why obesity is associated with stress urinary incontinence (SUI): (1) obesity increases demand on the continence system (e.g. higher cough pressure) and (2) obesity compromises urethral function and urethrovaginal support. A secondary analysis was performed using data from a case-control study of SUI in women. Measurements of urethrovaginal support (POP-Q point Aa, urethral axis), urethral function (maximal urethral closure pressure, MUCP), and measures of continence system demand (intravesical pressures at rest and during maximal cough) were analyzed. Cases and controls were divided into three body mass index (BMI) groups: normal (18.5-24.9 kg/m 2 ); overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m 2 ); and obese (≥30 kg/m 2 ). Logistic regression models where created to investigate variables related to SUI for each BMI group. Structural equation modeling was used to test the direct and indirect relationships among BMI, SUI, maximal cough pressure, MUCP, and POP-Q point Aa. The study included 108 continent controls and 103 women with SUI. MUCP was the factor most strongly associated with SUI in all BMI groups. Maximal cough pressure was significantly associated with SUI in obese women (OR 3.191, 95% CI 1.326, 7.683; p continence mechanism.

  3. Pertussis may be the cause of prolonged cough in adolescents and adults in the interepidemic period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Analíria Moraes; Baptista, Paulo Neves; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Magalhães, Vera; Silva, Andrea Rosane Sousa; Souza, Nadjla Ferreira; Matos, Deize Gomes Cavalcanti de; Pessoa, Ana Kelly Lins

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of pertussis in adolescents and adults with cough lasting more than 14 days and less than 30 days. This is a prospective observational study in interepidemic period of pertusis. Ten public health outpatient clinics in the city of Recife, Brazil, were randomly selected for the study. The study population consisted of individuals aged 10 years and over with cough that had lasted between 14 and 30 days. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected for culture and PCR in order to identify Bordetella pertussis. We adopted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the US (CDC) definition of cases of pertussis. A total of 192 individuals were identified as suspected cases. Their mean age was 40.7 years. Pertussis was confirmed in 10 of the 192 suspected cases, with an estimated prevalence of 5.21% (95% confidence interval 2.03-8.38). All cases met the clinical case definition for pertussis; one suspect had both culture and PCR positive. PCR confirmed 100% of the cases, 7/10 by PCR and 3/10 by epidemiological linkage with a case confirmed by PCR. During an interepidemic period, 1 in 20 cases of prolonged cough had pertussis, suggesting this is an important cause of prolonged cough in adolescents and adults. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  4. Bordetella Pertussis virulence factors in the continuing evolution of whooping cough vaccines for improved performance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorji, Dorji; Mooi, Frits; Yantorno, Osvaldo; Deora, Rajendar; Graham, Ross M; Mukkur, Trilochan K

    Despite high vaccine coverage, whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis remains one of the most common vaccine-preventable diseases worldwide. Introduction of whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines in the 1940s and acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines in 1990s reduced the mortality due to pertussis.

  5. Olodaterol Attenuates Citric Acid-Induced Cough in Naïve and Ovalbumin-Sensitized and Challenged Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wex, Eva; Bouyssou, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Excessive coughing is a common feature of airway diseases. Different G-protein coupled receptors, including β2-adrenergic receptors (β2-AR), have been implicated in the molecular mechanisms underlying the cough reflex. However, the potential antitussive property of β2-AR agonists in patients with respiratory disease is a matter of ongoing debate. The aim of our study was to test the efficacy of the long-acting β2-AR agonist olodaterol with regard to its antitussive property in a pre-clinical model of citric acid-induced cough in guinea pigs and to compare the results to different clinically relevant β2-AR agonists. In our study β2-AR agonists were intratracheally administered, as dry powder, into the lungs of naïve or ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs 15 minutes prior to induction of cough by exposure to citric acid. Cough events were counted over 15 minutes during the citric acid exposure. Olodaterol dose-dependently inhibited the number of cough events in naïve and even more potently and with a greater maximal efficacy in ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs (p citric acid-induced cough in naïve and ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs. This is in agreement with pre-clinical and clinical studies showing antitussive efficacy of β2-AR agonists. Indacaterol increased the number of coughs in this model, which concurs with clinical data where a transient cough has been observed after indacaterol inhalation. While the antitussive properties of β2-AR agonists can be explained by their ability to lead to the cAMP-induced hyperpolarization of the neuron membrane thereby inhibiting sensory nerve activation and the cough reflex, the mechanism underlying the pro-tussive property of indacaterol is not known. PMID:25781609

  6. Can a management pathway for chronic cough in children improve clinical outcomes: protocol for a multicentre evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masters IB

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic cough is common and is associated with significant economic and human costs. While cough can be a problematic symptom without serious consequences, it could also reflect a serious underlying illness. Evidence shows that the management of chronic cough in children needs to be improved. Our study tests the hypothesis that the management of chronic cough in children with an evidence-based management pathway is feasible and reliable, and improves clinical outcomes. Methods/Design We are conducting a multicentre randomised controlled trial based in respiratory clinics in 5 major Australian cities. Children (n = 250 fulfilling inclusion criteria (new patients with chronic cough are randomised (allocation concealed to the standardised clinical management pathway (specialist starts clinical pathway within 2 weeks or usual care (existing care until review by specialist at 6 weeks. Cough diary, cough-specific quality of life (QOL and generic QOL are collected at baseline and at 6, 10, 14, 26, and 52 weeks. Children are followed-up for 6 months after diagnosis and cough resolution (with at least monthly contact from study nurses. A random sample from each site will be independently examined to determine adherence to the pathway. Primary outcomes are group differences in QOL and proportion of children that are cough free at week 6. Discussion The clinical management pathway is based on data from Cochrane Reviews combined with collective clinical experience (250 doctor years. This study will provide additional evidence on the optimal management of chronic cough in children. Trial registration ACTRN12607000526471

  7. The effect of pheniramine on fentanyl-induced cough: a randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Zakir; Çalık, Eyup Serhat; Kaplan, Bekir; Ahiskalioglu, Elif Oral

    2016-01-01

    There are many studies conducted on reducing the frequency and severity of fentayl-induced cough during anesthesia induction. We propose that pheniramine maleate, an antihistaminic, may suppress this cough. We aim to observe the effect of pheniramine on fentanyl-induced cough during anesthesia induction. This is a double-blinded, prospective, three-arm parallel, randomized clinical trial of 120 patients with ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) physical status III and IV who aged ≥18 and scheduled for elective open heart surgery during general anesthesia. Patients were randomly assigned to three groups of 40 patients, using computer-generated random numbers: placebo group, pheniramine group, and lidocaine group. Cough incidence differed significantly between groups. In the placebo group, 37.5% of patients had cough, whereas the frequency was significantly decreased in pheniramine group (5%) and lidocaine group (15%) (Fischer exact test, p=0.0007 and p=0.0188, respectively). There was no significant change in cough incidence between pheniramine group (5%) and lidocaine group (15%) (Fischer exact test, p=0.4325). Cough severity did also change between groups. Post Hoc tests with Bonferroni showed that mean cough severity in placebo differed significantly than that of pheniramine group and lidocaine group (ppheniramine group and lidocaine group (p=0.856). Intravenous pheniramine is as effective as lidocaine in preventing fentayl-induced cough. Our results emphasize that pheniramine is a convenient drug to decrease this cough. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. [The effect of pheniramine on fentanyl-induced cough: a randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Zakir; Çalık, Eyup Serhat; Kaplan, Bekir; Ahiskalioglu, Elif Oral

    2016-01-01

    There are many studies conducted on reducing the frequency and severity of fentayl-induced cough during anesthesia induction. We propose that pheniramine maleate, an antihistaminic, may suppress this cough. We aim to observe the effect of pheniramine on fentanyl-induced cough during anesthesia induction. This is a double-blinded, prospective, three-arm parallel, randomized clinical trial of 120 patients with ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) physical status III and IV who aged ≥18 and scheduled for elective open heart surgery during general anesthesia. Patients were randomly assigned to three groups of 40 patients, using computer-generated random numbers: placebo group, pheniramine group, and lidocaine group. Cough incidence differed significantly between groups. In the placebo group, 37.5% of patients had cough, whereas the frequency was significantly decreased in pheniramine group (5%) and lidocaine group (15%) (Fischer exact test, p=0.0007 and p=0.0188, respectively). There was no significant change in cough incidence between pheniramine group (5%) and lidocaine group (15%) (Fischer exact test, p=0.4325). Cough severity did also change between groups. Post Hoc tests with Bonferroni showed that mean cough severity in placebo differed significantly than that of pheniramine group and lidocaine group (ppheniramine group and lidocaine group (p=0.856). Intravenous pheniramine is as effective as lidocaine in preventing fentayl-induced cough. Our results emphasize that pheniramine is a convenient drug to decrease this cough. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Methacholine Challenge Test Results in Chronic Cough Patients Referring to Clinic of Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derakhshan Deilami Gholamreza

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic cough is a common problem in patients visiting physicians and its prevalence in different populations range from 3 to 40%. Postnasal drip, asthma and gastroesophageal reflux are the known cause of chronic cough. Although diagnosis of asthma is usually made by clinical signs and spirometeric results, methacholine challenge test is a good diagnostic test in patients who show normal physical examination and spirometeric results. In this study, the results of methacholine challenge test in chronic cough patients are investigated. This is a cross sectional study performed on patients suffering from chronic cough (over 8 weeks, who went to Pulmonary Disease Clinic of Imam Khomeini Hospital in 2006. Postnasal drip, gastroesophageal reflux was evaluated and ruled out in all patients. Then they were tested by methacholine inhalation using low to high doses of methacholine. The results of test was defined as 20% fall in FEV1 and its relationship with age, sex, history of allergic disease, family history of asthma and smoking status was investigated. 81 patients (36 female and 45 male entered this study who had mean age of 32.5 ± 13.06 years. 81.5% of patients had never smoked or closed contact with smokers, 6.2% were passive smokers, 8.6% were smokers and 3.7% had quit smoking. 37% had suffered from chronic cough less than 6 months, 11% for 6-11 months and 52% for more than 12 months. In 26% of patients, family history of asthma was present and 34.5% had a history of one type of allergy. In 29.5% the results of methacholine challenge test was positive, among them 45.8% showed an intense response and 54.2% a moderate response. The test results and its intensity had no statistically significant relationship with age, sex, smoking status, the duration of cough and family history of asthma, but the relationship between methacholine challenge test and the history of allergic disease was significant. Methacholine challenge test can be used as a

  10. Automatic Program Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Automatic Program Development is a tribute to Robert Paige (1947-1999), our accomplished and respected colleague, and moreover our good friend, whose untimely passing was a loss to our academic and research community. We have collected the revised, updated versions of the papers published in his...... honor in the Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation Journal in the years 2003 and 2005. Among them there are two papers by Bob: (i) a retrospective view of his research lines, and (ii) a proposal for future studies in the area of the automatic program derivation. The book also includes some papers...... by members of the IFIP Working Group 2.1 of which Bob was an active member. All papers are related to some of the research interests of Bob and, in particular, to the transformational development of programs and their algorithmic derivation from formal specifications. Automatic Program Development offers...

  11. Simplification and Validation of Leicester Cough Questionnaire in Mandarin-Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongjia LIN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Patients often have cough after lung surgery, and there is a lack of tools to specifically assess postoperative coughs. LCQ-MC (Leicester Cough Questionnaire in Mandarin-Chinese was revised and validated to explore its value on clinical application. Methods A total of 250 patients undergone the lung operation of single medical team, from September 2015 to December 2016 in the Department ofThoracic Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, were investigated. Among them, 121 patients completed LCQ-MC and 129 patients completed simplified LCQ-MC, we verified the reliability and validity. Results The new questionnaire was not changed in terms of content layout and the scoring method of LCQ-MC, consisting of 12 items and three domains (physical, psychological and social. There was good content validity (S-CVI/UA=0.83. Concurrent validity was high when the simplified LCQ-MC was compared with daytime cough symptom score (r=-0.578, P<0.001. There was a moderate relationship with response to night-time cough symptom score (r=-0.358, P=-0.004 and SF36 total score (r=0.346, P=0.030, and weak relationship with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale total score (r=-0.241, P=0.046. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of simplified LCQ-CM total and three domains varied between 0.79 and 0.89. One week apart test-retest reliability (n=30 was high (r=0.88-0.96. Conclusion Simplified LCQ-MC has good reliability and validity that can be used for clinical applications.

  12. Automatic text summarization

    CERN Document Server

    Torres Moreno, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This new textbook examines the motivations and the different algorithms for automatic document summarization (ADS). We performed a recent state of the art. The book shows the main problems of ADS, difficulties and the solutions provided by the community. It presents recent advances in ADS, as well as current applications and trends. The approaches are statistical, linguistic and symbolic. Several exemples are included in order to clarify the theoretical concepts.  The books currently available in the area of Automatic Document Summarization are not recent. Powerful algorithms have been develop

  13. Automatic Ultrasound Scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshavegh, Ramin

    on the user adjustments on the scanner interface to optimize the scan settings. This explains the huge interest in the subject of this PhD project entitled “AUTOMATIC ULTRASOUND SCANNING”. The key goals of the project have been to develop automated techniques to minimize the unnecessary settings...... on the scanners, and to improve the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in ultrasound by introducing new quantitative measures. Thus, four major issues concerning automation of the medical ultrasound are addressed in this PhD project. They touch upon gain adjustments in ultrasound, automatic synthetic aperture image...

  14. Automatic NAA. Saturation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, G.P.; Grass, F.; Kuhnert, M.

    2008-01-01

    A system for Automatic NAA is based on a list of specific saturation activities determined for one irradiation position at a given neutron flux and a single detector geometry. Originally compiled from measurements of standard reference materials, the list may be extended also by the calculation of saturation activities from k 0 and Q 0 factors, and f and α values of the irradiation position. A systematic improvement of the SRM approach is currently being performed by pseudo-cyclic activation analysis, to reduce counting errors. From these measurements, the list of saturation activities is recalculated in an automatic procedure. (author)

  15. Changes in Peak Airflow Measurement During Maximal Cough After Vocal Fold Augmentation in Patients With Glottic Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Gregory R; Achlatis, Efstratios; Teng, Stephanie; Fang, Yixin; Persky, Michael; Branski, Ryan C; Amin, Milan R

    2017-11-01

    Compromised cough effectiveness is correlated with dysphagia and aspiration. Glottic insufficiency likely yields decreased cough strength and effectiveness. Although vocal fold augmentation favorably affects voice and likely improves cough strength, few data exist to support this hypothesis. To assess whether vocal fold augmentation improves peak airflow measurements during maximal-effort cough following augmentation. This case series study was conducted in a tertiary, academic laryngology clinic. Participants included 14 consecutive individuals with glottic insufficiency due to vocal fold paralysis, which was diagnosed via videostrobolaryngoscopy as a component of routine clinical examination. All participants who chose to proceed with augmentation were considered for the study whether office-based or operative augmentation was planned. Postaugmentation data were collected only at the first follow-up visit, which was targeted for 14 days after augmentation but varied on the basis of participant availability. Data were collected from June 5, 2014, to October 1, 2015. Data analysis took place between October 2, 2015, and March 3, 2017. Peak airflow during maximal volitional cough was quantified before and after vocal fold augmentation. Participants performed maximal coughs, and peak expiratory flow during the maximal cough was captured according to American Thoracic Society guidelines. Among the 14 participants (7 men and 7 women), the mean (SD) age was 62 (18) years. Three types of injectable material were used for vocal fold augmentation: carboxymethylcellulose in 5 patients, hyaluronic acid in 5, and calcium hydroxylapatite in 4. Following augmentation, cough strength increased in 11 participants and decreased cough strength was observed in 3. Peak airflow measurements during maximal cough varied from a decrease of 40 L/min to an increase of 150 L/min following augmentation. When preaugmentation and postaugmentation peak airflow measurements were compared, the

  16. Continuous analytical control of the streaming waters in a uranium treatment plant and of various chemical products using automatic discharge valves; Controle par analyse en continu des eaux de ruissellement d'une usine traitant de l'uranium et divers produits chimiques avec commande automatique des vannes de decharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archimbaud, M; Simeon, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Pierrelatte (France)

    1968-07-01

    This report describes a method for controlling the streaming waters produced by the Pierrelatte Centre; it is based on continuous analysis, with simultaneous recording of the species liable to be found accidentally in the corresponding hydrological circuits (chlorides, fluorides, chromium VI, uranium). An alarm set off at pre-determined thresholds leads to an automatic cutting off of the discharge valves; the outward flow of the waters is thus interrupted. This study has shown the various applications which can be found for this water control method, and gives an idea of the cost price. (authors) [French] Ce rapport decrit un mode de controle des eaux de ruissellement provenant du Centre de Pierrelatte base sur une analyse en continu, avec enregistrement des corps susceptibles de se retrouver accidentellement dans les reseaux hydrologiques correspondants (chlorures, fluorures, chrome VI, uranium). Le declenchement d'une alarme a partir de seuils choisis permet de fermer automatiquement les vannes de decharge et d'arreter ainsi l'ecoulement vers l'exterieur. Cette etude montre quelles peuvent etre les diverses applications de cette methode de controle des eaux et elle indique un ordre de grandeur du prix de revient. (auteurs)

  17. Measurement of the Maximum Frequency of Electroglottographic Fluctuations in the Expiration Phase of Volitional Cough as a Functional Test for Cough Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahashi, Toshihiko; Ogawa, Makoto; Hosokawa, Kiyohito; Kato, Chieri; Inohara, Hidenori

    2017-10-01

    The hypotheses of the present study were that the maximum frequency of fluctuation of electroglottographic (EGG) signals in the expiration phase of volitional cough (VC) reflects the cough efficiency and that this EGG parameter is affected by impaired laryngeal closure, expiratory effort strength, and gender. For 20 normal healthy adults and 20 patients diagnosed with unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP), each participant was fitted with EGG electrodes on the neck, had a transnasal laryngo-fiberscope inserted, and was asked to perform weak/strong VC tasks while EGG signals and a high-speed digital image of the larynx were recorded. The maximum frequency was calculated in the EGG fluctuation region coinciding with vigorous vocal fold vibration in the laryngeal HSDIs. In addition, each participant underwent spirometry for measurement of three aerodynamic parameters, including peak expiratory air flow (PEAF), during weak/strong VC tasks. Significant differences were found for both maximum EGG frequency and PEAF between the healthy and UVFP groups and between the weak and strong VC tasks. Among the three cough aerodynamic parameters, PEAF showed the highest positive correlation with the maximum EGG frequency. The correlation coefficients between the maximum EGG frequency and PEAF recorded simultaneously were 0.574 for the whole group, and 0.782/0.717/0.823/0.688 for the male/female/male-healthy/male-UVFP subgroups, respectively. Consequently, the maximum EGG frequency measured in the expiration phase of VC was shown to reflect the velocity of expiratory airflow to some extent and was suggested to be affected by vocal fold physical properties, glottal closure condition, and the expiratory function.

  18. Cliff : the automatized zipper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baharom, M.Z.; Toeters, M.J.; Delbressine, F.L.M.; Bangaru, C.; Feijs, L.M.G.

    2016-01-01

    It is our strong believe that fashion - more specifically apparel - can support us so much more in our daily life than it currently does. The Cliff project takes the opportunity to create a generic automatized zipper. It is a response to the struggle by elderly, people with physical disability, and

  19. Automatic Oscillating Turret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    Final Report: February 1978 ZAUTOMATIC OSCILLATING TURRET SYSTEM September 1980 * 6. PERFORMING 01G. REPORT NUMBER .J7. AUTHOR(S) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT...o....e.... *24 APPENDIX P-4 OSCILLATING BUMPER TURRET ...................... 25 A. DESCRIPTION 1. Turret Controls ...Other criteria requirements were: 1. Turret controls inside cab. 2. Automatic oscillation with fixed elevation to range from 20* below the horizontal to

  20. Reactor component automatic grapple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenaway, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment. (author)

  1. Automatic sweep circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input is described. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found

  2. Automatic sweep circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Donald J.

    1980-01-01

    An automatically sweeping circuit for searching for an evoked response in an output signal in time with respect to a trigger input. Digital counters are used to activate a detector at precise intervals, and monitoring is repeated for statistical accuracy. If the response is not found then a different time window is examined until the signal is found.

  3. Automatic Commercial Permit Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grana, Paul [Folsom Labs, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2017-12-21

    Final report for Folsom Labs’ Solar Permit Generator project, which has successfully completed, resulting in the development and commercialization of a software toolkit within the cloud-based HelioScope software environment that enables solar engineers to automatically generate and manage draft documents for permit submission.

  4. Effect of multiple honey doses on non-specific acute cough in children. An open randomised study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli Sopo, S; Greco, M; Monaco, S; Varrasi, G; Di Lorenzo, G; Simeone, G

    2015-01-01

    Honey is recommended for non-specific acute paediatric cough by the Australian guidelines. Current available randomised clinical trials evaluated the effects of a single evening dose of honey, but multiple doses outcomes have never been studied. To evaluate the effects of wildflower honey, given for three subsequent evenings, on non-specific acute paediatric cough, compared to dextromethorphan (DM) and levodropropizine (LDP), which are the most prescribed over-the-counter (OTC) antitussives in Italy. 134 children suffering from non-specific acute cough were randomised to receive for three subsequent evenings a mixture of milk (90ml) and wildflower honey (10ml) or a dose of DM or LDP adjusted for the specific age. The effectiveness was evaluated by a cough questionnaire answered by parents. Primary end-point efficacy was therapeutic success. The latter was defined as a decrease in cough questionnaire score greater than 50% after treatment compared with baseline values. Three children were excluded from the study, as their parents did not complete the questionnaire. Therapeutic success was achieved by 80% in the honey and milk group and 87% in OTC medication group (p=0.25). Milk and honey mixture seems to be at least as effective as DM or LDP in non-specific acute cough in children. These results are in line with previous studies, which reported the health effects of honey on paediatric cough, even if placebo effect cannot be totally excluded. Copyright © 2014 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Experience in automatic processing of 340.000 images from ITEF 3-m magnetic spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhelyadin, R.I.; Dukhovskoj, I.A.; Ivanov, L.V.; Kishkurno, V.V.; Krutenkova, A.P.; Kulikov, V.V.; Lyulevich, V.I.; Polikarpov, V.M.; Radkevich, I.A.; Fedorets, V.S.; Fedotov, O.P.

    1974-01-01

    A number of conclusions were made regarding automatic processing of 340.000 pictures (1.020.000 frames) developed on a three-meter magnetic spectrometer with spark chambers. Possibilities for time optimization of automatic processing programs are discussed. The results of processing of a series of photographs were analysed to compare the paramters of automatic ans semi-automatic processing. Some problems relating to organization and technology of picture processing are also autlined [ru

  6. Olodaterol attenuates citric acid-induced cough in naïve and ovalbumin-sensitized and challenged guinea pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wex

    Full Text Available Excessive coughing is a common feature of airway diseases. Different G-protein coupled receptors, including β2-adrenergic receptors (β2-AR, have been implicated in the molecular mechanisms underlying the cough reflex. However, the potential antitussive property of β2-AR agonists in patients with respiratory disease is a matter of ongoing debate. The aim of our study was to test the efficacy of the long-acting β2-AR agonist olodaterol with regard to its antitussive property in a pre-clinical model of citric acid-induced cough in guinea pigs and to compare the results to different clinically relevant β2-AR agonists. In our study β2-AR agonists were intratracheally administered, as dry powder, into the lungs of naïve or ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs 15 minutes prior to induction of cough by exposure to citric acid. Cough events were counted over 15 minutes during the citric acid exposure. Olodaterol dose-dependently inhibited the number of cough events in naïve and even more potently and with a greater maximal efficacy in ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs (p < 0.01. Formoterol and salmeterol showed a trend towards reducing cough. On the contrary, indacaterol demonstrated pro-tussive properties as it significantly increased the number of coughs, both in naïve and ovalbumin-sensitized animals (p < 0.001. In conclusion, olodaterol, at doses eliciting bronchodilation, showed antitussive properties in a model of citric acid-induced cough in naïve and ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs. This is in agreement with pre-clinical and clinical studies showing antitussive efficacy of β2-AR agonists. Indacaterol increased the number of coughs in this model, which concurs with clinical data where a transient cough has been observed after indacaterol inhalation. While the antitussive properties of β2-AR agonists can be explained by their ability to lead to the cAMP-induced hyperpolarization of the neuron membrane thereby inhibiting sensory nerve

  7. Automatic indexing, compiling and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreewsky, Alexandre; Fluhr, Christian.

    1975-06-01

    A review of the principles of automatic indexing, is followed by a comparison and summing-up of work by the authors and by a Soviet staff from the Moscou INFORM-ELECTRO Institute. The mathematical and linguistic problems of the automatic building of thesaurus and automatic classification are examined [fr

  8. A 29-Year-Old Man With Nonproductive Cough, Exertional Dyspnea, and Chest Discomfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpenny, Darragh; Suh, James; Garofano, Suzette; Alpert, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    A 29-year-old man presented with a 5-month history of worsening dry cough, exertional dyspnea, chest tightness, and palpitations. He had been treated by his primary care physician with trials of guaifenesin/codeine, azithromycin, albuterol, and omeprazole without improvement. He denied wheezing, fever, sweats, anorexia, joint pain, swelling, or rash. He had no past medical history. He denied a history of tobacco smoking or IV drug use. He kept no pets, worked as a manager in an office environment, and had no history of occupational inhalational exposure. He reported using aerosolized insect spray to eradicate bed bugs in his house shortly before the cough began but did not report any acute symptoms when using the spray.

  9. CERTAIN ASPECTS OF COUGH PATHOGENETIC THERAPY OF ACUTE CHILD RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Bardenikova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An open controlled comparative research was conducted on 263 children with acute respiratory infection (ARI in order to evaluate the clinical effectiveness, acceptability and safety of plant based preparation that contains ivy leaf extract. It was established that prescribing the preparation during the first days of disease reduced the duration of dry and inefficient cough, improved sputum rheology and bronchial tree drainage function, reduced bronchial obstruction intensity, reduced the need for prescribing bronchial spasmolitics less necessary and decreased Staybin term. Compared to other antibcough medicines, plant based preparation with ivy leaf extract has quicker effect (effective on the 1st–3rd day.Key words: children, acute respiratory infections, cough, treatment.

  10. Whooping cough in Pakistan: Bordetella pertussis vs Bordetella parapertussis in 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Habib; Said, Fahad; Syed, Muhammad A; Mughal, Amjad; Kazi, Yasmeen F; Heuvelman, Kees; Mooi, Frits R

    2011-10-01

    Pertussis, or whooping cough, is an acute respiratory disease mainly affecting infants and children and is caused by Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis. The aim of this study was to investigate the share of Bordetella species from potential whooping cough cases during 2005-2009. Eight hundred and two samples from suspected pertussis cases were collected, mainly from 2 provinces of Pakistan. Bacterial culture, identification, DNA extraction and routinely used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods using IS1001, IS1002 and IS481 were used to identify the Bordetella species. The results were unexpected, because all of the isolates collected from the different cities were identified as B. parapertussis (7.4%); B. pertussis was not isolated from any sample. However, PCR results indicated the presence of a small percentage (0.6%) of B. pertussis among the total cases studied. This study suggests that vaccines to protect against both B. pertussis and B. parapertussis should be considered.

  11. Automatization of welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwabuchi, Masashi; Tomita, Jinji; Nishihara, Katsunori.

    1978-01-01

    Automatization of welding is one of the effective measures for securing high degree of quality of nuclear power equipment, as well as for correspondence to the environment at the site of plant. As the latest ones of the automatic welders practically used for welding of nuclear power apparatuses in factories of Toshiba and IHI, those for pipes and lining tanks are described here. The pipe welder performs the battering welding on the inside of pipe end as the so-called IGSCC countermeasure and the succeeding butt welding through the same controller. The lining tank welder is able to perform simultaneous welding of two parallel weld lines on a large thin plate lining tank. Both types of the welders are demonstrating excellent performance at the shops as well as at the plant site. (author)

  12. Automatic structural scene digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui; Wang, Yuhan; Cosker, Darren; Li, Wenbin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an automatic system for the analysis and labeling of structural scenes, floor plan drawings in Computer-aided Design (CAD) format. The proposed system applies a fusion strategy to detect and recognize various components of CAD floor plans, such as walls, doors, windows and other ambiguous assets. Technically, a general rule-based filter parsing method is fist adopted to extract effective information from the original floor plan. Then, an image-processing based recovery method is employed to correct information extracted in the first step. Our proposed method is fully automatic and real-time. Such analysis system provides high accuracy and is also evaluated on a public website that, on average, archives more than ten thousands effective uses per day and reaches a relatively high satisfaction rate.

  13. Automatic trend estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Vamos¸, C˘alin

    2013-01-01

    Our book introduces a method to evaluate the accuracy of trend estimation algorithms under conditions similar to those encountered in real time series processing. This method is based on Monte Carlo experiments with artificial time series numerically generated by an original algorithm. The second part of the book contains several automatic algorithms for trend estimation and time series partitioning. The source codes of the computer programs implementing these original automatic algorithms are given in the appendix and will be freely available on the web. The book contains clear statement of the conditions and the approximations under which the algorithms work, as well as the proper interpretation of their results. We illustrate the functioning of the analyzed algorithms by processing time series from astrophysics, finance, biophysics, and paleoclimatology. The numerical experiment method extensively used in our book is already in common use in computational and statistical physics.

  14. Staggering the dose of sugammadex lowers risks for severe emergence cough: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P S, Loh; Miskan, M M; Y Z, Chin; Zaki, R A

    2017-10-11

    Cough on emergence has been reported as a common adverse reaction with sugammadex reversal. We investigated if staggering the dose of sugammadex will reduce emergence cough in a single-center, randomized, double-blinded study. A hundred and twenty ASA 1-3 adults were randomly reversed with 1 mg/kg sugammadex prior to extubation followed by another 1 mg/kg immediately after extubation (staggered group), single dose of 2 mg/kg sugammadex (single bolus group) or neostigmine 0.02 mg/kg with glycopyrrolate (neostigmine group). We found 70% of patients (n = 28) reversed with single boluses of sugammadex had Grade 3 emergence cough compared to 12.5% (n = 5) in the staggered sugammadex group and 17.5% (n = 7) in the neostigmine group (p sugammadex group (n = 14, 35%, p = 0.005). On the other hand, staggering sugammadex lowered risks of developing severe cough (RR 0.2, p sugammadex group and control given neostigmine. In terms of timing, there was no delay in time taken from discontinuing anesthetic agents to reversal and extubation if sugammadex was staggered (emergence time 6.0 ± 3.2 s, p = 0.625 and reversal time 6.5 ± 3.5, p = 0.809). Staggering the dose of sugammadex for reversal will effectively decrease common emergence and early postoperative complications. ANZCTR Number ACTRN12616000116426 . Retrospectively registered on 2nd February 2016.

  15. Fat Dogs and Coughing Horses: K-12 Programming for Veterinary Workforce Development

    OpenAIRE

    San Miguel, Sandra F.; Parker, Loran Carleton; Adedokun, Omolola A.; Burgess, Wilella D.; Cipriani Davis, Kauline S.; Blossom, Thaddaeus D.; Schneider, Jessica L.; Mennonno, Ann M.; Ruhl, Joseph D.; Veatch, Jennifer H.; Wackerly, Amy J.; Shin, Soo Yeon; Ratliff, Timothy L.

    2013-01-01

    Workforce development strategies to educate, inform, and diversify the veterinary profession of the future must begin with children in elementary school. This manuscript provides a description of the Fat Dogs and Coughing Horses program, which takes a multifaceted approach toward informing young students, beginning in first grade, about the interesting work and career opportunities available in the field of veterinary medicine. The program, a collaboration among Purdue University and Indiana ...

  16. Vertical diplopia and oscillopsia due to midbrain keyhole aqueduct syndrome associated with severe cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Jinsook Oh

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Midline structural defects in the neural axis can give rise to neuro-ophthalmic symptoms. We report a rare case of keyhole aqueduct syndrome presenting after two years of severe cough due to gastroesophageal reflux disease. Observations: A 58-year-old woman with a 2-year history of daily, severe cough presented to the neuro-ophthalmology clinic with progressive diplopia and oscillopsia. Examination revealed a 1–2 Hz down-beating nystagmus in primary gaze that worsened with left, right, and down gazes. Gaze evoked nystagmus and mild paresis were also seen with up gaze. There was an incomitant left hypertropia due to skew deviation that worsened with right and up gazes and improved with down gaze. She also had a right-sided ptosis and a 3 mm anisocoria not due to cranial nerve 3 paresis or Horner's syndrome. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a 1.5 mm × 11.7 mm × 6 mm midline cleft in the ventral midbrain communicating with the cerebral aqueduct, consistent with keyhole aqueduct syndrome. Her nystagmus and diplopia improved with oral acetazolamide treatment, at high doses of 2500–3000 mg per day. Conclusions and importance: We report the first case of midbrain keyhole aqueduct syndrome with ocular motor and other neuro-ophthalmic manifestations associated with severe cough. Although her cough was effectively treated and intracranial pressure measurement was normal, her ophthalmic symptoms continued to progress, which is common in previous cases reported. Treatment with acetazolamide led to significant improvement, supporting the use of acetazolamide in this rare condition. Keywords: Keyhole aqueduct syndrome, Midbrain cleft, Mesencephalic cleft, Syrinx, Syringobulbia, Down-beating nystagmus, Cerebrospinal fluid

  17. Vertical diplopia and oscillopsia due to midbrain keyhole aqueduct syndrome associated with severe cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Angela Jinsook; Lanzman, Bryan Alexander; Liao, Yaping Joyce

    2018-06-01

    Midline structural defects in the neural axis can give rise to neuro-ophthalmic symptoms. We report a rare case of keyhole aqueduct syndrome presenting after two years of severe cough due to gastroesophageal reflux disease. A 58-year-old woman with a 2-year history of daily, severe cough presented to the neuro-ophthalmology clinic with progressive diplopia and oscillopsia. Examination revealed a 1-2 Hz down-beating nystagmus in primary gaze that worsened with left, right, and down gazes. Gaze evoked nystagmus and mild paresis were also seen with up gaze. There was an incomitant left hypertropia due to skew deviation that worsened with right and up gazes and improved with down gaze. She also had a right-sided ptosis and a 3 mm anisocoria not due to cranial nerve 3 paresis or Horner's syndrome. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a 1.5 mm × 11.7 mm × 6 mm midline cleft in the ventral midbrain communicating with the cerebral aqueduct, consistent with keyhole aqueduct syndrome. Her nystagmus and diplopia improved with oral acetazolamide treatment, at high doses of 2500-3000 mg per day. We report the first case of midbrain keyhole aqueduct syndrome with ocular motor and other neuro-ophthalmic manifestations associated with severe cough. Although her cough was effectively treated and intracranial pressure measurement was normal, her ophthalmic symptoms continued to progress, which is common in previous cases reported. Treatment with acetazolamide led to significant improvement, supporting the use of acetazolamide in this rare condition.

  18. Laryngeal response patterns influence the efficacy of mechanical assisted cough in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Tiina Maarit; Sandnes, Astrid; Brekka, Anne Kristine; Hilland, Magnus; Clemm, Hege; Fondenes, Ove; Tysnes, Ole Bjørn; Heimdal, John-Helge; Halvorsen, Thomas; Vollsæter, Maria; Røksund, Ola Drange

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are treated with mechanical insufflation–exsufflation (MI-E) in order to improve cough. This method often fails in ALS with bulbar involvement, allegedly due to upper-airway malfunction. We have studied this phenomenon in detail with laryngoscopy to unravel information that could lead to better treatment. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 20 patients with ALS and 20 healthy age-matched and sex-matched v...

  19. A 68-Year-Old Man With Dyspnea on Exertion and Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Abhinav; Sikachi, Rutuja R; Koenig, Seth; Khanijo, Sameer

    2018-06-01

    A 68-year-old man with a history of chronic lymphocytic leukemia well controlled on ibrutinib, hypertension, obesity, and a remote history of smoking (10 pack-years) presented with increasing dyspnea on exertion and cough. He had previously finished two courses of oral antibiotics for his symptoms without significant improvement. On presentation, he had no fevers or sputum production. Copyright © 2018 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Grey Turner's and Cullen's signs induced by spontaneous hemorrhage of the abdominal wall after coughing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhe; Zhang, Yingyi

    2017-08-01

    Grey Turner's and Cullen's signs are rare clinical signs, which most appear in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. The present patient complained of abdominal pain after coughing. However, contrast-enhanced CT revealed a hemorrhage of the abdominal wall. Therefore, spontaneous hemorrhage of the abdominal wall was diagnosed. The patient recovered through immobilization and hemostasis therapy. This case report and literature review aims to remind clinicians of manifestations and treatment of spontaneous hemorrhage.

  1. Automatic food decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone

    Consumers' food decisions are to a large extent shaped by automatic processes, which are either internally directed through learned habits and routines or externally influenced by context factors and visual information triggers. Innovative research methods such as eye tracking, choice experiments...... and food diaries allow us to better understand the impact of unconscious processes on consumers' food choices. Simone Mueller Loose will provide an overview of recent research insights into the effects of habit and context on consumers' food choices....

  2. Automatic LOD selection

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a method to automatically generate transition distances for LOD, improving image stability and performance is presented. Three different methods were tested all measuring the change between two level of details using the spatial frequency. The methods were implemented as an optional pre-processing step in order to determine the transition distances from multiple view directions. During run-time both view direction based selection and the furthest distance for each direction was ...

  3. Differentiation of Lung Cancer, Empyema, and Abscess Through the Investigation of a Dry Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urso, Brittany; Michaels, Scott

    2016-11-24

    An acute dry cough results commonly from bronchitis or pneumonia. When a patient presents with signs of infection, respiratory crackles, and a positive chest radiograph, the diagnosis of pneumonia is more common. Antibiotic failure in a patient being treated for community-acquired pneumonia requires further investigation through chest computed tomography. If a lung mass is found on chest computed tomography, lung empyema, abscess, and cancer need to be included on the differential and managed aggressively. This report describes a 55-year-old Caucasian male, with a history of obesity, recovered alcoholism, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension, presenting with an acute dry cough in the primary care setting. The patient developed signs of infection and was found to have a lung mass on chest computed tomography. Treatment with piperacillin-tazobactam and chest tube placement did not resolve the mass, so treatment with thoracotomy and lobectomy was required. It was determined through surgical investigation that the patient, despite having no risk factors, developed a lung abscess. Lung abscesses rarely form in healthy middle-aged individuals making it an unlikely cause of the patient's presenting symptom, dry cough. The patient cleared his infection with proper management and only suffered minor complications of mild pneumoperitoneum and pneumothorax during his hospitalization.

  4. Relation of the Timing of Onset of Rhinitis and Cough to Asthma Attack in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Tetsu; Ozaki, Yukiko; Tananari, Yoshifumi; Yamakawa, Rumi; Hirata, Rumiko

    2016-01-01

    If the risk of progression to asthma could be predicted in patients with rhinitis, prevention of asthma might become possible. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between the duration of rhinitis symptoms and acute asthma attacks in children with a history of asthma who were not on treatment for asthma. In 94 children with a history of asthma who were asymptomatic after completing asthma treatment, we investigated the onset and duration of nasal discharge and cough related to allergic rhinitis. Then the children were followed up for 2 weeks and were classified into either an asthma attack group (Group A) or non-asthma group(Group B). A total of 78 subjects were evaluated after 16 were excluded. The duration of nasal discharge was significantly shorter in Group A than in Group B (5.5±1.9 days vs. 10.4±3.1 days, Pasthma attack may be higher when the onset of cough precedes nasal discharge or when nasal discharge has a short duration and cough shows an early onset. These results may provide assistance when selecting patients for early anti-allergy therapy from among those presenting with upper respiratory tract symptoms.

  5. Pseudo-asthma: when cough, wheezing, and dyspnea are not asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Miles; Abu-Hasan, Mutasim

    2007-10-01

    Although asthma is the most common cause of cough, wheeze, and dyspnea in children and adults, asthma is often attributed inappropriately to symptoms from other causes. Cough that is misdiagnosed as asthma can occur with pertussis, cystic fibrosis, primary ciliary dyskinesia, airway abnormalities such as tracheomalacia and bronchomalacia, chronic purulent or suppurative bronchitis in young children, and habit-cough syndrome. The respiratory sounds that occur with the upper airway obstruction caused by the various manifestations of the vocal cord dysfunction syndrome or the less common exercise-induced laryngomalacia are often mischaracterized as wheezing and attributed to asthma. The perception of dyspnea is a prominent symptom of hyperventilation attacks. This can occur in those with or without asthma, and patients with asthma may not readily distinguish the perceived dyspnea of a hyperventilation attack from the acute airway obstruction of asthma. Dyspnea on exertion, in the absence of other symptoms of asthma or an unequivocal response to albuterol, is most likely a result of other causes. Most common is the dyspnea associated with normal exercise limitation, but causes of dyspnea on exertion can include other physiologic abnormalities including exercise-induced vocal cord dysfunction, exercise-induced laryngomalacia, exercise-induced hyperventilation, and exercise-induced supraventricular tachycardia. A careful history, attention to the nature of the respiratory sounds that are present, spirometry, exercise testing, and blood-gas measurement provide useful data to sort out the various causes and avoid inappropriate treatment of these pseudo-asthma clinical manifestations.

  6. Right sided arcus aorta as a cause of dyspnea and chronic cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkaya Sevket

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Right sided arcus aorta (RSAA is a rare condition that is usually asymptomatic. Patients may present with exertional dyspnea and chronic cough. A recent article suggested that RSAA should be included in the differential diagnosis of asthma, especially in patients with intractable exertional dyspnea. We aimed to present the clinical, radiologic and spirometric features of thirteen patients with RSAA observed in four years at the Rize Education and Research Hospital and Samsun Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Hospital. Methods The characteristics of patients with RSAA, including age, gender, symptoms, radiologic and spirometric findings, were retrospectively evaluated. Results A total of thirteen patients were diagnosed with RSAA. Their ages ranged from 17 to 86 years and the male to female ratio was 11:2. Seven of the patients (54% were symptomatic. The most common symptoms were exertional dyspnea, dysphagia and chronic cough. Five patients had received treatment for asthma with bronchodilators. Spirometry showed intrathoracic tracheal obstruction in five patients. Conclusions The RSAA anomaly occurs more frequently than might be estimated from the number of patients who are detected. Patients with intractable exertional dyspnea and chronic cough should be evaluated for the RSAA anomaly by thoracic CT.

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of patients with nonacid gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghuai Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux (GER is one of the most common causes of chronic cough, and chronic cough due to GER represents a subtype of GER-related diseases. Gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough (GERC can be divided into two subgroups based on the pH of the GER. Nonacid GERC is less common than acid GERC, and its diagnosis and treatment strategy have not been standardized. However, nonacid GERC usually presents with its unique set of characteristics and features upon diagnosis and treatment in the clinic. Although the underlying molecular mechanism of nonacid GERC is not fully understood, it is considered to be associated with reflux theory, reflex theory and airway hypersensitivity. Multi-channel intraluminal impedance combined with pH monitoring is a promising new technique that can detect both acid and nonacid reflux, and our findings as well as those of others have shown its usefulness in diagnosing nonacid GERC. Development of new diagnostic techniques has led to an increased rate of nonacid GERC diagnosis. We summarize our experience in the diagnosis and treatment of nonacid GERC and provide a guide for future therapeutic approaches.

  8. [Whooping cough in an urban high school in Hungary. Conclusions of a local pertussis outbreak].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ferenc; Stánitz, Eva; Kalácska, Judit; Tompity, Tünde; Gábor, Beáta

    2009-08-16

    Although incidence of pertussis has been gradually decreased with the introduction of active immunization, total eradication is not possible. This has been shown by national and international data, as well. In the early 2000's, slow increase in incidence of pertussis was observed. To demonstrate the presence of Bordetella pertussis in the Hungarian population by presenting 17 cases of adolescent pertussis. Etiology of pertussis was confirmed by quantification of pertussis-antibodies in blood samples taken from permanently coughing patients in the firstly identified subject's vicinity which latter was explored by retrospective data collection. In the vicinity of the first identified patient epidemiologic research identified another 16 patients all of which were confirmed by serological tests. If permanent coughing is present, pertussis needs to be ruled out. Immunity against pertussis obtained by vaccination fades by the end of childhood. Bordetella pertussis circulates in the national population. A booster-vaccination against pertussis in the regular vaccination course for the 11-year old children is recommended. Pertussis in adolescents and in adults is mild and atypical, but in case of prolonged coughing it needs to be considered.

  9. A study of ′cough trick′ technique in reducing vaccination prick pain in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram S. Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ′cough trick′ (CT technique is used in reducing intramuscular prick (IMP pain during vaccinations and also for brief painful procedures like subcutaneous injection, intravenous cannulation, and so forth. We present the utility study of this technique in male adolescents. Materials and Methods: A Randomized Crossover Volunteer Study of 50 early adolescent male children (age 11-13 receiving immunizations was performed. Participants were recruited from four outpatient pediatric clinics. The strategy required a single "warm-up" cough of moderate force, followed by a second cough that coincided with needle puncture. The principle outcome was self-reported pain. Results: Paired ′t′ test revealed that the procedure was effective at a statistically and clinically significant level for participants. Children found the procedure acceptable and effective. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the CT can be an effective strategy for the reduction of pain for male adolescent children undergoing routine immunizations. However, additional research is needed with a larger sample size with different age groups and also including girl children.

  10. Effect of acid suppression therapy on gastroesophageal reflux and cough in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilduff, Claire E; Counter, Melanie J; Thomas, Gareth A; Harrison, Nicholas K; Hope-Gill, Benjamin D

    2014-01-01

    Chronic cough affects more than 70 percent of patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and causes significant morbidity. Gastroesophageal reflux is the cause of some cases of chronic cough; and also has a postulated role in the aetiology of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. A high prevalence of acid; and more recently non-acid, reflux has been observed in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis cohorts. Therefore, gastroesophageal reflux may be implicated in the pathogenesis of cough in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. Eighteen subjects with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis underwent 24-hour oesophageal impedance and cough count monitoring after the careful exclusion of causes of chronic cough other than gastroesophageal reflux. All 18 were then treated with high dose acid suppression therapies. Fourteen subjects underwent repeat 24-hour oesophageal impedance and cough count monitoring after eight weeks. Total reflux and acid reflux frequencies were within the normal range in the majority of this cohort. The frequencies of non-acid and proximal reflux events were above the normal range. Following high dose acid suppression therapy there was a significant decrease in the number of acid reflux events (p = 0.02), but an increase in the number of non-acid reflux events (p = 0.01). There was no change in cough frequency (p = 0.70). This study confirms that non-acid reflux is prevalent; and that proximal oesophageal reflux occurs in the majority, of subjects with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. It is the first study to investigate the effect of acid suppression therapy on gastroesophageal reflux and cough in patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. The observation that cough frequency does not improve despite verifiable reductions in oesophageal acid exposure challenges the role of acid reflux in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis associated cough. The finding that non-acid reflux is increased following the use of acid suppression therapies cautions against the widespread use

  11. Prevalence of chronic cough and phlegm among male cigar and pipe smokers: results of the Scottish Heart Health Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, C. A.; Woodward, M.; Tunstall-Pedoe, H.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Previous studies investigating the effect of cigar or pipe smoking on the occurrence of chronic cough and chronic phlegm have reported prevalences among cigar and pipe smokers lying between those of non-smokers and current cigarette smokers. This study uses data on previous cigarette consumption, current cigar or pipe consumption, and biochemical markers of smoking to provide a detailed analysis of chronic cough and chronic phlegm among cigar and pipe smokers. METHODS--A total of ...

  12. Theobromine for the treatment of persistent cough: a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morice, Alyn H; McGarvey, Lorcan; Pavord, Ian D; Higgins, Bernard; Chung, Kian Fan; Birring, Surinder S

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the effect of BC1036 on health-related quality of life (QOL) in subjects with persistent cough. The secondary objective was to investigate the effect of BC1036 on subjective cough severity. This was a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study in 289 subjects with persistent cough. Subjects received BC1036 or placebo twice daily for 14 days. The primary endpoint comprised cough-related QOL assessed using the validated Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) at Day 14. Secondary endpoints comprised the LCQ scores at Day 7 and Day 28, cough severity VAS scores at each visit and pulmonary function tests. At baseline, mean total LCQ score in the BC1036 group was lower (i.e., worse QOL) than placebo (P<0.001), indicating significant between-group heterogeneity. Mean baseline-adjusted change in LCQ score at Day 14 was greater for BC1036 [mean (SD) 2.4±3.5] compared to placebo [mean (SD) score 2.2±3.0], but did not reach statistical significance (P=0.60). Mean cough severity VAS score decreased to a greater extent in the BC1036 group compared to placebo, but again the results were not statistically significant (-12.2±23.28 in BC1036 group and -11.0±21.34 in placebo group at Day 14, P=0.688). There was no significant change in pulmonary function measurements. The adverse event (AE) profile was similar in both groups. This study showed that BC1036 was well tolerated and, although the primary endpoint did not achieve statistical significance, the magnitude of improvement was greater with BC1036 compared to placebo with respect to improving QOL and reducing cough severity. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01656668.

  13. Recommendations for the proper use of nonprescription cough suppressants and expectorants in solid-organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven; Carter, Danielle; Martin, Spencer; Roberts, Keri

    2011-03-01

    To describe the pharmacology and safety of oral over-the-counter cough suppressants and expectorants and to present recommendations for the use of these agents in solid-organ transplant recipients based on the potential for adverse drug reactions or drug-disease interactions. Data from journal articles and other sources describing the pharmacology and safety of over-the-counter cough suppressants and expectorants, drug-drug interactions with immunosuppressive agents, and drug-disease state interactions are reviewed. Potential and documented drug-drug interactions between immunosuppressive agents and over-the-counter cough medications guaifenesin, dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, and codeine were evaluated on the basis of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles. Interactions between these cough medications and the physiological changes in the body following transplantation also were examined. Diphenhydramine requires additional monitoring when used to treat cough in transplant recipients owing to its anticholinergic properties and the potential for interactions with cyclosporine. Dextromethorphan can be used in most transplant recipients, although greater caution should be exercised if the patient has undergone liver transplant or has liver impairment. Guaifenesin can be used in transplant recipients but should be used with caution in patients receiving kidney or lung transplants and in patients with renal impairment. Codeine combined with guaifenesin is another option for cough and can be used in most transplant patients although those with reduced renal function should be monitored carefully for adverse events.

  14. The cough reflex is upregulated by lisinopril microinjected into the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinelli, Elenia; Bongianni, Fulvia; Pantaleo, Tito; Mutolo, Donatella

    2015-12-01

    We have previously shown that cough potentiation induced by intravenous administration of the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan is lower than that induced by the ACE inhibitor lisinopril in anesthetized and awake rabbits. Since losartan and lisinopril cross the blood-brain barrier, their central action on the cough reflex can be hypothesized. Mechanical stimulation of the tracheobronchial tree and citric acid inhalation were used to induce cough reflex responses in pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rabbits. Bilateral microinjections (30-50 nl) of losartan (5mM), lisinopril (1mM), bradykinin (0.05 mM), HOE-140 (0.2mM, a bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist) and CP-99,994 (1mM, an NK1 receptor antagonist) were performed into the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii, the predominant site of termination of cough-related afferents. Lisinopril, but not losartan increased the cough number. This effect was reverted by HOE-140 or CP-99,994. Cough potentiation was also induced by bradykinin. The results support for the first time a central protussive action of lisinopril mediated by an accumulation of bradykinin and substance P. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Predicting Extubation Outcome by Cough Peak Flow Measured Using a Built-in Ventilator Flow Meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobert, Florent; Yonis, Hodane; Tapponnier, Romain; Fernandez, Raul; Labaune, Marie-Aude; Burle, Jean-François; Barbier, Jack; Vincent, Bernard; Cleyet, Maria; Richard, Jean-Christophe; Guérin, Claude

    2017-12-01

    Successful weaning from mechanical ventilation depends on the patient's ability to cough efficiently. Cough peak flow (CPF) could predict extubation success using a dedicated flow meter but required patient disconnection. We aimed to predict extubation outcome using an overall model, including cough performance assessed by a ventilator flow meter. This was a prospective observational study conducted from November 2014 to October 2015. Before and after a spontaneous breathing trial, subjects were encouraged to cough as strongly as possible before freezing the ventilator screen to assess CPF and tidal volume (V T ) in the preceding inspiration. Early extubation success rate was defined as the proportion of subjects not re-intubated 48 h after extubation. Diagnostic performance of CPF and V T was assessed by using the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve. Cut-off values for CPF and V T were defined according to median values and used to describe the performance of a predictive test combining them with risk factors of early extubation failure. Among 673 subjects admitted, 92 had a cough assessment before extubation. For the 81 subjects with early extubation success, the median CPF was -67.7 L/min, and median V T was 0.646 L. For the 11 subjects with early extubation failure, the median CPF was -57.3 L/min, and median V T was 0.448 L. Area under the curve was 0.61 (95% CI 0.37-0.83) for CPF and 0.64 (95% CI 0.42-0.84) for CPF/V T combined. After dichotomization (CPF 0.55 L), there was a synergistic effect to predict early extubation success ( P meter of an ICU ventilator was able to predict extubation success and to build a composite score to predict extubation failure. The results were close to that found in previous studies that used a dedicated flow meter. This could help to identify high-risk subjects to prevent extubation failure. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT02847221.). Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  16. Automatic sample changer for neutron activation analysis at CDTN, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aimore Dutra Neto; Oliveira Pelaes, Ana Clara; Jacimovic, Radojko

    2018-01-01

    An automatic sample changer was recently developed and installed in the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) Laboratory. The certified reference material BCR-320R, Channel Sediment, was analysed in order to verify the reliability of the results obtained by NAA, k 0 -standardisation method, using this automatic system during the gamma-ray measurement step. The results were compared to those manually obtained. The values pointed out that the automatic sample changer is working properly. This changer will increase the productiveness of the neutron activation technique applied at Nuclear Technology Development Centre, CDTN/CNEN expanding its competitiveness as an analytical technique in relation to other techniques. (author)

  17. Automatic quantitative renal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeyre, J.; Deltour, G.; Delisle, M.J.; Bouchard, A.

    1976-01-01

    Renal scintigraphy data may be analyzed automatically by the use of a processing system coupled to an Anger camera (TRIDAC-MULTI 8 or CINE 200). The computing sequence is as follows: normalization of the images; background noise subtraction on both images; evaluation of mercury 197 uptake by the liver and spleen; calculation of the activity fractions on each kidney with respect to the injected dose, taking into account the kidney depth and the results referred to normal values; edition of the results. Automation minimizes the scattering parameters and by its simplification is a great asset in routine work [fr

  18. AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, C.F.; Salisbury, J.D.

    1961-01-10

    A control is described for automatically matching the frequency of a resonant cavity to that of a driving oscillator. The driving oscillator is disconnected from the cavity and a secondary oscillator is actuated in which the cavity is the frequency determining element. A low frequency is mixed with the output of the driving oscillator and the resultant lower and upper sidebands are separately derived. The frequencies of the sidebands are compared with the secondary oscillator frequency. deriving a servo control signal to adjust a tuning element in the cavity and matching the cavity frequency to that of the driving oscillator. The driving oscillator may then be connected to the cavity.

  19. Automatic dipole subtraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, K.

    2008-01-01

    The Catani-Seymour dipole subtraction is a general procedure to treat infrared divergences in real emission processes at next-to-leading order in QCD. We automatized the procedure in a computer code. The code is useful especially for the processes with many parton legs. In this talk, we first explain the algorithm of the dipole subtraction and the whole structure of our code. After that we show the results for some processes where the infrared divergences of real emission processes are subtracted. (author)

  20. Automatic programmable air ozonizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubarev, S.P.; Klosovsky, A.V.; Opaleva, G.P.; Taran, V.S.; Zolototrubova, M.I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe a compact, economical, easy to manage auto air ozonator developed at the Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT. It is designed for sanitation, disinfection of premises and cleaning the air from foreign odors. A distinctive feature of the developed device is the generation of a given concentration of ozone, approximately 0.7 maximum allowable concentration (MAC), and automatic maintenance of a specified level. This allows people to be inside the processed premises during operation. The microprocessor controller to control the operation of the ozonator was developed

  1. Automatic personnel contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattin, Kenneth R.

    1978-01-01

    United Nuclear Industries, Inc. (UNI) has developed an automatic personnel contamination monitor (APCM), which uniquely combines the design features of both portal and hand and shoe monitors. In addition, this prototype system also has a number of new features, including: micro computer control and readout, nineteen large area gas flow detectors, real-time background compensation, self-checking for system failures, and card reader identification and control. UNI's experience in operating the Hanford N Reactor, located in Richland, Washington, has shown the necessity of automatically monitoring plant personnel for contamination after they have passed through the procedurally controlled radiation zones. This final check ensures that each radiation zone worker has been properly checked before leaving company controlled boundaries. Investigation of the commercially available portal and hand and shoe monitors indicated that they did not have the sensitivity or sophistication required for UNI's application, therefore, a development program was initiated, resulting in the subject monitor. Field testing shows good sensitivity to personnel contamination with the majority of alarms showing contaminants on clothing, face and head areas. In general, the APCM has sensitivity comparable to portal survey instrumentation. The inherit stand-in, walk-on feature of the APCM not only makes it easy to use, but makes it difficult to bypass. (author)

  2. Modulation of the cough reflex by GABAA receptors in the caudal ventral respiratory group of the rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenia eCinelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that the caudal ventral respiratory group (cVRG is a possible site of action of some antitussive drugs and plays a crucial role in determining both the expiratory and inspiratory components of the cough motor pattern. In addition, it has been reported that medullary expiratory neurons of the cVRG are subject to potent GABAergic gain modulation. This study was devoted to investigate the role of cVRG GABAA receptors in the control of baseline respiratory activity and cough responses to mechanical and chemical (citric acid stimulation of the tracheobronchial tree. To this purpose, bilateral microinjections (30-50 nl of bicuculline or muscimol were performed into the cVRG of pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rabbits. Bicuculline (1 mM increased peak abdominal activity and respiratory frequency due to decreases in TE. Cough responses were potentiated mainly owing to increases in the cough number. The recovery was observed within ~ 2 h. On the contrary, muscimol (0.3 mM abolished abdominal activity and decreased respiratory frequency due to increases in TE. In addition, cough responses were progressively reduced and completely suppressed within ~ 20 min. Partial recovery of cough responses was achieved after ~ 3 h or within ~ 5 min following bicuculline microinjections at the same locations. The sneeze reflex induced by mechanical stimulation of the nasal mucosa persisted following bicuculline and muscimol microinjections. However, the number and intensity of expiratory thrusts were enhanced by bicuculline and suppressed by muscimol. The results provide evidence that a potent GABAA-mediated inhibitory modulation is exerted at the level of the cVRG not only on respiratory activity, but also on cough and sneeze reflex responses.

  3. Whooping Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care Working With Your Doctor Drugs, Procedures & Devices Over-the- ...

  4. [Serological evaluation of Bordetella pertussis infection in adults with prolonged cough].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Cemile; Çöplü, Nilay; Gözalan, Ayşegül; Yılmaz, Ülkü; Bilekli, Selen; Demirci, Nilgün Yılmaz; Biber, Çiğdem; Erdoğan, Yurdanur; Esen, Berrin; Çöplü, Lütfi

    2016-07-01

    Pertussis is a vaccine-preventable disease that is transmitted from infected to susceptible individuals by respiratory route. Bordetella pertussis infection may occur at any age as neither vaccine nor natural infection induced immunity lasts life-long. This study was planned to demonstrate the serological evidence of infection among adults, to raise awareness among clinicians and to provide data for the development of strategies to protect vulnerable infants. A total of 538 patients (345 female, 193 male) ages between 18-87 years who had a complain of prolonged cough for more than two weeks were included in the study. Anti-pertussis toxin (PT) IgG and anti-filamentous hemagglutinin (FH) IgG levels from single serum samples were measured by an in-house ELISA test which was standardized and shown to be efficient previously. Anti-PT IgG antibody levels of ≥ 100 EU/ml were considered as acute/recent infection with B.pertussis. In our study, 9.7% (52/538) of the patients had high levels of anti-PT IgG (≥ 100 EU/ml) and among those patients 43 (43/52; 82.7%) also had high (≥ 100 EU/ml) anti-FHA IgG levels. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of age, gender, education level, DPT (diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus) vaccination history, smoking history or average daily cigarette consumption (p> 0.05) between the cases with high antibody levels (n= 52). When the symptoms and the presence of cases with high antibody levels were evaluated, it was detected that no one parameter was significantly different from others, except that 24.1% of the cases with inspiratory whooping had high anti-PT levels. There was also no statistically significant difference between high anti-PT levels ≥ 100 EU/ml and the patients with risk factors [smoking (21/200; 10.5%), presence of disease that cause chronic cough and/or drug usage (19/171; %11.1), and whole factors which cause chronic cough (32/306; %10.5)] and without risk factors (p= 0.581; p= 0.357; p= 0

  5. Automatic sets and Delone sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbe, A; Haeseler, F von

    2004-01-01

    Automatic sets D part of Z m are characterized by having a finite number of decimations. They are equivalently generated by fixed points of certain substitution systems, or by certain finite automata. As examples, two-dimensional versions of the Thue-Morse, Baum-Sweet, Rudin-Shapiro and paperfolding sequences are presented. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for an automatic set D part of Z m to be a Delone set in R m . The result is then extended to automatic sets that are defined as fixed points of certain substitutions. The morphology of automatic sets is discussed by means of examples

  6. Effectiveness of a cough management algorithm at the transitional phase from acute to chronic cough in Australian children aged <15 years: protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Kerry-Ann F; Grimwood, Keith; Toombs, Maree; Sloots, Theo P; Otim, Michael; Whiley, David; Anderson, Jennie; Rablin, Sheree; Torzillo, Paul J; Buntain, Helen; Connor, Anne; Adsett, Don; Meng Kar, Oon; Chang, Anne B

    2017-03-03

    Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are leading causes of hospitalisation in Australian children and, if recurrent, are associated with increased risk of chronic pulmonary disorders later in life. Chronic (>4 weeks) cough in children following ARI is associated with decreased quality-of-life scores and increased health and societal economic costs. We will determine whether a validated evidence-based cough algorithm, initiated when chronic cough is first diagnosed after presentation with ARI, improves clinical outcomes in children compared with usual care. A multicentre, parallel group, open-label, randomised controlled trial, nested within a prospective cohort study in Southeast Queensland, Australia, is underway. 750 children aged algorithm or usual care (107 per group). Randomisation is stratified by reason for presentation, site and total cough duration at day 28 (Ethics Committees have approved the study. The study will inform best-practice management of cough in children. ACTRN12615000132549. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. The Clinical Value of Deflation Cough in Chronic Coughers With Reflux Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavorini, Federico; Chellini, Elisa; Bigazzi, Francesca; Surrenti, Elisabetta; Fontana, Giovanni A

    2016-06-01

    Patients with deflation cough (DC), the cough-like expulsive effort(s) evoked by maximal lung emptying during a slow vital capacity maneuver, also present symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux. DC can be inhibited by prior intake of antacids. We wished to assess DC prevalence and association between DC and chemical characteristics of refluxate in patients with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. A total of 157 consecutive outpatients underwent DC assessment and 24-h multichannel intraluminal impedance pH (MII-pH) monitoring; 93/157 also had chronic cough. Patients performed two to four slow vital capacity maneuvers and DC was detected aurally. Subsequently, they underwent 24-h MII-pH monitoring, the outcomes of which were defined as abnormal when acid or non-acid reflux events were > 73. DC occurred in 46/157 patients, 18 of whom had abnormal MII-pH outcomes; 28 of the remaining 111 patients without DC also had abnormal MII-pH findings. Thus, in the patients as a group, there was no association between DC and MII-pH outcomes. DC occurred in 40/93 of the chronic coughers; 15 of whom had acid reflux. All but 2 of the 53 patients without DC had normal MII-pH outcomes (P < .001), and the negative predictive value of DC for excluding acid reflux was 96.2%. At follow-up, 65% of coughers showed significant improvement after treatment. The overall prevalence of DC was 29%, increasing to 43% in chronic coughers in whom the absence of DC virtually excludes acid reflux. Therefore, DC assessment may represent a useful screening test for excluding acid reflux in chronic coughers with reflux symptoms. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Reversal of functional disorders by aspiration, expiration and cough reflexes and their voluntary counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan eTomori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Agonal gasping provoked by asphyxia can save ~15% of mammals even from untreated ventricular fibrillation, but it fails to revive infants with sudden infant death syndrome. Our systematic study of airway reflexes in cats and other animals indicated that in addition to cough, there are 2 distinct airway reflexes that may contribute to auto-resuscitation. Gasp- and sniff-like spasmodic inspirations can be elicited by nasopharyngeal stimulation, strongly activating the brainstem generator for inspiration, which is also involved in the control of gasping. This aspiration reflex (AspR is characterized by spasmodic inspiration without subsequent active expiration and can be elicited during agonal gasping, caused by brainstem trans-sections in cats. Stimulation of the larynx can activate the generator for expiration to evoke the expiration reflex, manifesting with prompt expiration without preceding inspiration. Stimulation of the oro-pharynx and lower airways provokes the cough reflex which results from activating of both generators. The powerful potential of the AspR resembling auto-resuscitation by gasping can influence the control mechanisms of vital functions, mediating reversal of various functional disorders.The AspR in cats interrupted hypoxic apnea, laryngo- and bronchospasm, apneusis and even transient asphyxic coma, and can normalize various hypo- and hyper-functional disorders. Introduction of a nasogastric catheter evoked similar spasmodic inspirations in premature infants and interrupted hiccough attacks in adults. Coughing on demand can prevent anaphylactic shock and resuscitate the pertinent subject. Sniff representing nasal inspiratory pressure and maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures are voluntary counterparts of airway reflexes, and are useful for diagnosis and therapy of various cardio-respiratory and neuromuscular disorders.

  9. Bordetella Pertussis virulence factors in the continuing evolution of whooping cough vaccines for improved performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorji, Dorji; Mooi, Frits; Yantorno, Osvaldo; Deora, Rajendar; Graham, Ross M; Mukkur, Trilochan K

    2018-02-01

    Despite high vaccine coverage, whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis remains one of the most common vaccine-preventable diseases worldwide. Introduction of whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines in the 1940s and acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines in 1990s reduced the mortality due to pertussis. Despite induction of both antibody and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses by aP and wP vaccines, there has been resurgence of pertussis in many countries in recent years. Possible reasons hypothesised for resurgence have ranged from incompliance with the recommended vaccination programmes with the currently used aP vaccine to infection with a resurged clinical isolates characterised by mutations in the virulence factors, resulting in antigenic divergence with vaccine strain, and increased production of pertussis toxin, resulting in dampening of immune responses. While use of these vaccines provide varying degrees of protection against whooping cough, protection against infection and transmission appears to be less effective, warranting continuation of efforts in the development of an improved pertussis vaccine formulations capable of achieving this objective. Major approaches currently under evaluation for the development of an improved pertussis vaccine include identification of novel biofilm-associated antigens for incorporation in current aP vaccine formulations, development of live attenuated vaccines and discovery of novel non-toxic adjuvants capable of inducing both antibody and CMI. In this review, the potential roles of different accredited virulence factors, including novel biofilm-associated antigens, of B. pertussis in the evolution, formulation and delivery of improved pertussis vaccines, with potential to block the transmission of whooping cough in the community, are discussed.

  10. Síndrome coqueluchoide y tos ferina Pertussis-like syndrome and whooping cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Dotres Martínez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome coqueluchoide, cuadro parecido a la tos ferina, es uno de los síndromes respiratorios bajos más comunes en la práctica pediátrica sobre todo en los últimos años. La tos ferina sigue siendo la enfermedad inmunoprevenible más antigua de la infancia que aún causa brotes importantes, principalmente en niños, pero también en adolescentes y adultos. El objetivo de esta revisión es proporcionar información a todos los médicos generales y pediatras de atención primaria y secundaria de salud sobre este problema epidemiológico y de su actual reemergencia. El control de esta enfermedad es un problema de salud tanto en países desarrollados como en vías de desarrollo. Uno de los mayores obstáculos que ha contribuido a una tardía intervención epidemiológica y tratamiento de la tos ferina en varios países del mundo, ha sido la baja sospecha clínica de esta enfermedad en los médicos y trabajadores de la salud, y el desconocimiento de la familia, en la mayoría de las veces. En el momento actual existe una reemergencia mundial de la tos ferina, situación que es necesario conocer y aceptar para un oportuno diagnóstico y tratamiento.Pertussis-like syndrome, a clinical picture similar to whooping cough, is one of the most common lower respiratory syndromes in the pediatric practice in recent years. Whooping cough continues to be one of the oldest preventable diseases in infants, which still causes significant outbreaks mainly in children, but also in adolescents and adults. The objective of this review was to provide general physicians and pediatricians at the primary and the secondary health care levels with information about this present re-emerging epidemiological problem. The management of this disease is difficult for both the developed and the developing countries. One of the major obstacles that lead to delayed epidemiological intervention and treatment of whooping cough in several countries has been the poor clinical

  11. Automatic identification in mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puckett, D; Patrick, C [Mine Computers and Electronics Inc., Morehead, KY (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The feasibility of monitoring the locations and vital statistics of equipment and personnel in surface and underground mining operations has increased with advancements in radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. This paper addresses the use of RFID technology, which is relatively new to the mining industry, to track surface equipment in mine pits, loading points and processing facilities. Specific applications are discussed, including both simplified and complex truck tracking systems and an automatic pit ticket system. This paper concludes with a discussion of the future possibilities of using RFID technology in mining including monitoring heart and respiration rates, body temperatures and exertion levels; monitoring repetitious movements for the study of work habits; and logging air quality via personnel sensors. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Semi-automatic fluoroscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarpley, M.W.

    1976-10-01

    Extruded aluminum-clad uranium-aluminum alloy fuel tubes must pass many quality control tests before irradiation in Savannah River Plant nuclear reactors. Nondestructive test equipment has been built to automatically detect high and low density areas in the fuel tubes using x-ray absorption techniques with a video analysis system. The equipment detects areas as small as 0.060-in. dia with 2 percent penetrameter sensitivity. These areas are graded as to size and density by an operator using electronic gages. Video image enhancement techniques permit inspection of ribbed cylindrical tubes and make possible the testing of areas under the ribs. Operation of the testing machine, the special low light level television camera, and analysis and enhancement techniques are discussed

  13. Automatic surveying techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, R.

    1976-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of automatic surveying methods in a more systematic manner, the PEP organization signed a contract in late 1975 for TRW Systems Group to undertake a feasibility study. The completion of this study resulted in TRW Report 6452.10-75-101, dated December 29, 1975, which was largely devoted to an analysis of a survey system based on an Inertial Navigation System. This PEP note is a review and, in some instances, an extension of that TRW report. A second survey system which employed an ''Image Processing System'' was also considered by TRW, and it will be reviewed in the last section of this note. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  14. AUTOMATIC ARCHITECTURAL STYLE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mathias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Procedural modeling has proven to be a very valuable tool in the field of architecture. In the last few years, research has soared to automatically create procedural models from images. However, current algorithms for this process of inverse procedural modeling rely on the assumption that the building style is known. So far, the determination of the building style has remained a manual task. In this paper, we propose an algorithm which automates this process through classification of architectural styles from facade images. Our classifier first identifies the images containing buildings, then separates individual facades within an image and determines the building style. This information could then be used to initialize the building reconstruction process. We have trained our classifier to distinguish between several distinct architectural styles, namely Flemish Renaissance, Haussmannian and Neoclassical. Finally, we demonstrate our approach on various street-side images.

  15. Impact of cough and common cold on productivity, absenteeism, and daily life in the United States: ACHOO Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicpinigaitis, Peter V; Eccles, Ron; Blaiss, Michael S; Wingertzahn, Mark A

    2015-08-01

    Although the common cold is among the most frequent ailments encountered in clinical practice, little is known about its impact on productivity, absenteeism, and daily life. The United States Attitudes of Consumers Toward Health, Cough, and Cold (ACHOO) survey was developed to inform healthcare providers on patients' experience of cough/cold. This analysis focuses on the impact of cough/cold on daily activity, productivity, and absenteeism; other results are reported elsewhere. ACHOO was a 36-question online survey. US adult Internet/mobile device users (N = 3333) were recruited in October 2012. Response quotas modeled on 2010 US Census data ensured a demographically representative sample; 75% of completed surveys were randomized as the primary analysis pool. Demographics and impact of cough/cold were reported using means, frequencies, and percentages. Weighted least squares regression or weighted paired t-test were used to identify factors associated with greater impact. The analysis pool (N = 2505) included 1342 (53.6%) women and 1163 (46.4%) men (mean ages, 46.7 and 45.9 years). A majority (84.7%) had ≥1 cold in the past year. Fifty-two percent said cough/cold impacted daily life a fair amount to a lot. Productivity decreased by a mean 26.4%, and 44.5% of respondents reported work/school absenteeism (usually 1-2 days) during a cold. Overall, 93% of survey participants reported sleep difficulty (slight to extreme) during a cough/cold. Among all respondents, 57% reported cough or nasal congestion as the symptoms making sleep difficult. Higher frequency of colds, more cold symptoms, difficulty sleeping, and worse overall health status correlated with greater impact on productivity, absenteeism, and daily life. Study limitations include the potential for recall bias given the retrospective nature of the self-reports. Furthermore, no attempt was made to distinguish treatment effects, if any, from those of the underlying cough/cold. To our knowledge, this is

  16. In vivo antitussive activity of Coccinia grandis against irritant aerosol and sulfur dioxide-induced cough model in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakti Prasad Pattanayak and Priyashree Sunita

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae has extensively used to get relief from asthma and cough by the indigenous people of India. The antitussive effect of aerosols of two different concentrations (2.5%, 5% w/v of methanol extract of C. grandis fruits were tested by counting the numbers of coughs produced due to aerosols of citric acid, 10 min after exposing the male guinea pigs to aerosols of test solutions for 7 min. In another set of experiment methanol extract was investigated for its therapeutic efficacy on a cough model induced by sulfur dioxide gas in mice. The results showed significant reduction of cough number obtained in the presence of both concentrations of methanol extract as that of the prototype antitussive agent codeine phosphate. Also, methanol extract exhibited significant antitussive effect at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, per orally by inhibiting the cough by 20.57, 33.73 and 56.71% within 90 min of performing the experiment respectively.

  17. Investigating the Relationship between Stable Personality Characteristics and Automatic Imitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E Butler

    Full Text Available Automatic imitation is a cornerstone of nonverbal communication that fosters rapport between interaction partners. Recent research has suggested that stable dimensions of personality are antecedents to automatic imitation, but the empirical evidence linking imitation with personality traits is restricted to a few studies with modest sample sizes. Additionally, atypical imitation has been documented in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but the mechanisms underpinning these behavioural profiles remain unclear. Using a larger sample than prior studies (N=243, the current study tested whether performance on a computer-based automatic imitation task could be predicted by personality traits associated with social behaviour (extraversion and agreeableness and with disorders of social cognition (autistic-like and schizotypal traits. Further personality traits (narcissism and empathy were assessed in a subsample of participants (N=57. Multiple regression analyses showed that personality measures did not predict automatic imitation. In addition, using a similar analytical approach to prior studies, no differences in imitation performance emerged when only the highest and lowest 20 participants on each trait variable were compared. These data weaken support for the view that stable personality traits are antecedents to automatic imitation and that neural mechanisms thought to support automatic imitation, such as the mirror neuron system, are dysfunctional in autism spectrum disorders or schizophrenia. In sum, the impact that personality variables have on automatic imitation is less universal than initial reports suggest.

  18. Investigating the Relationship between Stable Personality Characteristics and Automatic Imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Emily E; Ward, Robert; Ramsey, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Automatic imitation is a cornerstone of nonverbal communication that fosters rapport between interaction partners. Recent research has suggested that stable dimensions of personality are antecedents to automatic imitation, but the empirical evidence linking imitation with personality traits is restricted to a few studies with modest sample sizes. Additionally, atypical imitation has been documented in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but the mechanisms underpinning these behavioural profiles remain unclear. Using a larger sample than prior studies (N=243), the current study tested whether performance on a computer-based automatic imitation task could be predicted by personality traits associated with social behaviour (extraversion and agreeableness) and with disorders of social cognition (autistic-like and schizotypal traits). Further personality traits (narcissism and empathy) were assessed in a subsample of participants (N=57). Multiple regression analyses showed that personality measures did not predict automatic imitation. In addition, using a similar analytical approach to prior studies, no differences in imitation performance emerged when only the highest and lowest 20 participants on each trait variable were compared. These data weaken support for the view that stable personality traits are antecedents to automatic imitation and that neural mechanisms thought to support automatic imitation, such as the mirror neuron system, are dysfunctional in autism spectrum disorders or schizophrenia. In sum, the impact that personality variables have on automatic imitation is less universal than initial reports suggest.

  19. Structural Elements and Cough Suppressing Activity of Polysaccharides from Zingiber officinale Rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, K; Nosalova, G; Sivova, V; Ray, B

    2016-01-01

    Zingiber officinale is used for the management of fever, bronchial asthma and cough for thousands of years. While the link to a particular indication has been established in human, the active principle of the formulation remains unknown. Herein, we have investigated a water extracted polysaccharides (WEP) containing fraction from its rhizome. Utilizing a traditional aqueous extraction protocol and using chemical, chromatographic and spectroscopic methods a fraction containing a branched glucan and polygalaturonan in a ratio of 59:1 was characterized. This glucan, which has a molecular mass of 36 kDa, is made up of terminal-, (1,4)- and (1,4,6)-linked α-Glcp residues. Oral administration of WEP in doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight significantly inhibited the number of citric acid-induced cough efforts in guinea pigs. It does not alter the specific airway smooth muscle reactivity significantly. Thus, traditional aqueous extraction method provides molecular entities, which induces antitussive activity without addiction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Reduced exposure to coughed air by a novel ventilation method for hospital patient rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Brand, Marek

    2012-01-01

    A novel hospital bed integrated ventilation and cleaning unit (HBIVCU) for local airflow control and cleansing, limiting the airborne spread of contagious air coughed from a sick patient in a hospital room, was developed. The performance efficiency of the unit, to successfully reduce occupants......’ exposure to coughed air, was studied in a full-scale, two-bed hospital room mock-up, 4.65 m x 4.65 m x 2.60 m (W x L x H), with two patients and a doctor. Four units were placed along the two sides of both beds close to the head. The room was ventilated by overhead mixing air distribution at 22 °C room air...... of the novel unit, at background ventilation rates of 3 h-1and 6 h-1, was evaluated by measuring the excess CO2 concentration at the mouth of both the doctor and the exposed patient. When the novel method was not used, the CO2 concentration (exposure) measured in the air “inhaled” by the doctor exceeded 20...

  1. Leicester Cough Questionnaire: translation to Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felisbino, Manuela Brisot; Steidle, Leila John Marques; Gonçalves-Tavares, Michelle; Pizzichini, Marcia Margaret Menezes; Pizzichini, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    To translate the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) to Portuguese and adapt it for use in Brazil. Cross-cultural adaptation of a quality of life questionnaire requires a translated version that is conceptually equivalent to the original version and culturally acceptable in the target country. The protocol used consisted of the translation of the LCQ to Portuguese by three Brazilian translators who were fluent in English and its back-translation to English by another translator who was a native speaker of English and fluent in Portuguese. The back-translated version was evaluated by one of the authors of the original questionnaire in order to verify its equivalence. Later in the process, a provisional Portuguese-language version was thoroughly reviewed by an expert committee. In 10 patients with chronic cough, cognitive debriefing was carried out in order to test the understandability, clarity, and acceptability of the translated questionnaire in the target population. On that basis, the final Portuguese-language version of the LCQ was produced and approved by the committee. Few items were questioned by the source author and revised by the committee of experts. During the cognitive debriefing phase, the Portuguese-language version of the LCQ proved to be well accepted and understood by all of the respondents, which demonstrates the robustness of the process of translation and cross-cultural adaptation. The final version of the LCQ adapted for use in Brazil was found to be easy to understand and easily applied.

  2. Pilot study for home monitoring of cough capacity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paneroni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cough capacity derangement is associated with a high risk of pulmonary complications in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients when cough assistance is not routinely performed at home. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a long-term home based daily self-monitoring cough capacity. Methods: Eighteen subjects were enrolled in a 9-month study at home. Changes in peak cough expiratory flow, oxygen saturation, respiratory discomfort and incidence of respiratory deterioration events were evaluated. In subjects presenting respiratory deterioration events, decline in the abovementioned respiratory variables was evaluated (#NCT00613899. Results: During an average follow-up of 125 ± 102 days, a total of 1175 measures were performed on 12 subjects. Mean compliance to proposed evaluations was 37 ± 32% which worsened over time. Peak cough expiratory flow decreased by 15.08 ± 32.43 L/min monthly. Five subjects reported 6 episodes of respiratory deterioration events, after a mean period of 136 ± 108 days. They had poor respiratory function and more years of disease. There was no difference in peak cough expiratory flow and its decline whether subjects presented respiratory deterioration events or not. In 4 subjects the respiratory discomfort score significantly worsened after respiratory deterioration events from 3.0 ± 1.41 to 4.25 ± 1.71. Conclusion: Daily self-monitoring of peak cough expiratory flow, oxygen saturation and respiratory discomfort seems difficult to obtain because of poor adherence to measures; this protocol does not seem to add anything to current practice of advising on clinical derangements. Confirmatory larger studies are necessary. Resumo: Antecedentes: A disfunção na capacidade de tosse está associada a um elevado risco de complicações pulmonares nos doentes com esclerose lateral amiotrófica, quando a sua monitorização não é realizada rotineiramente no domicílio. O

  3. Clinical and neurophysiologic characterization of an European family with hereditary sensory neuropathy, paroxysmal cough and gastroesophageal reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Barros

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, Spring et al reported a family with an autosomal dominant form of hereditary sensory neuropathy; patients also presented adult onset of gastroesophageal reflux and cough. Since then, no further families have been described. Objective: To study a new Portuguese family with these characteristics. Method: To describe the clinical and neurophysiologic characteristics of one family with features of sensory neuropathy associated with cough and gastroesophageal erflux. Results: Three of five siblings presented a similar history of paroxysmal cough (5th decade. About a decade later they experienced numbness and paraesthesia in the feets and in all cases there was evidence of an axonal sensory neuropathy. A history of gastroesophageal reflux of variable severity and age of onset was also present. Discussion: Molecular genetic studies have demonstrated genetic heterogeneity between the hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 subtypes. The identification of these families is of major importance because further work is required to identify the underlying genetic defect.

  4. Clinical and neurophysiologic characterization of an European family with hereditary sensory neuropathy, paroxysmal cough and gastroesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Pedro; Morais, Hugo; Santos, Catarina; Roriz, José; Coutinho, Paula

    2014-04-01

    In 2002, Spring et al reported a family with an autosomal dominant form of hereditary sensory neuropathy; patients also presented adult onset of gastroesophageal reflux and cough. Since then, no further families have been described. To study a new Portuguese family with these characteristics. To describe the clinical and neurophysiologic characteristics of one family with features of sensory neuropathy associated with cough and gastroesophageal erflux. Three of five siblings presented a similar history of paroxysmal cough (5th decade). About a decade later they experienced numbness and paraesthesia in the feet and in all cases there was evidence of an axonal sensory neuropathy. A history of gastroesophageal reflux of variable severity and age of onset was also present. Molecular genetic studies have demonstrated genetic heterogeneity between the hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 subtypes. The identification of these families is of major importance because further work is required to identify the underlying genetic defect.

  5. “The Barking Girl”: A Case Report of Psychogenic Cough in a Child with a Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakati, Praveen Kumar; Naskar, Subrata; Khanna, Anisha

    2017-01-01

    A 9-year-old girl presented with 2-month history of continuous coughing; despite detailed evaluation, no organic cause was found. Considering the provisional diagnosis of a psychogenic cough, she was advised for psychiatry consultation. After a psychological assessment, she was found to have comorbid anxiety (Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders score- 25) along with punitive parenting and sibling rivalry issues. She was initially treated with parental psychoeducation, play therapy, and behavior therapy. Since she did not show expected progress with the treatment, low-dose escitalopram was started along with the ongoing therapy, considering her anxiety. There was a significant improvement in her symptoms in 1-month follow-up. She maintained improvement during further follow-ups. This case illustrates the need to identify and treat comorbid psychiatric issues in the management of a psychogenic cough. PMID:28852260

  6. "The Barking Girl": A Case Report of Psychogenic Cough in a Child with a Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakati, Praveen Kumar; Naskar, Subrata; Khanna, Anisha

    2017-01-01

    A 9-year-old girl presented with 2-month history of continuous coughing; despite detailed evaluation, no organic cause was found. Considering the provisional diagnosis of a psychogenic cough, she was advised for psychiatry consultation. After a psychological assessment, she was found to have comorbid anxiety (Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders score- 25) along with punitive parenting and sibling rivalry issues. She was initially treated with parental psychoeducation, play therapy, and behavior therapy. Since she did not show expected progress with the treatment, low-dose escitalopram was started along with the ongoing therapy, considering her anxiety. There was a significant improvement in her symptoms in 1-month follow-up. She maintained improvement during further follow-ups. This case illustrates the need to identify and treat comorbid psychiatric issues in the management of a psychogenic cough.

  7. Prevalence, diagnosis, and disease course of pertussis in adults with acute cough: a prospective, observational study in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teepe, Jolien; Broekhuizen, Berna D L; Ieven, Margareta; Loens, Katherine; Huygen, Kris; Kretzschmar, Mirjam; de Melker, Hester; Butler, Chris C; Little, Paul; Stuart, Beth; Coenen, Samuel; Goossens, Herman; Verheij, Theo J M

    2015-10-01

    Most cases of adult pertussis probably remain undiagnosed. To explore the prevalence, diagnosis, and disease course of acute pertussis infection in adult patients presenting with acute cough. Prospective observational study between 2007 and 2010 in primary care in 12 European countries. Adults presenting with acute cough (duration of ≤28 days) were included. Bordetella pertussis infection was determined by polymerase chain reaction (from nasopharyngeal flocked swabs and sputa) and by measurement of immunoglobulin G antibodies to pertussis toxin (PT) in venous blood at day 28. An antibody titre to PT of ≥125 IU/ml or PCR positive result in a respiratory sample defined recent infection. Patients completed a symptom diary for 28 days. Serum and/or respiratory samples were obtained in 3074 patients. Three per cent (93/3074) had recent B. pertussis infection. Prior cough duration >2 weeks discriminated to some extent between those with and without pertussis (adjusted odds ratio 1.89, 95% confidence interval = 1.17 to 3.07; P = 0.010). Median cough duration after presentation was 17 and 12 days in patients with and without pertussis, respectively (P = 0.008). Patients with pertussis had longer duration of phlegm production (P = 0.010), shortness of breath (P = 0.037), disturbed sleep (P = 0.013) and interference with normal activities or work (P = 0.033) after presentation. Pertussis infection plays a limited role among adults presenting with acute cough in primary care, but GPs should acknowledge the possibility of pertussis in uncomplicated lower respiratory tract infection. As in children, pertussis also causes prolonged symptoms in adults. However, pertussis is difficult to discern from other acute cough syndromes in adults at first presentation. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  8. Automatic EEG spike detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harner, Richard

    2009-10-01

    Since the 1970s advances in science and technology during each succeeding decade have renewed the expectation of efficient, reliable automatic epileptiform spike detection (AESD). But even when reinforced with better, faster tools, clinically reliable unsupervised spike detection remains beyond our reach. Expert-selected spike parameters were the first and still most widely used for AESD. Thresholds for amplitude, duration, sharpness, rise-time, fall-time, after-coming slow waves, background frequency, and more have been used. It is still unclear which of these wave parameters are essential, beyond peak-peak amplitude and duration. Wavelet parameters are very appropriate to AESD but need to be combined with other parameters to achieve desired levels of spike detection efficiency. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and expert-system methods may have reached peak efficiency. Support Vector Machine (SVM) technology focuses on outliers rather than centroids of spike and nonspike data clusters and should improve AESD efficiency. An exemplary spike/nonspike database is suggested as a tool for assessing parameters and methods for AESD and is available in CSV or Matlab formats from the author at brainvue@gmail.com. Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) is presented as a graphic method for finding better spike parameters and for the step-wise evaluation of the spike detection process.

  9. Probing the genome-scale metabolic landscape of Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco Dos Santos, Filipe; Olivier, Brett G; Boele, Joost; Smessaert, Vincent; De Rop, Philippe; Krumpochova, Petra; Klau, Gunnar W; Giera, Martin; Dehottay, Philippe; Teusink, Bas; Goffin, Philippe

    2017-08-25

    Whooping cough is a highly-contagious respiratory disease caused by Bordetella pertussi s. Despite vaccination, its incidence has been rising alarmingly, and yet, the physiology of B. pertussis remains poorly understood. We combined genome-scale metabolic reconstruction, a novel optimization algorithm and experimental data to probe the full metabolic potential of this pathogen, using strain Tohama I as a reference. Experimental validation showed that B. pertussis secretes a significant proportion of nitrogen as arginine and purine nucleosides, which may contribute to modulation of the host response. We also found that B. pertussis can be unexpectedly versatile, being able to metabolize many compounds while displaying minimal nutrient requirements. It can grow without cysteine - using inorganic sulfur sources such as thiosulfate - and it can grow on organic acids such as citrate or lactate as sole carbon sources, providing in vivo demonstration that its TCA cycle is functional. Although the metabolic reconstruction of eight additional strains indicates that the structural genes underlying this metabolic flexibility are widespread, experimental validation suggests a role of strain-specific regulatory mechanisms in shaping metabolic capabilities. Among five alternative strains tested, three were shown to grow on substrate combinations requiring a functional TCA cycle, but only one could use thiosulfate. Finally, the metabolic model was used to rationally design growth media with over two-fold improvements in pertussis toxin production. This study thus provides novel insights into B. pertussis physiology, and highlights the potential, but also limitations of models solely based on metabolic gene content. IMPORTANCE The metabolic capabilities of Bordetella pertussis - the causative agent of whooping cough - were investigated from a systems-level perspective. We constructed a comprehensive genome-scale metabolic model for B. pertussis , and challenged its predictions

  10. Two Distinct Episodes Of Whooping Cough Caused By Consecutive Bordetella Pertussis And Bordetella Parapertussis Infections In A Fully Immunized Healthy Boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heininger, Ulrich; Schlassa, Detlef

    2016-11-01

    We describe a 5-year-old, fully immunized boy with polymerase chain reaction-proven consecutive Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis infections causing typical whooping cough at the age of 2 and 5 years, respectively. Neither pertussis immunization nor disease provides reliable immunity against further episodes of whooping cough.

  11. Towards automatic exchange of information

    OpenAIRE

    Oberson, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the various steps that led towards automatic exchange of information as the global standard and the issues that remain to be solved. First, the various competing models of exchange information, such as Double Tax Treaty (DTT), TIEA's, FATCA or UE Directives are described with a view to show how they interact between themselves. Second, the so-called Rubik Strategy is summarized and compared with an automatic exchange of information (AEOI). The third part then describes ...

  12. Video Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgical Enucleation of a Giant Esophageal Leiomyoma Presenting with Persistent Cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvez Mujawar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal leiomyoma is a relatively rare tumor of esophagus but it is the most common benign neoplasm of the esophagus. Small esophageal leiomyoma can be observed but larger ones and those producing symptoms should be excised. As observed for other esophageal tumors, dysphagia is its main symptom. Traditionally, open thoracotomy and enucleation are its main treatment but in the last few years video assisted thoracoscopic surgical (VATS enucleation is gaining recognition with proven advantages of minimally invasive surgery. Herein we present our experience with patient presenting with cough rather than dysphagia as a main symptom, who was diagnosed to be having giant esophageal leiomyoma. VATS guided enucleation was accomplished successfully. Size of lesion was 16×4×3 cm. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and patient is not having any signs of recurrence, after three years during follow-up period.

  13. Adverse events associated with opioid-containing cough and cold medications in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ian M; Reynolds, Kate M; Green, Jody L

    2018-04-10

    Until recently most of the scrutiny of opioid-containing cough and cold medications (CCMs) by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was focused on codeine, only recently shifting equal focus to those containing hydrocodone. We characterized adverse events (AEs) in children Dictionary for Regulatory Activities with preferred terms reported. One hundred and fourteen of the 7035 (2%) cases reviewed involved an opioid-containing product. Ninety-eight cases involved an AE at least potentially related to the opioid ingredient (38 (39%) codeine; 60 (61%) hydrocodone). All three fatality cases involved hydrocodone with an antihistamine. Among non-fatalities, somnolence, lethargy, and/or respiratory depression were more commonly reported among hydrocodone cases than codeine cases (86% vs. 61%; p = .005). These safety surveillance data support the FDA's expanded label changes limiting opioid CCMs for children.

  14. Detection of Infectious Influenza Virus in Cough Aerosols Generated in a Simulated Patient Examination Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noti, John D.; Lindsley, William G.; Blachere, Francoise M.; Cao, Gang; Kashon, Michael L.; Thewlis, Robert E.; McMillen, Cynthia M.; King, William P.; Szalajda, Jonathan V.; Beezhold, Donald H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The potential for aerosol transmission of infectious influenza virus (ie, in healthcare facilities) is controversial. We constructed a simulated patient examination room that contained coughing and breathing manikins to determine whether coughed influenza was infectious and assessed the effectiveness of an N95 respirator and surgical mask in blocking transmission. Methods National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health aerosol samplers collected size-fractionated aerosols for 60 minutes at the mouth of the breathing manikin, beside the mouth, and at 3 other locations in the room. Total recovered virus was quantitated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and infectivity was determined by the viral plaque assay and an enhanced infectivity assay. Results Infectious influenza was recovered in all aerosol fractions (5.0% in >4 µm aerodynamic diameter, 75.5% in 1–4 µm, and 19.5% in <1 µm; n = 5). Tightly sealing a mask to the face blocked entry of 94.5% of total virus and 94.8% of infectious virus (n = 3). A tightly sealed respirator blocked 99.8% of total virus and 99.6% of infectious virus (n = 3). A poorly fitted respirator blocked 64.5% of total virus and 66.5% of infectious virus (n = 3). A mask documented to be loosely fitting by a PortaCount fit tester, to simulate how masks are worn by healthcare workers, blocked entry of 68.5% of total virus and 56.6% of infectious virus (n = 2). Conclusions These results support a role for aerosol transmission and represent the first reported laboratory study of the efficacy of masks and respirators in blocking inhalation of influenza in aerosols. The results indicate that a poorly fitted respirator performs no better than a loosely fitting mask. PMID:22460981

  15. Pilot study for home monitoring of cough capacity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paneroni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cough capacity derangement is associated with a high risk of pulmonary complications in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients when cough assistance is not routinely performed at home. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a long‐term home based daily self‐monitoring cough capacity. Methods: Eighteen subjects were enrolled in a 9‐month study at home. Changes in peak cough expiratory flow, oxygen saturation, respiratory discomfort and incidence of respiratory deterioration events were evaluated. In subjects presenting respiratory deterioration events, decline in the abovementioned respiratory variables was evaluated (#NCT00613899. Results: During an average follow‐up of 125 ± 102 days, a total of 1175 measures were performed on 12 subjects. Mean compliance to proposed evaluations was 37 ± 32% which worsened over time. Peak cough expiratory flow decreased by 15.08 ± 32.43 L/min monthly. Five subjects reported 6 episodes of respiratory deterioration events, after a mean period of 136 ± 108 days. They had poor respiratory function and more years of disease. There was no difference in peak cough expiratory flow and its decline whether subjects presented respiratory deterioration events or not. In 4 subjects the respiratory discomfort score significantly worsened after respiratory deterioration events from 3.0 ± 1.41 to 4.25 ± 1.71. Conclusion: Daily self‐monitoring of peak cough expiratory flow, oxygen saturation and respiratory discomfort seems difficult to obtain because of poor adherence to measures; this protocol does not seem to add anything to current practice of advising on clinical derangements. Confirmatory larger studies are necessary. Resumo: Antecedentes: A disfunção na capacidade de tosse está associada a um elevado risco de complicações pulmonares nos doentes com esclerose lateral amiotrófica, quando

  16. Laryngeal response patterns influence the efficacy of mechanical assisted cough in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Tiina; Sandnes, Astrid; Brekka, Anne Kristine; Hilland, Magnus; Clemm, Hege; Fondenes, Ove; Tysnes, Ole-Bjørn; Heimdal, John-Helge; Halvorsen, Thomas; Vollsæter, Maria; Røksund, Ola Drange

    2017-03-01

    Most patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are treated with mechanical insufflation-exsufflation (MI-E) in order to improve cough. This method often fails in ALS with bulbar involvement, allegedly due to upper-airway malfunction. We have studied this phenomenon in detail with laryngoscopy to unravel information that could lead to better treatment. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 20 patients with ALS and 20 healthy age-matched and sex-matched volunteers. We used video-recorded flexible transnasal fibre-optic laryngoscopy during MI-E undertaken according to a standardised protocol, applying pressures of ±20 to ±50 cm H 2 O. Laryngeal movements were assessed from video files. ALS type and characteristics of upper and lower motor neuron symptoms were determined. At the supraglottic level, all patients with ALS and bulbar symptoms (n=14) adducted their laryngeal structures during insufflation. At the glottic level, initial abduction followed by subsequent adduction was observed in all patients with ALS during insufflation and exsufflation. Hypopharyngeal constriction during exsufflation was observed in all subjects, most prominently in patients with ALS and bulbar symptoms. Healthy subjects and patients with ALS and no bulbar symptoms (n=6) coordinated their cough well during MI-E. Laryngoscopy during ongoing MI-E in patients with ALS and bulbar symptoms revealed laryngeal adduction especially during insufflation but also during exsufflation, thereby severely compromising the size of the laryngeal inlet in some patients. Individually customised settings can prevent this and thereby improve and extend the use of non-invasive MI-E. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Identifying asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with persistent cough presenting to general practitioners : descriptive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiadens, HA; de Bock, GH; Deker, FW; Huysman, JAN; Springer, MP; Postma, DS

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients not known to have these disorders, who present in general practice with persistent cough, and to ascertain criteria to help general practitioners in diagnosis. Design: Descriptive study. Setting:

  18. Evaluation of microbial and physico-chemical qualities of some cough syrups marketed in Sana’a city, Yemen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali G. Al−Kaf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Microbial contamination of cough syrups can bring clinical hazards to the users or patients as well as physical and chemical changes in the product. Aims: To evaluate the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of two hundred samples of four different types of cough syrups marketed in Sana’a city, Yemen. Methods: All collected samples were subjected to the following examinations: the total microbial count, type of isolated microorganisms, physical parameters, and concentration of active ingredients were identified and assessed by standard techniques described in US Pharmacopeia. Results: All the cough syrup samples used contained viable microbial load within acceptable limit according Pharmacopeia specifications. Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus fulvum, and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the most commonly recovered bacteria. However, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium notatum, Mucor sp., and Aspergillus flavus were the most fungi isolated. The physical properties represented in the appearance, density, and pH of the analyzed samples complied with Pharmacopoeia standards. The concentrations of diphenhydramine HCl (92,51 – 108,78%, pseudoephedrine HCl (94,55 – 109,07%, and triprolidine HCl (98,20 – 104,19% were recorded. Conclusions: All cough syrups marketed in Sana’a City had good microbiological and physico-chemical qualities.

  19. Effects of safety warnings on prescription rates of cough and cold medicines in children below 2 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.F. Sen (Fatma); K.M.C. Verhamme (Katia); M. Felisi (Mariagrazia); G.W. 't Jong (Geert); C. Giaquinto (Carlo); G. Picelli (Gino); A. Ceci (Adriana); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAIM: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of national and international warnings on the prescription rates of cough and cold medicines (CCMs) in the youngest children (<2 years) in the Netherlands and Italy. METHODS: Analysis of outpatient electronic medical records of

  20. A randomized placebo controlled trial to evaluate the effects of butamirate and dextromethorphan on capsaicin induced cough in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqi, Shoaib; Wright, Caroline; Thompson, Rachel; Morice, Alyn H

    2014-12-01

    The examination of cough reflex sensitivity through inhalational challenge can be utilized to demonstrate pharmacological end points. Here we compare the effect of butamirate, dextromethorphan and placebo on capsaicin-induced cough in healthy volunteers. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, six way crossover study the effect of dextromethrophan 30 mg, four doses of butamirate and placebo was evaluated on incremental capsaicin challenges performed at baseline and 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h following dosing. The primary end point was the area under the curve (AUC(0,12h)) of log10 C5 from pre-dose to 12 h after dosing. Plasma butamirate metabolites were analyzed to evaluate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationships. Thirty-four subjects (13 males, median age 25 years) completed the study. Cough sensitivity decreased from baseline in all arms of the study. Dextromethorphan was superior to placebo (P = 0.01) but butamirate failed to show significant activity with maximum attenuation at the 45 mg dose. There was no apparent relationship between pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters for butamirate. We have demonstrated for the first time that dextromethorphan attenuates capsaicin challenge confirming its broad activity on the cough reflex. The lack of efficacy of butamirate could be due to formulation issues at higher doses. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  1. Exhaled breath condensate pH and cysteinyl leukotriens in patients with chronic cough secondary to acid gastroesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffler, Enrico; Crimi, Claudia; Brussino, Luisa; Nicola, Stefania; Sichili, Stefania; Dughera, Luca; Rolla, Giovanni; Crimi, Nunzio

    2016-12-22

    Chronic cough is one of the most common clinical problems and it may be secondary to different stimuli and diseases, including low-level physical and chemical stimulation of the esophageal-bronchial reflex, suggestive of cough-reflex hyperresponsiveness, in patients with gastroesophageal reflux; however, it is still debated whether gastroesophageal reflux could induce airway inflammation and acidification. The aim of this study was to investigate airway pH and cysteynil-leukotrienes (Cys-LTs) concentration (a marker of airway inflammation) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Patients with chronic cough and for which all known causes, excluding gastroesophageal reflux, had been investigated and ruled out, were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent 24 h pH monitoring, and EBC was collected to assess pH and Cys-LTs concentration. Forty-five patients were included in the study and those with gastroesophageal reflux had significantly lower EBC-pH and higher concentration of EBC-Cys-LTs. There was a linear inverse correlation between EBC-pH values and EBC-Cys-LTs logarithmically transformed, and a multivariate analysis confirmed that the only significant determinat variable of EBC-Cys-LTs was the presence of gastroesophageal reflux. This study adds knowledge on possible mechanisms related to chronic cough associated with gastroesophageal reflux, which seems to be strictly dependent on airway acidification and the production of Cys-LTs, therefore suggesting an underlying neurogenic inflammation with tachykinins involvement.

  2. Clinical Effects and Safety of Zhi Sou San for Cough: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningchang Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Zhi Sou San (ZSS, a traditional Chinese prescription, has been widely applied in treating cough. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of ZSS for cough. Methods. We searched relevant articles up to 5 March 2017 in seven electronic databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PubMed, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, Cqvip Database (VIP, China Biology Medicine disc (CBM, and Wanfang Data. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs were eligible, regardless of blinding. The primary outcome was the total effective rate. Results. Forty-six RCTs with a total of 4007 participants were identified. Compared with western medicine, ZSS significantly improved the total effective rate (OR: 4.45; 95% CI: 3.62–5.47 and the pulmonary function in terms of FEV1 (OR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.24–0.46 and decreased the adverse reactions (OR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.02–0.01 and the recurrence rate (OR: 0.30; 95% CI: 0.16–0.57. However, there was no significant improvement in the cough symptom score comparing ZSS with western medicine. Conclusions. This meta-analysis shows that ZSS has significant additional benefits and relative safety in treating cough. However, more rigorously designed investigations and studies, with large sample sizes, are needed because of the methodological flaws and low quality of the included trials in this meta-analysis.

  3. Help-seeking and antibiotic prescribing for acute cough in a Chinese primary care population: a prospective multicentre observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carmen Ka Man; Liu, Zhaomin; Butler, Chris C; Wong, Samuel Yeung Shan; Fung, Alice; Chan, Dicken; Yip, Benjamin Hon Kei; Kung, Kenny

    2016-01-21

    Acute cough is a common reason to prescribe antibiotics in primary care. This study aimed to explore help-seeking and antibiotic prescribing for acute cough in Chinese primary care population. This is a prospective multicentre observational study that included adults presenting with acute cough. Clinicians recorded patients' presenting symptoms, examination findings and medication prescription. Patients completed symptom diaries for up to 28 days by charting their symptom severity and recovery. Adjusted binary logistic regression models identified factors independently associated with antibiotic prescription. Primary care clinicians (n=19) recruited 455 patients. A total of 321 patients (70.5%) returned their completed symptom diaries. Concern about illness severity (41.6%) and obtaining a prescription for symptomatic medications (45.9%), rather than obtaining a prescription for antibiotics, were the main reasons for consulting. Antibiotics were prescribed for 6.8% (n=31) of patients, of which amoxicillin was the most common antimicrobial prescribed (61.3%), as it was associated with clinicians' perception of benefit from antibiotic treatment (odds ratio (OR): 25.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.7-101.1), patients' expectation for antibiotics (OR: 5.1, 95% CI: 1.7-11.6), anticipation (OR: 5.1, 95% CI: 1.6-15.0) and request for antibiotics (OR 15.7, 95% CI: 5.0-49.4), as well as the severity of respiratory symptoms (cough, sputum, short of breath and wheeze OR: 2.7-3.7, all Pantibiotic prescription rates between private primary care clinicians and public primary care clinicians (17.4 vs 1.6%, P=0.00). Symptomatic medication was prescribed in 98.0% of patients. Mean recovery was 9 days for cough and 10 days for all symptoms, which was not significantly associated with antibiotic treatment. Although overall antibiotic-prescribing rates were low, there was a higher rate of antibiotic prescribing among private primary care clinicians, which warrants further

  4. Interpretation of positive results of a methacholine inhalation challenge and 1 week of inhaled bronchodilator use in diagnosing and treating cough-variant asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, R S; French, C T; Smyrnios, N A; Curley, F J

    1997-09-22

    In diagnosing cough due to asthma, methacholine chloride inhalation challenge (MIC) interpreted in a traditional fashion has been shown to have positive predictive values from 60% to 82%. To determine whether any features of positive results of an MIC or the results of a 1-week trial of inhaled beta-agonist therapy were helpful in predicting when the cough was due to asthma. The study design was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover format performed in adult, nonsmoking subjects, who were referred for diagnosis and treatment of chronic cough. The subjects had no other respiratory complaints or medical conditions for which they were taking medications, the results of baseline spirometry and chest roentgenograms were normal, and the results of MIC were positive. After obtaining baseline data, including MICs on 2 separate days, objective cough counting, and self-assessment of cough severity using a visual analog scale, subjects were randomized to receive 2 inhalations (1.3 mg) of metaproterenol sulfate or placebo by metered dose inhaler attached to a spacer device every 4 hours while awake. At 1 week, data identical to baseline were collected, and subjects received the other metered dose inhaler for 7 days. At 1 week, data identical to baseline were collected. After completion of the protocol, subjects were followed up in the clinic to observe the final response of the cough to specific therapy. Based on the disappearance of the cough with specific therapy, the cough was due to asthma in 9 of 15 subjects and nonasthma in 6 of 15 subjects. Baseline data were similar between groups. With respect to MICs, there were no significant differences between groups in the cumulative dose of methacholine that provoked a 20% decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second from the postsaline baseline value (PD20 values), slopes of dose-response curves, and maximal-response plateaus. Cough severity significantly improved after 1 week of

  5. TAPIR: a device for automatic titration with incremental weighing of the titration reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganivet, Michel

    TAPIR is a titration device enabling automatic analyses with weighting of the titration reagent. The titration method used can be based on potentiometry, amperometry, color indicator change... The reproducibility is about 3.10 -4 [fr

  6. Prevalence of chronic cough in relation to upper and lower airway symptoms; the Skövde population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats eBende

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of chronic cough in relation to upper airway symptoms, in a cross-sectional, population-based epidemiological study. Another aim was to relate coughing to other explanatory variables and risk factors. A random sample of 1900 inhabitants from the age of 20, stratified for age and gender, was recruited. Subjects were invited for clinical examinations that included questions about general odor intolerance, respiratory symptoms, and smoking habits, and a smell identification test. In total, 1387 volunteers (73% of the sample were investigated. The overall prevalence of self-reported chronic cough was 6.3% (95% confidence interval (CI: 5.0-7.6%. Female gender, age, height, BMI, and smoking were significantly related to cough. Furthermore, nasal blockage, nasal secretion, sneezing, asthma, odor and cold air sensitivity, and aspirin intolerance also related to cough with statistical significance, indicating a close connection between chronic cough and upper airway symptoms. In keeping with other studies, this study demonstrates that chronic cough is a widespread problem in society, and is about twice as common in women than in men.

  7. Influence of microinjections of D,L-homocysteic acid into the Botzinger complex area on the cough reflex in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliacek, I; Corrie, L W; Rose, M J; Wang, C; Bolser, D C

    2008-12-01

    Microinjections of D,L-homocysteic acid (DLH) were used to test the hypothesis that neuronal activation within the Botzinger complex area can modify the spatiotemporal characteristics of the cough reflex in 17 spontaneously breathing pentobarbitone anesthetized cats. DLH (50 mM, 1.25-1.75 nmol, 9 cats) reduced the number (P<0.01) of coughs and expiratory amplitude of abdominal electromyographic activity (P<0.01), and also esophageal pressure (P<0.001) during mechanically induced tracheobronchial cough. The duration of cough abdominal activity was shortened by 48% (P<0.05). DLH microinjections also temporarily reduced the respiratory rate (P<0.01) and increased the mean arterial blood pressure (P<0.001), baseline of esophageal pressure (P<0.01), and end tidal CO(2) concentrations (P<0.01). Lower doses of DLH (0.27-0.35 nmol, 7 cats) or vehicle (25-35 nl, 8 cats) induced few alterations in cardiorespiratory or cough characteristics. The results support predominantly inhibitory effects of neurons in the region of the Bötzinger complex on cough abdominal activity and cough number.

  8. Automatic validation of numerical solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stauning, Ole

    1997-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with ``Automatic Validation of Numerical Solutions''. The basic theory of interval analysis and self-validating methods is introduced. The mean value enclosure is applied to discrete mappings for obtaining narrow enclosures of the iterates when applying these mappings...... differential equations, but in this thesis, we describe how to use the methods for enclosing iterates of discrete mappings, and then later use them for discretizing solutions of ordinary differential equations. The theory of automatic differentiation is introduced, and three methods for obtaining derivatives...... are described: The forward, the backward, and the Taylor expansion methods. The three methods have been implemented in the C++ program packages FADBAD/TADIFF. Some examples showing how to use the three metho ds are presented. A feature of FADBAD/TADIFF not present in other automatic differentiation packages...

  9. Automatic sample changers maintenance manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, T.A.

    1978-10-01

    This manual describes and provides trouble-shooting aids for the Automatic Sample Changer electronics on the automatic beta counting system, developed by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Group CNC-11. The output of a gas detector is shaped by a preamplifier, then is coupled to an amplifier. Amplifier output is discriminated and is the input to a scaler. An identification number is associated with each sample. At a predetermined count length, the identification number, scaler data plus other information is punched out on a data card. The next sample to be counted is automatically selected. The beta counter uses the same electronics as the prior count did, the only difference being the sample identification number and sample itself. This manual is intended as a step-by-step aid in trouble-shooting the electronics associated with positioning the sample, counting the sample, and getting the needed data punched on an 80-column data card

  10. Autosomal dominant hereditary sensory neuropathy with chronic cough and gastro-oesophageal reflux: clinical features in two families linked to chromosome 3p22-p24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Penelope J; Kok, Cindy; Nicholson, Garth A; Ing, Alvin J; Spies, Judith M; Bassett, Mark L; Cameron, John; Kerlin, Paul; Bowler, Simon; Tuck, Roger; Pollard, John D

    2005-12-01

    Autosomal dominant hereditary sensory neuropathy (HSN I) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, and in some families it is due to mutations in the serine palmitoyltransferase (SPTLC1) gene. We have characterized two families with HSN I associated with cough and gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR). From a large Australian family, 27 individuals and from a smaller family, 11 individuals provided clinical information and blood for genetic analysis. Affected individuals had an adult onset of paroxysmal cough, GOR and distal sensory loss. Cough could be triggered by noxious odours or by pressure in the external auditory canal (Arnold's ear-cough reflex). Other features included throat clearing, hoarse voice, cough syncope and sensorineural hearing loss. Neurophysiological and pathological studies demonstrated a sensory axonal neuropathy. Gastric emptying studies were normal, and autonomic function and sweat tests were either normal or showed distal hypohidrosis. Cough was likely to be due to a combination of denervation hypersensitivity of the upper airways and oesophagus, and prominent GOR. Most affected individuals were shown on 24 h ambulatory oesophageal pH monitoring to have multiple episodes of GOR, closely temporally associated with coughing. Hoarse voice was probably attributable to acid-induced laryngeal damage, and there was no evidence of vocal cord palsy. No other cause for cough was found on most respiratory or otorhinological studies. Linkage to chromosome 3p22-p24 has been found in both families, with no evidence of linkage to loci for known HSN I, autosomal dominant hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, hereditary GOR or triple A syndrome. These families represent a genetically novel variant of HSN I, with a distinctive cough owing to involvement of the upper aerodigestive tract.

  11. Automatic discrimination between laughter and speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, K.; Leeuwen, D. van

    2007-01-01

    Emotions can be recognized by audible paralinguistic cues in speech. By detecting these paralinguistic cues that can consist of laughter, a trembling voice, coughs, changes in the intonation contour etc., information about the speaker’s state and emotion can be revealed. This paper describes the

  12. Automatic Generation of Minimal Cut Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sentot Kromodimoeljo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A cut set is a collection of component failure modes that could lead to a system failure. Cut Set Analysis (CSA is applied to critical systems to identify and rank system vulnerabilities at design time. Model checking tools have been used to automate the generation of minimal cut sets but are generally based on checking reachability of system failure states. This paper describes a new approach to CSA using a Linear Temporal Logic (LTL model checker called BT Analyser that supports the generation of multiple counterexamples. The approach enables a broader class of system failures to be analysed, by generalising from failure state formulae to failure behaviours expressed in LTL. The traditional approach to CSA using model checking requires the model or system failure to be modified, usually by hand, to eliminate already-discovered cut sets, and the model checker to be rerun, at each step. By contrast, the new approach works incrementally and fully automatically, thereby removing the tedious and error-prone manual process and resulting in significantly reduced computation time. This in turn enables larger models to be checked. Two different strategies for using BT Analyser for CSA are presented. There is generally no single best strategy for model checking: their relative efficiency depends on the model and property being analysed. Comparative results are given for the A320 hydraulics case study in the Behavior Tree modelling language.

  13. Automatic Construction of Finite Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with model generation for equational theories,i.e.,automatically generating (finite)models of a given set of (logical) equations.Our method of finite model generation and a tool for automatic construction of finite algebras is described.Some examples are given to show the applications of our program.We argue that,the combination of model generators and theorem provers enables us to get a better understanding of logical theories.A brief comparison betwween our tool and other similar tools is also presented.

  14. Development of an automatic scaler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yuehong

    2009-04-01

    A self-designed automatic scaler is introduced. A microcontroller LPC936 is used as the master chip in the scaler. A counter integrated with the micro-controller is configured to operate as external pulse counter. Software employed in the scaler is based on a embedded real-time operating system kernel named Small RTOS. Data storage, calculation and some other functions are also provided. The scaler is designed for applications with low cost, low power consumption solutions. By now, the automatic scaler has been applied in a surface contamination instrument. (authors)

  15. Annual review in automatic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Annual Review in Automatic Programming focuses on the techniques of automatic programming used with digital computers. Topics covered range from the design of machine-independent programming languages to the use of recursive procedures in ALGOL 60. A multi-pass translation scheme for ALGOL 60 is described, along with some commercial source languages. The structure and use of the syntax-directed compiler is also considered.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with a discussion on the basic ideas involved in the description of a computing process as a program for a computer, expressed in

  16. Grinding Parts For Automatic Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Richard K.; Hoult, William S.

    1989-01-01

    Rollers guide grinding tool along prospective welding path. Skatelike fixture holds rotary grinder or file for machining large-diameter rings or ring segments in preparation for welding. Operator grasps handles to push rolling fixture along part. Rollers maintain precise dimensional relationship so grinding wheel cuts precise depth. Fixture-mounted grinder machines surface to quality sufficient for automatic welding; manual welding with attendant variations and distortion not necessary. Developed to enable automatic welding of parts, manual welding of which resulted in weld bead permeated with microscopic fissures.

  17. Norms concerning the programmable automatic control devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourmentraux, G.

    1995-01-01

    This presentation is a report of the studies carried out by the Work Group on Functioning Safety of Programmable Automatic Control Devices and by the Group for Prevention Studies (GEP) from the CEA. The objective of these groups is to evaluate the methods which could be used to estimate the functioning safety of control and instrumentation systems involved in the Important Elements for Safety (EIS) of the Basic Nuclear Installations (INB) of the CEA, and also to carry out a qualification of automatic control devices. Norms, protocols and tools for the evaluation are presented. The problem comprises two aspects: the evaluation of fault avoidance techniques and the evaluation of fault control techniques used during the conceiving. For the fault avoidance techniques, the quality assurance organization, the environment tests, and the software quality plans are considered. For the fault control techniques, the different available tools and fault injection models are analysed. The results of an analysis carried out with the DEF.I tool from the National Institute for Research and Safety (INRS) are reported. (J.S.). 23 refs

  18. Process and device for automatically surveying complex installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekrul, P.J.; Thiele, A.W.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a process for automatically analysing separate signal processing channels in real time, one channel per signal, in a facility with significant background noise in signals varying in time and coming from transducers at selected points for the continuous monitoring of the operating conditions of the various components of the installation. The signals are intended to determine potential breakdowns, determine conclusions as to the severity of these potential breakdowns and indicate to an operator the measures to be taken in consequence. The feature of this process is that it comprises the automatic and successive selection of each channel for the purpose of spectral analysis, the automatic processing of the signal of each selected channel to show energy spectrum density data at pre-determined frequencies, the automatic comparison of the energy spectrum density data of each channel with pre-determined sets of limits varying with the frequency, and the automatic indication to the operator of the condition of the various components of the installation associated to each channel and the measures to be taken depending on the set of limits [fr

  19. Automatic interpretation and writing report of the adult waking electroencephalogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Sugi, Takenao; Nishida, Shigeto; Nagamine, Takashi; Ikeda, Akio

    2014-06-01

    Automatic interpretation of the EEG has so far been faced with significant difficulties because of a large amount of spatial as well as temporal information contained in the EEG, continuous fluctuation of the background activity depending on changes in the subject's vigilance and attention level, the occurrence of paroxysmal activities such as spikes and spike-and-slow-waves, contamination of the EEG with a variety of artefacts and the use of different recording electrodes and montages. Therefore, previous attempts of automatic EEG interpretation have been focussed only on a specific EEG feature such as paroxysmal abnormalities, delta waves, sleep stages and artefact detection. As a result of a long-standing cooperation between clinical neurophysiologists and system engineers, we report for the first time on a comprehensive, computer-assisted, automatic interpretation of the adult waking EEG. This system analyses the background activity, intermittent abnormalities, artefacts and the level of vigilance and attention of the subject, and automatically presents its report in written form. Besides, it also detects paroxysmal abnormalities and evaluates the effects of intermittent photic stimulation and hyperventilation on the EEG. This system of automatic EEG interpretation was formed by adopting the strategy that the qualified EEGers employ for the systematic visual inspection. This system can be used as a supplementary tool for the EEGer's visual inspection, and for educating EEG trainees and EEG technicians. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The automatic lumber planing mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Koch

    1957-01-01

    It is probable that a truly automatic planning operation could be devised if some of the variables commonly present in the mill-run lumber were eliminated and the remaining variables kept under close control. This paper will deal with the more general situation faced by mostl umber manufacturing plants. In other words, it will be assumed that the incoming lumber has...

  1. Automatic Validation of Protocol Narration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, Pierpablo

    2003-01-01

    We perform a systematic expansion of protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to make precise some of the detailed checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we...

  2. Automatically Preparing Safe SQL Queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Prithvi; Sistla, A. Prasad; Venkatakrishnan, V. N.

    We present the first sound program source transformation approach for automatically transforming the code of a legacy web application to employ PREPARE statements in place of unsafe SQL queries. Our approach therefore opens the way for eradicating the SQL injection threat vector from legacy web applications.

  3. The Automatic Measurement of Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhle, Joachim

    1997-01-01

    The automatic measurement of targets is demonstrated by means of a theoretical example and by an interactive measuring program for real imagery from a réseau camera. The used strategy is a combination of two methods: the maximum correlation coefficient and the correlation in the subpixel range...... interactive software is also part of a computer-assisted learning program on digital photogrammetry....

  4. Automatic analysis of ultrasonic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horteur, P.; Colin, J.; Benoist, P.; Bonis, M.; Paradis, L.

    1986-10-01

    This paper describes an automatic and self-contained data processing system, transportable on site, able to perform images such as ''A. Scan'', ''B. Scan'', ... to present very quickly the results of the control. It can be used in the case of pressure vessel inspection [fr

  5. Risk Factors for Chronic Cough Among 14,669 Individuals From the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Çolak, Yunus; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Laursen, Lars C

    2017-01-01

    population was 4% overall and 3% in never smokers, 4% in former smokers, and 8% in current smokers. Median score of the LCQ was 5.8 (25th-75th percentile, 5.0-6.3) for physical domain, 5.6 (25th-75th percentile, 4.6-6.3) for psychologic domain, 6.3 (25th-75th percentile, 5.5-6.8) for social domain, and 17.......3 (25th- 75th percentile, 15.4-18.9) in total. At the level of the individual, age-adjusted ORs for the three top-ranked risk factors were 5.0 (95% CI, 1.4-18) for bronchiectasis, 2.6 (95% CI, 1.7-3.9) for asthma and 2.3 (95% CI, 1.5-3.4) for gastroesophageal reflux disease in never smokers, 7.1 (95% CI......, 19%), asthma (PAR, 10%), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (PAR, 8%) in never smokers; abdominal obesity (PAR, 20%), low income (PAR, 20%), and asthma (PAR, 13%) in former smokers; and airflow limitation (PAR, 23%) in current smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for chronic cough differ at the level...

  6. Fat dogs and coughing horses: K-12 programming for veterinary workforce development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, Sandra F; Carleton Parker, Loran; Adedokun, Omolola A; Burgess, Wilella D; Cipriani Davis, Kauline S; Blossom, Thaddaeus D; Schneider, Jessica L; Mennonno, Ann M; Ruhl, Joseph D; Veatch, Jennifer H; Wackerly, Amy J; Shin, Soo Yeon; Ratliff, Timothy L

    2013-01-01

    Workforce development strategies to educate, inform, and diversify the veterinary profession of the future must begin with children in elementary school. This article provides a description of the Fat Dogs and Coughing Horses program, which takes a multifaceted approach toward informing young students, beginning in first grade, about the interesting work and career opportunities available in the field of veterinary medicine. The program, a collaboration among Purdue University and Indiana public schools, is supported by a Science Education Partnership Award from the Office of Research Infrastructure Programs, a component of the National Institutes of Health. The overall goal of the program is to provide formal and informal educational opportunities for students, parents, teachers, and the public about the science involved in keeping people and their animals healthy. Examples of health concerns that impact both people and their pets are used to inform and excite children about careers in the health sciences. The program resulted in (1) curricula for students in Grades 1-3, 6, and 9; (2) four children's books and a set of collectible cards which highlight veterinarians, veterinary technicians, and research scientists who work with animals; and (3) four traveling museum-level quality exhibits. Preliminary assessment data has shown that the implementation of the curricula enhanced student science learning and science attitudes and interests. The program provides evidence that partnerships among professionals in veterinary medicine and K-12 education can result in impactful workforce development programs.

  7. High performance liquid chromatographic determination of some guaiphenesin-containing cough-cold preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Korany

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents different HPLC methods for the simultaneous determination of some guaiphenesin-containing cough-cold preparations. Three pharmaceutically available combinations were analyzed: salbutamol sulfate (SAL and guaiphenesin (GUA, combination I; ascorbic acid (ASC, paracetamol (PAR and guaiphenesin (GUA, combination II; and theophylline anhydrous (THE, guaiphenesin (GUA and ambroxol hydrochloride (AMB, combination III. A 250 × 4.6 mm C-18 column was used for all combinations. The mobile phase for the three combinations consisted of a mixture of methanol and 0.01 M aqueous phosphate buffer solution. The pH of the mobile phase was adjusted to 3.2, 6.2 and 3.8 for combinations I, II and III, respectively. The proposed HPLC methods were successfully applied to the determination of the investigated drugs, both in synthetic mixtures and in pharmaceutical preparations, without any matrix interference and with high precision and accuracy. Different aspects of analytical validation are presented in the text.

  8. Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura presenting with syncope episodes when coughing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciulla Michele M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura is a rarely encountered clinical entity which may have different clinical pictures. Although the majority of these neoplasms have a benign course, the malignant form has also been reported. Case presentation We herein describe a case of 72 year-old man with head, facial, and thoracic traumas caused by neurally-mediated situational syncope when coughing. The diagnostic work-up including chest x-ray, CT and PET, revealed a large solitary mass of the left hemithorax. Radical surgical resection of the mass was performed through a left lateral thoracotomy and completed with a wedge resection of the lingula. Hystological examination of the surgical specimen showed an encapsulated mass measuring 12 × 11.5 × 6 cm consistent with a solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura. It's surgical removal definitively resolved the neurologic manifestations. The patient had no postoperative complications. At two years follow-up the patient is free from recurrence and without clinical manifestations. Conclusion In our case its resection definitively resolved the episodes of situational syncope due, in our opinion, to the large thoracic mass compressing the phrenic nerve

  9. Attitudes, knowledge and perceptions towards whooping cough and pertussis vaccine in hospitalized adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridda, Iman; Gao, Zhanhai; Macintyre, C Raina

    2014-02-19

    Whooping cough or pertussis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality for adults and children around the world. There has been a rise in pertussis-related deaths in the elderly; pertussis vaccination is not currently routinely recommended in adults, excepting new parents and other adults household members including grandparents and care-givers of young children. Currently, there is lack of clear vaccine recommendations after the age of 50 years. Given the increase in adult pertussis, adult vaccine recommendations are a policy consideration. The study surveyed a convenience sample of patients previously recruited in a case control study designed to examine the burden of influenza with and without AMI in adults aged ≥ 40 years. Our findings showed that only 9.6% had received the pertussis vaccination within the past five years and 79.4% of participants had no knowledge of the pertussis adult booster vaccine, and 30.7% of participants who had regular contact with children under the age of two years in the past 12 months. The results showed that even though there is general acceptance of prevention by vaccines, there is low awareness about pertussis vaccination. This lack of knowledge presents a barrier against pertussis vaccination thus it is imperative that any future adult immunisation policy recommendations around pertussis vaccine include awareness programs in the target population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Production of pertussis toxin by Bordetella pertussis strains isolated from patients with whooping cough].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaĭtsev, E M; Mertsalova, N U; Shinkarev, A S; Mazurova, I K; Zakharova, N S

    2011-01-01

    To assess level of pertussin toxin (PT) production by vaccine strains of Bordetella pertussis and strains isolated from patients with whooping cough. Concentration of PT in supernatants of microbial cultures of 3 vaccine strains and 25 strains of B. pertussis isolated from patients with pertussis in 2001 - 2005 was measured with enzyme immunoassay using gamma-globulin fractions of rabbit antiserum to PT as immunosorbent or included in peroxidase conjugates. Level of PT production by strains isolated from infected persons varied from 3 +/- 0.5 to 64.8 +/- 12.2 ng/MFU/ml: in 9 strains--from 3 +/- 0.5 to 9.4 +/- 2.1 ng/MFU/ml, in 7--10.5 +/- 1.8 to 18.4 +/- 2.6 ng/MFU/ml, and in 9--23.6 +/- 4.5 to 64.8 +/- 12.2 ng/MFU/ml. B. pertussis strains isolated from patients were heterogeneous on level of PT production. Difference in expression of PT between strains were as high as 20-fold. Conditionally low, moderate and high levels of PT production had 9 (36%), 7 (28%), and 9 (36%) of 25 studied strains. Three vaccine strains had levels of toxin production similar to recently isolated strains with moderate level of its production.

  11. Diagnosis of whooping cough in Switzerland: differentiating Bordetella pertussis from Bordetella holmesii by polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittet, Laure F; Emonet, Stéphane; François, Patrice; Bonetti, Eve-Julie; Schrenzel, Jacques; Hug, Melanie; Altwegg, Martin; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Posfay-Barbe, Klara M

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella holmesii, an emerging pathogen, can be misidentified as Bordetella pertussis by routine polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In some reports, up to 29% of the patients diagnosed with pertussis have in fact B. holmesii infection and invasive, non-respiratory B. holmesii infections have been reported worldwide. This misdiagnosis undermines the knowledge of pertussis' epidemiology, and may lead to misconceptions on pertussis vaccine's efficacy. Recently, the number of whooping cough cases has increased significantly in several countries. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine whether B. holmesii was contributing to the increase in laboratory-confirmed cases of B. pertussis in Switzerland. A multiplex species-specific quantitative PCR assay was performed on 196 nasopharyngeal samples from Swiss patients with PCR-confirmed Bordetella infection (median age: 6 years-old, minimum 21 days-old, maximum 86 years-old), formerly diagnosed as Bordetella pertussis (IS481+). No B. holmesii (IS481+, IS1001-, hIS1001+) was identified. We discuss whether laboratories should implement specific PCR to recognize different Bordetella species. We conclude that in Switzerland B. holmesii seems to be circulating less than in neighboring countries and that specific diagnostic procedures are not necessary routinely. However, as the epidemiological situation may change rapidly, periodic reevaluation is suggested.

  12. "The cough game": are there characteristic urethrovesical movement patterns associated with stress incontinence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicky-Gaupp, Christina; Blaivas, Jerry; Clark, Amanda; McGuire, Edward J; Schaer, Gabriel; Tumbarello, Julie; Tunn, Ralf; DeLancey, John O L

    2009-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine whether five experts in female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) could discover a pattern of urethrovesical movement characteristic of SUI on dynamic perineal ultrasound. A secondary analysis of data from a case-control study was performed. Ultrasounds from 31 cases (daily SUI) and 42 controls (continent volunteers) of similar age and parity were analyzed. Perineal ultrasound was performed during a single cough. The five experts, blinded to continence status and urodynamics, classified each woman as stress continent or incontinent. Correct responses ranged from 45.7% to 65.8% (mean 57.4 +/- 7.6). Sensitivity was 53.0 +/- 8.8% and specificity 61.2 +/- 12.4%. The positive predictive value was 48.8 +/- 8.2% and negative predictive value was 65.0 +/- 7.3%. Inter-rater reliability, evaluated by Cohen's kappa statistic, averaged 0.47 [95% CI 0.40-0.50]. Experts could not identify a pattern of urethrovesical movement characteristic of SUI on ultrasound.

  13. Automatic scanning of NTA film neutron dosimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, R

    1999-01-01

    At the European Laboratory for Particle Physics CERN, personal neutron monitoring for over 4000 collaborators is performed with Kodak NTA film, one of the few suitable dosemeters in the stray radiation environment of a high energy accelerator. After development, films are scanned with a projection microscope. To overcome this lengthy and strenuous procedure an automated analysis system for the dosemeters has been developed. General purpose image recognition software, tailored to the specific needs with a macro language, analyses the digitised microscope image. This paper reports on the successful automatic scanning of NTA films irradiated with neutrons from a /sup 238/Pu-Be source (E approximately=4 MeV), as well as on the extension of the method to neutrons of higher energies. The question of detection limits is discussed in the light of an application of the method in routine personal neutron monitoring. (9 refs).

  14. Duodenal-bronchial fistula: an unusual cause of shortness of breath and a productive cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Wong, BMBS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal-bronchial fistulas are very uncommon, even among the already rare subgroup of abdominal-bronchial fistulas. We describe a case of a woman with Crohn's disease who presented with shortness of breath and a productive cough who was found to have a duodeanl bronchial fistula on computed tomography scan. We demonstrate with this case how these rare cases can lead to chronic lung aspirations and require multidisciplinary involvement.

  15. Breathing, Laughing, Sneezing, Coughing: Model and Control of an Anatomically Inspired, Physically-Based Human Torso Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    DiLorenzo, Paul Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Breathing, laughing, sneezing and coughing are all important human behaviors that are generated in the torso. Yet, when these behaviors are animated, the movement of the human torso is often simplified and stylized. Recent work aiming to depict the movement of the torso has focused on pure data-driven approaches such as a skin capture of an actor using a motion capture system. Although this generates impressive results to recreate the captured motion, it does not provide control to an animato...

  16. Content validity of CASA-Q cough domains and UCSD-SOBQ for use in patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Katharine Suzanne; Esser, Dirk; Wiklund, Ingela

    2013-09-16

    The study objective was to assess the content validity of the Cough and Sputum Assessment Questionnaire (CASA-Q) cough domains and the UCSD Shortness of Breath Questionnaire (SOBQ) for use in patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF). Cross-sectional, qualitative study with cognitive interviews in patients with IPF. Study outcomes included relevance, comprehension of item meaning, understanding of the instructions, recall period, response options, and concept saturation. Interviews were conducted with 18 IPF patients. The mean age was 68.9 years (SD 11.9), 77.8% were male, and 88.9% were Caucasian. The intended meaning of the CASA-Q cough domain items was clearly understood by most of the participants (89-100%). All participants understood the CASA-Q instructions; the correct recall period was reported by 89% of the patients, and the response options were understood by 76%. The intended meaning of the UCSD-SOBQ items was relevant and clearly understood by all participants. Participants understood the instructions (83%) and all patients understood the response options (100%). The reported recall period varied based on the type of activity performed. No concepts were missing, suggesting that saturation was demonstrated for both measures. This study provides evidence for content validity for the CASA-Q cough domains and the UCSD-SOBQ for patients with IPF. Items of both questionnaires were understood and perceived as relevant to measure the key symptoms of IPF. The results of this study support the use of these instruments in IPF clinical trials as well as further studies of their psychometric properties.

  17. Rococo study: a real-world evaluation of an over-the-counter medicine in acute cough (a multicentre, randomised, controlled study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birring, S S; Brew, J; Kilbourn, A; Edwards, V; Wilson, R; Morice, A H

    2017-01-16

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of CS1002, an over-the-counter cough treatment containing diphenhydramine, ammonium chloride and levomenthol in a cocoa-based demulcent. A multicentre, randomised, parallel group, controlled, single-blinded study in participants with acute upper respiratory tract infection-associated cough. 4 general practitioner (GP) surgeries and 14 pharmacies in the UK. Participants aged ≥18 years who self-referred to a GP or pharmacist with acute cough of <7 days' duration. Participant inclusion criterion was cough severity ≥60 mm on a 0-100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). Exclusion criteria included current smokers or history of smoking within the past 12 months (including e-cigarettes). 163 participants were randomised to the study (mean participant age 38 years, 57% females). Participants were randomised to CS1002 (Unicough) or simple linctus (SL), a widely used cough treatment, and treatment duration was 7 days or until resolution of cough. The primary analysis was intention-to-treat (157 participants) and comprised cough severity assessed using a VAS after 3 days' treatment (prespecified primary end point at day 4). Cough frequency, sleep disruption, health status (Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ-acute)) and cough resolution were also assessed. At day 4 (primary end point), the adjusted mean difference (95% CI) in cough severity VAS between CS1002 and SL was -5.9 mm (-14.4 to 2.7), p=0.18. At the end of the study (day 7) the mean difference in cough severity VAS was -4.2 mm (-12.2 to 3.9), p=0.31. CS1002 was associated with a greater reduction in cough sleep disruption (mean difference -11.6 mm (-20.6 to 2.7), p=0.01) and cough frequency (mean difference -8.1 mm (-16.2 to 0.1), p=0.05) compared with SL. There was greater improvement in LCQ-acute quality of life scores with CS1002 compared with SL: mean difference (95% CI) 1.2 (0.05 to 2.36), p=0.04 after 5 days' treatment. More participants prematurely

  18. Automatic differentiation algorithms in model analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskes, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Title: Automatic differentiation algorithms in model analysis
    Author: M.J. Huiskes
    Date: 19 March, 2002

    In this thesis automatic differentiation algorithms and derivative-based methods

  19. Automatisms: bridging clinical neurology with criminal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolnick, Joshua; Parvizi, Josef

    2011-03-01

    The law, like neurology, grapples with the relationship between disease states and behavior. Sometimes, the two disciplines share the same terminology, such as automatism. In law, the "automatism defense" is a claim that action was involuntary or performed while unconscious. Someone charged with a serious crime can acknowledge committing the act and yet may go free if, relying on the expert testimony of clinicians, the court determines that the act of crime was committed in a state of automatism. In this review, we explore the relationship between the use of automatism in the legal and clinical literature. We close by addressing several issues raised by the automatism defense: semantic ambiguity surrounding the term automatism, the presence or absence of consciousness during automatisms, and the methodological obstacles that have hindered the study of cognition during automatisms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Automatic terrain modeling using transfinite element analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Nathan; Calo, Victor M.

    2010-01-01

    An automatic procedure for modeling terrain is developed based on L2 projection-based interpolation of discrete terrain data onto transfinite function spaces. The function space is refined automatically by the use of image processing techniques

  1. The role of excitatory amino acids and substance P in the mediation of the cough reflex within the nucleus tractus solitarii of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutolo, Donatella; Bongianni, Fulvia; Fontana, Giovanni A; Pantaleo, Tito

    2007-09-28

    We hypothesized that cough evoked by mechanical stimulation of the tracheobronchial tree in the rabbit is primarily mediated by glutamatergic neurotransmission at the level of the caudal portions of the medial subnucleus of the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and the lateral commissural NTS where cough-related afferents terminate, and that this reflex is potentiated by local release of substance P. To test our hypothesis, we performed bilateral microinjections (30-50 nl) of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists or substance P into these locations in pentobarbitone anaesthetized, spontaneously breathing rabbits. Blockade of NMDA and non-NMDA receptors by 50mM kynurenic acid abolished the cough reflex without affecting the Breuer-Hering inflation reflex or the pulmonary chemoreflex. Blockade of non-NMDA receptors using 10mM CNQX or 5mM NBQX caused identical effects. Blockade of NMDA receptors by 10mM D-AP5 strongly reduced, but did not abolish cough responses. Microinjections of 1mM substance P increased peak and rate of rise of abdominal muscle activity as well as cough number. These results are the first to provide evidence that ionotropic glutamate receptors, especially non-NMDA receptors, located within specific regions of NTS are primarily involved in the mediation of cough evoked by mechanical stimulation of the tracheobronchial tree in the rabbit. Present findings on substance P cough-enhancing effects extend previous observations and are relevant to the tachykinin-mediated central sensitization of the cough reflex. They also may provide hints for further studies on centrally acting antitussive drugs.

  2. Automatic design of magazine covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanian, Ali; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lin, Qian; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Lee, Seungyon; Fan, Jian; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a system for automatic design of magazine covers that quantifies a number of concepts from art and aesthetics. Our solution to automatic design of this type of media has been shaped by input from professional designers, magazine art directors and editorial boards, and journalists. Consequently, a number of principles in design and rules in designing magazine covers are delineated. Several techniques are derived and employed in order to quantify and implement these principles and rules in the format of a software framework. At this stage, our framework divides the task of design into three main modules: layout of magazine cover elements, choice of color for masthead and cover lines, and typography of cover lines. Feedback from professional designers on our designs suggests that our results are congruent with their intuition.

  3. Automatic schema evolution in Root

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, R.; Rademakers, F.

    2001-01-01

    ROOT version 3 (spring 2001) supports automatic class schema evolution. In addition this version also produces files that are self-describing. This is achieved by storing in each file a record with the description of all the persistent classes in the file. Being self-describing guarantees that a file can always be read later, its structure browsed and objects inspected, also when the library with the compiled code of these classes is missing. The schema evolution mechanism supports the frequent case when multiple data sets generated with many different class versions must be analyzed in the same session. ROOT supports the automatic generation of C++ code describing the data objects in a file

  4. Automatic digitization of SMA data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, Mika; Tanskanen, Eija

    2017-04-01

    In the 1970's and 1980's the Scandinavian Magnetometer Array produced large amounts of excellent data from over 30 stations In Norway, Sweden and Finland. 620 film reels and 20 kilometers of film have been preserved and the longest time series produced in the campaign span almost uninterrupted for five years, but the data has never seen widespread use due to the choice of medium. Film is a difficult medium to digitize efficiently. Previously events of interest were searched for by hand and digitization was done by projecting the film on paper and plotting it by hand. We propose a method of automatically digitizing geomagnetic data stored on film and extracting the numerical values from the digitized data. The automatic digitization process helps in preserving old, valuable data that might otherwise go unused.

  5. Physics of Automatic Target Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Sadjadi, Firooz

    2007-01-01

    Physics of Automatic Target Recognition addresses the fundamental physical bases of sensing, and information extraction in the state-of-the art automatic target recognition field. It explores both passive and active multispectral sensing, polarimetric diversity, complex signature exploitation, sensor and processing adaptation, transformation of electromagnetic and acoustic waves in their interactions with targets, background clutter, transmission media, and sensing elements. The general inverse scattering, and advanced signal processing techniques and scientific evaluation methodologies being used in this multi disciplinary field will be part of this exposition. The issues of modeling of target signatures in various spectral modalities, LADAR, IR, SAR, high resolution radar, acoustic, seismic, visible, hyperspectral, in diverse geometric aspects will be addressed. The methods for signal processing and classification will cover concepts such as sensor adaptive and artificial neural networks, time reversal filt...

  6. Automatic Conflict Detection on Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Stephen; Pace, Gordon J.; Schneider, Gerardo

    Many software applications are based on collaborating, yet competing, agents or virtual organisations exchanging services. Contracts, expressing obligations, permissions and prohibitions of the different actors, can be used to protect the interests of the organisations engaged in such service exchange. However, the potentially dynamic composition of services with different contracts, and the combination of service contracts with local contracts can give rise to unexpected conflicts, exposing the need for automatic techniques for contract analysis. In this paper we look at automatic analysis techniques for contracts written in the contract language mathcal{CL}. We present a trace semantics of mathcal{CL} suitable for conflict analysis, and a decision procedure for detecting conflicts (together with its proof of soundness, completeness and termination). We also discuss its implementation and look into the applications of the contract analysis approach we present. These techniques are applied to a small case study of an airline check-in desk.

  7. Cover Your Cough! A Short and Simple Activity to Demonstrate the Antimicrobial Effect of Desiccation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Cook Easterwood

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Many undergraduate microbiology laboratory manuals include exercises demonstrating the antimicrobial effects of physical agents, such as UV light and heat, and chemical agents, such as disinfectants and antibiotics (3, 4. There is, however, a lack of exercises examining the effects of desiccation on bacterial growth and survival. This particular form of antimicrobial control is especially relevant today with an increased emphasis on coughing and sneezing into one’s sleeve or a tissue, where microbes will not contaminate hands and will eventually desiccate and die (2. Desiccation can have bacteriostatic or bactericidal effects depending on the species, the material on which the organism has desiccated, and the length of time. The absence of water can damage many cellular components, including enzymes, nucleic acids, and cell membranes (1. However, many prokaryotes have some degree of resistance to desiccation, with Escherichia coli surviving around 24 hours and Bacillus species surviving upwards of 300 years, though these numbers can vary due to a number of confounding factors (5. Some of these factors include the method by which desiccation occurred, whether desiccation occurred in a natural or laboratory situation, and the species itself (5. To address the effects of desiccation on bacterial growth and survival, a short, simple exercise was developed. By inoculating various materials with bacterial cultures and allowing them to air-dry for 24 hours, students can visualize the effects of desiccation by analyzing the growth, or lack thereof, when organisms are transferred to nutrient agar plates. This exercise has been used in a health professions microbiology course as well as a microbiology course for biology and biochemistry majors. It is short enough to be conducted during a standard lecture period or during a longer laboratory period in conjunction with other experiments demonstrating the effectiveness of physical agents on microbial

  8. Prevalence and Genotype Distribution of Pneumocystis jirovecii in Cuban Infants and Toddlers with Whooping Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Vaca, Ernesto X.; de Armas, Yaxsier; Illnait-Zaragozí, María T.; Toraño, Gilda; Diaz, Raúl; Vega, Dania; Alvarez-Lam, Ileana; Calderón, Enrique J.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence and genotype distribution of Pneumocystis jirovecii obtained from nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from immunocompetent Cuban infants and toddlers with whooping cough (WC). A total of 163 NP swabs from 163 young Cuban children with WC who were admitted to the respiratory care units at two pediatric centers were studied. The prevalence of the organism was determined by a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay targeting the P. jirovecii mitochondrial large subunit (mtLSU) rRNA gene. Genotypes were identified by direct sequencing of mtLSU ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene amplicons. qPCR detected P. jirovecii DNA in 48/163 (29.4%) samples. mtLSU rDNA sequence analysis revealed the presence of three different genotypes in the population. Genotype 2 was most common (48%), followed in prevalence by genotypes 1 (23%) and 3 (19%); mixed-genotype infections were seen in 10% of the cases. RFLP analysis of DHPS PCR products revealed four genotypes, 18% of which were associated with resistance to sulfa drugs. Only contact with coughers (prevalence ratio [PR], 3.51 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.79 to 6.87]; P = 0.000) and exposure to tobacco smoke (PR, 1.82 [95% CI, 1.14 to 2.92]; P = 0.009) were statistically associated with being colonized by P. jirovecii. The prevalence of P. jirovecii in infants and toddlers with WC and the genotyping results provide evidence that this population represents a potential reservoir and transmission source of P. jirovecii. PMID:24131683

  9. [Comparative analysis of conventional pulmonary function test results in children with asthma or cough variant asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jie; An, Shu-Hua; Gao, Wen-Jie; Du, Wen-Jin; Sun, Jun-Feng; Zhang, Man; Yao, Cong-Zhuo

    2013-03-01

    To compare the conventional pulmonary function test results of children with asthma or cough variant asthma (CVA). A total of 140 children, who were diagnosed with asthma or CVA from May 2010 to May 2011, were divided into acute asthma attack (n=50), asthma remission (n=50) and CVA groups (n=40); 30 healthy children were included as a control group. The forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow after 25% of vital capacity has been expelled (FEF25), forced expiratory flow after 50% of vital capacity has been expelled (FEF50), forced expiratory flow after 75% of vital capacity has been expelled (FEF75) and maximal midexpiratory flow (MMEF75/25) were measured. The mean percent predicted values of all the above indices were lower than 80% in the acute asthma attack group, with FEF50, FEF75 and MMEF75/25 declining markedly; the mean percent predicted values of FEF75 and MMEF75/25 were lower than 80% in the CVA group. All the pulmonary function indices in the acute asthma attack group were lower than those in the control group. The mean percent predicted values of FVC, FEV1, FEF25 and MMEF75/25 in the asthma remission and CVA groups were lower than in the control group. All the pulmonary function indices in the acute asthma attack group were lower than in the asthma remission and CVA groups, but there were no significant differences between the asthma remission and CVA groups. There is small and large airway dysfunction, particularly small airway dysfunction, in children with acute asthma attack. Children with CVA present mainly with mild small airway dysfunction, as do those with asthma in remission.

  10. "Cough officer screening" improves detection of pulmonary tuberculosis in hospital in-patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jen-Ho

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current tuberculosis (TB reporting protocols are insufficient to achieve the goals established by the Stop TB partnership. Some countries have recommended implementation of active case finding program. We assessed the effect of Cough Officer Screening (an active screening system on the rate of TB detection and health care system delays over the course of four years. Methods Patients who were hospitalized at the Changhua Christian Hospital (Changhua, Taiwan were enrolled from September 2004 to July 2006 (Stage I and August 2006 to August 2008 (Stage II. Stage II was implemented after a Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA cycle analysis indicated that we should exclude ICU and paediatric patients. Results In Stage I, our COS system alerted physicians to 19,836 patients, and 7,998 were examined. 184 of these 7,998 patients (2.3% had TB. Among these 184 patients, 142 (77.2% were examined for TB before COS alarming and 42 were diagnosed after COS alarming. In Stage II, a total of 11,323 patients were alerted by the COS system. Among them, 6,221 patients were examined by physicians, and 125 of these patients (2.0% had TB. Among these 125 patients, 113 (90.4% were examined for TB before COS alarming and 12 were diagnosed after COS alarming. The median time from COS alarm to clinical action was significantly less (p = 0.041 for Stage I (1 day; range: 0-16 days than for Stage II (2 days; range: 0-10 days. Conclusion Our COS system improves detection of TB by reducing the delay from infection to diagnosis. Modifications of scope may be needed to improve cost-effectiveness.

  11. Not All Coughs Are Asthma or Allergies: Churg-Strauss Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodoutchian, Ani A; Jain, Hitender; Velez, Tania

    2016-09-01

    Cardiomyopathy in patients with Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) carries a poor prognosis, with a high 5-year mortality rate, and requires treatment with immunosuppressive therapy. There is no single pathognomonic test or clinical finding for diagnosing CSS; instead, it is based upon meeting four of six criteria. A 47-year-old woman with a 6-month medical history of "asthma" presented to our hospital with a 1-month history or dyspnea on exertion. She denied any chest pain, cough, fever, orthopnea, or leg swelling. She was afebrile and normotensive, and her physical examination was unremarkable. Her white blood cell count was 23,000/mm(3) with 23% eosinophils, and her troponin T level was 1.08 ​Ng/ml. Extensive work-up revealed CSS. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Emergency physicians should be aware of unusual cases because not every patient that walks into an emergency department has a simple case of "asthma" or "allergies." Our patient had been diagnosed with asthma for 6 months before her symptoms had progressed to a point that prompted her to seek medical attention in a hospital. Emergency physicians are in a unique position to identify patients who present with recurrent complaints of asthma-especially late-onset asthma, which gradually worsens and is refractory to usual treatment. A complete blood cell count with a differential will prove valuable. Assessments of a patient's C-reactive protein level and erythrocyte sedimentation rate are inexpensive and check for signs of inflammation, although they are nonspecific. A chest radiograph or computed tomography scan of the chest or sinuses in some patients can also prove to be of value. Prompt recognition and treatment with steroids is imperative to ablate vasculitis tissue damage because this can improve the outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Immunization status of Iranian military recruits against Bordetella pertussis infection (whooping cough).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Morteza; Afsharpaiman, Shahla; Jonaidi Jafari, Nematollah; Ranjbar, Reza; Gooya, Mohammad Mahdi; Robat Sarpooshi, Javad; Esfahani, Ali Akbar; Soheylipoor, Hamid

    2011-03-21

    Military recruits are susceptible to respiratory pathogens because of increased antibiotic resistance and the lack of an effective vaccine. The goal of the current study was to determine the immunological status of the Bordetella pertussis among conscripts in Iranian military garrisons. The study population consisted of 424 conscripts aged 18 to 21 years who enrolled for military service. They were selected using cluster stratified sampling from all military garrisons in Tehra, Iran. To determine the seroprevalence of infection, blood specimens from all recruits were collected and stored at - 20 °C until assayed. All serum samples were screened for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against Bordetella pertussis toxin (PT) and by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall prevalence of B. pertussis seropositivity in military recruits was 60.6. Only 55.0% of the recruits had low awareness about the record of vaccination against B. pertussis during childhood. Among 424 studied individuals, 48 recruits (11.3%) had a positive history of whooping cough; prevalence of seropositivity in these recruits was 70.0%. Among these subjects, 61.7% were referred to a physician for treatment and only 39.6% of them were administered anti-pertussis therapy. Our study showed that military conscripts in Tehran garrisons were not serologically immune to pertussis and also confirmed the low awareness about vaccination and medical history related to pertussis infection in this high-risk subgroup of the Iranian population. Routine acellular booster vaccination, particularly before 18 years of age, is recommended.

  13. A fully automatic system for acid-base coulometric titrations

    OpenAIRE

    Cladera, A.; Caro, A.; Estela, J. M.; Cerdà, V.

    1990-01-01

    An automatic system for acid-base titrations by electrogeneration of H+ and OH- ions, with potentiometric end-point detection, was developed. The system includes a PC-compatible computer for instrumental control, data acquisition and processing, which allows up to 13 samples to be analysed sequentially with no human intervention. The system performance was tested on the titration of standard solutions, which it carried out with low errors and RSD. It was subsequently applied to the analysis o...

  14. Automatic acoustic and vibration monitoring system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tothmatyas, Istvan; Illenyi, Andras; Kiss, Jozsef; Komaromi, Tibor; Nagy, Istvan; Olchvary, Geza

    1990-01-01

    A diagnostic system for nuclear power plant monitoring is described. Acoustic and vibration diagnostics can be applied to monitor various reactor components and auxiliary equipment including primary circuit machinery, leak detection, integrity of reactor vessel, loose parts monitoring. A noise diagnostic system has been developed for the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, to supervise the vibration state of primary circuit machinery. An automatic data acquisition and processing system is described for digitalizing and analysing diagnostic signals. (R.P.) 3 figs

  15. MOS voltage automatic tuning circuit

    OpenAIRE

    李, 田茂; 中田, 辰則; 松本, 寛樹

    2004-01-01

    Abstract ###Automatic tuning circuit adjusts frequency performance to compensate for the process variation. Phase locked ###loop (PLL) is a suitable oscillator for the integrated circuit. It is a feedback system that compares the input ###phase with the output phase. It can make the output frequency equal to the input frequency. In this paper, PLL ###fomed of MOSFET's is presented.The presented circuit consists of XOR circuit, Low-pass filter and Relaxation ###Oscillator. On PSPICE simulation...

  16. The Mark II Automatic Diflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean L Rasson

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We report here on the new realization of an automatic fluxgate theodolite able to perform unattended absolute geomagnetic declination and inclination measurements: the AUTODIF MKII. The main changes of this version compared with the former one are presented as well as the better specifications we expect now. We also explain the absolute orientation procedure by means of a laser beam and a corner cube and the method for leveling the fluxgate sensor, which is different from a conventional DIflux theodolite.

  17. CLG for Automatic Image Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Christo Ananth; S.Santhana Priya; S.Manisha; T.Ezhil Jothi; M.S.Ramasubhaeswari

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an automatic segmentation method which effectively combines Active Contour Model, Live Wire method and Graph Cut approach (CLG). The aim of Live wire method is to provide control to the user on segmentation process during execution. Active Contour Model provides a statistical model of object shape and appearance to a new image which are built during a training phase. In the graph cut technique, each pixel is represented as a node and the distance between those nodes is rep...

  18. Annual review in automatic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Halpern, Mark I; Bolliet, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Computer Science and Technology and their Application is an eight-chapter book that first presents a tutorial on database organization. Subsequent chapters describe the general concepts of Simula 67 programming language; incremental compilation and conversational interpretation; dynamic syntax; the ALGOL 68. Other chapters discuss the general purpose conversational system for graphical programming and automatic theorem proving based on resolution. A survey of extensible programming language is also shown.

  19. Automatic Detection of Fake News

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Rosas, Verónica; Kleinberg, Bennett; Lefevre, Alexandra; Mihalcea, Rada

    2017-01-01

    The proliferation of misleading information in everyday access media outlets such as social media feeds, news blogs, and online newspapers have made it challenging to identify trustworthy news sources, thus increasing the need for computational tools able to provide insights into the reliability of online content. In this paper, we focus on the automatic identification of fake content in online news. Our contribution is twofold. First, we introduce two novel datasets for the task of fake news...

  20. Automatic computation of transfer functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atcitty, Stanley; Watson, Luke Dale

    2015-04-14

    Technologies pertaining to the automatic computation of transfer functions for a physical system are described herein. The physical system is one of an electrical system, a mechanical system, an electromechanical system, an electrochemical system, or an electromagnetic system. A netlist in the form of a matrix comprises data that is indicative of elements in the physical system, values for the elements in the physical system, and structure of the physical system. Transfer functions for the physical system are computed based upon the netlist.

  1. Automatic wipers with mist control

    OpenAIRE

    Ashik K.P; A.N.Basavaraju

    2016-01-01

    - This paper illustrates Automatic wipers with mist control. In modern days, the accidents are most common in commercial vehicles. One of the reasons for these accidents is formation of the mist inside the vehicle due to heavy rain. In rainy seasons for commercial vehicles, the wiper on the windshield has to be controlled by the driver himself, which distracts his concentration on driving. Also when the rain lasts for more time (say for about 15 minutes) the formation of mist on t...

  2. How CBO Estimates Automatic Stabilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    the economy. Most types of revenues—mainly personal, corporate, and social insurance taxes —are sensitive to the business cycle and account for most of...Medicare taxes for self-employed people, taxes on production and imports, and unemployment insurance taxes . Those six categories account for the bulk of...federal tax revenues.6 Individual taxes account for most of the automatic stabilizers from revenues, followed by Social Security plus Medicare

  3. Group Dynamics in Automatic Imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleibs, Ilka H; Wilson, Neil; Reddy, Geetha; Catmur, Caroline

    Imitation-matching the configural body movements of another individual-plays a crucial part in social interaction. We investigated whether automatic imitation is not only influenced by who we imitate (ingroup vs. outgroup member) but also by the nature of an expected interaction situation (competitive vs. cooperative). In line with assumptions from Social Identity Theory), we predicted that both social group membership and the expected situation impact on the level of automatic imitation. We adopted a 2 (group membership target: ingroup, outgroup) x 2 (situation: cooperative, competitive) design. The dependent variable was the degree to which participants imitated the target in a reaction time automatic imitation task. 99 female students from two British Universities participated. We found a significant two-way interaction on the imitation effect. When interacting in expectation of cooperation, imitation was stronger for an ingroup target compared to an outgroup target. However, this was not the case in the competitive condition where imitation did not differ between ingroup and outgroup target. This demonstrates that the goal structure of an expected interaction will determine the extent to which intergroup relations influence imitation, supporting a social identity approach.

  4. Automatic programming for critical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganantharaj, Raj L.

    1988-01-01

    The important phases of a software life cycle include verification and maintenance. Usually, the execution performance is an expected requirement in a software development process. Unfortunately, the verification and the maintenance of programs are the time consuming and the frustrating aspects of software engineering. The verification cannot be waived for the programs used for critical applications such as, military, space, and nuclear plants. As a consequence, synthesis of programs from specifications, an alternative way of developing correct programs, is becoming popular. The definition, or what is understood by automatic programming, has been changed with our expectations. At present, the goal of automatic programming is the automation of programming process. Specifically, it means the application of artificial intelligence to software engineering in order to define techniques and create environments that help in the creation of high level programs. The automatic programming process may be divided into two phases: the problem acquisition phase and the program synthesis phase. In the problem acquisition phase, an informal specification of the problem is transformed into an unambiguous specification while in the program synthesis phase such a specification is further transformed into a concrete, executable program.

  5. Veal calves’ clinical/health status in large groups fed with automatic feeding devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Cozzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the current study was to evaluate the clinical/health status of veal calves in 3 farms that adopt large group housing and automatic feeding stations in Italy. Visits were scheduled in three phases of the rearing cycle (early, middle, and end. Results showed a high incidence of coughing, skin infection and bloated rumen particularly in the middle phase while cross-sucking signs were present at the early stage when calves’ nibbling proclivity is still high. Throughout the rearing cycle, the frequency of bursitis increased reaching 53% of calves at the end. The percentage of calves with a poorer body condition than the mid-range of the batch raised gradually as well, likely due to the non-proportioned teat/calves ratio that increases competition for feed and reduces milk intake of the low ranking animals. The remarked growth differences among pen-mates and the mortality rate close to 7% showed by the use of automatic feeding devices for milk delivery seem not compensating the lower labour demand, therefore its sustainability at the present status is doubtful both for the veal calves’ welfare and the farm incomes.

  6. Automatic welding and cladding in heavy fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altamer, A. de

    1980-01-01

    A description is given of the automatic welding processes used by an Italian fabricator of pressure vessels for petrochemical and nuclear plant. The automatic submerged arc welding, submerged arc strip cladding, pulsed TIG, hot wire TIG and MIG welding processes have proved satisfactory in terms of process reliability, metal deposition rate, and cost effectiveness for low alloy and carbon steels. An example shows sequences required during automatic butt welding, including heat treatments. Factors which govern satisfactory automatic welding include automatic anti-drift rotator device, electrode guidance and bead programming system, the capability of single and dual head operation, flux recovery and slag removal systems, operator environment and controls, maintaining continuity of welding and automatic reverse side grinding. Automatic welding is used for: joining vessel sections; joining tubes to tubeplate; cladding of vessel rings and tubes, dished ends and extruded nozzles; nozzle to shell and butt welds, including narrow gap welding. (author)

  7. CERPI and CEREL, two computer codes for the automatic identification and determination of gamma emitters in thermal neutron activated samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannini, M.; Oliva, P.R.; Ramorino, C.

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of a computer code which automatically analyses gamma-ray spectra obtained with Ge(Li) detectors. The program contains features as automatic peak location and fitting, determination of peak energies and intensities, nuclide identification and calculation of masses and errors. Finally the results obtained with our computer code for a lunar sample are reported and briefly discussed

  8. A Randomized Comparative Study Evaluating Various Cough Stress Tests and 24-Hour Pad Test with Urodynamics in the Diagnosis of Stress Urinary Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Joseph W; Kane, Sarah M; Mangel, Jeffrey M; Kikano, Elias G; Garibay, Jorge A; Pollard, Robert R; Mahajan, Sangeeta T; Debanne, Sara M; Hijaz, Adonis K

    2018-06-01

    The cough stress test is a common and accepted tool to evaluate stress urinary incontinence but there is no agreement on how the test should be performed. We assessed the diagnostic ability of different cough stress tests performed when varying patient position and bladder volume using urodynamic stress urinary incontinence as the gold standard. The 24-hour pad test was also evaluated. We recruited women who presented to specialty outpatient clinics with the complaint of urinary incontinence and who were recommended to undergo urodynamic testing. A total of 140 patients were randomized to 4 cough stress test groups, including group 1-a comfortably full bladder, group 2-an empty bladder, group 3- a bladder infused with 200 cc saline and group 4-a bladder filled to half functional capacity. The sequence of standing and sitting was randomly assigned. The groups were compared by 1-way ANOVA or the generalized Fisher exact test. The κ statistic was used to evaluate agreement between the sitting and standing positions. The 95% CIs of sensitivity and specificity were calculated using the Wilson method. ROC analysis was done to evaluate the performance of the 24-hour pad test. The cough stress test performed with a bladder filled to half functional capacity was the best performing test with 83% sensitivity and 90% specificity. There was no statistically significant evidence that the sensitivity or specificity of 1 cough stress test differed from that of the others. The pad test had no significant predictive ability to diagnose urodynamic stress urinary incontinence (AUC 0.60, p = 0.08). Cough stress tests were accurate to diagnose urodynamic stress urinary incontinence. The 24-hour pad test was not predictive of urodynamic stress urinary incontinence and not helpful when used in conjunction with the cough stress test. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in default mode network as automaticity develops in a categorization task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, Farzin; Helie, Sebastien

    2016-10-15

    The default mode network (DMN) is a set of brain regions in which blood oxygen level dependent signal is suppressed during attentional focus on the external environment. Because automatic task processing requires less attention, development of automaticity in a rule-based categorization task may result in less deactivation and altered functional connectivity of the DMN when compared to the initial learning stage. We tested this hypothesis by re-analyzing functional magnetic resonance imaging data of participants trained in rule-based categorization for over 10,000 trials (Helie et al., 2010) [12,13]. The results show that some DMN regions are deactivated in initial training but not after automaticity has developed. There is also a significant decrease in DMN deactivation after extensive practice. Seed-based functional connectivity analyses with the precuneus, medial prefrontal cortex (two important DMN regions) and Brodmann area 6 (an important region in automatic categorization) were also performed. The results show increased functional connectivity with both DMN and non-DMN regions after the development of automaticity, and a decrease in functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex. Together, these results further support the hypothesis of a strategy shift in automatic categorization and bridge the cognitive and neuroscientific conceptions of automaticity in showing that the reduced need for cognitive resources in automatic processing is accompanied by a disinhibition of the DMN and stronger functional connectivity between DMN and task-related brain regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamic Optimization of Feedforward Automatic Gauge Control Based on Extended Kalman Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Bin-hu; YANG Wei-dong; CHEN Lian-gui; QU Lei

    2008-01-01

    Automatic gauge control is an essentially nonlinear process varying with time delay, and stochastically varying input and process noise always influence the target gauge control accuracy. To improve the control capability of feedforward automatic gauge control, Kalman filter was employed to filter the noise signal transferred from one stand to another. The linearized matrix that the Kalman filter algorithm needed was concluded; thus, the feedforward automatic gauge control architecture was dynamically optimized. The theoretical analyses and simulation show that the proposed algorithm is reasonable and effective.

  11. Radiation dosimetry by automatic image analysis of dicentric chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayley, R.; Carothers, A.; Farrow, S.; Gordon, J.; Ji, L.; Piper, J.; Rutovitz, D.; Stark, M.; Chen, X.; Wald, N.; Pittsburgh Univ., PA

    1991-01-01

    A system for scoring dicentric chromosomes by image analysis comprised fully automatic location of mitotic cells, automatic retrieval, focus and digitisation at high resolution, automatic rejection of nuclei and debris and detection and segmentation of chromosome clusters, automatic centromere location, and subsequent rapid interactive visual review of potential dicentric chromosomes to confirm positives and reject false positives. A calibration set of about 15000 cells was used to establish the quadratic dose response for 60 Co γ-irradiation. The dose-response function parameters were established by a maximum likelihood technique, and confidence limits in the dose response and in the corresponding inverse curve, of estimated dose for observed dicentric frequency, were established by Monte Carlo techniques. The system was validated in a blind trial by analysing a test comprising a total of about 8000 cells irradiated to 1 of 10 dose levels, and estimating the doses from the observed dicentric frequency. There was a close correspondence between the estimated and true doses. The overall sensitivity of the system in terms of the proportion of the total population of dicentrics present in the cells analysed that were detected by the system was measured to be about 40%. This implies that about 2.5 times more cells must be analysed by machine than by visual analysis. Taking this factor into account, the measured review time and false positive rates imply that analysis by the system of sufficient cells to provide the equivalent of a visual analysis of 500 cells would require about 1 h for operator review. (author). 20 refs.; 4 figs.; 5 tabs

  12. Automatic positioning control device for automatic control rod exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasu, Seiji; Sasaki, Masayoshi.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To attain accurate positioning for a control rod exchanger. Constitution: The present position for an automatic control rod exchanger is detected by a synchro generator. An aimed stopping position for the exchanger, a stop instruction range depending on the distantial operation delay in the control system and the inertia-running distance of the mechanical system, and a coincidence confirmation range depending on the required positioning accuracy are previously set. If there is a difference between the present position and the aimed stopping position, the automatic exchanger is caused to run toward the aimed stopping position. A stop instruction is generated upon arrival at the position within said stop instruction range, and a coincidence confirmation signal is generated upon arrival at the position within the coincidence confirmation range. Since uncertain factors such as operation delay in the control system and the inertia-running distance of the mechanical system that influence the positioning accuracy are made definite by the method of actual measurement or the like and the stop instruction range and the coincidence confirmation range are set based on the measured data, the accuracy for the positioning can be improved. (Ikeda, J.)

  13. Pediatrician’s cough and cold medication prescription for hypothetical cases – A cross-sectional multi-centric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Chandelia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Concerns over inappropriate use of cough and cold medication (CCM in children have been raised. In addition to being ineffective, these are now considered toxic for young children. Despite this fact studies from some regions have shown high use of these medications by physicians. However data on pediatricians and from India are negligible. Aim: To study the burden and patterns of cough and cold medications use by pediatricians for hypothetical cases. Methods: In this cross-sectional study; 172 pediatricians of various hospitals of Delhi and Haryana were enrolled from February 15 to March 15, 2012. They were contacted personally by authors and asked to write their prescriptions for two hypothetical case scenarios [having cough and cold] of two different age groups; (1 less than 2 years and (2 2–5 years. We made two categories as recommendations exist for children less than 2 years while recommendations for the second category are underway. Results were summarized as percentages, counts and; presented in tables and figures. Chi square test was used to establish association between categorical variables of subgroups. Results: Response rate was 93%. The most used CCM was antihistaminics (82% and systemic sympathomimetics (48%. The use of CCM was significantly less in teaching hospitals as compared to non-teaching (77% vs. 95%; p-value – 0.025. However there was no statistical difference in the practice of post graduates and more senior pediatricians (p value-0.895. No difference in CCM use in two age groups {(82% (less than 2 years vs. 85% (2–5 years; p-value – 0.531} was observed. Conclusion: Overall use of CCM is still high irrespective of patient age, pediatrician’s seniority or hospital setting. Efforts should be made to create awareness among the pediatricians regarding cautious use of these medications.

  14. Automatic calculations of electroweak processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, T.; Kawabata, S.; Kurihara, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Kaneko, T.; Kato, K.; Tanaka, H.

    1996-01-01

    GRACE system is an excellent tool for calculating the cross section and for generating event of the elementary process automatically. However it is not always easy for beginners to use. An interactive version of GRACE is being developed so as to be a user friendly system. Since it works exactly in the same environment as PAW, all functions of PAW are available for handling any histogram information produced by GRACE. As its application the cross sections of all elementary processes with up to 5-body final states induced by e + e - interaction are going to be calculated and to be summarized as a catalogue. (author)

  15. Automatic Strain-Rate Controller,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    D—AO37 9~e2 ROME AIR DEVELOPMENT CENTER GRIFFISS AFB N 1’ FIG 13/ 6AUTOMATIC STRAIN—RATE CONTROLLER, (U) DEC 76 R L HUNTSINGER. J A ADAMSK I...goes to zero. CONTROLLER, Leeds and Northrup Series 80 CAT with proportional band , rate , reset, and approach controls . Input from deviation output...8) through ( 16) . (8) Move the set-point slowl y up to 3 or 4. (9) If the recorder po inter hunts , adjust the func t ion controls on tine Ser

  16. Commutated automatic gain control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    A commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for a prototype Loran C receiver. The receiver uses a microcomputer to control a memory aided phase-locked loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The circuit designed for the AGC is described, and bench and flight test results are presented. The AGC circuit described actually samples starting at a point 40 microseconds after a zero crossing determined by the software lock pulse ultimately generated by a 30 microsecond delay and add network in the receiver front end envelope detector.

  17. Automatic liquid nitrogen feeding device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillardeau, J.; Bona, F.; Dejachy, G.

    1963-01-01

    An automatic liquid nitrogen feeding device has been developed (and used) in the framework of corrosion tests realized with constantly renewed uranium hexafluoride. The issue was to feed liquid nitrogen to a large capacity metallic trap in order to condensate uranium hexafluoride at the exit of the corrosion chambers. After having studied various available devices, a feeding device has been specifically designed to be robust, secure and autonomous, as well as ensuring a high liquid nitrogen flowrate and a highly elevated feeding frequency. The device, made of standard material, has been used during 4000 hours without any problem [fr

  18. Annual review in automatic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Annual Review in Automatic Programming, Volume 2 is a collection of papers that discusses the controversy about the suitability of COBOL as a common business oriented language, and the development of different common languages for scientific computation. A couple of papers describes the use of the Genie system in numerical calculation and analyzes Mercury autocode in terms of a phrase structure language, such as in the source language, target language, the order structure of ATLAS, and the meta-syntactical language of the assembly program. Other papers explain interference or an ""intermediate

  19. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  20. Annual review in automatic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Annual Review in Automatic Programming, Volume 4 is a collection of papers that deals with the GIER ALGOL compiler, a parameterized compiler based on mechanical linguistics, and the JOVIAL language. A couple of papers describes a commercial use of stacks, an IBM system, and what an ideal computer program support system should be. One paper reviews the system of compilation, the development of a more advanced language, programming techniques, machine independence, and program transfer to other machines. Another paper describes the ALGOL 60 system for the GIER machine including running ALGOL pro

  1. Motor automaticity in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Hallett, Mark; Chan, Piu

    2017-01-01

    Bradykinesia is the most important feature contributing to motor difficulties in Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the pathophysiology underlying bradykinesia is not fully understood. One important aspect is that PD patients have difficulty in performing learned motor skills automatically, but this problem has been generally overlooked. Here we review motor automaticity associated motor deficits in PD, such as reduced arm swing, decreased stride length, freezing of gait, micrographia and reduced facial expression. Recent neuroimaging studies have revealed some neural mechanisms underlying impaired motor automaticity in PD, including less efficient neural coding of movement, failure to shift automated motor skills to the sensorimotor striatum, instability of the automatic mode within the striatum, and use of attentional control and/or compensatory efforts to execute movements usually performed automatically in healthy people. PD patients lose previously acquired automatic skills due to their impaired sensorimotor striatum, and have difficulty in acquiring new automatic skills or restoring lost motor skills. More investigations on the pathophysiology of motor automaticity, the effect of L-dopa or surgical treatments on automaticity, and the potential role of using measures of automaticity in early diagnosis of PD would be valuable. PMID:26102020

  2. A 50-year-old woman with haemoptysis, cough and tachypnea: cholesterol pneumonia accompanying with pulmonary artery hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengxi; Zhang, Nuofu; Zhou, Ying; Li, Jinhui; Gu, Yingying; Wang, Jian; Liu, Chunli

    2017-03-01

    Lipoid pneumonia is an uncommon disease caused by the presence of lipid in the alveoli. Here we described a case of a 50-year-old woman with haemoptysis, cough and tachypnea, who was diagnosed with cholesterol pneumonia accompanying with pulmonary artery hypertension. The extremely high pulmonary artery pressure achieved, in this case, is alarming and should alert the physicians that the cholesterol pneumonia may be one of the underlying causes of pulmonary artery hypertension. After a treatment of methylprednisolone, her clinical symptoms were significantly improved, which suggested that steroid might be a promising therapeutic for patients with cholesterol pneumonia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Development and validation of RP-HPLC method for analysis of multicomponent cough-cold syrup formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ivković, Branka; Marković, Bojan; Vladimirov, Sote

    2014-01-01

    In this study a reversed phase HPLC method for rapid and simultaneous identification and quantification of doxylamine succinate, ephedrine sulfate, dextrometorphane hydrobromide, paracetamole and sodium benzoate in cough-cold syrup formulation was described. Separation was carried out on XTerraTM RP 18, Waters (150 mm x 4.6 mm column, 5 μm particle size). For the analysis of investigated substances gradient elution was used employing water, pH adjusted at 2.5 with 85 % ortophosphoric acid as ...

  4. Digital image analyser for autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muth, R.A.; Plotnick, J.

    1985-01-01

    The most critical parameter in quantitative autoradiography for assay of tissue concentrations of tracers is the ability to obtain precise and accurate measurements of optical density of the images. Existing high precision systems for image analysis, rotating drum densitometers, are expensive, suffer from mechanical problems and are slow. More moderately priced and reliable video camera based systems are available, but their outputs generally do not have the uniformity and stability necessary for high resolution quantitative autoradiography. The authors have designed and constructed an image analyser optimized for quantitative single and multiple tracer autoradiography which the authors refer to as a memory-mapped charged-coupled device scanner (MM-CCD). The input is from a linear array of CCD's which is used to optically scan the autoradiograph. Images are digitized into 512 x 512 picture elements with 256 gray levels and the data is stored in buffer video memory in less than two seconds. Images can then be transferred to RAM memory by direct memory-mapping for further processing. Arterial blood curve data and optical density-calibrated standards data can be entered and the optical density images can be converted automatically to tracer concentration or functional images. In double tracer studies, images produced from both exposures can be stored and processed in RAM to yield ''pure'' individual tracer concentration or functional images. Any processed image can be transmitted back to the buffer memory to be viewed on a monitor and processed for region of interest analysis

  5. Serological study of Bordetella Pertussis, Mycoplasma Pneumonia and Chlamydia Pneumonia in Iranian hajj pilgrims with prolonged cough illnesses: A follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimian, Masoud; HosseiniB, Mahdi

    2017-11-01

    Hajj pilgrimage is the biggest and longest mass gathering in the Muslim world. Annually, about 50% of more than 2.5 million pilgrims participating in this ritual get involved in severe devastating coughs. Most coughs continue, so the pilgrims turn back home and transmit them to family members and other people. Despite the high prevalence of coughs for many years, what causes them remains unknown. Considering the pertussis-like clinical picture of the so-called "hajj coughs", the researchers conducted a study to measure antibodies against three known common atypical bacteria, namely Bordetella Pertussis, Chlamydia Pneumonia and Mycoplasma Pneumonia. The study was done on three out of eleven groups of pilgrims from Yazd province, central Iran. The sample was selected randomly and consisted of 202 pilgrims who completed an informed consent. Their blood samples were taken, and the plasma was separated and then stored at -70 °C. After turning back from the journey, the pilgrims had their second blood samples taken. As many as 52 pilgrims failed to come for the second sampling, and two samples were broken during transportation. The final analysis was performed on the remaining 148 pairs of samples. Antibodies were already elevated in many pilgrims before the journey probably due to their old age (causing more exposure to pathogens) or unplanned pertussis vaccination. After their return, antibody elevation was only mild, again probably due to the old age of the participants (i.e. due to their weaker immune systems). Some antibodies even fell down without any known reason. In this study, previous hajj journey was assumed as a prophylactic factor, due to acquisition of immunity. Coughs with a prolonged pertussis-like picture were also presumed to be more related than other types of coughs to atypical pathogens. Statistical tests showed that the history of previous journeys had no prophylactic effect. Also, no correlation was found between the clinical pictures of coughs

  6. SRV-automatic handling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Koji

    1987-01-01

    Automatic handling device for the steam relief valves (SRV's) is developed in order to achieve a decrease in exposure of workers, increase in availability factor, improvement in reliability, improvement in safety of operation, and labor saving. A survey is made during a periodical inspection to examine the actual SVR handling operation. An SRV automatic handling device consists of four components: conveyor, armed conveyor, lifting machine, and control/monitoring system. The conveyor is so designed that the existing I-rail installed in the containment vessel can be used without any modification. This is employed for conveying an SRV along the rail. The armed conveyor, designed for a box rail, is used for an SRV installed away from the rail. By using the lifting machine, an SRV installed away from the I-rail is brought to a spot just below the rail so that the SRV can be transferred by the conveyor. The control/monitoring system consists of a control computer, operation panel, TV monitor and annunciator. The SRV handling device is operated by remote control from a control room. A trial equipment is constructed and performance/function testing is carried out using actual SRV's. As a result, is it shown that the SRV handling device requires only two operators to serve satisfactorily. The required time for removal and replacement of one SRV is about 10 minutes. (Nogami, K.)

  7. A new uranium automatic analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Buyun; Zhu Yaokun; Wang Bin; Cong Peiyuan; Zhang Lan

    1993-01-01

    A new uranium automatic analyzer based on the flow injection analysis (FIA) principle has been developed. It consists of a multichannel peristaltic pump, an injection valve, a photometric detector, a single-chip microprocessor system and electronic circuit. The new designed multifunctional auto-injection valve can automatically change the injection volume of the sample and the channels so that the determination ranges and items can easily be changed. It also can make the instrument vary the FIA operation modes that it has functions of a universal instrument. A chromatographic column with extractant-containing resin was installed in the manifold of the analyzer for the concentration and separation of trace uranium. The 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethyl-aminophenol (Br-PADAP) was used as colour reagent. Uranium was determined in the aqueous solution by adding cetyl-pyridium bromide (CPB). The uranium in the solution in the range 0.02-500 mg · L -1 can be directly determined without any pretreatment. A sample throughput rate of 30-90 h -1 and reproducibility of 1-2% were obtained. The analyzer has been satisfactorily applied to the laboratory and the plant

  8. An automatic holographic adaptive phoropter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirsolaimani, Babak; Peyghambarian, N.; Schwiegerling, Jim; Bablumyan, Arkady; Savidis, Nickolaos; Peyman, Gholam

    2017-08-01

    Phoropters are the most common instrument used to detect refractive errors. During a refractive exam, lenses are flipped in front of the patient who looks at the eye chart and tries to read the symbols. The procedure is fully dependent on the cooperation of the patient to read the eye chart, provides only a subjective measurement of visual acuity, and can at best provide a rough estimate of the patient's vision. Phoropters are difficult to use for mass screenings requiring a skilled examiner, and it is hard to screen young children and the elderly etc. We have developed a simplified, lightweight automatic phoropter that can measure the optical error of the eye objectively without requiring the patient's input. The automatic holographic adaptive phoropter is based on a Shack-Hartmann wave front sensor and three computercontrolled fluidic lenses. The fluidic lens system is designed to be able to provide power and astigmatic corrections over a large range of corrections without the need for verbal feedback from the patient in less than 20 seconds.

  9. Automatic welding machine for piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Koyama, Takaichi; Iizuka, Tomio; Ito, Yoshitoshi; Takami, Katsumi.

    1978-01-01

    A remotely controlled automatic special welding machine for piping was developed. This machine is utilized for long distance pipe lines, chemical plants, thermal power generating plants and nuclear power plants effectively from the viewpoint of good quality control, reduction of labor and good controllability. The function of this welding machine is to inspect the shape and dimensions of edge preparation before welding work by the sense of touch, to detect the temperature of melt pool, inspect the bead form by the sense of touch, and check the welding state by ITV during welding work, and to grind the bead surface and inspect the weld metal by ultrasonic test automatically after welding work. The construction of this welding system, the main specification of the apparatus, the welding procedure in detail, the electrical source of this welding machine, the cooling system, the structure and handling of guide ring, the central control system and the operating characteristics are explained. The working procedure and the effect by using this welding machine, and the application to nuclear power plants and the other industrial field are outlined. The HIDIC 08 is used as the controlling computer. This welding machine is useful for welding SUS piping as well as carbon steel piping. (Nakai, Y.)

  10. Automatic generation of tourist brochures

    KAUST Repository

    Birsak, Michael

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel framework for the automatic generation of tourist brochures that include routing instructions and additional information presented in the form of so-called detail lenses. The first contribution of this paper is the automatic creation of layouts for the brochures. Our approach is based on the minimization of an energy function that combines multiple goals: positioning of the lenses as close as possible to the corresponding region shown in an overview map, keeping the number of lenses low, and an efficient numbering of the lenses. The second contribution is a route-aware simplification of the graph of streets used for traveling between the points of interest (POIs). This is done by reducing the graph consisting of all shortest paths through the minimization of an energy function. The output is a subset of street segments that enable traveling between all the POIs without considerable detours, while at the same time guaranteeing a clutter-free visualization. © 2014 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Automatic Computer Mapping of Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedes, H. W.

    1971-01-01

    Computer processing of 17 wavelength bands of visible, reflective infrared, and thermal infrared scanner spectrometer data, and of three wavelength bands derived from color aerial film has resulted in successful automatic computer mapping of eight or more terrain classes in a Yellowstone National Park test site. The tests involved: (1) supervised and non-supervised computer programs; (2) special preprocessing of the scanner data to reduce computer processing time and cost, and improve the accuracy; and (3) studies of the effectiveness of the proposed Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) data channels in the automatic mapping of the same terrain, based on simulations, using the same set of scanner data. The following terrain classes have been mapped with greater than 80 percent accuracy in a 12-square-mile area with 1,800 feet of relief; (1) bedrock exposures, (2) vegetated rock rubble, (3) talus, (4) glacial kame meadow, (5) glacial till meadow, (6) forest, (7) bog, and (8) water. In addition, shadows of clouds and cliffs are depicted, but were greatly reduced by using preprocessing techniques.

  12. ACIR: automatic cochlea image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dhamari, Ibraheem; Bauer, Sabine; Paulus, Dietrich; Lissek, Friedrich; Jacob, Roland

    2017-02-01

    Efficient Cochlear Implant (CI) surgery requires prior knowledge of the cochlea's size and its characteristics. This information helps to select suitable implants for different patients. To get these measurements, a segmentation method of cochlea medical images is needed. An important pre-processing step for good cochlea segmentation involves efficient image registration. The cochlea's small size and complex structure, in addition to the different resolutions and head positions during imaging, reveals a big challenge for the automated registration of the different image modalities. In this paper, an Automatic Cochlea Image Registration (ACIR) method for multi- modal human cochlea images is proposed. This method is based on using small areas that have clear structures from both input images instead of registering the complete image. It uses the Adaptive Stochastic Gradient Descent Optimizer (ASGD) and Mattes's Mutual Information metric (MMI) to estimate 3D rigid transform parameters. The use of state of the art medical image registration optimizers published over the last two years are studied and compared quantitatively using the standard Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC). ACIR requires only 4.86 seconds on average to align cochlea images automatically and to put all the modalities in the same spatial locations without human interference. The source code is based on the tool elastix and is provided for free as a 3D Slicer plugin. Another contribution of this work is a proposed public cochlea standard dataset which can be downloaded for free from a public XNAT server.

  13. Automatic referral to cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jane P

    2008-01-01

    The pervasive negative impact of cardiovascular disease in the United States is well documented. Although advances have been made, the campaign to reduce the occurrence, progression, and mortality continues. Determining evidence-based data is only half the battle. Implementing new and updated clinical guidelines into daily practice is a challenging task. Cardiac rehabilitation is an example of a proven intervention whose benefit is hindered through erratic implementation. The American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation (AACVPR), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the American Heart Association (AHA) have responded to this problem by publishing the AACVPR/ACC/AHA 2007 Performance Measures on Cardiac Rehabilitation for Referral to and Delivery of Cardiac Rehabilitation/Secondary Prevention Services. This new national guideline recommends automatic referral to cardiac rehabilitation for every eligible patient (performance measure A-1). This article offers guidance for the initiation of an automatic referral system, including individualizing your protocol with regard to electronic or paper-based order entry structures.

  14. [Infection by Bordetella pertussis and bordetella parapertussis in cases of suspected whooping cough (2011-2015) in Mar del Plata, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavayén, Silvina; Zotta, Claudia; Cepeda, Marcela; Lara, Claudia; Rearte, Analia; Regueira, Mabel

    2017-01-01

    . To classify the study population in the Argentinian National Health Surveillance System framework, determine the proportion of infection by Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis, and identify factors associated with the cases of suspected whooping cough attended to in the city of Mar del Plata and its outskirts during the period 2011- 2015. An observational and descriptive study was carried out. Clinical cases with suspicion of whooping cough were diagnosed by laboratory. The laboratory studies consisted of culture, PCR, and serology using the ELISA technique. A total of 572 cases were evaluated. The female sex was the most frequent (51.9%). The most frequent age range was 2 to 17 moths (51.1%; 290/568), which was also the group with the most confirmed cases. Only 47.8% (155/324) of the population studied had complete vaccination for their age. Whooping cough due to B. pertussis was confirmed in 15.5% (89/572) of cases and one case with B. parapertussis. Those cases that had contact with a coughing relative were significantly associated with the confirmation of Bordetella spp. by the laboratory (odds ratio: 3.3; 95% confidence interval: 1.9-5.4). The results show the need to suspect whooping cough and diagnose it early in children, adolescents, and adults in order to better control the disease. Likewise, continuing prevention and containment measures are fundamental in decreasing the circulation of the causal agent.

  15. Automatic re-contouring in 4D radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Weiguo; Olivera, Gustavo H; Chen, Quan; Chen, Ming-Li; Ruchala, Kenneth J

    2006-01-01

    Delineating regions of interest (ROIs) on each phase of four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) images is an essential step for 4D radiotherapy. The requirement of manual phase-by-phase contouring prohibits the routine use of 4D radiotherapy. This paper develops an automatic re-contouring algorithm that combines techniques of deformable registration and surface construction. ROIs are manually contoured slice-by-slice in the reference phase image. A reference surface is constructed based on these reference contours using a triangulated surface construction technique. The deformable registration technique provides the voxel-to-voxel mapping between the reference phase and the test phase. The vertices of the reference surface are displaced in accordance with the deformation map, resulting in a deformed surface. The new contours are reconstructed by cutting the deformed surface slice-by-slice along the transversal, sagittal or coronal direction. Since both the inputs and outputs of our automatic re-contouring algorithm are contours, it is relatively easy to cope with any treatment planning system. We tested our automatic re-contouring algorithm using a deformable phantom and 4D CT images of six lung cancer patients. The proposed algorithm is validated by visual inspections and quantitative comparisons of the automatic re-contours with both the gold standard segmentations and the manual contours. Based on the automatic delineated ROIs, changes of tumour and sensitive structures during respiration are quantitatively analysed. This algorithm could also be used to re-contour daily images for treatment evaluation and adaptive radiotherapy

  16. Interactivity in automatic control: foundations and experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Dormido Bencomo, Sebastián; Guzmán Sánchez, José Luis; Costa Castelló, Ramon; Berenguel, M

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this paper presents the concepts of interactivity and visualization and its essential role in learning the fundamentals and techniques of automatic control. More than 10 years experience of the authors in the development and design of interactive tools dedicated to the study of automatic control concepts are also exposed. The second part of the paper summarizes the main features of the “Automatic Control with Interactive Tools” text that has been recently published by Pea...

  17. Towards unifying inheritance and automatic program specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2002-01-01

    with covariant specialization to control the automatic application of program specialization to class members. Lapis integrates object-oriented concepts, block structure, and techniques from automatic program specialization to provide both a language where object-oriented designs can be e#ciently implemented......Inheritance allows a class to be specialized and its attributes refined, but implementation specialization can only take place by overriding with manually implemented methods. Automatic program specialization can generate a specialized, effcient implementation. However, specialization of programs...

  18. Natural language processing techniques for automatic test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural language processing techniques for automatic test questions generation using discourse connectives. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ... Journal of Computer Science and Its Application.

  19. Automatic Thermal Infrared Panoramic Imaging Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutin, Mikhail; Tsui, Eddy K; Gutin, Olga; Wang, Xu-Ming; Gutin, Alexey

    2006-01-01

    .... Automatic detection, location, and tracking of targets outside protected area ensures maximum protection and at the same time reduces the workload on personnel, increases reliability and confidence...

  20. Automatic computation of radioimmunoassay data. Insulin and C-peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyota, T; Kudo, M; Abe, K [Hirosaki Univ., Aomori (Japan). School of Medicine; Kawamata, F; Uehata, S

    1975-09-01

    Radioimmunoassay provided dose response curves which showed linearity by the use of logistic transformation (Rodbard). This transformation which was applicable to radioimmunoassay should be useful for the computer processing of insulin and C-peptide assay. In the present studies, standard curves were analysed by testing the fit of analytic functions to radioimmunoassay of insulin and C-peptides. A program for use in combination with the double antibody technique was made by Dr. Kawamata. This approach was evidenced to be useful in order to allow automatic computation of data derived from the double antibody assays of insulin and C-peptides. Automatic corrected calculations of radioimmunoassay data of insulin was found to be satisfactory.

  1. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominancy in the lower extremities, urinary disturbance, and paroxysmal dry cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Shiroh; Shibata, Hiroki; Kida, Hiroshi; Noda, Kazuhito; Tomiyasu, Katsuro; Yamamoto, Ken; Iwaki, Akiko; Ayabe, Mitsuyoshi; Aizawa, Hisamichi; Taniwaki, Takayuki; Fukumaki, Yasuyuki

    2008-10-15

    We studied a four-generation pedigree of a Japanese family with hereditary neuropathy to elucidate the genetic basis of this disease. Twelve members of the family were enrolled in this study. The clinical features were neurogenic muscle weakness with proximal dominancy in the lower extremities, sensory involvement, areflexia, fine postural tremors, painful muscle cramps, elevated creatine kinase levels, recurrent paroxysmal dry cough, and neurogenic bladder. We performed a genome-wide search using genetic loci spaced at about 13 Mb intervals. Although nine chromosomes (1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 17, 19, and 22) had at least one region in which the logarithm of odds (LOD) score was over 1.0, no loci fulfilled the criteria for significant evidence of linkage. Moreover, we analyzed an extra 14 markers on 3p12-q13 (the locus of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, proximal dominant form) and an extra five markers on 3p22-p24 (the locus of hereditary sensory neuropathy with chronic cough) and observed LOD scores of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with autosomal dominant inheritance.

  2. The psychometric properties of the Leicester Cough Questionnaire and Respiratory Symptoms in CF tool in cystic fibrosis: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Nathan; Stiller, Kathy; Rowe, Hilary; Holland, Anne E

    2017-05-01

    There are few tools to quantify the impact of cough in cystic fibrosis (CF). The psychometric properties of the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) and Respiratory Symptoms in CF (ReS-CF) tool were investigated in adults with CF. Validity and reliability were assessed in clinically stable participants who completed the questionnaires twice, along with the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire - Revised (CFQ-R). Responsiveness was assessed by change in questionnaires following treatment for an acute respiratory exacerbation. Correlations between the LCQ and CFQ-R respiratory domain were moderate (n=59, r s =0.78, p<0.001). Correlations between ReS-CF and CFQ-R respiratory domain were fair (r s =-0.50, p<0.001). The LCQ total score was repeatable (ICC 0.92, 95%CI 0.87-0.96, n=50). In those reporting improvement in symptoms following treatment (n=36), LCQ total score had a mean change of 4.6 (SD 3.7) and effect size of 1.2. The LCQ and ReS-CF appear to be valid, reliable and responsive in CF. www.anzctr.org.au: ACTRN12615000262505. Copyright © 2016 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cough reflex sensitivity does not correlate with the esophageal sensitivity to acid in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duricek, Martin; Nosakova, Lenka; Zatko, Tomas; Pecova, Renata; Hyrdel, Rudolf; Banovcin, Peter

    2018-03-27

    The sensitization of cough reflex observed in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is attributed to activation of vagal C-fibers innervating the esophagus by acid, while the heartburn in GERD is mediated by esophageal acid sensitive C-fibers derived from (dorsal root ganglia) DRG. Here we explored the relationship between cough reflex sensitivity (CRS) and esophageal sensitivity to acid. We evaluated CRS to capsaicin inhalation and esophageal sensitivity to acid (intensity of heartburn evoked by esophageal infusions of acid pH = 3, 2 and 1) in patients with GERD and chronic heartburn before and 3 months after proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment. There was no correlation between CRS and esophageal sensitivity to acid at any pH tested. PPI treatment substantially reduced esophageal sensitivity to acid but did not affect CRS. We conclude that a simple direct relationship between CRS and esophageal sensitivity to acid is unlikely. The results indicate that spinal and vagal afferent pathways from the esophagus are probably influenced separately in subjects with GERD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. WeChat Public Account Use Improves Clinical Control of Cough-Variant Asthma: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan; Lin, Shi-Hua; Zhu, Ding; Xu, Feng; Chen, Zhi-Hua; Shen, Hua-Hao; Li, Wen

    2018-03-14

    BACKGROUND WeChat is a convenient and popular social medium, and it seems to be an appropriate platform for education and management of patients. This study sought to identify usefulness in clinical control of cough-variant asthma (CVA). MATERIAL AND METHODS A randomized controlled trial was conducted among 80 CVA patients. After being assigned to either the traditional group (TG) or the WeChat group (WG), they received the same inhalation therapy, but patients in WG received additional education and instruction via our public account on the WeChat application. Questionnaires on asthma and chronic cough, data on pulmonary function, blood-related items, follow-up adherence, and Emergency Department (ED) visits were collected at the initial visit and at 3 months. RESULTS A total of 67 participants completed the trial for analysis. FEV1/predicted and FEV1/FVC were significantly increased in WG (pWeChat as part of treatment and management of CVA can help patients learn about their disease and medications, as well as improve disease control and therapy outcomes.

  5. Antares automatic beam alignment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appert, Q.; Swann, T.; Sweatt, W.; Saxman, A.

    1980-01-01

    Antares is a 24-beam-line CO 2 laser system for controlled fusion research, under construction at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL). Rapid automatic alignment of this system is required prior to each experiment shot. The alignment requirements, operational constraints, and a developed prototype system are discussed. A visible-wavelength alignment technique is employed that uses a telescope/TV system to view point light sources appropriately located down the beamline. Auto-alignment is accomplished by means of a video centroid tracker, which determines the off-axis error of the point sources. The error is nulled by computer-driven, movable mirrors in a closed-loop system. The light sources are fiber-optic terminations located at key points in the optics path, primarily at the center of large copper mirrors, and remotely illuminated to reduce heating effects

  6. Computerized automatic tip scanning operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, K.; Fukushima, T.; Nakai, H.; Yanagisawa, A.

    1984-01-01

    In BWR nuclear power stations the Traversing Incore Probe (TIP) system is one of the most important components in reactor monitoring and control. In previous TIP systems, however, operators have suffered from the complexity of operation and long operation time required. The system presented in this paper realizes the automatic operation of the TIP system by monitoring and driving it with a process computer. This system significantly reduces the burden on customer operators and improves plant efficiency by simplifying the operating procedure, augmenting the accuracy of the measured data, and shortening operating time. The process computer is one of the PODIA (Plant Operation by Displayed Information Automation) systems. This computer transfers control signals to the TIP control panel, which in turn drives equipment by microprocessor control. The process computer contains such components as the CRT/KB unit, the printer plotter, the hard copier, and the message typers required for efficient man-machine communications. Its operation and interface properties are described

  7. Automatic Differentiation and Deep Learning

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Statistical learning has been getting more and more interest from the particle-physics community in recent times, with neural networks and gradient-based optimization being a focus. In this talk we shall discuss three things: automatic differention tools: tools to quickly build DAGs of computation that are fully differentiable. We shall focus on one such tool "PyTorch".  Easy deployment of trained neural networks into large systems with many constraints: for example, deploying a model at the reconstruction phase where the neural network has to be integrated into CERN's bulk data-processing C++-only environment Some recent models in deep learning for segmentation and generation that might be useful for particle physics problems.

  8. Automatic Detection of Terminology Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Nina

    As archives contain documents that span over a long period of time, the language used to create these documents and the language used for querying the archive can differ. This difference is due to evolution in both terminology and semantics and will cause a significant number of relevant documents being omitted. A static solution is to use query expansion based on explicit knowledge banks such as thesauri or ontologies. However as we are able to archive resources with more varied terminology, it will be infeasible to use only explicit knowledge for this purpose. There exist only few or no thesauri covering very domain specific terminologies or slang as used in blogs etc. In this Ph.D. thesis we focus on automatically detecting terminology evolution in a completely unsupervised manner as described in this technical paper.

  9. Automatic gamma spectrometry analytical apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamargot, J.-P.; Wanin, Maurice.

    1980-01-01

    This invention falls within the area of quantitative or semi-quantitative analysis by gamma spectrometry and particularly refers to a device for bringing the samples into the counting position. The purpose of this invention is precisely to provide an automatic apparatus specifically adapted to the analysis of hard gamma radiations. To this effect, the invention relates to a gamma spectrometry analytical device comprising a lead containment, a detector of which the sensitive part is located inside the containment and additionally comprising a transfer system for bringing the analyzed samples in succession to a counting position inside the containment above the detector. A feed compartment enables the samples to be brought in turn one by one on to the transfer system through a duct connecting the compartment to the transfer system. Sequential systems for the coordinated forward feed of the samples in the compartment and the transfer system complete this device [fr

  10. Automatic creation of simulation configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudot, G.; Poizat, F.

    1993-01-01

    SIPA, which stands for 'Simulator for Post Accident', includes: 1) a sophisticated software oriented workshop SWORD (which stands for 'Software Workshop Oriented towards Research and Development') designed in the ADA language including integrated CAD system and software tools for automatic generation of simulation software and man-machine interface in order to operate run-time simulation; 2) a 'simulator structure' based on hardware equipment and software for supervision and communications; 3) simulation configuration generated by SWORD, operated under the control of the 'simulator structure' and run on a target computer. SWORD has already been used to generate two simulation configurations (French 900 MW and 1300 MW nuclear power plants), which are now fully operational on the SIPA training simulator. (Z.S.) 1 ref

  11. Automatic Regulation of Wastewater Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolea Yolanda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater plants, mainly with secondary treatments, discharge polluted water to environment that cannot be used in any human activity. When those dumps are in the sea it is expected that most of the biological pollutants die or almost disappear before water reaches human range. This natural withdrawal of bacteria, viruses and other pathogens is due to some conditions such as the salt water of the sea and the sun effect, and the dumps areas are calculated taking into account these conditions. However, under certain meteorological phenomena water arrives to the coast without the full disappearance of pollutant elements. In Mediterranean Sea there are some periods of adverse climatic conditions that pollute the coast near the wastewater dumping. In this paper, authors present an automatic control that prevents such pollution episodes using two mathematical models, one for the pollutant transportation and the other for the pollutant removal in wastewater spills.

  12. Technical characterization by image analysis: an automatic method of mineralogical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J.F. de

    1988-01-01

    The application of a modern method of image analysis fully automated for the study of grain size distribution modal assays, degree of liberation and mineralogical associations is discussed. The image analyser is interfaced with a scanning electron microscope and an energy dispersive X-rays analyser. The image generated by backscattered electrons is analysed automatically and the system has been used in accessment studies of applied mineralogy as well as in process control in the mining industry. (author) [pt

  13. Automatically Determining Scale Within Unstructured Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadamen, Jayren; Sithole, George

    2016-06-01

    Three dimensional models obtained from imagery have an arbitrary scale and therefore have to be scaled. Automatically scaling these models requires the detection of objects in these models which can be computationally intensive. Real-time object detection may pose problems for applications such as indoor navigation. This investigation poses the idea that relational cues, specifically height ratios, within indoor environments may offer an easier means to obtain scales for models created using imagery. The investigation aimed to show two things, (a) that the size of objects, especially the height off ground is consistent within an environment, and (b) that based on this consistency, objects can be identified and their general size used to scale a model. To test the idea a hypothesis is first tested on a terrestrial lidar scan of an indoor environment. Later as a proof of concept the same test is applied to a model created using imagery. The most notable finding was that the detection of objects can be more readily done by studying the ratio between the dimensions of objects that have their dimensions defined by human physiology. For example the dimensions of desks and chairs are related to the height of an average person. In the test, the difference between generalised and actual dimensions of objects were assessed. A maximum difference of 3.96% (2.93cm) was observed from automated scaling. By analysing the ratio between the heights (distance from the floor) of the tops of objects in a room, identification was also achieved.

  14. Suppression of the cough reflex by inhibition of ERK1/2 activation in the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutolo, Donatella; Bongianni, Fulvia; Cinelli, Elenia; Giovannini, Maria Grazia; Pantaleo, Tito

    2012-04-15

    The caudal nucleus tractus solitarii (cNTS), the predominant site of termination of cough-related afferents, has been shown to be a site of action of some centrally acting antitussive agents. A role of ERK1/2 has been suggested in acute central processing of nociceptive inputs. Because pain and cough share similar features, we investigated whether ERK1/2 activation could also be involved in the central transduction of tussive inputs. For this purpose, we undertook the present research on pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rabbits by using microinjections (30-50 nl) of an inhibitor of ERK1/2 activation (U0126) into the cNTS. Bilateral microinjections of 25 mM U0126 caused rapid and reversible reductions in the cough responses induced by both mechanical and chemical (citric acid) stimulation of the tracheobronchial tree. In particular, the cough number and peak abdominal activity decreased. Bilateral microinjections of 50 mM U0126 completely suppressed the cough reflex without affecting the Breuer-Hering inflation reflex, the pulmonary chemoreflex, and the sneeze reflex. These U0126-induced effects were, to a large extent, reversible. Bilateral microinjections of 50 mM U0124, the inactive analog of U0126, at the same cNTS sites had no effect. This is the first study that provides evidence that ERK1/2 activation within the cNTS is required for the mediation of cough reflex responses in the anesthetized rabbit. These results suggest a role for ERK1/2 in the observed effects via nontranscriptional mechanisms, given the short time involved. They also may provide hints for the development of novel antitussive strategies.

  15. Relationship between Cough-Associated Changes in CSF Flow and Disease Severity in Chiari I Malformation: An Exploratory Study Using Real-Time MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuidenhout, A F; Khatami, D; Heilman, C B; Kasper, E M; Patz, S; Madan, N; Zhao, Y; Bhadelia, R A

    2018-05-10

    Currently no quantitative objective test exists to determine disease severity in a patient with Chiari I malformation. Our aim was to correlate disease severity in symptomatic patients with Chiari I malformation with cough-associated changes in CSF flow as measured with real-time MR imaging. Thirteen symptomatic patients with Chiari I malformation (tonsillar herniation of ≥5 mm) were prospectively studied. A real-time, flow-sensitized pencil-beam MR imaging scan was used to measure CSF stroke volume during rest and immediately following coughing and relaxation periods (total scan time, 90 seconds). Multiple posterior fossa and craniocervical anatomic measurements were also obtained. Patients were classified into 2 groups by neurosurgeons blinded to MR imaging measurements: 1) nonspecific Chiari I malformation (5/13)-Chiari I malformation with nonspecific symptoms like non-cough-related or mild occasional cough-related headache, neck pain, dizziness, paresthesias, and/or trouble swallowing; 2) specific Chiari I malformation (8/13)-patients with Chiari I malformation with specific symptoms and/or objective findings like severe cough-related headache, myelopathy, syringomyelia, and muscle atrophy. The Spearman correlation was used to determine correlations between MR imaging measurements and disease severity, and both groups were also compared using a Mann-Whitney U test. There was a significant negative correlation between the percentage change in CSF stroke volume (resting to postcoughing) and Chiari I malformation disease severity ( R = 0.59; P = .03). Mann-Whitney comparisons showed the percentage change in CSF stroke volume (resting to postcoughing) to be significantly different between patient groups ( P = .04). No other CSF flow measurement or anatomic measure was significantly different between the groups. Our exploratory study suggests that assessment of CSF flow response to a coughing challenge has the potential to become a valuable objective noninvasive

  16. Efficacy of omeprazole on cough, pulmonary function and quality of life of patients with sulfur mustard lung injury: A placebo-control, cross-over clinical trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Emami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD is prevalent and related to more severe disease in patients with respiratory problems. We evaluated the effects of antireflux therapy in warfare victims of exposure to Mustard gas with chronic cough. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study was conducted on 45 cases of sulfur mustard injury with chronic cough (≥8 weeks and GERD. Patients were randomized into two groups, receiving either 20 mg twice daily omeprazole-placebo (OP or matching placebo (placebo-omeprazole [PO] for 4 months, followed by a 1-month washout period and the alternative treatment for 4 months. Assessments included GERD and cough, quality of life, and pulmonary function using spirometry. Leicester Cough Questionnaire and SF-36 were used for measuring quality of life. Results: Patients in the OP group experienced a more decrease than those in the PO group in severity of Leicester cough scores during the first 4-month of trial. After crossing the groups, the OP group experienced an increase (P = 0.036 and the PO group experienced a nonsignificant decrease (P = 0.104 in the severity of scores. The OP group also experienced improvement in GERD symptoms and quality of life at the end of the trial, but changes in the PO group was not significant. There was no significant change in respiratory function indices in any groups. Conclusion: Long-term treatment with high-dose omeprazole improved GERD as well as cough, and quality of life, but not changed respiratory function indices in sulfur mustard injured cases with respiratory symptoms.

  17. Pre-emptive oral dexmethorphan reduces fentanyl-induced cough as well as immediate postoperative adrenocortico-tropic hormone and growth hormone level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avik Mukherjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Fentanyl-induced cough is not always benign and brief and can be remarkably troublesome, spasmodic, and explosive. Dextromethorphan, an opioid derivative with an antitussive action, may be effective in reducing the fentanyl-induced cough. Dextromethorphan, a N-methyl D aspartate receptor antagonist, may have some effect on diminishing the stress response to surgery. This study was undertaken to determine whether preoperative dextromethorphan could effectively attenuate its incidence, severity, and effect on postoperative stress hormone levels. Materials and Methods : Three hundred and twenty patients of American society of anesthesiologists I-II, aged 18-60 years, undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy or appendicectomy were randomly allocated into two groups (Group C, control; Group D, dextromethorphan consisting of 160 patients each. Patients in Group D received dextromethorphan 40 mg orally and in Group C received placebo tablets 60 minutes before induction of anesthesia. The incidence of cough was recorded for 1 minute after fentanyl injection and graded as none (0, mild (1-2, moderate (3-5, and severe (>5 cough. Blood samples were collected for estimation of stress hormone levels before surgery and again at 1 hour and 24 hours postoperatively and compared. The appearance of adverse reactions was recorded. Results : The incidence of reflex fentanyl cough was lower in dextromethorphan group (3.9% in comparison to placebo (59.8%. Five patients developed mild and one moderate cough in the dextromethorphan group. In the control group, 31 patients developed mild, 29 moderate, and 32 severe cough. The stress hormones were significantly higher at 1 hour and 24 hours postoperatively in both groups in comparison to its preoperative values. However, at 1 hour postoperatively, adrenocorticotropic hormone, epinephrine, and growth hormone values were significantly low in the dextromethorphan group (61.5 ± 21.1 pg/ ml, 142.1 ± 11

  18. Solar Powered Automatic Shrimp Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dindo T. Ani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available - Automatic system has brought many revolutions in the existing technologies. One among the technologies, which has greater developments, is the solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. For instance, the solar power which is a renewable energy can be an alternative solution to energy crisis and basically reducing man power by using it in an automatic manner. The researchers believe an automatic shrimp feeding system may help solve problems on manual feeding operations. The project study aimed to design and develop a solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. It specifically sought to prepare the design specifications of the project, to determine the methods of fabrication and assembly, and to test the response time of the automatic shrimp feeding system. The researchers designed and developed an automatic system which utilizes a 10 hour timer to be set in intervals preferred by the user and will undergo a continuous process. The magnetic contactor acts as a switch connected to the 10 hour timer which controls the activation or termination of electrical loads and powered by means of a solar panel outputting electrical power, and a rechargeable battery in electrical communication with the solar panel for storing the power. By undergoing through series of testing, the components of the modified system were proven functional and were operating within the desired output. It was recommended that the timer to be used should be tested to avoid malfunction and achieve the fully automatic system and that the system may be improved to handle changes in scope of the project.

  19. Equipment for fully automatic radiographic pipe inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basler, G.; Sperl, H.; Weinschenk, K.

    1977-01-01

    The patent describes a device for fully automatic radiographic testing of large pipes with longitudinal welds. Furthermore the invention enables automatic marking of films in radiographic inspection with regard to a ticketing of the test piece and of that part of it where testing took place. (RW) [de

  20. An introduction to automatic radioactive sample counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled; the detection of radiation in sample counters; nucleonic equipment; liquid scintillation counting; basic features of automatic sample counters; statistics of counting; data analysis; purchase, installation, calibration and maintenance of automatic sample counters. (U.K.)