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Sample records for automatic conformation prediction

  1. Shape: automatic conformation prediction of carbohydrates using a genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosen Jimmy

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detailed experimental three dimensional structures of carbohydrates are often difficult to acquire. Molecular modelling and computational conformation prediction are therefore commonly used tools for three dimensional structure studies. Modelling procedures generally require significant training and computing resources, which is often impractical for most experimental chemists and biologists. Shape has been developed to improve the availability of modelling in this field. Results The Shape software package has been developed for simplicity of use and conformation prediction performance. A trivial user interface coupled to an efficient genetic algorithm conformation search makes it a powerful tool for automated modelling. Carbohydrates up to a few hundred atoms in size can be investigated on common computer hardware. It has been shown to perform well for the prediction of over four hundred bioactive oligosaccharides, as well as compare favourably with previously published studies on carbohydrate conformation prediction. Conclusion The Shape fully automated conformation prediction can be used by scientists who lack significant modelling training, and performs well on computing hardware such as laptops and desktops. It can also be deployed on computer clusters for increased capacity. The prediction accuracy under the default settings is good, as it agrees well with experimental data and previously published conformation prediction studies. This software is available both as open source and under commercial licenses.

  2. Automatic design of conformal cooling channels in injection molding tooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingming; Hou, Binkui; Wang, Qian; Li, Yang; Huang, Zhigao

    2018-02-01

    The generation of cooling system plays an important role in injection molding design. A conformal cooling system can effectively improve molding efficiency and product quality. This paper provides a generic approach for building conformal cooling channels. The centrelines of these channels are generated in two steps. First, we extract conformal loops based on geometric information of product. Second, centrelines in spiral shape are built by blending these loops. We devise algorithms to implement the entire design process. A case study verifies the feasibility of this approach.

  3. Automatically predicting mood from expressed emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsimerou, C.

    2016-01-01

    Affect-adaptive systems have the potential to assist users that experience systematically negative moods. This thesis aims at building a platform for predicting automatically a person’s mood from his/her visual expressions. The key word is mood, namely a relatively long-term, stable and diffused

  4. Automatic workflow for the classification of local DNA conformations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čech, P.; Kukal, J.; Černý, Jiří; Schneider, Bohdan; Svozil, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 205 (2013) ISSN 1471-2105 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/12/1801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : DNA * Dinucleotide conformation * Classification * Machine learning * Neural network * k-NN * Cluster analysis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.672, year: 2013

  5. Conformal prediction for reliable machine learning theory, adaptations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Balasubramanian, Vineeth; Vovk, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The conformal predictions framework is a recent development in machine learning that can associate a reliable measure of confidence with a prediction in any real-world pattern recognition application, including risk-sensitive applications such as medical diagnosis, face recognition, and financial risk prediction. Conformal Predictions for Reliable Machine Learning: Theory, Adaptations and Applications captures the basic theory of the framework, demonstrates how to apply it to real-world problems, and presents several adaptations, including active learning, change detection, and anomaly detecti

  6. Protein conformational flexibility prediction using machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, Oleg; Siggers, Keri; Rost, Burkhard; Palmer, Arthur G

    2008-05-01

    Using a data set of 16 proteins, a neural network has been trained to predict backbone 15N generalized order parameters from the three-dimensional structures of proteins. The final network parameterization contains six input features. The average prediction accuracy, as measured by the Pearson's correlation coefficient between experimental and predicted values of the square of the generalized order parameter is >0.70. Predicted order parameters for non-terminal amino acid residues depends most strongly on the local packing density and the probability that the residue is located in regular secondary structure.

  7. Performance Evaluation of Strain Gauge Printed Using Automatic Fluid Dispensing System on Conformal Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairilhijra Khirotdin, Rd.; Faridzuan Ngadiron, Mohamad; Adzeem Mahadzir, Muhammad; Hassan, Nurhafizzah

    2017-08-01

    Smart textiles require flexible electronics that can withstand daily stresses like bends and stretches. Printing using conductive inks provides the flexibility required but the current printing techniques suffered from ink incompatibility, limited of substrates to be printed with and incompatible with conformal substrates due to its rigidity and low flexibility. An alternate printing technique via automatic fluid dispensing system is proposed and its performances on printing strain gauge on conformal substrates were evaluated to determine its feasibility. Process parameters studied including printing speed, deposition height, curing time and curing temperature. It was found that the strain gauge is proven functional as expected since different strains were induced when bent on variation of bending angles and curvature radiuses from designated bending fixtures. The average change of resistances were doubled before the strain gauge starts to break. Printed strain gauges also exhibited some excellence elasticity as they were able to resist bending up to 70° angle and 3 mm of curvature radius.

  8. Ligand-induced conformational changes: Improved predictions of ligand binding conformations and affinities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimurer, T.M.; Peters, Günther H.J.; Iversen, L.F.

    2003-01-01

    A computational docking strategy using multiple conformations of the target protein is discussed and evaluated. A series of low molecular weight, competitive, nonpeptide protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors are considered for which the x-ray crystallographic structures in complex with protein...... tyrosine phosphatase 1 B (PTP1B) are known. To obtain a quantitative measure of the impact of conformational changes induced by the inhibitors, these were docked to the active site region of various structures of PTP1B using the docking program FlexX. Firstly, the inhibitors were docked to a PTP1B crystal...... predicted binding energy and a correct docking mode. Thirdly, to improve the predictability of the docking procedure in the general case, where only a single target protein structure is known, we evaluate an approach which takes possible protein side-chain conformational changes into account. Here, side...

  9. Do judgments of learning predict automatic influences of memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undorf, Monika; Böhm, Simon; Cüpper, Lutz

    2016-06-01

    Current memory theories generally assume that memory performance reflects both recollection and automatic influences of memory. Research on people's predictions about the likelihood of remembering recently studied information on a memory test, that is, on judgments of learning (JOLs), suggests that both magnitude and resolution of JOLs are linked to recollection. However, it has remained unresolved whether JOLs are also predictive of automatic influences of memory. This issue was addressed in 3 experiments. Using the process-dissociation procedure, we assessed the predictive accuracy of immediate and delayed JOLs (Experiment 1) and of immediate JOLs from a first and from a second study-test cycle (Experiments 2 and 3) for recollection and automatic influences. Results showed that each type of JOLs was predictive of both recollection and automatic influences. Moreover, we found that a delay between study and JOL improved the predictive accuracy of JOLs for recollection, while study-test experience improved the predictive accuracy of JOLs for both recollection and automatic influences. These findings demonstrate that JOLs predict not only recollection, but also automatic influences of memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Potential Energy Surface-Based Automatic Deduction of Conformational Transition Networks and Its Application on Quantum Mechanical Landscapes of d-Glucose Conformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hiroko; Oda, Tomohiro; Nakakoji, Kumiyo; Uno, Takeaki; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Iwata, Satoru; Ohno, Koichi

    2016-11-08

    This paper describes our approach that is built upon the potential energy surface (PES)-based conformational analysis. This approach automatically deduces a conformational transition network, called a conformational reaction route map (r-map), by using the Scaled Hypersphere Search of the Anharmonic Downward Distortion Following method (SHS-ADDF). The PES-based conformational search has been achieved by using large ADDF, which makes it possible to trace only low transition state (TS) barriers while restraining bond lengths and structures with high free energy. It automatically performs sampling the minima and TS structures by simply taking into account the mathematical feature of PES without requiring any a priori specification of variable internal coordinates. An obtained r-map is composed of equilibrium (EQ) conformers connected by reaction routes via TS conformers, where all of the reaction routes are already confirmed during the process of the deduction using the intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) method. The postcalculation analysis of the deduced r-map is interactively carried out using the RMapViewer software we have developed. This paper presents computational details of the PES-based conformational analysis and its application to d-glucose. The calculations have been performed for an isolated glucose molecule in the gas phase at the RHF/6-31G level. The obtained conformational r-map for α-d-glucose is composed of 201 EQ and 435 TS conformers and that for β-d-glucose is composed of 202 EQ and 371 TS conformers. For the postcalculation analysis of the conformational r-maps by using the RMapViewer software program we have found multiple minimum energy paths (MEPs) between global minima of 1 C 4 and 4 C 1 chair conformations. The analysis using RMapViewer allows us to confirm the thermodynamic and kinetic predominance of 4 C 1 conformations; that is, the potential energy of the global minimum of 4 C 1 is lower than that of 1 C 4 (thermodynamic predominance

  11. Automatic prediction of text aesthetics and interestingness

    OpenAIRE

    Ganguly, Debasis; Leveling, Johannes; Jones, Gareth J.F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the problem of automated text aesthetics prediction. The availability of user generated content and ratings, e.g. Flickr, has induced research in aesthetics prediction for non-text domains, particularly for photographic images. This problem, however, has yet not been explored for the text domain. Due to the very subjective nature of text aesthetics, it is dicult to compile human annotated data by methods such as crowd sourcing with a fair degree of inter-annotator agre...

  12. Prediction of conformationally dependent atomic multipole moments in carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardamone, Salvatore; Popelier, Paul L A

    2015-12-15

    The conformational flexibility of carbohydrates is challenging within the field of computational chemistry. This flexibility causes the electron density to change, which leads to fluctuating atomic multipole moments. Quantum Chemical Topology (QCT) allows for the partitioning of an "atom in a molecule," thus localizing electron density to finite atomic domains, which permits the unambiguous evaluation of atomic multipole moments. By selecting an ensemble of physically realistic conformers of a chemical system, one evaluates the various multipole moments at defined points in configuration space. The subsequent implementation of the machine learning method kriging delivers the evaluation of an analytical function, which smoothly interpolates between these points. This allows for the prediction of atomic multipole moments at new points in conformational space, not trained for but within prediction range. In this work, we demonstrate that the carbohydrates erythrose and threose are amenable to the above methodology. We investigate how kriging models respond when the training ensemble incorporating multiple energy minima and their environment in conformational space. Additionally, we evaluate the gains in predictive capacity of our models as the size of the training ensemble increases. We believe this approach to be entirely novel within the field of carbohydrates. For a modest training set size of 600, more than 90% of the external test configurations have an error in the total (predicted) electrostatic energy (relative to ab initio) of maximum 1 kJ mol(-1) for open chains and just over 90% an error of maximum 4 kJ mol(-1) for rings. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Do Judgments of Learning Predict Automatic Influences of Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undorf, Monika; Böhm, Simon; Cüpper, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Current memory theories generally assume that memory performance reflects both recollection and automatic influences of memory. Research on people's predictions about the likelihood of remembering recently studied information on a memory test, that is, on judgments of learning (JOLs), suggests that both magnitude and resolution of JOLs are linked…

  14. Global brain dynamics during social exclusion predict subsequent behavioral conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasylyshyn, Nick; Hemenway Falk, Brett; Garcia, Javier O; Cascio, Christopher N; O’Donnell, Matthew Brook; Bingham, C Raymond; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Vettel, Jean M; Falk, Emily B

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Individuals react differently to social experiences; for example, people who are more sensitive to negative social experiences, such as being excluded, may be more likely to adapt their behavior to fit in with others. We examined whether functional brain connectivity during social exclusion in the fMRI scanner can be used to predict subsequent conformity to peer norms. Adolescent males (n = 57) completed a two-part study on teen driving risk: a social exclusion task (Cyberball) during an fMRI session and a subsequent driving simulator session in which they drove alone and in the presence of a peer who expressed risk-averse or risk-accepting driving norms. We computed the difference in functional connectivity between social exclusion and social inclusion from each node in the brain to nodes in two brain networks, one previously associated with mentalizing (medial prefrontal cortex, temporoparietal junction, precuneus, temporal poles) and another with social pain (dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula). Using predictive modeling, this measure of global connectivity during exclusion predicted the extent of conformity to peer pressure during driving in the subsequent experimental session. These findings extend our understanding of how global neural dynamics guide social behavior, revealing functional network activity that captures individual differences. PMID:29529310

  15. Global brain dynamics during social exclusion predict subsequent behavioral conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasylyshyn, Nick; Hemenway Falk, Brett; Garcia, Javier O; Cascio, Christopher N; O'Donnell, Matthew Brook; Bingham, C Raymond; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Vettel, Jean M; Falk, Emily B

    2018-02-01

    Individuals react differently to social experiences; for example, people who are more sensitive to negative social experiences, such as being excluded, may be more likely to adapt their behavior to fit in with others. We examined whether functional brain connectivity during social exclusion in the fMRI scanner can be used to predict subsequent conformity to peer norms. Adolescent males (n = 57) completed a two-part study on teen driving risk: a social exclusion task (Cyberball) during an fMRI session and a subsequent driving simulator session in which they drove alone and in the presence of a peer who expressed risk-averse or risk-accepting driving norms. We computed the difference in functional connectivity between social exclusion and social inclusion from each node in the brain to nodes in two brain networks, one previously associated with mentalizing (medial prefrontal cortex, temporoparietal junction, precuneus, temporal poles) and another with social pain (dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula). Using predictive modeling, this measure of global connectivity during exclusion predicted the extent of conformity to peer pressure during driving in the subsequent experimental session. These findings extend our understanding of how global neural dynamics guide social behavior, revealing functional network activity that captures individual differences.

  16. Matrix sentence intelligibility prediction using an automatic speech recognition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädler, Marc René; Warzybok, Anna; Hochmuth, Sabine; Kollmeier, Birger

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of predicting the outcome of the German matrix sentence test for different types of stationary background noise using an automatic speech recognition (ASR) system was studied. Speech reception thresholds (SRT) of 50% intelligibility were predicted in seven noise conditions. The ASR system used Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients as a front-end and employed whole-word Hidden Markov models on the back-end side. The ASR system was trained and tested with noisy matrix sentences on a broad range of signal-to-noise ratios. The ASR-based predictions were compared to data from the literature ( Hochmuth et al, 2015 ) obtained with 10 native German listeners with normal hearing and predictions of the speech intelligibility index (SII). The ASR-based predictions showed a high and significant correlation (R² = 0.95, p speech and noise signals. Minimum assumptions were made about human speech processing already incorporated in a reference-free ordinary ASR system.

  17. Learned predictiveness influences automatic evaluations in human contingency learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pelley, M E; Calvini, G; Spears, R

    2013-01-01

    Experiments used an affective priming procedure to investigate whether evaluative conditioning in humans is subject to bias as a consequence of differences in the learned predictiveness of the cues involved. Experiment 1, using brief prime presentation, demonstrated stronger affective priming for cues that had been predictive of a neutral attribute prior to evaluative conditioning than for those that had been nonpredictive. Experiment 2, using longer prime presentation, found a reversed priming effect for previously predictive cues but not for previously nonpredictive cues. The implication is that the effect observed with brief prime presentation reflects the operation of fast-acting, automatic evaluation mechanisms and hence that evaluative conditioning can be biased by our previous learning about the predictiveness of cues.

  18. Automatic prediction of coronary artery disease from clinical narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Kevin; Filannino, Michele; Uzuner, Özlem

    2017-08-01

    Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is not only the most common form of heart disease, but also the leading cause of death in both men and women (Coronary Artery Disease: MedlinePlus, 2015). We present a system that is able to automatically predict whether patients develop coronary artery disease based on their narrative medical histories, i.e., clinical free text. Although the free text in medical records has been used in several studies for identifying risk factors of coronary artery disease, to the best of our knowledge our work marks the first attempt at automatically predicting development of CAD. We tackle this task on a small corpus of diabetic patients. The size of this corpus makes it important to limit the number of features in order to avoid overfitting. We propose an ontology-guided approach to feature extraction, and compare it with two classic feature selection techniques. Our system achieves state-of-the-art performance of 77.4% F1 score. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Bug Forecast: A Method for Automatic Bug Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenc, Rudolf

    In this paper we present an approach and a toolset for automatic bug prediction during software development and maintenance. The toolset extends the Columbus source code quality framework, which is able to integrate into the regular builds, analyze the source code, calculate different quality attributes like product metrics and bad code smells; and monitor the changes of these attributes. The new bug forecast toolset connects to the bug tracking and version control systems and assigns the reported and fixed bugs to the source code classes from the past. It then applies machine learning methods to learn which values of which quality attributes typically characterized buggy classes. Based on this information it is able to predict bugs in current and future versions of the classes.

  20. Automatically explaining machine learning prediction results: a demonstration on type 2 diabetes risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Predictive modeling is a key component of solutions to many healthcare problems. Among all predictive modeling approaches, machine learning methods often achieve the highest prediction accuracy, but suffer from a long-standing open problem precluding their widespread use in healthcare. Most machine learning models give no explanation for their prediction results, whereas interpretability is essential for a predictive model to be adopted in typical healthcare settings. This paper presents the first complete method for automatically explaining results for any machine learning predictive model without degrading accuracy. We did a computer coding implementation of the method. Using the electronic medical record data set from the Practice Fusion diabetes classification competition containing patient records from all 50 states in the United States, we demonstrated the method on predicting type 2 diabetes diagnosis within the next year. For the champion machine learning model of the competition, our method explained prediction results for 87.4 % of patients who were correctly predicted by the model to have type 2 diabetes diagnosis within the next year. Our demonstration showed the feasibility of automatically explaining results for any machine learning predictive model without degrading accuracy.

  1. Automatic prediction of facial trait judgments: appearance vs. structural models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rojas

    Full Text Available Evaluating other individuals with respect to personality characteristics plays a crucial role in human relations and it is the focus of attention for research in diverse fields such as psychology and interactive computer systems. In psychology, face perception has been recognized as a key component of this evaluation system. Multiple studies suggest that observers use face information to infer personality characteristics. Interactive computer systems are trying to take advantage of these findings and apply them to increase the natural aspect of interaction and to improve the performance of interactive computer systems. Here, we experimentally test whether the automatic prediction of facial trait judgments (e.g. dominance can be made by using the full appearance information of the face and whether a reduced representation of its structure is sufficient. We evaluate two separate approaches: a holistic representation model using the facial appearance information and a structural model constructed from the relations among facial salient points. State of the art machine learning methods are applied to a derive a facial trait judgment model from training data and b predict a facial trait value for any face. Furthermore, we address the issue of whether there are specific structural relations among facial points that predict perception of facial traits. Experimental results over a set of labeled data (9 different trait evaluations and classification rules (4 rules suggest that a prediction of perception of facial traits is learnable by both holistic and structural approaches; b the most reliable prediction of facial trait judgments is obtained by certain type of holistic descriptions of the face appearance; and c for some traits such as attractiveness and extroversion, there are relationships between specific structural features and social perceptions.

  2. Does human presynaptic striatal dopamine function predict social conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Paul R A; Benecke, Aaf; Puraite, Julita; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Shotbolt, Paul; Reeves, Suzanne J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R; Howes, Oliver; Egerton, Alice

    2014-03-01

    Socially desirable responding (SDR) is a personality trait which reflects either a tendency to present oneself in an overly positive manner to others, consistent with social conformity (impression management (IM)), or the tendency to view one's own behaviour in an overly positive light (self-deceptive enhancement (SDE)). Neurochemical imaging studies report an inverse relationship between SDR and dorsal striatal dopamine D₂/₃ receptor availability. This may reflect an association between SDR and D₂/₃ receptor expression, synaptic dopamine levels or a combination of the two. In this study, we used a [¹⁸F]-DOPA positron emission tomography (PET) image database to investigate whether SDR is associated with presynaptic dopamine function. Striatal [¹⁸F]-DOPA uptake, (k(i)(cer), min⁻¹), was determined in two independent healthy participant cohorts (n=27 and 19), by Patlak analysis using a cerebellar reference region. SDR was assessed using the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R) Lie scale, and IM and SDE were measured using the Paulhus Deception Scales. No significant associations were detected between Lie, SDE or IM scores and striatal [¹⁸F]-DOPA k(i)(cer). These results indicate that presynaptic striatal dopamine function is not associated with social conformity and suggests that social conformity may be associated with striatal D₂/₃ receptor expression rather than with synaptic dopamine levels.

  3. Predicting skin sensitizers with confidence - Using conformal prediction to determine applicability domain of GARD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forreryd, Andy; Norinder, Ulf; Lindberg, Tim; Lindstedt, Malin

    2018-04-01

    GARD - Genomic Allergen Rapid Detection is a cell based alternative to animal testing for identification of skin sensitizers. The assay is based on a biomarker signature comprising 200 genes measured in an in vitro model of dendritic cells following chemical stimulations, and consistently reports predictive performances ~90% for classification of external test sets. Within the field of in vitro skin sensitization testing, definition of applicability domain is often neglected by test developers, and assays are often considered applicable across the entire chemical space. This study complements previous assessments of model performance with an estimate of confidence in individual classifications, as well as a statistically valid determination of the applicability domain for the GARD assay. Conformal prediction was implemented into current GARD protocols, and a large external test dataset (n = 70) was classified at a confidence level of 85%, to generate a valid model with a balanced accuracy of 88%, with none of the tested chemical reactivity domains identified as outside the applicability domain of the assay. In conclusion, results presented in this study complement previously reported predictive performances of GARD with a statistically valid assessment of uncertainty in each individual prediction, thus allowing for classification of skin sensitizers with confidence. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Prediction Governors for Input-Affine Nonlinear Systems and Application to Automatic Driving Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Minami

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, automatic driving control has attracted attention. To achieve a satisfactory driving control performance, the prediction accuracy of the traveling route is important. If a highly accurate prediction method can be used, an accurate traveling route can be obtained. Despite the considerable efforts that have been invested in improving prediction methods, prediction errors do occur in general. Thus, a method to minimize the influence of prediction errors on automatic driving control systems is required. This need motivated us to focus on the design of a mechanism for shaping prediction signals, which is called a prediction governor. In this study, we first extended our previous study to the input-affine nonlinear system case. Then, we analytically derived a solution to an optimal design problem of prediction governors. Finally, we applied the solution to an automatic driving control system, and demonstrated its usefulness through a numerical example and an experiment using a radio controlled car.

  5. Predicting sumoylation sites using support vector machines based on various sequence features, conformational flexibility and disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Ahmet Sinan; Sezerman, Osman Ugur

    2014-01-01

    Sumoylation, which is a reversible and dynamic post-translational modification, is one of the vital processes in a cell. Before a protein matures to perform its function, sumoylation may alter its localization, interactions, and possibly structural conformation. Abberations in protein sumoylation has been linked with a variety of disorders and developmental anomalies. Experimental approaches to identification of sumoylation sites may not be effective due to the dynamic nature of sumoylation, laborsome experiments and their cost. Therefore, computational approaches may guide experimental identification of sumoylation sites and provide insights for further understanding sumoylation mechanism. In this paper, the effectiveness of using various sequence properties in predicting sumoylation sites was investigated with statistical analyses and machine learning approach employing support vector machines. These sequence properties were derived from windows of size 7 including position-specific amino acid composition, hydrophobicity, estimated sub-window volumes, predicted disorder, and conformational flexibility. 5-fold cross-validation results on experimentally identified sumoylation sites revealed that our method successfully predicts sumoylation sites with a Matthew's correlation coefficient, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy equal to 0.66, 73%, 98%, and 97%, respectively. Additionally, we have showed that our method compares favorably to the existing prediction methods and basic regular expressions scanner. By using support vector machines, a new, robust method for sumoylation site prediction was introduced. Besides, the possible effects of predicted conformational flexibility and disorder on sumoylation site recognition were explored computationally for the first time to our knowledge as an additional parameter that could aid in sumoylation site prediction.

  6. Lynx: Automatic Elderly Behavior Prediction in Home Telecare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Guede, Jose Manuel; Moreno-Fernandez-de-Leceta, Aitor; Martinez-Garcia, Alexeiw; Graña, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces Lynx, an intelligent system for personal safety at home environments, oriented to elderly people living independently, which encompasses a decision support machine for automatic home risk prevention, tested in real-life environments to respond to real time situations. The automatic system described in this paper prevents such risks by an advanced analytic methods supported by an expert knowledge system. It is minimally intrusive, using plug-and-play sensors and machine learning algorithms to learn the elder's daily activity taking into account even his health records. If the system detects that something unusual happens (in a wide sense) or if something is wrong relative to the user's health habits or medical recommendations, it sends at real-time alarm to the family, care center, or medical agents, without human intervention. The system feeds on information from sensors deployed in the home and knowledge of subject physical activities, which can be collected by mobile applications and enriched by personalized health information from clinical reports encoded in the system. The system usability and reliability have been tested in real-life conditions, with an accuracy larger than 81%. PMID:26783514

  7. Lynx: Automatic Elderly Behavior Prediction in Home Telecare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Lopez-Guede

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces Lynx, an intelligent system for personal safety at home environments, oriented to elderly people living independently, which encompasses a decision support machine for automatic home risk prevention, tested in real-life environments to respond to real time situations. The automatic system described in this paper prevents such risks by an advanced analytic methods supported by an expert knowledge system. It is minimally intrusive, using plug-and-play sensors and machine learning algorithms to learn the elder’s daily activity taking into account even his health records. If the system detects that something unusual happens (in a wide sense or if something is wrong relative to the user’s health habits or medical recommendations, it sends at real-time alarm to the family, care center, or medical agents, without human intervention. The system feeds on information from sensors deployed in the home and knowledge of subject physical activities, which can be collected by mobile applications and enriched by personalized health information from clinical reports encoded in the system. The system usability and reliability have been tested in real-life conditions, with an accuracy larger than 81%.

  8. Automatic detection of adverse events to predict drug label changes using text and data mining techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurulingappa, Harsha; Toldo, Luca; Rajput, Abdul Mateen; Kors, Jan A; Taweel, Adel; Tayrouz, Yorki

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of automatically detected adverse event signals from text and open-source data on the prediction of drug label changes. Open-source adverse effect data were collected from FAERS, Yellow Cards and SIDER databases. A shallow linguistic relation extraction system (JSRE) was applied for extraction of adverse effects from MEDLINE case reports. Statistical approach was applied on the extracted datasets for signal detection and subsequent prediction of label changes issued for 29 drugs by the UK Regulatory Authority in 2009. 76% of drug label changes were automatically predicted. Out of these, 6% of drug label changes were detected only by text mining. JSRE enabled precise identification of four adverse drug events from MEDLINE that were undetectable otherwise. Changes in drug labels can be predicted automatically using data and text mining techniques. Text mining technology is mature and well-placed to support the pharmacovigilance tasks. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Guiding exploration in conformational feature space with Lipschitz underestimation for ab-initio protein structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiaohu; Zhang, Guijun; Zhou, Xiaogen

    2018-04-01

    Computing conformations which are essential to associate structural and functional information with gene sequences, is challenging due to the high dimensionality and rugged energy surface of the protein conformational space. Consequently, the dimension of the protein conformational space should be reduced to a proper level, and an effective exploring algorithm should be proposed. In this paper, a plug-in method for guiding exploration in conformational feature space with Lipschitz underestimation (LUE) for ab-initio protein structure prediction is proposed. The conformational space is converted into ultrafast shape recognition (USR) feature space firstly. Based on the USR feature space, the conformational space can be further converted into Underestimation space according to Lipschitz estimation theory for guiding exploration. As a consequence of the use of underestimation model, the tight lower bound estimate information can be used for exploration guidance, the invalid sampling areas can be eliminated in advance, and the number of energy function evaluations can be reduced. The proposed method provides a novel technique to solve the exploring problem of protein conformational space. LUE is applied to differential evolution (DE) algorithm, and metropolis Monte Carlo(MMC) algorithm which is available in the Rosetta; When LUE is applied to DE and MMC, it will be screened by the underestimation method prior to energy calculation and selection. Further, LUE is compared with DE and MMC by testing on 15 small-to-medium structurally diverse proteins. Test results show that near-native protein structures with higher accuracy can be obtained more rapidly and efficiently with the use of LUE. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Internal rotation for predicting conformational population of 1,2-difluorethane and 1,2-dichloroethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venâncio, Mateus F.; Dos Santos, Hélio F.; De Almeida, Wagner B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Contribution of internal rotation to Gibbs free energy estimated using the quantum pendulum model. • Theoretical prediction of conformational population of 1,2-difluorethane and 1,2-dichloroethane. • The predicted populations are in excellent agreement with experimental gas phase data available. • QPM model account for low vibrational frequency modes effect on thermodynamic calculation. • Caution is needed when the RR–HO approach has to be used in conformational analysis studies. - Abstract: The contribution of internal rotation to the thermal correction of Gibbs free energy (ΔG) is estimated using the quantum pendulum model (QPM) to solve the characteristic Schrödinger equation. The procedure is applied to theoretical prediction of conformational population of 1,2-difluorethane (1,2-DFE) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) molecules. The predicted population for the anti form was 37% and 75%, for 1,2-DFE and 1,2-DCE respectively, in excellent agreement with experimental gas phase data available, 37 ± 5% and 78 ± 5%. These results provide great support to the use of the QPM model to account for the low vibrational frequency modes effect on the calculation of thermodynamic properties.

  11. Internal rotation for predicting conformational population of 1,2-difluorethane and 1,2-dichloroethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venâncio, Mateus F. [Laboratório de Química Computacional e Modelagem Molecular, Departamento de Química, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Campus Universitário, 31.270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Dos Santos, Hélio F. [Núcleo de Estudos em Química Computacional (NEQC), Departamento de Química, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), Campus Universitário, Martelos, Juiz de Fora, MG 36036-330 (Brazil); De Almeida, Wagner B., E-mail: wbdealmeida@gmail.com [Laboratório de Química Computacional (LQC), Departamento de Química Inorgânica, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Campus do Valonguinho, Centro, Niterói, RJ CEP: 24020-141 (Brazil)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Contribution of internal rotation to Gibbs free energy estimated using the quantum pendulum model. • Theoretical prediction of conformational population of 1,2-difluorethane and 1,2-dichloroethane. • The predicted populations are in excellent agreement with experimental gas phase data available. • QPM model account for low vibrational frequency modes effect on thermodynamic calculation. • Caution is needed when the RR–HO approach has to be used in conformational analysis studies. - Abstract: The contribution of internal rotation to the thermal correction of Gibbs free energy (ΔG) is estimated using the quantum pendulum model (QPM) to solve the characteristic Schrödinger equation. The procedure is applied to theoretical prediction of conformational population of 1,2-difluorethane (1,2-DFE) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) molecules. The predicted population for the anti form was 37% and 75%, for 1,2-DFE and 1,2-DCE respectively, in excellent agreement with experimental gas phase data available, 37 ± 5% and 78 ± 5%. These results provide great support to the use of the QPM model to account for the low vibrational frequency modes effect on the calculation of thermodynamic properties.

  12. Weighted Multimodel Predictive Function Control for Automatic Train Operation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhuan Wen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Train operation is a complex nonlinear process; it is difficult to establish accurate mathematical model. In this paper, we design ATO speed controller based on the input and output data of the train operation. The method combines multimodeling with predictive functional control according to complicated nonlinear characteristics of the train operation. Firstly, we cluster the data sample by using fuzzy-c means algorithm. Secondly, we identify parameter of cluster model by using recursive least square algorithm with forgetting factor and then establish the local set of models of the process of train operation. Then at each sample time, we can obtain the global predictive model about the system based on the weighted indicators by designing a kind of weighting algorithm with error compensation. Thus, the predictive functional controller is designed to control the speed of the train. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  13. Prediction and uncertainty in associative learning: examining controlled and automatic components of learned attentional biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, David; Vadillo, Miguel A; Le Pelley, Mike E; Beesley, Tom

    2017-08-01

    It has been suggested that attention is guided by two factors that operate during associative learning: a predictiveness principle, by which attention is allocated to the best predictors of outcomes, and an uncertainty principle, by which attention is allocated to learn about the less known features of the environment. Recent studies have shown that predictiveness-driven attention can operate rapidly and in an automatic way to exploit known relationships. The corresponding characteristics of uncertainty-driven attention, on the other hand, remain unexplored. In two experiments we examined whether both predictiveness and uncertainty modulate attentional processing in an adaptation of the dot probe task. This task provides a measure of automatic orientation to cues during associative learning. The stimulus onset asynchrony of the probe display was manipulated in order to explore temporal characteristics of predictiveness- and uncertainty-driven attentional effects. Results showed that the predictive status of cues determined selective attention, with faster attentional capture to predictive than to non-predictive cues. In contrast, the level of uncertainty slowed down responses to the probe regardless of the predictive status of the cues. Both predictiveness- and uncertainty-driven attentional effects were very rapid (at 250 ms from cue onset) and were automatically activated.

  14. TweetGenie: automatic age prediction from tweets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Dong-Phuong; Gravel, Rilana; Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend; Meder, Theo

    2013-01-01

    A person’s language use reveals much about the person’s social identity, which is based on the social categories a person belongs to including age and gender. We discuss the development of TweetGenie, a computer program that predicts the age of Twitter users based on their language use. We explore

  15. Learned predictiveness influences automatic evaluations in human contingency learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Pelley, M. E.; Calvini, G.; Spears, R.

    2013-01-01

    Experiments used an affective priming procedure to investigate whether evaluative conditioning in humans is subject to bias as a consequence of differences in the learned predictiveness of the cues involved. Experiment 1, using brief prime presentation, demonstrated stronger affective priming for

  16. Automatic prediction of catalytic residues by modeling residue structural neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passerini Andrea

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediction of catalytic residues is a major step in characterizing the function of enzymes. In its simpler formulation, the problem can be cast into a binary classification task at the residue level, by predicting whether the residue is directly involved in the catalytic process. The task is quite hard also when structural information is available, due to the rather wide range of roles a functional residue can play and to the large imbalance between the number of catalytic and non-catalytic residues. Results We developed an effective representation of structural information by modeling spherical regions around candidate residues, and extracting statistics on the properties of their content such as physico-chemical properties, atomic density, flexibility, presence of water molecules. We trained an SVM classifier combining our features with sequence-based information and previously developed 3D features, and compared its performance with the most recent state-of-the-art approaches on different benchmark datasets. We further analyzed the discriminant power of the information provided by the presence of heterogens in the residue neighborhood. Conclusions Our structure-based method achieves consistent improvements on all tested datasets over both sequence-based and structure-based state-of-the-art approaches. Structural neighborhood information is shown to be responsible for such results, and predicting the presence of nearby heterogens seems to be a promising direction for further improvements.

  17. Assessment of Protein Side-Chain Conformation Prediction Methods in Different Residue Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lenna X.; Kang, Xuejiao; Kihara, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Computational prediction of side-chain conformation is an important component of protein structure prediction. Accurate side-chain prediction is crucial for practical applications of protein structure models that need atomic detailed resolution such as protein and ligand design. We evaluated the accuracy of eight side-chain prediction methods in reproducing the side-chain conformations of experimentally solved structures deposited to the Protein Data Bank. Prediction accuracy was evaluated for a total of four different structural environments (buried, surface, interface, and membrane-spanning) in three different protein types (monomeric, multimeric, and membrane). Overall, the highest accuracy was observed for buried residues in monomeric and multimeric proteins. Notably, side-chains at protein interfaces and membrane-spanning regions were better predicted than surface residues even though the methods did not all use multimeric and membrane proteins for training. Thus, we conclude that the current methods are as practically useful for modeling protein docking interfaces and membrane-spanning regions as for modeling monomers. PMID:24619909

  18. Brain structure associated with automatic thoughts predicted depression symptoms in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xue; Luo, Wenbo; Shen, Yimo; Wei, Dongtao; Xie, Peng; Zhang, Jinfu; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-06-30

    Previous behavioral studies have examined the correlation between personality and depression, and between negative automatic thoughts and depression. Little is known, however, about the relationships among these three factors. Even less is known about how variations in brain structure are related to negative automatic thoughts, which are thought to mediate the association between personality traits and depressive symptoms. A total of 298 healthy participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and completed the following questionnaires: a Neuroticism scale, the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ), and the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). We first investigated the relationships among the three questionnaires and found that the ATQ was a mediator between the Neuroticism scale and the SDS. Then, we investigated the neuroanatomical correlates of the ATQ in the participants using voxel-based morphometry. We found that the ATQ was significantly positively correlated with the gray matter volume of the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG). Structural Equation Modeling revealed that negative automatic thoughts mediated the relationship between the GMV of the parahippocampal gyrus and depression. Moreover, the interaction between parahippocampal gyrus volume and neuroticism predicted automatic thoughts. These findings highlight that negative automatic thoughts might be a good predictor of depression outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Switch region for pathogenic structural change in conformational disease and its prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many diseases are believed to be related to abnormal protein folding. In the first step of such pathogenic structural changes, misfolding occurs in regions important for the stability of the native structure. This destabilizes the normal protein conformation, while exposing the previously hidden aggregation-prone regions, leading to subsequent errors in the folding pathway. Sites involved in this first stage can be deemed switch regions of the protein, and can represent perfect binding targets for drugs to block the abnormal folding pathway and prevent pathogenic conformational changes. In this study, a prediction algorithm for the switch regions responsible for the start of pathogenic structural changes is introduced. With an accuracy of 94%, this algorithm can successfully find short segments covering sites significant in triggering conformational diseases (CDs and is the first that can predict switch regions for various CDs. To illustrate its effectiveness in dealing with urgent public health problems, the reason of the increased pathogenicity of H5N1 influenza virus is analyzed; the mechanisms of the pandemic swine-origin 2009 A(H1N1 influenza virus in overcoming species barriers and in infecting large number of potential patients are also suggested. It is shown that the algorithm is a potential tool useful in the study of the pathology of CDs because: (1 it can identify the origin of pathogenic structural conversion with high sensitivity and specificity, and (2 it provides an ideal target for clinical treatment.

  20. Conformal House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    fixed point. As a consistency check we recover the previously investigated conformal windows bounds when restricting to a single matter representation. The earlier conformal windows can be imagined to be part now of the new conformal house. We predict the nonperturbative anomalous dimensions...... at the infrared fixed points. We further investigate the effects of adding mass terms to the condensates on the conformal house chiral dynamics and construct the simplest instanton induced effective Lagrangian terms....

  1. CYP 2D6 Binding Affinity Predictions Using Multiple Ligand and Protein Conformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovorka Perić-Hassler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the large flexibility and malleability of Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs, in silico prediction of CYP binding affinities to drugs and other xenobiotic compounds is a true challenge. In the current work, we use an iterative linear interaction energy (LIE approach to compute CYP binding affinities from molecular dynamics (MD simulation. In order to improve sampling of conformational space, we combine results from simulations starting with different relevant protein-ligand geometries. For calculated binding free energies of a set of thiourea compounds binding to the flexible CYP 2D6 isoform, improved correlation with experiment was obtained by combining results of MD runs starting from distinct protein conformations and ligand-binding orientations. This accuracy was obtained from relatively short MD simulations, which makes our approach computationally attractive for automated calculations of ligand-binding affinities to flexible proteins such as CYPs.

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and conformal radiotherapy: Characterization of MRI alone simulation for conformal radiotherapy. Development and evaluation of an automatic volumes of interest segmentation tool for prostate cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquier, David

    2006-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a curative treatment of malignant tumours. Radiotherapy techniques considerably evolved last years with the increasing integration of medical images in conformal radiotherapy. This technique makes it possible to elaborate a complex ballistics conforming to target volume and sparing healthy tissues. The examination currently used to delineate volumes of interest is Computed Tomography (CT), on account of its geometrical precision and the information that it provides on electronic densities needed to dose calculation. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) ensures a more precise delineation of target volumes in many locations, such as pelvis and brain. For pelvic tumours, the use of MRI needs image registration, which complicates treatment planning and poses the problem of the lack of in vivo standard method of validation. The obstacles in the use of MRI alone in treatment planning were evaluated. Neither geometrical distortion linked with the system and the patient nor the lack of information on electronic densities represent stumbling obstacles. Distortion remained low even in edge of large field of view on modern machines. The assignment of electronic densities to bone structures and soft tissues in MR images permitted to obtain equivalent dosimetry to that carried out on the original CT, with a good reproducibility and homogeneous distribution within target volume. The assignment of electronic densities could not be carried out using 20 MV photons and suitable ballistics. The development of Image Guided Radiotherapy could facilitate the use of MRI alone in treatment planning. Target volumes and organ at risk delineation is a time consuming task in radiotherapy planning. We took part in the development and evaluated a method of automatic and semi automatic delineation of volumes of interest from MRI images for prostate cancer radiotherapy. For prostate and organ at risk automatic delineation an organ model-based method and a seeded region growing method

  3. NEAT-FLEX: Predicting the conformational flexibility of amino acids using neuroevolution of augmenting topologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisci, Bruno; Dorn, Márcio

    2017-06-01

    The development of computational methods to accurately model three-dimensional protein structures from sequences of amino acid residues is becoming increasingly important to the structural biology field. This paper addresses the challenge of predicting the tertiary structure of a given amino acid sequence, which has been reported to belong to the NP-Complete class of problems. We present a new method, namely NEAT-FLEX, based on NeuroEvolution of Augmenting Topologies (NEAT) to extract structural features from (ABS) proteins that are determined experimentally. The proposed method manipulates structural information from the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and predicts the conformational flexibility (FLEX) of residues of a target amino acid sequence. This information may be used in three-dimensional structure prediction approaches as a way to reduce the conformational search space. The proposed method was tested with 24 different amino acid sequences. Evolving neural networks were compared against a traditional error back-propagation algorithm; results show that the proposed method is a powerful way to extract and represent structural information from protein molecules that are determined experimentally.

  4. Automatic counting method for complex overlapping erythrocytes based on seed prediction in microscopic imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Blood cell counting is an important medical test to help medical staffs diagnose various symptoms and diseases. An automatic segmentation of complex overlapping erythrocytes based on seed prediction in microscopic imaging is proposed. The four main innovations of this research are as follows: (1 Regions of erythrocytes extracted rapidly and accurately based on the G component. (2 K-means algorithm is applied on edge detection of overlapping erythrocytes. (3 Traces of erythrocytes’ biconcave shape are utilized to predict erythrocyte’s position in overlapping clusters. (4 A new automatic counting method which aims at complex overlapping erythrocytes is presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method is efficient and accurate with very little running time. The average accuracy of the proposed method reaches 97.0%.

  5. Predictive Sampling of Rare Conformational Events in Aqueous Solution: Designing a Generalized Orthogonal Space Tempering Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chao; Li, Xubin; Wu, Dongsheng; Zheng, Lianqing; Yang, Wei

    2016-01-12

    analysis suggests that because essential conformational events are mainly driven by the compensating fluctuations of essential solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions, commonly employed "predictive" sampling methods are unlikely to be effective on this seemingly "simple" system. The gOST development presented in this paper illustrates how to employ the OSS scheme for physics-based sampling method designs.

  6. Improved docking, screening and selectivity prediction for small molecule nuclear receptor modulators using conformational ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Jung; Kufareva, Irina; Abagyan, Ruben

    2010-05-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand dependent transcriptional factors and play a key role in reproduction, development, and homeostasis of organism. NRs are potential targets for treatment of cancer and other diseases such as inflammatory diseases, and diabetes. In this study, we present a comprehensive library of pocket conformational ensembles of thirteen human nuclear receptors (NRs), and test the ability of these ensembles to recognize their ligands in virtual screening, as well as predict their binding geometry, functional type, and relative binding affinity. 157 known NR modulators and 66 structures were used as a benchmark. Our pocket ensemble library correctly predicted the ligand binding poses in 94% of the cases. The models were also highly selective for the active ligands in virtual screening, with the areas under the ROC curves ranging from 82 to a remarkable 99%. Using the computationally determined receptor-specific binding energy offsets, we showed that the ensembles can be used for predicting selectivity profiles of NR ligands. Our results evaluate and demonstrate the advantages of using receptor ensembles for compound docking, screening, and profiling.

  7. Automatic selection of reference taxa for protein-protein interaction prediction with phylogenetic profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Martin; Maetschke, S.R.; Ragan, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    available, identifying the most-informative RT is becoming increasingly difficult. Previous studies on the selection of RT have provided guidelines for manual taxon selection, and for eliminating closely related taxa. However, no general strategy for automatic selection of RT is currently available. Results......: We present three novel methods for automating the selection of RT, using machine learning based on known protein–protein interaction networks. One of these methods in particular, Tree-Based Search, yields greatly improved prediction accuracies. We further show that different methods for constituting...

  8. An Automatic Prediction of Epileptic Seizures Using Cloud Computing and Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Sanjay; Sood, Sandeep K; Gupta, Sunil Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders which is characterized by the spontaneous and unforeseeable occurrence of seizures. An automatic prediction of seizure can protect the patients from accidents and save their life. In this article, we proposed a mobile-based framework that automatically predict seizures using the information contained in electroencephalography (EEG) signals. The wireless sensor technology is used to capture the EEG signals of patients. The cloud-based services are used to collect and analyze the EEG data from the patient's mobile phone. The features from the EEG signal are extracted using the fast Walsh-Hadamard transform (FWHT). The Higher Order Spectral Analysis (HOSA) is applied to FWHT coefficients in order to select the features set relevant to normal, preictal and ictal states of seizure. We subsequently exploit the selected features as input to a k-means classifier to detect epileptic seizure states in a reasonable time. The performance of the proposed model is tested on Amazon EC2 cloud and compared in terms of execution time and accuracy. The findings show that with selected HOS based features, we were able to achieve a classification accuracy of 94.6 %.

  9. SuperBiHelix method for predicting the pleiotropic ensemble of G-protein-coupled receptor conformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Jenelle K; Abrol, Ravinder; Goddard, William A; Trzaskowski, Bartosz; Scott, Caitlin E

    2014-01-07

    There is overwhelming evidence that G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) exhibit several distinct low-energy conformations, each of which might favor binding to different ligands and/or lead to different downstream functions. Understanding the function of such proteins requires knowledge of the ensemble of low-energy configurations that might play a role in this pleiotropic functionality. We earlier reported the BiHelix method for efficiently sampling the (12)(7) = 35 million conformations resulting from 30° rotations about the axis (η) of all seven transmembrane helices (TMHs), showing that the experimental structure is reliably selected as the best conformation from this ensemble. However, various GPCRs differ sufficiently in the tilts of the TMHs that this method need not predict the optimum conformation starting from any other template. In this paper, we introduce the SuperBiHelix method in which the tilt angles (θ, ϕ) are optimized simultaneously with rotations (η) efficiently enough that it is practical and sufficient to sample (5 × 3 × 5)(7) = 13 trillion configurations. This method can correctly identify the optimum structure of a GPCR starting with the template from a different GPCR. We have validated this method by predicting known crystal structure conformations starting from the template of a different protein structure. We find that the SuperBiHelix conformational ensemble includes the higher energy conformations associated with the active protein in addition to those associated with the more stable inactive protein. This methodology was then applied to design and experimentally confirm structures of three mutants of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor associated with different functions.

  10. Automatic generation of bioinformatics tools for predicting protein-ligand binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Yusuke; Banno, Masaki; Ueki, Kokoro; Saad, Gul; Shimizu, Kentaro

    2016-03-15

    Predictive tools that model protein-ligand binding on demand are needed to promote ligand research in an innovative drug-design environment. However, it takes considerable time and effort to develop predictive tools that can be applied to individual ligands. An automated production pipeline that can rapidly and efficiently develop user-friendly protein-ligand binding predictive tools would be useful. We developed a system for automatically generating protein-ligand binding predictions. Implementation of this system in a pipeline of Semantic Web technique-based web tools will allow users to specify a ligand and receive the tool within 0.5-1 day. We demonstrated high prediction accuracy for three machine learning algorithms and eight ligands. The source code and web application are freely available for download at http://utprot.net They are implemented in Python and supported on Linux. shimizu@bi.a.u-tokyo.ac.jp Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Automatic generation of bioinformatics tools for predicting protein–ligand binding sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banno, Masaki; Ueki, Kokoro; Saad, Gul; Shimizu, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Predictive tools that model protein–ligand binding on demand are needed to promote ligand research in an innovative drug-design environment. However, it takes considerable time and effort to develop predictive tools that can be applied to individual ligands. An automated production pipeline that can rapidly and efficiently develop user-friendly protein–ligand binding predictive tools would be useful. Results: We developed a system for automatically generating protein–ligand binding predictions. Implementation of this system in a pipeline of Semantic Web technique-based web tools will allow users to specify a ligand and receive the tool within 0.5–1 day. We demonstrated high prediction accuracy for three machine learning algorithms and eight ligands. Availability and implementation: The source code and web application are freely available for download at http://utprot.net. They are implemented in Python and supported on Linux. Contact: shimizu@bi.a.u-tokyo.ac.jp Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26545824

  12. Enthalpy/Entropy Contributions to Conformational KIEs: Theoretical Predictions and Comparison with Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Fong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous theoretical studies of Mislow’s doubly-bridged biphenyl ketone 1 and dihydrodimethylphenanthrene 2 have determined significant entropic contributions to their normal (1 and inverse (2 conformational kinetic isotope effects (CKIEs. To broaden our investigation, we have used density functional methods to characterize the potential energy surfaces and vibrational frequencies for ground and transition structures of additional systems with measured CKIEs, including [2.2]-metaparacyclophane-d (3, 1,1'-binaphthyl (4, 2,2'-dibromo-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid (5, and the 2-(N,N,N-trimethyl-2'-(N,N-dimethyl-diaminobiphenyl cation (6. We have also computed CKIEs in a number of systems whose experimental CKIEs are unknown. These include analogs of 1 in which the C=O groups have been replaced with CH2 (7, O (8, and S (9 atoms and ring-expanded variants of 2 containing CH2 (10, O (11, S (12, or C=O (13 groups. Vibrational entropy contributes to the CKIEs in all of these systems with the exception of cyclophane 3, whose isotope effect is predicted to be purely enthalpic in origin and whose Bigeleisen-Mayer ZPE term is equivalent to ΔΔ H‡. There is variable correspondence between these terms in the other molecules studied, thus identifying additional examples of systems in which the Bigeleisen-Mayer formalism does not correlate with ΔH/ΔS dissections.

  13. Prediction of Xaa-Pro peptide bond conformation from sequence and chemical shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Yang; Bax, Ad, E-mail: bax@nih.go [National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Chemical Physics (United States)

    2010-03-15

    We present a program, named Promega, to predict the Xaa-Pro peptide bond conformation on the basis of backbone chemical shifts and the amino acid sequence. Using a chemical shift database of proteins of known structure together with the PDB-extracted amino acid preference of cis Xaa-Pro peptide bonds, a cis/trans probability score is calculated from the backbone and {sup 13}C{sup {beta}} chemical shifts of the proline and its neighboring residues. For an arbitrary number of input chemical shifts, which may include Pro-{sup 13}C{sup {gamma}}, Promega calculates the statistical probability that a Xaa-Pro peptide bond is cis. Besides its potential as a validation tool, Promega is particularly useful for studies of larger proteins where Pro-{sup 13}C{sup {gamma}} assignments can be challenging, and for on-going efforts to determine protein structures exclusively on the basis of backbone and {sup 13}C{sup {beta}} chemical shifts.

  14. Automatic delirium prediction system and nursing-sensitive outcomes in the medical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ha-young; Song, Xianghua; Piao, Jinshi; Jin, Yinji; Lee, Sun-Mi

    2015-02-01

    In Korea, delirium risk screening has not been routinely implemented in intensive care units (ICUs). The purpose of this study was to implement an Automatic Prediction of Delirium in Intensive Care Units (APREDEL-ICU) system to investigate its impact on nursing-sensitive outcomes and to assess nurse satisfaction with the system. A pre-post research design was used. A total of 145 patients were involved prior to the system implementation and 172 were involved after implementation. Forty medical ICU nurses evaluated the system. The APREDEL-ICU system did not result in a reduction in the incidence of delirium. However, the nurses reported that their knowledge regarding delirium care increased after the system was introduced. The proposed system was successfully implemented without increasing the burden of nurses in their assessment of delirium risk. Long-term use of APREDEL-ICU could enhance preventive care and consequently result in positive patient outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Assess and Predict Automatic Generation Control Performances for Thermal Power Generation Units Based on Modeling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Yang, Zijiang; Gao, Song; Liu, Jinbiao

    2018-02-01

    Automatic generation control(AGC) is a key technology to maintain real time power generation and load balance, and to ensure the quality of power supply. Power grids require each power generation unit to have a satisfactory AGC performance, being specified in two detailed rules. The two rules provide a set of indices to measure the AGC performance of power generation unit. However, the commonly-used method to calculate these indices is based on particular data samples from AGC responses and will lead to incorrect results in practice. This paper proposes a new method to estimate the AGC performance indices via system identification techniques. In addition, a nonlinear regression model between performance indices and load command is built in order to predict the AGC performance indices. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated through industrial case studies.

  16. Prediction of conformational B-cell epitopes from 3D structures by random forests with a distance-based feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Hua

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antigen-antibody interactions are key events in immune system, which provide important clues to the immune processes and responses. In Antigen-antibody interactions, the specific sites on the antigens that are directly bound by the B-cell produced antibodies are well known as B-cell epitopes. The identification of epitopes is a hot topic in bioinformatics because of their potential use in the epitope-based drug design. Although most B-cell epitopes are discontinuous (or conformational, insufficient effort has been put into the conformational epitope prediction, and the performance of existing methods is far from satisfaction. Results In order to develop the high-accuracy model, we focus on some possible aspects concerning the prediction performance, including the impact of interior residues, different contributions of adjacent residues, and the imbalanced data which contain much more non-epitope residues than epitope residues. In order to address above issues, we take following strategies. Firstly, a concept of 'thick surface patch' instead of 'surface patch' is introduced to describe the local spatial context of each surface residue, which considers the impact of interior residue. The comparison between the thick surface patch and the surface patch shows that interior residues contribute to the recognition of epitopes. Secondly, statistical significance of the distance distribution difference between non-epitope patches and epitope patches is observed, thus an adjacent residue distance feature is presented, which reflects the unequal contributions of adjacent residues to the location of binding sites. Thirdly, a bootstrapping and voting procedure is adopted to deal with the imbalanced dataset. Based on the above ideas, we propose a new method to identify the B-cell conformational epitopes from 3D structures by combining conventional features and the proposed feature, and the random forest (RF algorithm is used as the

  17. Ridge regression in prediction problems: automatic choice of the ridge parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cule, Erika; De Iorio, Maria

    2013-11-01

    To date, numerous genetic variants have been identified as associated with diverse phenotypic traits. However, identified associations generally explain only a small proportion of trait heritability and the predictive power of models incorporating only known-associated variants has been small. Multiple regression is a popular framework in which to consider the joint effect of many genetic variants simultaneously. Ordinary multiple regression is seldom appropriate in the context of genetic data, due to the high dimensionality of the data and the correlation structure among the predictors. There has been a resurgence of interest in the use of penalised regression techniques to circumvent these difficulties. In this paper, we focus on ridge regression, a penalised regression approach that has been shown to offer good performance in multivariate prediction problems. One challenge in the application of ridge regression is the choice of the ridge parameter that controls the amount of shrinkage of the regression coefficients. We present a method to determine the ridge parameter based on the data, with the aim of good performance in high-dimensional prediction problems. We establish a theoretical justification for our approach, and demonstrate its performance on simulated genetic data and on a real data example. Fitting a ridge regression model to hundreds of thousands to millions of genetic variants simultaneously presents computational challenges. We have developed an R package, ridge, which addresses these issues. Ridge implements the automatic choice of ridge parameter presented in this paper, and is freely available from CRAN. © 2013 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  18. Doses to organs at cerebral risks: optimization by robotized stereotaxic radiotherapy and automatic segmentation atlas versus three dimensional conformal radiotherapy; Doses aux organes a risque cerebraux: optimisation par radiotherapie stereotaxique robotisee et atlas de segmentation automatique versus radiotherapie conformationnelle tridimensionnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondiau, P.Y.; Thariat, J.; Benezery, K.; Herault, J.; Dalmasso, C.; Marcie, S. [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 06 - Nice (France); Malandain, G. [Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique (INRIA), Sophia-Antipolis, 06 - Nice (France)

    2007-11-15

    The stereotaxic radiotherapy robotized by 'Cyberknife fourth generation' allows a dosimetric optimization with a high conformity index on the tumor and radiation doses limited on organs at risk. A cerebral automatic anatomic segmentation atlas of organs at risk are used in routine in three dimensions. This study evaluated the superiority of the stereotaxic radiotherapy in comparison with the three dimensional conformal radiotherapy on the preservation of organs at risk in regard of the delivered dose to tumors justifying an accelerated hypo fractionation and a dose escalation. This automatic segmentation atlas should allow to establish correlations between anatomy and cerebral dosimetry; This atlas allows to underline the dosimetry optimization by stereotaxic radiotherapy robotized for organs at risk. (N.C.)

  19. First principles prediction of the third conformer of hydrogenated BN sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Das, G.P.; Majumder, C.

    2010-01-01

    We report, using first principles density functional calculations, the relative stabilities, structural and electronic properties of various conformers of hydrogenated BN sheet (BHNH). The already known chair and boat BHNH conformers are structurally similar to those of graphane. We propose a third BHNH conformer called 'stirrup' which turns out to be the most stable one, as also verified by frequency analysis. In this conformer, the B-H and N-H bonds of a hexagon alternate in 3-up and 3-down fashion on either side of the sheet. We also explore that any other alternative hydrogenation of the BN sheet disrupts its periodic puckered geometry and turns out to be energetically less stable. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. COMPUTER-BASED PREDICTION OF TOXICITY USING THE ELECTRON-CONFORMATIONAL METHOD. APPLICATION TO FRAGRANCE ALLERGENS AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia N. Gorinchoy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The electron-conformational (EC method is employed for the toxicophore (Tph identification and quantitative prediction of toxicity using the training set of 24 compounds that are considered as fragrance allergens. The values of a=LD50 in oral exposure of rats were chosen as a measure of toxicity. EC parameters are evaluated on the base of conformational analysis and ab initio electronic structure calculations (including solvent influence. The Tph consists of four sites which in this series of compounds are represented by three carbon and one oxygen atoms, but may be any other atoms that have the same electronic and geometric features within the tolerance limits. The regression model taking into consideration the Tph flexibility, anti-Tph shielding, and influence of out-of-Tph functional groups predicts well the experimental values of toxicity (R2 = 0.93 with a reasonable leaveone- out cross-validation.

  1. Predictability of monthly temperature and precipitation using automatic time series forecasting methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacharalampous, Georgia; Tyralis, Hristos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the predictability of monthly temperature and precipitation by applying automatic univariate time series forecasting methods to a sample of 985 40-year-long monthly temperature and 1552 40-year-long monthly precipitation time series. The methods include a naïve one based on the monthly values of the last year, as well as the random walk (with drift), AutoRegressive Fractionally Integrated Moving Average (ARFIMA), exponential smoothing state-space model with Box-Cox transformation, ARMA errors, Trend and Seasonal components (BATS), simple exponential smoothing, Theta and Prophet methods. Prophet is a recently introduced model inspired by the nature of time series forecasted at Facebook and has not been applied to hydrometeorological time series before, while the use of random walk, BATS, simple exponential smoothing and Theta is rare in hydrology. The methods are tested in performing multi-step ahead forecasts for the last 48 months of the data. We further investigate how different choices of handling the seasonality and non-normality affect the performance of the models. The results indicate that: (a) all the examined methods apart from the naïve and random walk ones are accurate enough to be used in long-term applications; (b) monthly temperature and precipitation can be forecasted to a level of accuracy which can barely be improved using other methods; (c) the externally applied classical seasonal decomposition results mostly in better forecasts compared to the automatic seasonal decomposition used by the BATS and Prophet methods; and (d) Prophet is competitive, especially when it is combined with externally applied classical seasonal decomposition.

  2. How accurately do current force fields predict experimental peptide conformations? An adiabatic free energy dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanov, Alexandar T; Cuendet, Michel A; Tuckerman, Mark E

    2014-06-19

    The quality of classical biomolecular simulations is inevitably limited by two problems: the accuracy of the force field used and the comprehensiveness of configuration space sampling. In this work we tackle the sampling problem by carrying out driven adiabatic free energy dynamics to obtain converged free energy surfaces of dipeptides in the gas phase and in solution using selected dihedral angles as collective variables. To calculate populations of conformational macrostates observed in experiment, we introduce a fuzzy clustering algorithm in collective-variable space, which delineates macrostates without prior definition of arbitrary boundaries. With this approach, we calculate the conformational preferences of small peptides with six biomolecular force fields chosen from among the most recent and widely used. We assess the accuracy of each force field against recently published Raman or IR-UV spectroscopy measurements of conformer populations for the dipeptides in solution or in the gas phase.

  3. Predicting heat stress index in Sasso hens using automatic linear modeling and artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, A; Oluremi, O I A; Ekpo, E I

    2018-03-17

    There is an increasing use of robust analytical algorithms in the prediction of heat stress. The present investigation therefore, was carried out to forecast heat stress index (HSI) in Sasso laying hens. One hundred and sixty seven records on the thermo-physiological parameters of the birds were utilized. They were reared on deep litter and battery cage systems. Data were collected when the birds were 42- and 52-week of age. The independent variables fitted were housing system, age of birds, rectal temperature (RT), pulse rate (PR), and respiratory rate (RR). The response variable was HSI. Data were analyzed using automatic linear modeling (ALM) and artificial neural network (ANN) procedures. The ALM model building method involved Forward Stepwise using the F Statistic criterion. As regards ANN, multilayer perceptron (MLP) with back-propagation network was used. The ANN network was trained with 90% of the data set while 10% were dedicated to testing for model validation. RR and PR were the two parameters of utmost importance in the prediction of HSI. However, the fractional importance of RR was higher than that of PR in both ALM (0.947 versus 0.053) and ANN (0.677 versus 0.274) models. The two models also predicted HSI effectively with high degree of accuracy [r = 0.980, R 2  = 0.961, adjusted R 2  = 0.961, and RMSE = 0.05168 (ALM); r = 0.983, R 2  = 0.966; adjusted R 2  = 0.966, and RMSE = 0.04806 (ANN)]. The present information may be exploited in the development of a heat stress chart based largely on RR. This may aid detection of thermal discomfort in a poultry house under tropical and subtropical conditions.

  4. Automatic delirium prediction system in a Korean surgical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Suk-Hwa; Park, Eun-Ju; Jin, Yinji; Piao, Jinshi; Lee, Sun-Mi

    2014-11-01

    In Korea, regular screening for delirium is not considered essential. In addition, delirium is often associated with vague concepts, making it harder to identify high-risk patients and impeding decision-making. To assess the impact of the Automatic PREdiction of DELirium in Intensive Care Units (APREDEL-ICU) system on nursing-sensitive and patient outcomes for surgical ICU patients and to evaluate nurse satisfaction with the system and its usability. A pre-post research design was adopted. Our study included 724 patients admitted before the implementation of the APREDEL-ICU (January to December 2010) and 1111 patients admitted after the system was installed (May 2011 to April 2012). The APREDEL-ICU uses a pop-up window message to inform the nursing staff of patients at risk for delirium, allowing evidence-based nursing interventions to be applied to the identified patients. A total of 42 nurses were surveyed to determine the system's usability and their level of satisfaction with it. After the implementation of APREDEL-ICU, high-risk patients, determined using a prediction algorithm, showed a slight decrease in the incidence of delirium, but the changes were not significant. However, significant decreases in the number and duration of analgesic/narcotic therapies were observed after the implementation of the system. Nurse self-evaluation results showed an improvement in all categories of knowledge regarding delirium care. The use of a prediction and alerting system for ICU patients at high risk of delirium showed a potential increase in the quality of delirium care, including early detection and proper intervention. © 2013 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  5. Predicting heat stress index in Sasso hens using automatic linear modeling and artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, A.; Oluremi, O. I. A.; Ekpo, E. I.

    2018-03-01

    There is an increasing use of robust analytical algorithms in the prediction of heat stress. The present investigation therefore, was carried out to forecast heat stress index (HSI) in Sasso laying hens. One hundred and sixty seven records on the thermo-physiological parameters of the birds were utilized. They were reared on deep litter and battery cage systems. Data were collected when the birds were 42- and 52-week of age. The independent variables fitted were housing system, age of birds, rectal temperature (RT), pulse rate (PR), and respiratory rate (RR). The response variable was HSI. Data were analyzed using automatic linear modeling (ALM) and artificial neural network (ANN) procedures. The ALM model building method involved Forward Stepwise using the F Statistic criterion. As regards ANN, multilayer perceptron (MLP) with back-propagation network was used. The ANN network was trained with 90% of the data set while 10% were dedicated to testing for model validation. RR and PR were the two parameters of utmost importance in the prediction of HSI. However, the fractional importance of RR was higher than that of PR in both ALM (0.947 versus 0.053) and ANN (0.677 versus 0.274) models. The two models also predicted HSI effectively with high degree of accuracy [r = 0.980, R 2 = 0.961, adjusted R 2 = 0.961, and RMSE = 0.05168 (ALM); r = 0.983, R 2 = 0.966; adjusted R 2 = 0.966, and RMSE = 0.04806 (ANN)]. The present information may be exploited in the development of a heat stress chart based largely on RR. This may aid detection of thermal discomfort in a poultry house under tropical and subtropical conditions.

  6. Predicting the reaction coordinates of millisecond light-induced conformational changes in photoactive yellow protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreede, J.; Juraszek, J.; Bolhuis, P.G.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of large-scale conformational changes in proteins still poses a challenge for molecular simulations. We employ transition path sampling of explicit solvent molecular dynamics trajectories to obtain atomistic insight in the reaction network of the millisecond timescale

  7. Doing Gender for Different Reasons: Why Gender Conformity Positively and Negatively Predicts Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Jessica J.; Sanchez, Diana T.

    2010-01-01

    Past research has shown that valuing gender conformity is associated with both positive and negative consequences for self-esteem and positive affect. The current research (women, n= 226; men, n= 175) explored these conflicting findings by separating out investing in societal gender ideals from personally valuing one's gender identity ("private…

  8. Predicting shrinkage and warpage in injection molding: Towards automatized mold design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicke, Florian; Behr, Marek; Elgeti, Stefanie

    2017-10-01

    It is an inevitable part of any plastics molding process that the material undergoes some shrinkage during solidification. Mainly due to unavoidable inhomogeneities in the cooling process, the overall shrinkage cannot be assumed as homogeneous in all volumetric directions. The direct consequence is warpage. The accurate prediction of such shrinkage and warpage effects has been the subject of a considerable amount of research, but it is important to note that this behavior depends greatly on the type of material that is used as well as the process details. Without limiting ourselves to any specific properties of certain materials or process designs, we aim to develop a method for the automatized design of a mold cavity that will produce correctly shaped moldings after solidification. Essentially, this can be stated as a shape optimization problem, where the cavity shape is optimized to fulfill some objective function that measures defects in the molding shape. In order to be able to develop and evaluate such a method, we first require simulation methods for the diffierent steps involved in the injection molding process that can represent the phenomena responsible for shrinkage and warpage ina sufficiently accurate manner. As a starting point, we consider the solidification of purely amorphous materials. In this case, the material slowly transitions from fluid-like to solid-like behavior as it cools down. This behavior is modeled using adjusted viscoelastic material models. Once the material has passed a certain temperature threshold during cooling, any viscous effects are neglected and the behavior is assumed to be fully elastic. Non-linear elastic laws are used to predict shrinkage and warpage that occur after this point. We will present the current state of these simulation methods and show some first approaches towards optimizing the mold cavity shape based on these methods.

  9. Piloted Simulation Evaluation of a Model-Predictive Automatic Recovery System to Prevent Vehicle Loss of Control on Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Liu, Yuan; Sowers, Thomas S.; Owen, A. Karl; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a model-predictive automatic recovery system for aircraft on the verge of a loss-of-control situation. The system determines when it must intervene to prevent an imminent accident, resulting from a poor approach. It estimates the altitude loss that would result from a go-around maneuver at the current flight condition. If the loss is projected to violate a minimum altitude threshold, the maneuver is automatically triggered. The system deactivates to allow landing once several criteria are met. Piloted flight simulator evaluation showed the system to provide effective envelope protection during extremely unsafe landing attempts. The results demonstrate how flight and propulsion control can be integrated to recover control of the vehicle automatically and prevent a potential catastrophe.

  10. Splitting statistical potentials into meaningful scoring functions: Testing the prediction of near-native structures from decoy conformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva Baldo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances on high-throughput technologies have produced a vast amount of protein sequences, while the number of high-resolution structures has seen a limited increase. This has impelled the production of many strategies to built protein structures from its sequence, generating a considerable amount of alternative models. The selection of the closest model to the native conformation has thus become crucial for structure prediction. Several methods have been developed to score protein models by energies, knowledge-based potentials and combination of both. Results Here, we present and demonstrate a theory to split the knowledge-based potentials in scoring terms biologically meaningful and to combine them in new scores to predict near-native structures. Our strategy allows circumventing the problem of defining the reference state. In this approach we give the proof for a simple and linear application that can be further improved by optimizing the combination of Zscores. Using the simplest composite score ( we obtained predictions similar to state-of-the-art methods. Besides, our approach has the advantage of identifying the most relevant terms involved in the stability of the protein structure. Finally, we also use the composite Zscores to assess the conformation of models and to detect local errors. Conclusion We have introduced a method to split knowledge-based potentials and to solve the problem of defining a reference state. The new scores have detected near-native structures as accurately as state-of-art methods and have been successful to identify wrongly modeled regions of many near-native conformations.

  11. Flexible matching of test ligands to a 3D pharmacophore using a molecular superposition force field: Comparison of predicted and experimental conformations of inhibitors of three enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMartin, Colin; Bohacek, Regine S.

    1995-06-01

    A computer procedure TFIT, which uses a molecular superposition force field to flexibly match test compounds to a 3D pharmacophore, was evaluated to find out whether it could reliably predict the bioactive conformations of flexible ligands. The program superposition force field optimizes the overlap of those atoms of the test ligand and template that are of similar chemical type, by applying an attractive force between atoms of the test ligand and template which are close together and of similar type (hydrogen bonding, charge, hydrophobicity). A procedure involving Monte Carlo torsion perturbations, followed by torsional energy minimization, is used to find conformations of the test ligand which cominimize the internal energy of the ligand and the superposition energy of ligand and template. The procedure was tested by applying it to a series of flexible ligands for which the bioactive conformation was known experimentally. The 15 molecules tested were inhibitors of thermolysin, HIV-1 protease or endothiapepsin for which X-ray structures of the bioactive conformation were available. For each enzyme, one of the molecules served as a template and the others, after being conformationally randomized, were fitted. The fitted conformation was then compared to the known binding geometry. The matching procedure was successful in predicting the bioactive conformations of many of the structures tested. Significant deviation from experimental results was found only for parts of molecules where it was readily apparent that the template did not contain sufficient information to accurately determine the bioactive conformation.

  12. Predicting automatic speech recognition performance over communication channels from instrumental speech quality and intelligibility scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallardo, L.F.; Möller, S.; Beerends, J.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of automatic speech recognition based on coded-decoded speech heavily depends on the quality of the transmitted signals, determined by channel impairments. This paper examines relationships between speech recognition performance and measurements of speech quality and intelligibility

  13. A Novel Method Using Abstract Convex Underestimation in Ab-Initio Protein Structure Prediction for Guiding Search in Conformational Feature Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiao-Hu; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Zhou, Xiao-Gen; Yu, Xu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    To address the searching problem of protein conformational space in ab-initio protein structure prediction, a novel method using abstract convex underestimation (ACUE) based on the framework of evolutionary algorithm was proposed. Computing such conformations, essential to associate structural and functional information with gene sequences, is challenging due to the high-dimensionality and rugged energy surface of the protein conformational space. As a consequence, the dimension of protein conformational space should be reduced to a proper level. In this paper, the high-dimensionality original conformational space was converted into feature space whose dimension is considerably reduced by feature extraction technique. And, the underestimate space could be constructed according to abstract convex theory. Thus, the entropy effect caused by searching in the high-dimensionality conformational space could be avoided through such conversion. The tight lower bound estimate information was obtained to guide the searching direction, and the invalid searching area in which the global optimal solution is not located could be eliminated in advance. Moreover, instead of expensively calculating the energy of conformations in the original conformational space, the estimate value is employed to judge if the conformation is worth exploring to reduce the evaluation time, thereby making computational cost lower and the searching process more efficient. Additionally, fragment assembly and the Monte Carlo method are combined to generate a series of metastable conformations by sampling in the conformational space. The proposed method provides a novel technique to solve the searching problem of protein conformational space. Twenty small-to-medium structurally diverse proteins were tested, and the proposed ACUE method was compared with It Fix, HEA, Rosetta and the developed method LEDE without underestimate information. Test results show that the ACUE method can more rapidly and more

  14. Atom Types Independent Molecular Mechanics Method for Predicting the Conformational Energy of Small Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaomin; Barigye, Stephen J; Shahamat, Moeed; Labute, Paul; Moitessier, Nicolas

    2018-01-22

    We previously implemented a well-known qualitative chemical principle into an accurate quantitative model computing relative potential energies of conformers. According to this principle, hyperconjugation strength correlates with electronegativity of donors and acceptors. While this earlier version of our model applies to σ bonds, lone pairs, disregarded in this earlier version, also have a major impact on the conformational preferences of molecules. Among the well-established principles used by organic chemists to rationalize some organic chemical behaviors are the anomeric effect, the alpha effect, basicity, and nucleophilicity. These effects are directly related to the presence of lone pairs. We report herein our effort to incorporate lone pairs into our model to extend its applicability domain to any saturated small molecules. The developed model H-TEQ 2 has been validated on a wide variety of molecules from polyaromatic molecules to carbohydrates and molecules with high heteroatoms/carbon ratios. Interestingly, this method, in contrast to common force field-based methods, does not rely on atom types and is virtually applicable to any organic molecules.

  15. The Masculinity of Money: Automatic Stereotypes Predict Gender Differences in Estimated Salaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Melissa J.; Paluck, Elizabeth Levy; Spencer-Rodgers, Julie

    2010-01-01

    We present the first empirical investigation of why men are assumed to earn higher salaries than women (the "salary estimation effect"). Although this phenomenon is typically attributed to conscious consideration of the national wage gap (i.e., real inequities in salary), we hypothesize instead that it reflects differential, automatic economic…

  16. An attempt to predict conformation and fatness in bulls by means of artificial neural networks using weight, age and breed composition information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Čandek-Potokar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to predict conformation and fatness grades in bulls based on data available at slaughter (carcass weight, age and breed proportions by means of counter- propagation artificial neural networks (ANN. For chemometric analysis, 5893 bull carcasses (n=2948 and n=2945 for calibration and testing of models, respectively were randomly selected from the initial data set (n≈27000; one abattoir, one classifier, three years period. Different ANN models were developed for conformation and fatness by varying the net size and the number of epochs. Tested net parameters did not have a notable effect on models’ quality. Respecting the tolerance of ±1 subclass between the actual and predicted value (as allowed by European Union legislation for on-spot checks, the matching between the classifier and ANN grading was 73.6 and 64.9% for conformation and fatness, respectively. Success rate of prediction was positively related to the frequency of carcasses in the class.

  17. Towards parsimony in habit measurement: testing the convergent and predictive validity of an automaticity subscale of the Self-Report Habit Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benjamin; Abraham, Charles; Lally, Phillippa; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan

    2012-08-30

    The twelve-item Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI) is the most popular measure of energy-balance related habits. This measure characterises habit by automatic activation, behavioural frequency, and relevance to self-identity. Previous empirical research suggests that the SRHI may be abbreviated with no losses in reliability or predictive utility. Drawing on recent theorising suggesting that automaticity is the 'active ingredient' of habit-behaviour relationships, we tested whether an automaticity-specific SRHI subscale could capture habit-based behaviour patterns in self-report data. A content validity task was undertaken to identify a subset of automaticity indicators within the SRHI. The reliability, convergent validity and predictive validity of the automaticity item subset was subsequently tested in secondary analyses of all previous SRHI applications, identified via systematic review, and in primary analyses of four raw datasets relating to energy-balance relevant behaviours (inactive travel, active travel, snacking, and alcohol consumption). A four-item automaticity subscale (the 'Self-Report Behavioural Automaticity Index'; 'SRBAI') was found to be reliable and sensitive to two hypothesised effects of habit on behaviour: a habit-behaviour correlation, and a moderating effect of habit on the intention-behaviour relationship. The SRBAI offers a parsimonious measure that adequately captures habitual behaviour patterns. The SRBAI may be of particular utility in predicting future behaviour and in studies tracking habit formation or disruption.

  18. Towards parsimony in habit measurement: Testing the convergent and predictive validity of an automaticity subscale of the Self-Report Habit Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardner Benjamin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The twelve-item Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI is the most popular measure of energy-balance related habits. This measure characterises habit by automatic activation, behavioural frequency, and relevance to self-identity. Previous empirical research suggests that the SRHI may be abbreviated with no losses in reliability or predictive utility. Drawing on recent theorising suggesting that automaticity is the ‘active ingredient’ of habit-behaviour relationships, we tested whether an automaticity-specific SRHI subscale could capture habit-based behaviour patterns in self-report data. Methods A content validity task was undertaken to identify a subset of automaticity indicators within the SRHI. The reliability, convergent validity and predictive validity of the automaticity item subset was subsequently tested in secondary analyses of all previous SRHI applications, identified via systematic review, and in primary analyses of four raw datasets relating to energy‐balance relevant behaviours (inactive travel, active travel, snacking, and alcohol consumption. Results A four-item automaticity subscale (the ‘Self-Report Behavioural Automaticity Index’; ‘SRBAI’ was found to be reliable and sensitive to two hypothesised effects of habit on behaviour: a habit-behaviour correlation, and a moderating effect of habit on the intention-behaviour relationship. Conclusion The SRBAI offers a parsimonious measure that adequately captures habitual behaviour patterns. The SRBAI may be of particular utility in predicting future behaviour and in studies tracking habit formation or disruption.

  19. Positive-unlabeled learning for the prediction of conformational B-cell epitopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background The incomplete ground truth of training data of B-cell epitopes is a demanding issue in computational epitope prediction. The challenge is that only a small fraction of the surface residues of an antigen are confirmed as antigenic residues (positive training data); the remaining residues are unlabeled. As some of these uncertain residues can possibly be grouped to form novel but currently unknown epitopes, it is misguided to unanimously classify all the unlabeled residues as negative training data following the traditional supervised learning scheme. Results We propose a positive-unlabeled learning algorithm to address this problem. The key idea is to distinguish between epitope-likely residues and reliable negative residues in unlabeled data. The method has two steps: (1) identify reliable negative residues using a weighted SVM with a high recall; and (2) construct a classification model on the positive residues and the reliable negative residues. Complex-based 10-fold cross-validation was conducted to show that this method outperforms those commonly used predictors DiscoTope 2.0, ElliPro and SEPPA 2.0 in every aspect. We conducted four case studies, in which the approach was tested on antigens of West Nile virus, dihydrofolate reductase, beta-lactamase, and two Ebola antigens whose epitopes are currently unknown. All the results were assessed on a newly-established data set of antigen structures not bound by antibodies, instead of on antibody-bound antigen structures. These bound structures may contain unfair binding information such as bound-state B-factors and protrusion index which could exaggerate the epitope prediction performance. Source codes are available on request. PMID:26681157

  20. Automatically updating predictive modeling workflows support decision-making in drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muegge, Ingo; Bentzien, Jörg; Mukherjee, Prasenjit; Hughes, Robert O

    2016-09-01

    Using predictive models for early decision-making in drug discovery has become standard practice. We suggest that model building needs to be automated with minimum input and low technical maintenance requirements. Models perform best when tailored to answering specific compound optimization related questions. If qualitative answers are required, 2-bin classification models are preferred. Integrating predictive modeling results with structural information stimulates better decision making. For in silico models supporting rapid structure-activity relationship cycles the performance deteriorates within weeks. Frequent automated updates of predictive models ensure best predictions. Consensus between multiple modeling approaches increases the prediction confidence. Combining qualified and nonqualified data optimally uses all available information. Dose predictions provide a holistic alternative to multiple individual property predictions for reaching complex decisions.

  1. Automaticity and localisation of concurrents predicts colour area activity in grapheme-colour synaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould van Praag, Cassandra D; Garfinkel, Sarah; Ward, Jamie; Bor, Daniel; Seth, Anil K

    2016-07-29

    In grapheme-colour synaesthesia (GCS), the presentation of letters or numbers induces an additional 'concurrent' experience of colour. Early functional MRI (fMRI) investigations of GCS reported activation in colour-selective area V4 during the concurrent experience. However, others have failed to replicate this key finding. We reasoned that individual differences in synaesthetic phenomenology might explain this inconsistency in the literature. To test this hypothesis, we examined fMRI BOLD responses in a group of grapheme-colour synaesthetes (n=20) and matched controls (n=20) while characterising the individual phenomenology of the synaesthetes along dimensions of 'automaticity' and 'localisation'. We used an independent functional localiser to identify colour-selective areas in both groups. Activations in these areas were then assessed during achromatic synaesthesia-inducing, and non-inducing conditions; we also explored whole brain activations, where we sought to replicate the existing literature regarding synaesthesia effects. Controls showed no significant activations in the contrast of inducing > non-inducing synaesthetic stimuli, in colour-selective ROIs or at the whole brain level. In the synaesthete group, we correlated activation within colour-selective ROIs with individual differences in phenomenology using the Coloured Letters and Numbers (CLaN) questionnaire which measures, amongst other attributes, the subjective automaticity/attention in synaesthetic concurrents, and their spatial localisation. Supporting our hypothesis, we found significant correlations between individual measures of synaesthetic phenomenology and BOLD responses in colour-selective areas, when contrasting inducing against non-inducing stimuli. Specifically, left-hemisphere colour area responses were stronger for synaesthetes scoring high on phenomenological localisation and automaticity/attention, while right-hemisphere colour area responses showed a relationship with localisation

  2. Automatic prediction of rheumatoid arthritis disease activity from the electronic medical records.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lin

    Full Text Available We aimed to mine the data in the Electronic Medical Record to automatically discover patients' Rheumatoid Arthritis disease activity at discrete rheumatology clinic visits. We cast the problem as a document classification task where the feature space includes concepts from the clinical narrative and lab values as stored in the Electronic Medical Record.The Training Set consisted of 2792 clinical notes and associated lab values. Test Set 1 included 1749 clinical notes and associated lab values. Test Set 2 included 344 clinical notes for which there were no associated lab values. The Apache clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System was used to analyze the text and transform it into informative features to be combined with relevant lab values.Experiments over a range of machine learning algorithms and features were conducted. The best performing combination was linear kernel Support Vector Machines with Unified Medical Language System Concept Unique Identifier features with feature selection and lab values. The Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (AUC is 0.831 (σ = 0.0317, statistically significant as compared to two baselines (AUC = 0.758, σ = 0.0291. Algorithms demonstrated superior performance on cases clinically defined as extreme categories of disease activity (Remission and High compared to those defined as intermediate categories (Moderate and Low and included laboratory data on inflammatory markers.Automatic Rheumatoid Arthritis disease activity discovery from Electronic Medical Record data is a learnable task approximating human performance. As a result, this approach might have several research applications, such as the identification of patients for genome-wide pharmacogenetic studies that require large sample sizes with precise definitions of disease activity and response to therapies.

  3. Automatic single- and multi-label enzymatic function prediction by machine learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervine Amidi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of protein structures in the PDB database has been increasing more than 15-fold since 1999. The creation of computational models predicting enzymatic function is of major importance since such models provide the means to better understand the behavior of newly discovered enzymes when catalyzing chemical reactions. Until now, single-label classification has been widely performed for predicting enzymatic function limiting the application to enzymes performing unique reactions and introducing errors when multi-functional enzymes are examined. Indeed, some enzymes may be performing different reactions and can hence be directly associated with multiple enzymatic functions. In the present work, we propose a multi-label enzymatic function classification scheme that combines structural and amino acid sequence information. We investigate two fusion approaches (in the feature level and decision level and assess the methodology for general enzymatic function prediction indicated by the first digit of the enzyme commission (EC code (six main classes on 40,034 enzymes from the PDB database. The proposed single-label and multi-label models predict correctly the actual functional activities in 97.8% and 95.5% (based on Hamming-loss of the cases, respectively. Also the multi-label model predicts all possible enzymatic reactions in 85.4% of the multi-labeled enzymes when the number of reactions is unknown. Code and datasets are available at https://figshare.com/s/a63e0bafa9b71fc7cbd7.

  4. Integrating machine learning to achieve an automatic parameter prediction for practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiqi; Huang, Peng; Peng, Jinye; Fan, Jianping; Zeng, Guihua

    2018-02-01

    For supporting practical quantum key distribution (QKD), it is critical to stabilize the physical parameters of signals, e.g., the intensity, phase, and polarization of the laser signals, so that such QKD systems can achieve better performance and practical security. In this paper, an approach is developed by integrating a support vector regression (SVR) model to optimize the performance and practical security of the QKD system. First, a SVR model is learned to precisely predict the time-along evolutions of the physical parameters of signals. Second, such predicted time-along evolutions are employed as feedback to control the QKD system for achieving the optimal performance and practical security. Finally, our proposed approach is exemplified by using the intensity evolution of laser light and a local oscillator pulse in the Gaussian modulated coherent state QKD system. Our experimental results have demonstrated three significant benefits of our SVR-based approach: (1) it can allow the QKD system to achieve optimal performance and practical security, (2) it does not require any additional resources and any real-time monitoring module to support automatic prediction of the time-along evolutions of the physical parameters of signals, and (3) it is applicable to any measurable physical parameter of signals in the practical QKD system.

  5. Automatically Identifying and Predicting Unplanned Wind Turbine Stoppages Using SCADA and Alarms System Data: Case Study and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Kevin; Gallagher, Colm; Bruton, Ken; O’Donovan, Peter; O’Sullivan, Dominic T. J.

    2017-11-01

    Using 10-minute wind turbine SCADA data for fault prediction offers an attractive way of gaining additional prognostic capabilities without needing to invest in extra hardware. To use these data-driven methods effectively, the historical SCADA data must be labelled with the periods when the turbine was in faulty operation as well the sub-system the fault was attributed to. Manually identifying faults using maintenance logs can be effective, but is also highly time consuming and tedious due to the disparate nature of these logs across manufacturers, operators and even individual maintenance events. Turbine alarm systems can help to identify these periods, but the sheer volume of alarms and false positives generated makes analysing them on an individual basis ineffective. In this work, we present a new method for automatically identifying historical stoppages on the turbine using SCADA and alarms data. Each stoppage is associated with either a fault in one of the turbine’s sub-systems, a routine maintenance activity, a grid-related event or a number of other categories. This is then checked against maintenance logs for accuracy and the labelled data fed into a classifier for predicting when these stoppages will occur. Results show that the automated labelling process correctly identifies each type of stoppage, and can be effectively used for SCADA-based prediction of turbine faults.

  6. Deep Learning Based Regression and Multiclass Models for Acute Oral Toxicity Prediction with Automatic Chemical Feature Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Youjun; Pei, Jianfeng; Lai, Luhua

    2017-11-27

    Median lethal death, LD 50 , is a general indicator of compound acute oral toxicity (AOT). Various in silico methods were developed for AOT prediction to reduce costs and time. In this study, we developed an improved molecular graph encoding convolutional neural networks (MGE-CNN) architecture to construct three types of high-quality AOT models: regression model (deepAOT-R), multiclassification model (deepAOT-C), and multitask model (deepAOT-CR). These predictive models highly outperformed previously reported models. For the two external data sets containing 1673 (test set I) and 375 (test set II) compounds, the R 2 and mean absolute errors (MAEs) of deepAOT-R on the test set I were 0.864 and 0.195, and the prediction accuracies of deepAOT-C were 95.5% and 96.3% on test sets I and II, respectively. The two external prediction accuracies of deepAOT-CR are 95.0% and 94.1%, while the R 2 and MAE are 0.861 and 0.204 for test set I, respectively. We then performed forward and backward exploration of deepAOT models for deep fingerprints, which could support shallow machine learning methods more efficiently than traditional fingerprints or descriptors. We further performed automatic feature learning, a key essence of deep learning, to map the corresponding activation values into fragment space and derive AOT-related chemical substructures by reverse mining of the features. Our deep learning architecture for AOT is generally applicable in predicting and exploring other toxicity or property end points of chemical compounds. The two deepAOT models are freely available at http://repharma.pku.edu.cn/DLAOT/DLAOThome.php or http://www.pkumdl.cn/DLAOT/DLAOThome.php .

  7. Ridge Regression in Prediction Problems: Automatic Choice of the Ridge Parameter

    OpenAIRE

    Cule, Erika; De Iorio, Maria

    2013-01-01

    To date, numerous genetic variants have been identified as associated with diverse phenotypic traits. However, identified associations generally explain only a small proportion of trait heritability and the predictive power of models incorporating only known-associated variants has been small. Multiple regression is a popular framework in which to consider the joint effect of many genetic variants simultaneously. Ordinary multiple regression is seldom appropriate in the context of genetic dat...

  8. Structured Semantic Knowledge Can Emerge Automatically from Predicting Word Sequences in Child-Directed Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Philip A; Willits, Jon A

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that distributional learning mechanisms may contribute to the acquisition of semantic knowledge. However, distributional learning mechanisms, statistical learning, and contemporary "deep learning" approaches have been criticized for being incapable of learning the kind of abstract and structured knowledge that many think is required for acquisition of semantic knowledge. In this paper, we show that recurrent neural networks, trained on noisy naturalistic speech to children, do in fact learn what appears to be abstract and structured knowledge. We trained two types of recurrent neural networks (Simple Recurrent Network, and Long Short-Term Memory) to predict word sequences in a 5-million-word corpus of speech directed to children ages 0-3 years old, and assessed what semantic knowledge they acquired. We found that learned internal representations are encoding various abstract grammatical and semantic features that are useful for predicting word sequences. Assessing the organization of semantic knowledge in terms of the similarity structure, we found evidence of emergent categorical and hierarchical structure in both models. We found that the Long Short-term Memory (LSTM) and SRN are both learning very similar kinds of representations, but the LSTM achieved higher levels of performance on a quantitative evaluation. We also trained a non-recurrent neural network, Skip-gram, on the same input to compare our results to the state-of-the-art in machine learning. We found that Skip-gram achieves relatively similar performance to the LSTM, but is representing words more in terms of thematic compared to taxonomic relations, and we provide reasons why this might be the case. Our findings show that a learning system that derives abstract, distributed representations for the purpose of predicting sequential dependencies in naturalistic language may provide insight into emergence of many properties of the developing semantic system.

  9. Structured Semantic Knowledge Can Emerge Automatically from Predicting Word Sequences in Child-Directed Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Huebner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has suggested that distributional learning mechanisms may contribute to the acquisition of semantic knowledge. However, distributional learning mechanisms, statistical learning, and contemporary “deep learning” approaches have been criticized for being incapable of learning the kind of abstract and structured knowledge that many think is required for acquisition of semantic knowledge. In this paper, we show that recurrent neural networks, trained on noisy naturalistic speech to children, do in fact learn what appears to be abstract and structured knowledge. We trained two types of recurrent neural networks (Simple Recurrent Network, and Long Short-Term Memory to predict word sequences in a 5-million-word corpus of speech directed to children ages 0–3 years old, and assessed what semantic knowledge they acquired. We found that learned internal representations are encoding various abstract grammatical and semantic features that are useful for predicting word sequences. Assessing the organization of semantic knowledge in terms of the similarity structure, we found evidence of emergent categorical and hierarchical structure in both models. We found that the Long Short-term Memory (LSTM and SRN are both learning very similar kinds of representations, but the LSTM achieved higher levels of performance on a quantitative evaluation. We also trained a non-recurrent neural network, Skip-gram, on the same input to compare our results to the state-of-the-art in machine learning. We found that Skip-gram achieves relatively similar performance to the LSTM, but is representing words more in terms of thematic compared to taxonomic relations, and we provide reasons why this might be the case. Our findings show that a learning system that derives abstract, distributed representations for the purpose of predicting sequential dependencies in naturalistic language may provide insight into emergence of many properties of the developing

  10. Automatic prediction of emotions from text in Spanish for expressive speech synthesis in the chat domain

    OpenAIRE

    Kolz, Benjamin; Garrido Almiñana, Juan María; Laplaza, Yesika

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a module for the prediction of emotions in text chats in Spanish, oriented to its use in specific-domain text-to-speech systems. A general overview of the system is given, and the results of some evaluations carried out with two corpora of real chat messages are described. These results seem to indicate that this system offers a performance similar to other systems described in the literature, for a more complex task than other systems (identification of emotions and emot...

  11. Automatic Prediction of Protein 3D Structures by Probabilistic Multi-template Homology Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Armin; Söding, Johannes

    2015-10-01

    Homology modeling predicts the 3D structure of a query protein based on the sequence alignment with one or more template proteins of known structure. Its great importance for biological research is owed to its speed, simplicity, reliability and wide applicability, covering more than half of the residues in protein sequence space. Although multiple templates have been shown to generally increase model quality over single templates, the information from multiple templates has so far been combined using empirically motivated, heuristic approaches. We present here a rigorous statistical framework for multi-template homology modeling. First, we find that the query proteins' atomic distance restraints can be accurately described by two-component Gaussian mixtures. This insight allowed us to apply the standard laws of probability theory to combine restraints from multiple templates. Second, we derive theoretically optimal weights to correct for the redundancy among related templates. Third, a heuristic template selection strategy is proposed. We improve the average GDT-ha model quality score by 11% over single template modeling and by 6.5% over a conventional multi-template approach on a set of 1000 query proteins. Robustness with respect to wrong constraints is likewise improved. We have integrated our multi-template modeling approach with the popular MODELLER homology modeling software in our free HHpred server http://toolkit.tuebingen.mpg.de/hhpred and also offer open source software for running MODELLER with the new restraints at https://bitbucket.org/soedinglab/hh-suite.

  12. Transportation Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    This section provides information on: current laws, regulations and guidance, policy and technical guidance, project-level conformity, general information, contacts and training, adequacy review of SIP submissions

  13. Delineating the conformal window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Pickup, Thomas; Teper, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We identify and characterise the conformal window in gauge theories relevant for beyond the standard model building, e.g. Technicolour, using the criteria of metric confinement and causal analytic couplings, which are known to be consistent with the phase diagram of supersymmetric QCD from Seiberg...... duality. Using these criteria we find perturbation theory to be consistent throughout the predicted conformal window for several of these gauge theories and we discuss recent lattice results in the light of our findings....

  14. Template-based modeling of a psychrophilic lipase: conformational changes, novel structural features and its application in predicting the enantioselectivity of lipase catalyzed transesterification of secondary alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Gao, Bei; Zhang, Lujia; Lin, Jingpin; Wang, Xuedong; Wei, Dongzhi

    2010-12-01

    In order to fully explore the structure-function relationship of a Proteus lipase (LipK107) that was screened from the soil in our previous study, we have modeled the three-dimensional (3-D) structures of the enzyme in its active and inactive conformations on the basis of crystal structures of Burkholderia glumae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipases in the present study. Both homology models suggested that LipK107 possessed a catalytic triad (Ser79-Asp232-H254), an oxyanion hole (Leu13 and Gln80) which was used to stabilize the reaction tetrahedral intermediates, and a lid substructure that controlled the access of the substrate to the active site. The existence of the lid was further verified by carrying out the interfacial activation experiment. The conformational change of LipK107 which was caused by lid opening action was predicted by superimposing the two theoretical models for the first time. Finally, both 3-D structures were used to predict the enantioselectivity of LipK107 when the enzyme was used to catalyze the resolution of racemic 1-phenylethanol. Lid-open model of LipK107 identified the R-enantiomer as the preferred enantiomer, while lid-closed mode showed that the S-enantiomer was more favored. However, only the lid-open conformational model could led to predictions that agreed with the following the experimental result of real biocatalysis reaction of 1-phenylethanol. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative Human and Automatic Evaluation of Glass-Box and Black-Box Approaches to Interactive Translation Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torregrosa Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Interactive translation prediction (ITP is a modality of computer-aided translation that assists professional translators by offering context-based computer-generated continuation suggestions as they type. While most state-of-the-art ITP systems follow a glass-box approach, meaning that they are tightly coupled to an adapted machine translation system, a black-box approach which does not need access to the inner workings of the bilingual resources used to generate the suggestions has been recently proposed in the literature: this new approach allows new sources of bilingual information to be included almost seamlessly. In this paper, we compare for the first time the glass-box and the black-box approaches by means of an automatic evaluation of translation tasks between related languages such as English–Spanish and unrelated ones such as Arabic–English and English–Chinese, showing that, with our setup, 20%–50% of keystrokes could be saved using either method and that the black-box approach outperformed the glass-box one in five out of six scenarios operating under similar conditions. We also performed a preliminary human evaluation of English to Spanish translation for both approaches. On average, the evaluators saved 10% keystrokes and were 4% faster with the black-box approach, and saved 15% keystrokes and were 12% slower with the glass-box one; but they could have saved 51% and 69% keystrokes respectively if they had used all the compatible suggestions. Users felt the suggestions helped them to translate faster and easier. All the tools used to perform the evaluation are available as free/open–source software.

  16. Workers’ Conformism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Ivantchev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Conformism was studied among 46 workers with different kinds of occupations by means of two modified scales measuring conformity by Santor, Messervey, and Kusumakar (2000 – scale for perceived peer pressure and scale for conformism in antisocial situations. The hypothesis of the study that workers’ conformism is expressed in a medium degree was confirmed partly. More than a half of the workers conform in a medium degree for taking risk, and for the use of alcohol and drugs, and for sexual relationships. More than a half of the respondents conform in a small degree for anti-social activities (like a theft. The workers were more inclined to conform for risk taking (10.9%, then – for the use of alcohol, drugs and for sexual relationships (8.7%, and in the lowest degree – for anti-social activities (6.5%. The workers who were inclined for the use of alcohol and drugs tended also to conform for anti-social activities.

  17. Applications of neural network prediction of conformational states for small peptides from spectra and of fold classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Røgen, Peter; Jalkanen, Karl J.

    2001-01-01

    . The calculations were done both with solvent atoms (up to ten water molecules) and without, and hence the neural networks could be used to monitor the influence of the solvent on hydrogen bond formation. The calculations at this stage only involved very short peptide fragments of a few alanine amino acids...... to construct vibrational spectra for each of the conformational states with low energy. From the spectra, neural networks could be trained to distinguish between the various states and thus be able to generate a larger set of relevant structures and their relation to secondary structures of the peptides...

  18. Benford's law predicted digit distribution of aggregated income taxes: the surprising conformity of Italian cities and regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Tariq Ahmad; Ausloos, Marcel; Cerqueti, Roy

    2014-11-01

    The yearly aggregated tax income data of all, more than 8000, Italian municipalities are analyzed for a period of five years, from 2007 to 2011, to search for conformity or not with Benford's law, a counter-intuitive phenomenon observed in large tabulated data where the occurrence of numbers having smaller initial digits is more favored than those with larger digits. This is done in anticipation that large deviations from Benford's law will be found in view of tax evasion supposedly being widespread across Italy. Contrary to expectations, we show that the overall tax income data for all these years is in excellent agreement with Benford's law. Furthermore, we also analyze the data of Calabria, Campania and Sicily, the three Italian regions known for strong presence of mafia, to see if there are any marked deviations from Benford's law. Again, we find that all yearly data sets for Calabria and Sicily agree with Benford's law whereas only the 2007 and 2008 yearly data show departures from the law for Campania. These results are again surprising in view of underground and illegal nature of economic activities of mafia which significantly contribute to tax evasion. Some hypothesis for the found conformity is presented.

  19. Conformal Infinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauendiener Jörg

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of conformal infinity has a long history within the research in Einstein's theory of gravity. Today, 'conformal infinity' is related to almost all other branches of research in general relativity, from quantisation procedures to abstract mathematical issues to numerical applications. This review article attempts to show how this concept gradually and inevitably evolved from physical issues, namely the need to understand gravitational radiation and isolated systems within the theory of gravitation, and how it lends itself very naturally to the solution of radiation problems in numerical relativity. The fundamental concept of null-infinity is introduced. Friedrich's regular conformal field equations are presented and various initial value problems for them are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the conformal field equations provide a very powerful method within numerical relativity to study global problems such as gravitational wave propagation and detection.

  20. Conformal Infinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauendiener Jörg

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The notion of conformal infinity has a long history within the research in Einstein's theory of gravity. Today, ``conformal infinity'' is related with almost all other branches of research in general relativity, from quantisation procedures to abstract mathematical issues to numerical applications. This review article attempts to show how this concept gradually and inevitably evolved out of physical issues, namely the need to understand gravitational radiation and isolated systems within the theory of gravitation and how it lends itself very naturally to solve radiation problems in numerical relativity. The fundamental concept of null-infinity is introduced. Friedrich's regular conformal field equations are presented and various initial value problems for them are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the conformal field equations provide a very powerful method within numerical relativity to study global problems such as gravitational wave propagation and detection.

  1. General Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The General Conformity requirements ensure that the actions taken by federal agencies in nonattainment and maintenance areas do not interfere with a state’s plans to meet national standards for air quality.

  2. Conformity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The conformity assessment activities involve the IRD's actions related to the CNEN regulatory processing for licensing and control of nuclear and radioactive facilities in the country. They include regulatory inspections of radiation protection

  3. Automatic Speech Recognition Predicts Speech Intelligibility and Comprehension for Listeners with Simulated Age-Related Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontan, Lionel; Ferrané, Isabelle; Farinas, Jérôme; Pinquier, Julien; Tardieu, Julien; Magnen, Cynthia; Gaillard, Pascal; Aumont, Xavier; Füllgrabe, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to assess speech processing for listeners with simulated age-related hearing loss (ARHL) and to investigate whether the observed performance can be replicated using an automatic speech recognition (ASR) system. The long-term goal of this research is to develop a system that will assist…

  4. BepiPred-2.0: improving sequence-based B-cell epitope prediction using conformational epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Martin Closter; Peters, Bjoern; Nielsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    for predicting B-cell epitopes from antigen sequences. BepiPred-2.0 is based on a random forest algorithm trained on epitopes annotated from antibody-antigen protein structures. This new method was found to outperform other available tools for sequence-based epitope prediction both on epitope data derived from......Antibodies have become an indispensable tool for many biotechnological and clinical applications. They bind their molecular target (antigen) by recognizing a portion of its structure (epitope) in a highly specific manner. The ability to predict epitopes from antigen sequences alone is a complex...... and immunology community....

  5. Automatic sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Haeseler, Friedrich

    2003-01-01

    Automatic sequences are sequences which are produced by a finite automaton. Although they are not random they may look as being random. They are complicated, in the sense of not being not ultimately periodic, they may look rather complicated, in the sense that it may not be easy to name the rule by which the sequence is generated, however there exists a rule which generates the sequence. The concept automatic sequences has special applications in algebra, number theory, finite automata and formal languages, combinatorics on words. The text deals with different aspects of automatic sequences, in particular:· a general introduction to automatic sequences· the basic (combinatorial) properties of automatic sequences· the algebraic approach to automatic sequences· geometric objects related to automatic sequences.

  6. Prediction of radiation-induced liver disease by Lyman normal-tissue complication probability model in three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for primary liver carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu ZhiYong; Liang Shixiong; Zhu Ji; Zhu Xiaodong; Zhao Jiandong; Lu Haijie; Yang Yunli; Chen Long; Wang Anyu; Fu Xiaolong; Jiang Guoliang

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the probability of RILD by application of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman normal-tissue complication (NTCP) model for primary liver carcinoma (PLC) treated with hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 109 PLC patients treated by 3D-CRT were followed for RILD. Of these patients, 93 were in liver cirrhosis of Child-Pugh Grade A, and 16 were in Child-Pugh Grade B. The Michigan NTCP model was used to predict the probability of RILD, and then the modified Lyman NTCP model was generated for Child-Pugh A and Child-Pugh B patients by maximum-likelihood analysis. Results: Of all patients, 17 developed RILD in which 8 were of Child-Pugh Grade A, and 9 were of Child-Pugh Grade B. The prediction of RILD by the Michigan model was underestimated for PLC patients. The modified n, m, TD 5 (1) were 1.1, 0.28, and 40.5 Gy and 0.7, 0.43, and 23 Gy for patients with Child-Pugh A and B, respectively, which yielded better estimations of RILD probability. The hepatic tolerable doses (TD 5 ) would be MDTNL of 21 Gy and 6 Gy, respectively, for Child-Pugh A and B patients. Conclusions: The Michigan model was probably not fit to predict RILD in PLC patients. A modified Lyman NTCP model for RILD was recommended

  7. H/L transition time estimation in JET using conformal predictors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, S., E-mail: sergio.gonzalez@ciemat.es [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Vega, J. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Murari, A. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM/ENEA per la Fusione, Padova 4-25127 (Italy); Pereira, A. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Dormido-Canto, S.; Ramirez, J.M. [Departamento de Informatica y Automatica, UNED, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H/L transitions have been predicted using H/L and L/H models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Models have been built using conformal predictors to hedge the prediction with confidence and credibility measures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Models have been trained using linear and radial basis function kernels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conformal measures have proven their usefulness to validate data-driven models. - Abstract: Recent advances in data mining allow the automatic recognition of physical phenomena in the databases of fusion devices without human intervention. This is important to create large databases of physical events (thereby increasing the statistical relevance) in an unattended manner. Important examples are the L/H and H/L transitions. In this contribution, a novel technique is introduced to automatically locate H/L transitions in JET by using conformal predictors. The focus is on H/L transitions because typically there is not a clear signature in the time series of the most widely available signals to recognize the change of confinement. Conformal predictors hedge their prediction by means of two parameters: confidence and credibility. The technique has been based on binary supervised classifiers to separate the samples of the respective confinement modes. Results with several underlying classifiers are presented.

  8. Conformality lost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, David B.; Lee, Jong-Wan; Son, Dam T.; Stephanov, Mikhail A.

    2009-01-01

    We consider zero-temperature transitions from conformal to nonconformal phases in quantum theories. We argue that there are three generic mechanisms for the loss of conformality in any number of dimensions: (i) fixed point goes to zero coupling, (ii) fixed point runs off to infinite coupling, or (iii) an IR fixed point annihilates with a UV fixed point and they both disappear into the complex plane. We give both relativistic and nonrelativistic examples of the last case in various dimensions and show that the critical behavior of the mass gap behaves similarly to the correlation length in the finite temperature Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) phase transition in two dimensions, ξ∼exp(c/|T-T c | 1/2 ). We speculate that the chiral phase transition in QCD at large number of fermion flavors belongs to this universality class, and attempt to identify the UV fixed point that annihilates with the Banks-Zaks fixed point at the lower end of the conformal window.

  9. Improving binding mode and binding affinity predictions of docking by ligand-based search of protein conformations: evaluation in D3R grand challenge 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianjin; Yan, Chengfei; Zou, Xiaoqin

    2017-08-01

    The growing number of protein-ligand complex structures, particularly the structures of proteins co-bound with different ligands, in the Protein Data Bank helps us tackle two major challenges in molecular docking studies: the protein flexibility and the scoring function. Here, we introduced a systematic strategy by using the information embedded in the known protein-ligand complex structures to improve both binding mode and binding affinity predictions. Specifically, a ligand similarity calculation method was employed to search a receptor structure with a bound ligand sharing high similarity with the query ligand for the docking use. The strategy was applied to the two datasets (HSP90 and MAP4K4) in recent D3R Grand Challenge 2015. In addition, for the HSP90 dataset, a system-specific scoring function (ITScore2_hsp90) was generated by recalibrating our statistical potential-based scoring function (ITScore2) using the known protein-ligand complex structures and the statistical mechanics-based iterative method. For the HSP90 dataset, better performances were achieved for both binding mode and binding affinity predictions comparing with the original ITScore2 and with ensemble docking. For the MAP4K4 dataset, although there were only eight known protein-ligand complex structures, our docking strategy achieved a comparable performance with ensemble docking. Our method for receptor conformational selection and iterative method for the development of system-specific statistical potential-based scoring functions can be easily applied to other protein targets that have a number of protein-ligand complex structures available to improve predictions on binding.

  10. Long-Term Results and Predictive Factors of Three-Dimensional Conformal Salvage Radiotherapy for Biochemical Relapse After Prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhof, Dirk; Hentschel, Tina; Bischof, Marc; Sroka-Perez, Gabriele; Hohenfellner, Markus; Debus, Juergen

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Salvage radiotherapy (RT) is used to treat patients with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy (RP). Although retrospective series have demonstrated that salvage RT will result in biochemical response in approximately 75% of patients, long-term response is much lower (20-40%). The purpose of this study was to determine prognostic factors related to the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) outcome after salvage RT. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2004, 171 patients received salvage RT at University of Heidelberg. Patient age, margin status, Gleason score, tumor grading, pathologic tumor stage, pre-RP and pre-RT PSA levels, and time from RP to rise of PSA were analyzed. Results: Median follow-up time was 39 months. The 5-year overall and clinical relapse-free survival were 93.8% and 80.8%, respectively. After RT serum PSA decreased in 141 patients (82.5%). The 5-year biochemical relapse-free survival was 35.1%. Univariate analysis showed following statistically significant predictors of PSA recurrence after RT: preoperative PSA level (p = 0.035), pathologic tumor classification (p 0.001), Gleason score (p < 0.001), tumor grading (p = 0.004), and pre-RT PSA level (p = 0.031). On multivariate analysis, only Gleason score (p = 0.047) and pre-RT PSA level (p = 0.049) were found to be independently predictive of PSA recurrence. Conclusions: This study represents one of the largest retrospective studies analyzing the outcome of patients treated with salvage RT at a single institution. Our findings suggest that patients with Gleason score <7 and low pre-RT PSA levels are the best candidates for salvage RT, whereas patients with high-grade lesions should be considered for additional treatment (e.g., hormonal therapy)

  11. Analysis of dose-volume parameters predicting radiation pneumonitis in patients with esophageal cancer treated with 3D-conformal radiation therapy or IMRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gaurav; Rawat, Sheh; Puri, Abhishek; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Chadha, Pranav; Babu, Anand Giri; Yadav, Girigesh

    2012-01-01

    Multimodality therapy for esophageal cancer can cause various kinds of treatment-related sequelae, especially pulmonary toxicities. This prospective study aims to investigate the clinical and dosimetric parameters predicting lung injury in patients undergoing radiation therapy for esophageal cancer. Forty-five esophageal cancer patients were prospectively analyzed. The pulmonary toxicities (or sequelae) were evaluated by comparing chest X-ray films, pulmonary function tests and symptoms caused by pulmonary damage before and after treatment. All patients were treated with either three-dimensional radiotherapy (3DCRT) or with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The planning dose volume histogram was used to compute the lung volumes receiving more than 5, 10, 20 and 30 Gy (V5, V10, V20, V30) and mean lung dose. V20 was larger in the IMRT group than in the 3DCRT group (p = 0.002). V20 (>15%) and V30 (>20%) resulted in a statistically significant increase in the occurrence of chronic pneumonitis (p = 0.03) and acute pneumonitis (p = 0.007), respectively. The study signifies that a larger volume of lung receives lower doses because of multiple beam arrangement and a smaller volume of lung receives higher doses because of better dose conformity in IMRT plans. Acute pneumonitis correlates more with V30 values, whereas chronic pneumonitis was predominantly seen in patients with higher V20 values.

  12. Hot Conformal Gauge Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We compute the nonzero temperature free energy up to the order g^6 \\ln(1/g) in the coupling constant for vector like SU(N) gauge theories featuring matter transforming according to different representations of the underlying gauge group. The number of matter fields, i.e. flavors, is arranged...... of flavors. Surprisingly this number, if computed to the order g^2, agrees with previous predictions for the lower boundary of the conformal window for nonsupersymmetric gauge theories. The higher order results tend to predict a higher number of critical flavors. These are universal properties, i...

  13. Conformal polishing approach: Tool footprint analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Dieste

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Polishing process is one of the most critical manufacturing processes during a metal part production because it determines the final quality of the product. Free-form surface polishing is a handmade process with lots of rejected parts, scrap generation and time and energy consumption. Two different research lines are being developed: prediction models of the final surface quality parameters and an analysis of the amount of material removed depending on the polishing parameters to predict the tool footprint during the polishing task. This research lays the foundations for a future automatic conformal polishing system. It is based on rotational and translational tool with dry abrasive in the front mounted at the end of a robot. A tool to part concept is used, useful for large or heavy workpieces. Results are applied on different curved parts typically used in tooling industry, aeronautics or automotive. A mathematical model has been developed to predict the amount of material removed in function of polishing parameters. Model has been fitted for different abrasives and raw materials. Results have shown deviations under 20% that implies a reliable and controllable process. Smaller amount of material can be removed in controlled areas of a three-dimensional workpiece.

  14. [Low dose volume histogram analysis of the lungs in prediction of acute radiation pneumonitis in patients with esophageal cancer treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen-bin; Zhu, Shu-chai; Gao, Hong-mei; Li, You-mei; Liu, Zhi-kun; Li, Juan; Su, Jing-wei; Wan, Jun

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the predictive value of low dose volume of the lung on acute radiation pneumonitis (RP) in patients with esophageal cancer treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) only, and to analyze the relation of comprehensive parameters of the dose-volume V5, V20 and mean lung dose (MLD) with acute RP. Two hundred and twenty-two patients with esophageal cancer treated by 3D-CRT have been followed up. The V5-V30 and MLD were calculated from the dose-volume histogram system. The clinical factors and treatment parameters were collected and analyzed. The acute RP was evaluated according to the RTOG toxicity criteria. The acute RP of grade 1, 2, 3 and 4 were observed in 68 (30.6%), 40 (18.0%), 8 (3.6%) and 1 (0.5%) cases, respectively. The univariate analysis of measurement data:The primary tumor length, radiation fields, MLD and lung V5-V30 had a significant relationship with the acute RP. The magnitude of the number of radiation fields, the volume of GTV, MLD and Lung V5-V30 had a significant difference in whether the ≥ grade 1 and ≥ grade 2 acute RP developed or not. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that MLD, Lung V5, V20 and V25 were independent risk factors of ≥ grade 1 acute RP, and the radiation fields, MLD and Lung V5 were independent risk factors of ≥ grade 2 acute RP. The ≥ grade 1 and ≥ grade 2 acute RP were significantly decreased when MLD less than 14 Gy, V5 and V20 were less than 60% and 28%,respectively. When the V20 ≤ 28%, the acute RP was significantly decreased in V5 ≤ 60% group. When the MLD was ≤ 14 Gy, the ≥ 1 grade acute RP was significantly decreased in the V5 ≤ 60% group. When the MLD was >14 Gy, the ≥ grade 2 acute RP was significantly decreased in the V5 ≤ 60% group. The low dose volume of the lung is effective in predicting radiation pneumonitis in patients with esophageal cancer treated with 3D-CRT only. The comprehensive parameters combined with V5, V20 and MLD may increase the

  15. Non-conformable, partial and conformable transposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Thomas; Mäder, Lars Kai

    2013-01-01

    Although member states are obliged to transpose directives into domestic law in a conformable manner and receive considerable time for their transposition activities, we identify three levels of transposition outcomes for EU directives: conformable, partially conformable and non-conformable...... and the Commission regarding a directive’s outcome, play a much more strategic role than has to date acknowledged in the transposition literature. Whereas disagreement of a member state delays conformable transposition, it speeds up non-conformable transposition. Disagreement of the Commission only prolongs...

  16. SU-F-R-05: Multidimensional Imaging Radiomics-Geodesics: A Novel Manifold Learning Based Automatic Feature Extraction Method for Diagnostic Prediction in Multiparametric Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parekh, V; Jacobs, MA

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Multiparametric radiological imaging is used for diagnosis in patients. Potentially extracting useful features specific to a patient’s pathology would be crucial step towards personalized medicine and assessing treatment options. In order to automatically extract features directly from multiparametric radiological imaging datasets, we developed an advanced unsupervised machine learning algorithm called the multidimensional imaging radiomics-geodesics(MIRaGe). Methods: Seventy-six breast tumor patients underwent 3T MRI breast imaging were used for this study. We tested the MIRaGe algorithm to extract features for classification of breast tumors into benign or malignant. The MRI parameters used were T1-weighted, T2-weighted, dynamic contrast enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion weighted imaging(DWI). The MIRaGe algorithm extracted the radiomics-geodesics features (RGFs) from multiparametric MRI datasets. This enable our method to learn the intrinsic manifold representations corresponding to the patients. To determine the informative RGF, a modified Isomap algorithm(t-Isomap) was created for a radiomics-geodesics feature space(tRGFS) to avoid overfitting. Final classification was performed using SVM. The predictive power of the RGFs was tested and validated using k-fold cross validation. Results: The RGFs extracted by the MIRaGe algorithm successfully classified malignant lesions from benign lesions with a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 91%. The top 50 RGFs identified as the most predictive by the t-Isomap procedure were consistent with the radiological parameters known to be associated with breast cancer diagnosis and were categorized as kinetic curve characterizing RGFs, wash-in rate characterizing RGFs, wash-out rate characterizing RGFs and morphology characterizing RGFs. Conclusion: In this paper, we developed a novel feature extraction algorithm for multiparametric radiological imaging. The results demonstrated the power of the MIRa

  17. SU-F-R-05: Multidimensional Imaging Radiomics-Geodesics: A Novel Manifold Learning Based Automatic Feature Extraction Method for Diagnostic Prediction in Multiparametric Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parekh, V [The Johns Hopkins University, Computer Science. Baltimore, MD (United States); Jacobs, MA [The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Dept of Radiology and Oncology. Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Multiparametric radiological imaging is used for diagnosis in patients. Potentially extracting useful features specific to a patient’s pathology would be crucial step towards personalized medicine and assessing treatment options. In order to automatically extract features directly from multiparametric radiological imaging datasets, we developed an advanced unsupervised machine learning algorithm called the multidimensional imaging radiomics-geodesics(MIRaGe). Methods: Seventy-six breast tumor patients underwent 3T MRI breast imaging were used for this study. We tested the MIRaGe algorithm to extract features for classification of breast tumors into benign or malignant. The MRI parameters used were T1-weighted, T2-weighted, dynamic contrast enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion weighted imaging(DWI). The MIRaGe algorithm extracted the radiomics-geodesics features (RGFs) from multiparametric MRI datasets. This enable our method to learn the intrinsic manifold representations corresponding to the patients. To determine the informative RGF, a modified Isomap algorithm(t-Isomap) was created for a radiomics-geodesics feature space(tRGFS) to avoid overfitting. Final classification was performed using SVM. The predictive power of the RGFs was tested and validated using k-fold cross validation. Results: The RGFs extracted by the MIRaGe algorithm successfully classified malignant lesions from benign lesions with a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 91%. The top 50 RGFs identified as the most predictive by the t-Isomap procedure were consistent with the radiological parameters known to be associated with breast cancer diagnosis and were categorized as kinetic curve characterizing RGFs, wash-in rate characterizing RGFs, wash-out rate characterizing RGFs and morphology characterizing RGFs. Conclusion: In this paper, we developed a novel feature extraction algorithm for multiparametric radiological imaging. The results demonstrated the power of the MIRa

  18. Prediction of PET/CT to alleviate radiation pneumonitis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer for 3-dimentional conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Heyi; Yu Jinming; Li Jianbin; Li Baosheng; Fu Zheng; Liu Tonghai

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the impact of PET/CT on clinical staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), delineation of target volume, and prediction to alleviate radiation pneumonitis (RP) from 3-dimentional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) planning. Methods: From October 2002 to June 2004, 34 patients diagnosed cytologically or pathologically with NSCLC, who were candidates for radical radiotherapy or surgery, received PET/CT scanning. Both images were transmitted into treatment planning system (TPS) workstations respectively and were fused and reconstructed. All patients were staged according to the 1997 World Health Organization (WHO) staging system. The impact of PET/CT on the clinical staging of all the patients was determined. The gross tumor volume (GTV) was delineated on the CT imaging and PET/CTfused imaging respectively. Based on the two images, 3D- CRT planning was made respectively at the TPS workstation with Topslane software, the planning target volumes (PTV) being defined with a 15 mm margin around GTV of primary lumps (PTV 1 ) and 7 mm for involved lymph nodes (PTV 2 ). Evaluating indexes including V PTV (volume of PTV, V PTV = V PTV1 + V PTV2 ), V 20 (percentage of the total lung volume receiving more than 20 Gy), MLD (mean lung dose) , TCP (tumor control probability) , NTCP (normal tissue complication probability) , and Ds (dose to spinal cord) were selected to be paralleled to compare the quality of the two plans and the impact of PET/CT on RP was further analyzed. Results: In 13 of 34 (38.2%) cases, PET/CT information changed the clinical staging, 8 of which were upstaged and 5 downstaged. For 10 of 34 (29.4%) cases, PET/CT results modified their management decisions. Among 16 patients performed by surgery, 14 had consistent PET/CT staging with pathologic staging. The sensitivity of PET/CT was 93.3% and accuracy 87.5%. Difference of indexes including V PTV , V 20 and MLD between the two radiation planning was statistically significant, but Ds

  19. Molecular dynamics of 18-crown-6 complexes with alkali metal cations and urea-prediction of their conformations and comparison with data from the Cambridge Structural Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuwerink, F.T.H.; Harkema, Sybolt; Briels, Willem J.; Feil, D.; Feil, D.

    1993-01-01

    Complexes of 18-crown-6 with alkali-metal cations (Na+, K+, and Rb+), urea, and the uncomplexed crown ether were studied in vacuo with the molecular dynamics method. Conformational data from these calculations (simulation times in the range from 6-15 ns) was compared with information from the

  20. Conformal symmetry and holographic cosmology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bzowski, A.W.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents a novel approach to cosmology using gauge/gravity duality. Analysis of the implications of conformal invariance in field theories leads to quantitative cosmological predictions which are in agreement with current data. Furthermore, holographic cosmology extends the theory of

  1. 40 CFR 1033.340 - Suspension and revocation of certificates of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... certificates of conformity. 1033.340 Section 1033.340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Production Line Testing and Audit Programs § 1033.340 Suspension and revocation of certificates of conformity... conformity is automatically suspended for any locomotive that fails a production line test pursuant to § 1033...

  2. 40 CFR 91.511 - Suspension and revocation of certificates of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... certificates of conformity. 91.511 Section 91.511 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Production Line Testing Program § 91.511 Suspension and revocation of certificates of conformity. (a) The certificate of conformity is automatically suspended with respect to any engine failing pursuant to paragraph...

  3. Novel conformation of an RNA structural switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Scott D; Kierzek, Ryszard; Turner, Douglas H

    2012-11-20

    The RNA duplex, (5'GACGAGUGUCA)(2), has two conformations in equilibrium. The nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure reveals that the major conformation of the loop, 5'GAGU/3'UGAG, is novel and contains two unusual Watson-Crick/Hoogsteen GG pairs with G residues in the syn conformation, two A residues stacked on each other in the center of the helix with inverted sugars, and two bulged-out U residues. The structure provides a benchmark for testing approaches for predicting local RNA structure and a sequence that allows the design of a unique arrangement of functional groups and/or a conformational switch into nucleic acids.

  4. Rational automatic search method for stable docking models of protein and ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, M Y; Tomioka, N; Itai, A

    1994-10-21

    An efficient automatic method has been developed for docking a ligand molecule to a protein molecule. The method can construct energetically favorable docking models, considering specific interactions between the two molecules and conformational flexibility in the ligand. In the first stage of docking, likely binding modes are searched and estimated effectively in terms of hydrogen bonds, together with conformations in part of the ligand structure that includes hydrogen bonding groups. After that part is placed in the protein cavity and is optimized, conformations in the remaining part are also examined systematically. Finally, several stable docking models are obtained after optimization of the position, orientation and conformation of the whole ligand molecule. In all the screening processes, the total potential energy including intra- and intermolecular interaction energy, consisting of van der Waals, electrostatic and hydrogen bonding energies, is used as the index. The characteristics of our docking method are high accuracy of the results, fully automatic generation of models and short computational time. The efficiency of the method was confirmed by four docking trials using two enzyme systems. In two attempts to dock methotrexate to dihydrofolate reductase and 2'-GMP to ribonuclease T1, the exact structures of complexes in crystals were reproduced as the most stable docking models, without any assumptions concerning the binding modes and ligand conformations. The most stable docking models of dihydrofolate and trimethoprim, respectively, to dihydrofolate reductase were also in good agreement with those suggested by experiment. In all test cases, it was shown that our method can accurately predict the correct docking structures, discriminating the correct model from incorrect ones. The efficiency of our method was further tested from the viewpoint of ability to predict the relative stability of the docking structures of two triazine derivatives to

  5. Conformal Einstein spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozameh, C.N.; Newman, E.T.; Tod, K.P.

    1985-01-01

    Conformal transformations in four-dimensional. In particular, a new set of two necessary and sufficient conditions for a space to be conformal to an Einstein space is presented. The first condition defines the class of spaces conformal to C spaces, whereas the last one (the vanishing of the Bach tensor) gives the particular subclass of C spaces which are conformally related to Einstein spaces. (author)

  6. Viscous conformal gauge theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toniato, Arianna; Sannino, Francesco; Rischke, Dirk H.

    2017-01-01

    We present the conformal behavior of the shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratio and the fermion-number diffusion coefficient within the perturbative regime of the conformal window for gauge-fermion theories.......We present the conformal behavior of the shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratio and the fermion-number diffusion coefficient within the perturbative regime of the conformal window for gauge-fermion theories....

  7. Superspace conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quella, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Conformal sigma models and WZW models on coset superspaces provide important examples of logarithmic conformal field theories. They possess many applications to problems in string and condensed matter theory. We review recent results and developments, including the general construction of WZW models on type I supergroups, the classification of conformal sigma models and their embedding into string theory.

  8. Superspace conformal field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quella, Thomas [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Conformal sigma models and WZW models on coset superspaces provide important examples of logarithmic conformal field theories. They possess many applications to problems in string and condensed matter theory. We review recent results and developments, including the general construction of WZW models on type I supergroups, the classification of conformal sigma models and their embedding into string theory.

  9. Predictive factors for Child-Pugh score elevation in hepatocellular carcinoma patients treated with conformal radiation therapy: dose-volume histogram analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jeong Il; Park, Hee Chul; Lim, Do Hoon; Park, Woo Yoon

    2013-01-01

    We designed the study to identify the clinical and dose-volumetric parameters associated with the risk of Child-Pugh score elevation in hepatocellular carcinoma patients treated with conformal radiation therapy. All 161 hepatocellular carcinoma patients in the study underwent 4D-computed tomography simulation, and a dose-volume histogram was generated after radiotherapy planning. Patients who had an elevated Child-Pugh (e-CP) score of 2 or more without progressive disease within 3 months were defined as e-CP positive. Twenty-six of 142 patients without progressive disease were e-CP positive. Pretreatment Child-Pugh class, further treatment within 30 days of radiotherapy, lymph node metastasis, mean liver dose, V(20 Gy), V(25 Gy), and V(30 Gy) were significantly correlated with e-CP positivity. The e-CP developed in 13 of 106 patients (12.3%) with V(30 Gy) of ≤28.1% and in 13 of 36 patients (36.1%) with V(30 Gy) >28.1% (P = 0.001). Our data demonstrate that mean liver dose, V(10 Gy), V(20 Gy), V(25 Gy), and V(30 Gy) are independent dose-volumetric predictors for e-CP positivity in hepatocellular carcinoma patients treated with conformal radiation therapy. V(30 Gy) should be limited to less than 28.1% to minimize the risk of e-CP.

  10. A probabilistic model of RNA conformational space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frellsen, Jes; Moltke, Ida; Thiim, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The increasing importance of non-coding RNA in biology and medicine has led to a growing interest in the problem of RNA 3-D structure prediction. As is the case for proteins, RNA 3-D structure prediction methods require two key ingredients: an accurate energy function and a conformational sampling...... procedure. Both are only partly solved problems. Here, we focus on the problem of conformational sampling. The current state of the art solution is based on fragment assembly methods, which construct plausible conformations by stringing together short fragments obtained from experimental structures. However...... efficient sampling of RNA conformations in continuous space, and with associated probabilities. We show that the model captures several key features of RNA structure, such as its rotameric nature and the distribution of the helix lengths. Furthermore, the model readily generates native-like 3-D...

  11. Conformational sampling of peptides in cellular environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizaki, Seiichiro; Clifford, Jacob; Connelly, Brian D; Feig, Michael

    2008-02-01

    Biological systems provide a complex environment that can be understood in terms of its dielectric properties. High concentrations of macromolecules and cosolvents effectively reduce the dielectric constant of cellular environments, thereby affecting the conformational sampling of biomolecules. To examine this effect in more detail, the conformational preference of alanine dipeptide, poly-alanine, and melittin in different dielectric environments is studied with computer simulations based on recently developed generalized Born methodology. Results from these simulations suggest that extended conformations are favored over alpha-helical conformations at the dipeptide level at and below dielectric constants of 5-10. Furthermore, lower-dielectric environments begin to significantly stabilize helical structures in poly-alanine at epsilon = 20. In the more complex peptide melittin, different dielectric environments shift the equilibrium between two main conformations: a nearly fully extended helix that is most stable in low dielectrics and a compact, V-shaped conformation consisting of two helices that is preferred in higher dielectric environments. An additional conformation is only found to be significantly populated at intermediate dielectric constants. Good agreement with previous studies of different peptides in specific, less-polar solvent environments, suggest that helix stabilization and shifts in conformational preferences in such environments are primarily due to a reduced dielectric environment rather than specific molecular details. The findings presented here make predictions of how peptide sampling may be altered in dense cellular environments with reduced dielectric response.

  12. Conformational Sampling of Peptides in Cellular Environments☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizaki, Seiichiro; Clifford, Jacob; Connelly, Brian D.; Feig, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Biological systems provide a complex environment that can be understood in terms of its dielectric properties. High concentrations of macromolecules and cosolvents effectively reduce the dielectric constant of cellular environments, thereby affecting the conformational sampling of biomolecules. To examine this effect in more detail, the conformational preference of alanine dipeptide, poly-alanine, and melittin in different dielectric environments is studied with computer simulations based on recently developed generalized Born methodology. Results from these simulations suggest that extended conformations are favored over α-helical conformations at the dipeptide level at and below dielectric constants of 5–10. Furthermore, lower-dielectric environments begin to significantly stabilize helical structures in poly-alanine at ɛ = 20. In the more complex peptide melittin, different dielectric environments shift the equilibrium between two main conformations: a nearly fully extended helix that is most stable in low dielectrics and a compact, V-shaped conformation consisting of two helices that is preferred in higher dielectric environments. An additional conformation is only found to be significantly populated at intermediate dielectric constants. Good agreement with previous studies of different peptides in specific, less-polar solvent environments, suggest that helix stabilization and shifts in conformational preferences in such environments are primarily due to a reduced dielectric environment rather than specific molecular details. The findings presented here make predictions of how peptide sampling may be altered in dense cellular environments with reduced dielectric response. PMID:17905846

  13. Conformation of hindered piperidines: Spectroscopic evidence for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of substituent parameters. The results indicate the presence of an equilibrium mixture of boat forms B1 and B2 for Z isomers of 5-8. For the E isomers of 5-8, boat form B1 is predicted to be the major conformer. The piperidin-4-ones 1-4 exist in normal chair conformations with equatorial orientations of all the substituents.

  14. How closely does genetic diversity in finite populations conform to predictions of neutral theory? Large deficits in regions of low recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankham, R

    2012-03-01

    Levels of genetic diversity in finite populations are crucial in conservation and evolutionary biology. Genetic diversity is required for populations to evolve and its loss is related to inbreeding in random mating populations, and thus to reduced population fitness and increased extinction risk. Neutral theory is widely used to predict levels of genetic diversity. I review levels of genetic diversity in finite populations in relation to predictions of neutral theory. Positive associations between genetic diversity and population size, as predicted by neutral theory, are observed for microsatellites, allozymes, quantitative genetic variation and usually for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). However, there are frequently significant deviations from neutral theory owing to indirect selection at linked loci caused by balancing selection, selective sweeps and background selection. Substantially lower genetic diversity than predicted under neutrality was found for chromosomes with low recombination rates and high linkage disequilibrium (compared with 'normally' recombining chromosomes within species and adjusted for different copy numbers and mutation rates), including W (median 100% lower) and Y (89% lower) chromosomes, dot fourth chromosomes in Drosophila (94% lower) and mtDNA (67% lower). Further, microsatellite genetic and allelic diversity were lost at 12 and 33% faster rates than expected in populations adapting to captivity, owing to widespread selective sweeps. Overall, neither neutral theory nor most versions of the genetic draft hypothesis are compatible with all empirical results.

  15. Exploring the conformational space of cysteine by matrix isolation spectroscopy combined with near-infrared laser induced conformational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najbauer, Eszter E; Bazsó, Gábor; Góbi, Sándor; Magyarfalvi, Gábor; Tarczay, György

    2014-02-27

    Six conformers of α-cysteine were identified by matrix isolation IR spectroscopy combined with NIR laser irradiation. Five of these conformers are identical with the five out of six conformers that have recently been identified by microwave spectroscopy. The sixth conformer observed in the present study is a short-lived conformer, which decays by H-atom tunneling; its half-life in a 12 K N2 matrix is (1.1 ± 0.5) × 10(3) s. This study proves that matrix isolation IR spectroscopy combined with NIR laser irradiation is a suitable method to identify conformers of a complex system for which computations predict several dozens of conformers, and that the reliability of this method for conformational assignment is comparable to that of microwave spectroscopy.

  16. Conformational stability of calreticulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C.S.; Trandum, C.; Larsen, N.

    2005-01-01

    The conformational stability of calreticulin was investigated. Apparent unfolding temperatures (T-m) increased from 31 degrees C at pH 5 to 51 degrees C at pH 9, but electrophoretic analysis revealed that calreticulin oligomerized instead of unfolding. Structural analyses showed that the single C......-terminal a-helix was of major importance to the conformational stability of calreticulin....

  17. Conformational stability of calreticulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Charlotte S; Trandum, Christa; Larsen, Nanna Brink

    2005-01-01

    The conformational stability of calreticulin was investigated. Apparent unfolding temperatures (Tm) increased from 31 degrees C at pH 5 to 51 degrees C at pH 9, but electrophoretic analysis revealed that calreticulin oligomerized instead of unfolding. Structural analyses showed that the single C......-terminal alpha-helix was of major importance to the conformational stability of calreticulin....

  18. Conformal invariance in supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergshoeff, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis the author explains the role of conformal invariance in supergravity. He presents the complete structure of extended conformal supergravity for N <= 4. The outline of this work is as follows. In chapter 2 he briefly summarizes the essential properties of supersymmetry and supergravity and indicates the use of conformal invariance in supergravity. The idea that the introduction of additional symmetry transformations can make clear the structure of a field theory is not reserved to supergravity only. By means of some simple examples it is shown in chapter 3 how one can always introduce additional gauge transformations in a theory of massive vector fields. Moreover it is shown how the gauge invariant formulation sometimes explains the quantum mechanical properties of the theory. In chapter 4 the author defines the conformal transformations and summarizes their main properties. He explains how these conformal transformations can be used to analyse the structure of gravity. The supersymmetric extension of these results is discussed in chapter 5. Here he describes as an example how N=1 supergravity can be reformulated in a conformally-invariant way. He also shows that beyond N=1 the gauge fields of the superconformal symmetries do not constitute an off-shell field representation of extended conformal supergravity. Therefore, in chapter 6, a systematic method to construct the off-shell formulation of all extended conformal supergravity theories with N <= 4 is developed. As an example he uses this method to construct N=1 conformal supergravity. Finally, in chapter 7 N=4 conformal supergravity is discussed. (Auth.)

  19. The conforming brain and deontological resolve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Melanie; LaViers, Lisa; Prietula, Michael J; Berns, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Our personal values are subject to forces of social influence. Deontological resolve captures how strongly one relies on absolute rules of right and wrong in the representation of one's personal values and may predict willingness to modify one's values in the presence of social influence. Using fMRI, we found that a neurobiological metric for deontological resolve based on relative activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) during the passive processing of sacred values predicted individual differences in conformity. Individuals with stronger deontological resolve, as measured by greater VLPFC activity, displayed lower levels of conformity. We also tested whether responsiveness to social reward, as measured by ventral striatal activity during social feedback, predicted variability in conformist behavior across individuals but found no significant relationship. From these results we conclude that unwillingness to conform to others' values is associated with a strong neurobiological representation of social rules.

  20. The conforming brain and deontological resolve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Pincus

    Full Text Available Our personal values are subject to forces of social influence. Deontological resolve captures how strongly one relies on absolute rules of right and wrong in the representation of one's personal values and may predict willingness to modify one's values in the presence of social influence. Using fMRI, we found that a neurobiological metric for deontological resolve based on relative activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC during the passive processing of sacred values predicted individual differences in conformity. Individuals with stronger deontological resolve, as measured by greater VLPFC activity, displayed lower levels of conformity. We also tested whether responsiveness to social reward, as measured by ventral striatal activity during social feedback, predicted variability in conformist behavior across individuals but found no significant relationship. From these results we conclude that unwillingness to conform to others' values is associated with a strong neurobiological representation of social rules.

  1. Structural details (kinks and non-α conformations) in transmembrane helices are intrahelically determined and can be predicted by sequence pattern descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoutsos, Isidore; Riek, Peter; Graham, Robert M.; Novotny, Jiri

    2003-01-01

    One of the promising methods of protein structure prediction involves the use of amino acid sequence-derived patterns. Here we report on the creation of non-degenerate motif descriptors derived through data mining of training sets of residues taken from the transmembrane-spanning segments of polytopic proteins. These residues correspond to short regions in which there is a deviation from the regular α-helical character (i.e. π-helices, 310-helices and kinks). A ‘search engine’ derived from these motif descriptors correctly identifies, and discriminates amongst instances of the above ‘non-canonical’ helical motifs contained in the SwissProt/TrEMBL database of protein primary structures. Our results suggest that deviations from α-helicity are encoded locally in sequence patterns only about 7–9 residues long and can be determined in silico directly from the amino acid sequence. Delineation of such variations in helical habit is critical to understanding the complex structure–function relationships of polytopic proteins and for drug discovery. The success of our current methodology foretells development of similar prediction tools capable of identifying other structural motifs from sequence alone. The method described here has been implemented and is available on the World Wide Web at http://cbcsrv.watson.ibm.com/Ttkw.html. PMID:12888523

  2. Structural details (kinks and non-alpha conformations) in transmembrane helices are intrahelically determined and can be predicted by sequence pattern descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoutsos, Isidore; Riek, Peter; Graham, Robert M; Novotny, Jiri

    2003-08-01

    One of the promising methods of protein structure prediction involves the use of amino acid sequence-derived patterns. Here we report on the creation of non-degenerate motif descriptors derived through data mining of training sets of residues taken from the transmembrane-spanning segments of polytopic proteins. These residues correspond to short regions in which there is a deviation from the regular alpha-helical character (i.e. pi-helices, 3(10)-helices and kinks). A 'search engine' derived from these motif descriptors correctly identifies, and discriminates amongst instances of the above 'non-canonical' helical motifs contained in the SwissProt/TrEMBL database of protein primary structures. Our results suggest that deviations from alpha-helicity are encoded locally in sequence patterns only about 7-9 residues long and can be determined in silico directly from the amino acid sequence. Delineation of such variations in helical habit is critical to understanding the complex structure-function relationships of polytopic proteins and for drug discovery. The success of our current methodology foretells development of similar prediction tools capable of identifying other structural motifs from sequence alone. The method described here has been implemented and is available on the World Wide Web at http://cbcsrv.watson.ibm.com/Ttkw.html.

  3. Conformal expansions and renormalons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathsman, J.

    2000-02-07

    The coefficients in perturbative expansions in gauge theories are factorially increasing, predominantly due to renormalons. This type of factorial increase is not expected in conformal theories. In QCD conformal relations between observables can be defined in the presence of a perturbative infrared fixed-point. Using the Banks-Zaks expansion the authors study the effect of the large-order behavior of the perturbative series on the conformal coefficients. The authors find that in general these coefficients become factorially increasing. However, when the factorial behavior genuinely originates in a renormalon integral, as implied by a postulated skeleton expansion, it does not affect the conformal coefficients. As a consequence, the conformal coefficients will indeed be free of renormalon divergence, in accordance with previous observations concerning the smallness of these coefficients for specific observables. The authors further show that the correspondence of the BLM method with the skeleton expansion implies a unique scale-setting procedure. The BLM coefficients can be interpreted as the conformal coefficients in the series relating the fixed-point value of the observable with that of the skeleton effective charge. Through the skeleton expansion the relevance of renormalon-free conformal coefficients extends to real-world QCD.

  4. What Automaticity Deficit? Activation of Lexical Information by Readers with Dyslexia in a Rapid Automatized Naming Stroop-Switch Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Manon W.; Snowling, Margaret J.; Moll, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Reading fluency is often predicted by rapid automatized naming (RAN) speed, which as the name implies, measures the automaticity with which familiar stimuli (e.g., letters) can be retrieved and named. Readers with dyslexia are considered to have less "automatized" access to lexical information, reflected in longer RAN times compared with…

  5. Hidden conformal symmetry of extremal black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bin; Long Jiang; Zhang Jiaju

    2010-01-01

    We study the hidden conformal symmetry of extremal black holes. We introduce a new set of conformal coordinates to write the SL(2,R) generators. We find that the Laplacian of the scalar field in many extremal black holes, including Kerr(-Newman), Reissner-Nordstrom, warped AdS 3 , and null warped black holes, could be written in terms of the SL(2,R) quadratic Casimir. This suggests that there exist dual conformal field theory (CFT) descriptions of these black holes. From the conformal coordinates, the temperatures of the dual CFTs could be read directly. For the extremal black hole, the Hawking temperature is vanishing. Correspondingly, only the left (right) temperature of the dual CFT is nonvanishing, and the excitations of the other sector are suppressed. In the probe limit, we compute the scattering amplitudes of the scalar off the extremal black holes and find perfect agreement with the CFT prediction.

  6. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and should be rather linked with conforming interpretation. And what this actually implies is that it is not the virtue of certainty and predictability – which are usually associated with objectivity- but coherence that makes the foundation of applicability of objectivity in law.What could be observed from the analyses, is that both the phenomenon of conforming interpretation and objective interpretation play the role of arguments in the interpretive discourse, arguments that provide justification that interpretation is not arbitrary or subjective. With regards to the important part of the ideology of legal application which is the conviction that decisions should be taken on the basis of law in order to exclude arbitrariness, objective interpretation could be read as a question “what kind of authority “supports” certain interpretation”? that is almost never free of judicial creativity and judicial activism.One can say that, objective and conforming interpretation are just another arguments used in legal discourse.

  7. Conformal and non conformal dilaton gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Enrique; Herrero-Valea, Mario; Martín, C. P.

    2014-10-01

    The quantum dynamics of the gravitational field non-minimally coupled to an (also dynamical) scalar field is studied in the broken phase. For a particular value of the coupling the system is classically conformal, and can actually be understood as the group averaging of Einstein-Hilbert's action under conformal transformations. Conformal invariance implies a simple Ward identity asserting that the trace of the equation of motion for the graviton is the equation of motion of the scalar field. We perform an explicit one-loop computation to show that the DeWitt effective action is not UV divergent on shell and to find that the Weyl symmetry Ward identity is preserved on shell at that level. We also discuss the fate of this Ward identity at the two-loop level — under the assumption that the two-loop UV divergent part of the effective action can be retrieved from the Goroff-Sagnotti counterterm — and show that its preservation in the renormalized theory requires the introduction of counterterms which exhibit a logarithmic dependence on the dilaton field.

  8. Automatic fluid dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellaris, P. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Fluid automatically flows to individual dispensing units at predetermined times from a fluid supply and is available only for a predetermined interval of time after which an automatic control causes the fluid to drain from the individual dispensing units. Fluid deprivation continues until the beginning of a new cycle when the fluid is once again automatically made available at the individual dispensing units.

  9. Conformally Coupled Inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Faraoni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A massive scalar field in a curved spacetime can propagate along the light cone, a causal pathology, which can, in principle, be eliminated only if the scalar couples conformally to the Ricci curvature of spacetime. This property mandates conformal coupling for the field driving inflation in the early universe. During slow-roll inflation, this coupling can cause super-acceleration and, as a signature, a blue spectrum of primordial gravitational waves.

  10. Conformable variational iteration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Acan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we introduce the conformable variational iteration method based on new defined fractional derivative called conformable fractional derivative. This new method is applied two fractional order ordinary differential equations. To see how the solutions of this method, linear homogeneous and non-linear non-homogeneous fractional ordinary differential equations are selected. Obtained results are compared the exact solutions and their graphics are plotted to demonstrate efficiency and accuracy of the method.

  11. Quantum massive conformal gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, F.F. [Universidade Estadual do Piaui, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, Teresina, PI (Brazil)

    2016-04-15

    We first find the linear approximation of the second plus fourth order derivative massive conformal gravity action. Then we reduce the linearized action to separated second order derivative terms, which allows us to quantize the theory by using the standard first order canonical quantization method. It is shown that quantum massive conformal gravity is renormalizable but has ghost states. A possible decoupling of these ghost states at high energies is discussed. (orig.)

  12. The Biological Bases of Conformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Joshau Henry Morgan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans are characterized by an extreme dependence on culturally transmitted information and recent formal theory predicts that natural selection should favour adaptive learning strategies that facilitate effective use of social information in decision making. One strategy that has attracted particular attention is conformist transmission, defined as the disproportionately likely adoption of the most common variant. Conformity has historically been emphasized as significant in the social psychology literature, and recently there have also been reports of conformist behaviour in nonhuman animals. However, mathematical analyses differ in how important and widespread they expect conformity to be, and relevant experimental work is scarce, and generates findings that are both mutually contradictory and inconsistent with the predictions of the models. We review the relevant literature considering the causation, function, history and ontogeny of conformity and describe a computer-based experiment on human subjects that we carried out in order to resolve ambiguities. We found that only when many demonstrators were available and subjects were uncertain was subject behaviour conformist. A further analysis found that the underlying response to social information alone was generally conformist. Thus, our data are consistent with a conformist use of social information, but as subject’s behaviour is the result of both social and asocial influences, the resultant behaviour may not be conformist. We end by relating these findings to an embryonic cognitive neuroscience literature that has recently begun to explore the neural bases of social learning. Here conformist transmission may be a particularly useful case study, not only because there are well-defined and tractable opportunities to characterize the biological underpinnings of this form of social learning, but also because early findings imply that humans may possess specific cognitive adaptations for

  13. The Biological Bases of Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, T. J. H.; Laland, K. N.

    2012-01-01

    Humans are characterized by an extreme dependence on culturally transmitted information and recent formal theory predicts that natural selection should favor adaptive learning strategies that facilitate effective copying and decision making. One strategy that has attracted particular attention is conformist transmission, defined as the disproportionately likely adoption of the most common variant. Conformity has historically been emphasized as significant in the social psychology literature, and recently there have also been reports of conformist behavior in non-human animals. However, mathematical analyses differ in how important and widespread they expect conformity to be, and relevant experimental work is scarce, and generates findings that are both mutually contradictory and inconsistent with the predictions of the models. We review the relevant literature considering the causation, function, history, and ontogeny of conformity, and describe a computer-based experiment on human subjects that we carried out in order to resolve ambiguities. We found that only when many demonstrators were available and subjects were uncertain was subject behavior conformist. A further analysis found that the underlying response to social information alone was generally conformist. Thus, our data are consistent with a conformist use of social information, but as subjects’ behavior is the result of both social and asocial influences, the resultant behavior may not be conformist. We end by relating these findings to an embryonic cognitive neuroscience literature that has recently begun to explore the neural bases of social learning. Here conformist transmission may be a particularly useful case study, not only because there are well-defined and tractable opportunities to characterize the biological underpinnings of this form of social learning, but also because early findings imply that humans may possess specific cognitive adaptations for effective social learning. PMID:22712006

  14. The biological bases of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, T J H; Laland, K N

    2012-01-01

    Humans are characterized by an extreme dependence on culturally transmitted information and recent formal theory predicts that natural selection should favor adaptive learning strategies that facilitate effective copying and decision making. One strategy that has attracted particular attention is conformist transmission, defined as the disproportionately likely adoption of the most common variant. Conformity has historically been emphasized as significant in the social psychology literature, and recently there have also been reports of conformist behavior in non-human animals. However, mathematical analyses differ in how important and widespread they expect conformity to be, and relevant experimental work is scarce, and generates findings that are both mutually contradictory and inconsistent with the predictions of the models. We review the relevant literature considering the causation, function, history, and ontogeny of conformity, and describe a computer-based experiment on human subjects that we carried out in order to resolve ambiguities. We found that only when many demonstrators were available and subjects were uncertain was subject behavior conformist. A further analysis found that the underlying response to social information alone was generally conformist. Thus, our data are consistent with a conformist use of social information, but as subjects' behavior is the result of both social and asocial influences, the resultant behavior may not be conformist. We end by relating these findings to an embryonic cognitive neuroscience literature that has recently begun to explore the neural bases of social learning. Here conformist transmission may be a particularly useful case study, not only because there are well-defined and tractable opportunities to characterize the biological underpinnings of this form of social learning, but also because early findings imply that humans may possess specific cognitive adaptations for effective social learning.

  15. Phonological Awareness and Rapid Automatized Naming Predicting Early Development in Reading and Spelling: Results from a Cross-Linguistic Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnes, Bjarte; Samuelsson, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between latent constructs of phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatized naming (RAN) were investigated and related to later measures of reading and spelling in children learning to read in different alphabetic writing systems (i.e., Norwegian/Swedish vs. English). 750 U.S./Australian children and 230 Scandinavian children were followed longitudinally between kindergarten and 2nd grade. PA and RAN were measured in kindergarten and Grade 1, while word recognition, phonological decoding, and spelling were measured in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2. In general, high stability was observed for the various reading and spelling measures, such that little additional variance was left open for PA and RAN. However, results demonstrated that RAN was more related to reading than spelling across orthographies, with the opposite pattern shown for PA. In addition, tests of measurement invariance show that the factor loadings of each observed indicator on the latent PA factor was the same across U.S./Australia and Scandinavia. Similar findings were obtained for RAN. In general, tests of structural invariance show that models of early literacy development are highly transferable across languages. PMID:21359098

  16. Conformal invariance of curvature perturbation

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Park, Wan Il; Sasaki, Misao; Song, Yong-Seon

    2011-01-01

    We show that in the single component situation all perturbation variables in the comoving gauge are conformally invariant to all perturbation orders. Generally we identify a special time slicing, the uniform-conformal transformation slicing, where all perturbations are again conformally invariant to all perturbation orders. We apply this result to the delta N formalism, and show its conformal invariance.

  17. Conformity and statistical tolerancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Laurent; Pillet, Maurice

    2018-02-01

    Statistical tolerancing was first proposed by Shewhart (Economic Control of Quality of Manufactured Product, (1931) reprinted 1980 by ASQC), in spite of this long history, its use remains moderate. One of the probable reasons for this low utilization is undoubtedly the difficulty for designers to anticipate the risks of this approach. The arithmetic tolerance (worst case) allows a simple interpretation: conformity is defined by the presence of the characteristic in an interval. Statistical tolerancing is more complex in its definition. An interval is not sufficient to define the conformance. To justify the statistical tolerancing formula used by designers, a tolerance interval should be interpreted as the interval where most of the parts produced should probably be located. This tolerance is justified by considering a conformity criterion of the parts guaranteeing low offsets on the latter characteristics. Unlike traditional arithmetic tolerancing, statistical tolerancing requires a sustained exchange of information between design and manufacture to be used safely. This paper proposes a formal definition of the conformity, which we apply successively to the quadratic and arithmetic tolerancing. We introduce a concept of concavity, which helps us to demonstrate the link between tolerancing approach and conformity. We use this concept to demonstrate the various acceptable propositions of statistical tolerancing (in the space decentring, dispersion).

  18. Axiomatic conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaberdiel, M.R.; Goddard, P.

    2000-01-01

    A new rigourous approach to conformal field theory is presented. The basic objects are families of complex-valued amplitudes, which define a meromorphic conformal field theory (or chiral algebra) and which lead naturally to the definition of topological vector spaces, between which vertex operators act as continuous operators. In fact, in order to develop the theory, Moebius invariance rather than full conformal invariance is required but it is shown that every Moebius theory can be extended to a conformal theory by the construction of a Virasoro field. In this approach, a representation of a conformal field theory is naturally defined in terms of a family of amplitudes with appropriate analytic properties. It is shown that these amplitudes can also be derived from a suitable collection of states in the meromorphic theory. Zhu's algebra then appears naturally as the algebra of conditions which states defining highest weight representations must satisfy. The relationship of the representations of Zhu's algebra to the classification of highest weight representations is explained. (orig.)

  19. Algebraic conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, J.; Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica

    1991-11-01

    Many conformal field theory features are special versions of structures which are present in arbitrary 2-dimensional quantum field theories. So it makes sense to describe 2-dimensional conformal field theories in context of algebraic theory of superselection sectors. While most of the results of the algebraic theory are rather abstract, conformal field theories offer the possibility to work out many formulae explicitly. In particular, one can construct the full algebra A-bar of global observables and the endomorphisms of A-bar which represent the superselection sectors. Some explicit results are presented for the level 1 so(N) WZW theories; the algebra A-bar is found to be the enveloping algebra of a Lie algebra L-bar which is an extension of the chiral symmetry algebra of the WZW theory. (author). 21 refs., 6 figs

  20. Killing tensors and conformal Killing tensors from conformal Killing vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rani, Raffaele; Edgar, S Brian; Barnes, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Koutras has proposed some methods to construct reducible proper conformal Killing tensors and Killing tensors (which are, in general, irreducible) when a pair of orthogonal conformal Killing vectors exist in a given space. We give the completely general result demonstrating that this severe restriction of orthogonality is unnecessary. In addition, we correct and extend some results concerning Killing tensors constructed from a single conformal Killing vector. A number of examples demonstrate that it is possible to construct a much larger class of reducible proper conformal Killing tensors and Killing tensors than permitted by the Koutras algorithms. In particular, by showing that all conformal Killing tensors are reducible in conformally flat spaces, we have a method of constructing all conformal Killing tensors, and hence all the Killing tensors (which will in general be irreducible) of conformally flat spaces using their conformal Killing vectors

  1. The Significance of Dispositional Optimism and Coping in Predicting Psychological Distress, Life Satisfaction, Health Perception, and Frequency of Discharges in the Automatic Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (AICD) Patient

    OpenAIRE

    Damin, Paul B.

    1993-01-01

    Dispositional optimism, as a stable outcome expectancy, has been shown to predict health outcomes in several contexts. Research has demonstrated that health-impaired subjects with optimistic outlooks fared better than those with a pessimistic outlook. Choice of coping strategies has been theorized as the mediating factor through which optimism operates. However, the construct of dispositional optimism has been challenged as a polar opposite of neuroticism, thus contending that optimism is not...

  2. Charged conformal Killing spinors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lischewski, Andree, E-mail: lischews@mathematik.hu-berlin.de [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Mathematik, Rudower Chaussee 25, Room 1.310, D12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    We study the twistor equation on pseudo-Riemannian Spin{sup c}-manifolds whose solutions we call charged conformal Killing spinors (CCKSs). We derive several integrability conditions for the existence of CCKS and study their relations to spinor bilinears. A construction principle for Lorentzian manifolds admitting CCKS with nontrivial charge starting from CR-geometry is presented. We obtain a partial classification result in the Lorentzian case under the additional assumption that the associated Dirac current is normal conformal and complete the classification of manifolds admitting CCKS in all dimensions and signatures ≤5 which has recently been initiated in the study of supersymmetric field theories on curved space.

  3. Conformal field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ketov, Sergei V

    1995-01-01

    Conformal field theory is an elegant and powerful theory in the field of high energy physics and statistics. In fact, it can be said to be one of the greatest achievements in the development of this field. Presented in two dimensions, this book is designed for students who already have a basic knowledge of quantum mechanics, field theory and general relativity. The main idea used throughout the book is that conformal symmetry causes both classical and quantum integrability. Instead of concentrating on the numerous applications of the theory, the author puts forward a discussion of the general

  4. Automatic Fiscal Stabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis Eduard Mitu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Policies or institutions (built into an economic system that automatically tend to dampen economic cycle fluctuations in income, employment, etc., without direct government intervention. For example, in boom times, progressive income tax automatically reduces money supply as incomes and spendings rise. Similarly, in recessionary times, payment of unemployment benefits injects more money in the system and stimulates demand. Also called automatic stabilizers or built-in stabilizers.

  5. Theories of inflation and conformal transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalara, S.; Kaloper, N.; Olive, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    We show that several different theories of inflation including R 2 , Brans-Dicke, and induced-gravity inflation are all related to generalized or power-law inflation by means of conformal transformations. These theories all involve non-standard gravity, and the use of conformal transformations allows one to obtain standard inflationary predictions such as the expansion time-scale, reheating and density perturbations in each case very simply. We also discuss the possibilities of this method to be applied to string theory. (orig.)

  6. Conformal Predictions in Multimedia Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallure Balasubramanian, Vineeth

    2010-01-01

    The fields of pattern recognition and machine learning are on a fundamental quest to design systems that can learn the way humans do. One important aspect of human intelligence that has so far not been given sufficient attention is the capability of humans to express when they are certain about a decision, or when they are not. Machine learning…

  7. Automatic differentiation bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, G.F. (comp.)

    1992-07-01

    This is a bibliography of work related to automatic differentiation. Automatic differentiation is a technique for the fast, accurate propagation of derivative values using the chain rule. It is neither symbolic nor numeric. Automatic differentiation is a fundamental tool for scientific computation, with applications in optimization, nonlinear equations, nonlinear least squares approximation, stiff ordinary differential equation, partial differential equations, continuation methods, and sensitivity analysis. This report is an updated version of the bibliography which originally appeared in Automatic Differentiation of Algorithms: Theory, Implementation, and Application.

  8. Conformational properties of pyrethroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaley, Anne; Taylor, Robin

    1994-04-01

    X-ray database searches and theoretical potential-energy calculations indicate that the acid moieties of pyrethroid cyclopropanecarboxylate esters adopt a well-defined, relatively inflexible conformation. In contrast, the alcohol moieties can exist in many low-energy geometries. One of the least conformationally flexible pyrethroid alcohols is 4-phenylindan-2-ol. The approximate overall conformation adopted at the biological binding site by insecticidal esters of this alcohol can be deduced with reasonable confidence by molecular modelling. Graphics superposition of a variety of pyrethroid acids suggests the existence of a large but rather narrow pocket at the binding site, in which substituents at the 3-position of the cyclopropane ring can be accommodated. This pocket is asymmetric with respect to the plane of the cyclopropane ring, extending further on the side remote from the ester group. The effects of α-substitution on the insecticidal activity of pyrethroid esters may be due to the influence of substituents on the preferred conformations of the molecules. This hypothesis rationalises the paradoxical dependence on absolute stereochemistry of the activities of various allylbenzyl and cinnamyl alcohol derivatives.

  9. Conformal special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that the information loss/recovery theorem based on the ADS/CFT correspondence is not consistent with the stability of the Schwarzschild or Reissner-Nordstrom black holes. Nonetheless, the conformal invariance of Yang-Mills theory points to new relativity principle compatible with quantum unitarity near those black holes

  10. Animal culture: chimpanzee conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Carel P

    2012-05-22

    Culture-like phenomena in wild animals have received much attention, but how good is the evidence and how similar are they to human culture? New data on chimpanzees suggest their culture may even have an element of conformity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Conformal Dirac structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, A.

    2000-07-01

    The Courant bracket defined originally on the sections of a vector bundle TM +T*M → M is extended to the direct sum of the 1-jet vector bundle and its dual. The extended bracket allows one to interpret many structures encountered in differential geometry, in terms of Dirac structures. We give a new approach to conformal Jacobi structures. (author)

  12. Predicting persistence in the sediment compartment with a new automatic software based on the k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganaro, Alberto; Pizzo, Fabiola; Lombardo, Anna; Pogliaghi, Alberto; Benfenati, Emilio

    2016-02-01

    The ability of a substance to resist degradation and persist in the environment needs to be readily identified in order to protect the environment and human health. Many regulations require the assessment of persistence for substances commonly manufactured and marketed. Besides laboratory-based testing methods, in silico tools may be used to obtain a computational prediction of persistence. We present a new program to develop k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) models. The k-NN algorithm is a similarity-based approach that predicts the property of a substance in relation to the experimental data for its most similar compounds. We employed this software to identify persistence in the sediment compartment. Data on half-life (HL) in sediment were obtained from different sources and, after careful data pruning the final dataset, containing 297 organic compounds, was divided into four experimental classes. We developed several models giving satisfactory performances, considering that both the training and test set accuracy ranged between 0.90 and 0.96. We finally selected one model which will be made available in the near future in the freely available software platform VEGA. This model offers a valuable in silico tool that may be really useful for fast and inexpensive screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Automatic design of decision-tree induction algorithms tailored to flexible-receptor docking data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Rodrigo C; Winck, Ana T; Machado, Karina S; Basgalupp, Márcio P; de Carvalho, André C P L F; Ruiz, Duncan D; de Souza, Osmar Norberto

    2012-11-21

    This paper addresses the prediction of the free energy of binding of a drug candidate with enzyme InhA associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This problem is found within rational drug design, where interactions between drug candidates and target proteins are verified through molecular docking simulations. In this application, it is important not only to correctly predict the free energy of binding, but also to provide a comprehensible model that could be validated by a domain specialist. Decision-tree induction algorithms have been successfully used in drug-design related applications, specially considering that decision trees are simple to understand, interpret, and validate. There are several decision-tree induction algorithms available for general-use, but each one has a bias that makes it more suitable for a particular data distribution. In this article, we propose and investigate the automatic design of decision-tree induction algorithms tailored to particular drug-enzyme binding data sets. We investigate the performance of our new method for evaluating binding conformations of different drug candidates to InhA, and we analyze our findings with respect to decision tree accuracy, comprehensibility, and biological relevance. The empirical analysis indicates that our method is capable of automatically generating decision-tree induction algorithms that significantly outperform the traditional C4.5 algorithm with respect to both accuracy and comprehensibility. In addition, we provide the biological interpretation of the rules generated by our approach, reinforcing the importance of comprehensible predictive models in this particular bioinformatics application. We conclude that automatically designing a decision-tree algorithm tailored to molecular docking data is a promising alternative for the prediction of the free energy from the binding of a drug candidate with a flexible-receptor.

  14. Conformational dynamics data bank: a database for conformational dynamics of proteins and supramolecular protein assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Nyun; Altschuler, Josiah; Strong, Campbell; McGill, Gaël; Bathe, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The conformational dynamics data bank (CDDB, http://www.cdyn.org) is a database that aims to provide comprehensive results on the conformational dynamics of high molecular weight proteins and protein assemblies. Analysis is performed using a recently introduced coarse-grained computational approach that is applied to the majority of structures present in the electron microscopy data bank (EMDB). Results include equilibrium thermal fluctuations and elastic strain energy distributions that identify rigid versus flexible protein domains generally, as well as those associated with specific functional transitions, and correlations in molecular motions that identify molecular regions that are highly coupled dynamically, with implications for allosteric mechanisms. A practical web-based search interface enables users to easily collect conformational dynamics data in various formats. The data bank is maintained and updated automatically to include conformational dynamics results for new structural entries as they become available in the EMDB. The CDDB complements static structural information to facilitate the investigation and interpretation of the biological function of proteins and protein assemblies essential to cell function.

  15. Automatic control systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Yun Gi

    2004-01-01

    This book gives descriptions of automatic control for electrical electronics, which indicates history of automatic control, Laplace transform, block diagram and signal flow diagram, electrometer, linearization of system, space of situation, state space analysis of electric system, sensor, hydro controlling system, stability, time response of linear dynamic system, conception of root locus, procedure to draw root locus, frequency response, and design of control system.

  16. Neural Bases of Automaticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servant, Mathieu; Cassey, Peter; Woodman, Geoffrey F.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2018-01-01

    Automaticity allows us to perform tasks in a fast, efficient, and effortless manner after sufficient practice. Theories of automaticity propose that across practice processing transitions from being controlled by working memory to being controlled by long-term memory retrieval. Recent event-related potential (ERP) studies have sought to test this…

  17. Focusing Automatic Code Inspections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Automatic Code Inspection tools help developers in early detection of defects in software. A well-known drawback of many automatic inspection approaches is that they yield too many warnings and require a clearer focus. In this thesis, we provide such focus by proposing two methods to prioritize

  18. Automatic differentiation of functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, S.R.

    1990-06-01

    Automatic differentiation is a method of computing derivatives of functions to any order in any number of variables. The functions must be expressible as combinations of elementary functions. When evaluated at specific numerical points, the derivatives have no truncation error and are automatically found. The method is illustrated by simple examples. Source code in FORTRAN is provided

  19. AUTOMATIC INTRAVENOUS DRIP CONTROLLER*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both the nursing staff shortage and the need for precise control in the administration of dangerous drugs intra- venously have led to the development of various devices to achieve an automatic system. The continuous automatic control of the drip rate eliminates errors due to any physical effect such as movement of the ...

  20. Automatic Camera Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Preuss, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Automatically generating computer animations is a challenging and complex problem with applications in games and film production. In this paper, we investigate howto translate a shot list for a virtual scene into a series of virtual camera configurations — i.e automatically controlling the virtual...

  1. 12th Portuguese Conference on Automatic Control

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, Filomena; Moreira, António

    2017-01-01

    The biennial CONTROLO conferences are the main events promoted by The CONTROLO 2016 – 12th Portuguese Conference on Automatic Control, Guimarães, Portugal, September 14th to 16th, was organized by Algoritmi, School of Engineering, University of Minho, in partnership with INESC TEC, and promoted by the Portuguese Association for Automatic Control – APCA, national member organization of the International Federation of Automatic Control – IFAC. The seventy-five papers published in this volume cover a wide range of topics. Thirty-one of them, of a more theoretical nature, are distributed among the first five parts: Control Theory; Optimal and Predictive Control; Fuzzy, Neural and Genetic Control; Modeling and Identification; Sensing and Estimation. The papers go from cutting-edge theoretical research to innovative control applications and show expressively how Automatic Control can be used to increase the well being of people. .

  2. Transportation Conformity Training and Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's OTAQ has provided multiple conformity training sessions in the past to assist state and local governments in implementing conformity requirements. As training information is prepared for other venues, it will be posted on this page.

  3. Conformal boundaries of warped products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkendorff, Simon Lyngby

    2006-01-01

    In this note we prove a result on how to determine the conformal boundary of a type of warped product of two length spaces in terms of the individual conformal boundaries. In the situation, that we treat, the warping and conformal distortion functions are functions of distance to a base point....... The result is applied to produce examples of CAT(0)-spaces, where the conformal and ideal boundaries differ in interesting ways....

  4. Conformal radiotherapy: a glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubray, B.; Giraud, P.; Beaudre, A.

    1999-01-01

    Most of the concepts and terms related to conformal radiotherapy were produced by English-speaking authors and eventually validated by international groups of experts, whose working language was also English. Therefore, a significant part of this literature is poorly accessible to the French-speaking radiation oncology community. The present paper gathers the 'official' definitions already published in French, along with propositions for the remaining terms which should be submitted to a more formal and representative validation process. (author)

  5. Conformal scalar field wormholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Jonathan J.; Laflamme, Raymond

    1989-01-01

    The Euclidian Einstein equations with a cosmological constant and a conformally coupled scalar field are solved, taking the metric to be of the Robertson-Walker type. In the case Lambda = 0, solutions are found which represent a wormhole connecting two asymptotically flat Euclidian regions. In the case Lambda greater than 0, the solutions represent tunneling from a small Tolman-like universe to a large Robertson-Walker universe.

  6. Exploration of the relationship between topology and designability of conformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelananda, Sumudu P; Towfic, Fadi; Jernigan, Robert L; Kloczkowski, Andrzej

    2011-06-21

    Protein structures are evolutionarily more conserved than sequences, and sequences with very low sequence identity frequently share the same fold. This leads to the concept of protein designability. Some folds are more designable and lots of sequences can assume that fold. Elucidating the relationship between protein sequence and the three-dimensional (3D) structure that the sequence folds into is an important problem in computational structural biology. Lattice models have been utilized in numerous studies to model protein folds and predict the designability of certain folds. In this study, all possible compact conformations within a set of two-dimensional and 3D lattice spaces are explored. Complementary interaction graphs are then generated for each conformation and are described using a set of graph features. The full HP sequence space for each lattice model is generated and contact energies are calculated by threading each sequence onto all the possible conformations. Unique conformation giving minimum energy is identified for each sequence and the number of sequences folding to each conformation (designability) is obtained. Machine learning algorithms are used to predict the designability of each conformation. We find that the highly designable structures can be distinguished from other non-designable conformations based on certain graphical geometric features of the interactions. This finding confirms the fact that the topology of a conformation is an important determinant of the extent of its designability and suggests that the interactions themselves are important for determining the designability. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  7. Automatic Test Systems Aquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1994-01-01

    We are providing this final memorandum report for your information and use. This report discusses the efforts to achieve commonality in standards among the Military Departments as part of the DoD policy for automatic test systems (ATS...

  8. OSI Conformance Testing for Bibliographic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbez, Gilbert; Swain, Leigh

    1990-01-01

    Describes the development of Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) conformance testing sites, conformance testing tools, and conformance testing services. Discusses related topics such as interoperability testing, arbitration testing, and international harmonization of conformance testing. A glossary is included. (24 references) (SD)

  9. Automatic requirements traceability

    OpenAIRE

    Andžiulytė, Justė

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on automatic requirements traceability and algorithms that automatically find recommendation links for requirements. The main objective of this paper is the evaluation of these algorithms and preparation of the method defining algorithms to be used in different cases. This paper presents and examines probabilistic, vector space and latent semantic indexing models of information retrieval and association rule mining using authors own implementations of these algorithms and o...

  10. Position automatic determination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This book tells of method of position determination and characteristic, control method of position determination and point of design, point of sensor choice for position detector, position determination of digital control system, application of clutch break in high frequency position determination, automation technique of position determination, position determination by electromagnetic clutch and break, air cylinder, cam and solenoid, stop position control of automatic guide vehicle, stacker crane and automatic transfer control.

  11. Elucidation of the conformational dynamics of multi-body systems by construction of Markov state models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lizhe; Sheong, Fu Kit; Zeng, Xiangze; Huang, Xuhui

    2016-11-09

    Constructing Markov State Models (MSMs) based on short molecular dynamics simulations is a powerful computational technique to complement experiments in predicting long-time kinetics of biomolecular processes at atomic resolution. Even though the MSM approach has been widely applied to study one-body processes such as protein folding and enzyme conformational changes, the majority of biological processes, e.g. protein-ligand recognition, signal transduction, and protein aggregation, essentially involve multiple entities. Here we review the attempts at constructing MSMs for multi-body systems, point out the challenges therein and discuss recent algorithmic progresses that alleviate these challenges. In particular, we describe an automatic kinetics based partitioning method that achieves optimal definition of the conformational states in a multi-body system, and discuss a novel maximum-likelihood approach that efficiently estimates the slow uphill kinetics utilizing pre-computed equilibrium populations of all states. We expect that these new algorithms and their combinations may boost investigations of important multi-body biological processes via the efficient construction of MSMs.

  12. Conformance and Deviance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Neergaard, Peter; Thusgaard Pedersen, Janni

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses how large Danish companies are responding to new governmental regulation which requires them to report on corporate social responsibility (CSR). The paper is based on an analysis of 142 company annual reports required by the new Danish regulation regarding CSR reporting, plus ...... in CSR reporting practices. Finally, it is argued that non-conformance with the new regulatory requirements is not solely about conscious resistance but may also be caused by, for example, lack of awareness, resource limitations, misinterpretations, and practical difficulties....

  13. Classical extended conformal symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, R.

    1990-02-01

    Extensions of the Virasoro algebra are constructed as Poisson brackets of higher spin fields which appear as coefficient fields in certain covariant derivative operators of order N. These differential operators are constructed so as to be covariant under reparametrizations on fields of definite conformal dimension. Factorization of such an N-th order operator in terms of first order operators, together with the inclusion of a spin one U(1) current, is shown to lead to a two-parameter W-algebra. One of these parameters plays the role of interpolating between W-algebras based on different Lie algebras of the same rank. (author). 11 refs

  14. Supergravitational conformal Galileons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Rehan; Ovrut, Burt

    2017-08-01

    The worldvolume actions of 3+1 dimensional bosonic branes embedded in a five-dimensional bulk space can lead to important effective field theories, such as the DBI conformal Galileons, and may, when the Null Energy Condition is violated, play an essential role in cosmological theories of the early universe. These include Galileon Genesis and "bouncing" cosmology, where a pre-Big Bang contracting phase bounces smoothly to the presently observed expanding universe. Perhaps the most natural arena for such branes to arise is within the context of superstring and M -theory vacua. Here, not only are branes required for the consistency of the theory, but, in many cases, the exact spectrum of particle physics occurs at low energy. However, such theories have the additional constraint that they must be N = 1 supersymmetric. This motivates us to compute the worldvolume actions of N = 1 supersymmetric three-branes, first in flat superspace and then to generalize them to N = 1 supergravitation. In this paper, for simplicity, we begin the process, not within the context of a superstring vacuum but, rather, for the conformal Galileons arising on a co-dimension one brane embedded in a maximally symmetric AdS 5 bulk space. We proceed to N = 1 supersymmetrize the associated worldvolume theory and then generalize the results to N = 1 supergravity, opening the door to possible new cosmological scenarios

  15. The Guide-based Automatic Creation of Verified Test Scenarious

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Drobintsev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of technology of the automated generation of test scenarios based on guides. The usage of this technology can significantly improve the quality of the developed program products. In order to ground the technology creation, the main problems that occur during the development and testing of the large industrial systems, are described, as well as the methodologies of software verification on conformity to product requirements. The potentialities of tools for automatic and semi-automatic generation of a test suite by using a formal model in UCM notation are demonstrated, as well as tools for verification and automation of testing.

  16. Ras conformational switching: simulating nucleotide-dependent conformational transitions with accelerated molecular dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry J Grant

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ras mediates signaling pathways controlling cell proliferation and development by cycling between GTP- and GDP-bound active and inactive conformational states. Understanding the complete reaction path of this conformational change and its intermediary structures is critical to understanding Ras signaling. We characterize nucleotide-dependent conformational transition using multiple-barrier-crossing accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD simulations. These transitions, achieved for the first time for wild-type Ras, are impossible to observe with classical molecular dynamics (cMD simulations due to the large energetic barrier between end states. Mapping the reaction path onto a conformer plot describing the distribution of the crystallographic structures enabled identification of highly populated intermediate structures. These structures have unique switch orientations (residues 25-40 and 57-75 intermediate between GTP and GDP states, or distinct loop3 (46-49, loop7 (105-110, and alpha5 C-terminus (159-166 conformations distal from the nucleotide-binding site. In addition, these barrier-crossing trajectories predict novel nucleotide-dependent correlated motions, including correlations of alpha2 (residues 66-74 with alpha3-loop7 (93-110, loop2 (26-37 with loop10 (145-151, and loop3 (46-49 with alpha5 (152-167. The interconversion between newly identified Ras conformations revealed by this study advances our mechanistic understanding of Ras function. In addition, the pattern of correlated motions provides new evidence for a dynamic linkage between the nucleotide-binding site and the membrane interacting C-terminus critical for the signaling function of Ras. Furthermore, normal mode analysis indicates that the dominant collective motion that occurs during nucleotide-dependent conformational exchange, and captured in aMD (but absent in cMD simulations, is a low-frequency motion intrinsic to the structure.

  17. Dimensional reduction for conformal blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogervorst, Matthijs

    2016-09-01

    We consider the dimensional reduction of a CFT, breaking multiplets of the d-dimensional conformal group SO( d + 1 , 1) up into multiplets of SO( d, 1). This leads to an expansion of d-dimensional conformal blocks in terms of blocks in d - 1 dimensions. In particular, we obtain a formula for 3 d conformal blocks as an infinite sum over 2 F 1 hypergeometric functions with closed-form coefficients.

  18. Reflections on Conformal Spectra

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    We use modular invariance and crossing symmetry of conformal field theory to reveal approximate reflection symmetries in the spectral decompositions of the partition function in two dimensions in the limit of large central charge and of the four-point function in any dimension in the limit of large scaling dimensions Δ0 of external operators. We use these symmetries to motivate universal upper bounds on the spectrum and the operator product expansion coefficients, which we then derive by independent techniques. Some of the bounds for four-point functions are valid for finite Δ0 as well as for large Δ0. We discuss a similar symmetry in a large spacetime dimension limit. Finally, we comment on the analogue of the Cardy formula and sparse light spectrum condition for the four-point function. (based on 1510.08772 with Kim & Ooguri). This seminar will be given via videolink

  19. Instantons in conformal gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.; Horowitz, G.T.; Perry, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Fe study extrema of the general conformally invariant action: Ssub(c)=∫1/sub(α) 2 Csup(abcd)Csub(abcd)+γRsup(abcd*)Rsup(*)sub(abcd)+iTHETARsup(abcd)*Rsub(abcd). We find the first examples in four dimensions of asymptotically euclidean gravitational instantons. These have arbitrary Euler number and Hirzebruch signature. Some of these instantons represent tunneling between zero-curvature vacua that are not related by small gauge transformations. Others represent tunneling between flat space and topologically non-trivial zero-energy initial data. A general formula for the one-loop determinant is derived in terms of the renormalization group invariant masses, the volume of space-time, the Euler number and the Hirzebruch signature. (orig.)

  20. Conformal Aspects of QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S

    2003-11-19

    Theoretical and phenomenological evidence is now accumulating that the QCD coupling becomes constant at small virtuality; i.e., {alpha}{sub s}(Q{sup 2}) develops an infrared fixed point in contradiction to the usual assumption of singular growth in the infrared. For example, the hadronic decays of the {tau} lepton can be used to determine the effective charge {alpha}{sub {tau}}(m{sub {tau}{prime}}{sup 2}) for a hypothetical {tau}-lepton with mass in the range 0 < m{sub {tau}{prime}} < m{sub {tau}}. The {tau} decay data at low mass scales indicates that the effective charge freezes at a value of s = m{sub {tau}{prime}}{sup 2} of order 1 GeV{sup 2} with a magnitude {alpha}{sub {tau}} {approx} 0.9 {+-} 0.1. The near-constant behavior of effective couplings suggests that QCD can be approximated as a conformal theory even at relatively small momentum transfer and why there are no significant running coupling corrections to quark counting rules for exclusive processes. The AdS/CFT correspondence of large N{sub c} supergravity theory in higher-dimensional anti-de Sitter space with supersymmetric QCD in 4-dimensional space-time also has interesting implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders demonstration of counting rules for exclusive processes and light-front wavefunctions. The utility of light-front quantization and light-front Fock wavefunctions for analyzing nonperturbative QCD and representing the dynamics of QCD bound states is also discussed.

  1. Automatic text summarization

    CERN Document Server

    Torres Moreno, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This new textbook examines the motivations and the different algorithms for automatic document summarization (ADS). We performed a recent state of the art. The book shows the main problems of ADS, difficulties and the solutions provided by the community. It presents recent advances in ADS, as well as current applications and trends. The approaches are statistical, linguistic and symbolic. Several exemples are included in order to clarify the theoretical concepts.  The books currently available in the area of Automatic Document Summarization are not recent. Powerful algorithms have been develop

  2. Automatic Ultrasound Scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshavegh, Ramin

    on the scanners, and to improve the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in ultrasound by introducing new quantitative measures. Thus, four major issues concerning automation of the medical ultrasound are addressed in this PhD project. They touch upon gain adjustments in ultrasound, automatic synthetic aperture image...... on the user adjustments on the scanner interface to optimize the scan settings. This explains the huge interest in the subject of this PhD project entitled “AUTOMATIC ULTRASOUND SCANNING”. The key goals of the project have been to develop automated techniques to minimize the unnecessary settings...

  3. Increased conformity offers diminishing returns for reducing total knee replacement wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregly, Benjamin J; Marquez-Barrientos, Carlos; Banks, Scott A; DesJardins, John D

    2010-02-01

    Wear remains a significant problem limiting the lifespan of total knee replacements (TKRs). Though increased conformity between TKR components has the potential to decrease wear, the optimal amount and planes of conformity have not been investigated. Furthermore, differing conformities in the medial and lateral compartments may provide designers the opportunity to address both wear and kinematic design goals simultaneously. This study used a computational model of a Stanmore knee simulator machine and a previously validated wear model to investigate this issue for simulated gait. TKR geometries with different amounts and planes of conformity on the medial and lateral sides were created and tested in two phases. The first phase utilized a wide range of sagittal and coronal conformity combinations to blanket a physically realistic design space. The second phase performed a focused investigation of the conformity conditions from the first phase to which predicted wear volume was sensitive. For the first phase, sagittal but not coronal conformity was found to have a significant effect on predicted wear volume. For the second phase, increased sagittal conformity was found to decrease predicted wear volume in a nonlinear fashion, with reductions gradually diminishing as conformity increased. These results suggest that TKR geometric design efforts aimed at minimizing wear should focus on sagittal rather than coronal conformity and that at least moderate sagittal conformity is desirable in both compartments.

  4. On Associative Conformal Algebras of Linear Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Retakh, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    Lie conformal algebras appear in the theory of vertex algebras. Their relation is similar to that of Lie algebras and their universal enveloping algebras. Associative conformal algebras play a role in conformal representation theory. We introduce the notions of conformal identity and unital associative conformal algebras and classify finitely generated simple unital associative conformal algebras of linear growth. These are precisely the complete algebras of conformal endomorphisms of finite ...

  5. Replacement between conformity and counter-conformity in consumption decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ting-Jui; Chang, En-Chung; Dai, Qi; Wong, Veronica

    2013-02-01

    This study assessed, in a Chinese context, how self-esteem interacts with perceived similarity and uniqueness to yield cognitive dissonance, and whether the dissonance leads to self-reported conformity or counter-conformity behavior. Participants were 408 respondents from 4 major Chinese cities (M age = 33.0 yr., SD = 4.3; 48% men). Self-perceptions of uniqueness, similarity, cognitive dissonance, self-esteem and need to behave in conformity or counter-conformity were measured. A theoretical model was assessed in four situations, relating the ratings of self-esteem and perceived similarity/uniqueness to the way other people at a wedding were dressed, and the resultant cognitive dissonance and conformity/ counter-conformity behavior. Regardless of high or low self-esteem, all participants reported cognitive dissonance when they were told that they were dressed extremely similarly to or extremely differently from the other people attending the wedding. However, the conforming/counter-conforming strategies used by participants to resolve the cognitive dissonance differed. When encountering dissonance induced by the perceived extreme uniqueness of dress, participants with low self-esteem tended to say they would dress next time so as to conform with the way others were dressed, while those with high self-esteem indicated they would continue their counter-conformity in attire. When encountering dissonance induced by the perceived extreme similarity to others, both those with high and low self-esteem tended to say they would dress in an unorthodox manner to surprise other people in the future.

  6. Oocytes Polar Body Detection for Automatic Enucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Enucleation is a crucial step in cloning. In order to achieve automatic blind enucleation, we should detect the polar body of the oocyte automatically. The conventional polar body detection approaches have low success rate or low efficiency. We propose a polar body detection method based on machine learning in this paper. On one hand, the improved Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG algorithm is employed to extract features of polar body images, which will increase success rate. On the other hand, a position prediction method is put forward to narrow the search range of polar body, which will improve efficiency. Experiment results show that the success rate is 96% for various types of polar bodies. Furthermore, the method is applied to an enucleation experiment and improves the degree of automatic enucleation.

  7. Classical Virasoro irregular conformal block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Chaiho; Zhang, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Virasoro irregular conformal block with arbitrary rank is obtained for the classical limit or equivalently Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit using the beta-deformed irregular matrix model (Penner-type matrix model for the irregular conformal block). The same result is derived using the generalized Mathieu equation which is equivalent to the loop equation of the irregular matrix model.

  8. Classical Virasoro irregular conformal block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rim, Chaiho; Zhang, Hong [Department of Physics and Center for Quantum Spacetime (CQUeST), Sogang University,Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-30

    Virasoro irregular conformal block with arbitrary rank is obtained for the classical limit or equivalently Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit using the beta-deformed irregular matrix model (Penner-type matrix model for the irregular conformal block). The same result is derived using the generalized Mathieu equation which is equivalent to the loop equation of the irregular matrix model.

  9. Counselor Identity: Conformity or Distinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Jerry E.; Boettcher, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The authors explore 3 debates in other disciplines similar to counseling's identity debate in order to learn about common themes and outcomes. Conformity, distinction, and cohesion emerged as common themes. They conclude that counselors should retain their distinctive, humanistic approach rather than conforming to the dominant, medical approach.

  10. Conformal gravity and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazboun, Jeffrey Shafiq

    2014-10-01

    Cartan geometry provides a rich formalism from which to look at various geometrically motivated extensions to general relativity. In this manuscript, we start by motivating reasons to extend the theory of general relativity. We then introduce the reader to our technique, called the quotient manifold method, for extending the geometry of spacetime. We will specifically look at the class of theories formed from the various quotients of the conformal group. Starting with the conformal symmetries of Euclidean space, we construct a manifold where time manifests as a part of the geometry. Though there is no matter present in the geome- try studied here, geometric terms analogous to dark energy and dark matter appear when we write down the Einstein tensor. Specifically, the quotient of the conformal group of Euclidean four-space by its Weyl subgroup results in a geometry possessing many of the properties of relativistic phase space, including both a natural symplectic form and nondegenerate Killing metric. We show the general solution possesses orthogonal Lagrangian submanifolds, with the induced metric and the spin connection on the submanifolds necessarily Lorentzian, despite the Euclidean starting point. By examining the structure equations of the biconformal space in an orthonormal frame adapted to its phase space properties, we also find two new tensor fields exist in this geometry, not present in Riemannian geometry. The first is a combination of the Weyl vector with the scale factor on the metric, and determines the time-like directions on the submanifolds. The second comes from the components of the spin connection, symmetric with respect to the new metric. Though this field comes from the spin connection, it transforms ho- mogeneously. Finally, we show in the absence of Cartan curvature or sources, the configuration space has geometric terms equivalent to a perfect fluid and a cosmological constant. We complete the analysis of this homogeneous space by

  11. Recursion Relations for Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Penedones, João; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-09-12

    In the context of conformal field theories in general space-time dimension, we find all the possible singularities of the conformal blocks as functions of the scaling dimension $\\Delta$ of the exchanged operator. In particular, we argue, using representation theory of parabolic Verma modules, that in odd spacetime dimension the singularities are only simple poles. We discuss how to use this information to write recursion relations that determine the conformal blocks. We first recover the recursion relation introduced in 1307.6856 for conformal blocks of external scalar operators. We then generalize this recursion relation for the conformal blocks associated to the four point function of three scalar and one vector operator. Finally we specialize to the case in which the vector operator is a conserved current.

  12. Projectors, shadows, and conformal blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons-Duffin, David [Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-04-24

    We introduce a method for computing conformal blocks of operators in arbitrary Lorentz representations in any spacetime dimension, making it possible to apply bootstrap techniques to operators with spin. The key idea is to implement the “shadow formalism' of Ferrara, Gatto, Grillo, and Parisi in a setting where conformal invariance is manifest. Conformal blocks in d-dimensions can be expressed as integrals over the projective null-cone in the “embedding space' ℝ{sup d+1,1}. Taking care with their analytic structure, these integrals can be evaluated in great generality, reducing the computation of conformal blocks to a bookkeeping exercise. To facilitate calculations in four-dimensional CFTs, we introduce techniques for writing down conformally-invariant correlators using auxiliary twistor variables, and demonstrate their use in some simple examples.

  13. Reactor component automatic grapple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenaway, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment. (author)

  14. Automatic Commercial Permit Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grana, Paul [Folsom Labs, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2017-12-21

    Final report for Folsom Labs’ Solar Permit Generator project, which has successfully completed, resulting in the development and commercialization of a software toolkit within the cloud-based HelioScope software environment that enables solar engineers to automatically generate and manage draft documents for permit submission.

  15. Automatic Complexity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1989-01-01

    One way to analyse programs is to to derive expressions for their computational behaviour. A time bound function (or worst-case complexity) gives an upper bound for the computation time as a function of the size of input. We describe a system to derive such time bounds automatically using abstrac...

  16. Conformal solids and holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, A.; Garcia-Saenz, S.; Nicolis, A.; Penco, R.

    2017-12-01

    We argue that a SO( d) magnetic monopole in an asymptotically AdS space-time is dual to a d-dimensional strongly coupled system in a solid state. In light of this, it would be remiss of us not to dub such a field configuration solidon. In the presence of mixed boundary conditions, a solidon spontaneously breaks translations (among many other symmetries) and gives rise to Goldstone excitations on the boundary — the phonons of the solid. We derive the quadratic action for the boundary phonons in the probe limit and show that, when the mixed boundary conditions preserve conformal symmetry, the longitudinal and transverse sound speeds are related to each other as expected from effective field theory arguments. We then include backreaction and calculate the free energy of the solidon for a particular choice of mixed boundary conditions, corresponding to a relevant multi-trace deformation of the boundary theory. We find such free energy to be lower than that of thermal AdS. This suggests that our solidon undergoes a solid-to-liquid first order phase transition by melting into a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole as the temperature is raised.

  17. Imaging of conformational changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michl, Josef [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-03-13

    Control of intramolecular conformational change in a small number of molecules or even a single one by an application of an outside electric field defined by potentials on nearby metal or dielectric surfaces has potential applications in both 3-D and 2-D nanotechnology. Specifically, the synthesis, characterization, and understanding of designed solids with controlled built-in internal rotational motion of a dipole promises a new class of materials with intrinsic dielectric, ferroelectric, optical and optoelectronic properties not found in nature. Controlled rotational motion is of great interest due to its expected utility in phenomena as diverse as transport, current flow in molecular junctions, diffusion in microfluidic channels, and rotary motion in molecular machines. A direct time-resolved observation of the dynamics of motion on ps or ns time scale in a single molecule would be highly interesting but is also very difficult and has yet to be accomplished. Much can be learned from an easier but still challenging comparison of directly observed initial and final orientational states of a single molecule, which is the basis of this project. The project also impacts the understanding of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and single-molecule spectroscopic detection, as well as the synthesis of solid-state materials with tailored properties from designed precursors.

  18. Intensity modulated conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, Georges; Moty-Monnereau, Celine; Meyer, Aurelia; David, Pauline; Pages, Frederique; Muller, Felix; Lee-Robin, Sun Hae; David, Denis Jean

    2006-12-01

    This publication reports the assessment of intensity-modulated conformal radiotherapy (IMCR). This assessment is based on a literature survey which focussed on indications, efficiency and safety on the short term, on the risk of radio-induced cancer on the long term, on the role in the therapeutic strategy, on the conditions of execution, on the impact on morbidity-mortality and life quality, on the impact on the health system and on public health policies and program. This assessment is also based on the opinion of a group of experts regarding the technical benefit of IMCR, its indications depending on the cancer type, safety in terms of radio-induced cancers, and conditions of execution. Before this assessment, the report thus indicates indications for which the use of IMCR can be considered as sufficient or not determined. It also proposes a technical description of IMCR and helical tomo-therapy, discusses the use of this technique for various pathologies or tumours, analyses the present situation of care in France, and comments the identification of this technique in foreign classifications

  19. A comparison of accurate automatic hippocampal segmentation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandifar, Azar; Fonov, Vladimir; Coupé, Pierrick; Pruessner, Jens; Collins, D Louis

    2017-07-15

    The hippocampus is one of the first brain structures affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). While many automatic methods for hippocampal segmentation exist, few studies have compared them on the same data. In this study, we compare four fully automated hippocampal segmentation methods in terms of their conformity with manual segmentation and their ability to be used as an AD biomarker in clinical settings. We also apply error correction to the four automatic segmentation methods, and complete a comprehensive validation to investigate differences between the methods. The effect size and classification performance is measured for AD versus normal control (NC) groups and for stable mild cognitive impairment (sMCI) versus progressive mild cognitive impairment (pMCI) groups. Our study shows that the nonlinear patch-based segmentation method with error correction is the most accurate automatic segmentation method and yields the most conformity with manual segmentation (κ=0.894). The largest effect size between AD versus NC and sMCI versus pMCI is produced by FreeSurfer with error correction. We further show that, using only hippocampal volume, age, and sex as features, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve reaches up to 0.8813 for AD versus NC and 0.6451 for sMCI versus pMCI. However, the automatic segmentation methods are not significantly different in their performance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Benchmarking Commercial Conformer Ensemble Generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Nils-Ole; de Bruyn Kops, Christina; Flachsenberg, Florian; Sommer, Kai; Rarey, Matthias; Kirchmair, Johannes

    2017-11-27

    We assess and compare the performance of eight commercial conformer ensemble generators (ConfGen, ConfGenX, cxcalc, iCon, MOE LowModeMD, MOE Stochastic, MOE Conformation Import, and OMEGA) and one leading free algorithm, the distance geometry algorithm implemented in RDKit. The comparative study is based on a new version of the Platinum Diverse Dataset, a high-quality benchmarking dataset of 2859 protein-bound ligand conformations extracted from the PDB. Differences in the performance of commercial algorithms are much smaller than those observed for free algorithms in our previous study (J. Chem. Inf. 2017, 57, 529-539). For commercial algorithms, the median minimum root-mean-square deviations measured between protein-bound ligand conformations and ensembles of a maximum of 250 conformers are between 0.46 and 0.61 Å. Commercial conformer ensemble generators are characterized by their high robustness, with at least 99% of all input molecules successfully processed and few or even no substantial geometrical errors detectable in their output conformations. The RDKit distance geometry algorithm (with minimization enabled) appears to be a good free alternative since its performance is comparable to that of the midranked commercial algorithms. Based on a statistical analysis, we elaborate on which algorithms to use and how to parametrize them for best performance in different application scenarios.

  1. Conformal Lorentz geometry revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleman, Kostake

    1996-02-01

    The group U(2,2) and its subgroup SU(2,2) were considered by Penrose in his study of the conformal compactification M of the Minkowski space M [R. Penrose and W. Rindler, Spinors and Space-Time (Cambridge University, Cambridge, 1986) and R. O. Wells, Jr., Bull. Am. Math. Soc. I, 2 (1979)]. The standard representation of SU(2,2) in C4 and in M are the corner stones of twistor theory, which was created by Penrose to the double purpose of obtaining new solutions of Einstein equations and new insights on gravitational radiation. We think that other representations of SU(2,2) or U(2,2) could also bring some information in relativity [see also, Barut O. Asjim, in Noncompact Lie Groups and some of their Applications, edited by E. A. Tanner and R. Wilson (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 1994), p. 103] and, accordingly, we propose an extension of Penrose twistor program. In this paper we deal with a new U(2,2)-space, which we denote by W. We show first that the SU(2,2)-space M introduced by Penrose is isomorphic to U(2), endowed with an action of SU(2,2) given by non-Abelian homographic transformations. These transformations keep invariant the equation det(u-v)=0, characterizing the pairs (u,v)∈U(2)×U(2) such that ``u lies on the light-cone of v.'' By definition, our space W consists of all pairs (u,v)∈U(2)×U(2) satisfying the condition det(u-v)≠0. The starting point of this article is the observation that W carries an SU(2,2)-invariant pseudo-Riemannian metric L:=Tr[(u-v)-1u˙ ×(u-v)-1v˙], of signature (4,4). (W,L) is in fact an irreducible symmetric space in Cartan's sense, which is isomorphic to the quotient SO(2,4)/S[O(1,1)×O(1,3)]. As an irreducible symmetric space, it is an 8-dimensional Einstein space, whose Ricci tensor is proportional to the metric tensor. We study the geodesic paths of this space giving the general solutions in terms of initial data and studying the constants of motion. In particular we determine the geodesic paths which exhibit two periods

  2. Conformational analysis of phloroglucinols from hypericum Brasiliense by using x-ray diffraction and molecular modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Katia Z.; Lindgren, Eric B.; Correa, Arthur L., E-mail: kzleal@uol.com.b [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Fisico-Quimica; Yoneda, Julliane D. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Polo Universitario de Volta Redonda; Pinheiro, Carlos B. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Franca, Hildegardo S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Dept. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica

    2010-07-01

    In this work we intend to verify the applicability of a computational methodology to predict structural features of organic compounds with biological activity. We selected three phloroglucinols and compared their calculated conformational data with their X-ray crystallographic structure. The results showed that conformations obtained by conformational analysis with the AM1 method followed by geometry optimization by using the DFT B3LYP/6-31 G(d,p) basis set are in very good agreement with X-ray data, indicating that the methodology employed here seems to be a very useful tool in order to predict the conformational preference for this class of compounds. (author)

  3. Harmony of spinning conformal blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomerus, Volker [DESY Hamburg, Theory Group,Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Sobko, Evgeny [Nordita and Stockholm University,Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Isachenkov, Mikhail [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 7610001 (Israel)

    2017-03-15

    Conformal blocks for correlation functions of tensor operators play an increasingly important role for the conformal bootstrap programme. We develop a universal approach to such spinning blocks through the harmonic analysis of certain bundles over a coset of the conformal group. The resulting Casimir equations are given by a matrix version of the Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian that describes the scattering of interacting spinning particles in a 1-dimensional external potential. The approach is illustrated in several examples including fermionic seed blocks in 3D CFT where they take a very simple form.

  4. Harmony of spinning conformal blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Sobko, Evgeny [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Nordita, Stockholm (Sweden); Isachenkov, Mikhail [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovoth (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astrophysics

    2016-12-07

    Conformal blocks for correlation functions of tensor operators play an increasingly important role for the conformal bootstrap programme. We develop a universal approach to such spinning blocks through the harmonic analysis of certain bundles over a coset of the conformal group. The resulting Casimir equations are given by a matrix version of the Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian that describes the scattering of interacting spinning particles in a 1-dimensional external potential. The approach is illustrated in several examples including fermionic seed blocks in 3D CFT where they take a very simple form.

  5. Projectors, Shadows, and Conformal Blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons-Duffin, David

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a method for computing conformal blocks of operators in arbitrary Lorentz representations in any spacetime dimension, making it possible to apply bootstrap techniques to operators with spin. The key idea is to implement the “shadow formalism” of Ferrara, Gatto, Grillo, and Parisi in a setting where conformal invariance is manifest. Conformal blocks in d -dimensions can be expressed as integrals over the projective null-cone in the “embedding space” $ \\mathbb{R} $ d +1,1 . Taking ...

  6. Automatic trend estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Vamos¸, C˘alin

    2013-01-01

    Our book introduces a method to evaluate the accuracy of trend estimation algorithms under conditions similar to those encountered in real time series processing. This method is based on Monte Carlo experiments with artificial time series numerically generated by an original algorithm. The second part of the book contains several automatic algorithms for trend estimation and time series partitioning. The source codes of the computer programs implementing these original automatic algorithms are given in the appendix and will be freely available on the web. The book contains clear statement of the conditions and the approximations under which the algorithms work, as well as the proper interpretation of their results. We illustrate the functioning of the analyzed algorithms by processing time series from astrophysics, finance, biophysics, and paleoclimatology. The numerical experiment method extensively used in our book is already in common use in computational and statistical physics.

  7. Automatic Program Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Automatic Program Development is a tribute to Robert Paige (1947-1999), our accomplished and respected colleague, and moreover our good friend, whose untimely passing was a loss to our academic and research community. We have collected the revised, updated versions of the papers published in his ...... a renewed stimulus for continuing and deepening Bob's research visions. A familiar touch is given to the book by some pictures kindly provided to us by his wife Nieba, the personal recollections of his brother Gary and some of his colleagues and friends....... honor in the Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation Journal in the years 2003 and 2005. Among them there are two papers by Bob: (i) a retrospective view of his research lines, and (ii) a proposal for future studies in the area of the automatic program derivation. The book also includes some papers...

  8. Automaticity or active control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tudoran, Ana Alina; Olsen, Svein Ottar

    This study addresses the quasi-moderating role of habit strength in explaining action loyalty. A model of loyalty behaviour is proposed that extends the traditional satisfaction–intention–action loyalty network. Habit strength is conceptualised as a cognitive construct to refer to the psychological...... aspects of the construct, such as routine, inertia, automaticity, or very little conscious deliberation. The data consist of 2962 consumers participating in a large European survey. The results show that habit strength significantly moderates the association between satisfaction and action loyalty, and......, respectively, between intended loyalty and action loyalty. At high levels of habit strength, consumers are more likely to free up cognitive resources and incline the balance from controlled to routine and automatic-like responses....

  9. Automatic food decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone

    Consumers' food decisions are to a large extent shaped by automatic processes, which are either internally directed through learned habits and routines or externally influenced by context factors and visual information triggers. Innovative research methods such as eye tracking, choice experiments...... and food diaries allow us to better understand the impact of unconscious processes on consumers' food choices. Simone Mueller Loose will provide an overview of recent research insights into the effects of habit and context on consumers' food choices....

  10. Automatic Language Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    hundreds guish one language from another. The reader is referred of input languages would need to be supported , the cost of to the linguistics literature...eventually obtained bet- 108 TRAINING FRENCH GERMAN ITRAIING FRENCH M- ALGORITHM - __ GERMAN NHSPANISH TRAINING SPEECH SET OF MODELS: UTTERANCES ONE MODEL...i.e. vowels ) for each speech utterance are located malized to be insensitive to overall amplitude, pitch and automatically. Next, feature vectors

  11. Higher-derivative generalization of conformal mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranovsky, Oleg

    2017-08-01

    Higher-derivative analogs of multidimensional conformal particle and many-body conformal mechanics are constructed. Their Newton-Hooke counterparts are derived by applying appropriate coordinate transformations.

  12. Radial Coordinates for Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Hogervorst, Matthijs

    2013-01-01

    We develop the theory of conformal blocks in CFT_d expressing them as power series with Gegenbauer polynomial coefficients. Such series have a clear physical meaning when the conformal block is analyzed in radial quantization: individual terms describe contributions of descendants of a given spin. Convergence of these series can be optimized by a judicious choice of the radial quantization origin. We argue that the best choice is to insert the operators symmetrically. We analyze in detail the resulting "rho-series" and show that it converges much more rapidly than for the commonly used variable z. We discuss how these conformal block representations can be used in the conformal bootstrap. In particular, we use them to derive analytically some bootstrap bounds whose existence was previously found numerically.

  13. Steady states in conformal theories

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    A novel conjecture regarding the steady state behavior of conformal field theories placed between two heat baths will be presented. Some verification of the conjecture will be provided in the context of fluid dynamics and holography.

  14. Some Progress in Conformal Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Yung A. Chang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a survey paper of our current research on the theory of partial differential equations in conformal geometry. Our intention is to describe some of our current works in a rather brief and expository fashion. We are not giving a comprehensive survey on the subject and references cited here are not intended to be complete. We introduce a bubble tree structure to study the degeneration of a class of Yamabe metrics on Bach flat manifolds satisfying some global conformal bounds on compact manifolds of dimension 4. As applications, we establish a gap theorem, a finiteness theorem for diffeomorphism type for this class, and diameter bound of the $sigma_2$-metrics in a class of conformal 4-manifolds. For conformally compact Einstein metrics we introduce an eigenfunction compactification. As a consequence we obtain some topological constraints in terms of renormalized volumes.

  15. National Automated Conformity Inspection Process -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The National Automated Conformity Inspection Process (NACIP) Application is intended to expedite the workflow process as it pertains to the FAA Form 81 0-10 Request...

  16. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the conformity SIP adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 5 (IL, IN, MI, OH, WI) is provided here.

  17. Inverse bootstrapping conformal field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenliang

    2018-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to study conformal field theories (CFTs) in general dimensions. In the conformal bootstrap program, one usually searches for consistent CFT data that satisfy crossing symmetry. In the new method, we reverse the logic and interpret manifestly crossing-symmetric functions as generating functions of conformal data. Physical CFTs can be obtained by scanning the space of crossing-symmetric functions. By truncating the fusion rules, we are able to concentrate on the low-lying operators and derive some approximate relations for their conformal data. It turns out that the free scalar theory, the 2d minimal model CFTs, the ϕ 4 Wilson-Fisher CFT, the Lee-Yang CFTs and the Ising CFTs are consistent with the universal relations from the minimal fusion rule ϕ 1 × ϕ 1 = I + ϕ 2 + T , where ϕ 1 , ϕ 2 are scalar operators, I is the identity operator and T is the stress tensor.

  18. Aspect of the conformal invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.

    1990-11-01

    This thesis is about the study of several physical and mathematical aspects of critical phenomena at two dimensions. These phenomena have remarkable symmetry properties in the coordonnates changes keeping the angles. They are named conformal theories

  19. Naturality in conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.; Seiberg, N.

    1989-01-01

    We discuss constraints on the operator product coefficients in diagonal and nondiagonal rational conformal field theories. Nondiagonal modular invariants always arise from automorphisms of the fusion rule algebra or from extensions of the chiral algebra. Moreover, when the chiral algebra has been maximally extended a strong form of the naturality principle of field theory can be proven for rational conformal field theory: operator product coefficients vanish if and only if the corresponding fusion rules vanish; that is, if and only if the vanishing can be understood in terms of a symmetry. We illustrate these ideas with several examples. We also generalize our ideas about rational conformal field theories to a larger class of theories: 'quasi-rational conformal field theories' and we explore some of their properties. (orig.)

  20. Dental flossing and automaticity: a longitudinal moderated mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kyra; Orbell, Sheina; Bonham, Mikaela; Kroon, Jeroen; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2018-06-01

    We investigated the role of normative support, behavioural automaticity, and action control in predicting dental flossing behaviour. Between May and October 2015, 629 Australian young adults completed a questionnaire assessing constructs of normative support and automaticity, and a 2-week follow-up of dental flossing behaviour and action control, resulting in n = 241 persons for longitudinal analysis. Findings supported the hypotheses that the effect of normative support on behaviour would be mediated via automaticity, and the effect of automaticity would be moderated by action control. Current results extend previous research to elucidate the mechanisms that help to understand predictors of oral hygiene behaviours and contribute to the cumulative evidence concerning self-regulatory and automatic components of health behaviour.

  1. A robust force field based method for calculating conformational energies of charged drug-like molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pøhlsgaard, Jacob; Harpsøe, Kasper; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen

    2012-01-01

    The binding affinity of a drug like molecule depends among other things on the availability of the bioactive conformation. If the bioactive conformation has a significantly higher energy than the global minimum energy conformation, the molecule is unlikely to bind to its target. Determination...... of the global minimum energy conformation and calculation of conformational penalties of binding are prerequisites for prediction of reliable binding affinities. Here, we present a simple and computationally efficient procedure to estimate the global energy minimum for a wide variety of structurally diverse...... molecules, including polar and charged compounds. Identifying global energy minimum conformations of such compounds with force-field methods is problematic due to the exaggeration of intramolecular electrostatic interactions. We demonstrate that the global energy minimum conformations of zwitterionic...

  2. Incorporation of protein flexibility and conformational energy penalties in docking screens to improve ligand discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Marcus; Coleman, Ryan G.; Fraser, James S.; Shoichet, Brian K.

    2014-07-01

    Proteins fluctuate between alternative conformations, which presents a challenge for ligand discovery because such flexibility is difficult to treat computationally owing to problems with conformational sampling and energy weighting. Here we describe a flexible docking method that samples and weights protein conformations using experimentally derived conformations as a guide. The crystallographically refined occupancies of these conformations, which are observable in an apo receptor structure, define energy penalties for docking. In a large prospective library screen, we identified new ligands that target specific receptor conformations of a cavity in cytochrome c peroxidase, and we confirm both ligand pose and associated receptor conformation predictions by crystallography. The inclusion of receptor flexibility led to ligands with new chemotypes and physical properties. By exploiting experimental measures of loop and side-chain flexibility, this method can be extended to the discovery of new ligands for hundreds of targets in the Protein Data Bank for which similar experimental information is available.

  3. Comparison of manual versus automatic continuous positive airway pressure titration and the development of a predictive equation for therapeutic continuous positive airway pressure in Chinese patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiaying; Xiao, Sichang; Qiu, Zhihui; Song, Ning; Luo, Yuanming

    2013-04-01

    Whether the therapeutic nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) derived from manual titration is the same as derived from automatic titration is controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare the therapeutic pressure derived from manual titration with automatic titration. Fifty-one patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) (mean apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI) = 50.6 ± 18.6 events/h) who were newly diagnosed after an overnight full polysomnography and who were willing to accept CPAP as a long-term treatment were recruited for the study. Manual titration during full polysomnography monitoring and unattended automatic titration with an automatic CPAP device (REMstar Auto) were performed. A separate cohort study of one hundred patients with OSA (AHI = 54.3 ± 18.9 events/h) was also performed by observing the efficacy of CPAP derived from manual titration. The treatment pressure derived from automatic titration (9.8 ± 2.2 cmH(2)O) was significantly higher than that derived from manual titration (7.3 ± 1.5 cmH(2)O; P titration (54.3 ± 18.9 events/h before treatment and 3.3 ± 1.7 events/h after treatment; P titration pressure derived from REMstar Auto is usually higher than the pressure derived from manual titration. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  4. Quantum Conformal Algebras and Closed Conformal Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Anselmi, D

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the quantum conformal algebras of N=2 and N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories. Phenomena occurring at strong coupling are analysed using the Nachtmann theorem and very general, model-independent, arguments. The results lead us to introduce a novel class of conformal field theories, identified by a closed quantum conformal algebra. We conjecture that they are the exact solution to the strongly coupled large-N_c limit of the open conformal field theories. We study the basic properties of closed conformal field theory and work out the operator product expansion of the conserved current multiplet T. The OPE structure is uniquely determined by two central charges, c and a. The multiplet T does not contain just the stress-tensor, but also R-currents and finite mass operators. For this reason, the ratio c/a is different from 1. On the other hand, an open algebra contains an infinite tower of non-conserved currents, organized in pairs and singlets with respect to renormalization mixing. T mixes with a se...

  5. Automatic Evaluation Of Interferograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Friedhelm; Meier, Gerd E. A.; Wegner, Horst

    1983-03-01

    A system for the automatic evaluation of interference patterns has been developed. After digitizing the interferograms from classical and holografic interferometers with a television digitizer and performing different picture enhancement operations the fringe loci are extracted by use of a floating-threshold method. The fringes are numbered using a special scheme after the removal of any fringe disconnections which might appear if there was insufficient contrast in the interferograms. The reconstruction of the object function from the numbered fringe field is achieved by a local polynomial least-squares approximation. Applications are given, demonstrating the evaluation of interferograms of supersonic flow fields and the analysis of holografic interferograms of car-tyres.

  6. Automatic quantitative renal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeyre, J.; Deltour, G.; Delisle, M.J.; Bouchard, A.

    1976-01-01

    Renal scintigraphy data may be analyzed automatically by the use of a processing system coupled to an Anger camera (TRIDAC-MULTI 8 or CINE 200). The computing sequence is as follows: normalization of the images; background noise subtraction on both images; evaluation of mercury 197 uptake by the liver and spleen; calculation of the activity fractions on each kidney with respect to the injected dose, taking into account the kidney depth and the results referred to normal values; edition of the results. Automation minimizes the scattering parameters and by its simplification is a great asset in routine work [fr

  7. An SIS model for cultural trait transmission with conformity bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Caroline E; Kendal, Jeremy R

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiological models have been applied to human health-related behaviors that are affected by social interaction. Typically these models have not considered conformity bias, that is, the exaggerated propensity to adopt commonly observed behaviors or opinions, or content biases, where the content of the learned trait affects the probability of adoption. Here we consider an interaction of these two effects, presenting an SIS-type model for the spread and persistence of a behavior which is transmitted via social learning. Uptake is controlled by a nonlinear dependence on the proportion of individuals demonstrating the behavior in a population. Three equilibrium solutions are found, their linear stability is analyzed and the results are compared with a model for unbiased social learning. Our analysis focuses on the effects of the strength of conformity bias and the effects of content biases which alter a conformity threshold frequency of the behavior, above which there is an exaggerated propensity for adoption. The strength of the conformity bias is found to qualitatively alter the predictions regarding whether the trait becomes endemic within the population and the proportion of individuals who display the trait when it is endemic. As the conformity strength increases, the number of feasible equilibrium solutions increases from two to three, leading to a situation where the stable equilibrium attained is dependent upon the initial state. Varying the conformity threshold frequency directionally alters the behavior invasion threshold. Finally we discuss the possible application of this model to binge drinking behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Enthalpy Differences of the n-Pentane Conformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csontos, József; Nagy, Balázs; Gyevi-Nagy, László; Kállay, Mihály; Tasi, Gyula

    2016-06-14

    The energy and enthalpy differences of alkane conformers in various temperature ranges have been the subject for both experimental and theoretical studies over the last few decades. It was shown previously for the conformers of butane [G. Tasi et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2012, 8, 479-486] that quantum chemical results can compete with spectroscopic techniques and results obtained even from the most carefully performed experiments could be biased due to the improper statistical model utilized to evaluate the raw experimental data. In the current study, on one hand, the experimental values and their uncertainties for the enthalpy differences for pentane conformers are re-evaluated using the appropriate statistical model. On the other hand, a coupled-cluster-based focal-point analysis has been performed to calculate energy and enthalpy differences for the conformers of pentane. The model chemistry defined in this study includes contributions up to the perturbative quadruple excitations augmented with further small correction terms beyond the Born-Oppenheimer and nonrelativistic approximations. Benchmark quality energy and enthalpy differences for the pentane conformers are given at temperatures 0 and 298.15 K as well as for the various temperature ranges used in the gas-phase experimental measurements. Furthermore, a slight positive shift for the experimental enthalpy differences is also predicted due to an additional Raman active band belonging to the gauche-gauche conformer.

  9. Conformation of hindered piperidines: Spectroscopic evidence for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The preferred conformations of both the isomeric forms of nitrosamines were determined by comparison of ... found to possess pharmacological activity and form an essential part of the molecular structure of important drugs. 1 ... chair conformation. The relative preference among the various conformers in the conformational ...

  10. 40 CFR 93.154 - Conformity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conformity analysis. 93.154 Section 93...) DETERMINING CONFORMITY OF FEDERAL ACTIONS TO STATE OR FEDERAL IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Determining Conformity of General Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans § 93.154 Conformity analysis. Any Federal...

  11. Automatic Code Checking Applied to Fire Fighting and Panic Projects in a BIM Environment - BIMSCIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Franco Porto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a computational implementation of an automatic conformity verification of building projects using a 3D modeling platform for BIM. This program was developed in C# language and based itself on the 9th Technical Instruction from Military Fire Brigade of the State of Minas Gerais which covers regulations of fire load in buildings and hazardous areas.

  12. Automatic readout micrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, T.

    A measuring system is described for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principle use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse of fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  13. Automatic personnel contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattin, Kenneth R.

    1978-01-01

    United Nuclear Industries, Inc. (UNI) has developed an automatic personnel contamination monitor (APCM), which uniquely combines the design features of both portal and hand and shoe monitors. In addition, this prototype system also has a number of new features, including: micro computer control and readout, nineteen large area gas flow detectors, real-time background compensation, self-checking for system failures, and card reader identification and control. UNI's experience in operating the Hanford N Reactor, located in Richland, Washington, has shown the necessity of automatically monitoring plant personnel for contamination after they have passed through the procedurally controlled radiation zones. This final check ensures that each radiation zone worker has been properly checked before leaving company controlled boundaries. Investigation of the commercially available portal and hand and shoe monitors indicated that they did not have the sensitivity or sophistication required for UNI's application, therefore, a development program was initiated, resulting in the subject monitor. Field testing shows good sensitivity to personnel contamination with the majority of alarms showing contaminants on clothing, face and head areas. In general, the APCM has sensitivity comparable to portal survey instrumentation. The inherit stand-in, walk-on feature of the APCM not only makes it easy to use, but makes it difficult to bypass. (author)

  14. Reachability Games on Automatic Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neider, Daniel

    In this work we study two-person reachability games on finite and infinite automatic graphs. For the finite case we empirically show that automatic game encodings are competitive to well-known symbolic techniques such as BDDs, SAT and QBF formulas. For the infinite case we present a novel algorithm utilizing algorithmic learning techniques, which allows to solve huge classes of automatic reachability games.

  15. Automatic reactor protection system tester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deliant, J.D.; Jahnke, S.; Raimondo, E.

    1988-01-01

    The object of this paper is to present the automatic tester of reactor protection systems designed and developed by EDF and Framatome. In order, the following points are discussed: . The necessity for reactor protection system testing, . The drawbacks of manual testing, . The description and use of the Framatome automatic tester, . On-site installation of this system, . The positive results obtained using the Framatome automatic tester in France

  16. Logarithmic exotic conformal Galilean algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henkel, Malte, E-mail: Malte.henkel@univ-lorraine.fr [Groupe de Physique Statistique, Institut Jean Lamour (CNRS UMR 7198), Université de Lorraine Nancy, B.P. 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France); Hosseiny, Ali, E-mail: al_hosseiny@sbu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C. Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Particles and Accelerators, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rouhani, Shahin, E-mail: rouhani@ipm.ir [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11165-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Particles and Accelerators, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Logarithmic representations of the conformal Galilean algebra (CGA) and the Exotic Conformal Galilean algebra (ECGA) are constructed. This can be achieved by non-decomposable representations of the scaling dimensions or the rapidity indices, specific to conformal Galilean algebras. Logarithmic representations of the non-exotic CGA lead to the expected constraints on scaling dimensions and rapidities and also on the logarithmic contributions in the co-variant two-point functions. On the other hand, the ECGA admits several distinct situations which are distinguished by different sets of constraints and distinct scaling forms of the two-point functions. Two distinct realisations for the spatial rotations are identified as well. This is the first concrete example of a reducible, but non-decomposable representation, without logarithmic terms. Such cases had been anticipated before.

  17. Conformal geometry and quasiregular mappings

    CERN Document Server

    Vuorinen, Matti

    1988-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theory of spatial quasiregular mappings intended for the uninitiated reader. At the same time the book also addresses specialists in classical analysis and, in particular, geometric function theory. The text leads the reader to the frontier of current research and covers some most recent developments in the subject, previously scatterd through the literature. A major role in this monograph is played by certain conformal invariants which are solutions of extremal problems related to extremal lengths of curve families. These invariants are then applied to prove sharp distortion theorems for quasiregular mappings. One of these extremal problems of conformal geometry generalizes a classical two-dimensional problem of O. Teichmüller. The novel feature of the exposition is the way in which conformal invariants are applied and the sharp results obtained should be of considerable interest even in the two-dimensional particular case. This book combines the features of a textbook an...

  18. Automatic sets and Delone sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbe, A; Haeseler, F von

    2004-01-01

    Automatic sets D part of Z m are characterized by having a finite number of decimations. They are equivalently generated by fixed points of certain substitution systems, or by certain finite automata. As examples, two-dimensional versions of the Thue-Morse, Baum-Sweet, Rudin-Shapiro and paperfolding sequences are presented. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for an automatic set D part of Z m to be a Delone set in R m . The result is then extended to automatic sets that are defined as fixed points of certain substitutions. The morphology of automatic sets is discussed by means of examples

  19. Epigenetic dominance of prion conformers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Saijo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Although they share certain biological properties with nucleic acid based infectious agents, prions, the causative agents of invariably fatal, transmissible neurodegenerative disorders such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy, sheep scrapie, and human Creutzfeldt Jakob disease, propagate by conformational templating of host encoded proteins. Once thought to be unique to these diseases, this mechanism is now recognized as a ubiquitous means of information transfer in biological systems, including other protein misfolding disorders such as those causing Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. To address the poorly understood mechanism by which host prion protein (PrP primary structures interact with distinct prion conformations to influence pathogenesis, we produced transgenic (Tg mice expressing different sheep scrapie susceptibility alleles, varying only at a single amino acid at PrP residue 136. Tg mice expressing ovine PrP with alanine (A at (OvPrP-A136 infected with SSBP/1 scrapie prions propagated a relatively stable (S prion conformation, which accumulated as punctate aggregates in the brain, and produced prolonged incubation times. In contrast, Tg mice expressing OvPrP with valine (V at 136 (OvPrP-V136 infected with the same prions developed disease rapidly, and the converted prion was comprised of an unstable (U, diffusely distributed conformer. Infected Tg mice co-expressing both alleles manifested properties consistent with the U conformer, suggesting a dominant effect resulting from exclusive conversion of OvPrP-V136 but not OvPrP-A136. Surprisingly, however, studies with monoclonal antibody (mAb PRC5, which discriminates OvPrP-A136 from OvPrP-V136, revealed substantial conversion of OvPrP-A136. Moreover, the resulting OvPrP-A136 prion acquired the characteristics of the U conformer. These results, substantiated by in vitro analyses, indicated that co-expression of OvPrP-V136 altered the conversion potential of OvPrP-A136 from the S to

  20. SUSY Unparticle and Conformal Sequestering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Yu; Nakayama, Yu

    2007-07-17

    We investigate unparticle physics with supersymmetry (SUSY). The SUSY breaking effects due to the gravity mediation induce soft masses for the SUSY unparticles and hence break the conformal invariance. The unparticle physics observable in near future experiments is only consistent if the SUSY breakingeffects from the hidden sector to the standard model sector are dominated by the gauge mediation, or if the SUSY breaking effects to the unparticle sector are sufficiently sequestered. We argue that the natural realization of the latter possibility is the conformal sequestering scenario.

  1. Automatic quantitative metallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcelos, E.J.B.V.; Ambrozio Filho, F.; Cunha, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    The quantitative determination of metallographic parameters is analysed through the description of Micro-Videomat automatic image analysis system and volumetric percentage of perlite in nodular cast irons, porosity and average grain size in high-density sintered pellets of UO 2 , and grain size of ferritic steel. Techniques adopted are described and results obtained are compared with the corresponding ones by the direct counting process: counting of systematic points (grid) to measure volume and intersections method, by utilizing a circunference of known radius for the average grain size. The adopted technique for nodular cast iron resulted from the small difference of optical reflectivity of graphite and perlite. Porosity evaluation of sintered UO 2 pellets is also analyzed [pt

  2. Semi-automatic fluoroscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarpley, M.W.

    1976-10-01

    Extruded aluminum-clad uranium-aluminum alloy fuel tubes must pass many quality control tests before irradiation in Savannah River Plant nuclear reactors. Nondestructive test equipment has been built to automatically detect high and low density areas in the fuel tubes using x-ray absorption techniques with a video analysis system. The equipment detects areas as small as 0.060-in. dia with 2 percent penetrameter sensitivity. These areas are graded as to size and density by an operator using electronic gages. Video image enhancement techniques permit inspection of ribbed cylindrical tubes and make possible the testing of areas under the ribs. Operation of the testing machine, the special low light level television camera, and analysis and enhancement techniques are discussed

  3. AUTOMATIC ARCHITECTURAL STYLE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mathias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Procedural modeling has proven to be a very valuable tool in the field of architecture. In the last few years, research has soared to automatically create procedural models from images. However, current algorithms for this process of inverse procedural modeling rely on the assumption that the building style is known. So far, the determination of the building style has remained a manual task. In this paper, we propose an algorithm which automates this process through classification of architectural styles from facade images. Our classifier first identifies the images containing buildings, then separates individual facades within an image and determines the building style. This information could then be used to initialize the building reconstruction process. We have trained our classifier to distinguish between several distinct architectural styles, namely Flemish Renaissance, Haussmannian and Neoclassical. Finally, we demonstrate our approach on various street-side images.

  4. Automatic surveying techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, R.

    1976-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of automatic surveying methods in a more systematic manner, the PEP organization signed a contract in late 1975 for TRW Systems Group to undertake a feasibility study. The completion of this study resulted in TRW Report 6452.10-75-101, dated December 29, 1975, which was largely devoted to an analysis of a survey system based on an Inertial Navigation System. This PEP note is a review and, in some instances, an extension of that TRW report. A second survey system which employed an ''Image Processing System'' was also considered by TRW, and it will be reviewed in the last section of this note. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Conformational thermodynamics guided structural reconstruction of biomolecular fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, Samapan; Chakrabarti, J; Ghosh, Mahua

    2016-02-01

    Computational prediction of structure for macromolecular fragments is a formidable challenge. Here we show that the differences in conformational thermodynamics, computed using the equilibrium distribution of dihedral angles from molecular dynamics simulation, can identify the better model for the missing residues in the metal ion free (apo) skeletal muscle Troponin C (TnC). We use the model to understand Troponin I interaction with calcium (Ca(2+)) ion bound TnC. Our method to compare conformational thermodynamics between different models can be easily generalized to any macromolecule to understand the structure and function even if experimental structures are not resolved.

  6. Automatic alkaloid removal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, Muhammad Rizuwan; Hj Razali, Mohd Hudzari; Abu Bakar, Che Abdullah; Ismail, Wan Ishak Wan; Muda, Wan Musa Wan; Mat, Nashriyah; Zakaria, Abd

    2014-01-01

    This alkaloid automated removal machine was developed at Instrumentation Laboratory, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin Malaysia that purposely for removing the alkaloid toxicity from Dioscorea hispida (DH) tuber. It is a poisonous plant where scientific study has shown that its tubers contain toxic alkaloid constituents, dioscorine. The tubers can only be consumed after it poisonous is removed. In this experiment, the tubers are needed to blend as powder form before inserting into machine basket. The user is need to push the START button on machine controller for switching the water pump ON by then creating turbulence wave of water in machine tank. The water will stop automatically by triggering the outlet solenoid valve. The powders of tubers are washed for 10 minutes while 1 liter of contaminated water due toxin mixture is flowing out. At this time, the controller will automatically triggered inlet solenoid valve and the new water will flow in machine tank until achieve the desire level that which determined by ultra sonic sensor. This process will repeated for 7 h and the positive result is achieved and shows it significant according to the several parameters of biological character ofpH, temperature, dissolve oxygen, turbidity, conductivity and fish survival rate or time. From that parameter, it also shows the positive result which is near or same with control water and assuming was made that the toxin is fully removed when the pH of DH powder is near with control water. For control water, the pH is about 5.3 while water from this experiment process is 6.0 and before run the machine the pH of contaminated water is about 3.8 which are too acid. This automated machine can save time for removing toxicity from DH compared with a traditional method while less observation of the user.

  7. Pattern-Driven Automatic Parallelization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph W. Kessler

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a knowledge-based system for automatic parallelization of a wide class of sequential numerical codes operating on vectors and dense matrices, and for execution on distributed memory message-passing multiprocessors. Its main feature is a fast and powerful pattern recognition tool that locally identifies frequently occurring computations and programming concepts in the source code. This tool also works for dusty deck codes that have been "encrypted" by former machine-specific code transformations. Successful pattern recognition guides sophisticated code transformations including local algorithm replacement such that the parallelized code need not emerge from the sequential program structure by just parallelizing the loops. It allows access to an expert's knowledge on useful parallel algorithms, available machine-specific library routines, and powerful program transformations. The partially restored program semantics also supports local array alignment, distribution, and redistribution, and allows for faster and more exact prediction of the performance of the parallelized target code than is usually possible.

  8. Molecular mechanics conformational analysis of tylosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Petko M.

    1998-01-01

    The conformations of the 16-membered macrolide antibiotic tylosin were studied with molecular mechanics (AMBER∗ force field) including modelling of the effect of the solvent on the conformational preferences (GB/SA). A Monte Carlo conformational search procedure was used for finding the most probable low-energy conformations. The present study provides complementary data to recently reported analysis of the conformations of tylosin based on NMR techniques. A search for the low-energy conformations of protynolide, a 16-membered lactone containing the same aglycone as tylosin, was also carried out, and the results were compared with the observed conformation in the crystal as well as with the most probable conformations of the macrocyclic ring of tylosin. The dependence of the results on force field was also studied by utilizing the MM3 force field. Some particular conformations were computed with the semiempirical molecular orbital methods AM1 and PM3.

  9. Conformal mapping for multiple terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weimin; Ma, Wenying; Wang, Qiang; Ren, Hao

    2016-11-01

    Conformal mapping is an important mathematical tool that can be used to solve various physical and engineering problems in many fields, including electrostatics, fluid mechanics, classical mechanics, and transformation optics. It is an accurate and convenient way to solve problems involving two terminals. However, when faced with problems involving three or more terminals, which are more common in practical applications, existing conformal mapping methods apply assumptions or approximations. A general exact method does not exist for a structure with an arbitrary number of terminals. This study presents a conformal mapping method for multiple terminals. Through an accurate analysis of boundary conditions, additional terminals or boundaries are folded into the inner part of a mapped region. The method is applied to several typical situations, and the calculation process is described for two examples of an electrostatic actuator with three electrodes and of a light beam splitter with three ports. Compared with previously reported results, the solutions for the two examples based on our method are more precise and general. The proposed method is helpful in promoting the application of conformal mapping in analysis of practical problems.

  10. Supertwistor connection and conformal supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkulov, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Supersymmetry expansion of the geometry of local twistors is suggested. Definition of the space of local supertwistors is given and its differential geometry is formulated. Variational principles are discussed, and it is shown that corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations also coincide and result in superzero equations of N=1 conformal supergravitation, which generalize Bach equations

  11. Exceptional and Spinorial Conformal Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojaza, Matin; Pica, Claudio; Ryttov, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We study the conformal window of gauge theories containing fermionic matter fields, where the gauge group is any of the exceptional groups with the fermions transforming according to the fundamental and adjoint representations and the orthogonal groups where the fermions transform according...

  12. Anomalous Dimensions of Conformal Baryons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We determine the anomalous dimensions of baryon operators for the three color theory as function of the number of massless flavours within the conformal window to the maximum known order in perturbation theory. We show that the anomalous dimension of the baryon is controllably small, within...

  13. Classifying visemes for automatic lipreading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Michiel; Poel, Mannes; Nijholt, Antinus; Matousek, Vaclav; Mautner, Pavel; Ocelikovi, Jana; Sojka, Petr

    1999-01-01

    Automatic lipreading is automatic speech recognition that uses only visual information. The relevant data in a video signal is isolated and features are extracted from it. From a sequence of feature vectors, where every vector represents one video image, a sequence of higher level semantic elements

  14. Predictors of Mental Health Symptoms, Automatic Thoughts, and Self-Esteem Among University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiçdurmaz, Duygu; İnci, Figen; Karahan, Sevilay

    2017-01-01

    University youth is a risk group regarding mental health, and many mental health problems are frequent in this group. Sociodemographic factors such as level of income and familial factors such as relationship with father are reported to be associated with mental health symptoms, automatic thoughts, and self-esteem. Also, there are interrelations between mental health problems, automatic thoughts, and self-esteem. The extent of predictive effect of each of these variables on automatic thoughts, self-esteem, and mental health symptoms is not known. We aimed to determine the predictive factors of mental health symptoms, automatic thoughts, and self-esteem in university students. Participants were 530 students enrolled at a university in Turkey, during 2014-2015 academic year. Data were collected using the student information form, the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Mental health symptoms, self-esteem, perception of the relationship with the father, and level of income as a student significantly predicted automatic thoughts. Automatic thoughts, mental health symptoms, participation in family decisions, and age had significant predictive effects on self-esteem. Finally, automatic thoughts, self-esteem, age, and perception of the relationship with the father had significant predictive effects on mental health symptoms. The predictive factors revealed in our study provide important information to practitioners and researchers by showing the elements that need to be screened for mental health of university students and issues that need to be included in counseling activities.

  15. Negative and Positive Automatic thoughts in Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Iulian; Bodner, Ehud; Joubran, Samia; Lupinsky, Yelena; Barenboim, Damian

    2015-01-01

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is characterized by fear and avoidance in social situations where one is exposed to scrutiny by others. It is possible that automatic thoughts either cause the disorder or maintain it, and thus their examination is warranted. 30 SAD subjects diagnosed with the MiniInternational Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and 30 healthy controls were administered the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaires (ATQ-Negative and ATQ-Positive), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). It was hypothesized that the SAD subjects would display more depression and disability, more negative automatic thoughts and fewer positive automatic thoughts than the healthy controls, and that the automatic thoughts will predict the severity of SAD. SAD patients had higher scores of depression and disability, higher scores on the ATQ-Negative questionnaire and lower scores on the ATQ-Positive questionnaire. The scores of the LSAS subscales were predicted by the scores of the ATQ-Positive and the BDI questionnaires. Moderate sample size and limits of the questionnaires used in the study. Automatic thoughts may be an important area of research with larger samples. Further studies should be carried out in order to examine if strengthening positive thinking and ablation of negative thinking can reduce SAD symptoms during cognitive behavioral treatment.

  16. 97: Fully automated planning for conformation radiotherapy of the spinal axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shentall, G.S.; Brace, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    A TEM MS90 Tracking Cobalt Unit controlled by a Hewlett Packard micro-computer used in conjunction with in-house software performs conformation therapy of the spinal axis. To overcome the problem of calculating doses from a moving couch treatment, a new planning system has been devised in which the programme itself is able to create a completed conformation therapy plan individually tailored to each patient. Once the target volume has been drawn on a series of transverse CT slices covering the length of the spinal column and the dose specified, all further operation is automatic. 3 refs.; 2 figs

  17. Exploring the conformational landscape of menthol, menthone, and isomenthone: A microwave study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eSchmitz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The rotational spectra of the monoterpenoids menthol, menthone, and isomenthone are reportedin the frequency range of 2−8.5GHz, obtained with broadband Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy.For menthol only one conformation was identified under the cold conditions of the molecularjet, whereas three conformations were observed for menthone and one for isomenthone. Theconformational space of the different molecules was extensively studied using quantum chemicalcalculations, and the results were compared with molecular parameters obtained by the measurements.Finally, a computer program is presented, which was developed to automatically identifydifferent species in a dense broadband microwave spectrum using calculated ab initio rotationalconstants as input.

  18. A sampling approach for protein backbone fragment conformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J Y; Zhang, W

    2013-01-01

    In protein structure prediction, backbone fragment bias information can narrow down the conformational space of the whole polypeptide chain significantly. Unlike existing methods that use fragments as building blocks, the paper presents a probabilistic sampling approach for protein backbone torsion angles by modelling angular correlation of (phi, psi) with a directional statistics distribution. Given a protein sequence and secondary structure information, this method samples backbone fragments conformations by using a backtrack sampling algorithm for the hidden Markov model with multiple inputs and a single output. The proposed approach is applied to a fragment library, and some well-known structural motifs are sampled very well on the optimal path. Computational results show that the method can help to obtain native-like backbone fragments conformations.

  19. Informational and Normative Influences in Conformity from a Neurocomputational Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toelch, Ulf; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-10-01

    We consider two distinct influences that drive conformity behaviour. Whereas informational influences facilitate adaptive and accurate responses, normative influences bias decisions to enhance social acceptance. We explore these influences from a perspective of perceptual and value-based decision-making models and apply these models to classical works on conformity. We argue that an informational account predicts a surprising tendency to conform. Moreover, we detail how normative influences fit into this framework and interact with social influences. Finally, we explore potential neuronal substrates for informational and normative influences based on a consideration of the neurobiological literature, highlighting conceptual shortcomings particularly with regard to a failure to segregate informational and normative influences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Conformational flexibility and packing plausibility of repaglinide polymorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Dimpy; Goyal, Parnika; Chadha, Renu

    2018-04-01

    The present manuscript highlights the structural insight into the repaglinide polymorphs. The experimental screening for the possible crystal forms were carried out using various solvents, which generated three forms. The crystal structure of Form II and III was determined using PXRD pattern whereas structural analysis of Form I has already been reported. Form I, II and II was found to exist in P212121, PNA21 and P21/c space groups respectively. Conformational analysis was performed to account the conformational flexibility of RPG. The obtained conformers were further utilized to obtain the information about the crystal packing pattern of RPG polymorphs by polymorph prediction module. The lattice energy landscape, depicting the relationship between lattice energy and density of the polymorphs has been obtained for various possible polymorphs. The experimentally isolated polymorphs were successfully fitted into lattice energy landscape.

  1. The role of cognition in school refusal: an investigation of automatic thoughts and cognitive errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maric, Marija; Heyne, David A; de Heus, Peter; van Widenfelt, Brigit M; Westenberg, P Michiel

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitions of anxious school refusers. The cognitive constructs under investigation included negative cognition commonly linked to youth anxiety (i.e. negative automatic thoughts and cognitive errors) and positive automatic thoughts. The cognition of school refusers (n = 50) and youth from a community sample (n = 181) was assessed with the Children's Automatic Thoughts Scale-Negative/Positive and the Children's Negative Cognitive Error Questionnaire-Revised. When controlling for anxiety, school refusers were found to report more negative automatic thoughts concerning personal failure, fewer negative automatic thoughts concerning hostility, and fewer positive automatic thoughts. Negative automatic thoughts concerning personal failure and hostility, and the negative cognitive error of overgeneralizing were found to independently predict school refusal. The findings underscore the importance of further researching the role of cognition in the development, maintenance, and treatment of anxiety-based school refusal.

  2. Improvements to robotics-inspired conformational sampling in rosetta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie Stein

    Full Text Available To accurately predict protein conformations in atomic detail, a computational method must be capable of sampling models sufficiently close to the native structure. All-atom sampling is difficult because of the vast number of possible conformations and extremely rugged energy landscapes. Here, we test three sampling strategies to address these difficulties: conformational diversification, intensification of torsion and omega-angle sampling and parameter annealing. We evaluate these strategies in the context of the robotics-based kinematic closure (KIC method for local conformational sampling in Rosetta on an established benchmark set of 45 12-residue protein segments without regular secondary structure. We quantify performance as the fraction of sub-Angstrom models generated. While improvements with individual strategies are only modest, the combination of intensification and annealing strategies into a new "next-generation KIC" method yields a four-fold increase over standard KIC in the median percentage of sub-Angstrom models across the dataset. Such improvements enable progress on more difficult problems, as demonstrated on longer segments, several of which could not be accurately remodeled with previous methods. Given its improved sampling capability, next-generation KIC should allow advances in other applications such as local conformational remodeling of multiple segments simultaneously, flexible backbone sequence design, and development of more accurate energy functions.

  3. Automatic exposure for xeromammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aichinger, H.

    1977-01-01

    During mammography without intensifying screens, exposure measurements are carried out behind the film. It is, however, difficult to construct an absolutely shadow-free ionization chamber of adequate sensitivity working in the necessary range of 25 to 50 kV. Repeated attempts have been made to utilize the advantages of automatic exposure for xero-mammography. In this case also the ionization chamber was placed behind the Xerox plate. Depending on tube filtration, object thickness and tube voltage, more than 80%, sometimes even 90%, of the radiation is absorbed by the Xerox plate. Particularly the characteristic Mo radiation of 17.4 keV and 19.6 keV is almost totally absorbed by the plate and cannot therefore be registered by the ionization chamber. This results in a considerable dependence of the exposure on kV and object thickness. Dependence on tube voltage and object thickness have been examined dosimetrically and spectroscopically with a Ge(Li)-spectrometer. Finally, the successful use of a shadow-free chamber is described; this has been particularly adapted for xero-mammography and is placed in front of the plate. (orig) [de

  4. Historical Review and Perspective on Automatic Journalizing

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    ContentsIntroduction1. EDP Accounting and Automatic Journalizing2. Learning System of Automatic Journalizing3. Automatic Journalizing by the Artificial Intelligence4. Direction of the Progress of the Accounting Information System

  5. Automatic Tool for Local Assembly Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-10-11

    Whole community shotgun sequencing of total DNA (i.e. metagenomics) and total RNA (i.e. metatranscriptomics) has provided a wealth of information in the microbial community structure, predicted functions, metabolic networks, and is even able to reconstruct complete genomes directly. Here we present ATLAS (Automatic Tool for Local Assembly Structures) a comprehensive pipeline for assembly, annotation, genomic binning of metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data with an integrated framework for Multi-Omics. This will provide an open source tool for the Multi-Omic community at large.

  6. Conformational analysis and circular dichroism of bilirubin, the yellow pigment of jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightner, David A.; Person, Richard; Peterson, Blake; Puzicha, Gisbert; Pu, Yu-Ming; Bojadziev, Stefan

    1991-06-01

    Conformational analysis of (4Z, 15Z)-bilirubin-IX(alpha) by molecular mechanics computations reveals a global energy minimum folded conformation. Powerful added stabilization is achieved through intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Theoretical treatment of bilirubin as a molecular exciton predicts an intense bisignate circular dichroism spectrum for the folded conformation: (Delta) (epsilon) is congruent to 270 L (DOT) mole-1 (DOT) cm-1 for the $OM450 nm electronic transition(s). Synthesis of bilirubin analogs with propionic acid groups methylated at the (alpha) or (beta) position introduces an allosteric effect that allows for an optical resolution of the pigments, with enantiomers exhibiting the theoretically predicted circular dichroism.

  7. Conformal invariance in the quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurak, V.

    1975-09-01

    Basic features concerning the present knowledge of conformal symmetry are illustrated in a simple model. Composite field dimensions of this model are computed and related to the conformal group. (author) [pt

  8. The Conformational Behaviour of Glucosamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Isabel; Kolesniková, Lucie; Cabezas, Carlos; Bermúdez, Celina; Berdakin, Matías; Simao, Alcides; Alonso, José L.

    2014-06-01

    A laser ablation method has been successfully used to vaporize the bioactive amino monosaccharide D-glucosamine. Three cyclic α-4C1 pyranose forms have been identified using a combination of CP-FTMW and LA-MB-FTMW spectroscopy. Stereoelectronic hyperconjugative factors, like those associated with anomeric or gauche effects, as well as the cooperative OH\\cdotsO, OH\\cdotsN and NH\\cdotsO chains, extended along the entire molecule, are the main factors driving the conformational behavior. All observed conformers exhibit a counter-clockwise arrangement (cc) of the network of intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The results are compared with those recently obtained for D-glucose. J. L. Alonso, M. A. Lozoya, I. Peña, J. C. López, C. Cabezas, S. Mata, S. Blanco, Chem. Sci. 2014, 5, 515.

  9. Conformal methods in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Valiente Kroon, Juan A

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a systematic exposition of conformal methods and how they can be used to study the global properties of solutions to the equations of Einstein's theory of gravity. It shows that combining these ideas with differential geometry can elucidate the existence and stability of the basic solutions of the theory. Introducing the differential geometric, spinorial and PDE background required to gain a deep understanding of conformal methods, this text provides an accessible account of key results in mathematical relativity over the last thirty years, including the stability of de Sitter and Minkowski spacetimes. For graduate students and researchers, this self-contained account includes useful visual models to help the reader grasp abstract concepts and a list of further reading, making this the perfect reference companion on the topic.

  10. Conformal group actions and Segal's cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werth, J.-E.

    1984-01-01

    A mathematical description of Segal's cosmological model in the framework of conformal group actions is presented. The relation between conformal and causal group actions on time-orientable Lorentzian manifolds is analysed and several examples are discussed. A criterion for the conformality of a map between Lorentzian manifolds is given. The results are applied to Segal's 'conformal compactification' of Minkowski space. Furthermore, the 'unitary formulation' of Segal's cosmology is regarded. (Author) [pt

  11. Electronic amplifiers for automatic compensators

    CERN Document Server

    Polonnikov, D Ye

    1965-01-01

    Electronic Amplifiers for Automatic Compensators presents the design and operation of electronic amplifiers for use in automatic control and measuring systems. This book is composed of eight chapters that consider the problems of constructing input and output circuits of amplifiers, suppression of interference and ensuring high sensitivity.This work begins with a survey of the operating principles of electronic amplifiers in automatic compensator systems. The succeeding chapters deal with circuit selection and the calculation and determination of the principal characteristics of amplifiers, as

  12. Holographic multiverse and conformal invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garriga, Jaume [Departament de Física Fonamental i Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Vilenkin, Alexander, E-mail: jaume.garriga@ub.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, 212 College Ave., Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2009-11-01

    We consider a holographic description of the inflationary multiverse, according to which the wave function of the universe is interpreted as the generating functional for a lower dimensional Euclidean theory. We analyze a simple model where transitions between inflationary vacua occur through bubble nucleation, and the inflating part of spacetime consists of de Sitter regions separated by thin bubble walls. In this model, we present some evidence that the dual theory is conformally invariant in the UV.

  13. Integrability of conformal fishnet theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, Nikolay; Kazakov, Vladimir; Korchemsky, Gregory; Negro, Stefano; Sizov, Grigory

    2018-01-01

    We study integrability of fishnet-type Feynman graphs arising in planar four-dimensional bi-scalar chiral theory recently proposed in arXiv:1512.06704 as a special double scaling limit of gamma-deformed N = 4 SYM theory. We show that the transfer matrix "building" the fishnet graphs emerges from the R-matrix of non-compact conformal SU(2 , 2) Heisenberg spin chain with spins belonging to principal series representations of the four-dimensional conformal group. We demonstrate explicitly a relationship between this integrable spin chain and the Quantum Spectral Curve (QSC) of N = 4 SYM. Using QSC and spin chain methods, we construct Baxter equation for Q-functions of the conformal spin chain needed for computation of the anomalous dimensions of operators of the type tr( ϕ 1 J ) where ϕ 1 is one of the two scalars of the theory. For J = 3 we derive from QSC a quantization condition that fixes the relevant solution of Baxter equation. The scaling dimensions of the operators only receive contributions from wheel-like graphs. We develop integrability techniques to compute the divergent part of these graphs and use it to present the weak coupling expansion of dimensions to very high orders. Then we apply our exact equations to calculate the anomalous dimensions with J = 3 to practically unlimited precision at any coupling. These equations also describe an infinite tower of local conformal operators all carrying the same charge J = 3. The method should be applicable for any J and, in principle, to any local operators of bi-scalar theory. We show that at strong coupling the scaling dimensions can be derived from semiclassical quantization of finite gap solutions describing an integrable system of noncompact SU(2 , 2) spins. This bears similarities with the classical strings arising in the strongly coupled limit of N = 4 SYM.

  14. Limit Cycles and Conformal Invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Fortin, Jean-Francois; Stergiou, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    There is a widely held belief that conformal field theories (CFTs) require zero beta functions. Nevertheless, the work of Jack and Osborn implies that the beta functions are not actually the quantites that decide conformality, but until recently no such behavior had been exhibited. Our recent work has led to the discovery of CFTs with nonzero beta functions, more precisely CFTs that live on recurrent trajectories, e.g., limit cycles, of the beta-function vector field. To demonstrate this we study the S function of Jack and Osborn. We use Weyl consistency conditions to show that it vanishes at fixed points and agrees with the generator Q of limit cycles on them. Moreover, we compute S to third order in perturbation theory, and explicitly verify that it agrees with our previous determinations of Q. A byproduct of our analysis is that, in perturbation theory, unitarity and scale invariance imply conformal invariance in four-dimensional quantum field theories. Finally, we study some properties of these new, "cycl...

  15. Conformational kinetics of aliphatic tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Alberta; Moro, Giorgio; Nordio, Pier Luigi

    The master equation describing the random walk between sites identified with the stable conformers of a chain molecule, represents the extension to the time domain of the Rotational Isomeric State model. The asymptotic analysis of the multidimensional diffusion equation in the continuous torsional variables subjected to the configurational potential, provides a rigorous justification for the discrete models, and it supplies, without resorting to phenomenological parameters, molecular definitions of the kinetic rates for the conformational transitions occurring at each segment of the chain. The coupling between the torsional variables is fully taken into account, giving rise to cooperative effects. A complete calculation of the specific correlation functions which describe the time evolution of the angular functions probed by N.M.R. and dielectric relaxation measurements, has been performed for alkyl chains attached to a massive core. The resulting behaviour has been compared with the decay of trans and gauche populations of specific bonds, expressed in terms of suitable correlation functions whose time integrals lead quite naturally to the definition of effective kinetic constants for the conformational transitions.

  16. Electrophysiological precursors of social conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieskamp, Jörg; Tugin, Sergey; Ossadtchi, Alexey; Krutitskaya, Janina; Klucharev, Vasily

    2013-01-01

    Humans often change their beliefs or behavior due to the behavior or opinions of others. This study explored, with the use of human event-related potentials (ERPs), whether social conformity is based on a general performance-monitoring mechanism. We tested the hypothesis that conflicts with a normative group opinion evoke a feedback-related negativity (FRN) often associated with performance monitoring and subsequent adjustment of behavior. The experimental results show that individual judgments of facial attractiveness were adjusted in line with a normative group opinion. A mismatch between individual and group opinions triggered a frontocentral negative deflection with the maximum at 200 ms, similar to FRN. Overall, a conflict with a normative group opinion triggered a cascade of neuronal responses: from an earlier FRN response reflecting a conflict with the normative opinion to a later ERP component (peaking at 380 ms) reflecting a conforming behavioral adjustment. These results add to the growing literature on neuronal mechanisms of social influence by disentangling the conflict-monitoring signal in response to the perceived violation of social norms and the neural signal of a conforming behavioral adjustment. PMID:22683703

  17. CONFORMITY IN CHRIST 1. THE TRANSFORMATION PROCESS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay investigates the notion of conformity in Christ as it is part of a compre- hensive, multilayered process of transformation. In the first part it focuses on the process of transformation in creation, re-creation, conformity, love and glory. In the second part it discusses transformation in Christ by looking at conformation and ...

  18. Conformity in Christ | Waaijman | Acta Theologica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay investigates the notion of conformity in Christ as it is part of a comprehensive, multilayered process of transformation. In the first part it focuses on the process of transformation in creation, re-creation, conformity, love and glory. In the second part it discusses transformation in Christ by looking at conformation and ...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2133 - General conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General conformity. 52.2133 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) South Carolina § 52.2133 General conformity. The General Conformity regulations adopted into the South Carolina State Implementation Plan which...

  20. 40 CFR 51.854 - Conformity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conformity analysis. 51.854 Section 51... FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Determining Conformity of General Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans § 51.854 Conformity analysis. Link to an...

  1. 40 CFR 52.938 - General conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General conformity. 52.938 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Kentucky § 52.938 General conformity. The General Conformity regulations were submitted on November 10, 1995, and adopted into the Kentucky State...

  2. NIR Laser Radiation Induced Conformational Changes and Tunneling Lifetimes of High-Energy Conformers of Amino Acids in Low-Temperature Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazso, Gabor; Najbauer, Eszter E.; Magyarfalvi, Gabor; Tarczay, Gyorgy

    2013-06-01

    We review our recent results on combined matrix isolation FT-IR and NIR laser irradiation studies on glycine alanine, and cysteine. The OH and the NH stretching overtones of the low-energy conformers of these amino acids deposited in Ar, Kr, Xe, and N_{2} matrices were irradiated. At the expense of the irradiated conformer, other conformers were enriched and new, high-energy, formerly unobserved conformers were formed in the matrices. This enabled the separation and unambiguous assignment of the vibrational transitions of the different conformers. The main conversion paths and their efficiencies are described qualitatively showing that there are significant differences in different matrices. It was shown that the high-energy conformer decays in the matrix by H-atom tunneling. The lifetimes of the high-energy conformers in different matrices were measured. Based on our results we conclude that some theoretically predicted low-energy conformers of amino acids are likely even absent in low-energy matrices due to fast H-atom tunneling. G. Bazso, G. Magyarfalvi, G. Tarczay J. Mol. Struct. 1025 (Light-Induced Processes in Cryogenic Matrices Special Issue) 33-42 (2012). G. Bazso, G. Magyarfalvi, G. Tarczay J. Phys. Chem. A 116 (43) 10539-10547 (2012). G. Bazso, E. E. Najbauer, G. Magyarfalvi, G. Tarczay J. Phys. Chem. A in press, DOI: 10.1021/jp400196b. E. E. Najbauer, G. Bazso, G. Magyarfalvi, G. Tarczay in preparation.

  3. Automatic and Systematic Atomistic Simulations in the MedeA® Software Environment: Application to EU-REACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozanska Xavier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates the systematic prediction of thermodynamic properties for batches of thousands of molecules using automated procedures. This is accomplished with newly developed tools and functions within the Material Exploration and Design Analysis (MedeA® software environment, which handle the automatic execution of sequences of tasks for large numbers of molecules including the creation of 3D molecular models from 1D representations, systematic exploration of possible conformers for each molecule, the creation and submission of computational tasks for property calculations on parallel computers, and the post-processing for comparison with available experimental properties. After the description of the different MedeA® functionalities and methods that make it easy to perform such large number of computations, we illustrate the strength and power of the approach with selected examples from molecular mechanics and quantum chemical simulations. Specifically, comparisons of thermochemical data with quantum-based heat capacities and standard energies of formation have been obtained for more than 2 000 compounds, yielding average deviations with experiments of less than 4% with the Design Institute for Physical PRoperties (DIPPR database. The automatic calculation of the density of molecular fluids is demonstrated for 192 systems. The relaxation to minimum-energy structures and the calculation of vibrational frequencies of 5 869 molecules are evaluated automatically using a semi-empirical quantum mechanical approach with a success rate of 99.9%. The present approach is scalable to large number of molecules, thus opening exciting possibilities with the advent of exascale computing.

  4. An automatically tuning intrusion detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenwei; Tsai, Jeffrey J P; Weigert, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    An intrusion detection system (IDS) is a security layer used to detect ongoing intrusive activities in information systems. Traditionally, intrusion detection relies on extensive knowledge of security experts, in particular, on their familiarity with the computer system to be protected. To reduce this dependence, various data-mining and machine learning techniques have been deployed for intrusion detection. An IDS is usually working in a dynamically changing environment, which forces continuous tuning of the intrusion detection model, in order to maintain sufficient performance. The manual tuning process required by current systems depends on the system operators in working out the tuning solution and in integrating it into the detection model. In this paper, an automatically tuning IDS (ATIDS) is presented. The proposed system will automatically tune the detection model on-the-fly according to the feedback provided by the system operator when false predictions are encountered. The system is evaluated using the KDDCup'99 intrusion detection dataset. Experimental results show that the system achieves up to 35% improvement in terms of misclassification cost when compared with a system lacking the tuning feature. If only 10% false predictions are used to tune the model, the system still achieves about 30% improvement. Moreover, when tuning is not delayed too long, the system can achieve about 20% improvement, with only 1.3% of the false predictions used to tune the model. The results of the experiments show that a practical system can be built based on ATIDS: system operators can focus on verification of predictions with low confidence, as only those predictions determined to be false will be used to tune the detection model.

  5. A Rapid Analysis of Variations in Conformational Behavior during Dihydrofolate Reductase Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert L; Johnson, Luke A; Behiry, Enas M; Loveridge, E Joel; Allemann, Rudolf K

    2017-04-18

    Protein flexibility is central to enzyme catalysis, yet it remains challenging both to predict conformational behavior on the basis of analysis of amino acid sequence and protein structure and to provide the necessary breadth of experimental support to any such predictions. Here a generic and rapid procedure for identifying conformational changes during dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) catalysis is described. Using DHFR from Escherichia coli (EcDHFR), selective side-chain 13 C labeling of methionine and tryptophan residues is shown to be sufficient to detect the closed-to-occluded conformational transition that follows the chemical step in the catalytic cycle, with clear chemical shift perturbations found for both methionine methyl and tryptophan indole groups. In contrast, no such perturbations are seen for the DHFR from the psychrophile Moritella profunda, where the equivalent conformational change is absent. Like EcDHFR, Salmonella enterica DHFR shows experimental evidence of a large-scale conformational change following hydride transfer that relies on conservation of a key hydrogen bonding interaction between the M20 and GH loops, directly comparable to the closed-to-occluded conformational change observed in EcDHFR. For the hyperthermophile Thermotoga maritima, no chemical shift perturbations were observed, suggesting that no major conformational change occurs during the catalytic cycle. In spite of their conserved tertiary structures, DHFRs display variations in conformational sampling that occurs concurrently with catalysis.

  6. Automatic analysis of multiparty meetings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AMI) meeting corpus, the development of a meeting speech recognition system, and systems for the automatic segmentation, summarization and social processing of meetings, together with some example applications based on these systems.

  7. AVID: Automatic Visualization Interface Designer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chuah, Mei

    2000-01-01

    .... Automatic generation offers great flexibility in performing data and information analysis tasks, because new designs are generated on a case by case basis to suit current and changing future needs...

  8. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  9. An automatic image recognition approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Barbu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the graphical analysis domain. We propose an automatic image recognition technique. This approach consists of two main pattern recognition steps. First, it performs an image feature extraction operation on an input image set, using statistical dispersion features. Then, an unsupervised classification process is performed on the previously obtained graphical feature vectors. An automatic region-growing based clustering procedure is proposed and utilized in the classification stage.

  10. Conformation and chirality in liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John L.; Zhao, Lei

    2013-09-01

    High helical twisting powerchiral additives are required for an expanding variety of liquid crystal displays and devices. Molecular conformation plays a critical role in determining the helical twisting power, HTP, of chiral additives. We studied additives based on an isosorbide benzoate ester core. Molecular modeling revealed two low energy states with very different conformations for this core The ultra-violet absorption and NMR spectra show two stable isosorbide conformers These spectra reveal how the relative populations of these two conformations change with temperature and how this is related to the helical twisting power. Conformation changes can explain many of the observed anomalous responses of HPT to temperature.

  11. Towards Automatic Personalized Content Generation for Platform Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Noor; Yannakakis, Georgios N.; Togelius, Julian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we show that personalized levels can be automatically generated for platform games. We build on previous work, where models were derived that predicted player experience based on features of level design and on playing styles. These models are constructed using preference learning,...

  12. The Role of Automatic Obesity Stereotypes in Real Hiring Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agerstrom, Jens; Rooth, Dan-Olof

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether automatic stereotypes captured by the implicit association test (IAT) can predict real hiring discrimination against the obese. In an unobtrusive field experiment, job applications were sent to a large number of real job vacancies. The applications were matched on credentials but differed with respect to the applicant's…

  13. Selective visual working memory in fear of spiders: The role of automaticity and material-specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinecke, A.; Becker, E.S.; Rinck, M.

    2009-01-01

    Following cognitive models of anxiety, biases occur if threat processing is automatic versus strategic. Therefore, most of these models predict attentional bias, but not explicit memory bias. We suggest dividing memory into the highly automatic working memory (WM) component versus long-term memory

  14. Robust automatic intelligibility assessment techniques evaluated on speakers treated for head and neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middag, C.; Clapham, R.; van Son, R.; Martens, J-P.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that an unbiased and objective assessment of the communication deficiency caused by a speech disorder calls for automatic speech processing tools. In this paper, a new automatic intelligibility assessment method is presented. The method can predict running speech

  15. Families and degenerations of conformal field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roggenkamp, D.

    2004-09-01

    In this work, moduli spaces of conformal field theories are investigated. In the first part, moduli spaces corresponding to current-current deformation of conformal field theories are constructed explicitly. For WZW models, they are described in detail, and sigma model realizations of the deformed WZW models are presented. The second part is devoted to the study of boundaries of moduli spaces of conformal field theories. For this purpose a notion of convergence of families of conformal field theories is introduced, which admits certain degenerated conformal field theories to occur as limits. To such a degeneration of conformal field theories, a degeneration of metric spaces together with additional geometric structures can be associated, which give rise to a geometric interpretation. Boundaries of moduli spaces of toroidal conformal field theories, orbifolds thereof and WZW models are analyzed. Furthermore, also the limit of the discrete family of Virasoro minimal models is investigated. (orig.)

  16. How round is a protein? Exploring protein structures for globularity using conformal mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel eHass

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a new algorithm that automatically computes a measure of the geometric difference between the surface of a protein and a round sphere. The algorithm takes as input two triangulated genus zero surfaces representing the protein and the round sphere, respectively, and constructs a discrete conformal map between these surfaces. The conformal map is chosen to minimize a symmetric elastic energy that measures the distance of the constructed conformal map from an isometry. We illustrate our approach on a set of basic sample problems and then on a dataset of diverse protein structures. We show first that the symmetric elastic energy is able to quantify the roundness of the Platonic solids and that for these surfaces it replicates well traditional measures of roundness such as the sphericity. We then demonstrate that the symmetric elastic energy captures both global and local differences between two surfaces, showing that our method identifies the presence of protruding regions in protein structures and quantifies how these regions make the shape of a protein deviate from globularity. Based on these results, we show that the symmetric elastic energy serves as a probe of the limits of the application of conformal mappings to parametrize protein shapes. We identify limitations of the method and discuss its extension to achieving automatic registration of protein structures based on their surface geometry.

  17. 77 FR 14979 - Transportation Conformity Rule Restructuring Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... conformity SIPs, see EPA's ``Guidance for Developing Transportation Conformity State Implementation Plans... January 2009 guidance entitled, ``Guidance for Developing Transportation Conformity State Implementation... Transportation Conformity Rule Restructuring Amendments AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION...

  18. Conformance Testing: Measurement Decision Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimbs, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of a Quality Management System (QMS) as specified in ISO 9001 and AS9100 is to provide assurance to the customer that end products meet specifications. Measuring devices, often called measuring and test equipment (MTE), are used to provide the evidence of product conformity to specified requirements. Unfortunately, processes that employ MTE can become a weak link to the overall QMS if proper attention is not given to the measurement process design, capability, and implementation. Documented "decision rules" establish the requirements to ensure measurement processes provide the measurement data that supports the needs of the QMS. Measurement data are used to make the decisions that impact all areas of technology. Whether measurements support research, design, production, or maintenance, ensuring the data supports the decision is crucial. Measurement data quality can be critical to the resulting consequences of measurement-based decisions. Historically, most industries required simplistic, one-size-fits-all decision rules for measurements. One-size-fits-all rules in some cases are not rigorous enough to provide adequate measurement results, while in other cases are overly conservative and too costly to implement. Ideally, decision rules should be rigorous enough to match the criticality of the parameter being measured, while being flexible enough to be cost effective. The goal of a decision rule is to ensure that measurement processes provide data with a sufficient level of quality to support the decisions being made - no more, no less. This paper discusses the basic concepts of providing measurement-based evidence that end products meet specifications. Although relevant to all measurement-based conformance tests, the target audience is the MTE end-user, which is anyone using MTE other than calibration service providers. Topics include measurement fundamentals, the associated decision risks, verifying conformance to specifications, and basic measurement

  19. Conformal Gauge Mediation and Light Gravitino of Mass m3/2 < O(10) eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, M.; SLAC; Nakayama, Y.; Yanagida, T.T.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss a class of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking models with conformal invariance above the messenger mass scale (conformal gauge mediation). The spectrum of the supersymmetric particles including the gravitino is uniquely determined by the messenger mass. When the conformal fixed point is strongly interacting, it predicts a light gravitino of mass m 3/2 < O(10) eV, which is attractive since such a light gravitino causes no problem in cosmology

  20. Improving reservoir conformance using gelled polymer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1993-04-09

    The general objectives are to (1) to identify and develop gelled polymer systems which have potential to improve reservoir conformance of fluid displacement processes, (2) to determine the performance of these systems in bulk and in porous media, and (3) to develop methods to predict the capability of these systems to recover oil from petroleum reservoirs. This work focuses on three types of gel systems - an aqueous polysaccharide (KUSPI) system that gels as a function of pH, the chromium-based system where polyacrylamide and xanthan are crosslinked by CR(III) and an organic crosslinked system. Development of the KUSPI system and evaluation and identification of a suitable organic crosslinked system will be done. The laboratory research is directed at the fundamental understanding of the physics and chemistry of the gelation process in bulk form and in porous media. This knowledge will be used to develop conceptual and mathematical models of the gelation process. Mathematical models will then be extended to predict the performance of gelled polymer treatments in oil reservoirs. Accomplishments for this period are presented for the following tasks: development and selection of gelled polymer systems, physical and chemical characterization of gel systems; and mathematical modeling of gel systems.

  1. Focused conformational sampling in proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Marco; Langini, Cassiano; Vymětal, Jiří; Caflisch, Amedeo; Vitalis, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    A detailed understanding of the conformational dynamics of biological molecules is difficult to obtain by experimental techniques due to resolution limitations in both time and space. Computer simulations avoid these in theory but are often too short to sample rare events reliably. Here we show that the progress index-guided sampling (PIGS) protocol can be used to enhance the sampling of rare events in selected parts of biomolecules without perturbing the remainder of the system. The method is very easy to use as it only requires as essential input a set of several features representing the parts of interest sufficiently. In this feature space, new states are discovered by spontaneous fluctuations alone and in unsupervised fashion. Because there are no energetic biases acting on phase space variables or projections thereof, the trajectories PIGS generates can be analyzed directly in the framework of transition networks. We demonstrate the possibility and usefulness of such focused explorations of biomolecules with two loops that are part of the binding sites of bromodomains, a family of epigenetic "reader" modules. This real-life application uncovers states that are structurally and kinetically far away from the initial crystallographic structures and are also metastable. Representative conformations are intended to be used in future high-throughput virtual screening campaigns.

  2. Perineural invasion and Gleason 7-10 tumors predict increased failure in prostate cancer patients with pretreatment PSA <10 ng/ml treated with conformal external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Penny R.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Patchefsky, Arthur; Al-Saleem, Tahseen; Hanks, Gerald E.

    1998-01-01

    /T3, n = 94). A comparison of the two groups reveals that bNED control is significantly lower in the less favorable prognosis group (74% vs. 91% at 5 years, p = 0.0024). Conclusions: (1) This report identifies Gleason 7-10 and the presence of PNI as well as palpation stage T2C/T3 as factors that predict worse bNED outcome for patients with pretreatment PSA < 10 ng/ml who are treated with radiation therapy alone. (2) Patients with these pretreatment prognostic factors may benefit from adjuvant therapies or altered treatment programs. (3) In order to make fair comparisons between radiation therapy and prostatectomy series, the distribution of perineual invasion and Gleason 7-10 must be taken into account

  3. Necessary Condition for Emergent Symmetry from the Conformal Bootstrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yu; Ohtsuki, Tomoki

    2016-09-23

    We use the conformal bootstrap program to derive the necessary conditions for emergent symmetry enhancement from discrete symmetry (e.g., Z_{n}) to continuous symmetry [e.g., U(1)] under the renormalization group flow. In three dimensions, in order for Z_{2} symmetry to be enhanced to U(1) symmetry, the conformal bootstrap program predicts that the scaling dimension of the order parameter field at the infrared conformal fixed point must satisfy Δ_{1}>1.08. We also obtain the similar necessary conditions for Z_{3} symmetry with Δ_{1}>0.580 and Z_{4} symmetry with Δ_{1}>0.504 from the simultaneous conformal bootstrap analysis of multiple four-point functions. As applications, we show that our necessary conditions impose severe constraints on the nature of the chiral phase transition in QCD, the deconfinement criticality in Néel valence bond solid transitions, and anisotropic deformations in critical O(n) models. We prove that some fixed points proposed in the literature are unstable under the perturbation that cannot be forbidden by the discrete symmetry. In these situations, the second-order phase transition with enhanced symmetry cannot happen.

  4. Automatic sample changers maintenance manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, T.A.

    1978-10-01

    This manual describes and provides trouble-shooting aids for the Automatic Sample Changer electronics on the automatic beta counting system, developed by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Group CNC-11. The output of a gas detector is shaped by a preamplifier, then is coupled to an amplifier. Amplifier output is discriminated and is the input to a scaler. An identification number is associated with each sample. At a predetermined count length, the identification number, scaler data plus other information is punched out on a data card. The next sample to be counted is automatically selected. The beta counter uses the same electronics as the prior count did, the only difference being the sample identification number and sample itself. This manual is intended as a step-by-step aid in trouble-shooting the electronics associated with positioning the sample, counting the sample, and getting the needed data punched on an 80-column data card

  5. Conformable derivative approach to anomalous diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H. W.; Yang, S.; Zhang, S. Q.

    2018-02-01

    By using a new derivative with fractional order, referred to conformable derivative, an alternative representation of the diffusion equation is proposed to improve the modeling of anomalous diffusion. The analytical solutions of the conformable derivative model in terms of Gauss kernel and Error function are presented. The power law of the mean square displacement for the conformable diffusion model is studied invoking the time-dependent Gauss kernel. The parameters related to the conformable derivative model are determined by Levenberg-Marquardt method on the basis of the experimental data of chloride ions transportation in reinforced concrete. The data fitting results showed that the conformable derivative model agrees better with the experimental data than the normal diffusion equation. Furthermore, the potential application of the proposed conformable derivative model of water flow in low-permeability media is discussed.

  6. Operator algebras and conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbiani, F.; Froehlich, J.

    1993-01-01

    We define and study two-dimensional, chiral conformal field theory by the methods of algebraic field theory. We start by characterizing the vacuum sectors of such theories and show that, under very general hypotheses, their algebras of local observables are isomorphic to the unique hyperfinite type III 1 factor. The conformal net determined by the algebras of local observables is proven to satisfy Haag duality. The representation of the Moebius group (and presumably of the entire Virasoro algebra) on the vacuum sector of a conformal field theory is uniquely determined by the Tomita-Takesaki modular operators associated with its vacuum state and its conformal net. We then develop the theory of Mebius covariant representations of a conformal net, using methods of Doplicher, Haag and Roberts. We apply our results to the representation theory of loop groups. Our analysis is motivated by the desire to find a 'background-independent' formulation of conformal field theories. (orig.)

  7. To bend or not to bend – are heteroatom interactions within conjugated molecules effective in dictating conformation and planarity?

    KAUST Repository

    Conboy, Gary

    2016-04-26

    We consider the roles of heteroatoms (mainly nitrogen, the halogens and the chalcogens) in dictating the conformation of linear conjugated molecules and polymers through non-covalent intramolecular interactions. Whilst hydrogen bonding is a competitive and sometimes more influential interaction, we provide unambiguous evidence that heteroatoms are able to determine the conformation of such materials with reasonable predictability.

  8. Conformational changes in glycine tri- and hexapeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2006-01-01

    conformations and calculated the energy barriers for transitions between them. Using a thermodynamic approach, we have estimated the times of the characteristic transitions between these conformations. The results of our calculations have been compared with those obtained by other theoretical methods...... also investigated the influence of the secondary structure of polypeptide chains on the formation of the potential energy landscape. This analysis has been performed for the sheet and the helix conformations of chains of six amino acids....

  9. Lattice models and conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleur, H.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical studies concerning the connection between critical physical systems and the conformal theories are reviewed. The conformal theory associated to a critical (integrable) lattice model is derived. The obtention of the central charge, critical exponents and torus partition function, using renormalization group arguments, is shown. The quantum group structure, in the integrable lattice models, and the theory of Visaro algebra representations are discussed. The relations between off-critical integrable models and conformal theories, in finite geometries, are studied

  10. Development of an automatic scaler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yuehong

    2009-04-01

    A self-designed automatic scaler is introduced. A microcontroller LPC936 is used as the master chip in the scaler. A counter integrated with the micro-controller is configured to operate as external pulse counter. Software employed in the scaler is based on a embedded real-time operating system kernel named Small RTOS. Data storage, calculation and some other functions are also provided. The scaler is designed for applications with low cost, low power consumption solutions. By now, the automatic scaler has been applied in a surface contamination instrument. (authors)

  11. Annual review in automatic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Annual Review in Automatic Programming focuses on the techniques of automatic programming used with digital computers. Topics covered range from the design of machine-independent programming languages to the use of recursive procedures in ALGOL 60. A multi-pass translation scheme for ALGOL 60 is described, along with some commercial source languages. The structure and use of the syntax-directed compiler is also considered.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with a discussion on the basic ideas involved in the description of a computing process as a program for a computer, expressed in

  12. Traduction automatique et terminologie automatique (Automatic Translation and Automatic Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansereau, Jules

    1978-01-01

    An exposition of reasons why a system of automatic translation could not use a terminology bank except as a source of information. The fundamental difference between the two tools is explained and examples of translation and mistranslation are given as evidence of the limits and possibilities of each process. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  13. Validity and efficiency of conformal anomaly detection on big distributed data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilia Nouretdinov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Conformal Prediction is a recently developed framework for reliable confident predictions. In this work we discuss its possible application to big data coming from different, possibly heterogeneous data sources. On example of anomaly detection problem, we study the question of saving validity of Conformal Prediction in this case. We show that the straight forward averaging approach is invalid, while its easy alternative of maximizing is not very efficient because of its conservativeness. We propose the third compromised approach that is valid, but much less conservative. It is supported by both theoretical justification and experimental results in the area of energy engineering.

  14. Conformal Dimensions via Large Charge Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Debasish; Chandrasekharan, Shailesh; Orlando, Domenico

    2018-02-09

    We construct an efficient Monte Carlo algorithm that overcomes the severe signal-to-noise ratio problems and helps us to accurately compute the conformal dimensions of large-Q fields at the Wilson-Fisher fixed point in the O(2) universality class. Using it, we verify a recent proposal that conformal dimensions of strongly coupled conformal field theories with a global U(1) charge can be obtained via a series expansion in the inverse charge 1/Q. We find that the conformal dimensions of the lowest operator with a fixed charge Q are almost entirely determined by the first few terms in the series.

  15. A Framework for Online Conformance Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burattin, Andrea; Carmona, Josep

    2017-01-01

    Conformance checking – a branch of process mining – focuses on establishing to what extent actual executions of a process are in line with the expected behavior of a reference model. Current conformancechecking techniques only allow for a-posteriori analysis: the amount of (non-)conformant behavior...... is quantified after the completion of the process instance. In this paper we propose a framework for online conformance checking: not only do we quantify (non-)conformant behavior as the execution is running, we also restrict the computation to constant time complexity per event analyzed, thus enabling...

  16. Geometrical formulation of the conformal Ward identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachkachi, M.

    2002-08-01

    In this paper we use deep ideas in complex geometry that proved to be very powerful in unveiling the Polyakov measure on the moduli space of Riemann surfaces and lead to obtain the partition function of perturbative string theory for 2, 3, 4 loops. Indeed, a geometrical interpretation of the conformal Ward identity in two dimensional conformal field theory is proposed: the conformal anomaly is interpreted as a deformation of the complex structure of the basic Riemann surface. This point of view is in line with the modern trend of geometric quantizations that are based on deformations of classical structures. Then, we solve the conformal Ward identity by using this geometrical formalism. (author)

  17. Noncommutative geometry and twisted conformal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matlock, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The twist-deformed conformal algebra is constructed as a Hopf algebra with twisted coproduct. This allows for the definition of conformal symmetry in a noncommutative background geometry. The twisted coproduct is reviewed for the Poincare algebra and the construction is then extended to the full conformal algebra. The case of Moyal-type noncommutativity of the coordinates is considered. It is demonstrated that conformal invariance need not be viewed as incompatible with noncommutative geometry; the noncommutativity of the coordinates appears as a consequence of the twisting, as has been shown in the literature in the case of the twisted Poincare algebra

  18. Rotational Spectroscopy Unveils Eleven Conformers of Adrenaline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, C.; Cortijo, V.; Mata, S.; Lopez, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.

    2013-06-01

    Recent improvements in our LA-MB-FTMW instrumentation have allowed the characterization of eleven and eight conformers for the neurotransmitters adrenaline and noradrenaline respectively. The observation of this rich conformational behavior is in accordance with the recent observation of seven conformers for dopamine and in sharp contrast with the conformational reduction proposed for catecholamines. C. Cabezas, I. Peña, J. C. López, J. L. Alonso J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2013, 4, 486. H. Mitsuda, M. Miyazaki, I. B. Nielsen, P. Carcabal,C. Dedonder, C. Jouvet, S. Ishiuchi, M. Fujii J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 1130.

  19. Conformal maps between pseudo-Finsler spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicu, Nicoleta

    The paper aims to initiate a systematic study of conformal mappings between Finsler spacetimes and, more generally, between pseudo-Finsler spaces. This is done by extending several results in pseudo-Riemannian geometry which are necessary for field-theoretical applications and by proposing a technique that reduces some problems involving pseudo-Finslerian conformal vector fields to their pseudo-Riemannian counterparts. Also, we point out, by constructing classes of examples, that conformal groups of flat (locally Minkowskian) pseudo-Finsler spaces can be much richer than both flat Finslerian and pseudo-Euclidean conformal groups.

  20. Technidilaton at the conformal edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Michio; Yamawaki, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    Technidilaton (TD) was proposed long ago in the technicolor near criticality/conformality. To reveal the critical behavior of TD, we explicitly compute the nonperturbative contributions to the scale anomaly ⟨θμμ⟩ and to the technigluon condensate ⟨αGμν2⟩, which are generated by the dynamical mass m of the technifermions. Our computation is based on the (improved) ladder Schwinger-Dyson equation, with the gauge coupling α replaced by the two-loop running coupling α(μ) having the Caswell-Banks-Zaks infrared fixed point α*: α(μ)≃α=α* for the infrared region mHaba-Matsuzaki-Yamawaki. The decoupled TD can be a candidate of dark matter.

  1. Conformal frame dependence of inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domènech, Guillem; Sasaki, Misao

    2015-01-01

    Physical equivalence between different conformal frames in scalar-tensor theory of gravity is a known fact. However, assuming that matter minimally couples to the metric of a particular frame, which we call the matter Jordan frame, the matter point of view of the universe may vary from frame to frame. Thus, there is a clear distinction between gravitational sector (curvature and scalar field) and matter sector. In this paper, focusing on a simple power-law inflation model in the Einstein frame, two examples are considered; a super-inflationary and a bouncing universe Jordan frames. Then we consider a spectator curvaton minimally coupled to a Jordan frame, and compute its contribution to the curvature perturbation power spectrum. In these specific examples, we find a blue tilt at short scales for the super-inflationary case, and a blue tilt at large scales for the bouncing case

  2. Conformable eddy current array delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summan, Rahul; Pierce, Gareth; Macleod, Charles; Mineo, Carmelo; Riise, Jonathan; Morozov, Maxim; Dobie, Gordon; Bolton, Gary; Raude, Angélique; Dalpé, Colombe; Braumann, Johannes

    2016-02-01

    The external surface of stainless steel containers used for the interim storage of nuclear material may be subject to Atmospherically Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking (AISCC). The inspection of such containers poses a significant challenge due to the large quantities involved; therefore, automating the inspection process is of considerable interest. This paper reports upon a proof-of-concept project concerning the automated NDT of a set of test containers containing artificially generated AISCCs. An Eddy current array probe with a conformable padded surface from Eddyfi was used as the NDT sensor and end effector on a KUKA KR5 arc HW robot. A kinematically valid cylindrical raster scan path was designed using the KUKA|PRC path planning software. Custom software was then written to interface measurement acquisition from the Eddyfi hardware with the motion control of the robot. Preliminary results and analysis are presented from scanning two canisters.

  3. The spatial diffusion of social conformity: the case of voting participation

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Social interaction combined with social conformity spreads attitudes and behaviors through a society. This paper examines such a process geographically for compliance with the norm that good citizens should vote. The diffusion of conformist behavior affects the local degree of conformity with the norm and produces highly specific and predictable patterns of behavior across a country. These are demonstrated with qualitative and quantitative spatial analysis of voter turnout in the United State...

  4. Structuring and sampling complex conformation space: Weighted ensemble dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Linchen; Zhou, Xin

    2009-08-01

    Based on multiple simulation trajectories, which started from dispersively selected initial conformations, the weighted ensemble dynamics method is designed to robustly and systematically explore the hierarchical structure of complex conformational space through the spectral analysis of the variance-covariance matrix of trajectory-mapped vectors. The nondegenerate ground state of the matrix directly predicts the ergodicity of simulation data. The ground state could be adopted as statistical weights of trajectories to correctly reconstruct the equilibrium properties, even though each trajectory only explores part of the conformational space. Otherwise, the degree of degeneracy simply gives the number of metastable states of the system under the time scale of individual trajectory. Manipulation on the eigenvectors leads to the classification of trajectories into nontransition ones within the states and transition ones between them. The transition states may also be predicted without a priori knowledge of the system. We demonstrate the application of the general method both to the system with a one-dimensional glassy potential and with the one of alanine dipeptide in explicit solvent.

  5. Conformations and Conformational Processes of Hexahydrobenzazocines by NMR and DFT Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musielak, Bogdan; Holak, Tad A; Rys, Barbara

    2015-09-18

    Conformational processes that occur in hexahydrobenzazocines have been studied with the (1)H and (13)C dynamic nuclear magnetic resonance (DNMR) spectroscopy. The coalescence effects are assigned to two different conformational processes: the ring-inversion of the ground-state conformations and the interconversion between two different conformers. The barriers for these processes are in the range of 42-52 and 42-43 kJ mol(-1), respectively. Molecular modeling on the density functional theory (DFT) level and the gauge invariant atomic orbitals (GIAO)-DFT calculations of isotropic shieldings and coupling constants for the set of low-energy conformations were compared with the experimental NMR data. The ground-state of all compounds in solution is the boat-chair (BC) conformation. The BC form adopts two different conformations because the nitrogen atom can be in the boat or chair parts of the BC structure. These two conformers are engaged in the interconversion process.

  6. Exploiting conformational ensembles in modeling protein-protein interactions on the proteome scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzu, Guray; Gursoy, Attila; Nussinov, Ruth; Keskin, Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    Cellular functions are performed through protein-protein interactions; therefore, identification of these interactions is crucial for understanding biological processes. Recent studies suggest that knowledge-based approaches are more useful than ‘blind’ docking for modeling at large scales. However, a caveat of knowledge-based approaches is that they treat molecules as rigid structures. The Protein Data Bank (PDB) offers a wealth of conformations. Here, we exploited ensemble of the conformations in predictions by a knowledge-based method, PRISM. We tested ‘difficult’ cases in a docking-benchmark dataset, where the unbound and bound protein forms are structurally different. Considering alternative conformations for each protein, the percentage of successfully predicted interactions increased from ~26% to 66%, and 57% of the interactions were successfully predicted in an ‘unbiased’ scenario, in which data related to the bound forms were not utilized. If the appropriate conformation, or relevant template interface, is unavailable in the PDB, PRISM could not predict the interaction successfully. The pace of the growth of the PDB promises a rapid increase of ensemble conformations emphasizing the merit of such knowledge-based ensemble strategies for higher success rates in protein-protein interaction predictions on an interactome-scale. We constructed the structural network of ERK interacting proteins as a case study. PMID:23590674

  7. Automatically Preparing Safe SQL Queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Prithvi; Sistla, A. Prasad; Venkatakrishnan, V. N.

    We present the first sound program source transformation approach for automatically transforming the code of a legacy web application to employ PREPARE statements in place of unsafe SQL queries. Our approach therefore opens the way for eradicating the SQL injection threat vector from legacy web applications.

  8. Automatic Validation of Protocol Narration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, Pierpablo

    2003-01-01

    We perform a systematic expansion of protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to make precise some of the detailed checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we...

  9. The Automatic Measurement of Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhle, Joachim

    1997-01-01

    The automatic measurement of targets is demonstrated by means of a theoretical example and by an interactive measuring program for real imagery from a réseau camera. The used strategy is a combination of two methods: the maximum correlation coefficient and the correlation in the subpixel range...... interactive software is also part of a computer-assisted learning program on digital photogrammetry....

  10. Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

  11. Memory conformity: exploring misinformation effects when presented by another person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D B; Self, G; Justice, C

    2000-05-01

    Two experiments demonstrate that post-event information, when delivered by another person, can affect people's memory reports. In the first experiment participants were shown several cars, and later, in pairs, given an 'old'/'new' recognition test on these cars plus several lures. There was a small but reliable effect of memory conformity. When the person was given misinformation this lowered accuracy, while presenting accurate information increased accuracy. In the second experiment participants, in pairs, viewed an identical crime except that half saw an accomplice with the thief and half did not. Initial memories were very accurate, but after discussing the crime with the other person in the pair (who saw a slightly different sequence), most pairs conformed. Confidence ratings strongly predicted which person in the pair persuaded the other. Parallels with eyewitness testimony in the Oklahoma bombing case and implications for police interviewing more generally are discussed.

  12. Stable phantom-energy wormholes admitting conformal motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhfittig, Peter K. F.

    It has been argued that wormholes are as good a prediction of Einstein’s theory as black holes but the theoretical construction requires a reverse strategy, specifying the desired geometric properties of the wormhole and leaving open the determination of the stress-energy tensor. We begin by confirming an earlier result by the author showing that a complete wormhole solution can be obtained by adopting the equation of state p = ωρ and assuming that the wormhole admits a one-parameter group of conformal motions. The main purpose of this paper is to use the assumption of conformal symmetry to show that the wormhole is stable to linearized radial perturbations whenever - 1.5 < ω < -1.

  13. Dosimetric Evaluation of Automatic Segmentation for Adaptive IMRT for Head-and-Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Stuart Y.; Hwang, Andrew; Weinberg, Vivian; Yom, Sue S.; Quivey, Jeanne M.; Xia Ping

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Adaptive planning to accommodate anatomic changes during treatment requires repeat segmentation. This study uses dosimetric endpoints to assess automatically deformed contours. Methods and Materials: Sixteen patients with head-and-neck cancer had adaptive plans because of anatomic change during radiotherapy. Contours from the initial planning computed tomography (CT) were deformed to the mid-treatment CT using an intensity-based free-form registration algorithm then compared with the manually drawn contours for the same CT using the Dice similarity coefficient and an overlap index. The automatic contours were used to create new adaptive plans. The original and automatic adaptive plans were compared based on dosimetric outcomes of the manual contours and on plan conformality. Results: Volumes from the manual and automatic segmentation were similar; only the gross tumor volume (GTV) was significantly different. Automatic plans achieved lower mean coverage for the GTV: V95: 98.6 ± 1.9% vs. 89.9 ± 10.1% (p = 0.004) and clinical target volume: V95: 98.4 ± 0.8% vs. 89.8 ± 6.2% (p 3 of the spinal cord 39.9 ± 3.7 Gy vs. 42.8 ± 5.4 Gy (p = 0.034), but no difference for the remaining structures. Conclusions: Automatic segmentation is not robust enough to substitute for physician-drawn volumes, particularly for the GTV. However, it generates normal structure contours of sufficient accuracy when assessed by dosimetric end points.

  14. Data adjoint assimilation into the adjoint inverse coastal circulation model that conforms to topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, F.; Pain, C. C.; Gaddard, A. J. H.; de Oliveira, C. R. E.; Piggott, M. D.; Umpleby, A. P.; Copeland, G. J. M.

    2003-04-01

    There are often uncertain factors in ocean numerical models, e.g. the initial and boundary conditions, parameters. With the introduction of advanced observational techniques, more attention has been given to data assimilation to improve the predictive capabilities of ocean models. The question is how and where best to assimilate the observations for reducing the dependence of solutions on the initial and boundary data and getting a better representation of non-stratified water flows around and over coastal topography. In this investigation, we aim to introduce an adjoint model into the Imperial College Ocean Model (ICOM), which is a 3D nonlinear non-hydrostatic model with mesh adaptivity and optimal Domain Decomposition Method (DDM) parallel solver. By using an unstructured mesh, ICOM can automatically conform to the complicated coastal topography and with mesh adaptivity the resolution can be designed to meet physics demands such as flows in region of high shear and flow separation at coastlines. In the initial stage of this investigation, we discuss various adjoint methods and their consistence. To accelerate the convergence of the gradient calculation and reduce the memory requirement, the numerical techniques: Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient and Check Pointing are introduced. We then apply the adjoint method to 1D nonlinear shallow water and 2D coastal flow past a headland with the inversion of both boundary and initial conditions. We give an initial insight to (1) Effect of data information to be inverted; (2) Role of the nonlinear terms in the inversion; (3) Possibility of adopting non-consistent discretization schemes in the forward and backward adjoint models; (4) Effect of various boundary conditions, e.g. uniform flow and wave/tidal flow.

  15. Conformational analysis of nine-membered cyclic acetals. Stereoelectronic effect in 2,4- and 3,5-benzodioxonine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migda, Wojciech; Rys, Barbara

    2006-07-21

    Conformations of the title compounds were examined using DFT calculations and NBO analysis in order to find the origins of their conformational preferences. The most stable conformations were TBC and TCBtype-1 for the 2,4- and 3,5-benzodioxonine derivatives, respectively. In both of these conformations the acetal moiety adopts the g+/-g+/- geometry. The NBO analysis yielded values of the stabilization energy associated with the stereoelectronic nO --> sigmaC-O* interactions that were highest for conformations other than the global minima. Conformers displaying the strongest interactions followed different patterns of atom arrangement within the acetal moiety, namely g+g-, and those in which one or both of the torsion angles within the C-O-C-O-C segment were close to 90 degrees . Steric repulsion caused by alkyl substituents at the anomeric carbon was found to influence the strength of the nO --> sigmaC-O* stabilization through modification of bond lengths and torsion angles. The adopted ground-state conformations result from accommodation of steric repulsions and stabilizing stereoelectronic interactions. It was shown that DFT calculations of conformational preferences of acetals together with GIAO prediction of 13C chemical shifts should be a useful methodology for studies on conformation and conformational equilibria of acetals in solution.

  16. Dissecting the large-scale galactic conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seongu

    2018-01-01

    Galactic conformity is an observed phenomenon that galaxies located in the same region have similar properties such as star formation rate, color, gas fraction, and so on. The conformity was first observed among galaxies within in the same halos (“one-halo conformity”). The one-halo conformity can be readily explained by mutual interactions among galaxies within a halo. Recent observations however further witnessed a puzzling connection among galaxies with no direct interaction. In particular, galaxies located within a sphere of ~5 Mpc radius tend to show similarities, even though the galaxies do not share common halos with each other ("two-halo conformity" or “large-scale conformity”). Using a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation, Illustris, we investigate the physical origin of the two-halo conformity and put forward two scenarios. First, back-splash galaxies are likely responsible for the large-scale conformity. They have evolved into red galaxies due to ram-pressure stripping in a given galaxy cluster and happen to reside now within a ~5 Mpc sphere. Second, galaxies in strong tidal field induced by large-scale structure also seem to give rise to the large-scale conformity. The strong tides suppress star formation in the galaxies. We discuss the importance of the large-scale conformity in the context of galaxy evolution.

  17. Reflection and transmission for conformal defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quella, T.; Runkel, I.; Watts, G.M.T.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. We consider conformal defects joining two conformal field theories along a line. We define two new quantities associated to such defects in terms of expectation values of the stress tensors and we propose them as measures of the reflectivity and transmissivity of the defect. Their

  18. Streaming Process Discovery and Conformance Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burattin, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Streaming process discovery, streaming conformance checking, and streaming process mining in general (also known as online process mining) are disciplines which analyze event streams to extract a process model or to assess their conformance with respect to a given reference model. The main...

  19. Conformal transformation, gauge fields and trace anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, M.S.; Barcelos-Neto, J.

    1988-02-01

    In a recent work, Padmanabhan (1985 Class. Quant. Grav. 2 4105) showed an interesting way of constructing a general conformally invariant scalar theory by introducing a conformal gauge field. We comment on the extrapolation of this idea to the fermionic field and study the trace anomaly for the scalar case by using the path integral formalism.

  20. A viewpoint on nearly conformally symmetric manifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.S.

    1990-06-01

    Some observations, with definition, on Nearly Conformally Symmetric (NCS) manifold are made. A number of theorems concerning conformal change of metric and parallel tensors on NCS manifolds are presented. It is illustrated that a manifold M = R n-1 x R + 1 , endowed with a special metric, is NCS but not of harmonic curvature. (author). 8 refs

  1. Fusion rules in conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, J.

    1993-06-01

    Several aspects of fusion rings and fusion rule algebras, and of their manifestations in two-dimensional (conformal) field theory, are described: diagonalization and the connection with modular invariance; the presentation in terms of quotients of polynomial rings; fusion graphs; various strategies that allow for a partial classification; and the role of the fusion rules in the conformal bootstrap programme. (orig.)

  2. Conformal deformation of Riemann space and torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyzh, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    Method for investigating conformal deformations of Riemann spaces using torsion tensor, which permits to reduce the second ' order equations for Killing vectors to the system of the first order equations, is presented. The method is illustrated using conformal deformations of dimer sphere as an example. A possibility of its use when studying more complex deformations is discussed [ru

  3. Precision holography for non-conformal branes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanitscheider, I.; Skenderis, K.; Taylor, M.

    2008-01-01

    We set up precision holography for the non-conformal branes preserving 16 supersymmetries. The near-horizon limit of all such p-brane solutions with p <= 4, including the case of fundamental string solutions, is conformal to AdS(p+2) x S8-p with a linear dilaton. We develop holographic

  4. Conformity to Peer Pressure in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Daniel B. M.; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Both adults and adolescents often conform their behavior and opinions to peer groups, even when they themselves know better. The current study investigated this phenomenon in 24 groups of 4 children between 4;2 and 4;9 years of age. Children often made their judgments conform to those of 3 peers, who had made obviously erroneous but unanimous…

  5. Early maladaptive schemas and social anxiety in adolescents: the mediating role of anxious automatic thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2013-04-01

    Cognitive models state that cognitions are organized hierarchically, so that the underlying schemas affect behavior via more automatic, superficial cognitive processes. This study aimed to demonstrate that early maladaptive schemas predict anxious automatic thoughts, and to show that such automatic thoughts act as mediators between schemas and prospective changes in social anxiety symptoms. The study also examined an alternative reverse model in which schemas acted as mediators between automatic thoughts and social anxiety. A total of 1052 adolescents (499 girls and 553 boys; M(age)=13.43; SD(age)=1.29) completed measures of early maladaptive schemas, socially anxious automatic thoughts, and social anxiety symptoms at Times 1, 2, and 3. The results revealed bidirectional longitudinal relationships among schemas and automatic thoughts that were consistent in content (e.g., the disconnection/rejection schemas and automatic thoughts of negative self-concept). Furthermore, the automatic thoughts of anticipatory negative evaluation by others at Time 2 mediated the relationship between the other-directedness schemas at Time 1 and social anxiety symptoms at Time 3. These findings are consistent with hierarchical cognitive models of social anxiety given that deeper schemas predict more surface-level thoughts. They also support that these more surface-level thoughts contribute to perpetuating schemas. Finally, results show that early maladaptive schemas of the other-directedness domain play a relevant role in the development and maintenance of social anxiety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Conformal correlators of mixed-symmetry tensors

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Miguel S

    2015-01-01

    We generalize the embedding formalism for conformal field theories to the case of general operators with mixed symmetry. The index-free notation encoding symmetric tensors as polynomials in an auxiliary polarization vector is extended to mixed-symmetry tensors by introducing a new commuting or anticommuting polarization vector for each row or column in the Young diagram that describes the index symmetries of the tensor. We determine the tensor structures that are allowed in n-point conformal correlation functions and give an algorithm for counting them in terms of tensor product coefficients. We show, with an example, how the new formalism can be used to compute conformal blocks of arbitrary external fields for the exchange of any conformal primary and its descendants. The matching between the number of tensor structures in conformal field theory correlators of operators in d dimensions and massive scattering amplitudes in d+1 dimensions is also seen to carry over to mixed-symmetry tensors.

  7. Vertex operator algebras and conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.Z.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses conformal field theory, an important physical theory, describing both two-dimensional critical phenomena in condensed matter physics and classical motions of strings in string theory. The study of conformal field theory will deepen the understanding of these theories and will help to understand string theory conceptually. Besides its importance in physics, the beautiful and rich mathematical structure of conformal field theory has interested many mathematicians. New relations between different branches of mathematics, such as representations of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras and Lie groups, Riemann surfaces and algebraic curves, the Monster sporadic group, modular functions and modular forms, elliptic genera and elliptic cohomology, Calabi-Yau manifolds, tensor categories, and knot theory, are revealed in the study of conformal field theory. It is therefore believed that the study of the mathematics involved in conformal field theory will ultimately lead to new mathematical structures which would be important to both mathematics and physics

  8. Conformal Symmetry Patterns in Baryon Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchbach, Mariana; Compean, Cliffor B

    2011-01-01

    Attention is drawn to the fact that the spectra of the baryons of the lightest flavors, the nucleon and the Δ, carry quantum numbers characteristic for an unitary representation of the conformal group. We show that the above phenomenon is well explained for baryons whose internal structure is dominated by a quark-diquark configuration that resides in a conformally compactified Minkowski space time, R 1 x S 3 , and is described by means of the conformal scale equation there. The R 1 x S 3 space-time represents the boundary of the conformally compactified AdS 5 , on which one expects to encounter a conformal theory in accord with the gauge-gravity duality. Within this context, our model is congruent with AdS 5 /CFT 4 .

  9. Conformation Generation: The State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Paul C D

    2017-08-28

    The generation of conformations for small molecules is a problem of continuing interest in cheminformatics and computational drug discovery. This review will present an overview of methods used to sample conformational space, focusing on those methods designed for organic molecules commonly of interest in drug discovery. Different approaches to both the sampling of conformational space and the scoring of conformational stability will be compared and contrasted, with an emphasis on those methods suitable for conformer sampling of large numbers of drug-like molecules. Particular attention will be devoted to the appropriate utilization of information from experimental solid-state structures in validating and evaluating the performance of these tools. The review will conclude with some areas worthy of further investigation.

  10. Wormholes in conformal gravity arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Hohmann, Manuel; Raidal, Martti; Veermäe, Hardi

    We present a new class of solutions for static spherically symmetric wormhole spacetimes in conformal gravity and outline a detailed method for their construction. As an explicit example, we construct a class of traversable and non-traversable wormholes that are locally conformal to Schwarzschild-(anti) de Sitter spacetimes. These wormhole spacetimes are exact vacuum solutions in, but not being limited to, Weyl gravity and conformal scalar-tensor theories. Importantly, the method implies that every conformal gravity theory with local field equations will trivially contain wormholes without the need for exotic matter. Applying those results on gravitational theories that possess conformal symmetry in the ultraviolet regime, the central singularities of black holes can be replaced with wormhole throats. We speculate on possible phenomenological consequences.

  11. Finite conformal quantum gravity and spacetime singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesto, Leonardo; Rachwał, Lesław

    2017-12-01

    We show that a class of finite quantum non-local gravitational theories is conformally invariant at classical as well as at quantum level. This is actually a range of conformal anomaly-free theories in the spontaneously broken phase of the Weyl symmetry. At classical level we show how the Weyl conformal invariance is able to tame all the spacetime singularities that plague not only Einstein gravity, but also local and weakly non-local higher derivative theories. The latter statement is proved by a singularity theorem that applies to a large class of weakly non-local theories. Therefore, we are entitled to look for a solution of the spacetime singularity puzzle in a missed symmetry of nature, namely the Weyl conformal symmetry. Following the seminal paper by Narlikar and Kembhavi, we provide an explicit construction of singularity-free black hole exact solutions in a class of conformally invariant theories.

  12. Automatisms: bridging clinical neurology with criminal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolnick, Joshua; Parvizi, Josef

    2011-03-01

    The law, like neurology, grapples with the relationship between disease states and behavior. Sometimes, the two disciplines share the same terminology, such as automatism. In law, the "automatism defense" is a claim that action was involuntary or performed while unconscious. Someone charged with a serious crime can acknowledge committing the act and yet may go free if, relying on the expert testimony of clinicians, the court determines that the act of crime was committed in a state of automatism. In this review, we explore the relationship between the use of automatism in the legal and clinical literature. We close by addressing several issues raised by the automatism defense: semantic ambiguity surrounding the term automatism, the presence or absence of consciousness during automatisms, and the methodological obstacles that have hindered the study of cognition during automatisms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Conforming Morse-Smale Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyulassy, Attila; Günther, David; Levine, Joshua A; Tierny, Julien; Pascucci, Valerio

    2014-12-01

    Morse-Smale (MS) complexes have been gaining popularity as a tool for feature-driven data analysis and visualization. However, the quality of their geometric embedding and the sole dependence on the input scalar field data can limit their applicability when expressing application-dependent features. In this paper we introduce a new combinatorial technique to compute an MS complex that conforms to both an input scalar field and an additional, prior segmentation of the domain. The segmentation constrains the MS complex computation guaranteeing that boundaries in the segmentation are captured as separatrices of the MS complex. We demonstrate the utility and versatility of our approach with two applications. First, we use streamline integration to determine numerically computed basins/mountains and use the resulting segmentation as an input to our algorithm. This strategy enables the incorporation of prior flow path knowledge, effectively resulting in an MS complex that is as geometrically accurate as the employed numerical integration. Our second use case is motivated by the observation that often the data itself does not explicitly contain features known to be present by a domain expert. We introduce edit operations for MS complexes so that a user can directly modify their features while maintaining all the advantages of a robust topology-based representation.

  14. 47 CFR 2.1072 - Limitation on Declaration of Conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limitation on Declaration of Conformity. 2.1072... Conformity § 2.1072 Limitation on Declaration of Conformity. (a) The Declaration of Conformity signifies that...'s rules. (b) A Declaration of Conformity by the responsible party is effective until a termination...

  15. Self-Compassion and Automatic Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts. Participants were 299 university students. In this study, the Self-compassion Scale and the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire were used. The relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts were examined using correlation analysis…

  16. Automatic Testcase Generation for Flight Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, David Henry; Pasareanu, Corina; Mackey, Ryan M.

    2008-01-01

    The TacSat3 project is applying Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) technologies to an Air Force spacecraft for operational evaluation in space. The experiment will demonstrate the effectiveness and cost of ISHM and vehicle systems management (VSM) technologies through onboard operation for extended periods. We present two approaches to automatic testcase generation for ISHM: 1) A blackbox approach that views the system as a blackbox, and uses a grammar-based specification of the system's inputs to automatically generate *all* inputs that satisfy the specifications (up to prespecified limits); these inputs are then used to exercise the system. 2) A whitebox approach that performs analysis and testcase generation directly on a representation of the internal behaviour of the system under test. The enabling technologies for both these approaches are model checking and symbolic execution, as implemented in the Ames' Java PathFinder (JPF) tool suite. Model checking is an automated technique for software verification. Unlike simulation and testing which check only some of the system executions and therefore may miss errors, model checking exhaustively explores all possible executions. Symbolic execution evaluates programs with symbolic rather than concrete values and represents variable values as symbolic expressions. We are applying the blackbox approach to generating input scripts for the Spacecraft Command Language (SCL) from Interface and Control Systems. SCL is an embedded interpreter for controlling spacecraft systems. TacSat3 will be using SCL as the controller for its ISHM systems. We translated the SCL grammar into a program that outputs scripts conforming to the grammars. Running JPF on this program generates all legal input scripts up to a prespecified size. Script generation can also be targeted to specific parts of the grammar of interest to the developers. These scripts are then fed to the SCL Executive. ICS's in-house coverage tools will be run to

  17. Automatic schema evolution in Root

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, R.; Rademakers, F.

    2001-01-01

    ROOT version 3 (spring 2001) supports automatic class schema evolution. In addition this version also produces files that are self-describing. This is achieved by storing in each file a record with the description of all the persistent classes in the file. Being self-describing guarantees that a file can always be read later, its structure browsed and objects inspected, also when the library with the compiled code of these classes is missing. The schema evolution mechanism supports the frequent case when multiple data sets generated with many different class versions must be analyzed in the same session. ROOT supports the automatic generation of C++ code describing the data objects in a file

  18. Automatic design of magazine covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanian, Ali; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel R.; Lin, Qian; Damera-Venkata, Niranjan; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Lee, Seungyon; Fan, Jian; Allebach, Jan P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a system for automatic design of magazine covers that quantifies a number of concepts from art and aesthetics. Our solution to automatic design of this type of media has been shaped by input from professional designers, magazine art directors and editorial boards, and journalists. Consequently, a number of principles in design and rules in designing magazine covers are delineated. Several techniques are derived and employed in order to quantify and implement these principles and rules in the format of a software framework. At this stage, our framework divides the task of design into three main modules: layout of magazine cover elements, choice of color for masthead and cover lines, and typography of cover lines. Feedback from professional designers on our designs suggests that our results are congruent with their intuition.

  19. Automatic computation of radioimmunoassay data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyota, Takayoshi; Kudo, Mikihiko; Abe, Kanji; Kawamata, Fumiaki; Uehata, Shigeru.

    1975-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay provided dose response curves which showed linearity by the use of logistic transformation (Rodbard). This transformation which was applicable to radioimmunoassay should be useful for the computer processing of insulin and C-peptide assay. In the present studies, standard curves were analysed by testing the fit of analytic functions to radioimmunoassay of insulin and C-peptides. A program for use in combination with the double antibody technique was made by Dr. Kawamata. This approach was evidenced to be useful in order to allow automatic computation of data derived from the double antibody assays of insulin and C-peptides. Automatic corrected calculations of radioimmunoassay data of insulin was found to be satisfactory. (auth.)

  20. Physics of Automatic Target Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Sadjadi, Firooz

    2007-01-01

    Physics of Automatic Target Recognition addresses the fundamental physical bases of sensing, and information extraction in the state-of-the art automatic target recognition field. It explores both passive and active multispectral sensing, polarimetric diversity, complex signature exploitation, sensor and processing adaptation, transformation of electromagnetic and acoustic waves in their interactions with targets, background clutter, transmission media, and sensing elements. The general inverse scattering, and advanced signal processing techniques and scientific evaluation methodologies being used in this multi disciplinary field will be part of this exposition. The issues of modeling of target signatures in various spectral modalities, LADAR, IR, SAR, high resolution radar, acoustic, seismic, visible, hyperspectral, in diverse geometric aspects will be addressed. The methods for signal processing and classification will cover concepts such as sensor adaptive and artificial neural networks, time reversal filt...

  1. MOS voltage automatic tuning circuit

    OpenAIRE

    李, 田茂; 中田, 辰則; 松本, 寛樹

    2004-01-01

    Abstract ###Automatic tuning circuit adjusts frequency performance to compensate for the process variation. Phase locked ###loop (PLL) is a suitable oscillator for the integrated circuit. It is a feedback system that compares the input ###phase with the output phase. It can make the output frequency equal to the input frequency. In this paper, PLL ###fomed of MOSFET's is presented.The presented circuit consists of XOR circuit, Low-pass filter and Relaxation ###Oscillator. On PSPICE simulation...

  2. Automatic Detection of Fake News

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Rosas, Verónica; Kleinberg, Bennett; Lefevre, Alexandra; Mihalcea, Rada

    2017-01-01

    The proliferation of misleading information in everyday access media outlets such as social media feeds, news blogs, and online newspapers have made it challenging to identify trustworthy news sources, thus increasing the need for computational tools able to provide insights into the reliability of online content. In this paper, we focus on the automatic identification of fake content in online news. Our contribution is twofold. First, we introduce two novel datasets for the task of fake news...

  3. Automatic controller at associated memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courty, P.

    1977-06-01

    Organized around an A2 type controller, this CAMAC device allows on command of the associated computer to start reading 64K 16 bit words into an outer memory. This memory is fully controlled by the computer. In the automatic mode, which works at 10 6 words/sec, the computer can access any other module of the same crate by cycle-stealing [fr

  4. Automatic Guidance for Remote Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. R.

    1986-01-01

    Position sensor and mirror guides manipulator toward object. Grasping becomes automatic when sensor begins to receive signal from reflector on object to be manipulated. Light-emitting diodes on manipulator produce light signals for reflector, which is composite of plane and corner reflectors. Proposed scheme especially useful when manipulator arm tends to flex or when object is moving. Sensor and microprocessor designed to compensate for manipulatorarm oscillation.

  5. Annual review in automatic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Halpern, Mark I; Bolliet, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Computer Science and Technology and their Application is an eight-chapter book that first presents a tutorial on database organization. Subsequent chapters describe the general concepts of Simula 67 programming language; incremental compilation and conversational interpretation; dynamic syntax; the ALGOL 68. Other chapters discuss the general purpose conversational system for graphical programming and automatic theorem proving based on resolution. A survey of extensible programming language is also shown.

  6. Automatically-Programed Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, L.; Clerman, N.

    1985-01-01

    Software produces cutter location files for numerically-controlled machine tools. APT, acronym for Automatically Programed Tools, is among most widely used software systems for computerized machine tools. APT developed for explicit purpose of providing effective software system for programing NC machine tools. APT system includes specification of APT programing language and language processor, which executes APT statements and generates NC machine-tool motions specified by APT statements.

  7. Automatic computation of transfer functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atcitty, Stanley; Watson, Luke Dale

    2015-04-14

    Technologies pertaining to the automatic computation of transfer functions for a physical system are described herein. The physical system is one of an electrical system, a mechanical system, an electromechanical system, an electrochemical system, or an electromagnetic system. A netlist in the form of a matrix comprises data that is indicative of elements in the physical system, values for the elements in the physical system, and structure of the physical system. Transfer functions for the physical system are computed based upon the netlist.

  8. Understanding modern magnets through conformal mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbach, K.

    1989-10-01

    I want to show with the help of a number of examples that conformal mapping is a unique and enormously powerful tool for thinking about, and solving, problems. Usually one has to write down only a few equations, and sometimes none at all exclamation point When I started getting involved in work for which conformal mapping seemed to be a powerful tool, I did not think that I would ever be able to use that technique successfully because it seemed to require a nearly encyclopedic memory, an impression that was strengthened when I saw K. Kober's Dictionary of Conformal Representations. This attitude changed when I started to realize that beyond the basics of the theory of a function of a complex variable, I needed to know only about a handful of conformal maps and procedures. Consequently, my second goal for this talk is to show that in most cases conformal mapping functions can be obtained by formulating the underlying physics appropriately. This means particularly that encyclopedic knowledge of conformal maps is not necessary for successful use of conformal mapping techniques. To demonstrate these facts I have chosen examples from an area of physics/engineering in which I am active, namely accelerator physics. In order to do that successfully I start with a brief introduction into high energy charged particle storage ring technology, even though not all examples used in this paper to elucidate my points come directly from this particular field of accelerator technology

  9. On functional representations of the conformal algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosten, Oliver J.

    2017-07-15

    Starting with conformally covariant correlation functions, a sequence of functional representations of the conformal algebra is constructed. A key step is the introduction of representations which involve an auxiliary functional. It is observed that these functionals are not arbitrary but rather must satisfy a pair of consistency equations corresponding to dilatation and special conformal invariance. In a particular representation, the former corresponds to the canonical form of the exact renormalization group equation specialized to a fixed point whereas the latter is new. This provides a concrete understanding of how conformal invariance is realized as a property of the Wilsonian effective action and the relationship to action-free formulations of conformal field theory. Subsequently, it is argued that the conformal Ward Identities serve to define a particular representation of the energy-momentum tensor. Consistency of this construction implies Polchinski's conditions for improving the energy-momentum tensor of a conformal field theory such that it is traceless. In the Wilsonian approach, the exactly marginal, redundant field which generates lines of physically equivalent fixed points is identified as the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. (orig.)

  10. Automatic segmentation of clinical texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolova, Emilia; Channin, David S; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Furst, Jacob; Lytinen, Steven; Raicu, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    Clinical narratives, such as radiology and pathology reports, are commonly available in electronic form. However, they are also commonly entered and stored as free text. Knowledge of the structure of clinical narratives is necessary for enhancing the productivity of healthcare departments and facilitating research. This study attempts to automatically segment medical reports into semantic sections. Our goal is to develop a robust and scalable medical report segmentation system requiring minimum user input for efficient retrieval and extraction of information from free-text clinical narratives. Hand-crafted rules were used to automatically identify a high-confidence training set. This automatically created training dataset was later used to develop metrics and an algorithm that determines the semantic structure of the medical reports. A word-vector cosine similarity metric combined with several heuristics was used to classify each report sentence into one of several pre-defined semantic sections. This baseline algorithm achieved 79% accuracy. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier trained on additional formatting and contextual features was able to achieve 90% accuracy. Plans for future work include developing a configurable system that could accommodate various medical report formatting and content standards.

  11. An interoperable standard system for the automatic generation and publication of the fire risk maps based on Fire Weather Index (FWI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julià Selvas, Núria; Ninyerola Casals, Miquel

    2015-04-01

    It has been implemented an automatic system to predict the fire risk in the Principality of Andorra, a small country located in the eastern Pyrenees mountain range, bordered by Catalonia and France, due to its location, his landscape is a set of a rugged mountains with an average elevation around 2000 meters. The system is based on the Fire Weather Index (FWI) that consists on different components, each one, measuring a different aspect of the fire danger calculated by the values of the weather variables at midday. CENMA (Centre d'Estudis de la Neu i de la Muntanya d'Andorra) has a network around 10 automatic meteorological stations, located in different places, peeks and valleys, that measure weather data like relative humidity, wind direction and speed, surface temperature, rainfall and snow cover every ten minutes; this data is sent daily and automatically to the system implemented that will be processed in the way to filter incorrect measurements and to homogenizer measurement units. Then this data is used to calculate all components of the FWI at midday and for the level of each station, creating a database with the values of the homogeneous measurements and the FWI components for each weather station. In order to extend and model this data to all Andorran territory and to obtain a continuous map, an interpolation method based on a multiple regression with spline residual interpolation has been implemented. This interpolation considerer the FWI data as well as other relevant predictors such as latitude, altitude, global solar radiation and sea distance. The obtained values (maps) are validated using a cross-validation leave-one-out method. The discrete and continuous maps are rendered in tiled raster maps and published in a web portal conform to Web Map Service (WMS) Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard. Metadata and other reference maps (fuel maps, topographic maps, etc) are also available from this geoportal.

  12. Sparse encoding of automatic visual association in hippocampal networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulme, Oliver J; Skov, Martin; Chadwick, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    by these stimuli. Using multivariate Bayesian decoding, we show that human hippocampal and temporal neocortical structures host sparse associative representations that are automatically triggered by visual input. Furthermore, as predicted theoretically, there was a significant increase in sparsity in the Cornu...... for the sparse encoding of associative density. In the absence of reportability or attentional confounds, this charts a distribution of visual associative representations within hippocampal populations and their temporal lobe afferent fields, and demonstrates the viability of retrospective associative sampling...

  13. Conformal supergravity in twistor-string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkovits, Nathan [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Pamplona 145, 01405-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: nberkovi@ift.unesp.br; Witten, Edward [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton NJ 08540 (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Conformal supergravity arises in presently known formulations of twistor-string theory either via closed strings or via gauge-singlet open strings. We explore this sector of twistor-string theory, relating the relevant string modes to the particles and fields of conformal supergravity. We use the twistor-string theory to compute some tree level scattering amplitudes with supergravitons. Since the supergravitons interact with the same coupling constant as the Yang-Mills fields, conformal supergravity states will contribute to loop amplitudes of Yang-Mills gluons in these theories. Those loop amplitudes will therefore not coincide with the loop amplitudes of pure super Yang-Mills theory. (author)

  14. The decomposition of global conformal invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Alexakis, Spyros

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses a basic question in differential geometry that was first considered by physicists Stanley Deser and Adam Schwimmer in 1993 in their study of conformal anomalies. The question concerns conformally invariant functionals on the space of Riemannian metrics over a given manifold. These functionals act on a metric by first constructing a Riemannian scalar out of it, and then integrating this scalar over the manifold. Suppose this integral remains invariant under conformal re-scalings of the underlying metric. What information can one then deduce about the Riemannian scalar? Dese

  15. Structure, Intent and Conformance Monitoring in ATC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Tom G.; Histon, Jonathan M.; Davison, Hayley J.; Hansman, R. John

    2004-01-01

    Infield studies of current Air Traffic Control operations it is found that controllers rely on underlying airspace structure to reduce the complexity of the planning and conformance monitoring tasks. The structure appears to influence the controller's working mental model through abstractions that reduce the apparent cognitive complexity. These structure-based abstractions are useful for the controller's key tasks of planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating tactical situations. In addition, the structure-based abstractions appear to be important in the maintenance of Situation Awareness. The process of conformance monitoring is analyzed in more detail and an approach to conformance monitoring which utilizes both the structure-based abstractions and intent is presented.

  16. Conformity and Dissonance in Generalized Voter Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Scott E.; Sander, Leonard M.; Schneider-Mizell, Casey M.

    2007-09-01

    We generalize the voter model to include social forces that produce conformity among voters and avoidance of cognitive dissonance of opinions within a voter. The time for both conformity and consistency (which we call the exit time) is, in general, much longer than for either process alone. We show that our generalized model can be applied quite widely: it is a form of Wright's island model of population genetics, and is related to problems in the physical sciences. We give scaling arguments, numerical simulations, and analytic estimates for the exit time for a range of relative strengths in the tendency to conform and to avoid dissonance.

  17. Conformal field theory with gauge symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Ueno, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    This book presents a systematic approach to conformal field theory with gauge symmetry from the point of view of complex algebraic geometry. After presenting the basic facts of the theory of compact Riemann surfaces and the representation theory of affine Lie algebras in Chapters 1 and 2, conformal blocks for pointed Riemann surfaces with coordinates are constructed in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4 the sheaf of conformal blocks associated to a family of pointed Riemann surfaces with coordinates is constructed, and in Chapter 5 it is shown that this sheaf supports a projective flat connection-one of

  18. Conformal Gravity: Dark Matter and Dark Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Nesbet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This short review examines recent progress in understanding dark matter, dark energy, and galactic halos using theory that departs minimally from standard particle physics and cosmology. Strict conformal symmetry (local Weyl scaling covariance, postulated for all elementary massless fields, retains standard fermion and gauge boson theory but modifies Einstein–Hilbert general relativity and the Higgs scalar field model, with no new physical fields. Subgalactic phenomenology is retained. Without invoking dark matter, conformal gravity and a conformal Higgs model fit empirical data on galactic rotational velocities, galactic halos, and Hubble expansion including dark energy.

  19. Solid state conformational classification of eight-membered rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez, J.; García, L.; Kessler, M.

    2005-01-01

    A statistical classification of the solid state conformation in the title complexes using data retrieved from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) has been made. Phosphate and phosphinate complexes show a chair conformation preferably. In phosphonate complexes, the most frequent conformations...

  20. Conformity and dietary disinhibition: a test of the ego-strength model of self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Dana; Polivy, Janet; Herman, C Peter

    2003-03-01

    Ego-strength depletion was examined as an explanation for dietary disinhibition in restrained eaters. We predicted that the depletion of ego strength resulting from having to choose whether to conform would undermine dietary restraint. Participants completed an Asch-type conformity task, after which they completed a taste-rating task in which food intake was measured. As predicted, restrained eaters who repeatedly exercised choice ate significantly more than did restrained eaters who did not exercise choice. An ego-strength model of dietary restraint is discussed. Copyright 2003 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Statistically significant dependence of the Xaa-Pro peptide bond conformation on secondary structure and amino acid sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leitner Dietmar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A reliable prediction of the Xaa-Pro peptide bond conformation would be a useful tool for many protein structure calculation methods. We have analyzed the Protein Data Bank and show that the combined use of sequential and structural information has a predictive value for the assessment of the cis versus trans peptide bond conformation of Xaa-Pro within proteins. For the analysis of the data sets different statistical methods such as the calculation of the Chou-Fasman parameters and occurrence matrices were used. Furthermore we analyzed the relationship between the relative solvent accessibility and the relative occurrence of prolines in the cis and in the trans conformation. Results One of the main results of the statistical investigations is the ranking of the secondary structure and sequence information with respect to the prediction of the Xaa-Pro peptide bond conformation. We observed a significant impact of secondary structure information on the occurrence of the Xaa-Pro peptide bond conformation, while the sequence information of amino acids neighboring proline is of little predictive value for the conformation of this bond. Conclusion In this work, we present an extensive analysis of the occurrence of the cis and trans proline conformation in proteins. Based on the data set, we derived patterns and rules for a possible prediction of the proline conformation. Upon adoption of the Chou-Fasman parameters, we are able to derive statistically relevant correlations between the secondary structure of amino acid fragments and the Xaa-Pro peptide bond conformation.

  2. Automated Detection of Conformational Epitopes Using Phage Display Peptide Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra S Negi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Precise determination of conformational epitopes of neutralizing antibodies represents a key step in the rational design of novel vaccines. A powerful experimental method to gain insights on the physical chemical nature of conformational epitopes is the selection of linear peptides that bind with high affinities to a monoclonal antibody of interest by phage display technology. However, the structural characterization of conformational epitopes from these mimotopes is not straightforward, and in the past the interpretation of peptide sequences from phage display experiments focused on linear sequence analysis to find a consensus sequence or common sequence motifs.Results: We present a fully automated search method, EpiSearch that predicts the possible location of conformational epitopes on the surface of an antigen. The algorithm uses peptide sequences from phage display experiments as input, and ranks all surface exposed patches according to the frequency distribution of similar residues in the peptides and in the patch. We have tested the performance of the EpiSearch algorithm for six experimental data sets of phage display experiments, the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2/neu, the antibody mAb Bo2C11 targeting the C2 domain of FVIII, antibodies mAb 17b and mAb b12 of the HIV envelope protein gp120, mAb 13b5 targeting HIV-1 capsid protein and 80R of the SARS coronavirus spike protein. In all these examples the conformational epitopes as determined by the X-ray crystal structures of the antibody-antigen complexes, were found within the highest scoring patches of EpiSearch, covering in most cases more than 50% residues of experimental observed conformational epitopes. Input options of the program include mapping of a single peptide or a set of peptides on the antigen structure, and the results of the calculation can be visualized on our interactive web server.Availability: Users can access the EpiSearch from our web

  3. A Review on Automatic Mammographic Density and Parenchymal Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenda; Juette, Arne; Denton, Erika R. E.; Oliver, Arnau

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. However, the exact cause(s) of breast cancer still remains unknown. Early detection, precise identification of women at risk, and application of appropriate disease prevention measures are by far the most effective way to tackle breast cancer. There are more than 70 common genetic susceptibility factors included in the current non-image-based risk prediction models (e.g., the Gail and the Tyrer-Cuzick models). Image-based risk factors, such as mammographic densities and parenchymal patterns, have been established as biomarkers but have not been fully incorporated in the risk prediction models used for risk stratification in screening and/or measuring responsiveness to preventive approaches. Within computer aided mammography, automatic mammographic tissue segmentation methods have been developed for estimation of breast tissue composition to facilitate mammographic risk assessment. This paper presents a comprehensive review of automatic mammographic tissue segmentation methodologies developed over the past two decades and the evidence for risk assessment/density classification using segmentation. The aim of this review is to analyse how engineering advances have progressed and the impact automatic mammographic tissue segmentation has in a clinical environment, as well as to understand the current research gaps with respect to the incorporation of image-based risk factors in non-image-based risk prediction models. PMID:26171249

  4. Fitting of hadron spectrum in 5-dimensional conformal relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna-Acosta, G.A.

    1984-11-01

    There is no well known kinematic theory of masses which can be used to compute masses of observed particles. The theory of mass of Conformal Relativity in 5-dimensions does promise to fulfill this need. Here we apply its theoretical results to hadrons and successfully fit their masses with a universal length l (the size of the 5th dimension) of 1.36 Fermi. Our fitting scheme shows a trend from which we can predict the observed masses. We conjecture about reasons our fitting distinguishes between hadrons in terms of their quark composition. The value of l suggests physical interpretations and possible means of detection. (author)

  5. Conformational properties of amphotericin B amide derivatives - impact on selective toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resat, Haluk; Sungur, F. Aylin; Baginski, Maciej; Borowski, Edward; Aviyente, Viktorya

    2000-10-01

    Even though it is highly toxic, Amphotericin B (AmB), an amphipathic polyene macrolide antibiotic, is used in the treatment of severe systemic fungal infections as a life-saving drug. To examine the influence of conformational factors on selective toxicity of these compounds, we have investigated the conformational properties of five AmB amide derivatives. It was found that the extended conformation with torsional angles (φ,ψ)=(290°,180° ) is a common minimum of the potential energy surfaces (PES) of unsubstituted AmB and its amide derivatives. The extended conformation of the studied compounds allows for the formation of an intermolecular hydrogen bond network between adjacent antibiotic molecules in the open channel configuration. Therefore, the extended conformation is expected to be the dominant conformer in an open AmB (or its amide derivatives) membrane channel. The derivative compounds for calculations were chosen according to their selective toxicity compared to AmB and they had a wide range of selective toxicity. Except for two AmB derivatives, the PES maps of the derivatives reveal that the molecules can coexist in more than one conformer. Taking into account the cumulative conclusions drawn from the earlier MD simulation studies of AmB membrane channel, the results of the potential energy surface maps, and the physical considerations of the molecular structures, we hypothesize a new model of structure-selective toxicity of AmB derivatives. In this proposed model the presence of the extended conformation as the only well defined global conformer for AmB derivatives is taken as the indicator of their higher selective toxicity. This model successfully explains our results. To further test our model, we also investigated an AmB derivative whose selective toxicity has not been experimentally measured before. Our prediction for the selective toxicity of this compound can be tested in experiments to validate or invalidate the proposed model.

  6. Conformation-independent structural comparison of macromolecules with ProSMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, Robert A.; Fischer, Marcus; McNicholas, Stuart; Murshudov, Garib N.

    2014-01-01

    The Procrustes Structural Matching Alignment and Restraints Tool (ProSMART) has been developed to allow local comparative structural analyses independent of the global conformations and sequence homology of the compared macromolecules. This allows quick and intuitive visualization of the conservation of backbone and side-chain conformations, providing complementary information to existing methods. The identification and exploration of (dis)similarities between macromolecular structures can help to gain biological insight, for instance when visualizing or quantifying the response of a protein to ligand binding. Obtaining a residue alignment between compared structures is often a prerequisite for such comparative analysis. If the conformational change of the protein is dramatic, conventional alignment methods may struggle to provide an intuitive solution for straightforward analysis. To make such analyses more accessible, the Procrustes Structural Matching Alignment and Restraints Tool (ProSMART) has been developed, which achieves a conformation-independent structural alignment, as well as providing such additional functionalities as the generation of restraints for use in the refinement of macromolecular models. Sensible comparison of protein (or DNA/RNA) structures in the presence of conformational changes is achieved by enforcing neither chain nor domain rigidity. The visualization of results is facilitated by popular molecular-graphics software such as CCP4mg and PyMOL, providing intuitive feedback regarding structural conservation and subtle dissimilarities between close homologues that can otherwise be hard to identify. Automatically generated colour schemes corresponding to various residue-based scores are provided, which allow the assessment of the conservation of backbone and side-chain conformations relative to the local coordinate frame. Structural comparison tools such as ProSMART can help to break the complexity that accompanies the constantly growing

  7. Conformation-independent structural comparison of macromolecules with ProSMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholls, Robert A., E-mail: nicholls@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom); Fischer, Marcus [University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158 (United States); McNicholas, Stuart [University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Murshudov, Garib N. [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-01

    The Procrustes Structural Matching Alignment and Restraints Tool (ProSMART) has been developed to allow local comparative structural analyses independent of the global conformations and sequence homology of the compared macromolecules. This allows quick and intuitive visualization of the conservation of backbone and side-chain conformations, providing complementary information to existing methods. The identification and exploration of (dis)similarities between macromolecular structures can help to gain biological insight, for instance when visualizing or quantifying the response of a protein to ligand binding. Obtaining a residue alignment between compared structures is often a prerequisite for such comparative analysis. If the conformational change of the protein is dramatic, conventional alignment methods may struggle to provide an intuitive solution for straightforward analysis. To make such analyses more accessible, the Procrustes Structural Matching Alignment and Restraints Tool (ProSMART) has been developed, which achieves a conformation-independent structural alignment, as well as providing such additional functionalities as the generation of restraints for use in the refinement of macromolecular models. Sensible comparison of protein (or DNA/RNA) structures in the presence of conformational changes is achieved by enforcing neither chain nor domain rigidity. The visualization of results is facilitated by popular molecular-graphics software such as CCP4mg and PyMOL, providing intuitive feedback regarding structural conservation and subtle dissimilarities between close homologues that can otherwise be hard to identify. Automatically generated colour schemes corresponding to various residue-based scores are provided, which allow the assessment of the conservation of backbone and side-chain conformations relative to the local coordinate frame. Structural comparison tools such as ProSMART can help to break the complexity that accompanies the constantly growing

  8. A Novel, Low-Cost Conformable Lander

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary focus of this activity will be to outline a preliminary mechanical design for this conforming lander. Salient issues to be worked include (1) determining...

  9. Hamiltonian formulation for conformal p-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvear, C.; Amorim, R.; Barcelos-Neto, J. (Inst. de Fisica, Univ. Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1991-12-26

    We study the hamiltonian formulation for conformal p-branes. The difficulties which could arise from the substitution of velocities in terms of momenta, due to the nonlinearity of the theory, an circumvented. (orig.).

  10. Some Improvements of Conformable Fractional Integral Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Usta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we wish to set up and present some new conformable fractional integral inequalities of the Gronwall type which have a great variety of implementation area in differential and integral equations.

  11. Steffensen's integral inequality for conformable fractional integrals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Zeki Sarikaya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to establish some Steffensen’s type inequalities for conformable fractional integral. The results presented here would provide generalizations of those given in earlier works.

  12. UV conformal window for asymptotic safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Andrew D.; Litim, Daniel F.; Vazquez, Gustavo Medina; Steudtner, Tom

    2018-02-01

    Interacting fixed points in four-dimensional gauge theories coupled to matter are investigated using perturbation theory up to three loop order. It is shown how fixed points, scaling exponents, and anomalous dimensions are obtained as a systematic power series in a small parameter. The underlying ordering principle is explained and contrasted with conventional perturbation theory and Weyl consistency conditions. We then determine the conformal window with asymptotic safety from the complete next-to-next-to-leading order in perturbation theory. Limits for the conformal window arise due to fixed point mergers, the onset of strong coupling, or vacuum instability. A consistent picture is uncovered by comparing various levels of approximation. The theory remains perturbative in the entire conformal window, with vacuum stability dictating the tightest constraints. We also speculate about a secondary conformal window at strong coupling and estimate its lower limit. Implications for model building and cosmology are indicated.

  13. General Information for Transportation and Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transportation conformity is required by the Clean Air Act section 176(c) (42 U.S.C. 7506(c)) to ensure that federal funding and approval are given to highway and transit projects that are consistent with SIP.

  14. Social conformity despite individual preferences for distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldino, Paul E; Epstein, Joshua M

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate that individual behaviours directed at the attainment of distinctiveness can in fact produce complete social conformity. We thus offer an unexpected generative mechanism for this central social phenomenon. Specifically, we establish that agents who have fixed needs to be distinct and adapt their positions to achieve distinctiveness goals, can nevertheless self-organize to a limiting state of absolute conformity. This seemingly paradoxical result is deduced formally from a small number of natural assumptions and is then explored at length computationally. Interesting departures from this conformity equilibrium are also possible, including divergence in positions. The effect of extremist minorities on these dynamics is discussed. A simple extension is then introduced, which allows the model to generate and maintain social diversity, including multimodal distinctiveness distributions. The paper contributes formal definitions, analytical deductions and counterintuitive findings to the literature on individual distinctiveness and social conformity.

  15. Reciprocity Outperforms Conformity to Promote Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Angelo; Balliet, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Evolutionary psychologists have proposed two processes that could give rise to the pervasiveness of human cooperation observed among individuals who are not genetically related: reciprocity and conformity. We tested whether reciprocity outperformed conformity in promoting cooperation, especially when these psychological processes would promote a different cooperative or noncooperative response. To do so, across three studies, we observed participants' cooperation with a partner after learning (a) that their partner had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials and (b) that their group members had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials with that same partner. Although we found that people both reciprocate and conform, reciprocity has a stronger influence on cooperation. Moreover, we found that conformity can be partly explained by a concern about one's reputation-a finding that supports a reciprocity framework.

  16. Timed Safety Automata and Logic Conformance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Frank

    1999-01-01

    Timed Logic Conformance (TLC) is used to verify the behavioral and timing properties of detailed digital circuits against abstract circuit specifications when both are modeled as Timed Safety Automata (TSA...

  17. On the conformational state of photoinactivated tyrosinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.A.; Ali, R.

    1985-01-01

    Ultraviolet irradiation of tyrosinase rapidly decreased the dopa oxidase activity of the enzyme. Hydrodynamic, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters revealed gross differences in the native and photoinactivated states of the enzyme. The native state of tyrosinase was characterized as a tetramer with a compact, globular and rigid conformation. However, the photoinactivated state of tyrosinase was thermodynamically less stable and unusually sensitive to temperatures as low as 35 0 C. From the dose dependent loss in conformational integrity, thermodynamic stability and catalytic activity of tyrosinase, it is speculated that there are various structural segments distributed throughout the enzyme molecule. These structural segments act as centres of major molecular forces which hold the tetrameric enzyme into a compact and globular conformation. UV modification of these segments triggers a series of conformational changes leading to formation of a partially unfolded and catalytically inactive form of tyrosinase. (author)

  18. TTCN-3 Based Conformance Testing of Mobile Broadcast Business Management System in 3G Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiliang; Yin, Xia; Xiang, Yang; Zhu, Ruiping; Gao, Shirui; Wu, Xin; Liu, Shijian; Gao, Song; Zhou, Li; Li, Peng

    Mobile broadcast service is one of the emerging most important new services in 3G networks. To better operate and manage mobile broadcast services, mobile broadcast business management system (MBBMS) should be designed and developed. Such a system, with its distributed nature, complicated XML data and security mechanism, faces many challenges in testing technology. In this paper, we study the conformance testing methodology of MBBMS, and design and implement a MBBMS protocol conformance testing tool based on TTCN-3, a standardized test description language that can be used in black-box testing of reactive and distributed system. In this methodology and testing tool, we present a semi-automatic XML test data generation method of TTCN-3 test suite and use HMSC model to help the design of test suite. In addition, we also propose an integrated testing method for hierarchical MBBMS security architecture. This testing tool has been used in industrial level’s testing.

  19. Film dosimetry in conformal radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danciu, C.; Proimos, B.S. [Patras Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Medical Physics

    1995-12-01

    Dosimetry, through a film sandwiched in a transverse cross-section of a solid phantom, is a method of choice in Conformal Radiotherapy because: (a) the blackness (density) of the film at each point offers a measure of the total dose received at that point, and (b) the film is easily calibrated by exposing a film strip in the same cross-section, through a stationary field. The film must therefore have the following properties: (a) it must be slow, in order not to be overexposed, even at a therapeutic dose of 200 cGy, and (b) the response of the film (density versus dose curve) must be independent of the photon energy spectrum. A few slow films were compared. It was found that the Kodak X-Omat V for therapy verification was the best choice. To investigate whether the film response was independent of the photon energy, response curves for six depths, starting from the depth of maximum dose to the depth of 25 cm, in solid phantom were derived. The vertical beam was perpendicular to the anterior surface of the phantom, which was at the distance of 100 cm from the source and the field was 15x15 cm at that distance. This procedure was repeated for photon beams emitted by a Cobalt-60 unit, two 6 MV and 15 MV Linear Accelerators, as well as a 45 MV Betatron. For each of those four different beams the film response was the same for all six depths. The results, as shown in the diagrams, are very satisfactory. The response curve under a geometry similar to that actually applied, when the film is irradiated in a transverse cross-section of the phantom, was derived. The horizontal beam was almost parallel (angle of 85) to the plane of the film. The same was repeated with the central ray parallel to the film (angle 90) and at a distance of 1.5 cm from the horizontal film. The field size was again 15x15 at the lateral entrance surface of the beam. The response curves remained the same, as when the beam was perpendicular to the films.

  20. Multimodal Emoji Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Barbieri, Francesco; Ballesteros, Miguel; Ronzano, Francesco; Saggion, Horacio

    2018-01-01

    Emojis are small images that are commonly included in social media text messages. The combination of visual and textual content in the same message builds up a modern way of communication, that automatic systems are not used to deal with. In this paper we extend recent advances in emoji prediction by putting forward a multimodal approach that is able to predict emojis in Instagram posts. Instagram posts are composed of pictures together with texts which sometimes include emojis. We show that ...

  1. Analytic aspects of rational conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiritsis, E.B.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1990-01-01

    The problem of deriving linear differential equations for correlation functions of Rational Conformal Field Theories is considered. Techniques from the theory of fuchsian differential equations are used to show that knowledge of the central charge, dimensions of primary fields and fusion rules are enough to fix the differential equations for one- and two-point functions on the tours. Any other correlation function can be calculated along similar lines. The results settle the issue of 'exact solution' of rational conformal field theories. (orig.)

  2. Effective Conformal Descriptions of Black Hole Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Carlip

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available It is no longer considered surprising that black holes have temperatures and entropies. What remains surprising, though, is the universality of these thermodynamic properties: their exceptionally simple and general form, and the fact that they can be derived from many very different descriptions of the underlying microscopic degrees of freedom. I review the proposal that this universality arises from an approximate conformal symmetry, which permits an effective “conformal dual” description that is largely independent of the microscopic details.

  3. Conformational proofreading: the impact of conformational changes on the specificity of molecular recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonatan Savir

    Full Text Available To perform recognition, molecules must locate and specifically bind their targets within a noisy biochemical environment with many look-alikes. Molecular recognition processes, especially the induced-fit mechanism, are known to involve conformational changes. This raises a basic question: Does molecular recognition gain any advantage by such conformational changes? By introducing a simple statistical-mechanics approach, we study the effect of conformation and flexibility on the quality of recognition processes. Our model relates specificity to the conformation of the participant molecules and thus suggests a possible answer: Optimal specificity is achieved when the ligand is slightly off target; that is, a conformational mismatch between the ligand and its main target improves the selectivity of the process. This indicates that deformations upon binding serve as a conformational proofreading mechanism, which may be selected for via evolution.

  4. Conformal field theories and tensor categories. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Chengming [Nankai Univ., Tianjin (China). Chern Institute of Mathematics; Fuchs, Juergen [Karlstad Univ. (Sweden). Theoretical Physics; Huang, Yi-Zhi [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Kong, Liang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. for Advanced Study; Runkel, Ingo; Schweigert, Christoph (eds.) [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics

    2014-08-01

    First book devoted completely to the mathematics of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications. Contributors include both mathematicians and physicists. Some long expository articles are especially suitable for beginners. The present volume is a collection of seven papers that are either based on the talks presented at the workshop ''Conformal field theories and tensor categories'' held June 13 to June 17, 2011 at the Beijing International Center for Mathematical Research, Peking University, or are extensions of the material presented in the talks at the workshop. These papers present new developments beyond rational conformal field theories and modular tensor categories and new applications in mathematics and physics. The topics covered include tensor categories from representation categories of Hopf algebras, applications of conformal field theories and tensor categories to topological phases and gapped systems, logarithmic conformal field theories and the corresponding non-semisimple tensor categories, and new developments in the representation theory of vertex operator algebras. Some of the papers contain detailed introductory material that is helpful for graduate students and researchers looking for an introduction to these research directions. The papers also discuss exciting recent developments in the area of conformal field theories, tensor categories and their applications and will be extremely useful for researchers working in these areas.

  5. Conformal Symmetry as a Template for QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S

    2004-08-04

    Conformal symmetry is broken in physical QCD; nevertheless, one can use conformal symmetry as a template, systematically correcting for its nonzero {beta} function as well as higher-twist effects. For example, commensurate scale relations which relate QCD observables to each other, such as the generalized Crewther relation, have no renormalization scale or scheme ambiguity and retain a convergent perturbative structure which reflects the underlying conformal symmetry of the classical theory. The ''conformal correspondence principle'' also dictates the form of the expansion basis for hadronic distribution amplitudes. The AdS/CFT correspondence connecting superstring theory to superconformal gauge theory has important implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders demonstration of counting rules for hard exclusive processes as well as determining essential aspects of hadronic light-front wavefunctions. Theoretical and phenomenological evidence is now accumulating that QCD couplings based on physical observables such as {tau} decay become constant at small virtuality; i.e., effective charges develop an infrared fixed point in contradiction to the usual assumption of singular growth in the infrared. The near-constant behavior of effective couplings also suggests that QCD can be approximated as a conformal theory even at relatively small momentum transfer. The importance of using an analytic effective charge such as the pinch scheme for unifying the electroweak and strong couplings and forces is also emphasized.

  6. Unification of automatic target tracking and automatic target recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Bruce J.

    2014-06-01

    The subject being addressed is how an automatic target tracker (ATT) and an automatic target recognizer (ATR) can be fused together so tightly and so well that their distinctiveness becomes lost in the merger. This has historically not been the case outside of biology and a few academic papers. The biological model of ATT∪ATR arises from dynamic patterns of activity distributed across many neural circuits and structures (including retina). The information that the brain receives from the eyes is "old news" at the time that it receives it. The eyes and brain forecast a tracked object's future position, rather than relying on received retinal position. Anticipation of the next moment - building up a consistent perception - is accomplished under difficult conditions: motion (eyes, head, body, scene background, target) and processing limitations (neural noise, delays, eye jitter, distractions). Not only does the human vision system surmount these problems, but it has innate mechanisms to exploit motion in support of target detection and classification. Biological vision doesn't normally operate on snapshots. Feature extraction, detection and recognition are spatiotemporal. When vision is viewed as a spatiotemporal process, target detection, recognition, tracking, event detection and activity recognition, do not seem as distinct as they are in current ATT and ATR designs. They appear as similar mechanism taking place at varying time scales. A framework is provided for unifying ATT and ATR.

  7. Annual review in automatic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Annual Review in Automatic Programming, Volume 4 is a collection of papers that deals with the GIER ALGOL compiler, a parameterized compiler based on mechanical linguistics, and the JOVIAL language. A couple of papers describes a commercial use of stacks, an IBM system, and what an ideal computer program support system should be. One paper reviews the system of compilation, the development of a more advanced language, programming techniques, machine independence, and program transfer to other machines. Another paper describes the ALGOL 60 system for the GIER machine including running ALGOL pro

  8. On automatic machine translation evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darinka Verdonik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An important task of developing machine translation (MT is evaluating system performance. Automatic measures are most commonly used for this task, as manual evaluation is time-consuming and costly. However, to perform an objective evaluation is not a trivial task. Automatic measures, such as BLEU, TER, NIST, METEOR etc., have their own weaknesses, while manual evaluations are also problematic since they are always to some extent subjective. In this paper we test the influence of a test set on the results of automatic MT evaluation for the subtitling domain. Translating subtitles is a rather specific task for MT, since subtitles are a sort of summarization of spoken text rather than a direct translation of (written text. Additional problem when translating language pair that does not include English, in our example Slovene-Serbian, is that commonly the translations are done from English to Serbian and from English to Slovenian, and not directly, since most of the TV production is originally filmed in English. All this poses additional challenges to MT and consequently to MT evaluation. Automatic evaluation is based on a reference translation, which is usually taken from an existing parallel corpus and marked as a test set. In our experiments, we compare the evaluation results for the same MT system output using three types of test set. In the first round, the test set are 4000 subtitles from the parallel corpus of subtitles SUMAT. These subtitles are not direct translations from Serbian to Slovene or vice versa, but are based on an English original. In the second round, the test set are 1000 subtitles randomly extracted from the first test set and translated anew, from Serbian to Slovenian, based solely on the Serbian written subtitles. In the third round, the test set are the same 1000 subtitles, however this time the Slovene translations were obtained by manually correcting the Slovene MT outputs so that they are correct translations of the

  9. Automatic Evaluation of Machine Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Mercedes Garcia; Koglin, Arlene; Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé

    2015-01-01

    of quality criteria in as few edits as possible. The quality of MT systems is generally measured by automatic metrics, producing scores that should correlate with human evaluation.In this study, we investigate correlations between one of such metrics, i.e. Translation Edit Rate (TER), and actual post...... of post-editing effort, namely i) temporal (time), ii) cognitive (mental processes) and iii) technical (keyboard activity). For the purposes of this research, TER scores were correlated with two different indicators of post-editing effort as computed in the CRITT Translation Process Database (TPR...

  10. Annual review in automatic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Annual Review in Automatic Programming, Volume 2 is a collection of papers that discusses the controversy about the suitability of COBOL as a common business oriented language, and the development of different common languages for scientific computation. A couple of papers describes the use of the Genie system in numerical calculation and analyzes Mercury autocode in terms of a phrase structure language, such as in the source language, target language, the order structure of ATLAS, and the meta-syntactical language of the assembly program. Other papers explain interference or an ""intermediate

  11. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  12. Motor automaticity in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Hallett, Mark; Chan, Piu

    2017-01-01

    Bradykinesia is the most important feature contributing to motor difficulties in Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the pathophysiology underlying bradykinesia is not fully understood. One important aspect is that PD patients have difficulty in performing learned motor skills automatically, but this problem has been generally overlooked. Here we review motor automaticity associated motor deficits in PD, such as reduced arm swing, decreased stride length, freezing of gait, micrographia and reduced facial expression. Recent neuroimaging studies have revealed some neural mechanisms underlying impaired motor automaticity in PD, including less efficient neural coding of movement, failure to shift automated motor skills to the sensorimotor striatum, instability of the automatic mode within the striatum, and use of attentional control and/or compensatory efforts to execute movements usually performed automatically in healthy people. PD patients lose previously acquired automatic skills due to their impaired sensorimotor striatum, and have difficulty in acquiring new automatic skills or restoring lost motor skills. More investigations on the pathophysiology of motor automaticity, the effect of L-dopa or surgical treatments on automaticity, and the potential role of using measures of automaticity in early diagnosis of PD would be valuable. PMID:26102020

  13. Do people automatically track others' beliefs? Evidence from a continuous measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, R.P.R.D. van der; Sebanz, N.; Knoblich, G.K.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that tracking others' beliefs is not always effortful and slow, but may rely on a fast and implicit system. An untested prediction of the automatic belief tracking account is that own and others' beliefs should be activated in parallel. We tested this prediction measuring

  14. On stylistic automatization of lexical units in various types of contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В В Зуева

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Stylistic automatization of lexical units in various types of contexts is investigated in this article. Following the works of Boguslav Havranek and other linguists of the Prague Linguistic School automatization is treated as a contextual narrowing of the meaning of a lexical unit to the level of its complete predictability in situational contexts and the lack of stylistic contradiction with other lexical units in speech.

  15. An automatic holographic adaptive phoropter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirsolaimani, Babak; Peyghambarian, N.; Schwiegerling, Jim; Bablumyan, Arkady; Savidis, Nickolaos; Peyman, Gholam

    2017-08-01

    Phoropters are the most common instrument used to detect refractive errors. During a refractive exam, lenses are flipped in front of the patient who looks at the eye chart and tries to read the symbols. The procedure is fully dependent on the cooperation of the patient to read the eye chart, provides only a subjective measurement of visual acuity, and can at best provide a rough estimate of the patient's vision. Phoropters are difficult to use for mass screenings requiring a skilled examiner, and it is hard to screen young children and the elderly etc. We have developed a simplified, lightweight automatic phoropter that can measure the optical error of the eye objectively without requiring the patient's input. The automatic holographic adaptive phoropter is based on a Shack-Hartmann wave front sensor and three computercontrolled fluidic lenses. The fluidic lens system is designed to be able to provide power and astigmatic corrections over a large range of corrections without the need for verbal feedback from the patient in less than 20 seconds.

  16. Automatic welding machine for piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Koyama, Takaichi; Iizuka, Tomio; Ito, Yoshitoshi; Takami, Katsumi.

    1978-01-01

    A remotely controlled automatic special welding machine for piping was developed. This machine is utilized for long distance pipe lines, chemical plants, thermal power generating plants and nuclear power plants effectively from the viewpoint of good quality control, reduction of labor and good controllability. The function of this welding machine is to inspect the shape and dimensions of edge preparation before welding work by the sense of touch, to detect the temperature of melt pool, inspect the bead form by the sense of touch, and check the welding state by ITV during welding work, and to grind the bead surface and inspect the weld metal by ultrasonic test automatically after welding work. The construction of this welding system, the main specification of the apparatus, the welding procedure in detail, the electrical source of this welding machine, the cooling system, the structure and handling of guide ring, the central control system and the operating characteristics are explained. The working procedure and the effect by using this welding machine, and the application to nuclear power plants and the other industrial field are outlined. The HIDIC 08 is used as the controlling computer. This welding machine is useful for welding SUS piping as well as carbon steel piping. (Nakai, Y.)

  17. SRV-automatic handling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Koji

    1987-01-01

    Automatic handling device for the steam relief valves (SRV's) is developed in order to achieve a decrease in exposure of workers, increase in availability factor, improvement in reliability, improvement in safety of operation, and labor saving. A survey is made during a periodical inspection to examine the actual SVR handling operation. An SRV automatic handling device consists of four components: conveyor, armed conveyor, lifting machine, and control/monitoring system. The conveyor is so designed that the existing I-rail installed in the containment vessel can be used without any modification. This is employed for conveying an SRV along the rail. The armed conveyor, designed for a box rail, is used for an SRV installed away from the rail. By using the lifting machine, an SRV installed away from the I-rail is brought to a spot just below the rail so that the SRV can be transferred by the conveyor. The control/monitoring system consists of a control computer, operation panel, TV monitor and annunciator. The SRV handling device is operated by remote control from a control room. A trial equipment is constructed and performance/function testing is carried out using actual SRV's. As a result, is it shown that the SRV handling device requires only two operators to serve satisfactorily. The required time for removal and replacement of one SRV is about 10 minutes. (Nogami, K.)

  18. Automatic scanning of emulsion films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ambrosio, N.; Mandrioli, G.; Sirrib, G.

    2003-01-01

    The use of nuclear emulsions in recent large neutrino experiments is mostly due to the significant results in the developments of this detection technique. In the emulsion films, trajectories of through-going particles are permanently recorded: thus, the emulsion target can be considered not only as a tracking but also as a storing device. If the data readout is performed by automatic scanning systems interfaced to an acquisition computer equipped with a fast frame grabber, nuclear emulsions can be used as very large target detector and quickly analyzed in particle physics experiments. Techniques for automatic scanning of nuclear emulsions have been developed in the early past. The effort was initiated by Niwa at Nagoya (Japan) in the late 70s. The first large-scale application was the CHORUS experiment; then emulsions have been used to search for T neutrinos in a high track density environment like DONUT. In order to measure with high accuracy and high speed, very strict constraints must be satisfied in terms of mechanical precisions, camera speed, image processing power. Recent improvements in this technique are briefly reported

  19. Automatic generation of tourist brochures

    KAUST Repository

    Birsak, Michael

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel framework for the automatic generation of tourist brochures that include routing instructions and additional information presented in the form of so-called detail lenses. The first contribution of this paper is the automatic creation of layouts for the brochures. Our approach is based on the minimization of an energy function that combines multiple goals: positioning of the lenses as close as possible to the corresponding region shown in an overview map, keeping the number of lenses low, and an efficient numbering of the lenses. The second contribution is a route-aware simplification of the graph of streets used for traveling between the points of interest (POIs). This is done by reducing the graph consisting of all shortest paths through the minimization of an energy function. The output is a subset of street segments that enable traveling between all the POIs without considerable detours, while at the same time guaranteeing a clutter-free visualization. © 2014 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Full conformational landscape of 3-Methoxyphenol revealed by room temperature mm-wave rotational spectroscopy supported by quantum chemical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roucou, Anthony; Fontanari, Daniele; Dhont, Guillaume; Jabri, Atef; Bray, Cédric; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gaël; Bocquet, Robin; Cuisset, Arnaud

    2018-03-30

    Room temperature millimeter-wave rotational spectroscopy supported by high level of theory calculations have been employed to fully characterise the conformational landscape of 3-Methoxyphenol, a semi-volatile polar oxygenated aromatic compound precursor of secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere arising from biomass combustion. While previous rotationally-resolved spectroscopic studies in the microwave and in the UV domains failed to observe the complete conformational landscape, the 70 - 330 GHz rotational spectrum measured in this study reveals the ground state rotational signatures of the four stable conformations theoretically predicted. Moreover, rotational transitions in the lowest energy vibrationally excited states were assigned for two conformers. While the inertial defect of methoxyphenol does not signicantly change between conformers and isomers, the excitation of the methoxy out-of-plane bending is the main contribution to the non-planarity of the molecule. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Antibody side chain conformations are position-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Jinwoo; Georges, Guy; Shi, Jiye; Deane, Charlotte M

    2018-01-10

    Side chain prediction is an integral component of computational antibody design and structure prediction. Current antibody modelling tools use backbone-dependent rotamer libraries with conformations taken from general proteins. Here we present our antibody-specific rotamer library, where rotamers are binned according to their immunogenetics (IMGT) position, rather than their local backbone geometry. We find that for some amino acid types at certain positions, only a restricted number of side chain conformations are ever observed. Using this information, we are able to reduce the breadth of the rotamer sampling space. Based on our rotamer library, we built a side chain predictor, position-dependent antibody rotamer swapper (PEARS). On a blind test set of 95 antibody model structures, PEARS had the highest average χ 1 and χ1+2 accuracy (78.7% and 64.8%) compared to three leading backbone-dependent side chain predictors. Our use of IMGT position, rather than backbone ϕ/ψ, meant that PEARS was more robust to errors in the backbone of the model structure. PEARS also achieved the lowest number of side chain-side chain clashes. PEARS is freely available as a web application at http://opig.stats.ox.ac.uk/webapps/pears. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Structure and conformational dynamics of scaffolded DNA origami nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Keyao; Bricker, William P; Ratanalert, Sakul; Bathe, Mark

    2017-06-20

    Synthetic DNA is a highly programmable nanoscale material that can be designed to self-assemble into 3D structures that are fully determined by underlying Watson-Crick base pairing. The double crossover (DX) design motif has demonstrated versatility in synthesizing arbitrary DNA nanoparticles on the 5-100 nm scale for diverse applications in biotechnology. Prior computational investigations of these assemblies include all-atom and coarse-grained modeling, but modeling their conformational dynamics remains challenging due to their long relaxation times and associated computational cost. We apply all-atom molecular dynamics and coarse-grained finite element modeling to DX-based nanoparticles to elucidate their fine-scale and global conformational structure and dynamics. We use our coarse-grained model with a set of secondary structural motifs to predict the equilibrium solution structures of 45 DX-based DNA origami nanoparticles including a tetrahedron, octahedron, icosahedron, cuboctahedron and reinforced cube. Coarse-grained models are compared with 3D cryo-electron microscopy density maps for these five DNA nanoparticles and with all-atom molecular dynamics simulations for the tetrahedron and octahedron. Our results elucidate non-intuitive atomic-level structural details of DX-based DNA nanoparticles, and offer a general framework for efficient computational prediction of global and local structural and mechanical properties of DX-based assemblies that are inaccessible to all-atom based models alone. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Subjective fear, interference by threat, and fear associations independently predict fear-related behavior in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, A.M.; Kleinherenbrink, A.V.; Simons, C.; de Gier, E.; Klein, S.; Allart, E.; Bögels, S.M.; Becker, E.S.; Rinck, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives: Several information-processing models highlight the independent roles of controlled and automatic processes in explaining fearful behavior. Therefore, we investigated whether direct measures of controlled processes and indirect measures of automatic processes predict

  4. Automaticity in reading isiZulu

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Land

    2016-01-01

    Automaticity, or instant recognition of combinations of letters as units of language, is essential for proficient reading in any language. The article explores automaticity amongst competent adult first-language readers of isiZulu, and the factors associated with it or its opposite - active decoding. Whilst the transparent spelling patterns of isiZulu aid learner readers, some of its orthographical features may militate against their gaining automaticity. These features are agglutination; a c...

  5. Automatic definition of prescription isodose for stereotactic irradiations of arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejean, C.; Lefkopoulos, D.; Foulquier, J.N.; Schlienger, M.; Touboul, E.

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate dosimetric consequences generated by the automatic definition based on lesion coverage of prescription isodose. A clinical series of 124 arteriovenous malformations was analysed. Plan quality was quantified by the standard deviation of the differential dose volume histogram calculated in the lesion. We define two quantitative protocols based on lesion coverage for the automatic definition of prescription isodose using a volumetric definition of coverage (90% of lesion volume), and an isodose-based definition proposed) by RTOG (prescription isodose equals minimum isodose in the lesion divided by 0.9). We have evaluated the plans obtained for these two protocols, calculating several dose-volume indices. These indices are presented as a function of dose-volume histogram standard deviation in order to quantify the consequences of their variations for this representative series of plans. The margin our team tolerates is such that the sum of under-dosed lesion and overdosed healthy tissues factors remains lower than one. Protocol based on volumetric coverage gives results situated within this margin. Protocol based on RTOG definition produces conformation indices that could be greater than 1. The absolute dose would be decided taking into account examined dose-volume indices and clinical data. A protocol for automatic definition of prescription isodose using volumetric lesion coverage seems to be more judiciously adapted to arteriovenous malformation conformal plans in stereotactic conditions because of variations observed in the overdosage of healthy tissues. (authors)

  6. ConfBuster: Open-Source Tools for Macrocycle Conformational Search and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Barbeau

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrocycles are cyclic macromolecules that have gained an increased interest in drug development. To our knowledge, the current bioinformatics tools that are available to investigate and predict macrocycles 3D conformations are limited in their availability. In this paper, we introduce ConfBuster, a suite of tools written in Python with the goal of sampling the lower energy conformations of macrocycles. The suite also includes tools for the analysis and visualisation of the conformational search results. Coordinate sets of single molecules in MOL2 or PDB format are required as input, and a set of lower energy conformation coordinates is returned as output, as well as PyMOL script and graphics for results analysis. In addition to Python and the optional R programming languages with freely available packages, the tools require Open Babel and PyMOL to work properly. For several examples, ConfBuster found macrocycle conformations that are within few tenths of Å of the experimental structures in minutes. To our knowledge, this is the only open-source tools for macrocycle conformational search available to the scientific community

  7. Automatic acquisition of motion trajectories: tracking hockey players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuma, Kenji; Little, James J.; Lowe, David

    2003-12-01

    Computer systems that have the capability of analyzing complex and dynamic scenes play an essential role in video annotation. Scenes can be complex in such a way that there are many cluttered objects with different colors, shapes and sizes, and can be dynamic with multiple interacting moving objects and a constantly changing background. In reality, there are many scenes that are complex, dynamic, and challenging enough for computers to describe. These scenes include games of sports, air traffic, car traffic, street intersections, and cloud transformations. Our research is about the challenge of inventing a descriptive computer system that analyzes scenes of hockey games where multiple moving players interact with each other on a constantly moving background due to camera motions. Ultimately, such a computer system should be able to acquire reliable data by extracting the players" motion as their trajectories, querying them by analyzing the descriptive information of data, and predict the motions of some hockey players based on the result of the query. Among these three major aspects of the system, we primarily focus on visual information of the scenes, that is, how to automatically acquire motion trajectories of hockey players from video. More accurately, we automatically analyze the hockey scenes by estimating parameters (i.e., pan, tilt, and zoom) of the broadcast cameras, tracking hockey players in those scenes, and constructing a visual description of the data by displaying trajectories of those players. Many technical problems in vision such as fast and unpredictable players' motions and rapid camera motions make our challenge worth tackling. To the best of our knowledge, there have not been any automatic video annotation systems for hockey developed in the past. Although there are many obstacles to overcome, our efforts and accomplishments would hopefully establish the infrastructure of the automatic hockey annotation system and become a milestone for

  8. Structures of W(2.2 Lie conformal algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Lamei

    2016-01-01

    . In this paper, we study conformal derivations, central extensions and conformal modules for this Lie conformal algebra. Also, we compute the cohomology of this Lie conformal algebra with coefficients in its modules. In particular, we determine its cohomology with trivial coefficients both for the basic and reduced complexes.

  9. Application of Conformational Space Search in Drug Action | Adikwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... therapeutic groups are presented. Conformational space search will lead to isolating the exact conformation with the desired medicinal properties. Many conformations of a plant isolate may exist which are active, weakly active or inactive. Key Words: Conformational, Space, Drug Action Bio-Research Vol.1(2) 2003: 69-76 ...

  10. Application of Conformational Space Search in Drug Action | Adikwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of conformational space in drug action is presented. Two examples of molecules in different therapeutic groups are presented. Conformational space search will lead to isolating the exact conformation with the desired medicinal properties. Many conformations of a plant isolate may exist which are active, weakly ...

  11. A note on fashion cycles, novelty and conformity

    OpenAIRE

    Federica Alberti

    2013-01-01

    We develop a model in which novelty and conformity motivate fashion behavior. Fashion cycles occur if conformity is not too high. The duration of fashion cycles depends on individual-specific conformity, novelty, and the number of available styles. The use of individual-specific novelty and conformity allows us to also identify fashion leaders.

  12. 40 CFR 91.106 - Certificate of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certificate of conformity. 91.106... Provisions § 91.106 Certificate of conformity. (a) Every manufacturer of a new marine SI engine produced... obtain a certificate of conformity covering each engine family. The certificate of conformity must be...

  13. 21 CFR 26.70 - Conformity assessment bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conformity assessment bodies. 26.70 Section 26.70...Frameworkâ Provisions § 26.70 Conformity assessment bodies. Each party recognizes that the conformity... conformity in relation to its requirements as specified in subpart B of this part. The parties shall specify...

  14. 47 CFR 2.906 - Declaration of Conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Declaration of Conformity. 2.906 Section 2.906... Conformity. (a) A Declaration of Conformity is a procedure where the responsible party, as defined in § 2.909... of Conformity attaches to all items subsequently marketed by the responsible party which are...

  15. Automatic Thermal Infrared Panoramic Imaging Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutin, Mikhail; Tsui, Eddy K; Gutin, Olga; Wang, Xu-Ming; Gutin, Alexey

    2006-01-01

    .... Automatic detection, location, and tracking of targets outside protected area ensures maximum protection and at the same time reduces the workload on personnel, increases reliability and confidence...

  16. Prospective detection of large prediction errors: a hypothesis testing approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Real-time motion management is important in radiotherapy. In addition to effective monitoring schemes, prediction is required to compensate for system latency, so that treatment can be synchronized with tumor motion. However, it is difficult to predict tumor motion at all times, and it is critical to determine when large prediction errors may occur. Such information can be used to pause the treatment beam or adjust monitoring/prediction schemes. In this study, we propose a hypothesis testing approach for detecting instants corresponding to potentially large prediction errors in real time. We treat the future tumor location as a random variable, and obtain its empirical probability distribution with the kernel density estimation-based method. Under the null hypothesis, the model probability is assumed to be a concentrated Gaussian centered at the prediction output. Under the alternative hypothesis, the model distribution is assumed to be non-informative uniform, which reflects the situation that the future position cannot be inferred reliably. We derive the likelihood ratio test (LRT) for this hypothesis testing problem and show that with the method of moments for estimating the null hypothesis Gaussian parameters, the LRT reduces to a simple test on the empirical variance of the predictive random variable. This conforms to the intuition to expect a (potentially) large prediction error when the estimate is associated with high uncertainty, and to expect an accurate prediction when the uncertainty level is low. We tested the proposed method on patient-derived respiratory traces. The 'ground-truth' prediction error was evaluated by comparing the prediction values with retrospective observations, and the large prediction regions were subsequently delineated by thresholding the prediction errors. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to describe the performance of the proposed hypothesis testing method. Clinical implication was represented by miss

  17. Conformal blocks and generalized Selberg integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, A.; Morozov, Al.; Morozov, And.

    2011-02-01

    Operator product expansion (OPE) of two operators in two-dimensional conformal field theory includes a sum over Virasoro descendants of other operator with universal coefficients, dictated exclusively by properties of the Virasoro algebra and independent of choice of the particular conformal model. In the free field model, these coefficients arise only with a special “conservation” relation imposed on the three dimensions of the operators involved in OPE. We demonstrate that the coefficients for the three unconstrained dimensions arise in the free field formalism when additional Dotsenko-Fateev integrals are inserted between the positions of the two original operators in the product. If such coefficients are combined to form an n-point conformal block on Riemann sphere, one reproduces the earlier conjectured β-ensemble representation of conformal blocks. The statement can also be regarded as a relation between the 3j-symbols of the Virasoro algebra and the slightly generalized Selberg integrals I, associated with arbitrary Young diagrams. The conformal blocks are multilinear combinations of such integrals and the AGT conjecture relates them to the Nekrasov functions which have exactly the same structure.

  18. Evolution of Conformity in Social Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yali; Li, Cong; Tao, Yi; Zhang, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    People often deviate from their individual Nash equilibrium strategy in game experiments based on the prisoner's dilemma (PD) game and the public goods game (PGG), whereas conditional cooperation, or conformity, is supported by the data from these experiments. In a complicated environment with no obvious "dominant" strategy, conformists who choose the average strategy of the other players in their group could be able to avoid risk by guaranteeing their income will be close to the group average. In this paper, we study the repeated PD game and the repeated m-person PGG, where individuals' strategies are restricted to the set of conforming strategies. We define a conforming strategy by two parameters, initial action in the game and the influence of the other players' choices in the previous round. We are particularly interested in the tit-for-tat (TFT) strategy, which is the well-known conforming strategy in theoretical and empirical studies. In both the PD game and the PGG, TFT can prevent the invasion of non-cooperative strategy if the expected number of rounds exceeds a critical value. The stability analysis of adaptive dynamics shows that conformity in general promotes the evolution of cooperation, and that a regime of cooperation can be established in an AllD population through TFT-like strategies. These results provide insight into the emergence of cooperation in social dilemma games.

  19. ConformRank: A conformity-based rank for finding top-k influential users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiyao; Jin, Yuehui; Cheng, Shiduan; Yang, Tan

    2017-05-01

    Finding influential users is a hot topic in social networks. For example, advertisers identify influential users to make a successful campaign. Retweeters forward messages from original users, who originally publish messages. This action is referred to as retweeting. Retweeting behaviors generate influence. Original users have influence on retweeters. Whether retweeters keep the same sentiment as original users is taken into consideration in this study. Influence is calculated based on conformity from emotional perspective after retweeting. A conformity-based algorithm, called ConformRank, is proposed to find top-k influential users, who make the most users keep the same sentiment after retweeting messages. Emotional conformity is introduced to denote how users conform to original users from the emotional perspective. Conforming weights are introduced to denote how two users keep the same sentiment after retweeting messages. Emotional conformity is applied for users and conforming weights are used for relations. Experiments were conducted on Sina Weibo. Experimental results show that users have larger influence when they publish positive messages.

  20. Automatic Tortuosity-Based Retinopathy of Prematurity Screening System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukkaew, Lassada; Uyyanonvara, Bunyarit; Makhanov, Stanislav S.; Barman, Sarah; Pangputhipong, Pannet

    Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) is an infant disease characterized by increased dilation and tortuosity of the retinal blood vessels. Automatic tortuosity evaluation from retinal digital images is very useful to facilitate an ophthalmologist in the ROP screening and to prevent childhood blindness. This paper proposes a method to automatically classify the image into tortuous and non-tortuous. The process imitates expert ophthalmologists' screening by searching for clearly tortuous vessel segments. First, a skeleton of the retinal blood vessels is extracted from the original infant retinal image using a series of morphological operators. Next, we propose to partition the blood vessels recursively using an adaptive linear interpolation scheme. Finally, the tortuosity is calculated based on the curvature of the resulting vessel segments. The retinal images are then classified into two classes using segments characterized by the highest tortuosity. For an optimal set of training parameters the prediction is as high as 100%.

  1. S-Adenosylmethionine conformations in solution and in protein complexes: Conformational influences of the sulfonium group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markham, George D.; Norrby, Per-Ola; Bock, Charles W.

    2002-01-01

    S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) and other sulfonium ions play central roles in the metabolism of all organisms. The conformational preferences of AdoMet and two other biologically important sulfonium ions, S-methylmethionine and dimethylsulfonioproprionic acid, have been investigated by NMR...... and computational studies. Molecular mechanics parameters for the sulfonium center have been developed for the AMBER force field to permit analysis of NMR results and to enable comparison of the relative energies of the different conformations of AdoMet that have been found in crystal structures of complexes...... with proteins. S-Methylmethionine and S-dimethylsulfonioproprionate adopt a variety of conformations in aqueous solution; a conformation with an electrostatic interaction between the sulfonium sulfur and the carboxylate group is not noticeably favored, in contrast to the preferred conformation found by in vacuo...

  2. Protein-segment universe exhibiting transitions at intermediate segment length in conformational subspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokawa Takatsugu

    2008-08-01

    conformational components that were unique to each structural class. Those characteristics suggest that protein segment conformation is described by compositions of the three common structural variables with large contributions and specific structural variables with small contributions. Conclusion The present results of the analyses of four protein structural classes show the universal role of three major components as segment conformational descriptors. The obtained perspectives of distribution changes related to the segment lengths using the three key components suggest both the adequacy and the possibility of further progress on the prediction strategies used in the recent de novo structure-prediction methods.

  3. Saturating representation of loop conformational fragments in structure databanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiser András

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short fragments of proteins are fundamental starting points in various structure prediction applications, such as in fragment based loop modeling methods but also in various full structure build-up procedures. The applicability and performance of these approaches depend on the availability of short fragments in structure databanks. Results We studied the representation of protein loop fragments up to 14 residues in length. All possible query fragments found in sequence databases (Sequence Space were clustered and cross referenced with available structural fragments in Protein Data Bank (Structure Space. We found that the expansion of PDB in the last few years resulted in a dense coverage of loop conformational fragments. For each loops of length 8 in the current Sequence Space there is at least one loop in Structure Space with 50% or higher sequence identity. By correlating sequence and structure clusters of loops we found that a 50% sequence identity generally guarantees structural similarity. These percentages of coverage at 50% sequence cutoff drop to 96, 94, 68, 53, 33 and 13% for loops of length 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14, respectively. There is not a single loop in the current Sequence Space at any length up to 14 residues that is not matched with a conformational segment that shares at least 20% sequence identity. This minimum observed identity is 40% for loops of 12 residues or shorter and is as high as 50% for 10 residue or shorter loops. We also assessed the impact of rapidly growing sequence databanks on the estimated number of new loop conformations and found that while the number of sequentially unique sequence segments increased about six folds during the last five years there are almost no unique conformational segments among these up to 12 residues long fragments. Conclusion The results suggest that fragment based prediction approaches are not limited any more by the completeness of fragments in databanks but

  4. Automatic gamma spectrometry analytical apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamargot, J.-P.; Wanin, Maurice.

    1980-01-01

    This invention falls within the area of quantitative or semi-quantitative analysis by gamma spectrometry and particularly refers to a device for bringing the samples into the counting position. The purpose of this invention is precisely to provide an automatic apparatus specifically adapted to the analysis of hard gamma radiations. To this effect, the invention relates to a gamma spectrometry analytical device comprising a lead containment, a detector of which the sensitive part is located inside the containment and additionally comprising a transfer system for bringing the analyzed samples in succession to a counting position inside the containment above the detector. A feed compartment enables the samples to be brought in turn one by one on to the transfer system through a duct connecting the compartment to the transfer system. Sequential systems for the coordinated forward feed of the samples in the compartment and the transfer system complete this device [fr

  5. Automatic validation of numerical solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stauning, Ole

    1997-01-01

    , using this method has been developed. (ADIODES is an abbreviation of `` Automatic Differentiation Interval Ordinary Differential Equation Solver''). ADIODES is used to prove existence and uniqueness of periodic solutions to specific ordinary differential equations occuring in dynamical systems theory....... These proofs of existence and uniqueness are difficult or impossible to obtain using other known methods. Also, a method for solving boundary value problems is described. Finally a method for enclosing solutions to a class of integral equations is described. This method is based on the mean value enclosure...... of an integral operator and uses interval Bernstein polynomials for enclosing the solution. Two numerical examples are given, using two orders of approximation and using different numbers of discretization points....

  6. Antares automatic beam alignment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appert, Q.; Swann, T.; Sweatt, W.; Saxman, A.

    1980-01-01

    Antares is a 24-beam-line CO 2 laser system for controlled fusion research, under construction at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL). Rapid automatic alignment of this system is required prior to each experiment shot. The alignment requirements, operational constraints, and a developed prototype system are discussed. A visible-wavelength alignment technique is employed that uses a telescope/TV system to view point light sources appropriately located down the beamline. Auto-alignment is accomplished by means of a video centroid tracker, which determines the off-axis error of the point sources. The error is nulled by computer-driven, movable mirrors in a closed-loop system. The light sources are fiber-optic terminations located at key points in the optics path, primarily at the center of large copper mirrors, and remotely illuminated to reduce heating effects

  7. Automatic quantification of iris color

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, S.; Harder, Stine; Andersen, J. D.

    2012-01-01

    An automatic algorithm to quantify the eye colour and structural information from standard hi-resolution photos of the human iris has been developed. Initially, the major structures in the eye region are identified including the pupil, iris, sclera, and eyelashes. Based on this segmentation, the ...... is completely data driven and it can divide a group of eye images into classes based on structure, colour or a combination of the two. The methods have been tested on a large set of photos with promising results....... regions. The result is a blue-brown ratio for each eye. Furthermore, an image clustering approach has been used with promising results. The approach is based on using a sparse dictionary of feature vectors learned from a training set of iris regions. The feature vectors contain both local structural...

  8. Automatic creation of simulation configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudot, G.; Poizat, F.

    1993-01-01

    SIPA, which stands for 'Simulator for Post Accident', includes: 1) a sophisticated software oriented workshop SWORD (which stands for 'Software Workshop Oriented towards Research and Development') designed in the ADA language including integrated CAD system and software tools for automatic generation of simulation software and man-machine interface in order to operate run-time simulation; 2) a 'simulator structure' based on hardware equipment and software for supervision and communications; 3) simulation configuration generated by SWORD, operated under the control of the 'simulator structure' and run on a target computer. SWORD has already been used to generate two simulation configurations (French 900 MW and 1300 MW nuclear power plants), which are now fully operational on the SIPA training simulator. (Z.S.) 1 ref

  9. Computerized automatic tip scanning operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, K.; Fukushima, T.; Nakai, H.; Yanagisawa, A.

    1984-01-01

    In BWR nuclear power stations the Traversing Incore Probe (TIP) system is one of the most important components in reactor monitoring and control. In previous TIP systems, however, operators have suffered from the complexity of operation and long operation time required. The system presented in this paper realizes the automatic operation of the TIP system by monitoring and driving it with a process computer. This system significantly reduces the burden on customer operators and improves plant efficiency by simplifying the operating procedure, augmenting the accuracy of the measured data, and shortening operating time. The process computer is one of the PODIA (Plant Operation by Displayed Information Automation) systems. This computer transfers control signals to the TIP control panel, which in turn drives equipment by microprocessor control. The process computer contains such components as the CRT/KB unit, the printer plotter, the hard copier, and the message typers required for efficient man-machine communications. Its operation and interface properties are described

  10. Automatic Differentiation and Deep Learning

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Statistical learning has been getting more and more interest from the particle-physics community in recent times, with neural networks and gradient-based optimization being a focus. In this talk we shall discuss three things: automatic differention tools: tools to quickly build DAGs of computation that are fully differentiable. We shall focus on one such tool "PyTorch".  Easy deployment of trained neural networks into large systems with many constraints: for example, deploying a model at the reconstruction phase where the neural network has to be integrated into CERN's bulk data-processing C++-only environment Some recent models in deep learning for segmentation and generation that might be useful for particle physics problems.

  11. Coadjoint orbits and conformal field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, IV, Washington [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This thesis is primarily a study of certain aspects of the geometric and algebraic structure of coadjoint orbit representations of infinite-dimensional Lie groups. The goal of this work is to use coadjoint orbit representations to construct conformal field theories, in a fashion analogous to the free-field constructions of conformal field theories. The new results which are presented in this thesis are as follows: First, an explicit set of formulae are derived giving an algebraic realization of coadjoint orbit representations in terms of differential operators acting on a polynomial Fock space. These representations are equivalent to dual Verma module representations. Next, intertwiners are explicitly constructed which allow the construction of resolutions for irreducible representations using these Fock space realizations. Finally, vertex operators between these irreducible representations are explicitly constructed as chain maps between the resolutions; these vertex operators allow the construction of rational conformal field theories according to an algebraic prescription.

  12. Causality Constraints in Conformal Field Theory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Causality places nontrivial constraints on QFT in Lorentzian signature, for example fixing the signs of certain terms in the low energy Lagrangian. In d-dimensional conformal field theory, we show how such constraints are encoded in crossing symmetry of Euclidean correlators, and derive analogous constraints directly from the conformal bootstrap (analytically). The bootstrap setup is a Lorentzian four-point function corresponding to propagation through a shockwave. Crossing symmetry fixes the signs of certain log terms that appear in the conformal block expansion, which constrains the interactions of low-lying operators. As an application, we use the bootstrap to rederive the well known sign constraint on the (∂φ)4 coupling in effective field theory, from a dual CFT. We also find constraints on theories with higher spin conserved currents. Our analysis is restricted to scalar correlators, but we argue that similar methods should also impose nontrivial constraints on the interactions of spinni...

  13. Cosmological particle creation in conformal gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezin, Victor; Dokuchaev, Vyacheslav; Eroshenko, Yury

    2016-01-01

    We constructed the conformally invariant model for scalar particle creation induced by strong gravitational fields. Starting from the “usual” hydrodynamical description of the particle motion written in the Eulerian coordinates we substituted the particle number conservation law (which enters the formalism) by “the particle creation law”, proportional to the square of the Weyl tensor (following the famous result by Ya. B. Zel‘dovich and A. A. Starobinsky). Then, demanding the conformal invariance of the whole dynamical system, we have got both the (Weyl)-conformal gravity and the Einstein–Hilbert–dilaton gravity action integral. Thus, we obtained something like the induced gravity suggested first by A. D. Sakharov. It is shown that the resulting system is self-consistent. Some future developments of the theory are discussed in the concluding Chapter

  14. Double-trace deformations of conformal correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giombi, Simone; Kirilin, Vladimir; Perlmutter, Eric

    2018-02-01

    Large N conformal field theories often admit unitary renormalization group flows triggered by double-trace deformations. We compute the change in scalar four-point functions under double-trace flow, to leading order in 1/ N. This has a simple dual in AdS, where the flow is implemented by a change of boundary conditions, and provides a physical interpretation of single-valued conformal partial waves. We extract the change in the conformal dimensions and three-point coefficients of infinite families of double-trace composite operators. Some of these quantities are found to be sign-definite under double-trace flow. As an application, we derive anomalous dimensions of spinning double-trace operators comprised of non-singlet constituents in the O( N) vector model.

  15. Black holes in massive conformal gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Yun Soo

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the classical stability of Schwarzschild black hole in massive conformal gravity which was recently proposed for another massive gravity model. This model in the Jordan frame is conformally equivalent to the Einstein–Weyl gravity in the Einstein frame. The coupled linearized Einstein equation is decomposed into the traceless and trace equation when one chooses 6m 2 φ=δR. Solving the traceless equation exhibits unstable modes featuring the Gregory–Laflamme s-mode instability of five-dimensional black string, while we find no unstable modes when solving the trace equation. It is shown that the instability of the black hole in massive conformal gravity arises from the massiveness where the geometry of extra dimension trades for mass.

  16. On conformal supergravity and harmonic superspace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butter, Daniel [Nikhef Theory Group,Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-03-16

    This paper describes a fully covariant approach to harmonic superspace. It is based on the conformal superspace description of conformal supergravity and involves extending the supermanifold M{sup 4|8} by the tangent bundle of ℂP{sup 1}. The resulting superspace M{sup 4|8}×TℂP{sup 1} can be identified in a certain gauge with the conventional harmonic superspace M{sup 4|8}×S{sup 2}. This approach not only makes the connection to projective superspace transparent, but simplifies calculations in harmonic superspace significantly by eliminating the need to deal directly with supergravity prepotentials. As an application of the covariant approach, we derive from harmonic superspace the full component action for the sigma model of a hyperkähler cone coupled to conformal supergravity. Further applications are also sketched.

  17. Infrared modification of gravity from conformal symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegenberg, Jack; Rahmati, Shohreh; Seahra, Sanjeev S.

    2016-03-01

    We reconsider a gauge theory of gravity in which the gauge group is the conformal group SO(4,2), and the action is of the Yang-Mills form, quadratic in the curvature. The resulting gravitational theory exhibits local conformal symmetry and reduces to Weyl-squared gravity under certain conditions. When the theory is linearized about flat spacetime, we find that matter which couples to the generators of special conformal transformations reproduces Newton's inverse square law. Conversely, matter which couples to generators of translations induces a constant and possibly repulsive force far from the source, which may be relevant for explaining the late-time acceleration of the Universe. The coupling constant of the theory is dimensionless, which means that it is potentially renormalizable.

  18. Asymptotic mass degeneracies in conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kani, I.; Vafa, C.

    1990-01-01

    By applying a method of Hardy and Ramanujan to characters of rational conformal field theories, we find an asymptotic expansion for degeneracy of states in the limit of large mass which is exact for strings propagating in more than two uncompactified space-time dimensions. Moreover we explore how the rationality of the conformal theory is reflected in the degeneracy of states. We also consider the one loop partition function for strings, restricted to physical states, for arbitrary (irrational) conformal theories, and obtain an asymptotic expansion for it in the limit that the torus degenerates. This expansion depends only on the spectrum of (physical and unphysical) relevant operators in the theory. We see how rationality is consistent with the smoothness of mass degeneracies as a function of moduli. (orig.)

  19. Conformal transformation route to gravity's rainbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Miao; Li, Ping; Wang, Zi-Liang; Ding, Jia-Cheng; Deng, Jian-Bo

    2018-02-01

    Conformal transformation as a mathematical tool has been used in many areas of gravitational physics. In this paper, we consider gravity's rainbow, in which the metric can be treated as a conformal rescaling of the original metric. By using the conformal transformation technique, we get a specific form of a modified Newton's constant and cosmological constant in gravity's rainbow, which implies that the total vacuum energy is dependent on probe energy. Moreover, the result shows that Einstein gravity's rainbow can be described by energy-dependent f(E,\\tilde{R}) gravity. At last, we study the f( R) gravity, when gravity's rainbow is considered, which can also be described as energy-dependent \\tilde{f}(E,\\tilde{R}) gravity.

  20. Conformal geometry computational algorithms and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Miao; He, Ying; Wang, Yalin

    2018-01-01

    This book offers an essential overview of computational conformal geometry applied to fundamental problems in specific engineering fields. It introduces readers to conformal geometry theory and discusses implementation issues from an engineering perspective.  The respective chapters explore fundamental problems in specific fields of application, and detail how computational conformal geometric methods can be used to solve them in a theoretically elegant and computationally efficient way. The fields covered include computer graphics, computer vision, geometric modeling, medical imaging, and wireless sensor networks. Each chapter concludes with a summary of the material covered and suggestions for further reading, and numerous illustrations and computational algorithms complement the text.  The book draws on courses given by the authors at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Tsinghua University, and will be of interest to senior undergraduates, gradua...

  1. Nasal pressure recordings for automatic snoring detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo-Ki; Kim, Hojoong; Lee, Kyoung-Joung

    2015-11-01

    This study presents a rule-based method for automated, real-time snoring detection using nasal pressure recordings during overnight sleep. Although nasal pressure recordings provide information regarding nocturnal breathing abnormalities in a polysomnography (PSG) study or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) system, an objective assessment of snoring detection using these nasal pressure recordings has not yet been reported in the literature. Nasal pressure recordings were obtained from 55 patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The PSG data were also recorded simultaneously to evaluate the proposed method. This rule-based method for automatic, real-time snoring detection employed preprocessing, short-time energy and the central difference method. Using this methodology, a sensitivity of 85.4% and a positive predictive value of 92.0% were achieved in all patients. Therefore, we concluded that the proposed method is a simple, portable and cost-effective tool for real-time snoring detection in PSG and CPAP systems that does not require acoustic analysis using a microphone.

  2. Conformal invariants topics in geometric function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ahlfors, Lars V

    2010-01-01

    Most conformal invariants can be described in terms of extremal properties. Conformal invariants and extremal problems are therefore intimately linked and form together the central theme of this classic book which is primarily intended for students with approximately a year's background in complex variable theory. The book emphasizes the geometric approach as well as classical and semi-classical results which Lars Ahlfors felt every student of complex analysis should know before embarking on independent research. At the time of the book's original appearance, much of this material had never ap

  3. Spherical conformal models for compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takisa, P.M.; Maharaj, S.D.; Manjonjo, A.M.; Moopanar, S. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Durban (South Africa)

    2017-10-15

    We consider spherical exact models for compact stars with anisotropic pressures and a conformal symmetry. The conformal symmetry condition generates an integral relationship between the gravitational potentials. We solve this condition to find a new anisotropic solution to the Einstein field equations. We demonstrate that the exact solution produces a relativistic model of a compact star. The model generates stellar radii and masses consistent with PSR J1614-2230, Vela X1, PSR J1903+327 and Cen X-3. A detailed physical examination shows that the model is regular, well behaved and stable. The mass-radius limit and the surface red shift are consistent with observational constraints. (orig.)

  4. Conformal pure radiation with parallel rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leistner, Thomas; Paweł Nurowski

    2012-01-01

    We define pure radiation metrics with parallel rays to be n-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian metrics that admit a parallel null line bundle K and whose Ricci tensor vanishes on vectors that are orthogonal to K. We give necessary conditions in terms of the Weyl, Cotton and Bach tensors for a pseudo-Riemannian metric to be conformal to a pure radiation metric with parallel rays. Then, we derive conditions in terms of the tractor calculus that are equivalent to the existence of a pure radiation metric with parallel rays in a conformal class. We also give analogous results for n-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian pp-waves. (paper)

  5. Wilson loop invariants from WN conformal blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Alekseev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Knot and link polynomials are topological invariants calculated from the expectation value of loop operators in topological field theories. In 3D Chern–Simons theory, these invariants can be found from crossing and braiding matrices of four-point conformal blocks of the boundary 2D CFT. We calculate crossing and braiding matrices for WN conformal blocks with one component in the fundamental representation and another component in a rectangular representation of SU(N, which can be used to obtain HOMFLY knot and link invariants for these cases. We also discuss how our approach can be generalized to invariants in higher-representations of WN algebra.

  6. Graded associative conformal algebras of finite type

    OpenAIRE

    Kolesnikov, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider graded associative conformal algebras. The class of these objects includes pseudo-algebras over non-cocommutative Hopf algebras of regular functions on some linear algebraic groups. In particular, an associative conformal algebra which is graded by a finite group $\\Gamma $ is a pseudo-algebra over the coordinate Hopf algebra of a linear algebraic group $G$ such that the identity component $G^0$ is the affine line and $G/G^0\\simeq \\Gamma $. A classification of simple...

  7. Perseveration causes automatization of checking behavior in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dek, Eliane C P; van den Hout, Marcel A; Engelhard, Iris M; Giele, Catharina L; Cath, Danielle C

    2015-08-01

    Repeated checking leads to reductions in meta-memory (i.e., memory confidence, vividness and detail), and automatization of checking behavior (Dek, van den Hout, Giele, & Engelhard, 2014, 2015). Dek et al. (2014) suggested that this is caused by increased familiarity with the checked stimuli. They predicted that defamiliarization of checking by modifying the perceptual characteristics of stimuli would cause de-automatization and attenuate the negative meta-memory effects of re-checking. However, their results were inconclusive. The present study investigated whether repeated checking leads to automatization of checking behavior, and if defamiliarization indeed leads to de-automatization and attenuation of meta-memory effects in patients with OCD and healthy controls. Participants performed a checking task, in which they activated, deactivated and checked threat-irrelevant stimuli. During a pre- and post-test checking trial, check duration was recorded and a reaction time task was simultaneously administered as dual-task to assess automatization. After the pre- and post-test checking trial, meta-memory was rated. Results showed that relevant checking led to automatization of checking behavior on the RT measure, and negative meta-memory effects for patients and controls. Defamiliarization led to de-automatization measured with the RT task, but did not attenuate the negative meta-memory effects of repeated checking. Clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Automatic segmentation of diatom images for classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalba, Andrei C.; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    A general framework for automatic segmentation of diatom images is presented. This segmentation is a critical first step in contour-based methods for automatic identification of diatoms by computerized image analysis. We review existing results, adapt popular segmentation methods to this difficult

  9. Solar Powered Automatic Shrimp Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dindo T. Ani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available - Automatic system has brought many revolutions in the existing technologies. One among the technologies, which has greater developments, is the solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. For instance, the solar power which is a renewable energy can be an alternative solution to energy crisis and basically reducing man power by using it in an automatic manner. The researchers believe an automatic shrimp feeding system may help solve problems on manual feeding operations. The project study aimed to design and develop a solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. It specifically sought to prepare the design specifications of the project, to determine the methods of fabrication and assembly, and to test the response time of the automatic shrimp feeding system. The researchers designed and developed an automatic system which utilizes a 10 hour timer to be set in intervals preferred by the user and will undergo a continuous process. The magnetic contactor acts as a switch connected to the 10 hour timer which controls the activation or termination of electrical loads and powered by means of a solar panel outputting electrical power, and a rechargeable battery in electrical communication with the solar panel for storing the power. By undergoing through series of testing, the components of the modified system were proven functional and were operating within the desired output. It was recommended that the timer to be used should be tested to avoid malfunction and achieve the fully automatic system and that the system may be improved to handle changes in scope of the project.

  10. Towards Automatic Trunk Classification on Young Conifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, Stig; Immerkær, John

    2009-01-01

    In the garden nursery industry providing young Nordmann firs for Christmas tree plantations, there is a rising interest in automatic classification of their products to ensure consistently high quality and reduce the cost of manual labor. This paper describes a fully automatic single-view algorithm...

  11. Equipment for fully automatic radiographic pipe inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basler, G.; Sperl, H.; Weinschenk, K.

    1977-01-01

    The patent describes a device for fully automatic radiographic testing of large pipes with longitudinal welds. Furthermore the invention enables automatic marking of films in radiographic inspection with regard to a ticketing of the test piece and of that part of it where testing took place. (RW) [de

  12. Automatic face morphing for transferring facial animation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui Huu Trung, B.H.T.; Bui, T.D.; Poel, Mannes; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Hamza, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel method of automatically finding the training set of RBF networks for morphing a prototype face to represent a new face. This is done by automatically specifying and adjusting corresponding feature points on a target face. The RBF networks are then used to transfer

  13. A stochastic model of protein conformational dynamics and electronic-conformational coupling in biological energy transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartling, Bo

    1985-11-01

    The principles of biological energy transduction are discussed by means of a mathematical model of a donor-acceptor system of electron transfer enzymes in which electronic and conformational states are coupled. The internal nuclear motion of the enzymes is considered to be composed of transitions between local potential energy wells, which define conformational states, and vibrations within these. The conformational transitions are treated as a stochastic process of the diffusion type on a conformational potential energy surface. Dissipative processes are avoided by restricting electron transfer with respect to conformational states and molecular mechanisms of such electron gating are discussed. Different types of transient kinetics, determined by the relative rates of electronic and conformational transitions, are demonstrated in terms of probability density functions, which describe the probability for the system to be in different electronic and conformational states as a function of time. The experimental basis for the concepts and mechanisms introduced is discussed and further experiments are proposed. The applicability of the mathematical model to other systems is indicated.

  14. Rethinking conformity and imitation: divergence, convergence, and social understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert eHodges

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Social and developmental psychologists have stressed the pervasiveness and strength of humans’ tendencies to conform and to imitate, and social anthropologists have argued that these tendencies are crucial to the formation of cultures. Research from four domains is reviewed and elaborated to show that divergence is also pervasive and potent, and is interwoven with convergence in a complex set of dynamics that is often unnoticed or minimized. First, classic research in social conformity is reinterpreted in terms of truth, trust, and social solidarity, revealing that dissent is its most salient feature. Second, recent studies of children’s use of testimony to guide action reveal a surprisingly sophisticated balance of trust and prudence, and a concern for truth and charity. Third, new experiments indicate that people diverge from others even under conditions where conformity seems assured. Fourth, current studies of imitation provide strong evidence that children are both selective and faithful in who, what, and why they follow others. All of the evidence reviewed points toward children and adults as being engaged, embodied partners with others, motivated to learn and understand the world, others, and themselves in ways that go beyond goals and rules, prediction and control. Even young children act as if they are in a dialogical relationship with others and the world, rather than acting as if they are solo explorers or blind followers. Overall, the evidence supports the hypothesis that social understanding cannot be reduced to convergence or divergence, but includes ongoing activities that seek greater comprehensiveness and complexity in the ability to act and interact effectively, appropriately, and with integrity.

  15. Rethinking conformity and imitation: divergence, convergence, and social understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Bert H

    2014-01-01

    Social and developmental psychologists have stressed the pervasiveness and strength of humans' tendencies to conform and to imitate, and social anthropologists have argued that these tendencies are crucial to the formation of cultures. Research from four domains is reviewed and elaborated to show that divergence is also pervasive and potent, and it is interwoven with convergence in a complex set of dynamics that is often unnoticed or minimized. First, classic research in social conformity is reinterpreted in terms of truth, trust, and social solidarity, revealing that dissent is its most salient feature. Second, recent studies of children's use of testimony to guide action reveal a surprisingly sophisticated balance of trust and prudence, and a concern for truth and charity. Third, new experiments indicate that people diverge from others even under conditions where conformity seems assured. Fourth, current studies of imitation provide strong evidence that children are both selective and faithful in who, what, and why they follow others. All of the evidence reviewed points toward children and adults as being engaged, embodied partners with others, motivated to learn and understand the world, others, and themselves in ways that go beyond goals and rules, prediction and control. Even young children act as if they are in a dialogical relationship with others and the world, rather than acting as if they are solo explorers or blind followers. Overall, the evidence supports the hypothesis that social understanding cannot be reduced to convergence or divergence, but includes ongoing activities that seek greater comprehensiveness and complexity in the ability to act and interact effectively, appropriately, and with integrity.

  16. Finite element fatigue analysis of rectangular clutch spring of automatic slack adjuster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen-jie; Luo, Zai; Hu, Xiao-feng; Jiang, Wen-song

    2015-02-01

    The failure of rectangular clutch spring of automatic slack adjuster directly affects the work of automatic slack adjuster. We establish the structural mechanics model of automatic slack adjuster rectangular clutch spring based on its working principle and mechanical structure. In addition, we upload such structural mechanics model to ANSYS Workbench FEA system to predict the fatigue life of rectangular clutch spring. FEA results show that the fatigue life of rectangular clutch spring is 2.0403×105 cycle under the effect of braking loads. In the meantime, fatigue tests of 20 automatic slack adjusters are carried out on the fatigue test bench to verify the conclusion of the structural mechanics model. The experimental results show that the mean fatigue life of rectangular clutch spring is 1.9101×105, which meets the results based on the finite element analysis using ANSYS Workbench FEA system.

  17. Early prediction of lung cancer recurrence after stereotactic radiotherapy using second order texture statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattonen, Sarah A.; Palma, David A.; Haasbeek, Cornelis J. A.; Senan, Suresh; Ward, Aaron D.

    2014-03-01

    Benign radiation-induced lung injury is a common finding following stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for lung cancer, and is often difficult to differentiate from a recurring tumour due to the ablative doses and highly conformal treatment with SABR. Current approaches to treatment response assessment have shown limited ability to predict recurrence within 6 months of treatment. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the accuracy of second order texture statistics for prediction of eventual recurrence based on computed tomography (CT) images acquired within 6 months of treatment, and compare with the performance of first order appearance and lesion size measures. Consolidative and ground-glass opacity (GGO) regions were manually delineated on post-SABR CT images. Automatic consolidation expansion was also investigated to act as a surrogate for GGO position. The top features for prediction of recurrence were all texture features within the GGO and included energy, entropy, correlation, inertia, and first order texture (standard deviation of density). These predicted recurrence with 2-fold cross validation (CV) accuracies of 70-77% at 2- 5 months post-SABR, with energy, entropy, and first order texture having leave-one-out CV accuracies greater than 80%. Our results also suggest that automatic expansion of the consolidation region could eliminate the need for manual delineation, and produced reproducible results when compared to manually delineated GGO. If validated on a larger data set, this could lead to a clinically useful computer-aided diagnosis system for prediction of recurrence within 6 months of SABR and allow for early salvage therapy for patients with recurrence.

  18. Conformal Killing vectors in Robertson-Walker spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maartens, R.; Maharaj, S.d.

    1986-01-01

    It is well known that Robertson-Walker spacetimes admit a conformal Killingl vector normal to the spacelike homogeneous hypersurfaces. Because these spacetimes are conformally flat, there are a further eight conformal Killing vectors, which are neither normal nor tangent to the homogeneous hypersurfaces. The authors find these further conformal Killing vectors and the Lie algebra of the full G 15 of conformal motions. Conditions on the metric scale factor are determined which reduce some of the conformal Killing vectors to homothetic Killing vectors or Killing vectors, allowing one to regain in a unified way the known special geometries. The non-normal conformal Killing vectors provide a counter-example to show that conformal motions do not, in general, map a fluid flow conformally. These non-normal vectors are also used to find the general solution of the null geodesic equation and photon Liouville equation. (author)

  19. Local supertwistors and N=2 conformal supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkulov, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    N = 2 sypersymmetric extension of the local twistor theory is formulated. A supertwistor superconnection determined by the superconformal structure of the base superspace is introduced on the bundle of N = 2 local supertwistors. It is proved that the Yang - Mills equations for this superconnection coincide exactly with the Bach equations describing the dynamics of N 2 conformal supergravity

  20. Hydrocarbon chain conformation in an intercalated surfactant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    trans conformation with most of the trans chain aligned parallel to the gallery walls. On lowering the temperature, molecular plane aligns parallel, so that the methylene chain lies flat, rigid and aligned to the confining surface. In the bilayer phase ...