WorldWideScience

Sample records for automated vocabulary discovery

  1. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  2. Automating Spreadsheet Discovery & Risk Assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Perry, Eric

    2008-01-01

    There have been many articles and mishaps published about the risks of uncontrolled spreadsheets in today's business environment, including non-compliance, operational risk, errors, and fraud all leading to significant loss events. Spreadsheets fall into the realm of end user developed applications and are often absent the proper safeguards and controls an IT organization would enforce for enterprise applications. There is also an overall lack of software programming discipline enforced in how spreadsheets are developed. However, before an organization can apply proper controls and discipline to critical spreadsheets, an accurate and living inventory of spreadsheets across the enterprise must be created, and all critical spreadsheets must be identified. As such, this paper proposes an automated approach to the initial stages of the spreadsheet management lifecycle - discovery, inventory and risk assessment. Without the use of technology, these phases are often treated as a one-off project. By leveraging techn...

  3. Automated Knowledge Discovery From Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burl, Michael; DeCoste, Dennis; Mazzoni, Dominic; Scharenbroich, Lucas; Enke, Brian; Merline, William

    2007-01-01

    A computational method, SimLearn, has been devised to facilitate efficient knowledge discovery from simulators. Simulators are complex computer programs used in science and engineering to model diverse phenomena such as fluid flow, gravitational interactions, coupled mechanical systems, and nuclear, chemical, and biological processes. SimLearn uses active-learning techniques to efficiently address the "landscape characterization problem." In particular, SimLearn tries to determine which regions in "input space" lead to a given output from the simulator, where "input space" refers to an abstraction of all the variables going into the simulator, e.g., initial conditions, parameters, and interaction equations. Landscape characterization can be viewed as an attempt to invert the forward mapping of the simulator and recover the inputs that produce a particular output. Given that a single simulation run can take days or weeks to complete even on a large computing cluster, SimLearn attempts to reduce costs by reducing the number of simulations needed to effect discoveries. Unlike conventional data-mining methods that are applied to static predefined datasets, SimLearn involves an iterative process in which a most informative dataset is constructed dynamically by using the simulator as an oracle. On each iteration, the algorithm models the knowledge it has gained through previous simulation trials and then chooses which simulation trials to run next. Running these trials through the simulator produces new data in the form of input-output pairs. The overall process is embodied in an algorithm that combines support vector machines (SVMs) with active learning. SVMs use learning from examples (the examples are the input-output pairs generated by running the simulator) and a principle called maximum margin to derive predictors that generalize well to new inputs. In SimLearn, the SVM plays the role of modeling the knowledge that has been gained through previous simulation trials

  4. Discovery of Invariants through Automated Theory Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Llano, Maria Teresa; Pease, Alison; 10.4204/EPTCS.55.1

    2011-01-01

    Refinement is a powerful mechanism for mastering the complexities that arise when formally modelling systems. Refinement also brings with it additional proof obligations -- requiring a developer to discover properties relating to their design decisions. With the goal of reducing this burden, we have investigated how a general purpose theory formation tool, HR, can be used to automate the discovery of such properties within the context of Event-B. Here we develop a heuristic approach to the automatic discovery of invariants and report upon a series of experiments that we undertook in order to evaluate our approach. The set of heuristics developed provides systematic guidance in tailoring HR for a given Event-B development. These heuristics are based upon proof-failure analysis, and have given rise to some promising results.

  5. Contribution of Automated Technologies to Ion Channel Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picones, Arturo; Loza-Huerta, Arlet; Segura-Chama, Pedro; Lara-Figueroa, Cesar O

    2016-01-01

    Automated technologies are now resolving the historical relegation that ion channels have endured as targets for the new drug discovery and development global efforts. The richness and adequacy of functional assay methodologies, remarkably fluorescence-based detection of ions fluxes and patch-clamp electrophysiology recording of ionic currents, are now automated and increasingly employed for the analysis of ion channel activity. While the former is currently the most commonly applied, the latter is finally reaching the throughput capacity to be engaged in the primary screening of chemical libraries conformed by hundreds of thousands of compounds. The use of automated instrumentation for the study of ion channel functionality (and dysfunctionality), particularly in the search for novel pharmacological agents with therapeutic purposes, has now reached out beyond the industrial setting, its original natural enclave, and is making its way into a growing number of academic labs and core facilities. The present chapter reviews the increasing contributions accomplished by a variety of different key automated technologies which have revolutionized the strategies to approach the discovery and development of new drugs targeting ion channels. PMID:27038379

  6. Using Controlled Vocabularies and Semantics to Improve Ocean Data Discovery (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, C. L.; Groman, R. C.; Shepherd, A.; Allison, M. D.; Kinkade, D.; Rauch, S.; Wiebe, P. H.; Glover, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) was created in late 2006, by combining the formerly independent data management offices for the U.S. GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics (GLOBEC) and U.S. Joint Global Ocean flux Study (JGOFS) programs. BCO-DMO staff members work with investigators to publish data from research projects funded by the NSF Geosciences Directorate (GEO) Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections and Polar Programs (PLR) Antarctic Sciences Organisms & Ecosystems Program (ANT). Since 2006, researchers have been contributing new data to the BCO-DMO data system. As the data from new research efforts have been added to the data previously shared by U.S. GLOBEC and U.S. JGOFS researchers, the BCO-DMO system has developed into a rich repository of data from ocean, coastal, and Great Lakes research programs. The metadata records for the original research program data (prior to 2006) were stored in human-readable flat files of text, translated on-demand to Web-retrievable files. Beginning in 2006, the metadata records from multiple data systems managed by BCO-DMO were ingested into a relational database (MySQL). Since that time, efforts have been made to incorporate lists of controlled vocabulary terms for key information concepts stored in the MySQL database (e.g. names of research programs, deployments, instruments and measurements). This presents a challenge for a data system that includes legacy data and is continually expanding with the addition of new contributions. Over the years, BCO-DMO has developed a series of data delivery systems driven by the supporting metadata. Improved access to research data, a primary goal of the BCO-DMO project, is achieved through geospatial and text-based data access systems that support data discovery, access, display, assessment, integration, and export of data resources. The addition of a semantically-enabled search capability improves data

  7. Novel automated biomarker discovery work flow for urinary peptidomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balog, Crina I.; Hensbergen, Paul J.; Derks, Rico; Verweij, Jaco J.; Dam, Govert J. van; Vennervald, Birgitte J; Deelder, André M.; Mayboroda, Oleg A.

    2009-01-01

    Urine is potentially a rich source of peptide biomarkers, but reproducible, high-throughput peptidomic analysis is often hampered by the inherent variability in factors such as pH and salt concentration. Our goal was to develop a generally applicable, rapid, and robust method for screening large...... numbers of urine samples, resulting in a broad spectrum of native peptides, as a tool to be used for biomarker discovery. METHODS: Peptide samples were trapped, desalted, pH-normalized, and fractionated on a miniaturized automatic reverse-phase strong cation exchange (RP-SCX) cartridge system. We analyzed...... samples from Schistosoma haematobium-infected individuals to evaluate clinical applicability. RESULTS: The automated RP-SCX sample cleanup and fractionation system exhibits a high qualitative and quantitative reproducibility, with both BSA standards and urine samples. Because of the relatively high...

  8. Automated Semantic Enrichment for Data Discovery and Decision Support Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate a set of methods for automatically extracting metadata from diverse data sets to serve as a common vocabulary by...

  9. Price Discovery in the U.S. Treasury Market: Automation vs. Intermediation

    OpenAIRE

    Kasing Man; Junbo Wang; Chunchi Wu

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution to price discovery by electronic and voice-based trading systems in the U.S. Treasury market. Evidence shows that the electronic trading system has more price discovery and that trading automation increases the speed of incorporating information into prices. However, human trading generates significant price discovery, though its volume is low. The relative contribution of a trading system to price discovery depends on liquidity, volatility, volume, trade ...

  10. Embedded Instruction Improves Vocabulary Learning during Automated Storybook Reading among High-Risk Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Howard; Kelley, Elizabeth; Greenwood, Charles; McCune, Luke; Carta, Judith; Atwater, Jane; Guerrero, Gabriela; McCarthy, Tanya; Schneider, Naomi; Spencer, Trina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated a small-group intervention designed to teach vocabulary and comprehension skills to preschoolers who were at risk for language and reading disabilities. These language skills are important and reliable predictors of later academic achievement. Method: Preschoolers heard prerecorded stories 3 times per week over the course…

  11. Automating Discovery and Classification of Transients and Variable Stars in the Synoptic Survey Era

    CERN Document Server

    Bloom, J S; Nugent, P E; Quimby, R M; Kasliwal, M M; Starr, D L; Poznanski, D; Ofek, E O; Cenko, S B; Butler, N R; Kulkarni, S R; Gal-Yam, A; Law, N

    2011-01-01

    The rate of image acquisition in modern synoptic imaging surveys has already begun to outpace the feasibility of keeping astronomers in the real-time discovery and classification loop. Here we present the inner workings of a framework, based on machine-learning algorithms, that captures expert training and ground-truth knowledge about the variable and transient sky to automate 1) the process of discovery on image differences and, 2) the generation of preliminary science-type classifications of discovered sources. Since follow-up resources for extracting novel science from fast-changing transients are precious, self-calibrating classification probabilities must be couched in terms of efficiencies for discovery and purity of the samples generated. We estimate the purity and efficiency in identifying real sources with a two-epoch image-difference discovery algorithm for the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) survey. Once given a source discovery, using machine-learned classification trained on PTF data, we distingu...

  12. Flexible End2End Workflow Automation of Hit-Discovery Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmüller-Laue, Silke; Göde, Bernd; Thurow, Kerstin

    2014-08-01

    The article considers a new approach of more complex laboratory automation at the workflow layer. The authors purpose the automation of end2end workflows. The combination of all relevant subprocesses-whether automated or manually performed, independently, and in which organizational unit-results in end2end processes that include all result dependencies. The end2end approach focuses on not only the classical experiments in synthesis or screening, but also on auxiliary processes such as the production and storage of chemicals, cell culturing, and maintenance as well as preparatory activities and analyses of experiments. Furthermore, the connection of control flow and data flow in the same process model leads to reducing of effort of the data transfer between the involved systems, including the necessary data transformations. This end2end laboratory automation can be realized effectively with the modern methods of business process management (BPM). This approach is based on a new standardization of the process-modeling notation Business Process Model and Notation 2.0. In drug discovery, several scientific disciplines act together with manifold modern methods, technologies, and a wide range of automated instruments for the discovery and design of target-based drugs. The article discusses the novel BPM-based automation concept with an implemented example of a high-throughput screening of previously synthesized compound libraries. PMID:24464814

  13. Towards Extending Service Discovery with Automated Composition Capabilities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaculín, Roman; Neruda, Roman; Sycara, K.

    Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society Press, 2008, s. 3-12. ISBN 978-0-7695-3399-5. [ECOWS'08. The IEEE European Conference on Web Services /6./. Dublin (IE), 12.11.2008-14.11.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME08095; GA ČR(CZ) GD201/05/H014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : web services discovery * web services composition * semantic web services * OWL-S Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  14. Semi-automated knowledge discovery: identifying and profiling human trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelmans, Jonas; Elzinga, Paul; Ignatov, Dmitry I.; Kuznetsov, Sergei O.

    2012-11-01

    We propose an iterative and human-centred knowledge discovery methodology based on formal concept analysis. The proposed approach recognizes the important role of the domain expert in mining real-world enterprise applications and makes use of specific domain knowledge, including human intelligence and domain-specific constraints. Our approach was empirically validated at the Amsterdam-Amstelland police to identify suspects and victims of human trafficking in 266,157 suspicious activity reports. Based on guidelines of the Attorney Generals of the Netherlands, we first defined multiple early warning indicators that were used to index the police reports. Using concept lattices, we revealed numerous unknown human trafficking and loverboy suspects. In-depth investigation by the police resulted in a confirmation of their involvement in illegal activities resulting in actual arrestments been made. Our human-centred approach was embedded into operational policing practice and is now successfully used on a daily basis to cope with the vastly growing amount of unstructured information.

  15. Automated discovery of functional generality of human gene expression programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg K Gerber

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available An important research problem in computational biology is the identification of expression programs, sets of co-expressed genes orchestrating normal or pathological processes, and the characterization of the functional breadth of these programs. The use of human expression data compendia for discovery of such programs presents several challenges including cellular inhomogeneity within samples, genetic and environmental variation across samples, uncertainty in the numbers of programs and sample populations, and temporal behavior. We developed GeneProgram, a new unsupervised computational framework based on Hierarchical Dirichlet Processes that addresses each of the above challenges. GeneProgram uses expression data to simultaneously organize tissues into groups and genes into overlapping programs with consistent temporal behavior, to produce maps of expression programs, which are sorted by generality scores that exploit the automatically learned groupings. Using synthetic and real gene expression data, we showed that GeneProgram outperformed several popular expression analysis methods. We applied GeneProgram to a compendium of 62 short time-series gene expression datasets exploring the responses of human cells to infectious agents and immune-modulating molecules. GeneProgram produced a map of 104 expression programs, a substantial number of which were significantly enriched for genes involved in key signaling pathways and/or bound by NF-kappaB transcription factors in genome-wide experiments. Further, GeneProgram discovered expression programs that appear to implicate surprising signaling pathways or receptor types in the response to infection, including Wnt signaling and neurotransmitter receptors. We believe the discovered map of expression programs involved in the response to infection will be useful for guiding future biological experiments; genes from programs with low generality scores might serve as new drug targets that exhibit minimal

  16. A highly automated assay for determining the aqueous equilibrium solubility of drug discovery compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenlock, Mark C; Austin, Rupert P; Potter, Tim; Barton, Patrick

    2011-08-01

    Aqueous solubility is an important physicochemical parameter for any potential drug candidate, and high-throughput kinetic assays are frequently used in drug discovery to give an estimate of a compound's aqueous solubility. However, the aqueous solubility data from an equilibrium (thermodynamic) shake-flask technique is considered more relevant, but is slower and more labor intensive to generate. A highly automated aqueous equilibrium solubility shake-flask technique is described and validated on a set of 15 marketed drugs, whose aqueous solubilities cover four orders of magnitude. The assay uses a Tecan Freedom Evo 200 liquid handling robot (Tecan Group Ltd., Männerdorf, Switzerland) with integrated appliances for the transportation, decapping and recapping, and centrifugation of sample tubes. These bespoke automation solutions help overcome the labor intensive steps associated with performing conventional, gold standard, aqueous equilibrium solubility shake-flask measurements, enabling the assay to be used as a primary-wave drug discovery screen. PMID:21764023

  17. Automated Discovery of Elementary Chemical Reaction Steps Using Freezing String and Berny Optimization Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Suleimanov, Yury V.; Green, William H.

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple protocol which allows fully automated discovery of elementary chemical reaction steps using in cooperation single- and double-ended transition-state optimization algorithms - the freezing string and Berny optimization methods, respectively. To demonstrate the utility of the proposed approach, the reactivity of several systems of combustion and atmospheric chemistry importance is investigated. The proposed algorithm allowed us to detect without any human intervention not on...

  18. Automated in vivo platform for the discovery of functional food treatments of hypercholesterolemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Littleton

    Full Text Available The zebrafish is becoming an increasingly popular model system for both automated drug discovery and investigating hypercholesterolemia. Here we combine these aspects and for the first time develop an automated high-content confocal assay for treatments of hypercholesterolemia. We also create two algorithms for automated analysis of cardiodynamic data acquired by high-speed confocal microscopy. The first algorithm computes cardiac parameters solely from the frequency-domain representation of cardiodynamic data while the second uses both frequency- and time-domain data. The combined approach resulted in smaller differences relative to manual measurements. The methods are implemented to test the ability of a methanolic extract of the hawthorn plant (Crataegus laevigata to treat hypercholesterolemia and its peripheral cardiovascular effects. Results demonstrate the utility of these methods and suggest the extract has both antihypercholesterolemic and postitively inotropic properties.

  19. Early identification of hERG liability in drug discovery programs by automated patch clamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timm eDanker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Blockade of the cardiac ion channel coded by hERG can lead to cardiac arrhythmia, which has become a major concern in drug discovery and development. Automated electrophysiological patch clamp allows assessment of hERG channel effects early in drug development to aid medicinal chemistry programs and has become routine in pharmaceutical companies. However, a number of potential sources of errors in setting up hERG channel assays by automated patch clamp can lead to misinterpretation of data or false effects being reported. This article describes protocols for automated electrophysiology screening of compound effects on the hERG channel current. Protocol details and the translation of criteria known from manual patch clamp experiments to automated patch clamp experiments to achieve good quality data are emphasized. Typical pitfalls and artifacts that may lead to misinterpretation of data are discussed. While this article focuses on hERG channel recordings using the QPatch (Sophion A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark technology, many of the assay and protocol details given in this article can be transferred for setting up different ion channel assays by automated patch clamp and are similar on other planar patch clamp platforms.

  20. Automation of a phospho-STAT5 staining procedure for flow cytometry for application in drug discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malergue, Fabrice; van Agthoven, Andreas; Scifo, Caroline; Egan, Dave; Strous, Ger J

    2015-01-01

    Drug discovery often requires the screening of compound libraries on tissue cultured cells. Some major targets in drug discovery belong to signal transduction pathways, and PerFix EXPOSE* allows easy flow cytometry phospho assays. We thus investigated the possibility to further simplify and automate

  1. AutoDrug: fully automated macromolecular crystallography workflows for fragment-based drug discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New software has been developed for automating the experimental and data-processing stages of fragment-based drug discovery at a macromolecular crystallography beamline. A new workflow-automation framework orchestrates beamline-control and data-analysis software while organizing results from multiple samples. AutoDrug is software based upon the scientific workflow paradigm that integrates the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource macromolecular crystallography beamlines and third-party processing software to automate the crystallography steps of the fragment-based drug-discovery process. AutoDrug screens a cassette of fragment-soaked crystals, selects crystals for data collection based on screening results and user-specified criteria and determines optimal data-collection strategies. It then collects and processes diffraction data, performs molecular replacement using provided models and detects electron density that is likely to arise from bound fragments. All processes are fully automated, i.e. are performed without user interaction or supervision. Samples can be screened in groups corresponding to particular proteins, crystal forms and/or soaking conditions. A single AutoDrug run is only limited by the capacity of the sample-storage dewar at the beamline: currently 288 samples. AutoDrug was developed in conjunction with RestFlow, a new scientific workflow-automation framework. RestFlow simplifies the design of AutoDrug by managing the flow of data and the organization of results and by orchestrating the execution of computational pipeline steps. It also simplifies the execution and interaction of third-party programs and the beamline-control system. Modeling AutoDrug as a scientific workflow enables multiple variants that meet the requirements of different user groups to be developed and supported. A workflow tailored to mimic the crystallography stages comprising the drug-discovery pipeline of CoCrystal Discovery Inc. has been deployed and successfully

  2. AutoDrug: fully automated macromolecular crystallography workflows for fragment-based drug discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Yingssu [Stanford University, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Stanford University, 333 Campus Drive, Mudd Building, Stanford, CA 94305-5080 (United States); McPhillips, Scott E.; González, Ana; McPhillips, Timothy M. [Stanford University, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Zinn, Daniel [LogicBlox Inc., 1349 West Peachtree Street NW, Atlanta, GA 30309 (United States); Cohen, Aina E. [Stanford University, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Feese, Michael D.; Bushnell, David [Cocrystal Discovery Inc., 19805 North Creek Parkway, Bothell, WA 98011 (United States); Tiefenbrunn, Theresa; Stout, C. David [The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Ludaescher, Bertram [University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O. [Stanford University, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Stanford University, 333 Campus Drive, Mudd Building, Stanford, CA 94305-5080 (United States); Soltis, S. Michael, E-mail: soltis@slac.stanford.edu [Stanford University, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    New software has been developed for automating the experimental and data-processing stages of fragment-based drug discovery at a macromolecular crystallography beamline. A new workflow-automation framework orchestrates beamline-control and data-analysis software while organizing results from multiple samples. AutoDrug is software based upon the scientific workflow paradigm that integrates the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource macromolecular crystallography beamlines and third-party processing software to automate the crystallography steps of the fragment-based drug-discovery process. AutoDrug screens a cassette of fragment-soaked crystals, selects crystals for data collection based on screening results and user-specified criteria and determines optimal data-collection strategies. It then collects and processes diffraction data, performs molecular replacement using provided models and detects electron density that is likely to arise from bound fragments. All processes are fully automated, i.e. are performed without user interaction or supervision. Samples can be screened in groups corresponding to particular proteins, crystal forms and/or soaking conditions. A single AutoDrug run is only limited by the capacity of the sample-storage dewar at the beamline: currently 288 samples. AutoDrug was developed in conjunction with RestFlow, a new scientific workflow-automation framework. RestFlow simplifies the design of AutoDrug by managing the flow of data and the organization of results and by orchestrating the execution of computational pipeline steps. It also simplifies the execution and interaction of third-party programs and the beamline-control system. Modeling AutoDrug as a scientific workflow enables multiple variants that meet the requirements of different user groups to be developed and supported. A workflow tailored to mimic the crystallography stages comprising the drug-discovery pipeline of CoCrystal Discovery Inc. has been deployed and successfully

  3. Teaching Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard-Clouston, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary is central to English language teaching. Without sufficient vocabulary, students cannot understand others or express their own ideas. Teachers who find the task of teaching English vocabulary a little daunting are not alone! This book presents important issues from recent vocabulary research and theory so that teachers may approach…

  4. Automated Discovery and Modeling of Sequential Patterns Preceding Events of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohloff, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    The integration of emerging data manipulation technologies has enabled a paradigm shift in practitioners' abilities to understand and anticipate events of interest in complex systems. Example events of interest include outbreaks of socio-political violence in nation-states. Rather than relying on human-centric modeling efforts that are limited by the availability of SMEs, automated data processing technologies has enabled the development of innovative automated complex system modeling and predictive analysis technologies. We introduce one such emerging modeling technology - the sequential pattern methodology. We have applied the sequential pattern methodology to automatically identify patterns of observed behavior that precede outbreaks of socio-political violence such as riots, rebellions and coups in nation-states. The sequential pattern methodology is a groundbreaking approach to automated complex system model discovery because it generates easily interpretable patterns based on direct observations of sampled factor data for a deeper understanding of societal behaviors that is tolerant of observation noise and missing data. The discovered patterns are simple to interpret and mimic human's identifications of observed trends in temporal data. Discovered patterns also provide an automated forecasting ability: we discuss an example of using discovered patterns coupled with a rich data environment to forecast various types of socio-political violence in nation-states.

  5. Automated Discovery of Elementary Chemical Reaction Steps Using Freezing String and Berny Optimization Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Suleimanov, Yury V

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple protocol which allows fully automated discovery of elementary chemical reaction steps using in cooperation single- and double-ended transition-state optimization algorithms - the freezing string and Berny optimization methods, respectively. To demonstrate the utility of the proposed approach, the reactivity of several systems of combustion and atmospheric chemistry importance is investigated. The proposed algorithm allowed us to detect without any human intervention not only "known" reaction pathways, manually detected in the previous studies, but also new, previously "unknown", reaction pathways which involve significant atom rearrangements. We believe that applying such a systematic approach to elementary reaction path finding will greatly accelerate the possibility of discovery of new chemistry and will lead to more accurate computer simulations of various chemical processes.

  6. Automated Discovery of Elementary Chemical Reaction Steps Using Freezing String and Berny Optimization Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleimanov, Yury V; Green, William H

    2015-09-01

    We present a simple protocol which allows fully automated discovery of elementary chemical reaction steps using in cooperation double- and single-ended transition-state optimization algorithms--the freezing string and Berny optimization methods, respectively. To demonstrate the utility of the proposed approach, the reactivity of several single-molecule systems of combustion and atmospheric chemistry importance is investigated. The proposed algorithm allowed us to detect without any human intervention not only "known" reaction pathways, manually detected in the previous studies, but also new, previously "unknown", reaction pathways which involve significant atom rearrangements. We believe that applying such a systematic approach to elementary reaction path finding will greatly accelerate the discovery of new chemistry and will lead to more accurate computer simulations of various chemical processes. PMID:26575920

  7. The Semantic Automated Discovery and Integration (SADI Web service Design-Pattern, API and Reference Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkinson Mark D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complexity and inter-related nature of biological data poses a difficult challenge for data and tool integration. There has been a proliferation of interoperability standards and projects over the past decade, none of which has been widely adopted by the bioinformatics community. Recent attempts have focused on the use of semantics to assist integration, and Semantic Web technologies are being welcomed by this community. Description SADI - Semantic Automated Discovery and Integration - is a lightweight set of fully standards-compliant Semantic Web service design patterns that simplify the publication of services of the type commonly found in bioinformatics and other scientific domains. Using Semantic Web technologies at every level of the Web services "stack", SADI services consume and produce instances of OWL Classes following a small number of very straightforward best-practices. In addition, we provide codebases that support these best-practices, and plug-in tools to popular developer and client software that dramatically simplify deployment of services by providers, and the discovery and utilization of those services by their consumers. Conclusions SADI Services are fully compliant with, and utilize only foundational Web standards; are simple to create and maintain for service providers; and can be discovered and utilized in a very intuitive way by biologist end-users. In addition, the SADI design patterns significantly improve the ability of software to automatically discover appropriate services based on user-needs, and automatically chain these into complex analytical workflows. We show that, when resources are exposed through SADI, data compliant with a given ontological model can be automatically gathered, or generated, from these distributed, non-coordinating resources - a behaviour we have not observed in any other Semantic system. Finally, we show that, using SADI, data dynamically generated from Web services

  8. molSimplify: A toolkit for automating discovery in inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Efthymios I; Gani, Terry Z H; Kulik, Heather J

    2016-08-15

    We present an automated, open source toolkit for the first-principles screening and discovery of new inorganic molecules and intermolecular complexes. Challenges remain in the automatic generation of candidate inorganic molecule structures due to the high variability in coordination and bonding, which we overcome through a divide-and-conquer tactic that flexibly combines force-field preoptimization of organic fragments with alignment to first-principles-trained metal-ligand distances. Exploration of chemical space is enabled through random generation of ligands and intermolecular complexes from large chemical databases. We validate the generated structures with the root mean squared (RMS) gradients evaluated from density functional theory (DFT), which are around 0.02 Ha/au across a large 150 molecule test set. Comparison of molSimplify results to full optimization with the universal force field reveals that RMS DFT gradients are improved by 40%. Seamless generation of input files, preparation and execution of electronic structure calculations, and post-processing for each generated structure aids interpretation of underlying chemical and energetic trends. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27364957

  9. Automated Sample Preparation Platform for Mass Spectrometry-Based Plasma Proteomics and Biomarker Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilém Guryča

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The identification of novel biomarkers from human plasma remains a critical need in order to develop and monitor drug therapies for nearly all disease areas. The discovery of novel plasma biomarkers is, however, significantly hampered by the complexity and dynamic range of proteins within plasma, as well as the inherent variability in composition from patient to patient. In addition, it is widely accepted that most soluble plasma biomarkers for diseases such as cancer will be represented by tissue leakage products, circulating in plasma at low levels. It is therefore necessary to find approaches with the prerequisite level of sensitivity in such a complex biological matrix. Strategies for fractionating the plasma proteome have been suggested, but improvements in sensitivity are often negated by the resultant process variability. Here we describe an approach using multidimensional chromatography and on-line protein derivatization, which allows for higher sensitivity, whilst minimizing the process variability. In order to evaluate this automated process fully, we demonstrate three levels of processing and compare sensitivity, throughput and reproducibility. We demonstrate that high sensitivity analysis of the human plasma proteome is possible down to the low ng/mL or even high pg/mL level with a high degree of technical reproducibility.

  10. VOCABULARY STRATEGIES AND VOCABULARY LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This research is a comparative study of Chinese EFLgradutes′vocabulary strategies applied in their EGeneralAP(English for General Academic Purposes)and ESpecialAP(English for Special Academic Purpose)learning.Participantswere the first-year graduates of non-English major in ChinaPharmaceutical University(N=102).The present study uses ataxonomy of strategies developed by O’Malley and Chamot(1990),which was modified to more accurately reflectvocabulary strategies(altogether 31 sub-strategy variables within16 strategies).Analysis through SAS(Statistic Analysis System)on the collected date has revealed that:1)Learners apply more types of vocabulary stategies inEGeneralAP than in ESpecialAP vocabulary learning.2)Translation and Extensive Reading gain higher frequencyof application in ESpecialAP learning.3)11 vocabulary strategies strongly predict EGeneralAPvocabulary achievement and only 6 strategies strongly predictESpecialAp vocabulary achievement.At the end of the paper,some practical suggestions aremade for EFL graduate teachers to adjust their teaching targetand methods.

  11. GENPLAT: an automated platform for biomass enzyme discovery and cocktail optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Jonathan; Banerjee, Goutami; Car, Suzana

    2011-01-01

    The high cost of enzymes for biomass deconstruction is a major impediment to the economic conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks to liquid transportation fuels such as ethanol. We have developed an integrated high throughput platform, called GENPLAT, for the discovery and development of novel enzymes and enzyme cocktails for the release of sugars from diverse pretreatment/biomass combinations. GENPLAT comprises four elements: individual pure enzymes, statistical design of experiments, robotic pipeting of biomass slurries and enzymes, and automated colorimeteric determination of released Glc and Xyl. Individual enzymes are produced by expression in Pichia pastoris or Trichoderma reesei, or by chromatographic purification from commercial cocktails or from extracts of novel microorganisms. Simplex lattice (fractional factorial) mixture models are designed using commercial Design of Experiment statistical software. Enzyme mixtures of high complexity are constructed using robotic pipeting into a 96-well format. The measurement of released Glc and Xyl is automated using enzyme-linked colorimetric assays. Optimized enzyme mixtures containing as many as 16 components have been tested on a variety of feedstock and pretreatment combinations. GENPLAT is adaptable to mixtures of pure enzymes, mixtures of commercial products (e.g., Accellerase 1000 and Novozyme 188), extracts of novel microbes, or combinations thereof. To make and test mixtures of ˜10 pure enzymes requires less than 100 μg of each protein and fewer than 100 total reactions, when operated at a final total loading of 15 mg protein/g glucan. We use enzymes from several sources. Enzymes can be purified from natural sources such as fungal cultures (e.g., Aspergillus niger, Cochliobolus carbonum, and Galerina marginata), or they can be made by expression of the encoding genes (obtained from the increasing number of microbial genome sequences) in hosts such as E. coli, Pichia pastoris, or a filamentous fungus such

  12. Upscaling and automation of electrophysiology: toward high throughput screening in ion channel drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Margit; Oswald, Nicholas; Krzywkowski, Karen M;

    2003-01-01

    Effective screening of large compound libraries in ion channel drug discovery requires the development of new electrophysiological techniques with substantially increased throughputs compared to the conventional patch clamp technique. Sophion Bioscience is aiming to meet this challenge by...

  13. Comprehensive and Scalable Highly Automated MS-Based Proteomic Workflow for Clinical Biomarker Discovery in Human Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayon, Loïc; Núñez Galindo, Antonio; Corthésy, John; Cominetti, Ornella; Kussmann, Martin

    2014-07-24

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometric performance has greatly improved in terms of sensitivity, dynamic range, and speed. By contrast, only limited progress has been accomplished with regard to automation, throughput, and robustness of the proteomic sample preparation process upstream of mass spectrometry. The present work delivers an optimized analysis of human plasma samples in both small preclinical and large clinical studies, enabled by the development of a highly automated quantitative proteomic workflow. Several iterative evaluation and validation steps were performed before process "design freeze" and development completion. A robotic liquid handling workflow and platform (including reduction, alkylation, digestion, TMT labeling, pooling, and purification) were shown to provide better quantitative trueness and precision than manual operation at the bench. Depletion of the most abundant human plasma proteins and subsequent buffer exchange were also developed and integrated. Finally, 96 identical pooled human plasma samples were prepared in a 96-well plate format, and each sample was individually subjected to our developed workflow. This test revealed increased throughput and robustness compared with to-date published manual or less automated workflows. Our workflow is ready-to-use for future (pre-) clinical studies. We expect our work to facilitate, accelerate, and improve clinical proteomic discovery in human blood plasma. PMID:25058407

  14. An Efficient Algorithm to Automated Discovery of Interesting Positive and Negative Association Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdul-WahabAl-Opahi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Association Rule mining is very efficient technique for finding strong relation between correlated data. The correlation of data gives meaning full extraction process. For the discovering frequent items and the mining of positive rules, a variety of algorithms are used such as Apriori algorithm and tree based algorithm. But these algorithms do not consider negation occurrence of the attribute in them and also these rules are not in infrequent form. The discovery of infrequent itemsets is far more difficult than their counterparts, that is, frequent itemsets. These problems include infrequent itemsets discovery and generation of interest negative association rules, and their huge number as compared with positive association rules. The interesting discovery of association rules is an important and active area within data mining research. In this paper, an efficient algorithm is proposed for discovering interesting positive and negative association rules from frequent and infrequent items. The experimental results show the usefulness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  15. Automating Knowledge Discovery for Toxicity Prediction Using Jumping Emerging Pattern Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Sherhod, R.; Gillet, V.J.; Judson, P.N.; Vessey, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    : The design of new alerts, that is, collections of structural features observed to result in toxicological activity, can be a slow process and may require significant input from toxicology and chemistry experts. A method has therefore been developed to help automate alert identification by mining descriptions of activating structural features directly from toxicity data sets. The method is based on jumping emerging pattern mining which is applied to a set of toxic and nontoxic compo...

  16. GENPLAT: an Automated Platform for Biomass Enzyme Discovery and Cocktail Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, Jonathan; Banerjee, Goutami; Car, Suzana

    2011-01-01

    The high cost of enzymes for biomass deconstruction is a major impediment to the economic conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks to liquid transportation fuels such as ethanol. We have developed an integrated high throughput platform, called GENPLAT, for the discovery and development of novel enzymes and enzyme cocktails for the release of sugars from diverse pretreatment/biomass combinations. GENPLAT comprises four elements: individual pure enzymes, statistical design of experiments, robot...

  17. Automated Sample Preparation Platform for Mass Spectrometry-Based Plasma Proteomics and Biomarker Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Vilém Guryča; Daniel Roeder; Paolo Piraino; Jens Lamerz; Axel Ducret; Hanno Langen; Paul Cutler

    2014-01-01

    The identification of novel biomarkers from human plasma remains a critical need in order to develop and monitor drug therapies for nearly all disease areas. The discovery of novel plasma biomarkers is, however, significantly hampered by the complexity and dynamic range of proteins within plasma, as well as the inherent variability in composition from patient to patient. In addition, it is widely accepted that most soluble plasma biomarkers for diseases such as cancer will be represented by t...

  18. Automated solvent system screening for the preparative countercurrent chromatography of pharmaceutical discovery compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradow, James; Riley, Frank; Philippe, Laurence; Yan, Qi; Schuff, Brandon; Harris, Guy H

    2015-12-01

    A fully automated countercurrent chromatography system has been constructed to rapidly screen the commonly used heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water solvent system series and translate the results to preparative scale separations. The system utilizes "on-demand" preparation of the heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water solvent system upper and lower phases. Elution-extrusion countercurrent chromatography was combined with non-dynamic equilibrium injection reducing the screening time for each heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water system to 17 min. The result enabled solvent system development to be reduced to under 2 h. The countercurrent chromatography system was interfaced with a mass spectrometer to allow selective detection of target components in crude medicinal chemistry reaction mixtures. Mass-directed preparative countercurrent chromatography purification was demonstrated for the first time using a synthetic tetrazole epoxide derived from a routine medicinal chemistry support workflow. PMID:26428946

  19. English Vocabulary Teaching Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary is very necessary in language teaching and acquisition.If students have a certain amount of vocabulary,they will overcome many difficulties in reading.listening、 speaking and writing.In vocabulary teaching,scholars have been working hard to find better ways.This paper attempts to find how to improve students’ enthusiasm of learning vocabulary and teach vocabulary more successfully and effectively.

  20. Teaching English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝丹

    2014-01-01

    Grammar provides the overall patterns, and vocabulary is the material to put in the patterns. Without grammar we can convey a little, but without vocabulary we can convey nothing. Vocabulary teaching is an indispensable part of English curriculum. Art is a kind of creation. Teaching vocabulary artistically can make teachers and students build up created consciousness in teaching and learning vocabulary activities and teachers put their experience and emotions towards beauty into teaching activities to raise general vocabulary teaching activities to appreciation of beauty and creative activities, convert bitter into happy, tense into ease. Thus the non-intellectual factors like motive, interest, emotion, self-confidence and so on can be developed naturally and they will elaborate a great part in English vocabulary teaching. At the same time, the relationship between teachers and students can get improved fundamentally furthest and it pushes vocabulary teaching powerfully in turn.

  1. TEACHING VOCABULARY THROUGH SENTENCES

    OpenAIRE

    irfan tosuncuoglu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Almost every teacher is certain about that vocabulary is an important facet of learning a second language. It may be more important than grammar, at least in so far as this concerns communication , and particularly in the early stages when learners seem to understand that amassing a basic vocabulary is very important to fluency in another language. As a rule, receptive vocabulary exceeds productive vocabulary and why listening with comprehension and speaking with comprehension are...

  2. “Happiness Is . . . Library Automation”: The Rhetoric of Early Library Automation and the Future of Discovery and Academic Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Kosrow, Lauren; Hinchliffe, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    During the second half of the twentieth century, the professional literature of academic librarianship imagined, speculated, and envisioned how impressive technological advancements might affect the future of academic libraries and the profession as a whole. Technology and automation, stalwarts of the Space Age, were portrayed as the panacea for librarians burdened with growing collections and overwhelming clerical processes. Many voices chimed in to predict how mechanization and automation w...

  3. TEACHING VOCABULARY THROUGH SENTENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    irfan tosuncuoglu

    2015-12-01

    Almost every teacher is certain about that vocabulary is an important facet of learning a second language. It may be more important than grammar, at least in so far as this concerns communication , and particularly in the early stages when learners seem to understand that amassing a basic vocabulary is very important to fluency in another language. As a rule, receptive vocabulary exceeds productive vocabulary and why listening with comprehension and speaking with comprehension are two very different things—the latter a more difficult cognitive process than the former. Furthermore, vocabulary acquisition is highly idiosyncratic and depends largely on the learner and her or his individual learning styles and cognitive abilities. No two people learn alike. In particular, as understanding and fluency increases,  individual interests and even needs will change, which then requires teacher-assisted guidance and remediation vis-à-vis the compilation of a specified and nuanced vocabulary that is tailored to the learner’s more practical linguistic needs, whatever these might be. In this case, new vocabulary items are more likely to be recalled and communicative. Essential to such an approach to teaching vocabulary acquisition, it is argued here, is exposure to authentic language, that is, reading, writing, listening, and speaking in class that both engages the visual, tactile, and aural-oral senses and imprints. In the case of texts, it is paramount that the comprehension level be such that the learner can guestimate with a nigh degree of accuracy the meaning and proper usage of new vocabulary items without a dictionary and thus from their context. And the more often these new vocabulary items appear, the more likely it is that their full meaning will be understood and committed to memory.  For that reason we wanted to make use of sentences in vocabulary teaching.

  4. GRE vocabulary flash review

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    In order to perform well on this challenging, high-stakes GRE, students must have a solid grasp of vocabulary. This portable guide features 600 essential GRE vocabulary flashcards, bound in a convenient book format, along with definitions, sample sentences, synonyms, and a pronunciation key for each term. This handy guide is the perfect companion to any student's GRE study plan.

  5. The Superlearning of Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmer, H. Thompson

    1983-01-01

    Describes the use of Georgi Lozanov's technique using rhythm, breathing, music, and meditation to bring about hypermnesia, or supermemory, to teach vocabulary to 15 university students. Reviews students' vocabulary gains, as seen in pre- and post-test scores, and describes how some students implemented superlearning techniques with their own…

  6. Marathi Illustrated Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsen, Maxine; Nimbkar, Jai

    Part of a set of Marathi teaching materials, this book is designed to help the student learn vocabulary through the association of printed words and pictures. The book represents more than 400 basic vocabulary items in pictorial form. It includes sketches of the natural world, the human body, clothing, house and furnishings, town and village,…

  7. Discussion about English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenxia Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary becomes more and more crucial in English learning.The article depicts six main domains about the mastery and enlargement of vocabulary,and they are motivation and aim,major fields,word,ways,radiation,and concrete execution respectively.

  8. An ODIP effort to map R2R ocean data terms to international vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Renata; Stocks, Karen; Arko, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The heterogeneity of terminology used in describing data creates a barrier to the efficient discovery and re-use of data, particularly across institutional, programmatic, and disciplinary boundaries. Here we explore the outcomes of a student project to crosswalk terms between the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program and other international systems, as part of the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP). R2R is a US program developing and implementing an information management system to preserve and provide access to routine underway data collected by U.S academic research vessels. R2R participates in ODIP, an international forum for improving the interoperability and effective sharing of marine data resources through technical workshops and joint prototypes. The vocabulary mapping effort lays a foundation for future ocean data portals through which users search and access international ocean data using familiar terms. R2R describes its data with a suite of controlled vocabularies (http://www.rvdata.us/voc) some of which were developed locally or are specific to the US. The goal of this student project is to crosswalk local/national vocabularies to authoritative international vocabularies, where they exist, or to vocabularies widely used by ODIP partners. Specifically, R2R developed the following crosswalks: R2R science party names to ORCID person identifiers, UNOLS ports to SeaDataNet Ports Gazetteer, R2R Device Models to NVS SeaVoX Device Catalog, and R2R Organizations to the European Directory of Marine Organizations (EDMO). Mappings were done in simple spreadsheets using synonymy relationships only, and will be published as part of the R2R Linked Data resources. The level of success in crosswalking was variable. The majority of ports were successfully mapped. Differences in the character sets (i.e. whether diacritic marks were used) caused automated matching to fail occasionally, but the number of ports was small enough that these could be manually

  9. Interactive College English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary learning is the foundation of language learning and the security to realize the language communication. However, vocabulary learning for many students is a difficulty which is hard to pass across. This paper attempts to explore the present vocabulary teaching reform, which aims to establish a teaching method that is to help students develop vocabulary learn-ing interest with the game.

  10. Supplements to Traditional Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    布亚男

    2012-01-01

      In a word, Vocabulary plays an indispensable part in language proficiency and provides much of the basis of how wel learns language, so it cannot be ignored. I discussed Schools’ viewpoints on the vocabulary teaching ,Reason for forgetting, Traditional approach to vocabulary teaching, supplements to vocabulary teaching,the author hope the above content can offer some hints for language learners.

  11. Linking open vocabularies

    CERN Document Server

    Greifender, Elke; Seadle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Linked Data (LD), Linked Open Data (LOD) and generating a web of data, present the new knowledge sharing frontier. In a philosophical context, LD is an evolving environment that reflects humankinds' desire to understand the world by drawing on the latest technologies and capabilities of the time. LD, while seemingly a new phenomenon did not emerge overnight; rather it represents the natural progression by which knowledge structures are developed, used, and shared. Linked Open Vocabularies is a significant trajectory of LD. Linked Open Vocabularies targets vocabularies that have traditionally b

  12. Robofurnace: A semi-automated laboratory chemical vapor deposition system for high-throughput nanomaterial synthesis and process discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory research and development on new materials, such as nanostructured thin films, often utilizes manual equipment such as tube furnaces due to its relatively low cost and ease of setup. However, these systems can be prone to inconsistent outcomes due to variations in standard operating procedures and limitations in performance such as heating and cooling rates restrict the parameter space that can be explored. Perhaps more importantly, maximization of research throughput and the successful and efficient translation of materials processing knowledge to production-scale systems, relies on the attainment of consistent outcomes. In response to this need, we present a semi-automated lab-scale chemical vapor deposition (CVD) furnace system, called “Robofurnace.” Robofurnace is an automated CVD system built around a standard tube furnace, which automates sample insertion and removal and uses motion of the furnace to achieve rapid heating and cooling. The system has a 10-sample magazine and motorized transfer arm, which isolates the samples from the lab atmosphere and enables highly repeatable placement of the sample within the tube. The system is designed to enable continuous operation of the CVD reactor, with asynchronous loading/unloading of samples. To demonstrate its performance, Robofurnace is used to develop a rapid CVD recipe for carbon nanotube (CNT) forest growth, achieving a 10-fold improvement in CNT forest mass density compared to a benchmark recipe using a manual tube furnace. In the long run, multiple systems like Robofurnace may be linked to share data among laboratories by methods such as Twitter. Our hope is Robofurnace and like automation will enable machine learning to optimize and discover relationships in complex material synthesis processes

  13. Talking about Cultural Elements in Vocabulary and English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jinjing

    2015-01-01

    By illustrating the significance of cultural elements in vocabulary and current situations in English vocabulary teaching,the author hope that English teachers can pay more attention to cultural elements behind the conceptual meanings of English words and change their method of teaching to motivate students' interest in vocabulary learning.

  14. General Reviews of Vocabulary Retention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper will try to review two important theories (repletion and retrieval) which are crucial for vocabulary retention. These two methods are well connected and each of them cannot lead to successful vocabulary retention without sensible utilization of the other.

  15. How to Enlarge Productive Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘菁

    2015-01-01

    Haycraft defined receptive vocabulary as "words that the student recognizes and understands when they occur in a text, but which he cannot produce correctly", while productive vocabulary is "words which the student understands can pronounce correctly and use constructively in speaking and writing" (1978:44).In English language teaching practice, students' productive vocabulary size lags far behind there ceptive vocabulary size. Based on the SLA theories, many reasons caused this problem and some solutions will be discussed.

  16. Teaching Vocabulary to ESL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBain, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at the ways in which vocabulary is taught and in particular what important learning points ESL students should know in order to understand new vocabulary words. It also discusses various ideas of how teachers could teach vocabulary. It highlights the importance of a theory that states there are 3 key stages that students progress…

  17. Teaching Vocabulary across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintz, William P.

    2011-01-01

    Learning vocabulary is an important instructional aim for teachers in all content areas in middle grades schools. Recent research, however, indicates that vocabulary instruction may be problematic because many teachers are not "confident about best practice in vocabulary instruction and at times don't know where to begin to form an instructional…

  18. Building Academic Vocabulary: Teacher's Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Robert J.; Pickering, Debra J.

    2005-01-01

    This manual is intended to assist teachers in implementing a comprehensive approach to teaching academic vocabulary at the classroom, school, and district levels. Using the manual's list of 7,923 terms, school and district teams can choose the most important vocabulary terms they want to teach to all students. All vocabulary terms are extracted…

  19. VISUAL VOCABULARY IN BRANDING

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Vintean; Ovidiu Matiu

    2011-01-01

    Visual vocabulary or visual language is a set of symbols used to describe a system or a process; it refers to all graphical representations that supplement a brand image, a logo, and build a brand identity that is bound to remain invariable even when the sign undergoes fundamental changes. The article is a presentation of the concept of visual vocabulary/language and of its relevance to branding and marketing. We argue that these symbols are culturally dependent and a key element in brand des...

  20. Vocabulary Teaching Strategies in College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱荣

    2009-01-01

    We all focus on the students' abilities of listening, speaking, wading, writing and translating in college teaching. But actually, it is nothing without vocabulary. Thus, vocabulary teaching is an essential part in English teaching. However, seme traditional teaching takes vocabuhury out from the context, which costs a lot of time and energy, but students are involved in the dull circle of memorizing to forgetting to memorizing again. Finally, they lose their patience on English learning and maybe give it up. In this paper, we discuss some vocabulary teaching strategies, so as to help the memorizing of vocabulary and enhance the efficiency of vocabulary teaching and learning.

  1. Managing Vocabulary Mapping Services

    OpenAIRE

    Che, Chengjian; Monson, Kent; Poon, Kasey B.; Shakib, Shaun C.; Lau, Lee Min

    2005-01-01

    The efficient management and maintenance of large-scale and high-quality vocabulary mapping is an operational challenge. The 3M Health Information Systems (HIS) Healthcare Data Dictionary (HDD) group developed an information management system to provide controlled mapping services, resulting in improved efficiency and quality maintenance.

  2. Building Your Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ScottThornbury

    2004-01-01

    “I'm not 100% convinced that memorizing the dictionary is the best way of improving your vocabulary,” says the character played by Hugh Grant in Woody Allen's film Small Time Crooks.Yet why not?Ifyou could memorize the dictionary-or even

  3. Research into Practice: Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, I. S. P.

    2011-01-01

    This article is a personal view of the application of research on vocabulary to teaching and how there are three different types or categories of relationship between that research and the teaching to which it is applied: first, where the research is not applied or not applied well, second, where it is reasonably well applied, and third, where it…

  4. Teaching Vocabulary in Colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnoinska, Anna

    1998-01-01

    Describes one teacher's use of color to make classroom instruction more interesting. Techniques included using colored paper for handouts, conducting an experiment to see whether the use of colors could enhance students' memory power, and using colored flashcards to teach vocabulary. (Author/VWL)

  5. Vocabulary at the Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Amy; Crow, John T.

    2009-01-01

    In "Vocabulary at the Center," Amy Benjamin and John T. Crow identify the most effective methods for extending the use of new words--in every grade level and across all subjects. This book shows teachers how to use context-driven exercises to incorporate new words into other areas of study. This book contains information about the authors, an…

  6. Vocabulary Teaching in English Language Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Qi Pan; Runjiang Xu

    2011-01-01

    Vocabulary is one of the three essential components that constitute language knowledge, and vocabulary teaching is an essential part in English language teaching. In this paper, we discuss some vocabulary teaching strategies, so as to help the memorizing of vocabulary and enhance the efficiency of vocabulary teaching and learning.

  7. VOCABULARY AND LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrudan Cristiana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have looked at the difference between teaching language structure and teaching vocabulary. We have discussed how counts of frequency alone are not enough to determine what words should be taught. We have seen that knowing a word means more than just knowing its meaning. Even that is problematical since meaning includes sense relations and context, for example. To know a word we also need to know about its use, how it is formed and what grammatical behavior it provokes. Above all, in this paper, we have approached the idea of how vocabulary teaching and learning need to be emphasized in order for students to be competent language users.

  8. Composite Concept Discovery for Zero-Shot Video Event Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Habibian; T. Mensink; C.G.M. Snoek

    2014-01-01

    We consider automated detection of events in video without the use of any visual training examples. A common approach is to represent videos as classification scores obtained from a vocabulary of pre-trained concept classifiers. Where others construct the vocabulary by training individual concept cl

  9. Vocabulary of hospitality

    OpenAIRE

    Bedir, M.

    2014-01-01

    Attitudes about refugees begin with the words we ascribe them. In Turkey – which has historically absorbed newcomers from a variety of outside conflicts – the term ‘guest’ is commonly used. Taking this as a starting point, Merve Bedir questions the laws of hospitality in Turkey, and the inherent hostility embedded in the word. She argues for a heightened understanding of the vocabulary around refugees, as a necessary first step to an improved refugee policy.

  10. Features of Medical English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翠萍

    2015-01-01

    Medical English is relatively more difficult than general English,especially its vocabulary.Those medical English words are long and complex,making it hard to remember. But medical English vocabulary has its own features,which would help us in learning vocabulary.On the basis of many medical English materials,the paper explores the features of etymology,affixes and roots of medical English.

  11. Features of Medical English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翠萍

    2015-01-01

    Medical English is relatively more difficult than general English,especially its vocabulary.Those medical English words are long and complex,making it hard to remember.But medical English vocabulary has its own features,which would help us in learning vocabulary.On the basis of many medical English materials,the paper explores the features of etymology,affixes and roots of medical English.

  12. Enhancing vocabulary acquisition by encouraging extensive reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚亚芳

    2012-01-01

    Current situation of vocabulary teaching The importance of vocabulary in learning a second or foreign language has been widely acknowledged and the findings of a sea of research studies have convinced us to regard vocabulary k nowledge as a

  13. Summarizing Vocabularies in the Global Semantic Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Zhang; Gong Cheng; Wei-Yi Ge; Yu-Zhong Qu

    2009-01-01

    In the Semantic Web, vocabularies are defined and shared among knowledge workers to describe linked data for scientific, industrial or daily life usage. With the rapid growth of online vocabularies, there is an emergent need for approaches helping users understand vocabularies quickly. In this paper, we study the summarization of vocabularies to help users understand vocabularies. Vocabulary summarization is based on the structural analysis and pragmatics statistics in the global Semantic Web. Local Bipartite Model and Expanded Bipartite Model of a vocabulary are proposed to characterize the structure in a vocabulary and links between vocabularies. A structural importance for each RDF sentence in the vocabulary is assessed using link analysis. Meanwhile, pragmatics importance of each RDF sentence is assessed using the statistics of instantiation of its terms in the Semantic Web. Summaries are produced by extracting important RDF sentences in vocabularies under a re-ranking strategy. Preliminary experiments show that it is feasible to help users understand a vocabulary through its summary.

  14. On Vocabulary Acquisition by Chinese Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔莉; 南二丽

    2006-01-01

    It is admitted that vocabulary acquisition, as the smallest unit in English leaning, is the most basic, decisive yet difficult part. Yet vocabulary acquisition has always obsessed and fascinated Chinese learners of English. This paper mainly presents a discussion of English vocabulary acquisition by Chinese learners in the respect of vocabulary size and correct use. Through the analysis of the problems existing in the present vocabulary learning and teaching, author also presents some learning strategies to expand vocabulary size.

  15. Extracting business vocabularies from business process models: SBVR and BPMN standards-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skersys, Tomas; Butleris, Rimantas; Kapocius, Kestutis

    2013-10-01

    Approaches for the analysis and specification of business vocabularies and rules are very relevant topics in both Business Process Management and Information Systems Development disciplines. However, in common practice of Information Systems Development, the Business modeling activities still are of mostly empiric nature. In this paper, basic aspects of the approach for business vocabularies' semi-automated extraction from business process models are presented. The approach is based on novel business modeling-level OMG standards "Business Process Model and Notation" (BPMN) and "Semantics for Business Vocabularies and Business Rules" (SBVR), thus contributing to OMG's vision about Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) and to model-driven development in general.

  16. Improving Vocabulary of English Language Learners through Direct Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Meghan; Feng, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This is a report of a professional development project. The purpose of the project was to provide professional development to teachers in vocabulary instructional strategies and to examine vocabulary acquisition of English language learners. The participants were 8 second grade ELL students and 6 second grade teachers. The eight second grade…

  17. Discussion on English Vocabulary and Description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Lan; Zhang Shiying

    2013-01-01

    Compared with the study of Grammar, syntax, the description on vocabulary is comparatively slower than them. The related theories of vocabulary description have fast developed since the 1980s and 1990s have experienced a growing interest in vocabulary learning and teaching----The vocabulary size, text coverage, word list, meaning of vocabulary in context, and collocation have been discovered and described, which helped new insights in arrange of different research fields have all added to our understanding of vocabulary development. Vocabulary acquisition research, based on vocabulary description, has established itself as a central research focus for language acquisition researchers and contributed to the focus of practical teaching and learning in English.

  18. Vocabulary Constraint on Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sutarsyah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This case study was carried out in the English Education Department of State University of Malang. The aim of the study was to identify and describe the vocabulary in the reading text and to seek if the text is useful for reading skill development. A descriptive qualitative design was applied to obtain the data. For this purpose, some available computer programs were used to find the description of vocabulary in the texts. It was found that the 20 texts containing 7,945 words are dominated by low frequency words which account for 16.97% of the words in the texts. The high frequency words occurring in the texts were dominated by function words. In the case of word levels, it was found that the texts have very limited number of words from GSL (General Service List of English Words (West, 1953. The proportion of the first 1,000 words of GSL only accounts for 44.6%. The data also show that the texts contain too large proportion of words which are not in the three levels (the first 2,000 and UWL. These words account for 26.44% of the running words in the texts.  It is believed that the constraints are due to the selection of the texts which are made of a series of short-unrelated texts. This kind of text is subject to the accumulation of low frequency words especially those of content words and limited of words from GSL. It could also defeat the development of students' reading skills and vocabulary enrichment.

  19. Essential French Vocabulary Teach Yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Saint-Thomas, Noel

    2010-01-01

    Essential French Vocabulary is the course for you if you need help with your study of French. This fully revised edition of our best-selling course now comes with free downloadable audio support containing hints on how to learn vocabulary effectively.

  20. Methods of Enlarging English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁小航

    2012-01-01

      In order to enlarge English vocabulary , we need to have some methods. I’d like to share my experience with begin⁃ners how I enlarge English vocabulary when when I am learning English. It is a long process and needs hard work and patience.

  1. Tagging vs. Controlled Vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; Petras, Vivien

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of social tagging has sparked a great deal of debate on whether tags could replace or improve upon professional metadata as descriptors of books and other information objects. In this paper we present a large-scale empirical comparison of the contributions of individual information...... elements like core bibliographic data, controlled vocabulary terms, reviews, and tags to the retrieval performance. Our comparison is done using a test collection of over 2 million book records with information elements from Amazon, the British Library, the Library of Congress, and LibraryThing. We find...

  2. VOCABULARY AND LANGUAGE TEACHING

    OpenAIRE

    Abrudan Cristiana

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we have looked at the difference between teaching language structure and teaching vocabulary. We have discussed how counts of frequency alone are not enough to determine what words should be taught. We have seen that knowing a word means more than just knowing its meaning. Even that is problematical since meaning includes sense relations and context, for example. To know a word we also need to know about its use, how it is formed and what grammatical behavior it provokes. Above ...

  3. Nuclear engineering vocabulary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The members of the CSTNIN - the Special Commission for Nuclear Engineering Terminology and Neology - have just produced a Nuclear Engineering Vocabulary, published by SFEN. A 120-page document which, to date, includes 400 nuclear engineering terms or expressions. For each term or expression, this Glossary gives: the primary and secondary subject field in which it is applied, a possible abbreviation, its definition, a synonym if appropriate, any relevant comments, any associated word(s), the English equivalent, its status on the date of publication of the Glossary. (author)

  4. Constraints to Validate RDF Data Quality on Common Vocabularies in the Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Thomas; Zapilko, Benjamin; Wackerow, Joachim; Eckert, Kai

    2015-01-01

    To ensure high quality of and trust in both metadata and data, their representation in RDF must satisfy certain criteria - specified in terms of RDF constraints. From 2012 to 2015 together with other Linked Data community members and experts from the social, behavioral, and economic sciences (SBE), we developed diverse vocabularies to represent SBE metadata and rectangular data in RDF. The DDI-RDF Discovery Vocabulary (DDI-RDF) is designed to support the dissemination, management, and reuse o...

  5. Effective Strategies for Turning Receptive Vocabulary into Productive Vocabulary in EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Avan Kamal Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary acquisition has been a main concern of EFL English teachers and learners. There have been tons of research to examine the student's level of receptive vocabulary and productive vocabulary, but no research has conducted on how turning receptive vocabulary into productive vocabulary. This study has reported the impact of the teaching…

  6. Second Language Vocabulary Growth at Advanced Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Meral

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the receptive vocabulary growth of advanced EFL learners in an English-medium degree programme. The study used the Vocabulary Size Test in a cross-sectional design to measure the vocabulary size of learners at various stages of study. The effect of word frequency on vocabulary development and the presence of an…

  7. Teaching Vocabulary through Code-Mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Mehmet

    2003-01-01

    Examined code-mixing, a little-known technique used in teaching vocabulary. Found that using code-mixing to introduce new vocabulary can be an efficient and effective method. Discusses procedures and cognitive processes involved in vocabulary learning and explains the use of code mixing to introduce vocabulary. (Author/VWL)

  8. The challenge of effective vocabulary teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Cárdenas B. Melba Libia

    2009-01-01

    Helping students develop vocabulary competence is one of the main challenges English language teachers face. This paper addresses the main aspects we should consider when planning and developing lessons in terms of vocabulary improvement. To achieve that objective, we will analyse the linguistic background and principles of vocabulary teaching and learning, as well as some ways of opening up vocabulary.

  9. Contemporary Classroom Vocabulary Assessment for Content Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Katherine A. Dougherty; Bravo, Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges of teaching disciplinary vocabulary effectively is the paucity of available, classroom-friendly vocabulary assessments that can be used to gauge students' vocabulary growth and to inform vocabulary instruction. This article describes the intricacies of word knowledge that make assessment difficult. Three continua…

  10. The Challenge of Effective Vocabulary Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárdenas B. Melba Libia

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Helping students develop vocabulary competence is one of the main challenges English language teachers face. This paper addresses the main aspects we should consider when planning and developing lessons in terms of vocabulary improvement. To achieve that objective, we will analyse the linguistic background and principles of vocabulary teaching and learning, as well as some ways of opening up vocabulary.

  11. Techniques for Vocabulary Teaching in Elementary English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽华

    2004-01-01

    All teachers know very well how important vocabulary is in learning language, but, for many years, vocabulary has all been neglected in language teaching. In this essay will try to introduce some practical and effective methods in presenting, practising,and consolidating vocabulary in elementary level in which, I wish, the elementary teachers may get some inspiration for their vocabulary teaching.

  12. Vocabularies of happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Bratu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to explore through interviews the vocabularies of happiness that interviewees invoke in face-to-face interactions to account for their happiness or lack thereof and, especially, for the (unhappiness of others. In other words, how do respondents present their own or others’ happiness – be they close or distant acquaintances, or people in general, in an interview conversation? Also, what understanding of others do these accounts make visible? This work embraces a discursive psychological (DP perspective, focusing on how different versions of happiness are being put together by respondents presenting themselves as competent and credible individuals, while at the same time positioning themselves in a moral order of happiness.

  13. Vocabulary Learning Strategies and Arabic Vocabulary Size among Pre-University Students in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Harun Baharudin; Zawawi Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary size are among the main factors that help determine how students learn second language vocabulary. The present study was an attempt to exploring the relationship between vocabulary learning strategies and Arabic vocabulary size of 742 pre-university in Religious High School (SMKA) and Government-Aided Religious School (SABK). TAV test and Schmitt’s (1997) vocabulary learning strategies questionnaire including 5 categories (Determination, Social, M...

  14. Teaching Vocabulary in Storybooks: Embedding Explicit Vocabulary Instruction for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Elizabeth J.; Goldstein, Howard; Kaminski, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary instruction is a critical component of early language and literacy programs. Vocabulary skills in the early elementary school years are strong predictors of later reading achievement and there is a correlation between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Children who have limited vocabulary in kindergarten are at high risk of…

  15. Discussion on English Vocabulary and Description

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈岚; 代显华

    2013-01-01

      Compared with the study of Grammar, syntax, the description on vocabulary is comparatively slower than them. The related theories of vocabulary description have fast developed since the 1980s and 1990s have experienced a growing interest in vocabulary learning and teaching----The vocabulary size, text coverage, word list, meaning of vocabulary in context, and collocation have been discovered and described, which helped new insights in arrange of different research fields have all added to our understanding of vocabulary development. Vocabulary acquisition research, based on vocabulary description, has established itself as a central research focus for language acquisition researchers and contributed to the focus of practical teaching and learning in College English.

  16. The Choice of Effective Vocabulary Learning Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建芳

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to make a comparison between good and poor language learners in the use of vocabulary learning strategies.It will introduce some helpful vocabulary learning strategies to help those frustrated Chinese college non-English major learners.

  17. Automated security management

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Shaer, Ehab; Xie, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    In this contributed volume, leading international researchers explore configuration modeling and checking, vulnerability and risk assessment, configuration analysis, and diagnostics and discovery. The authors equip readers to understand automated security management systems and techniques that increase overall network assurability and usability. These constantly changing networks defend against cyber attacks by integrating hundreds of security devices such as firewalls, IPSec gateways, IDS/IPS, authentication servers, authorization/RBAC servers, and crypto systems. Automated Security Managemen

  18. Considerations on Carrying Out Vocabulary Teaching Efficiently

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴白音那

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses current situations and some problems with vocabulary leaning confronted by students (especially Mongolian students) in Inner Mongolian, which should be solved urgently since the requirements of College English Teaching Curriculum are increasing, and it points out the improvement of vocabulary teaching strategies should become college English teachers' main concern. Finally, interesting methods of presenting vocabulary and effective ways of checking students' vocabulary are suggested ...

  19. Review of L2 Vocabulary Acquisition Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周先军

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary is important in language and language acquisition, but it did not catch as much attention as it deserved for a long time. In this thesis, I’ll go through changes of vocabulary studied in linguistics and language teaching as well as rise of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies. Several aspects of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies will then be reviewed.Issues that need to be further studied will at last be put forward.

  20. Vocabulary Is a Key to English Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢翌春

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary size is an important criterion to measure one's English proficiency. More words mean more freedom in language use. To many English learners, language skill remains difficult due to insufficient vocabulary. Both learners and teachers should be active to find an appropriate way to improve that condition. So it is necessary to know the feature of vocabulary and some effective ways to enlarge vocabulary size.

  1. New Trends In Teaching and Learning Vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    GENÇ, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    In this study our basic aim is to introduce the Turkish students and teachers some of the recent vocabulary learning and teaching techniques used and favored by the worldwide experts in ELT Since vocabulary development is one of the essential components of language learning every student of a foreign language need to dwell on vocabulary learning This study has mainly two parts: an introduction on the importance and gradation of vocabulary in foreign language and techniques pertaining to vo...

  2. Review of L2 Vocabulary Acquisition Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周先军

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary is important in language and language acquisition, but it did not catch as much attention as it deserved for a long time. In this thesis, I’ll go through changes of vocabulary studied in linguistics and language teaching as well as rise of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies. Several aspects of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies will then be reviewed .Issues that need to be further studied will at last be put forward.

  3. Evaluating the Quality of RDF Data Sets on Common Vocabularies in the Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Thomas; Zapilko, Benjamin; Wackerow, Joachim; Eckert, Kai

    2015-01-01

    From 2012 to 2015 together with other Linked Data community members and experts from the social, behavioral, and economic sciences (SBE), we developed diverse vocabularies to represent SBE metadata and tabular data in RDF. The DDI-RDF Discovery Vocabulary (DDI-RDF) is designed to support the dissemination, management, and reuse of unit-record data, i.e., data about individuals, households, and businesses, collected in form of responses to studies and archived for research purposes. The RDF Da...

  4. Cultivating Pragmatic Competence in English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘果果

    2007-01-01

    vocabulary is one of the most important elements of the language. It is closely related with context and pragmatic. This paper intends to find out some effective method of vocabulary teaching under the pragmatic principles, exploring how to improve pragmatic competence of students in English vocabulary teaching.

  5. Vocabulary Teaching Based on Semantic-Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangru, Cao

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary is an indispensable part of language and it is of vital importance for second language learners. Wilkins (1972) points out: "without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed." Vocabulary teaching has experienced several stages characterized by grammatical-translation method, audio-lingual…

  6. A Core Vocabulary for Tamil. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpin, David W.

    This vocabulary list is directed towards the Tamil instructor and the advanced student. Its primary goal is to bring some order to the teaching of vocabulary in the first two years of Tamil instruction. A secondary goal is to help the student through the vocabulary maze of Tamil diglossia. Three main criteria were employed in selecting words for…

  7. Teacher's Role in English Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新颜

    2009-01-01

    Vocabulary is the basis for learning any language.Anyone who wants to learn a language well faces the challenge of enlarging his/her vocabulary effectively.From six aspects,this paper discusses what teachers should do to help their students with vocabulary acquisition.

  8. How to develop vocabulary learning strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董振

    2010-01-01

    @@ Due to limited class time,students will not be able to learn all the vocabulary simply from class teaching.Thus we need to help students develop items vocabulary learning strategies so that they can effectively acquire more vocabulary on their own,especially outside the class.Below are some strategies.

  9. Pruning the vocabulary for better context recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai;

    2004-01-01

    of term relevancy, when pruning the vocabularies. With reduced vocabularies, documents are classified using a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Reducing the bag-of-words vocabularies with 90%-98%, we find consistent classification improvement using...

  10. Vocabulary Pruning for Improved Context Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai;

    2004-01-01

    of term relevancy, when pruning the vocabularies. With reduced vocabularies documents are classified using a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Reducing the bag-of-words vocabularies with 90%-98%, we find consistent classification improvement using...

  11. Teachers' Technology Use in Vocabulary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilickaya, Ferit; Krajka, Jaroslaw

    2010-01-01

    It cannot be denied that vocabulary learning is central to learning a language, be it a mother tongue or the second/foreign language. According to Nunan (1991), learning vocabulary in the very early stages is more fundamental than grammar, since without vocabulary one would not be able to use the structures and functions for effective…

  12. Vocabulary Development: Teaching vs. Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Nilsen, Don L. F.

    2003-01-01

    Considers how with no training in how to teach vocabulary skills, many teachers transfer to their classroom the same techniques that they see test makers using. Offers a chart to encourage thinking about the ways that standardized testing techniques differ from good teaching and learning practices. Argues that educators should provide students…

  13. Academic Vocabulary and the CCSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspen Institute, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The College and Career Ready Standards of the CCSS articulate a range of expectations regarding what students should be able to do with regards to academic vocabulary: (1) Interpret technical, connotative, and figurative meanings of words and phrases; (2) Analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone; (3) Determine or clarify the meaning…

  14. Application of an automated natural language processing (NLP) workflow to enable federated search of external biomedical content in drug discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntire, Robin; Szalkowski, Debbie; Butler, James; Kuo, Michelle S; Chang, Meiping; Chang, Man; Freeman, Darren; McQuay, Sarah; Patel, Jagruti; McGlashen, Michael; Cornell, Wendy D; Xu, Jinghai James

    2016-05-01

    External content sources such as MEDLINE(®), National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants and conference websites provide access to the latest breaking biomedical information, which can inform pharmaceutical and biotechnology company pipeline decisions. The value of the sites for industry, however, is limited by the use of the public internet, the limited synonyms, the rarity of batch searching capability and the disconnected nature of the sites. Fortunately, many sites now offer their content for download and we have developed an automated internal workflow that uses text mining and tailored ontologies for programmatic search and knowledge extraction. We believe such an efficient and secure approach provides a competitive advantage to companies needing access to the latest information for a range of use cases and complements manually curated commercial sources. PMID:26979546

  15. On the Application of Games in Junior English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖芳萍

    2015-01-01

    <正>Vocabulary,pronunciation and grammar are the three essential components of language,vocabulary being the building material of languages.The famous linguist Wilkins said,"Without grammar,very little can be conveyed;without vocabulary,nothing can be conveyed."The importance of vocabulary is strongly manifested.Therefore,vocabulary teaching has been the focus of

  16. The Impact of Gloss Types on Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary Gain and Vocabulary Retention: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Atefeh Elekaei; Sajad Faramarzi; Mansour Koosha

    2015-01-01

    The significance and impact of vocabulary learning in reading comprehension and L2 language learning are apparent to teachers, researchers and language learners. Moreover, glosses are found as one of the most effective strategies regarding vocabulary retention. Therefore, the present study attempted to investigate the effect of different types of glosses on reading comprehension, vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. To this end, 140 Iranian EFL learners learning English were selected and...

  17. A reassessment of frequency and vocabulary size in L2 vocabulary teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Norbert; Schmitt, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The high-frequency vocabulary of English has traditionally been thought to consist of the 2,000 most frequent word families, and low-frequency vocabulary as that beyond the 10,000 frequency level. This paper argues that these boundaries should be reassessed on pedagogic grounds. Based on a number of perspectives (including frequency and acquisition studies, the amount of vocabulary necessary for English usage, the range of graded readers, and dictionary defining vocabulary), we argue that hig...

  18. The Sources of the English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shujun

    2015-01-01

    Lexicology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the study of the vocabulary of a given language. This paper begins with the question: What are the two approaches to the study of English lexicology? Then talk about the position and character of the English language in the Indo-European family. After this,the paper would on the way to explain the sources of the English vocabulary and different characters of different periods of English vocabulary.

  19. The Influence of Contexts on Vocabulary Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高春梅

    2014-01-01

    In vocabulary testing, whether to adopt context is a heat-debated topic. In the article, an experiment is designed to in⁃vestigate what is the effect of zero context and sentence context on the vocabulary testing? And how do the different kinds of context in vocabulary affect the subjects’performance? The experimental result demonstrates that sentence do play an important role in helping text-takers to figure out the correct meaning or target words.

  20. Vocabulary services to support scientific data interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Simon; Mills, Katie; Tan, Florence

    2013-04-01

    Shared vocabularies are a core element in interoperable systems. Vocabularies need to be available at run-time, and where the vocabularies are shared by a distributed community this implies the use of web technology to provide vocabulary services. Given the ubiquity of vocabularies or classifiers in systems, vocabulary services are effectively the base of the interoperability stack. In contemporary knowledge organization systems, a vocabulary item is considered a concept, with the "terms" denoting it appearing as labels. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) formalizes this as an RDF Schema (RDFS) application, with a bridge to formal logic in Web Ontology Language (OWL). For maximum utility, a vocabulary should be made available through the following interfaces: * the vocabulary as a whole - at an ontology URI corresponding to a vocabulary document * each item in the vocabulary - at the item URI * summaries, subsets, and resources derived by transformation * through the standard RDF web API - i.e. a SPARQL endpoint * through a query form for human users. However, the vocabulary data model may be leveraged directly in a standard vocabulary API that uses the semantics provided by SKOS. SISSvoc3 [1] accomplishes this as a standard set of URI templates for a vocabulary. Any URI comforming to the template selects a vocabulary subset based on the SKOS properties, including labels (skos:prefLabel, skos:altLabel, rdfs:label) and a subset of the semantic relations (skos:broader, skos:narrower, etc). SISSvoc3 thus provides a RESTFul SKOS API to query a vocabulary, but hiding the complexity of SPARQL. It has been implemented using the Linked Data API (LDA) [2], which connects to a SPARQL endpoint. By using LDA, we also get content-negotiation, alternative views, paging, metadata and other functionality provided in a standard way. A number of vocabularies have been formalized in SKOS and deployed by CSIRO, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) and their

  1. The Impact of Gloss Types on Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary Gain and Vocabulary Retention: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Elekaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The significance and impact of vocabulary learning in reading comprehension and L2 language learning are apparent to teachers, researchers and language learners. Moreover, glosses are found as one of the most effective strategies regarding vocabulary retention. Therefore, the present study attempted to investigate the effect of different types of glosses on reading comprehension, vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. To this end, 140 Iranian EFL learners learning English were selected and were divided into four groups (footnote gloss group, interlinear gloss group, marginal gloss group, and glossary group. They were required to read a text and answer four reading comprehension questions. In addition, one immediate vocabulary post-test and one delayed vocabulary post-test were taken in order to investigate learners' vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. In order to analyze the data, one one-way ANOVA and one MANOVA were run. The results of one-way ANOVA revealed that participants who received interlinear glosses significantly outperformed the other groups regarding comprehending the text. Moreover, the immediate vocabulary post-test was conducted immediately after reading test and the delayed post-test was administered after four weeks. The results of MANOVA indicated that the group which received interlinear glosses outperformed the other groups in both vocabulary gain and vocabulary retention. The present study has implications for teachers and learners. Teachers can find better methods to teach new reading passages as well as vocabulary items. Also, glosses help learners to have a better comprehension of difficult passages and they facilitate learning. Moreover, learners can enhance their vocabulary knowledge with the help of glosses.Keywords: footnote gloss, interlinear gloss, marginal gloss, glossary, Iranian EFL learners, reading comprehension, vocabulary gain, vocabulary retention

  2. Exposing SAMOS Data and Vocabularies within the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, Nkemdirim; Elya, Jocelyn; Smith, Shawn

    2014-05-01

    As part of the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP), we at the Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies (COAPS) will present the development process for the exposure of quality-controlled data and core vocabularies managed by the Shipboard Automated Meteorological Oceanographic System (SAMOS) initiative using Semantic Web technologies. Participants in the SAMOS initiative collect continuous navigational (position, course, heading, speed), meteorological (winds, pressure, temperature, humidity, radiation), and near-surface oceanographic (sea temperature, salinity) parameters while at sea. One-minute interval observations are packaged and transmitted back to COAPS via daily emails, where they undergo standardized formatting and quality control. The authors will present methods used to expose these daily datasets. The Semantic Web, a vision of the World Wide Web Consortium, focuses on extending the principles of the web from connecting documents to connecting data. The creation of a web of Linked Data that can be used across different applications in a machine-readable way is the ultimate goal. The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is the standard language and format used in the Semantic Web. RDF pages may be queried using the SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL). The authors will showcase the development of RDF resources that map SAMOS vocabularies to internationally served vocabularies such as those found in the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Vocabulary Server. Each individual SAMOS vocabulary term (data parameter and quality control flag) will be described in an RDF resource page. These RDF resources will define each SAMOS vocabulary term and provide a link to the mapped vocabulary term (or multiple terms) served externally. Along with enhanced retrieval by parameter, time, and location, we will be able to add additional parameters with the confidence that they follow an international standard. The production of RDF

  3. Innovative Writing Instruction: Reducing Vocabulary to Increase Vocabulary--Student-Centered Vocabulary Instruction for Writing that Makes a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Many people, particularly teachers and students, associate vocabulary instruction with long lists of ambiguous words, copying the definitions from the dictionary by rote, completing accompanying analogies, or matching the words with their meanings and taking a quiz at the end of the week. This approach to vocabulary instruction is typical to many…

  4. A harmonized vocabulary for soil observed properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Bruce; Wilson, Peter; Cox, Simon; Vleeshouer, Jamie

    2014-05-01

    Interoperability of soil data depends on agreements concerning models, schemas and vocabularies. However, observed property terms are often defined during different activities and projects in isolation of one another, resulting in data that has the same scope being represented with different terms, using different formats and formalisms, and published in various access methods. Significantly, many soil property vocabularies conflate multiple concepts in a single term, e.g. quantity kind, units of measure, substance being observed, and procedure. Effectively, this bundles separate information elements into a single slot. We have developed a vocabulary for observed soil properties by adopting and extending a previously defined water quality vocabulary. The observed property model separates the information elements, based on the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Observations & Measurements model and extending the NASA/TopQuadrant 'Quantities, Units, Dimensions and Types' (QUDT) ontology. The imported water quality vocabulary is formalized using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). Key elements are defined as sub-classes or sub-properties of standard Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) elements, allowing use of standard vocabulary interfaces. For the soil observed property vocabulary, terms from QUDT and water quality are used where possible. These are supplemented with additional unit of measure (Unit), observed property (ScaledQuantityKind) and substance being observed (SubstanceOrTaxon) vocabulary entries required for the soil properties. The vocabulary terms have been extracted from the Australian Soil and Land Survey Field Handbook and Australian Soil Information Transfer and Evaluation System (SITES) vocabularies. The vocabulary links any chemical substances to items from the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) ontology. By formalizing the model for observable properties, and clearly labelling the separate elements, soil property observations may

  5. Building an Enhanced Vocabulary of the Robot Environment with a Ceiling Pointing Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rituerto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile robots are of great help for automatic monitoring tasks in different environments. One of the first tasks that needs to be addressed when creating these kinds of robotic systems is modeling the robot environment. This work proposes a pipeline to build an enhanced visual model of a robot environment indoors. Vision based recognition approaches frequently use quantized feature spaces, commonly known as Bag of Words (BoW or vocabulary representations. A drawback using standard BoW approaches is that semantic information is not considered as a criteria to create the visual words. To solve this challenging task, this paper studies how to leverage the standard vocabulary construction process to obtain a more meaningful visual vocabulary of the robot work environment using image sequences. We take advantage of spatio-temporal constraints and prior knowledge about the position of the camera. The key contribution of our work is the definition of a new pipeline to create a model of the environment. This pipeline incorporates (1 tracking information to the process of vocabulary construction and (2 geometric cues to the appearance descriptors. Motivated by long term robotic applications, such as the aforementioned monitoring tasks, we focus on a configuration where the robot camera points to the ceiling, which captures more stable regions of the environment. The experimental validation shows how our vocabulary models the environment in more detail than standard vocabulary approaches, without loss of recognition performance. We show different robotic tasks that could benefit of the use of our visual vocabulary approach, such as place recognition or object discovery. For this validation, we use our publicly available data-set.

  6. Building an Enhanced Vocabulary of the Robot Environment with a Ceiling Pointing Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rituerto, Alejandro; Andreasson, Henrik; Murillo, Ana C.; Lilienthal, Achim; Guerrero, José Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Mobile robots are of great help for automatic monitoring tasks in different environments. One of the first tasks that needs to be addressed when creating these kinds of robotic systems is modeling the robot environment. This work proposes a pipeline to build an enhanced visual model of a robot environment indoors. Vision based recognition approaches frequently use quantized feature spaces, commonly known as Bag of Words (BoW) or vocabulary representations. A drawback using standard BoW approaches is that semantic information is not considered as a criteria to create the visual words. To solve this challenging task, this paper studies how to leverage the standard vocabulary construction process to obtain a more meaningful visual vocabulary of the robot work environment using image sequences. We take advantage of spatio-temporal constraints and prior knowledge about the position of the camera. The key contribution of our work is the definition of a new pipeline to create a model of the environment. This pipeline incorporates (1) tracking information to the process of vocabulary construction and (2) geometric cues to the appearance descriptors. Motivated by long term robotic applications, such as the aforementioned monitoring tasks, we focus on a configuration where the robot camera points to the ceiling, which captures more stable regions of the environment. The experimental validation shows how our vocabulary models the environment in more detail than standard vocabulary approaches, without loss of recognition performance. We show different robotic tasks that could benefit of the use of our visual vocabulary approach, such as place recognition or object discovery. For this validation, we use our publicly available data-set. PMID:27070607

  7. Building an Enhanced Vocabulary of the Robot Environment with a Ceiling Pointing Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rituerto, Alejandro; Andreasson, Henrik; Murillo, Ana C; Lilienthal, Achim; Guerrero, José Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Mobile robots are of great help for automatic monitoring tasks in different environments. One of the first tasks that needs to be addressed when creating these kinds of robotic systems is modeling the robot environment. This work proposes a pipeline to build an enhanced visual model of a robot environment indoors. Vision based recognition approaches frequently use quantized feature spaces, commonly known as Bag of Words (BoW) or vocabulary representations. A drawback using standard BoW approaches is that semantic information is not considered as a criteria to create the visual words. To solve this challenging task, this paper studies how to leverage the standard vocabulary construction process to obtain a more meaningful visual vocabulary of the robot work environment using image sequences. We take advantage of spatio-temporal constraints and prior knowledge about the position of the camera. The key contribution of our work is the definition of a new pipeline to create a model of the environment. This pipeline incorporates (1) tracking information to the process of vocabulary construction and (2) geometric cues to the appearance descriptors. Motivated by long term robotic applications, such as the aforementioned monitoring tasks, we focus on a configuration where the robot camera points to the ceiling, which captures more stable regions of the environment. The experimental validation shows how our vocabulary models the environment in more detail than standard vocabulary approaches, without loss of recognition performance. We show different robotic tasks that could benefit of the use of our visual vocabulary approach, such as place recognition or object discovery. For this validation, we use our publicly available data-set. PMID:27070607

  8. Controlled Vocabularies and Ontologies for Oceanographic Data: The R2R Eventlogger Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, E.; Maffei, A. R.; Chandler, C. L.; Raymond, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    Vocabulary. These vocabularies and their mappings are an important part of the Eventlogger system. Before a research cruise investigators configure the instruments they intend to use for science activities. The instruments available for selection are pulled directly from the instrument vocabulary. The promotion and use of controlled vocabularies and ontologies will pave the way for linked data. By mapping local terms to agreed upon authoritative terms links are created, whereby related datasets can be discovered, and utilized. The Library is a natural home for the management of standards. Librarians have an established history of working with controlled vocabularies and metadata and libraries serve as centers for information discovery. Eventlogger is currently being tested across the UNOLS fleet. A large submission of suggested instrument terms to the SeaDataNet community listserv is in progress. References: Maffei, Andrew R., Cynthia L. Chandler, Janet Fredericks, Nan Galbraith, Laura Stolp. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): A Controlled Vocabulary and Ontology Development Effort for Oceanographic Research Cruise Event Logging. EGU2011-12341. Poster presented at the 2011 EGU Meeting.

  9. Vocabulary Growth of the Advanced EFL Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Meral

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of two studies on the vocabulary growth of advanced learners of English as a foreign language in an English-medium degree programme. Growth in learners' written receptive and productive vocabularies was investigated in one cross-sectional and one longitudinal study over three years. The effect of word…

  10. Teaching Vocabulary to Senior High School Student

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆梅

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with methods of teaching vocabulary to high school students. It mainly talks about that vocabulary learning should relate to cultural background, connotative meaning, and social meaning. In order to collect dependable and reasonable result, a survey was conducted in a high school. The result of survey shows that this method is acceptable.

  11. Discussion on University English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关颖

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary is the foundation of language systems and the students' vocabulary ability directly affects their ability of lis⁃tening, speaking, reading, writing and translating.However, the traditional college English teaching of vocabulary can't meet the needs of memorizing words for students. Memorizing words is a heavy burden of students.Teaching practice shows that using the etymology of auxiliary teaching in the process of teaching can improve the students' learning interest and deepen their memory,al⁃so can improve the efficiency of vocabulary memory,which isnot only help students enlarge their vocabulary, but also can strengthen the students understand the English national cultures.In this paper, we start from the importance of vocabulary teach⁃ing and the present situation of college English vocabulary teaching,we talk about the feasibility of using etymology college Eng⁃lish vocabulary teaching strategies based on the etymology related knowledgein this paper in order to improve the English skills for students.

  12. The Choice of Effective Vocabulary Learning Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-fang

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to make a comparison between good and poor language learners in the use of vocabulary learning strat-egies. It will introduce some helpful vocabulary learning strategies to help those frustrated Chinese college non-English major learners.

  13. Conceptual Metaphor and English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐立

    2013-01-01

      We can see how metaphors exist in everyday language, even if we may not always notice. Metaphor plays an important role in vocabulary teaching. In accordance with the analysis of the fundamental theories proposed by Lakoff&Johnson (1980), this thesis provides some suggestions which help English teachers improve vocabulary teaching strategies.

  14. Building Conceptual Understanding through Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupley, William H.; Nichols, William Dee; Mraz, Maryann; Blair, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Instructional design is an integral part of a balanced approach to teaching vocabulary instruction. This article presents several instructional procedures using research-based vocabulary strategies and explains how to design and adapt those strategies in order to reach desired learning outcomes. Emphasis is placed on research-based principles that…

  15. Vocabulary Instruction in the Middle Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Michael F.

    2007-01-01

    Michael Graves points out that it is only in the last 40 years that a rich base of theory and research about teaching and learning vocabulary has come into being. Grounding his article in this research, he lists some of the factors testifying to the importance of vocabulary and discusses what may be the most crucial fact about the task of teaching…

  16. Input-Based Incremental Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcroft, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This fascinating presentation of current research undoes numerous myths about how we most effectively learn new words in a second language. In clear, reader-friendly text, the author details the successful approach of IBI vocabulary instruction, which emphasizes the presentation of target vocabulary as input early on and the incremental (gradual)…

  17. Vocabulary Instruction for Second Language Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Deanna L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, research has consistently affirmed the importance of explicit vocabulary instruction for adult learners of English as a second language (ESL). Given the significant vocabulary demands faced by adult second language readers, ESL teachers must carefully target their instruction for maximum impact and to foster meaningful…

  18. Vocabulary Instruction: Research to Practice. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kame'enui, Edward J., Ed.; Baumann, James F., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This highly regarded work brings together prominent authorities on vocabulary teaching and learning to provide a comprehensive yet concise guide to effective instruction. The book showcases practical ways to teach specific vocabulary words and word-learning strategies and create engaging, word-rich classrooms. Instructional activities and games…

  19. The Acculturation in English vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严灵; 张华刚; 张凯

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is concerned with the acculturation in English words.More specifically,some consideration will be given to the why and how of learning culture.It will be demonstrated that learning a foreign language is not tantamount to giving a homily on syntactic structures or learning new vocabulary and expressions,but mainly incorporates,or should incorporate,some cultural elements,which are intertwined with language itself.The main premise of the paper is that apart from enhancing and enriching communicative competence,cultural competence can also lead to empathy and respect toward different cultures as well as promote objectivity and cultural perspicacity.

  20. TEACHING VOCABULARY LEARNING STRATEGIES IN CLASSROOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangWentao

    2004-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is one component of language skills such as reading and writing and enables language learners to more appropriate language use. 13ecause of the features of vocabulary learning, which is wide coverage in content and time, teaching vocabulary should base on learners previous knowledge and arouse their motivation to .further learning. Teaching language learning strategy in class can help studentsmore consciously monitor their learning, learn autonomously and become independent learner. Hence teacher should attach great importance to the instruction of voeabalary learnig strategies to students in classroom. This paper discusses theoretically the function and application of teaching learning strategy in vocabulary learning and also provides an applicable class sample to teach some vocabulary learning strategies to students.

  1. Vocabulary Development of Junior Teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Nikonova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the communicative competence formation of young adolescents in the secondary school at the Russian language lessons. The author maintains that the key element of the above problem is the vocabulary development guaranteeing both comprehension and verbal expression formation – oral and written. The theoretical part of the research explores different word functions: nominal, communicative, text generating and semantic. The correlation between the mental development level and lexical semantic system formation is emphasized. The age specific features of junior teens are listed: rising interest to various life spheres and activi- ties, capability of formulating opinions and judgments, self-awareness, formation of values. The relationship complexity stimulates vocabulary development of 10 to 12 year-old children; however, the process requires peda- gogical facilitation.The monitoring of speech development proves the necessity of commutative competence formation of the fifth- and sixth-year pupils. The paper presents the model of communicative competence development and its approbation results received for the junior adolescents. 

  2. Vocabulary Development of Junior Teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Nikonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the communicative competence formation of young adolescents in the secondary school at the Russian language lessons. The author maintains that the key element of the above problem is the vocabulary development guaranteeing both comprehension and verbal expression formation – oral and written. The theoretical part of the research explores different word functions: nominal, communicative, text generating and semantic. The correlation between the mental development level and lexical semantic system formation is emphasized. The age specific features of junior teens are listed: rising interest to various life spheres and activi- ties, capability of formulating opinions and judgments, self-awareness, formation of values. The relationship complexity stimulates vocabulary development of 10 to 12 year-old children; however, the process requires peda- gogical facilitation.The monitoring of speech development proves the necessity of commutative competence formation of the fifth- and sixth-year pupils. The paper presents the model of communicative competence development and its approbation results received for the junior adolescents. 

  3. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    BJORK, ROBERT A.; KROLL, JUDITH F.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other. PMID:26255443

  4. Impact of Training Deep Vocabulary Learning Strategies on Vocabulary Retention of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Es-hagi Sardroud

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the overall tendency of foreign language learners to use mechanical strategies of rote rehearsal in vocabulary learning and their resistance towards use of 'deep' vocabulary learning strategies, namely contextual guessing, Keyword Method, metacognitive strategy, and semantic mapping, this study intended (a to explore what impact the instruction of these deep strategies, on vocabulary retention of 32 post-intermediate adult EFL Iranian learners, (b to determine how the variable of gender influences the vocabulary retention of students after receiving training in these strategies. To this end, on the basis of a strategy-based model of instruction–CALLA (Chamot & O'Malley, 1994, the experimental group received training in using 'deep' vocabulary learning strategies while the control group received only the common method of vocabulary teaching. After the treatment, following factorial design, the performance of the participants in the teacher-made vocabulary test as posttest was analyzed statistically.  The results indicated higher vocabulary retention for the experimental group, and it was revealed that female students were more receptive to strategy training. This study provides evidence for confirmation of 'depth of processing' hypothesis and the emerging theory about the impact of gender on effective strategy teaching and use, and it recommends incorporation of teaching these 'deep' strategies of vocabulary learning into EFL classrooms.Keywords: contextual guessing, 'deep' vocabulary learning strategies, Keyword Method, metacognitive strategy, semantic mapping

  5. Strategies on teaching English vocabulary of Non-English majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉

    2014-01-01

    As we know that mastery of vocabulary is an essential component of foreign language acquisition, and learners cannot learn a language without vocabulary. Based on the vocabulary leaning problems of Non-English majors, this article makes analysis of the main factors for the problems and tries to provide some vocabulary teaching strategies to solve the problems.

  6. A RESEARCH ON VOCABULARY TEACHING STRATEGIES AND STUDENTS’ MASTERY

    OpenAIRE

    Tian Yuan; Liu Bingbing

    2013-01-01

    By means of questionnaire and quantitative research, this article aims at investigating the effects on students’ mastery of vocabulary by studying teachers’ adoption of seven kinds of common vocabulary teaching strategies and the usage of analyzing strategies in intensive English in order to improve vocabulary teaching strategies and to help enlarge students’ vocabulary.

  7. The Ways Metaphor is Brought into Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYan; ShenXiang jing

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of vocabulary teaching in English is to enlarge breadth and depth of vocabulary and From the point of cognitive metaphor, meaning extension of vocabulary contributes a lot to the vocabulary teaching. The paper tries to sum up ways metaphor is brought into teaching as a means of improving English teaching.

  8. The Ways Metaphor is Brought into Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYan; ShenXiang; jing

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of vocabulary teaching in English is to enlarge breadth and depth of vocabulary and From the point of cognitive metaphor,meaning extension of vocabulary contributes a lot to the vocabulary teaching.The paper tries to sum up ways metaphor is brought into teaching as a means of improving English teaching.

  9. Increasing Middle School Students’ Vocabulary through Extensive Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小庆

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses how to increase middle school English learners’ vocabulary through reading.Vocabulary is a core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basis of how well learners speak,listen,read,and write.Without an extensive vocabulary and strategies for acquiring new vocabulary,middle school students often feel discouraged during their study.They will lose their interests in English day by day.So it’s very important for middle school English learners to develop their vocabulary efficiently.There are many ways to enlarge vocabulary.In this article we will focus on improving middle school English learners’ vocabulary by extensive reading.

  10. Vocabulary Instruction: Software Flashcards vs. Word Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Mansouri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to language learning, vocabulary learning is the main activity focused on. Vocabulary learning is the main problem and also the goal of new language learners. It is one of the major problems that language learners encounter during learning a new language. Krashen (1989 (cited in Tokac, 2005 points out the role of vocabulary in a language by stating that most of the meaning in a language is carried by words. This is why people visiting a foreign country prefer to take their dictionaries with them rather than grammar books. And on the other hand, nowadays everything is connected to technology and language learning and teaching is not an exception. As Stockwell (2007 cites, vocabulary has been one of the most commonly taught language areas through technology in recent years. Integration of computer and second/foreign language teaching is admired by many researchers. It is clear that technology can help enhance the degree of vocabulary learning, but the point is that which computer assisted vocabulary learning can work better and would be more efficient?In this paper we will discuss and analyze the usage of two kinds of different ways of using technology and see which of the methods will work better. A comparison between vocabulary software flashcard and word clouds (Wordle on vocabulary learning (retention will be compared by the researcher. We will see that using which method will encourage learners more and they will do better with which kind of using technology? The study is carried out in Iran on 44 English learners. The result is really surprising. Both of the groups were interested in technology, but one group did really better.Keywords: CALL, CAVL, Software flashcard, Word Clouds, Wordle, Vocabulary learning

  11. An Easy and Effective Approach to English Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈以欣; 陈建章

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary poses a challenge to most English learners. There are some misconcepts and mismanagements in this area. In view of the problems arising, this article makes particular points addressing the issues concerned. Firstly, it discusses the position of vocabulary in English language and some important notions concerning vocabulary learning. Furthermore, it examines the condition of learnt vocabulary in the mental space of learners. Finally, it proposes some useful strategies and approaches applicable to vocabulary learning process.

  12. Teaching Vocabulary in Chinese Universities: What and How?

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Li; Xuan Zhang

    2009-01-01

    One of the major tasks of tertiary English teachers is to enlarge the students’ vocabulary size; therefore, it is necessary for the teachers to explore the answers to two major questions concerning vocabulary instruction. What vocabulary should we focus on? And how can we teach vocabulary in the classroom? In order to answer these two questions, this essay reviews the previous western research in the area. By so doing it divides English vocabulary into four groups - high frequency words, acad...

  13. Attempt to improve Vocabulary Teaching for Higher Vocational College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春香

    2012-01-01

      Vocabulary is the building material of language, and vocabulary study is therefore one of the most important aspects in any language learning. It is a key point to improve English learning through paying more attention to vocabulary acquisition. However, vocabulary teaching is one aspect of language teaching that has not been given enough attention in China. Therefore, some issues in vocabulary teaching and learning in higher vocational colleges are being addressed at present, which are worthy of our further consideration.

  14. Small Vocabulary with Saliency Matching for Video Copy Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Huamin; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Tang, Sheng;

    2013-01-01

    vocabulary. BoW descriptors under a small vocabulary can be both robust and efficient, while keeping high recall rate compared with large vocabulary. However, the high false positives exists in small vocabulary also limits its application. To address this problem in small vocabulary, we propose a novel...... improved by 30% on average compared with the state-of-the-art technique. Moreover, our proposed method is capable of detecting severe transformations, e.g. picture in picture and post production....

  15. Impact of Training Deep Vocabulary Learning Strategies on Vocabulary Retention of Iranian EFL Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Javad Es-hagi Sardroud

    2013-01-01

    Considering the overall tendency of foreign language learners to use mechanical strategies of rote rehearsal in vocabulary learning and their resistance towards use of 'deep' vocabulary learning strategies, namely contextual guessing, Keyword Method, metacognitive strategy, and semantic mapping, this study intended (a) to explore what impact the instruction of these deep strategies, on vocabulary retention of 32 post-intermediate adult EFL Iranian learners, (b) to determine how the variable o...

  16. Home Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I briefly discuss the importance of home automation system. Going in to the details I briefly present a real time designed and implemented software and hardware oriented house automation research project, capable of automating house's electricity and providing a security system to detect the presence of unexpected behavior.

  17. Enhanced Context Recognition by Sensitivity Pruned Vocabularies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    Language independent `bag-of-words' representations are surprisingly effective for text classification. The generic BOW approach is based on a high-dimensional vocabulary which may reduce the generalization performance of subsequent classifiers, e.g., based on ill-posed principal component...... transformations. In this communication our aim is to study the effect of sensitivity based pruning of the bag-of-words representation. We consider neural network based sensitivity maps for determination of term relevancy, when pruning the vocabularies. With reduced vocabularies documents are classified using a...... latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Pruning the vocabularies to approximately 20% of the original size, we find consistent context recognition enhancement for two mid size data-sets for a range of training set sizes. We also study the applicability of...

  18. Student Approaches to Learning Chinese Vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, I-Ping P.

    2005-01-01

    This research focuses on the strategies that native English speakers use as they learn to speak and write Chinese vocabulary words in the first year of an elementary Chinese class. The main research question was: what strategies do native English-speaking beginning learners of Chinese use to learn Chinese vocabulary words in their speaking and writing? The study was conducted at a medium-sized comprehensive university in the Southeastern U.S. The study drew from concepts and theories in s...

  19. A Vocabulary Analysis of the Restaurant Menus

    OpenAIRE

    MIHUT Silvia

    2010-01-01

    The present paper explores the genre of restaurant menus by analyzing existing online lists of breakfast, lunch and dinner options. It shows that a menu is a reflection of the restaurant itself and its vocabulary, whether formal, casual or playful, matches the restaurant concept, location or theme. In addition to providing the food and drink items, menus can also be used to offer other information to the customers. The restaurant menu vocabulary describes the owner/chef's philosophy about foo...

  20. INVocD: Identifier Name Vocabulary Dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Simon; Wermelinger, Michel; Yu, Yijun; Sharp, Helen

    2013-01-01

    NVocD is a dataset of the identifier name declarations and vocabulary found in 60 FLOSS Java projects where the source code structure is recorded and the identifier name vocabulary is made directly available, offering advantages for identifier name research over conventional source code models. The dataset has been used to support a range of research projects from identifier name analysis to concept location, and provides many opportunities to researchers.

  1. Using internet resources to improve : vocabulary knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the importance of English language students developing their vocabulary knowledge has come to be recognized. The Internet has a great many resources for the development of vocabulary knowledge. In this paper, I identify types of resources, categorize them, and explain how they can be used. These resources have been divided into two broad categories, resources for teachers and resources for students, and then further divided into subcategories. The subcategories of resources f...

  2. Research on Vocabularies of Business Interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰

    2014-01-01

    With increasingly international business activities, business English has already become main language tool of commu-nication. Many new business English vocabularies emerge. If interpreters want to assume business interpretation work successfully, he or she has to learn the meaning of these words and their features in business field. This essay will do some research around vo-cabularies of business interpretation from the characteristics of these words/phrases such as more abbreviations, professional termi-nology, polysemy and so on.

  3. How many independent rice vocabularies in Asia ?

    OpenAIRE

    Sagart, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The process of moving from collecting plants in the wild to cultivating and gradually domesticating them has as its linguistic corollary the formation of a specific vocabulary to designate the plants and their parts, the fields in which they are cultivated, the tools and activities required to cultivate them and the food preparations in which they enter. From this point of view, independent domestications of a plant can be expected to result in wholly independent vocabularies. Conversely, whe...

  4. Powerful Vocabulary Acquisition through Texts Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hasannejad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate if dual version reading comprehension had a positive effect on Intermediate EFL students’ general vocabulary acquisition, receptive and productive knowledge of vocabulary and students’ synonymous power of words. Two groups were selected - the experimental group and the control group. The study included: (1 four pretests (2 the dual version reading comprehension, and (3 four posttests. It was found that there was no significant difference between the two groups of students on the pretests. However there was a significant difference between the two groups of the students on the posttests. Overall, the dual version reading comprehension vocabulary-learning made the experimental group learners outperformed the control groups in terms of their performance on four types of vocabulary tests. This indicates that students following dual version reading comprehension were more successful in vocabulary acquisition, and developing their receptive knowledge of vocabulary, transferring their receptive knowledge in to the productive knowledge and enhancing the memorization of the synonymous words.Key words: Dual version reading comprehension, Receptive knowledge, Productive knowledge, Synonymous power

  5. The Automated Discovery of Hybrid Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slaats, Tijs; Reijers, Hajo; Maggi, Fabrizio Maria

    2014-01-01

    technique for discovering from an event log a so-called hybrid process model. A hybrid process model is hierarchical, where each of its sub-processes may be specified in a declarative or procedural fashion. We have implemented the proposed approach as a plug-in of the ProM platform. To evaluate the approach......, we used our plug-in to mine a real-life log from a financial context....

  6. The Automated Discovery of Hybrid Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slaats, Tijs; Reijers, Hajo; Maggi, Fabrizio Maria

    2014-01-01

    The declarative-procedural dichotomy is highly relevant when choosing the most suitable process modeling language to represent a discovered process. Less-structured processes with a high level of variability can be described in a more compact way using a declarative language. By contrast, procedu...

  7. Automated Discovery of Flight Track Anomalies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As new technologies are developed to handle the complexities of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen), it is increasingly important to address...

  8. Automating Information Discovery Within the Invisible Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Edwina; Curran, Kevin; Xie, Ermai

    A Web crawler or spider crawls through the Web looking for pages to index, and when it locates a new page it passes the page on to an indexer. The indexer identifies links, keywords, and other content and stores these within its database. This database is searched by entering keywords through an interface and suitable Web pages are returned in a results page in the form of hyperlinks accompanied by short descriptions. The Web, however, is increasingly moving away from being a collection of documents to a multidimensional repository for sounds, images, audio, and other formats. This is leading to a situation where certain parts of the Web are invisible or hidden. The term known as the "Deep Web" has emerged to refer to the mass of information that can be accessed via the Web but cannot be indexed by conventional search engines. The concept of the Deep Web makes searches quite complex for search engines. Google states that the claim that conventional search engines cannot find such documents as PDFs, Word, PowerPoint, Excel, or any non-HTML page is not fully accurate and steps have been taken to address this problem by implementing procedures to search items such as academic publications, news, blogs, videos, books, and real-time information. However, Google still only provides access to a fraction of the Deep Web. This chapter explores the Deep Web and the current tools available in accessing it.

  9. Automated motif discovery from glycan array data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholleti, Sharath R; Agravat, Sanjay; Morris, Tim; Saltz, Joel H; Song, Xuezheng; Cummings, Richard D; Smith, David F

    2012-10-01

    Assessing interactions of a glycan-binding protein (GBP) or lectin with glycans on a microarray generates large datasets, making it difficult to identify a glycan structural motif or determinant associated with the highest apparent binding strength of the GBP. We have developed a computational method, termed GlycanMotifMiner, that uses the relative binding of a GBP with glycans within a glycan microarray to automatically reveal the glycan structural motifs recognized by a GBP. We implemented the software with a web-based graphical interface for users to explore and visualize the discovered motifs. The utility of GlycanMotifMiner was determined using five plant lectins, SNA, HPA, PNA, Con A, and UEA-I. Data from the analyses of the lectins at different protein concentrations were processed to rank the glycans based on their relative binding strengths. The motifs, defined as glycan substructures that exist in a large number of the bound glycans and few non-bound glycans, were then discovered by our algorithm and displayed in a web-based graphical user interface ( http://glycanmotifminer.emory.edu ). The information is used in defining the glycan-binding specificity of GBPs. The results were compared to the known glycan specificities of these lectins generated by manual methods. A more complex analysis was also carried out using glycan microarray data obtained for a recombinant form of human galectin-8. Results for all of these lectins show that GlycanMotifMiner identified the major motifs known in the literature along with some unexpected novel binding motifs. PMID:22877213

  10. The Effect of Vocabulary Flooding Technique on Iranian EFL Elementary Learners’ Vocabulary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touran Ahour

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find out the effect of using vocabulary flooding technique on Iranian EFL elementary learners’ vocabulary learning at the recognition level. A pretest-posttest control group design was used in this quasi-experimental research. The study was conducted at a secondary school in Sahand, a city located in the East-Azerbaijan province in Iran. Four intact grade-three classes were considered for the study. A KET test was administered and based on its results, two classes were selected as the homogenous ones, which were randomly assigned into the vocabulary flooding (experimental and no vocabulary flooding (control groups, each with 30 students. After the vocabulary recognition pretest, supplementary vocabulary teaching was used as the treatment in both groups. In the Experimental group, the target words were presented and practiced in flooding form, that is, in six or more sentences, while in the Control group, students were taught and practiced in only one sentence. After the treatment, two posttests (immediate and delayed were conducted in both groups. The results of the One-way within-subjects and between-subjects Repeated-Measures ANOVA revealed that there were statistically significant differences within and between the experimental and control groups in the three vocabulary recognition tests. It was found that the participants’ receptive vocabulary knowledge was improved in the experimental group as a result of using vocabulary flooding technique. The implications are provided for the syllabus designers, textbook writers and EFL teachers.Keywords: Input flood, vocabulary flooding, vocabulary recognition, elementary learners, EFL, ESL 

  11. Automated methods of corrosion measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Reeve, John Ch;

    1997-01-01

    to revise assumptions regarding the basis of the method, which sometimes leads to the discovery of as-yet unnoticed phenomena. The present selection of automated methods for corrosion measurements is not motivated simply by the fact that a certain measurement can be performed automatically...

  12. Vocabulary Theatre: A Peer-Teaching Approach for Academic Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Elizabeth; Sinatra, Richard; Eschenauer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This mixed methods counterbalanced study compared the gain score means of two different approaches to vocabulary acquisition--Vocabulary Theater (VT) and Teacher Directed Instruction (TDI) for 8th grade students from three schools in New York. The purpose of the study was to explore the effects of a peer teaching approach on students' vocabulary…

  13. A Reassessment of Frequency and Vocabulary Size in L2 Vocabulary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Norbert; Schmitt, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The high-frequency vocabulary of English has traditionally been thought to consist of the 2,000 most frequent word families, and low-frequency vocabulary as that beyond the 10,000 frequency level. This paper argues that these boundaries should be reassessed on pedagogic grounds. Based on a number of perspectives (including frequency and…

  14. EFL Learners' Vocabulary Consolidation Strategy Use and Corresponding Performance on Vocabulary Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Chun

    2016-01-01

    This study describes English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' use of vocabulary consolidation strategies and explores the connection between strategy use and vocabulary learning outcomes. This study included 218 participants who were students from five freshman English classes at a university in Taiwan. Students' self-reports on their use of…

  15. Improving Science Vocabulary of Six Grade Migrant Students through a Program of Intensive Direct Vocabulary Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Melba Q.

    This case study describes a project designed to improve science vocabulary and comprehension of migrant sixth-grade students in a rural farming-community middle school. The project combined intensive direct teaching of science vocabulary with the national unified curriculum implemented in 1984. The subjects of the project were migrant children…

  16. A Study on English Vocabulary Teaching Strategies of Middle School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付宗菊

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary is an ele mentary component of a language, which is essential to communication and plays an important role in language learning. Therefore, how to strengthen and improve the vocabulary teaching has become one of important fields in English teaching. To some degree, whether or not the vocabulary teaching is successful will have direct effect on the quality of English teaching. In retrospect, foreign language researchers and educators have probed into vocabulary teaching theoretically and practically on the second language acquisition, linguistics, psychology, pedagogy and have obtained great accomplishment. The present paper incorporates five parts: 1) introduction, 2) English vocabulary learning strategies, 3) English vocabulary teaching principles and strategies and 4) conclusion.

  17. Linked Vocabulary API for the Earth Sciences Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zednik, S.; Fox, P. A.; Fu, L.; West, P.; Ma, X.

    2014-12-01

    The Linked Vocabulary API is a specification for publishing RESTful APIs of vocabularies represented in the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) as Linked Data on the web. This work began as part of the Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning Vocabularies (CMSPV) project in response to the need for a standard manner for agencies to publish and consume hierarchical vocabularies on the web. The RESTful architecture of the API provides a simple mechanism for consumption of full vocabularies, single vocabulary terms, related terms, and searches on terms. The Linked Data nature of the API promotes interoperability by exposing vocabulary resources as resolvable URIs that may be referenced from other vocabularies or sources of Linked Data and by allowing the published vocabulary to contain references as links to terms from other vocabularies. The Linked Vocabulary API is formally defined in a Linked Data API specification and may be deployed using standard implementations of the Linked Data API such as the Epimorphics Linked Data API (ELDA). Recent presentations of work done with the Linked Vocabulary API as part of the CMSPV project have resulted in the API receiving growing interest from the broader scientific community. In this contribution we present the Linked Vocabulary API design and deployment process.

  18. Review on Thermal Power Automation Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zilian

    2005-01-01

    Areview on thermal power plant automation development in China over 50 years is presented.The level of thermal power automation is introduced, especially for 200 MW and above units which are clarified into three categories by grade. The conditions, existing problems, relevant solutions and policies are summarized chronologically in aspects of centralized control, automatic regulation and controllability of main and auxiliary units, turbine control system, furnace security protection, and computer application in thermal power plants. This paper also points out the development tendency of thermal power plant automation and concepts of some vocabularies.

  19. English Vocabulary Teaching Based on learners’Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文会

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary is very important in language study, but it is not easy for students to learn efficiently. This essay first has a deep insight into the acquisition by learners, and then gives some ideas about teaching vocabulary in ELT classroom.

  20. The Use of Games for Vocabulary Presentation and Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uberman, Agnieszka

    1998-01-01

    Examines traditional techniques for teaching second-language vocabulary and compares them with the use of language games for vocabulary presentation and revision to determine which approach is more successful. (Author/VWL)

  1. LEARNING WORDS FOR LIFE: Promoting Vocabulary in Dual Language Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Gillanders, Cristina; Castro, Dina C.; Franco, Ximena

    2014-01-01

    Teaching vocabulary to young dual language learners is critical for their learning in school. This article presents recommendations for promoting vocabulary during reading aloud and conversations in early childhood.

  2. Teaching Vocabulary in Chinese Universities: What and How?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Li

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major tasks of tertiary English teachers is to enlarge the students’ vocabulary size; therefore, it is necessary for the teachers to explore the answers to two major questions concerning vocabulary instruction. What vocabulary should we focus on? And how can we teach vocabulary in the classroom? In order to answer these two questions, this essay reviews the previous western research in the area. By so doing it divides English vocabulary into four groups - high frequency words, academic vocabulary, technical vocabulary and low frequency words - and points out the favorable learning sequence and different focuses. It also provides the teachers with a series of vocabulary learning methodologies as well as the underlined theories.

  3. Higgs Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    via first principle lattice simulations with encouraging results. The new findings show that the recent naive claims made about new strong dynamics at the electroweak scale being disfavoured by the discovery of a not-so-heavy composite Higgs are unwarranted. I will then introduce the more speculative......I discuss the impact of the discovery of a Higgs-like state on composite dynamics starting by critically examining the reasons in favour of either an elementary or composite nature of this state. Accepting the standard model interpretation I re-address the standard model vacuum stability within a...... has been challenged by the discovery of a not-so-heavy Higgs-like state. I will therefore review the recent discovery \\cite{Foadi:2012bb} that the standard model top-induced radiative corrections naturally reduce the intrinsic non-perturbative mass of the composite Higgs state towards the desired...

  4. Volatility Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Scherrer, Cristina; Papailias, Fotis

    There is a large literature that investigates how homogenous securities traded on different markets incorporate new information (price discovery analysis). We extend this concept to the stochastic volatility process and investigate how markets contribute to the efficient stochastic volatility whi...

  5. IEDA Thesaurus: A Controlled Vocabulary for IEDA Systems to Advance Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, P.; Lehnert, K. A.; Arko, R. A.; Song, L.; Hsu, L.; Carter, M. R.; Ferrini, V. L.; Ash, J.

    2014-12-01

    Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA) is a community-based facility that serves to support, sustain, and advance the geosciences by providing data services for observational geoscience data from the Ocean, Earth, and Polar Sciences. Many dedicated systems such as the Petrological Database (PetDB), Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS), System for Earth Sample Registration (SESAR), Data Coordination Center for the U.S. Antarctic Program (USAP-DCC), etc., under the umbrella of the IEDA framework, were developed to support the preservation, discovery, retrieval, and analysis of a wide range of observational field and analytical data types from diverse communities. However, it is currently difficult to maintain consistency of indexing content within IEDA schema, and perform unified or precise searching of the data in these diverse systems as each system maintains separate vocabularies, hierarchies, authority files, or sub taxonomies. We present here the IEDA Thesaurus, a system, which combines existing separate controlled vocabularies from the different systems under the IEDA schema into a single master controlled vocabulary, also introducing some new top facets for future long-term use. The IEDA thesaurus contains structured terminology for petrology, geochemistry, sedimentology, oceanography, geochronology, and volcanology, and other general metadata fields. 18 top facets (also called 'top categories') are defined, including equipment, geographic gazetteer, geologic ages, geologic units, materials, etc. The terms of the thesaurus are cross validated with others popular geoscience vocabularies such as GeoRef Thesaurus, U.S. Geological Survey Library Classification System, Global Change Master Directory (GCMD), and Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontologies. The thesaurus is organized along with the ANSI/NISO Z39.19-2005 Guidelines for the Construction, Format, and Management of Monolingual Controlled Vocabularies, and is published using

  6. Motivating Students to Learn Biology Vocabulary with Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boriana Marintcheva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Timely learning of specialized science vocabulary is critical for building a solid knowledge base in any scientific discipline. To motivate students to dedicate time and effort mastering biology vocabulary, I have designed a vocabulary exercise utilizing the popular web encyclopedia Wikipedia. The exercise creates an opportunity for students to connect the challenge of vocabulary learning to a prior positive experience of self-guided learning using a content source they are familiar and comfortable with.

  7. Vocabulary is important for some, but not all reading skills

    OpenAIRE

    Ricketts, Jessie; Nation, Kate; Bishop, Dorothy VM

    2007-01-01

    Although there is evidence for a close link between the development of oral vocabulary and reading comprehension, less clear is whether oral vocabulary skills relate to the development of word-level reading skills. This study investigated vocabulary and literacy in 81 children aged 8 to 10 years. In regression analyses, vocabulary accounted for unique variance in exception word reading and reading comprehension, but not text reading accuracy, decoding, or regular word reading. Consistent with...

  8. Motivating Students to Learn Biology Vocabulary with Wikipedia†

    OpenAIRE

    Boriana Marintcheva

    2012-01-01

    Timely learning of specialized science vocabulary is critical for building a solid knowledge base in any scientific discipline. To motivate students to dedicate time and effort mastering biology vocabulary, I have designed a vocabulary exercise utilizing the popular web encyclopedia Wikipedia. The exercise creates an opportunity for students to connect the challenge of vocabulary learning to a prior positive experience of self-guided learning using a content source they are familiar an...

  9. Library Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakne, B. N.; Giri, V. V; Waghmode, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    New technologies library provides several new materials, media and mode of storing and communicating the information. Library Automation reduces the drudgery of repeated manual efforts in library routine. By use of library automation collection, Storage, Administration, Processing, Preservation and communication etc.

  10. Use of standard vocabulary services in validation of water resources data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jonathan; Cox, Simon; Ratcliffe, David

    2010-05-01

    Ontology repositories are increasingly being exposed through vocabulary and concept services. Primarily this is in support of resource discovery. Thesaurus functionality and even more sophisticated reasoning offers the possibility of overcoming the limitations of simple text-matching and tagging which is the basis of most search. However, controlled vocabularies have other important roles in distributed systems: in particular in constraining content validity. A national water information system established by the Australian Bureau of Meterorology ('the Bureau') has deployed a system for ingestion of data from multiple providers. This uses a http interface onto separately maintained vocabulary services as part of the quality assurance chain. With over 200 data providers potentially transferring data to the Bureau, a standard XML-based Water Data Transfer Format (WDTF) was developed for receipt of data into an integrated national water information system. The WDTF schema was built upon standards from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The structure and syntax specified by a W3C XML Schema is complemented by additional constraints described using Schematron. These implement important content requirements and business rules including: • Restricted cardinality: where optional elements and attributes inherited from the base standards become mandatory in the application, or repeatable elements or attributes are limited to one or omitted. For example, the sampledFeature element from O&M is optional but is mandatory for a samplingPoint element in WDTF. • Vocabulary checking: WDTF data use seventeen vocabularies or code lists derived from Regulations under the Commonwealth Water Act 2007. Examples of codelists are the Australian Water Regulations list, observed property vocabulary, and units of measures. • Contextual constraints: in many places, the permissible value is dependent on the value of another field. For example, within observations the unit of measure

  11. Automated Motivic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lartillot, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Motivic analysis provides very detailed understanding of musical composi- tions, but is also particularly difficult to formalize and systematize. A computational automation of the discovery of motivic patterns cannot be reduced to a mere extraction of all possible sequences of descriptions....... The systematic approach inexorably leads to a proliferation of redundant structures that needs to be addressed properly. Global filtering techniques cause a drastic elimination of interesting structures that damages the quality of the analysis. On the other hand, a selection of closed patterns allows...

  12. Focus on the Forms: Recognition Practice in Chinese Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Michael; Jiang, Wenying

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effect of recognition-based retrieval practice on vocabulary learning in a university Chinese class. Students (N=26) were given practice retrieving new vocabulary (single or two-character words) in a series of simple form recognition tests administered over four weeks. The test sets consisted of target vocabulary that…

  13. INCREASING CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS BY MEANS OF LEARNING VOCABULARY

    OpenAIRE

    Vaslyaeva, M.; Tolubaev, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the problem of increasing and developing critical thinking skills of engineering students by means of learning vocabulary in foreign language. Special attention is paid to learning vocabulary in practice. The practical use of vocabulary helps engineering students to understand the logic be- tween ideas, think rationally and clearly, independently

  14. Using PDA for Undergraduate Student Incidental Vocabulary Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yanjie; Fox, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have explored English vocabulary learning in environments where students used mobile technologies for prescribed vocabulary learning tasks, or tested designed personalized learning systems to enhance student vocabulary learning for short periods of time in language related courses. Dictionary use via mobile devices has mostly been…

  15. The Impact of Attrition on Vocabulary Knowledge among Saudi Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharthi, Thamer

    2014-01-01

    This two-year longitudinal study tracks the extent of vocabulary attrition among Arabic-speaking English graduate teachers. Data were collected through pre-post tests of receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge. The results showed drastic attrition in vocabulary knowledge soon after the end of formal instruction followed by slight gain,…

  16. Vocabulary and Health Care Information Technology: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, James J.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the controlled medical vocabularies available today and some of the reasons why they have failed to meet the needs of application developers. Topics include standard vocabularies, including International Classification of Diseases and Medical Subject Headings; uses of vocabularies in medical computing; current research; and remaining…

  17. Online Independent Vocabulary Learning Experience of Hong Kong University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Eunice; Chung, Edsoulla; Li, Eddy; Yeung, Steven

    2016-01-01

    In response to the limited vocabulary size of its undergraduates, an independent vocabulary learning platform, VLearn was designed and launched in a university in Hong Kong. As an e-learning environment that supports self-directed vocabulary learning of Chinese learners, the primary aim of VLearn is to equip users with appropriate knowledge and…

  18. The Role of Vocabulary in ESP Teaching and Leafing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wujiangwen; WangBinbin

    2004-01-01

    It's known to most second language learners that the acquisition of vocabulary is a fundamental and important component in the course of their learning. A good mastery of vocabulary is essential for ESL/EFL learners, especially for those who learn for specific purposes or expect to operate at an advanced level in English. 'It is wise to direct vocabulary

  19. Discussion on English Vocabulary Teaching in Higher Vocational College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蓉

    2012-01-01

    Mastering vocabulary is one of the key factors for learning a language. Therefore, how to teach and help students acquire vocabulary is worth researching for every English teacher. This paper mainly provides some effective ways of teaching vocabulary and discusses how to implement these methods in higher vocational English teaching.

  20. Elementary Preservice Teachers' Science Vocabulary: Knowledge and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Science vocabulary knowledge plays a role in understanding science concepts, and science knowledge is measured in part by correct use of science vocabulary (Lee et al. in "J Res Sci Teach" 32(8):797-816, 1995). Elementary school students have growing vocabularies and many are learning English as a secondary language or depend on schools to learn…

  1. What's This New Emphasis on Vocabulary All about?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanklin, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Many teachers, especially novice teachers, believe that teaching vocabulary is among their easier duties, but Shanklin makes a convincing argument that high-quality vocabulary teaching requires thoughtful preparation. Here she offers several sound techniques for engaging students with vocabulary in meaningful ways.

  2. Teaching Vocabulary through Poetry in an EFL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Baki; Mohammadzadeh, Behbood

    2012-01-01

    This study has been conducted to investigate the effectiveness of using poetry to teach vocabulary in a foreign language classroom. It aims to find answers to two research questions (1) "Do the learners enhance more extensive vocabulary knowledge by means of poetry-based vocabulary teaching activities than the traditional coursebook activities?"…

  3. The Influence of Electronic Dictionaries on Vocabulary Knowledge Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mojtaba; Davoudi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary learning needs special strategies in language learning process. The use of dictionaries is a great help in vocabulary learning and nowadays the emergence of electronic dictionaries has added a new and valuable resource for vocabulary learning. The present study aims to explore the influence of Electronic Dictionaries (ED) Vs. Paper…

  4. The Effectiveness of a Supplemental Pre-Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Na Young

    2013-01-01

    Oral vocabulary is a strong predictor of young children's later reading development. Many children enter kindergarten with weak vocabulary knowledge and could benefit from an extra level or higher tier of intentional instruction in vocabulary that supplements the Tier 1 core curriculum in language. Recent findings from research developing a…

  5. Drama Activities that Promote and Extend Your Students' Vocabulary Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alber, Sheila R.; Foil, Carolyn R.

    2003-01-01

    This article suggests using drama activities to teach target vocabulary words to students with limited vocabulary development. It presents specific drama activities to implement when introducing new vocabulary, conducting guided practice, facilitating cooperative learning groups, and assigning independent practice. Suggestions are also offered for…

  6. Overlapping Vocabulary and Comprehension: Context Clues Complement Semantic Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Scott C.; Flanigan, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Despite the clear and longstanding connection between meaning vocabulary and reading comprehension, programs designed to teach vocabulary have often had surprisingly little impact on overall reading ability. One possible reason for this small effect is that teaching methods may not make this vocabulary-to-comprehension connection explicit for the…

  7. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Vocabulary and Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Richard K.; Keenan, Janice M.; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Coventry, William L.; Corley, Robin; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Hulslander, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Genetic and environmental relations between vocabulary and reading skills were explored longitudinally from preschool through Grades 2 and 4. At preschool there were strong shared-environment and weak genetic influences on both vocabulary and print knowledge but substantial differences in their source. Separation of etiology for vocabulary and…

  8. Application of Error Analysis in English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Qing-jie

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary is an indispensable part of language and is of vital importance for second language learners. Students make form, collocation and ambiguous errors in English vocabulary acquisition. This thesis attempts to analyze errors in students ’Eng⁃lish vocabulary acquisition based on error analysis, give the reasons and further put up some teaching approaches to lessen or avoid errors.

  9. Tagging behaviour with support from controlled vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Høj, Anne Lyhne; Madsen, Line Nørgaard;

    2011-01-01

    The paper investigates how knowledge structures from a controlled vocabulary affect tagging. The study is a comparative analysis of tags assigned in two tagging systems, a simple tagging system (control system) that provides suggestions from two tag clouds (all users tags and my tags) and an enha....... Furthermore, controlled vocabularies might be useful for automatic spell checking. Future study should explore in what direction the different kinds of suggestions lead the tagger and whether it is possible to identify scope or patterns between related tags from the two systems....

  10. The Mental Lexicon and English Vocabulary Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Huaqing He; Yunfei Deng

    2015-01-01

    In China, English as a foreign language (EFL) learning mainly occurs in the classroom, and the resultant lack of practice using English in authentic settings makes it quite difficult for many Chinese learners to learn English words. They may often feel that English words are “difficult to learn and easy to forget.” As such, how to effectively teach English vocabulary in classrooms is an essential point for English teachers. Assuming that the goal of vocabulary teaching is to build up students...

  11. Vocabulary learning : A study of students’ and teachers' attitudes towards English vocabulary learning in lower secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Therese

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate student and teacher attitudes towards English vocabulary learning and teaching. Secondary aims were to find out how a number of students learn new vocabulary and whether teachers prefer explicit or implicit teaching methods. The investigation was conducted by letting 75 students in two lower secondary schools and 24 teachers of English from different schools answer questionnaires about vocabulary learning and vocabulary teaching. The results show that ...

  12. The Effect of Teaching Vocabulary through Semantic Mapping on EFL Learners' Awareness of the Affective Dimensions of Deep Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilforoushan, Somayeh

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the effect of teaching vocabulary through semantic mapping on the awareness of two affective dimensions, evaluation and potency dimensions of deep vocabulary knowledge as well as the general vocabulary knowledge of EFL students. Sixty intermediate EFL female adult learners participated in this study; they were chosen among 90…

  13. The Impact of Vocabulary Enhancement Activities on Vocabulary Acquisition and Retention among Male and Female EFL Learners in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafi-Nejad, Maryam; Raftari, Shohreh; Bijami, Maryam; Khavari, Zahra; Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik Mohamed; Eng, Lin Siew

    2014-01-01

    In general, incidental vocabulary acquisition is represented as the "picking up" of new vocabularies when students are engaged in a variety of reading, listening, speaking, or writing activities. Research has shown when learners read extensively incidental vocabulary acquisition happens. Many EFL students cannot be involved in reading…

  14. Process automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process automation technology has been pursued in the chemical processing industries and to a very limited extent in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Its effective use has been restricted in the past by the lack of diverse and reliable process instrumentation and the unavailability of sophisticated software designed for process control. The Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility was developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in part to demonstrate new concepts for control of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A demonstration of fuel reprocessing equipment automation using advanced instrumentation and a modern, microprocessor-based control system is nearing completion in the facility. This facility provides for the synergistic testing of all chemical process features of a prototypical fuel reprocessing plant that can be attained with unirradiated uranium-bearing feed materials. The unique equipment and mission of the IET facility make it an ideal test bed for automation studies. This effort will provide for the demonstration of the plant automation concept and for the development of techniques for similar applications in a full-scale plant. A set of preliminary recommendations for implementing process automation has been compiled. Some of these concepts are not generally recognized or accepted. The automation work now under way in the IET facility should be useful to others in helping avoid costly mistakes because of the underutilization or misapplication of process automation. 6 figs

  15. Multi-perspective Approaches of Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣

    2016-01-01

    It is universally acknowledged that vocabulary is an essential component in language system. Nevertheless, in English teaching practice, imparting grammatical knowledge is highly emphasized but the vocabulary teaching is given little attention. In second language acquisition, proper application of vocabulary in communication is one of the important and difficult points for students. The paper aims to discuss the current problems in vocabulary teaching and learning, advocate a multi-perspective approach in teaching vocabulary so as to enhance the accuracy and fluency of language output, promote students’pragmatic and cross-cultural communicative competence and lay a solid foundation for their life-long learning.

  16. The relationship between Iranian EFL learners’ self-regulatory vocabulary strategy use and their vocabulary size

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Mohammad Reza Amirian; Omid Mallahi; Damoon Zaghi

    2015-01-01

    Self-regulation is referred to as learners’ self-generated ideas and actions which are systematically directed towards achieving educational goals and require learners’ active participation in the learning process (Zimmerman & Bandura, 1994). The present study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL students’ self-regulation capacity for vocabulary learning and their vocabulary size. For this purpose, the researchers made use of two main instruments: the self-regulation capacity in ...

  17. Beyond Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Sassmannshausen, Sean Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we explore four alternatives to the dominant discovery view of entrepreneurship; the development view, the construction view, the evolutionary view, and the Neo-Austrian view. We outline the main critique points of the discovery presented in these four alternatives, as well as their...... central concepts and conceptualization of the entrepreneurial function. On this basis we discuss three central themes that cut across the four alternatives: process, uncertainty, and agency. These themes provide new foci for entrepreneurship research and can help to generate new research questions and...

  18. Flooding Vocabulary Gaps to Accelerate Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabham, Edna; Buskist, Connie; Henderson, Shannon Coman; Paleologos, Timon; Baugh, Nikki

    2012-01-01

    Students entering school with limited vocabularies are at a disadvantage compared to classmates with robust knowledge of words and meanings. Teaching a few unrelated words at a time is insufficient for catching these students up with peers and preparing them to comprehend texts they will encounter across the grades. This article presents…

  19. Selecting Academic Vocabulary Words Worth Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Dianna; Kiernan, Darl

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this teaching tip is to share a new tool for identifying high-utility academic words from instructional texts. The Word and Phrase Tool, when paired with teacher knowledge about students and objectives, can help teachers promote the academic vocabulary development of their students.

  20. Contribution to Vocabulary Learning via Mobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaie, Saeed; Ketabi, Saeed

    2011-01-01

    As mobile connectedness continues to sweep across the landscape, the value of deploying mobile technology at the service of learning and teaching seems to be both self-evident and unavoidable. To this end, this study employed multimedia to develop three types of vocabulary learning materials. Due to the importance of short-term memory in the realm…

  1. Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning via Mobile Phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, M.

    2008-01-01

    Whereas the penetration of mobile phones in Asian countries keeps climbing, little research has explored the application of the short message service (SMS) in second language learning. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of SMS vocabulary lessons of limited lexical information on the small screens of mobile phones. Thirty high school…

  2. A Comprehensive Approach to Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Marzano offers a brief review of research in vocabulary instruction, focusing on the concept of "tiers" to describe words used with different contexts and purposes. He then suggests teaching tools that may work to help specific student populations learn and retain those words across the K-12 curriculum.

  3. Robust Vocabulary Instruction in a Readers' Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feezell, Greg

    2012-01-01

    This article presents strategies for integrating explicit vocabulary instruction within a reading workshop. The author begins by describing a process for involving students in word selection. The author then provides a weeklong instructional sequence using student-selected words. Finally, the author briefly examines the role of vocabulary…

  4. Learning Vocabulary in Group Work in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Pham Hoai

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated learning vocabulary in group work at university in Vietnam. The students were studied in two kinds of group settings, "unassisted" and "assisted", the first consisting of five students from the same class level and the second of four from the same class and a student from a higher class. Differences were observed in both…

  5. Terminological Definition in Vocabulary Building Process

    OpenAIRE

    Medvedeva Elena S

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the possibilities of using a terminological definition as a short text in the language for specific purposes teaching/learning. Representing an abundant supply of specialized vocabulary and general scientific speech patterns, a terminological definition should be taken into account as a full value language resource.

  6. Metaphor and Vocabulary Teaching in ESP Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charteris-Black, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    A case is made for basing vocabulary teaching to English for special purposes economics students on lexis that reflects important underlying metaphors of the subject. These are identified with reference to high frequency lexis in "The Economist" magazine, and an explanation is offered of their metaphorical basis. (Author/VWL)

  7. Active Learning Strategies and Vocabulary Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Using a quantitative method of data collection, this research explored the question: Do active learning strategies used in grades 5 and 6 affect student vocabulary achievement in a positive or negative direction? In their research, Wolfe (2001), Headley, et al., (1995), Freiberg, et al., (1992), and Brunner (2009) emphasize the importance of…

  8. Teaching Vocabulary and Morphology in Intermediate Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Anthony; Kramer-Vida, Louisa; Hunt, Carolyn V.

    2015-01-01

    Direct vocabulary instruction of Tier 2 and Tier 3 words in intermediate-grade curricula is an important tool of literacy instruction because English is a language grafted from many roots and has not developed a one-to-one phoneme-grapheme correspondence. In addition to knowing graphemes and phonemes, students must formally learn words that cross…

  9. Effectiveness of Structural Method of Teaching Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behlol, Malik; Dad, Hukam

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted to find out the effectiveness of structural method of teaching vocabulary in English subject at secondary level. The population of the study was the students of secondary classes studying in Federal Government schools of Islamabad District. Purposive and random sampling techniques were applied to select the school, teachers…

  10. Cultural Connotation in English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangJiying

    2004-01-01

    As an English language teacher with years of teaching experience, I have gradually recognized this fact that foreign language instruction and its vocabulary learn/rig should be closely combined with learning the knowledge of cultural contents of target language. Unfortunately, only a small number of teachers realize that teaching culture is very

  11. Personalization of Reading Passages Improves Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, Michael; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn; Callan, Jamie; Eskenazi, Maxine; Juffs, Alan; Wilson, Lois

    2010-01-01

    The REAP tutoring system provides individualized and adaptive English as a Second Language vocabulary practice. REAP can automatically personalize instruction by providing practice readings about topics that match interests as well as domain-based, cognitive objectives. While most previous research on motivation in intelligent tutoring…

  12. Word Walk: Vocabulary Instruction for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blarney, Katrin L.; Beauchat, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Storybook reading offers an ideal context for teaching young children new words. Text Talk is one method designed for teaching elementary students new words after reading. However, using the Text Talk vocabulary procedures with young children, the authors observed several challenges both for teachers' implementation and children's learning.…

  13. Flip-a-Chip to Build Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain, Lee

    2002-01-01

    Presents a word-game strategy that builds vocabulary and comprehension while motivating students. Concludes that activities like Flip-a-Chip (along with crossword puzzles and other forms of wordplay) have helped the author create a pleasantly literate environment in her classroom. (SG)

  14. he Use of Association in the Vocabulary Teaching in Middle School%he Use of Association in the Vocabulary Teaching in Middle School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹文亭

    2011-01-01

    Vocabulary is very important in the process of learning English. The gift of vocabulary will directly affect one' s gifts of listening, speaking, reading, writing and translating. How to teach vocabulary? There are many methods to teach vocabulary in Midd

  15. Moving Controlled Vocabularies into the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R.; Lowry, R. K.; Kokkinaki, A.

    2015-12-01

    One of the issues with legacy oceanographic data formats is that the only tool available for describing what a measurement is and how it was made is a single metadata tag known as the parameter code. The British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) has been supporting the international oceanographic community gain maximum benefit from this through a controlled vocabulary known as the BODC Parameter Usage Vocabulary (PUV). Over time this has grown to over 34,000 entries some of which have preferred labels with over 400 bytes of descriptive information detailing what was measured and how. A decade ago the BODC pioneered making this information available in a more useful form with the implementation of a prototype vocabulary server (NVS) that referenced each 'parameter code' as a URL. This developed into the current server (NVS V2) in which the parameter URL resolves into an RDF document based on the SKOS data model which includes a list of resource URLs mapped to the 'parameter'. For example the parameter code for a contaminant in biota, such as 'cadmium in Mytilus edulis', carries RDF triples leading to the entry for Mytilus edulis in the WoRMS and for cadmium in the ChEBI ontologies. By providing links into these external ontologies the information captured in a 1980s parameter code now conforms to the Linked Data paradigm of the Semantic Web, vastly increasing the descriptive information accessible to a user. This presentation will describe the next steps along the road to the Semantic Web with the development of a SPARQL end point1 to expose the PUV plus the 190 other controlled vocabularies held in NVS. Whilst this is ideal for those fluent in SPARQL, most users require something a little more user-friendly and so the NVS browser2 was developed over the end point to allow less technical users to query the vocabularies and navigate the NVS ontology. This tool integrates into an editor that allows vocabulary content to be manipulated by authorised users outside BODC

  16. Inter-textual Vocabulary Growth Patterns for Marine Engineering English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JINGJIE LI; ZHIWEI FENG

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores two fundamental issues concerning the inter-textual vocabulary growth patterns for Marine Engineering English, viz. vocabulary growth models and newly occurring vocabulary distributions in cumulative texts. On the basis of the DMMEE (Dalian Maritime University Marine Engineering English) corpus, four mathematical models (Brunet's, Guiraud's, Tuldava's, and Herdan's models) are tested against the empirical vocabulary growth curve for Marine Engineering English. A new growth model based on the logarithmic function and the power law is presented. The theoretical mean vocabulary size and the 95% upper and lower bound values are calculated and plotted as functions of the sample size. Being significant in explicit EFL teaching and learning, the new growth model can make accurate estimates not only on the vocabulary size and its intervals for a given textbook but also on the volume of texts that are needed to produce a particular vocabulary size.

  17. Towards Robot Scientists for autonomous scientific discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Sparkes, Andrew; Aubrey, Wayne; Byrne, Emma; Clare, Amanda; Khan, Muhammed N; Liakata, Maria; Markham, Magdalena; Rowland, Jem; Soldatova, Larisa N.; Whelan, Kenneth E; Young, Michael; King, Ross D.

    2010-01-01

    We review the main components of autonomous scientific discovery, and how they lead to the concept of a Robot Scientist. This is a system which uses techniques from artificial intelligence to automate all aspects of the scientific discovery process: it generates hypotheses from a computer model of the domain, designs experiments to test these hypotheses, runs the physical experiments using robotic systems, analyses and interprets the resulting data, and repeats the cycle. We describe our two ...

  18. Joint learning and weighting of visual vocabulary for bag-of-feature based tissue classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jingyan

    2013-12-01

    Automated classification of tissue types of Region of Interest (ROI) in medical images has been an important application in Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD). Recently, bag-of-feature methods which treat each ROI as a set of local features have shown their power in this field. Two important issues of bag-of-feature strategy for tissue classification are investigated in this paper: the visual vocabulary learning and weighting, which are always considered independently in traditional methods by neglecting the inner relationship between the visual words and their weights. To overcome this problem, we develop a novel algorithm, Joint-ViVo, which learns the vocabulary and visual word weights jointly. A unified objective function based on large margin is defined for learning of both visual vocabulary and visual word weights, and optimized alternately in the iterative algorithm. We test our algorithm on three tissue classification tasks: classifying breast tissue density in mammograms, classifying lung tissue in High-Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) images, and identifying brain tissue type in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The results show that Joint-ViVo outperforms the state-of-art methods on tissue classification problems. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Discovery of new natural products by application of X-hitting, a novel algorithm for automated comparison of full UV-spectra, combined with structural determination by NMR spectroscophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Petersen, Bent O.; Duus, Jens Øllgaard;

    2005-01-01

    X-hitting, a newly developed algorithm for automated comparison of UV data, has been used for the tracking of two novel spiro-quinazoline metabolites, lapatins A (1)andB(2), in a screening study targeting quinazolines. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data, p...

  20. The usage of network vocabulary among college students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MlAO Xi-song; CHEN Tong

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To understand that college students how to use vocabulary on the network, the practicability of network vocabulary among college students, as well as the factors affecting the network vocabulary used. Methods: This study extracted 2500 college students of several universities in Yunnan Province as experimental subjects. Using non-experimental research methods to study the awareness,usage and practicability of the network vocabulary. Results: The number of the results of this study based on the analysis of 2500 college students ,the basic vocabulary to identify the network has 2426, accounting for 97.04% of the total number, which has 33.44 percent of the students fully understand the vocabulary of the network. While only 2.96 percent of the students do not understand the network vocabulary. Conclusion: The network vocabulary is vivid, straightforward, humorous, and fashionable. Thus it is popular among students. Students have strong awareness of network vocabulary. Besides the usage of network vocabulary is higher and it’s practical among college students.

  1. Collaborative Tagging as a Knowledge Organisation and Resource Discovery Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Macgregor, George; Mcculloch, Emma

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to provide an overview of the collaborative tagging phenomenon and explore some of the reasons for its emergence. The paper reviews the related literature and discusses some of the problems associated with, and the potential of, collaborative tagging approaches for knowledge organisation and general resource discovery. Design/methodology/approach – A definition of controlled vocabularies is proposed and used to assess the efficacy of collaborative tag...

  2. SOA Modeling Patterns for Service Oriented Discovery and Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Learn the essential tools for developing a sound service-oriented architecture. SOA Modeling Patterns for Service-Oriented Discovery and Analysis introduces a universal, easy-to-use, and nimble SOA modeling language to facilitate the service identification and examination life cycle stage. This business and technological vocabulary will benefit your service development endeavors and foster organizational software asset reuse and consolidation, and reduction of expenditure. Whether you are a developer, business architect, technical architect, modeler, business analyst, team leader, or manager,

  3. Computer-Assisted Vocabulary Acquisition: The CSLU Vocabulary Tutor in Oral-Deaf Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Lecia J.

    2003-01-01

    Deficits in vocabulary have a negative impact on literacy and interpersonal interaction for deaf children. As part of an evaluation, an outcomes assessment was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a computer-based vocabulary tutor in an elementary auditory/oral program. Participants were 19 children, 16 profoundly deaf and 3 hearing. The vocabulary tutor displays line drawings or photographs of the words to be learned while a computer-generated avatar of a "talking head" provides synthesized audiovisual speech driven from text. The computer system also generates printed words corresponding to the imaged items. Through audiovisual reception, children memorized up to 218 new words for everyday household items. After 4 weeks, their receptive vocabulary was tested, using the avatar to speak the name of each item. Most of the students retained more than half of the new words. The freely available vocabulary tutor, whose characteristics can be tailored to individual need, can provide a language-intensive, independent learning environment to supplement classroom teaching in content areas. PMID:15448067

  4. The relationship between Iranian EFL learners’ self-regulatory vocabulary strategy use and their vocabulary size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Reza Amirian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulation is referred to as learners’ self-generated ideas and actions which are systematically directed towards achieving educational goals and require learners’ active participation in the learning process (Zimmerman & Bandura, 1994. The present study investigated the relationship between Iranian EFL students’ self-regulation capacity for vocabulary learning and their vocabulary size. For this purpose, the researchers made use of two main instruments: the self-regulation capacity in vocabulary learning scale developed by Tseng et al. (2006 consisting of five subscales of commitment, metacognitive, emotion, satiation and environment control, and a bilingual vocabulary size test developed and validated by Karami (2012. The results of the data analysis revealed no significant relationship between the two variables measured by these instruments. However, the results of the multiple regressions indicated that the metacognitive control compared to the other subscales made a better contribution to the prediction of learners’ vocabulary size. In addition, based on the analysis of variance (ANOVA, which examined and compared the self-regulatory strategy use of learners in different experience groups, the first year students had a higher mean score in their self-regulation capacity, which can possibly be attributed to the strategies they have learnt in their Study Skills courses. Finally, it was suggested that teachers must try to develop self-regulatory power in the learners because their creative effort and informed decisions in trying to improve their own learning are highly important.

  5. Atomic Energy Control Board vocabulary - preliminary edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This preliminary edition was prepared at the Board's request to help it establish a standardized terminology. It was produced by scanning the 99 French and English documents listed at the end of this Vocabulary. The documents include legislation concerning atomic energy and the transportation of radioactive materials, as well as the Board's publications, such as the Consultative Documents, Regulatory Documents and Notices. The terms included from the following areas are: radiation protection, reactor technology, nuclear fuel cycle, radioactive material packaging and transportation, radioactive waste management, uranium mines, and medical and industrial applications of radioelements. Also included are the titles of publications and the names of organizations and units. The vocabulary contains 2,589 concepts, sometimes accompanied by definitions, contexts or usage examples. Where terms have been standardized by the Canadian Committee for the Standardization of Nuclear Terminology, this has been indicated. Where possible, we have verified the terms using the TERMIUM, the Government of Canada Linguistic Data Bank. (author)

  6. English Vocabulary Teaching in High school

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄肖容

    2014-01-01

    <正>1.Introduction At present,because of the influence of"the one-sided pursuing of the proportion of students’entering schools of a higher grade",the middle school foreign language teaching stresses on memorizing vocabulary mechanically,and neglects actual practice.Finally the knowledge students have learned can not be applied actively,and they even can not carry on the

  7. On How to Enlarge Students’Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chun-xiao

    2015-01-01

    It is of vital importance to enlarge students’vocabulary in English teaching. The methods are:letting students realize the importance of words;teaching English word formation knowledge in class,for example, affixation, conversion, composition, blend⁃ing,backformation,shortening;teaching synonyms and antonyms,teaching words similar in spelling;words association, letting stu⁃dents reading widely;memorizing word lists and so on.

  8. 《旧五代史》词语札记%"The Old History of Five Dynasties"Vocabulary Notes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒韶雄

    2014-01-01

    Large amount of new words and meanings in "The Old History of Five Dynasties"offers good vo-cabulary data for studying languages of The late Tang Dynasty and Five Dynasties .They also reflects the new look of Chinese vocabulary development .Based on "The Great Chinese Dictionary", we select some words to discuss the vocabulary data value of this book in the study of Chinese language history .The discovery of new words and meanings in "The Old History of Five Dynasties"plays a part in studying Chinese vocabulary history and compiling and amending dictionary .%《旧五代史》的新词新义比较丰富,是研究唐末五代语言很好的断代语料,体现出汉语词汇发展的新面貌。文章以《汉语大词典》为参照,选取若干词语,探讨该书在汉语史研究中的语料价值。这些词汇或词义的抉发,对汉语词汇史的研究和词典的编纂修订有一定作用。

  9. APPLYING EXPRESSION ANALYSIS IN METAPHORICAL VOCABULARY COMPREHENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Биљана Б. Радић-Бојанић

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Metaphorical vocabulary of the English language is often a problem for EFL students both in receptive and productive skills. One possible way of overcoming this difficulty is conscious development of learning strategies, which aid comprehension and production and lead to the autonomy of students in the domain of the use of metaphorical expressions in the English language. One of the strategies that can be used in metaphorical vocabulary comprehension is analyzing expressions, which implies the parsing of a multi-word chunk into words, the analysis of each individual element and checking if all the elements of the multi-word chunk have a literal or metaphorical meaning. The paper is based on a one-year research conducted at the Department of English at the Faculty of Philosophy in Novi Sad, during which English language students were interviewed in order to determine in how and to what extent they analyze metaphorical expressions as a strategy in understanding metaphorical EFL vocabulary.

  10. A Study of Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Vocabulary Revising for Underachiever in Senior 3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晓敏

    2015-01-01

    Through questionnaire,strategies training and tests,the author concludes that,firstly,the high achievers of vocabulary are more likely to use meta -cognitive strategies,cog-nitive strategies and social strategies.In contrast,underachievers are likely to use some traditional ways like reciting and repeating;secondly,strategies training has a good impact on the undera-chievers’vocabulary ability;final y,the underachievers need to be trained to use social strategies,meta -cognitive strategies and cognitive strategies more often.And the training process re-quires special patience and creativities.This paper analyzes the application of vocabulary learning strategies in revision for senior underachieving students,hoping to provide some references for students and English teachers in senior high school.

  11. Using PDA for undergraduate student incidental vocabulary testing

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Y.; FOX R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have explored English vocabulary learning in environments where students used mobile technologies for prescribed vocabulary learning tasks, or tested designed personalized learning systems to enhance student vocabulary learning for short periods of time in language related courses. Dictionary use via mobile devices has mostly been used for referential purposes. Referential use refers to applications that provide student access to content such as dictionaries, e-book...

  12. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN VOCABULARY AND ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuanJialing

    2004-01-01

    From illustrating the significance of cultural elements in vocabulary teaching, and the ctmtparison of some major differences between English and Chinese words, this paper emphasizes the indivisible relationship between vocabulary and culture. International cultural exchange occurring more and more often, this paper attempts to guide students to better understand the cultural connotation of vocabulary, enhance their awareness towards the target culture, improve their comtprehensive language skills, and, develop their cross-cultural communicative ctmtpetence.

  13. How to Teach English Vocabulary Effectively in New Ways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂冬霞

    2014-01-01

    There are many important factors to help learn English better.In learning English, vocabulary could be very important part because it is a fundamental element to form a sentence. So many English teachers try very hard to use different and new ways to make their vocabulary teaching effective, and also improve students’ability of using the language. Here we are going to see what kinds of new ways an English teacher can use to help students to learn English vocabulary better.

  14. Vocabulary and the Teaching of English for Specific Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Fraser, Simon A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is a brief survey of the pedagogic issues and literature in the field of vocabulary in English for Specific Purposes (ESP). There is agreement among ESP practitioners that the teaching of vocabulary needs to be improved if second language learners are to cope adequately with academic writing in a specialist discipline such as medicine. The problem still remains, however, as to the nature of the vocabulary that should be taught. The paper reviews some of the work which has been done...

  15. VOCABULARY TEACHING AND LEARNING STRATEGIES IN SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Teodorescu

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting various strategies and techniques used in vocabulary teaching and learning while reassessing the importance and role of vocabulary knowledge in second language acquisition. Lexical knowledge has proven to be central to communicative competence and to the acquisition of a second language. Besides, vocabulary knowledge involves much more than knowledge of single words, but knowledge of how words work together to achieve a communicative function.

  16. VOCABULARY PROBLEMS OF THE LIGHTLY MENTALLY RETARDED SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Vesna KOSTIC

    2000-01-01

    The main research objectives are the problems in the vocabulary of school aged, lightly mentally retarded children. Results of the research indicate which are the most important factors that have impact of the vocabulary and language competence of these persons. The research variables are: sex, IQ, chronological age and school age. Comics-like stories were used as an examination instrument in this research. Their interpretation is helpful in determining the vocabulary level of every single ex...

  17. The Influence of Psycholinguistic On the Vocabulary Learning of English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁慧

    2006-01-01

    @@ Learning English has become more and more popular in China.Those who have experience in leaning English, know that vocabulary, in the end, becomes one of the biggest problems in learning English, because vocabulary is the most essential element in communication, and to a great extent, it restricts one's communication competent.Since 1970s, vocabulary teaching has received increasing interest and drawn forth various views on how to do the job.

  18. Short-Term and Long-Term Effects of Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition and Instructed Vocabulary Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghobadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present empirical study was conducted to compare instructed vocabulary teaching and incidental vocabulary acquisition that are two common approaches to teaching second language (L2 vocabulary in the literature.  For this purpose, 53 Iran learners of English as a Foreign Language were selected from a larger sample and were then randomly assigned into a control group and two experimental groups as the participants of the study.  The participants in the groups received placebo instruction while those in the experimental groups were either explicitly instructed or incidentally exposed to a number of targeted words (TWs selected for the purposes of the study.  The results of an immediate posttest of the TWs demonstrated that the participants in both experimental groups benefited from instruction on/exposure to the TWs compared to the participants in the control group who were neither instructed on nor exposed to the TWs.  The results of a delayed posttest indicated that, though there was a difference between the two experimental groups in the immediate posttest with respect to the acquisition of the TWs, the difference faded away in five-week interval as the experimental groups performed rather similarly on the delayed posttest.  At the end, the implication of these findings for L2 vocabulary research and pedagogy would be discussed, along with some suggestions for researchers who wish to follow this trend of research.Keywords: Intentional Vocabulary Teaching, Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition, Short-Term Effects, Long-Term Effects, Target Words  

  19. The Development of American English Vocabulary and Its Causes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高万全

    2004-01-01

    This paper mainly centers on the development of American English vocabulary and its causes .To English learners, it will be helpful for them to get to know clearly the outline of American English vocabulary and find answers to many puzzling phenomena, such as why the American English vocabulary is so numerous and jumbled; why there are so many foreign words; why the synonyms are so plentiful and why the spellings of American English are so disorderly, etc. Meanwhile, through vocabulary study, English learners can know well American history, politics, economy, culture, social problem, science and technology and so on.

  20. The Effect of Vocabulary Flooding Technique on Iranian EFL Elementary Learners’ Vocabulary Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Touran Ahour; Nima Pajoman; Nasrin Hadidi Tamjid

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the effect of using vocabulary flooding technique on Iranian EFL elementary learners’ vocabulary learning at the recognition level. A pretest-posttest control group design was used in this quasi-experimental research. The study was conducted at a secondary school in Sahand, a city located in the East-Azerbaijan province in Iran. Four intact grade-three classes were considered for the study. A KET test was administered and based on its results, two classes...

  1. The Effect of Sequence of Output Tasks on Noticing Vocabulary Items and Developing Vocabulary Knowledge of Iranian EFL Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Mahmoudabadi; Hassan Soleimani; Manoochehr Jafarigohar; Hasan Iravani

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of output-first presentation of vocabulary tasks in noticing lexical items and enhancing vocabulary knowledge of EFL learners. The participants were 103 elementary level female Iranian EFL learners who were randomly divided into three groups: input-only, input-output, and output-input groups. After all participants took a placement test and a vocabulary pretest, the input-only group of learners received only input tasks, while the members of the other two groups r...

  2. Vocabulary Teaching in English Reading for Grade 5-6 Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Na

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary is an important component in English reading for Grade 5-6 students. Efficient vocabulary teaching is good for students to master this language better. In fact, inefficient and time-consuming phenomena in English vocabulary teach⁃ing are still obvious in primary schools. In order to make students acquire vocabulary effectively, some useful vocabulary teaching techniques will be introduced in this thesis to help teachers teach vocabulary effectively.

  3. The Teaching of EFL Vocabulary in the Indonesian Context: The State Of The Art

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Yudi Cahyono; Utami Widiati

    2008-01-01

    There has been extensive literature on the teaching of vocabulary of English as a foreign language (EFL vocabulary) in the Indonesian context. However, a comprehensive analysis on the teaching of EFL vocabulary in this country has been a rare endeavour. This article aims to underpin various issues of the teaching of EFL vocabulary and relate them to a wider context of second/foreign language vocabulary teaching and review results of research as well as current practices of EFL vocabulary teac...

  4. Discovery Mondays

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Many people don't realise quite how much is going on at CERN. Would you like to gain first-hand knowledge of CERN's scientific and technological activities and their many applications? Try out some experiments for yourself, or pick the brains of the people in charge? If so, then the «Lundis Découverte» or Discovery Mondays, will be right up your street. Starting on May 5th, on every first Monday of the month you will be introduced to a different facet of the Laboratory. CERN staff, non-scientists, and members of the general public, everyone is welcome. So tell your friends and neighbours and make sure you don't miss this opportunity to satisfy your curiosity and enjoy yourself at the same time. You won't have to listen to a lecture, as the idea is to have open exchange with the expert in question and for each subject to be illustrated with experiments and demonstrations. There's no need to book, as Microcosm, CERN's interactive museum, will be open non-stop from 7.30 p.m. to 9 p.m. On the first Discovery M...

  5. Controlled Vocabulary Service Application for Environmental Data Store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, P.; Piasecki, M.; Lovell, R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present a controlled vocabulary service application for Environmental Data Store (EDS). The purpose for such application is to help researchers and investigators to archive, manage, share, search, and retrieve data efficiently in EDS. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is used in the application for the representation of the controlled vocabularies coming from EDS. The controlled vocabularies of EDS are created by collecting, comparing, choosing and merging controlled vocabularies, taxonomies and ontologies widely used and recognized in geoscience/environmental informatics community, such as Environment ontology (EnvO), Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontology, CUAHSI Hydrologic Ontology and ODM Controlled Vocabulary, National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), National Water Information System (NWIS) codes, EPSG Geodetic Parameter Data Set, WQX domain value etc. TemaTres, an open-source, web -based thesaurus management package is employed and extended to create and manage controlled vocabularies of EDS in the application. TemaTresView and VisualVocabulary that work well with TemaTres, are also integrated in the application to provide tree view and graphical view of the structure of vocabularies. The Open Source Edition of Virtuoso Universal Server is set up to provide a Web interface to make SPARQL queries against controlled vocabularies hosted on the Environmental Data Store. The replicas of some of the key vocabularies commonly used in the community, are also maintained as part of the application, such as General Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus (GEMET), NetCDF Climate and Forecast (CF) Standard Names, etc.. The application has now been deployed as an elementary and experimental prototype that provides management, search and download controlled vocabularies of EDS under SKOS framework.

  6. Hispanic Families' Perspectives on Using a Bilingual Vocabulary Kit to Enhance Their Prekindergarten Children's Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Query, Rebecca Robinson; Ceglowski, Deborah; Clark, Patricia; Li, Yongmei

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Hispanic families' perspectives on using a prepared kit to enhance their preschoolers' vocabulary development at home. Families enrolled in a public prekindergarten program were provided with a bilingual (English/Spanish) home literacy kit that included ways in which to engage their children in activities…

  7. Modeling Vocabulary Loss——Approach leading to a comprehensive analysis of vocabulary attrition?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Ⅰ.Introduction The article the author has chosen entitling itself as Modeling Vocabulary Loss (Applied Linguistics,2004) is composed by Prof.Paul Meara from University of Wales Swansea.The reason has been chosen here is definitely not because of the tentative move

  8. Automation Security

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzoev, Dr. Timur

    2014-01-01

    Web-based Automated Process Control systems are a new type of applications that use the Internet to control industrial processes with the access to the real-time data. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks contain computers and applications that perform key functions in providing essential services and commodities (e.g., electricity, natural gas, gasoline, water, waste treatment, transportation) to all Americans. As such, they are part of the nation s critical infrastructu...

  9. Measuring Teachers' Knowledge of Vocabulary Development and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguay, Annie; Kenyon, Dorry; Haynes, Erin; August, Diane; Yanosky, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development of an instrument to measure teachers' knowledge of vocabulary development and instruction, the Teacher Knowledge of Vocabulary Survey (TKVS). This type of knowledge has become increasingly important as all classroom teachers are expected to help students meet language and literacy standards that include…

  10. Effect of Strategy Training on Vocabulary in EFL Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostovar-Namaghi, Seyd Ali; Rajaee, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Sixty Iranian high school EFL learners between 14 and 16 males participated in this study were randomly divided into two groups; experimental, and control. As the study aimed to know whether vocabulary strategy training effects on vocabulary learning of Iranian students, at first the control and experimental group were given a writing per-test…

  11. Vocabulary Learning through Extensive Reading: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senoo, Yasuko; Yonemoto, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    The role and importance of reading in second language vocabulary learning have been discussed by many researchers because of the richness and variety of vocabulary in written texts compared to oral discourse (Horst, 2005; Nation, 2001). However, despite the recent increase of studies in this field, there are very few studies focusing on…

  12. French Vocabulary in "Encore Tricolore": Do Pupils Have a Chance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschichold, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    British learners acquire very little vocabulary in their foreign languages, compared to pupils elsewhere in Europe, particularly learners of English as a foreign language. Could the materials used for teaching help explain this difference? An analysis of the vocabulary loading of a textbook for French as a foreign language commonly used in…

  13. A Discussion on the Importance of Context in Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐虹

    2015-01-01

    <正>As is known to us all,vocabulary plays a very important role in English learning.The British linguist D.A.Wilkins mentioned in his book Linguistics in Language Teaching(1972)"Without grammar very little can be conveyed;without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed."This illustrates the importance of

  14. Vocabulary Strategies that Work: Do This-Not that!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfong, Lori

    2013-01-01

    Update your vocabulary practices to meet the Common Core and improve students' word knowledge! This new, clearly-structured guide shows you how. It's packed with engaging, research-based, classroom-ready strategies for teaching vocabulary. Topics include: (1) Selecting meaningful words for direct instruction; (2) Strategies for engaging students…

  15. Vocabulary Learning Strategies of English Majors in Professional Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚承华; 张宇超

    2007-01-01

    The study adopted qualitative method to investigate vocabulary learning strategies utilized by English majors in professional universities.The findings of the research show that English majors in professional universities employ a wide range of vocabulary learning strategies including metacognitive and cognitive strategies.

  16. Narrow Viewing: The Vocabulary in Related Television Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Michael P. H.; Webb, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the scripts of 288 television episodes were analyzed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in related and unrelated television programs, and the potential for incidental vocabulary learning through watching one season (approximately 24 episodes) of television programs. The scripts consisted of 1,330,268 running words…

  17. The Effect of Vocabulary Knowledge on Novel Word Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Alison M.; Brady, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and novel word reading. Fourth-grade students were assessed on standardized measures of word identification, decoding, and receptive vocabulary, as well as on an experimental word identification measure using words that students in the fourth grade are unlikely to have seen…

  18. Recent Research on Measuring Receptive and Productive Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thu Hoang

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with research in measuring receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge in second language (L2) learning, including English as a second language (ESL) learning and English as a foreign language (EFL) learning. The paper will begin with a brief introduction to the role of vocabulary in language learning, and then an…

  19. Receptive Vocabulary Differences in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi; Peets, Kathleen F.; Yang, Sujin

    2010-01-01

    Studies often report that bilingual participants possess a smaller vocabulary in the language of testing than monolinguals, especially in research with children. However, each study is based on a small sample so it is difficult to determine whether the vocabulary difference is due to sampling error. We report the results of an analysis of 1,738…

  20. Vocabulary Explanations in CLIL Classrooms: A Conversation Analysis Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This article uses a conversation analysis methodology to examine how lexical Focus on Form is interactionally accomplished in teachers' vocabulary explanations in secondary Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) classrooms. Recent conversation-analytic work has focused on the interactional organisation of vocabulary explanations in…

  1. The Effect of Vocabulary on Introductory Microbiology Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Emily

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effect of the translation of traditional scientific vocabulary into plain English, a process referred to as Anglicization, on student learning in the context of introductory microbiology instruction. Data from Anglicized and Classical-vocabulary lab sections were collected. Data included exam scores as well as pre and…

  2. Indexing Learning Objects: Vocabularies and Empirical Investigation of Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabel, Suzanne; De Hoog, Robert; Wielinga, Bob; Anjewierden, Anjo

    2004-01-01

    In addition to the LOM standard and instructional design specifications, as well as domain specific indexing vocabularies, a structured indexing vocabulary for the more elementary learning objects is advisable in order to support retrieval tasks of developers. Furthermore, because semantic indexing is seen as a difficult task, three issues…

  3. Parental Strategies in Supporting Chinese Children's Learning of English Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuesong

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on parental involvement as experienced by a group of elite secondary school pupils in learning English vocabulary on the Chinese mainland. It highlights the variety of strategies that Chinese parents adopted to support, sustain and enhance these pupils' efforts to learn English vocabulary. They functioned as critical agents…

  4. Teaching and Learning Morphology: A Reflection on Generative Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Shane

    2012-01-01

    Students' knowledge of morphology can play a critical role in vocabulary development, and by extension, reading comprehension and writing. This reflection describes the nature of this knowledge and how it may be developed through the examination of generative vocabulary knowledge and the role of the spelling system in developing this knowledge. In…

  5. Teaching Vocabulary through Games--A Sanguine Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Beena

    2011-01-01

    Vocabulary is predominant in improving one's communicative skill. Language is more powerful when it is being used perfectly. Teachers should consider the background of learners and aid them to learn and develop their vocabulary in many interesting ways especially through games. This paper deals with a productive and a logical study, done on a set…

  6. Video Games Promote Saudi Children's English Vocabulary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShaiji, Ohoud Abdullatif

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of Video Games and their role on promoting Saudi Kids' English vocabulary retention. The study attempted to answer whether there was a statistically significant difference (a = 0.05) between the Saudi children's subjects' mean score on the English vocabulary test due to using Video Games…

  7. Use of instructional approaches in teaching vocabulary for EFL learners

    OpenAIRE

    Normamatova Dilfuza Turdikulovna

    2015-01-01

    This article enlightens some approaches of learning and teaching vocabulary in the field of instructional strategies. And also examines the use of some techniques and goals in teaching vocabulary as part of the design of a communication. It clarifies the most common prompt for creating lessons plans in language teaching activity.

  8. Teaching Academic Vocabulary to Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Kristen D.; Sanchez, Victoria; Flynn, Lindsay J.; O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the efforts of a U.S. History teacher to directly teach word meanings using the "robust vocabulary instruction" (RVI) approach, because research supports this method as a way to improve vocabulary knowledge for a range of students, including adolescents reading below grade level (i.e., struggling readers) and…

  9. Constructivist Strategies for English Vocabulary Teaching in Senior Middle School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程文文

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary is one of the cores of language abilities in communication. As the main means to help students learn new words and expressions, vocabulary teaching is very important. Constructivism and constructivist learning theory are proposed by the Swiss psychologist Piaget at the earliest, and then completed by many linguists and psychologists to form a rigorously theoretical system.

  10. Promoting L2 Vocabulary Learning through Narrow Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eun Young

    2015-01-01

    Krashen (2004) has advocated that narrow reading, i.e., reading a series of texts addressing one specific topic, is an effective method to grow vocabulary. While narrow reading has been championed to have many advantages for L2 vocabulary learning, there remains a relative dearth of empirical studies that test the impact of narrow reading on L2…

  11. The PRO-VOC Method: Combining Pronunciation and Vocabulary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaidis, Katerina; Mattheoudakis, Marina

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for the combined teaching of pronunciation and vocabulary to learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). While there is commonly strong emphasis on the teaching of vocabulary, pronunciation teaching is frequently neglected in the EFL classroom. The proposed method aims to address such imbalance which may…

  12. Translation and Bilingual Practice for German Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyn, Prisca

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a critical examination of the current practices and beliefs about vocabulary teaching and learning in typical communicative-approach German classrooms. While research on vocabulary acquisition is scarce, frequency dictionaries reveal that current practice is based heavily on the use of concrete, referential lexemes that may be…

  13. Research on How to Teach Vocabulary by Adopting Morphological Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂敏

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of some theories and teaching experience, the thesis first attaches importance to vocabulary teaching and suggests that a morphological method should be applied. Supported by some examples, how to teach vocabulary in a morphological way is mainly discussed in the essay.

  14. Studies and Suggestions on English Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shigao

    2012-01-01

    To improve vocabulary learning and teaching in ELT settings, two questionnaires are designed and directed to more than 100 students and teachers in one of China's key universities. The findings suggest that an enhanced awareness of cultural difference, metaphorical competence, and learners' autonomy in vocabulary acquisition will effectively…

  15. Use of Audio Modification in Science Vocabulary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiguzel, Tufan

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the utilization of audio modification in vocabulary assessment in school subject areas, specifically in elementary science, and to present a web-based key vocabulary assessment tool for the elementary school level. Audio-recorded readings were used to replace independent student readings as the task…

  16. KEEFEKTIFAN METODE SCHOOLYARD INQUIRY TERHADAP PENINGKATAN PEMAHAMAN SCIENCE VOCABULARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D. Pamelasari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tantangan yang harus dihadapi dalam mengajar Bahasa Inggris di pada mahasiswa selain jurusan Bahasa Inggris adalah tingkat pemahaman kosakata yang rendah. Hal tersebut berpengaruh pada pemahaman materi mereka, berdasarkan permasalahan tersebut metode schoolyard inquiry digagas untuk membantu meningkatkan pemahaman mereka dalam memahami science vocabulary sebagai metode alternative untuk membantu mereka belajar. Schoolyard inquiry adalah metode belajar kosakata secara mandiri di luar kelas. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa pemahaman science vocabulary mahasiswa Pendidikan IPA FMIPA Unnes mengingkat secara signifikan dan mencapai tingkat tinggi pada level pemahamannya. Melalui metode ini mahasiswa juga dapat mengintegrasikan pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris dengan metode saintifik. Mahasiswa juga memberikan respon positif terhadap metode schoolyard inquiry  ini. The challenge that should be faced of teaching English for non English department students is the low level of students’ vocabulary mastery. It affects their comprehension of material, therefore to help students to master the science vocabulary schoolyard inquiry method was proposed to be used as alternative method to improve students’ vocabulary mastery. Schoolyard inquiry is a method of independent learning that is conducted outside the class. The result showed that the students’ science vocabulary mastery improved significantly most of students reached high level of science vocabulary mastery. Through Schoolyard Inquiry method Students were be able to learn English by applying the scientific skill. The students also gave positive responses of learning vocabulary by using alternatif method of schoolyard inquiry.

  17. Information and documentation - Thesauri and interoperability with other vocabularies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Dalbin, Sylvie; Smedt, Johan De;

    ISO 25964-2:2013 is applicable to thesauri and other types of vocabulary that are commonly used for information retrieval. It describes, compares and contrasts the elements and features of these vocabularies that are implicated when interoperability is needed. It gives recommendations for the...

  18. Using Objects To Teach Vocabulary Words with Multiple Meanings. Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Barrera, Manuel T., III

    2003-01-01

    Compared outcomes of traditional direct instruction and pictorial worksheets with that of a hands-on approach using objects, word cards, and definition cards to teach vocabulary words with multiple meanings to public school third graders. Found that the hands-on students made significantly greater vocabulary progress than direct instruction…

  19. The Key to Enhancing Students' Mathematical Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccomini, Paul J.; Sanders, Sharon; Jones, Julie

    2008-01-01

    The importance of learning mathematical vocabulary is vital for the development of proficiency in mathematics. In an effort to improve students' mathematical performance, educators must use research-validated instructional methods to teach important mathematical vocabulary. Mnemonic instruction is a set of evidenced-based strategies used to…

  20. English vocabulary set #1 interactive flashcards book

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2013-01-01

    REA's Interactive Flashcard books represent a novel approach which combines the merits of flash cards with the ease of using a book. One side of each page includes questions to be answered, with space for writing in one's answers - a feature not usually found on flash cards. The flip side of the same page contains the correct answers, much as flash cards do. English Vocabulary (Set #1) is fully indexed making it easy to locate topics for study. Thanks to the book form, there is no need to look for and fish out appropriate questions from a box and put them back in the proper order, and the

  1. English vocabulary set #2 interactive flashcards book

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2013-01-01

    REA's Interactive Flashcard books represent a novel approach which combines the merits of flash cards with the ease of using a book. One side of each page includes questions to be answered, with space for writing in one's answers - a feature not usually found on flash cards. The flip side of the same page contains the correct answers, much as flash cards do. English Vocabulary (Set #2) is fully indexed making it easy to locate topics for study. Thanks to the book form, there is no need to look for and fish out appropriate questions from a box and put them back in the proper order, and ther

  2. SAT vocabulary builder interactive flashcards book

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Boost your SAT vocabulary skills with a book, not a box! Welcome to flashcards in a book. There are no loose cards to lose or misplace. Always in order for easier, organized study. Filled with over 900 must-study New SAT words that are simply the best way to check your ""test readiness."" Study smarter using the unique interactive feature not found in other flashcards: Write your answer to a card's question on the front, and then compare it later to the answer on the back. Perfect for self-study, for reference, or just for a quick review!DETAILS- Handy book format keeps information organized a

  3. An ODIP Effort to Map R2R Ocean Data Terms to International Vocabularies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R.; Stocks, K. I.; Arko, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    The diverseness of terminology used in describing ocean data creates a barrier to efficient discovery and re-use of data, particularly across institutional, programmatic, and disciplinary boundaries. Here we explore the outcomes of a student project to crosswalk terms between the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program and other international systems, as part of the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP). R2R is a U.S. program developing and implementing an information management system to preserve and provide access to routine underway data collected by U.S. academic research vessels. R2R participates in ODIP, an international forum for improving interoperability and effective sharing of marine data resources through technical workshops and joint prototypes. The vocabulary mapping effort lays a foundation for future ocean data portals through which users search and access ocean data using familiar terms. R2R describes its data with a suite of controlled vocabularies (http://www.rvdata.us/voc) some of which were developed within R2R or are specific to the U.S. The goal of this student project is to crosswalk local/national vocabularies to authoritative international ones, where they exist, or to vocabularies widely used by ODIP partners. Specifically, R2R developed the following crosswalks: UNOLS ports to SeaDataNet Ports Gazetteer, R2R Device Models to NVS SeaVoX Device Catalog, R2R Organizations to the European Directory of Marine Organizations (EDMO), and R2R chief scientist names to well known professional identifiers such as ORCID, Research Gate, Linkedin, etc. Mappings were done in simple spreadsheets using synonymy relationships, and will be published as part of the R2R Linked Data resources. The level of success in crosswalking was variable. All ports are successfully mapped. Both organizations and device models have initial mappings and R2R has added new terms to EDMO and SeaVoX Device Catalog vocabularies allowing for nearly complete coverage of

  4. Trends in Modern Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Jörg; Herrling, Paul L

    2016-01-01

    Drugs discovered by the pharmaceutical industry over the past 100 years have dramatically changed the practice of medicine and impacted on many aspects of our culture. For many years, drug discovery was a target- and mechanism-agnostic approach that was based on ethnobotanical knowledge often fueled by serendipity. With the advent of modern molecular biology methods and based on knowledge of the human genome, drug discovery has now largely changed into a hypothesis-driven target-based approach, a development which was paralleled by significant environmental changes in the pharmaceutical industry. Laboratories became increasingly computerized and automated, and geographically dispersed research sites are now more and more clustered into large centers to capture technological and biological synergies. Today, academia, the regulatory agencies, and the pharmaceutical industry all contribute to drug discovery, and, in order to translate the basic science into new medical treatments for unmet medical needs, pharmaceutical companies have to have a critical mass of excellent scientists working in many therapeutic fields, disciplines, and technologies. The imperative for the pharmaceutical industry to discover breakthrough medicines is matched by the increasing numbers of first-in-class drugs approved in recent years and reflects the impact of modern drug discovery approaches, technologies, and genomics. PMID:26330257

  5. ATTENTION TO VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT IN READING:QUANTITY AND QUALITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    It has long been argued that little or no classroomattention is given to vocabulary(Carter,1987;Zim-merman,1997),whereas the opposite might be saidof Chinese tertiary English majors.But problems stillremain:Does more time spent on vocabulary teachingand learning prove effective?Does more attentionneed to be paid to the quality of teaching and learningof vocabulary?To answer these questions,I argue inthis article for a balance of quality and quantity of at-tention to vocabulary development.In the first partof the article,I present five common procedures invocabulary teaching and learning in Chinese collegesand universities and analyse the reasons for the low ef-ficiency in vocabulary teaching and learning.In thesecond,I put forward three techniques—a semanticmapping activity,creating meaningful contexts andusing an integrated approach in teaching and learningvocabulary.

  6. Application of TBA to Teaching English Vocabularies in Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建国

    2009-01-01

    "Vocabulary is of enormous importance in communication",however,in the context of college English teaching in China,although a lot of time and energy is spent on learning and teaching vocabulary,the situation is far from being satisfactory.A scientific and effecfive way of vocabulary teaching and learning is strongly desired.This paper explores a comparatively new approach-Task Based Approach(TBA)and its application to teaching English vocabularies in colleges.The emphasis of TBA is on learning by doing,which gets learners to do things or complete tasks by using English.The appfication of TBA to college English vocabulary teaching(CEVT)in this paper is an attempt that hopes to provide some practical reference value for the reform ofcollege English Teaching(CET).

  7. A Semantic Analysis of the Learning of English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方达

    2013-01-01

    Semantics is the study of the communication of linguistic meaning,the scope of which including vocabulary,syntax,in-tonation,discourse and so on.Among those vocabulary is one of the most important and fundamental factors of semantics. As a result,the learning of vocabulary is always the main point of English learning,with learners'master degree of vocabulary as the key factor which influences the improvement of their ability to use language.Then the exploration of how to efficiently remember the vocabulary as well as accurately put them to use is the focal point for learners to devote their mind to.Therefore the application of se-mantic theories on English learning is of some practical value.

  8. Elementary Students' Acquisition of Academic Vocabulary Through Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelmass, Rachel

    This study examines how STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) inquiry-based learning through a hands-on engineering design can be beneficial in helping students acquire academic vocabulary. This research took place in a second grade dual- language classroom in a public, suburban elementary school. English language learners, students who speak Spanish at home, and native English speakers were evaluated in this study. Each day, students were presented with a general academic vocabulary focus word during an engineering design challenge. Vocabulary pre-tests and post-tests as well as observation field notes were used to evaluate the student's growth in reading and defining the focus academic vocabulary words. A quiz and KSB (knowledge and skill builder) packet were used to evaluate students' knowledge of science and math content and engineering design. The results of this study indicate that engineering design is an effective means for teaching academic vocabulary to students with varying levels of English proficiency.

  9. Configurable User Interface Framework for Data Discovery in Cross-Disciplinary and Citizen Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozell, E.; Wang, H.; West, P.; Zednik, S.; Fox, P.

    2012-04-01

    Use cases for data discovery and analysis vary widely when looking across disciplines and levels of expertise. Domain experts across disciplines may have a thorough understanding of self-describing data formats, such as netCDF, and the software packages that are compatible. However, they may be unfamiliar with specific vocabulary terms used to describe the data parameters or instrument packages in someone else's collection, which are often useful in data discovery. Citizen scientists may struggle with both expert vocabularies and knowledge of existing tools for analyzing and visualizing data. There are some solutions for each problem individually. For expert vocabularies, semantic technologies like the Resource Description Framework (RDF) have been used to map terms from an expert vocabulary to layperson terminology. For data analysis and visualization, tools can be mapped to data products using semantic technologies as well. This presentation discusses a solution to both problems based on the S2S Framework, a configurable user interface (UI) framework for Web services. S2S unifies the two solutions previously described using a data service abstraction ("search services") and a UI abstraction ("widgets"). Using the OWL Web Ontology Language, S2S defines a vocabulary for describing search services and their outputs, and the compatibility of those outputs with UI widgets. By linking search service outputs to widgets, S2S can automatically compose UIs for search and analysis of data, making it easier for citizen scientists to manipulate data. We have also created Linked Data widgets for S2S, which can leverage distributed RDF resources to present alternative views of expert vocabularies. This presentation covers some examples where we have applied these solutions to improve data discovery for both cross-disciplinary and non-expert users.

  10. A Matter of Vocabulary II: Low-Income African American Children's Performance on the Expressive Vocabulary Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Allyssa; Champion, Tempii B.

    2010-01-01

    The "Expressive Vocabulary Test" (EVT) has recently been found culturally fair for an economically mixed sample of African American children, and others have argued that it is fairer for such participants than the "Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III" (PPVT-III). In this study, the authors sought to replicate these findings with an exclusively…

  11. Receptive Vocabulary, Expressive Vocabulary, and Speech Production of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome in Comparison to Boys with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joanne; Price, Johanna; Barnes, Elizabeth; Nelson, Lauren; Burchinal, Margaret; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Moskowitz, Lauren; Edwards, Anne; Malkin, Cheryl; Anderson, Kathleen; Misenheimer, Jan; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2007-01-01

    Boys with fragile X syndrome with (n = 49) and without (n = 33) characteristics of autism spectrum disorder, boys with Down syndrome (39), and typically developing boys (n = 41) were compared on standardized measures of receptive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, and speech administered annually over 4 years. Three major findings emerged. Boys…

  12. The Exploring Nature of Vocabulary Acquisition and Common Main Gaps in the Current Studies of Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Vocabulary can be a key factor for success, central to a language, and paramount to a language learner. In such situation, the lexicon may be the most important component for learners (Grass and Selinker, 1994), and mastering of vocabulary is an essential component of second/foreign language teaching and learning that has been repeatedly…

  13. Growing Capacity with the Vocabulary of English Language Arts Programs: Vocabulary Megaclusters. Reading Research Report. #11.02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Elfrieda H.

    2011-01-01

    The typical approach to teaching vocabulary in English/Language Arts programs has been to focus on six to eight words per text. Even though these words may add meaning to a particular story, the target words are often rare and their generalizability is limited. The Vocabulary Megaclusters provides a framework for selecting and teaching words…

  14. Controlled Vocabularies, Mini Ontologies and Interoperability (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T. A.; Walker, R. J.; Roberts, D.; Thieman, J.; Ritschel, B.; Cecconi, B.; Genot, V. N.

    2013-12-01

    Interoperability has been an elusive goal, but in recent years advances have been made using controlled vocabularies, mini-ontologies and a lot of collaboration. This has led to increased interoperability between disciplines in the U.S. and between international projects. We discuss the successful pattern followed by SPASE, IVOA and IPDA to achieve this new level of international interoperability. A key aspect of the pattern is open standards and open participation with interoperability achieved with shared services, public APIs, standard formats and open access to data. Many of these standards are expressed as controlled vocabularies and mini ontologies. To illustrate the pattern we look at SPASE related efforts and participation of North America's Heliophysics Data Environment and CDPP; Europe's Cluster Active Archive, IMPEx, EuroPlanet, ESPAS and HELIO; and Japan's magnetospheric missions. Each participating project has its own life cycle and successful standards development must always take this into account. A major challenge for sustained collaboration and interoperability is the limited lifespan of many of the participating projects. Innovative approaches and new tools and frameworks are often developed as competitively selected, limited term projects, but for sustainable interoperability successful approaches need to become part of a long term infrastructure. This is being encouraged and achieved in many domains and we are entering a golden age of interoperability.

  15. The NERC Vocabulary Server: Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbetter, A. M.; Lowry, R. K.

    2012-12-01

    The Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Vocabulary Server (NVS) has been used to publish controlled vocabularies of terms relevant to marine environmental sciences since 2006 (version 0) with version 1 being introduced in 2007. It has been used for - metadata mark-up with verifiable content - populating dynamic drop down lists - semantic cross-walk between metadata schemata - so-called smart search - and the semantic enablement of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Processing Services in the NERC Data Grid and the European Commission SeaDataNet, Geo-Seas, and European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) projects. The NVS is based on the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) model. SKOS is based on the "concept", which it defines as a "unit of thought", that is an idea or notion such as "oil spill". Following a version change for SKOS in 2009 there was a desire to upgrade the NVS to incorporate the changes. This version of SKOS introduces the ability to aggregate concepts in both collections and schemes. The design of version 2 of the NVS uses both types of aggregation: schemes for the discovery of content through hierarchical thesauri and collections for the publication and addressing of content. Other desired changes from version 1 of the NVS included: - the removal of the potential for multiple identifiers for the same concept to ensure consistent addressing of concepts - the addition of content and technical governance information in the payload documents to provide an audit trail to users of NVS content - the removal of XML snippets from concept definitions in order to correctly validate XML serializations of the SKOS - the addition of the ability to map into external knowledge organization systems in order to extend the knowledge base - a more truly RESTful approach URL access to the NVS to make the development of applications on top of the NVS easier - and support for multiple human languages to increase the user base of the NVS

  16. The Type of Vocabulary Learning Strategies Used by ESL Students in University Putra Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Azadeh; Mustapha, Ghazali Bin

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important challenges that learners will face during the process of second language learning is learning vocabulary. Vocabulary has been recognized as crucial to language use in which insufficient vocabulary knowledge of the learners led to difficulties in second language learning. Thus, in the case of learning the vocabulary in…

  17. Effect of Use of Caricatures on Teaching Vocabulary in Teaching Turkish as Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Yakup

    2015-01-01

    Teaching vocabulary in teaching Turkish as Foreign language is important. Different methods are employed in teaching vocabulary. In this study the pre- and post-test results of experimental group where caricatures were used to teach vocabulary and control group where vocabulary items were taught without use of caricatures when teaching Turkish…

  18. A Study of Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Vocabulary Revising for Underachiever in Senior 3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晓敏

    2015-01-01

    Through questionnaire,strategies training and tests,the author concludes that,firstly,the high achievers of vocabulary are more likely to use meta -cognitive strategies,cognitive strategies and social strategies.In contrast,underachievers are likely to use some traditional ways like reciting and repeating;secondly,strategies training has a good impact on the underachievers’vocabulary ability;finally,the underachievers need to be trained to use social strategies,meta-cognitive strategies and cognitive strategies more often.And the training process requires special patience and creativities.This paper analyzes the application ofvocabulary learning strategies in revision for senior underachieving students,hoping to provide some references for students and English teachers in senior high school.

  19. The effect of explicit vocabulary teaching on vocabulary acquisiton and attitude towards reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasbún Hasbún, Leyla

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of explicit vocabulary teaching on vocabulary acquisition and on attitude towards reading in an EFL class. Vocabulary exercises following the Lexical Approach (Lewis, 1993, 1997, 2000 were designed to supplement a college reading comprehension course, and several reading strategies were systematically practiced. Statistical analyses revealed that the students acquired the vocabulary. In addition, at the end of the term, learners claimed that knowing more words had made them better readers, and the final evaluation of the course showed that their attitude towards reading had greatly improved. El presente trabajo investiga los efectos que produce la enseñanza explícita del vocabulario tanto en la adquisición de dicho vocabulario como en la actitud de un grupo de estudiantes de inglés como lengua extranjera hacia la lectura. Se diseñó un grupo de ejercicios siguiendo el Acercamiento Léxico (Lewis, 1993, 1997, 2000 para complementar un curso universitario de comprensión de lectura. Además, en forma sistemática, se utilizaron varias estrategias de lectura en clase. Los análisis estadísticos revelaron que los aprendices habían adquirido el vocabulario. Al finalizar el semestre, los estudiantes afirmaron que el conocimiento de nuevas palabras los había hecho mejores lectores, y la evaluación del curso reveló que la actitud de los estudiantes hacia la lectura había mejorado en forma significativa.

  20. A Study on Students’Vocabulary Learning Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓莺

    2013-01-01

    English learners who want to acquire good language competence must essentially possess a great amount of vocabulary. In reality, however, quite a lot of students have difficulties in the process of vocabulary accumulation for the lack of efficient learn-ing strategies. As a result, we teachers should help the students overcome the problems via guiding them the necessary vocabulary learning strategies including rote learning, reading original books and doing note taking, guessing from the context, using diction-ary and reviewing and elaborating.

  1. MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES AS PREDICTORS OF READING COMPREHENSION AND VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Zarei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate types of Multiple Intelligences as predictors of reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge. To meet this objective, a 60-item TOEFL test and a 90-item multiple intelligences questionnaire were distributed among 240 male and female Iranians studying English at Qazali and Parsian Universities in Qazvin. Data were analyzed using a multiple regression procedure. The result of the data analysis indicated that musical, interpersonal, kinesthetic, and logical intelligences were predicators of reading comprehension. Moreover, musical, verbal, visual, kinesthetic and natural intelligences made significant contributions to predicting vocabulary knowledge.   Key words: Multiple intelligences, reading comprehension, vocabulary knowledge.

  2. Automated Budget System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  3. Vocabulary in EFL Textbooks. A Contrastive Analysis against Three Corpus-Based Word Ranges

    OpenAIRE

    Criado Sánchez, Raquel; Sánchez Pérez, Aquilino

    2009-01-01

    Vocabulary teaching and learning is one the most important components in textbooks. Vocabulary knowledge is also frequently associated to language fluency. It is therefore important to investigate how textbooks present vocabulary, and how they comply with the conditions necessary for vocabulary learning. We will take into consideration three perspectives here: the conditions derived from cognitive processes of knowledge acquisition, the role of frequency in language and vocabulary learnin...

  4. Enterprise vocabulary management; A lexicographic view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Voskuil

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The central theme in this paper is the problem of shifting from natural language descriptions, as in traditional dictionaries and thesauri, to working IT (Information Technology systems that support people carrying out their administrative tasks. An explicit description of the specific language used in an organization is necessary to guarantee properly working IT systems and a healthy flow of information. Traditionally, there are different ways of capturing such a vocabulary. Different options are considered, arguing that the general form of a thesaurus offers the optimal solution for a broad range of cases. Various requirements for such a thesaurus are examined. A real world example is discussed in some detail. Finally, the paper examines how modern Web technology can help optimizing the creation, management and use of enterprise thesauri. Using these technologies, the enterprise thesaurus can take up new roles in managing the information household of an organization.

  5. Trilingual vocabulary of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference document is produced in cooperation with partners in the Union Latine, an international organization dedicated to promoting the Romance languages. In 1992 acting on a request submitted by the Montreal Environment Section of the Translation Bureau, the Terminology and Standardization Directorate published an in-house glossary containing 2500 entries on nuclear waste management. The glossary was produced by scanning bilingual terms in the reports submitted to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited by the Siting Process Task Force on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal. Because the scale of the nuclear waste management problem has grown considerably since then, the glossary needed to be expanded and revised. The Vocabulary contains some 1000 concepts for a total of approximately 3000 terms in each of the three languages, english, french and spanish. Special attention has been given to defining basic physical concepts, waste classifications and disposal methods

  6. Should libraries discontinue using and maintaining controlled subject vocabularies?

    OpenAIRE

    Scicluna, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    An assignment discussing the use of Controlled Vocabulary against the ides of social tagging in metadata (Folksonomy). This assignment was part of the requirements for the class: Classification and Subject Indexing for the Diploma in Library in Information Science.

  7. Language understanding and vocabulary of early cochlear implanted children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Percy-Smith, L; Busch, GW; Sandahl, M;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with the level of language understanding, the level of receptive and active vocabulary, and to estimate effect-related odds ratios for cochlear implanted children's language level....

  8. Evolution of vocabulary on scale-free and random networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalampokis, Alkiviadis; Kosmidis, Kosmas; Argyrakis, Panos

    2007-06-01

    We examine the evolution of the vocabulary of a group of individuals (linguistic agents) on a scale-free network, using Monte Carlo simulations and assumptions from evolutionary game theory. It is known that when the agents are arranged in a two-dimensional lattice structure and interact by diffusion and encounter, then their final vocabulary size is the maximum possible. Knowing all available words is essential in order to increase the probability to “survive” by effective reproduction. On scale-free networks we find a different result. It is not necessary to learn the entire vocabulary available. Survival chances are increased by using the vocabulary of the “hubs” (nodes with high degree). The existence of the “hubs” in a scale-free network is the source of an additional important fitness generating mechanism.

  9. Evolution of Vocabulary on Scale-free and Random Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kalampokis, A; Kosmidis, K; Argyrakis, Panos; Kalampokis, Alkiviadis; Kosmidis, Kosmas

    2007-01-01

    We examine the evolution of the vocabulary of a group of individuals (linguistic agents) on a scale-free network, using Monte Carlo simulations and assumptions from evolutionary game theory. It is known that when the agents are arranged in a two-dimensional lattice structure and interact by diffusion and encounter, then their final vocabulary size is the maximum possible. Knowing all available words is essential in order to increase the probability to ``survive'' by effective reproduction. On scale-free networks we find a different result. It is not necessary to learn the entire vocabulary available. Survival chances are increased by using the vocabulary of the ``hubs'' (nodes with high degree). The existence of the ``hubs'' in a scale-free network is the source of an additional important fitness generating mechanism.

  10. Vocabulary in Action: Strategies for Turning Students into Wordsmiths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick-Ivey, Amy R.

    2008-01-01

    High school teacher Amy R. Hardwick-Ivey loves teaching vocabulary. She describes numerous activities that increase students' understanding of the nuances of language and their confidence in using language well.

  11. A Small-Vocabulary Shared Task for Medical Speech Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Rayner, Emmanuel; Bouillon, Pierrette; Flores, Glenn; Ehsani, Farzad; Starlander, Marianne; Hockey, Beth Ann; Brotanek, Jane; Biewald, Lukas

    2008-01-01

    We outline a possible small-vocabulary shared task for the emerging medical speech translation community. Data would consist of about 2000 recorded and transcribed utterances collected during an evaluation of an English

  12. The Effect of Games on EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Learning Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Sorayaie Azar

    2012-01-01

    EFL students, particularly Iranian students, usually feel bored in vocabulary lessons because they have not changed their learning habits, such as writing words on paper, trying to learn by heart or learning passively through the teacher's explanations. To help students find language classes, especially vocabulary lessons more interesting in EFL context, and to achieve more from games, the study conducted action research to find the answer to the question, "Do games help English Language Lear...

  13. Evolution of Vocabulary on Scale-free and Random Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kalampokis, Alkiviadis; Kosmidis, Kosmas; Argyrakis, Panos

    2007-01-01

    We examine the evolution of the vocabulary of a group of individuals (linguistic agents) on a scale-free network, using Monte Carlo simulations and assumptions from evolutionary game theory. It is known that when the agents are arranged in a two-dimensional lattice structure and interact by diffusion and encounter, then their final vocabulary size is the maximum possible. Knowing all available words is essential in order to increase the probability to ``survive'' by effective reproduction. On...

  14. Vocabulary Breadth and Field Dependence/Independence Cognitive Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Nassim Golaghaei

    2011-01-01

    This article is primarily bidirectional in that it is concerned with two fields of cognitive styles of field-dependency/independency on one hand and breadth of vocabulary knowledge on the other hand. In other word, this research is primarily intended to investigate the nature of the students' vocabulary knowledge in the field of passive and active knowledge of L2 words as a whole with regard to their preferred cognitive style of field dependency/independency. A group of 60 undergraduate stude...

  15. Using a word knowledge framework to research vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Norbert

    1997-01-01

    The study of vocabulary acquisition is not exactly a new area, but previous research and hypothesizing has failed to produce a coherent overall theory which adequately describes it. This is partly because of the complexity of the subject. One method of reducing the complexity is to work with the individual components of vocabulary knowledge, in an attempt to understand the whole by first better understanding the parts. The word knowledge listing proposed by Nation (1990) is adopted in this th...

  16. An Investigation Into College English Vocabulary Learning Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马慧

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the investigation into college English vocabulary learning strategies.The non-English major students should be instructed and encouraged by the teachers to apply various kinds of VLS that can facilitate their learning achievement because the versatile strategy use is not only a way to meet the increasing demand for vocabulary learning,but also a key to success in the learning of the English language.

  17. On the Significance of Collocations in Vocabulary and Language Teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Akimoto, Miharu; 秋元, 美晴

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance of collocation, and at the same time to give new recognition of the teaching of vocabulary. Considering the burden upon learners to learn vocabulary, I believe that learning words in collocation ( for example, eikyo o ataeru, kaoi ocha, kanousei ga takai, and gussuri neru) is most effective and time-saving. I shall propose to eatablish paradigmatic sets which will contribute to the systematic method of teaching words in collocations.

  18. TEACHING THE SPECIFIC FEATURES OF VOCABULARY IN NEWSPAPER HEADLINES

    OpenAIRE

    Iļjina, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    The present research deals with the variety of lexical items used in newspaper headlines in British press. The report discusses teaching strategies how to develop readers’ vocabulary competence and its influence on the overall comprehension of the meaning implied in the headline. The study touches upon the strategy of direct explanation of new vocabulary, morphemic analysis of words, and stylistic analysis of the phraseological units used in newspaper headlines. The research emphasizes the ro...

  19. Influence of Age on Vocabulary Acquisition in EFL, The

    OpenAIRE

    Miralpeix Pujol, Immaculada

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation analyses the effects of age on the acquisition of vocabulary in English as a Foreign Language (FL). It focusses on productive vocabulary because it is a crucial aspect in language learning which is also vital in communication, both oral and written, and it has often been the neglected component in research on age. Studies on age in naturalistic contexts have usually shown that 'the earlier one starts learning the language, the better'. Although in the short term Early Starte...

  20. The Influence of Age on Vocabulary Acquisition in EFL

    OpenAIRE

    Miralpeix Pujol, Immaculada

    2008-01-01

    [eng] This dissertation analyses the effects of age on the acquisition of vocabulary in English as a Foreign Language (FL). It focusses on productive vocabulary because it is a crucial aspect in language learning which is also vital in communication, both oral and written, and it has often been the neglected component in research on age. Studies on age in naturalistic contexts have usually shown that 'the earlier one starts learning the language, the better'. Although in the short term Early...

  1. An Investigation of the Impact of Small Group Direct Vocabulary Instruction on the Vocabulary Development of Kindergarten Children Living in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Katie A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which tri-weekly evidence-based vocabulary lessons implemented throughout the regular school day would increase kindergarten students' expressive and receptive vocabulary development, thus decreasing the vocabulary gap exhibited between low-income children and their more advantaged peers…

  2. Vocabulary Learning Under New Curriculum ---Grade Nine student in a Junior high school%Vocabulary Learning Under New Curriculum ---Grade Nine student in a Junior high school

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨灿

    2011-01-01

    1. Introduction This thesis focuses on the real situation of vocabulary learning in a junior high school, located in countryside. First, this thesis will review some research conclusions on vocabulary learning. Then the author tries to explore the real situation of vocabulary learning in the high school, by analyzing the data collected from the questionnaire done by Grade Nine students.

  3. Programming with Conditionals: Epistemic Programming for Scientific Discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to provide scientists with a computational methodologyand some computa tional tools to program their epistemic processes in scientific discovery, we ar e establishing a novel programming paradigm, named ‘Epistemic Programming’, wh ic h regards conditionals as the subject of computing, takes primary epistemic oper ations as basic operations of computing, and regards epistemic processes as the subject of programming. This paper presents our fundamental observati ons and assumptions on scientific discovery processes and their automation, rese arch problems on modeling, automating, and programming epistemic processes, and an outline of our research project of Epistemic Programming.

  4. Vocabulary Breadth and Field Dependence/Independence Cognitive Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Golaghaei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is primarily bidirectional in that it is concerned with two fields of cognitive styles of field-dependency/independency on one hand and breadth of vocabulary knowledge on the other hand. In other word, this research is primarily intended to investigate the nature of the students' vocabulary knowledge in the field of passive and active knowledge of L2 words as a whole with regard to their preferred cognitive style of field dependency/independency. A group of 60 undergraduate students majoring in the field of English Language Teaching was selected. They were then divided into two groups based on the basis of their preferred cognitive styles of field-dependency / independency. Four types of tests, the 1000 frequency word-level test, the passive version of vocabulary Levels Test, the Productive Version of the Vocabulary Levels Test, and the Group Imbedded Figures Test were administered to the participants. The conclusion drawn after the analysis of the data was that the fieldindependent group outperformed their field-dependent counterparts in dealing with both passive and productive vocabulary levels. Finally, the findings of this research could be interpreted as being supportive of the idea that the field-dependent/independent cognitive style could be considered as an effective factor influencing the learners' vocabulary learning in the field of second language acquisition.

  5. Receptive vocabulary size of secondary spanish efl learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Canga Alonso

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper responds to the need of research on vocabulary knowledge in foreign language in secondary education in Spain. Thus, this research aims at investigating (i the receptive vocabulary knowledge of 49 girls and 43 boys, Spanish students learning English as a foreign language in a secondary school located in the north of Spain, and (ii its pedagogical implications for students’ understanding of written and spoken discourse in English (Adolphs & Schmitt 2004; Laufer 1992, 1997; Nation 2001. We used the 2,000 frequency band of the Vocabulary Level Test (VLT (Schmitt, Schmitt & Clapham, 2001, version 2 as the instrument to measure students’ receptive vocabulary knowledge. Our results reveal that the means of girls’ receptive vocabulary size is below 1,000 words, which agrees with the estimates proposed by López-Mezquita (2005 for Spanish students of the same age and educational level. On the contrary, the means for boys is slightly above 1,000 words, being the differences between boys’ and girls’ performance in the VLT statistically relevant. Our data also indicate that most of the students analysed in the present study could have problems to understand written and spoken discourse due to their low scores in the receptive vocabulary level test.

  6. Gestural development and its relation to a child's early vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraljević, Jelena Kuvač; Cepanec, Maja; Simleša, Sanja

    2014-05-01

    Gesture and language are tightly connected during the development of a child's communication skills. Gestures mostly precede and define the way of language development; even opposite direction has been found. Few recent studies have focused on the relationship between specific gestures and specific word categories, emphasising that the onset of one gesture type predicts the onset of certain word categories or of the earliest word combinations. The aim of this study was to analyse predicative roles of different gesture types on the onset of first word categories in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Our data show that different types of gestures predict different types of word production. Object gestures predict open-class words from the age of 13 months, and gestural routines predict closed-class words and social terms from 8 months. Receptive vocabulary has a strong mediating role for all linguistically defined categories (open- and closed-class words) but not for social terms, which are the largest word category in a child's early expressive vocabulary. Accordingly, main contribution of this study is to define the impact of different gesture types on early expressive vocabulary and to determine the role of receptive vocabulary in gesture-expressive vocabulary relation in the Croatian language. PMID:24583922

  7. Using Songs To Support Vocabulary Learning For Grade Four Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Al-Azri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the recent years the teaching of foreign language vocabulary has been the subject of much discussion and arguments and a number of research and methodology books on such topic have emerged as it is the case for example with Nation 2001 and Schmitt 2000. For a long time grammar seemed to have attracted more attention but this renewed interest in vocabulary reflects the belief that it is becoming a major component in knowing a language and as some recent scholars would admit even more important than grammar already. In addition to the various strategies used to promote vocabulary learning in the classroom environment songs are widely being used nowadays as a powerful tool in teaching new vocabulary to early grades pupils. Throughout our teaching of young learners we have noticed that they are amazingly captured by songs and they always enjoy listening to them. This might be one of the main reasons why songs have now become one of the cornerstones in the demanding and challenging process of teaching children. The purpose of this research paper is to find out as to what extent and how the use of songs may support new vocabulary learning for grade four pupils in Oman and how much it actually helps these young learners in developing their vocabulary learning habits.

  8. Manufacturing and automation

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Córdoba Nieto

    2010-01-01

    The article presents concepts and definitions from different sources concerning automation. The work approaches automation by virtue of the author’s experience in manufacturing production; why and how automation prolects are embarked upon is considered. Technological reflection regarding the progressive advances or stages of automation in the production area is stressed. Coriat and Freyssenet’s thoughts about and approaches to the problem of automation and its current state are taken and e...

  9. Fractionated Marine Invertebrate Extract Libraries for Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris M. Ireland

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The high-throughput screening and drug discovery paradigm has necessitated a change in preparation of natural product samples for screening programs. In an attempt to improve the quality of marine natural products samples for screening, several fractionation strategies were investigated. The final method used HP20SS as a solid support to effectively desalt extracts and fractionate the organic components. Additionally, methods to integrate an automated LCMS fractionation approach to shorten discovery time lines have been implemented.

  10. A Cognitive Adopted Framework for IoT Big-Data Management and Knowledge Discovery Prospective

    OpenAIRE

    Nilamadhab Mishra; Chung-Chih Lin; Hsien-Tsung Chang

    2015-01-01

    In future IoT big-data management and knowledge discovery for large scale industrial automation application, the importance of industrial internet is increasing day by day. Several diversified technologies such as IoT (Internet of Things), computational intelligence, machine type communication, big-data, and sensor technology can be incorporated together to improve the data management and knowledge discovery efficiency of large scale automation applications. So in this work, we need to propos...

  11. Age of acquisition effects in vocabulary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Shekeila D; Havelka, Jelena

    2010-11-01

    Two experiments examined whether the age of acquisition (AoA) of a concept influences the speed at which native English speakers are able to name pictures using a newly acquired second language (L2) vocabulary. In Experiment 1, participants were taught L2 words associated with pictures. In Experiment 2 a second group of participants were taught the same words associated with L1 translations. Following training both groups performed a picture naming task in which they were asked to name pictures using the newly acquired words. Significant AoA effects were observed only in Experiment 1, in that participants were faster at naming pictures representing early acquired relative to late acquired concepts. The results suggest that the AoA of a concept can exert influence over processing which is independent of the AoA of the word form. The results also indicate that different training methods may lead to qualitative differences in the nature of the links formed between words and concepts during the earliest stages of second language learning. PMID:20817131

  12. Incidental Vocabulary Learning: A Semantic Field Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Khosravizadeh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    This study is an attempt to explore the difference between acquiring new words with different semantic fields to which they belong. In other words, the purpose of this study is to scrutinize the contribution of semantic field theory in learning new vocabulary items in an EFL setting. Thirty-eight students of three different levels of education took part in this research. They were exposed to some new words from four different semantic fields, and then they were tested on their acquisition of the words meaning. This exposure was through reading texts and the aim of reading was just comprehension, therefore the words were acquired incidentally. The outcome showed significant differences between groups with different levels of education regarding retention of words from different semantic fields.

  13. Manufacturing and automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Córdoba Nieto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents concepts and definitions from different sources concerning automation. The work approaches automation by virtue of the author’s experience in manufacturing production; why and how automation prolects are embarked upon is considered. Technological reflection regarding the progressive advances or stages of automation in the production area is stressed. Coriat and Freyssenet’s thoughts about and approaches to the problem of automation and its current state are taken and examined, especially that referring to the problem’s relationship with reconciling the level of automation with the flexibility and productivity demanded by competitive, worldwide manufacturing.

  14. The Effect of Games on EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sorayaie Azar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available EFL students, particularly Iranian students, usually feel bored in vocabulary lessons because they have not changed their learning habits, such as writing words on paper, trying to learn by heart or learning passively through the teacher's explanations. To help students find language classes, especially vocabulary lessons more interesting in EFL context, and to achieve more from games, the study conducted action research to find the answer to the question, "Do games help English Language Learners learn vocabulary effectively, and if so, how?" Most academic reviews start from an assumption that games are beneficial. However, this study singled out the component of games to study that in isolation. After reviewing academic opinions on this specifically focused matter, of which there are relatively few, the researcher began action research which included applying games in our own classes, observing other teachers' classes, and interviewing both teachers and learners so as to elicit students' reactions, feelings and the effectiveness of games in vocabulary learning. The research shows they are effective in helping students to improve their vocabulary building skills.

  15. Coherent Image Layout using an Adaptive Visual Vocabulary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillard, Scott E.; Henry, Michael J.; Bohn, Shawn J.; Gosink, Luke J.

    2013-03-06

    When querying a huge image database containing millions of images, the result of the query may still contain many thousands of images that need to be presented to the user. We consider the problem of arranging such a large set of images into a visually coherent layout, one that places similar images next to each other. Image similarity is determined using a bag-of-features model, and the layout is constructed from a hierarchical clustering of the image set by mapping an in-order traversal of the hierarchy tree into a space-filling curve. This layout method provides strong locality guarantees so we are able to quantitatively evaluate performance using standard image retrieval benchmarks. Performance of the bag-of-features method is best when the vocabulary is learned on the image set being clustered. Because learning a large, discriminative vocabulary is a computationally demanding task, we present a novel method for efficiently adapting a generic visual vocabulary to a particular dataset. We evaluate our clustering and vocabulary adaptation methods on a variety of image datasets and show that adapting a generic vocabulary to a particular set of images improves performance on both hierarchical clustering and image retrieval tasks.

  16. On Vocabulary Teaching from the Perspective of Cross-Cultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘航

    2013-01-01

    Language is the carrier of culture, and culture determines language application. Vocabulary is the essential element of a language, thus the cultivation of cross-culture communication ability should start from vocabulary.

  17. The Way on Teaching English Vocabulary of Non-English Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾彪

    2014-01-01

    Based on the vocabulary leaning problems of Non-English majors, this article makes analysis of the main factors for the problems and tries to provide some vocabulary teaching strategies to solve the problems.

  18. The effectiveness of extensive reading on EFL learners’ vocabulary learning: incidental versus intentional learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-six students majoring in business English volunteered to take part in an extensive reading program. The learners were divided into two groups: EG, the experimental group, received instruction in methods of extensive reading plus explicit output-pushed activities, and CG, the control group, received instruction in methods of extensive reading only. This study measured the effects of extensive reading on EFL vocabulary learning, through the effects of the two different instruction methods on learning receptive and productive vocabulary for the 46 learners of different vocabulary size. The research found that (a both the two instructional methods resulted in significant gains in learners’ receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge, but the combination of the incidental and intentional learning instruction yields greater vocabulary gains; (b around 60% of receptive vocabulary is understood productively; and (c students’ vocabulary size plays a decisive role in acquiring the receptive and productive aspect of vocabulary knowledge.

  19. Memory strategies and ESL vocabulary acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carisma Dreyer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the effectiveness of three learning strategies (memory strategies for ESL vocabulary acquisition. Four intact ESL classes were divided into one control group and three treatment groups (keyword, semantic, and keyword-semantic. These Afrikaans-speaking standard 6 pupils then received 4 days of instruction. Both multiplechoice and cued-recall instruments were used to measure effects both 1 day and 9 days after instruction. The results indicated that for both the multiple-choice and cued-recall tests the combined keyword-semantic strategy differed statistically Significantly as well as practically significantly from the keyword method. The results, therefore, suggest that the combined keyword-semantic strategy increased retention above the other strategies. Hierdie artikel vergelyk die effektiwiteit van drie taalleerstrategiee (geheue strategiee vir die aanleer van woordeskat met mekaar. Vier intak Engels tweedetaal klasse is verdeel in een kontrole groep en drie eksperimentele groepe (sleutelwoord, semantiese en 'n kombinasie van die sleutelwoord-semantiese strategiee. 'n Groep Afrikaanssprekende standerd ses leerlinge het vir 'n tydperk van vier dae onderrig in elk van bogenoemde strategiee ontvang. Multikeuse en "cued-recall" instrumente is gebruik om die effek van onderrig beide een dag en nege dae na eksperimentering te bepaal. Die resultate het aangetoon dat die gekombineerde sleutelwoord-semantiese strategie statisties betekenisvol sowel as prakties betekenisvol van die sleutelwoord strategie en die kontrole groep verskil het. Dit wil dus voorkom asof die gekombineerde sleutelwoord-semantiese strategie die mees belowende strategie is ten opsigte van die retensie van woordeskat.

  20. Tools for GPCR drug discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru ZHANG; Xin XIE

    2012-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate many important physiological functions and are considered as one of the most successful therapeutic targets for a broad spectrum of diseases.The design and implementation of high-throughput GPCR assays that allow the cost-effective screening of large compound libraries to identify novel drug candidates are critical in early drug discovery.Early functional GPCR assays depend primarily on the measurement of G-protein-mediated 2nd messenger generation.Taking advantage of the continuously deepening understanding of GPCR signal transduction,many G-protein-independent pathways are utilized to detect the activity of GPCRs,and may provide additional information on functional selectivity of candidate compounds.With the combination of automated imaging systems and label-free detection systems,such assays are now suitable for high-throughput screening (HTS).In this review,we summarize the most widely used GPCR assays and recent advances in HTS technologies for GPCR drug discovery.

  1. An automated swimming respirometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    STEFFENSEN, JF; JOHANSEN, K; BUSHNELL, PG

    1984-01-01

    An automated respirometer is described that can be used for computerized respirometry of trout and sharks.......An automated respirometer is described that can be used for computerized respirometry of trout and sharks....

  2. Configuration Management Automation (CMA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Configuration Management Automation (CMA) will provide an automated, integrated enterprise solution to support CM of FAA NAS and Non-NAS assets and investments. CMA...

  3. The State of the Art in Library Discovery 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    Resource discovery tops the charts as the foremost issue within the realm of library automation. As a new year commences, the author sees a more pressing need to accelerate the pace with which libraries deliver content and services in ways that users will find compelling, relevant, and convenient. The evolution of the web advances relentlessly,…

  4. Visualization: A Mind-Machine Interface for Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Cydney B

    2016-02-01

    Computation is critical for enabling us to process data volumes and model data complexities that are unthinkable by manual means. However, we are far from automating the sense-making process. Human knowledge and reasoning are critical for discovery. Visualization offers a powerful interface between mind and machine that should be further exploited in future genome analysis tools. PMID:26739384

  5. The Impact of Free-time Reading on Foreign Language Vocabulary Development

    OpenAIRE

    Päivi Pietilä; Riika Merikivi

    2014-01-01

    The study reported in this article was conducted to investigate the influence of free-time reading on foreign language vocabulary development. The subjects were sixth and ninth graders in content and language integrated learning (CLIL) and in regular mainstream classes, with Finnish as their L1 and English as their L2. The vocabulary sizes of the learners were measured with the Vocabulary Levels Test and the Productive Vocabulary Levels Test. Students who reported reading in English in their ...

  6. The Effectiveness of Strategies-based Instruction on Postgraduates' English Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蕾

    2008-01-01

    This ten-week quasi-experimental study was undertaken to explore the effectiveness of strategies-based vocabulary instruction on English vocabulary learning of postgraduate learners.By the questionnaires and vocabulary tests administered before and after the instruction, the experimental group and the control group were compared to find out whether reading comprehension plus SBI method was more effective than reading only method in postgraduates' English vocabulary learning.

  7. A Case for Supplemental Vocabulary Component Development for Textbook-Based English Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Leroux, Todd

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated the necessary elements of a principled vocabulary component that would supplement learners’ textbooks. This study then went on to investigate the receptive vocabulary sizes and textbook target language samples for three intact English communication classes in women’s university in western Tokyo. Using the Vocabulary Size Test(VST)data was collected and participant vocabulary sizes assessed, which were then compared to assigned textbook target language samp...

  8. Techniques to improve the vocabulary of the students at the college level

    OpenAIRE

    Sripada Pushpa Nagini; Cherukuri Mani Ramana

    2016-01-01

    The paper suggests effective techniques to improve the vocabulary of the students in English as a Second Language context based on an experimental study. The study was conducted in India (South Asia), in an Engineering college for freshmen in the age group of eighteen to nineteen years. The paper makes a comparison of two vocabulary teaching strategies and the results show that explicit vocabulary teaching is more effective than implicit vocabulary teaching. The experimental group also showed...

  9. A Comparative Study of Textual and Visual Contextualization on Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Zoghi; Mehdi Mirzaei

    2014-01-01

    Language teaching practioners are curently puting increasing emphasis on L2 vocabulary learning in the language teaching curiculum. Aditonaly, with the emergence and prevalence of growing technologies, language teachers are asumed to take advantage of these technologies in prompting L2 learning vocabulary. The present comparative study investigates the efect of using two types of vocabulary contextualization; textual and visual, in teaching vocabulary. The participants were seventy lear...

  10. Early Vocabulary Development in Rural and Urban Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vogt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (short version into three languages spoken in Southern Mozambique. The tool was adapted to study vocabulary development among children of 12 to 25 months of age in two communities: a rural, monolingual Changana speaking community and an urban bilingual Ronga and Portuguese speaking community. We present a norming study carried out with the adaptation, as well as a validation study. The norming study revealed various predictors for reported expressive and receptive vocabulary size. These predictors include age, socioeconomic status, reported health problems, caregiving practices, and location. The validation of the CDI among a small sample in both communities shows positive correlations between the reported expressive vocabulary scores and children’s recorded word production. We conclude that the adapted CDI is useful for research purposes and could be used as a template for adaptations into other languages from similar cultures.

  11. Early Vocabulary Development of Australian Indigenous Children: Identifying Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad M. Farrant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study sought to increase our understanding of the factors involved in the early vocabulary development of Australian Indigenous children. Data from the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children were available for 573 Indigenous children (291 boys who spoke English (M=37.0 months, SD=5.4 months, at wave 3. Data were also available for 86 children (51 boys who spoke an Indigenous language (M=37.1 months, SD=6.0 months, at wave 3. As hypothesised, higher levels of parent-child book reading and having more children’s books in the home were associated with better English vocabulary development. Oral storytelling in Indigenous language was a significant predictor of the size of children’s Indigenous vocabulary.

  12. Using hypermedia annotations to teach vocabulary on the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Gorjian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This project measured the effect of using hypermedia annotations on short and long-term vocabulary retention in teaching vocabulary through Web-based language learning activities. A total of 62 university students were randomly assigned into two homogeneous groups; and then both groups were given a pretest. Both groups covered 12 expository passages selected by the researchers from the BBC website. The subjects had to sit for an immediate quiz to measure the short-term effect of the treatment and finally, at the end of the course and a twoweek interval, subjects sat for their post-test. Findings revealed that there was a significant effect of the hypermedia annotations on the retention of vocabulary in the short term ( p<0.05. However, the post-test results indicated that the effect of the treatment in the long term faded away, and the significance of the means was not sufficiently high to reject the null hypothesis.

  13. FPGA-Based Vocabulary Recognition Module for Humanoid Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Te; Hu, Chun-Yang; Li, Tzuu-Hseng S.

    This paper focuses on using FPGA board to realize the ability of vocabulary recognition for humanoid robot. At first, the system structure of the humanoid robot system is setup. The central process unit of the humanoid robot is a FPGA board, ALTERA Nios II EP2C20F324C8, which not only controls all the motors of robot but also processes the information of vision system. The vocabulary recognition method is then introduced. We apply the image segment to find the valid region, and use the encoding method to sample the word. After matching algorithm, we use a speech module, Emic TTS module, to pronounce the word. Finally the experiments verify the procedure of the proposed module and demonstrate the feasibility of the vocabulary recognition and speak out function for the humanoid robot.

  14. Lexical consciousness-raising in the vicinity of target vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi, Farjami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effectiveness of three techniques for teaching English vocabulary to Persian native speakers: a traditional procedure, the classical cloze procedure, and an innovative procedure, which is dubbed here as vicinity technique, based on incidental learning, noticing and consciousness-raising. To do the comparison, 51 students, registered at a private language institute, were randomly assigned to three groups and were taught 40 vocabulary items in five sessions in the three procedures. To evaluate the vocabulary gain in the three conditions, immediate and delayed post-tests were administered and the obtained data were analyzed using ANOVA. The results revealed that the vicinity technique was more effective than the traditional procedure; both in immediate and delayed evaluations. It was also revealed that, although there was no significant difference between the vicinity technique and the classical cloze technique in short-term, the vicinity technique was more effective than the classical cloze one for long-term retention.

  15. Workflow automation architecture standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshofsky, R.P.; Rohen, W.T. [Boeing Computer Services Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-11-14

    This document presents an architectural standard for application of workflow automation technology. The standard includes a functional architecture, process for developing an automated workflow system for a work group, functional and collateral specifications for workflow automation, and results of a proof of concept prototype.

  16. The Ontology Lookup Service, a lightweight cross-platform tool for controlled vocabulary queries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apweiler Rolf

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the vast amounts of biomedical data being generated by high-throughput analysis methods, controlled vocabularies and ontologies are becoming increasingly important to annotate units of information for ease of search and retrieval. Each scientific community tends to create its own locally available ontology. The interfaces to query these ontologies tend to vary from group to group. We saw the need for a centralized location to perform controlled vocabulary queries that would offer both a lightweight web-accessible user interface as well as a consistent, unified SOAP interface for automated queries. Results The Ontology Lookup Service (OLS was created to integrate publicly available biomedical ontologies into a single database. All modified ontologies are updated daily. A list of currently loaded ontologies is available online. The database can be queried to obtain information on a single term or to browse a complete ontology using AJAX. Auto-completion provides a user-friendly search mechanism. An AJAX-based ontology viewer is available to browse a complete ontology or subsets of it. A programmatic interface is available to query the webservice using SOAP. The service is described by a WSDL descriptor file available online. A sample Java client to connect to the webservice using SOAP is available for download from SourceForge. All OLS source code is publicly available under the open source Apache Licence. Conclusion The OLS provides a user-friendly single entry point for publicly available ontologies in the Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO format. It can be accessed interactively or programmatically at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ontology-lookup/.

  17. Building Word Knowledge: Opportunities for Direct Vocabulary Instruction in General Education for Students with Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzek, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Direct vocabulary instruction is 1 critical component of reading instruction. Although most students in the elementary grades need to continue building their vocabulary knowledge, students with reading difficulties are at the greatest risk of falling further behind each year in vocabulary and concept knowledge without effective instruction. This…

  18. An Investigation of the Possible Effects of Favored Contexts in Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Omid; Dezhara, Salman

    2011-01-01

    It is widely agreed that much second language vocabulary learning occurs while the learner is attentively engaged in the process of reading and interpreting the texts encountered. It is also argued that to understand vocabulary learning linguists cannot limit the investigation of the process of vocabulary learning to word meaning (Gass, 1999).…

  19. The Role of Vocabulary Size in Predicting Performance on TOEFL Reading Item Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Seyyed Mohammad; Akbarian, Is'haaq

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine a) whether vocabulary knowledge, captured in the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT), is related to the performance on the five types of reading comprehension items tested in TOEFL, i.e., Guessing Vocabulary, Main Idea, Inference, Reference, and Stated Detail; and b) whether EFL learners with different levels of vocabulary…

  20. Shyness and Chinese and English Vocabulary Skills in Hong Kong Kindergartners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Ting, Ka-Tsun; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined relations between parent-rated shyness and children's vocabulary skills in 54 Hong Kong Chinese kindergartners who learned English as a foreign language at school. Receptive vocabulary and expressive vocabulary were assessed both in Chinese and in English. Parent-rated shyness was uniquely associated with…

  1. Bridging the Gap between Receptive and Productive Vocabulary Size through Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuka

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that extensive reading promotes the incidental learning of L1 and L2 receptive vocabulary; however, little is known about its effectiveness on productive gains in vocabulary knowledge. This paper investigates the extent to which extensive reading combined with writing tasks promotes productive vocabulary growth of Japanese…

  2. Using Mobile-Assisted Exercises to Support Students' Vocabulary Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwantarathip, Ornprapat; Orawiwatnakul, Wiwat

    2015-01-01

    The use of mobile phones for learning has become well-known and is widely adopted in many language classes. The use of SMS for transmitting short messages is a fast way of helping students to learn vocabulary. To address this issue, this study was conducted to examine the effects of mobile-assisted vocabulary exercises on vocabulary acquisition of…

  3. The Effects of Presenting Different Types of Vocabulary Clusters on Very Young Learners' Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, Aslihan; Kesli Dollar, Yesim

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to find out which type of vocabulary cluster--semantic, thematic and unrelated--very young learners benefit from the most while learning foreign language vocabulary. The study also aimed at shedding light on the effects of these three vocabulary clusters on the immediate and delayed recall of foreign language…

  4. A Review of Effect of Different Tasks on Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of incidental vocabulary acquisition in second language learning have got more and more attention both at home and abroad. By first introducing the definition and theoretical foundations of incidental vocabulary acquisition, this paper reviews empirical studies of effect of different tasks on incidental vocabulary acquisition and points…

  5. Students' Perceptions of Vocabulary Knowledge and Learning in a Middle School Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick L.; Concannon, James P.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated eighth-grade science students' (13-14-year-olds) perceptions of their vocabulary knowledge, learning, and content achievement. Data sources included pre- and posttest of students' perceptions of vocabulary knowledge, students' perceptions of vocabulary and reading strategies surveys, and a content achievement test.…

  6. The Magic of Words: Teaching Vocabulary in the Early Childhood Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Wright, Tanya S.

    2014-01-01

    Developing a large and rich vocabulary is central to learning to read. Children must know the words that make up written texts in order to understand them, especially as the vocabulary demands of content-related materials increase in the upper grades. Studies have documented that the size of a person's vocabulary is strongly related to how…

  7. Acquisition of Vocabulary by Dint of Unique Strategies: Indispensible for Fostering English Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, G. Rexlin

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary is the gateway to knowledge that unlocks the doors of sublime ideas to the readers. The competency on the lexical items of language plays a significant role in learning a new concept. Any learner who has excellent command over the use of vocabulary excels in his/her study of different subjects. Vocabulary learning is one of the…

  8. Linking Research and Practice: Effective Strategies for Teaching Vocabulary in the ESL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jihyun

    2010-01-01

    Vocabulary plays a pivotal role in the ESL classroom. Whereas a considerable amount of research has examined effective ESL vocabulary teaching and learning, missing are studies that provide examples of how to put various research findings into practice: that is, apply them to real texts including target vocabulary items. In order to close the gap…

  9. On Multi-Dimensional Vocabulary Teaching Mode for College English Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li-na

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the major approaches in EFL (English as a Foreign Language) vocabulary teaching from historical perspective and puts forward multi-dimensional vocabulary teaching mode for college English. The author stresses that multi-dimensional approaches of communicative vocabulary teaching, lexical phrase teaching method, the grammar…

  10. Students' Proficiency and Textual Computer Gloss Use in Facilitating Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Mohamad A.; Sim, Tam S.; Su'ad A.

    2014-01-01

    Learning vocabulary forms a major part for any language learner. Apart from direct teaching of vocabulary, language teachers are always searching for ways to increase their students' vocabulary to enable them to use the language more effectively. Therefore, this study sets out to investigate whether the use of computer textual glosses can aid…

  11. Direct Teaching of Vocabulary after Reading: Is It Worth the Effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonbul, Suhad; Schmitt, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    This experimental study evaluated the effectiveness of direct teaching of new vocabulary items in reading passages. The study compared vocabulary learning under a reading only condition (incidental learning) to learning that is aided by direct communication of word meanings (explicit learning). Three levels of vocabulary knowledge (form recall,…

  12. Incidental L2 Vocabulary Acquisition "from" and "while" Reading: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer-Sánchez, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that reading is an important source of incidental second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition. However, we still do not have a clear picture of what happens when readers encounter unknown words. Combining offline (vocabulary tests) and online (eye-tracking) measures, the incidental acquisition of vocabulary knowledge…

  13. Vocabulary acquisition in deaf and hard-of-hearing children: Research and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, D.; Wauters, L.N.; Willemsen, M.; Knoors, H.E.T.

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is fundamental to communication, language learning, and acquiring knowledge of the world. Deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children face considerable challenges in acquiring age-appropriate vocabulary knowledge. The enhancement of children’s vocabulary knowledge is therefore one o

  14. E-Book as Facilitator of Vocabulary Acquisition: Support of Adults, Dynamic Dictionary and Static Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korat, Ofra; Levin, Iris; Atishkin, Shifra; Turgeman, Merav

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of three facilitators: adults' support, dynamic visual vocabulary support and static visual vocabulary support on vocabulary acquisition in the context of e-book reading. Participants were 144 Israeli Hebrew-speaking preschoolers (aged 4-6) from middle SES neighborhoods. The entire sample read the e-book without a…

  15. Early productive vocabulary predicts academic achievement 10 years later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleses, Dorthe; Makransky, Guido; Dale, Philip; Højen, Anders; Aktürk Ari, Burcak

    2016-01-01

    We use a longitudinal design to examine associations for 2,120 16-30 months old children between early expressive vocabulary and later reading and math outcomes in the 6th Grade based on a large and diverse sample of Danish children. Educational outcomes, in particular decoding and reading...... comprehension, can be predicted from an early vocabulary measure as early as 16 months with effect sizes (in proportion of variance accounted for) comparable to one year’s mean growth in reading scores. The findings confirm in a relatively large population based study that late talkers are at risk for later...

  16. New concepts for building vocabulary for cell image ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plant Anne L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are significant challenges associated with the building of ontologies for cell biology experiments including the large numbers of terms and their synonyms. These challenges make it difficult to simultaneously query data from multiple experiments or ontologies. If vocabulary terms were consistently used and reused across and within ontologies, queries would be possible through shared terms. One approach to achieving this is to strictly control the terms used in ontologies in the form of a pre-defined schema, but this approach limits the individual researcher's ability to create new terms when needed to describe new experiments. Results Here, we propose the use of a limited number of highly reusable common root terms, and rules for an experimentalist to locally expand terms by adding more specific terms under more general root terms to form specific new vocabulary hierarchies that can be used to build ontologies. We illustrate the application of the method to build vocabularies and a prototype database for cell images that uses a visual data-tree of terms to facilitate sophisticated queries based on a experimental parameters. We demonstrate how the terminology might be extended by adding new vocabulary terms into the hierarchy of terms in an evolving process. In this approach, image data and metadata are handled separately, so we also describe a robust file-naming scheme to unambiguously identify image and other files associated with each metadata value. The prototype database http://sbd.nist.gov/ consists of more than 2000 images of cells and benchmark materials, and 163 metadata terms that describe experimental details, including many details about cell culture and handling. Image files of interest can be retrieved, and their data can be compared, by choosing one or more relevant metadata values as search terms. Metadata values for any dataset can be compared with corresponding values of another dataset through logical

  17. EFL textbooks for young learners: a comparative analysis of vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Nordlund, Marie

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a comparative analysis of two English teaching course book series which are widely used in school years 4–6 in Sweden: Good Stuffand New Champion. The analysis comprises comparisons of the vocabulary component in the teaching materials and examines the extent to which words – adjectives, nouns and verbs – recur in the books, whether there is a common core of words in the two series and, finally, whether vocabulary in the two teaching materials corresponds ...

  18. Using Songs To Support Vocabulary Learning For Grade Four Pupils

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid Al-Azri; Majid Hilal Al-Rashdi; Lavdim Kazazi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Over the recent years the teaching of foreign language vocabulary has been the subject of much discussion and arguments and a number of research and methodology books on such topic have emerged as it is the case for example with Nation 2001 and Schmitt 2000. For a long time grammar seemed to have attracted more attention but this renewed interest in vocabulary reflects the belief that it is becoming a major component in knowing a language and as some recent scholars would admit even ...

  19. Using Hypnosis to Enhance Learning Second Language Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Yakup; Çimen, O Arda; Yetkiner, Zeynep Ebrar

    2016-04-01

    In this article, we measure the effects of hypnosis and suggestions for learning second language vocabulary. Participants (N = 70) were randomly assigned to a hypnosis or a control group. They were pre-tested, and then presented 21 Spanish words, post-tested immediately and 1 week later. The data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance with group (experimental versus control) as the between-subjects factor, and time as the within-subjects factor. The experimental group performed significantly better in both tests. Our results indicate that hypnosis is beneficial for second language vocabulary learning and retrieval. PMID:27003488

  20. To the Geoportal and Beyond! Preparing the Earth Observing Laboratory's Datasets for Inter-Repository Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, S.; Dattore, E.; Williams, S.

    2014-12-01

    Even when a data center makes it's datasets accessible, they can still be hard to discover if the user is unaware of the laboratory or organization the data center supports. NCAR's Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) is no exception. In response to this problem and as an inquiry into the feasibility of inter-connecting all of NCAR's repositories at a discovery layer, ESRI's Geoportal was researched. It was determined that an implementation of Geoportal would be a good choice to build a proof of concept model of inter-repository discovery around. This collaborative project between the University of Illinois and NCAR is coordinated through the Data Curation Education in Research Centers program. This program is funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services.Geoportal is open source software. It serves as an aggregation point for metadata catalogs of earth science datasets, with a focus on geospatial information. EOL's metadata is in static THREDDS catalogs. Geoportal can only create records from a THREDDS Data Server. The first step was to make EOL metadata more accessible by utilizing the ISO 19115-2 standard. It was also decided to create DIF records so EOL datasets could be ingested in NASA's Global Change Master Directory (GCMD). To offer records for harvest, it was decided to develop an OAI-PMH server. To make a compliant server, the OAI_DC standard was also implemented. A server was written in Perl to serve a set of static records. We created a sample set of records in ISO 19115-2, FGDC, DIF, and OAI_DC. We utilized GCMD shared vocabularies to enhance discoverability and precision. The proof of concept was tested and verified by having another NCAR laboratory's Geoportal harvest our sample set. To prepare for production, templates for each standard were developed and mapped to the database. These templates will help the automated creation of records. Once the OAI-PMH server is re-written in a Grails framework a dynamic representation of EOL's metadata will

  1. Shoe-String Automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, M.L.

    2001-07-30

    Faced with a downsizing organization, serious budget reductions and retirement of key metrology personnel, maintaining capabilities to provide necessary services to our customers was becoming increasingly difficult. It appeared that the only solution was to automate some of our more personnel-intensive processes; however, it was crucial that the most personnel-intensive candidate process be automated, at the lowest price possible and with the lowest risk of failure. This discussion relates factors in the selection of the Standard Leak Calibration System for automation, the methods of automation used to provide the lowest-cost solution and the benefits realized as a result of the automation.

  2. Computational drug discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-sheng OU-YANG; Jun-yan LU; Xiang-qian KONG; Zhong-jie LIANG; Cheng LUO; Hualiang JIANG

    2012-01-01

    Computational drug discovery is an effective strategy for accelerating and economizing drug discovery and development process.Because of the dramatic increase in the availability of biological macromolecule and small molecule information,the applicability of computational drug discovery has been extended and broadly applied to nearly every stage in the drug discovery and development workflow,including target identification and validation,lead discovery and optimization and preclinical tests.Over the past decades,computational drug discovery methods such as molecular docking,pharmacophore modeling and mapping,de novo design,molecular similarity calculation and sequence-based virtual screening have been greatly improved.In this review,we present an overview of these important computational methods,platforms and successful applications in this field.

  3. Automated Discovery and Refinement of Reactive Molecular Dynamics Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lee-Ping; McGibbon, Robert T; Pande, Vijay S; Martinez, Todd J

    2016-02-01

    We describe a flexible and broadly applicable energy refinement method, "nebterpolation," for identifying and characterizing the reaction events in a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The new method is applicable to ab initio simulations with hundreds of atoms containing complex and multimolecular reaction events. A key aspect of nebterpolation is smoothing of the reactive MD trajectory in internal coordinates to initiate the search for the reaction path on the potential energy surface. We apply nebterpolation to analyze the reaction events in an ab initio nanoreactor simulation that discovers new molecules and mechanisms, including a C-C coupling pathway for glycolaldehyde synthesis. We find that the new method, which incorporates information from the MD trajectory that connects reactants with products, produces a dramatically distinct set of minimum energy paths compared to existing approaches that start from information for the reaction end points alone. The energy refinement method described here represents a key component of an emerging simulation paradigm where molecular dynamics simulations are applied to discover the possible reaction mechanisms. PMID:26683346

  4. Automated Atmospheric Composition Dataset Level Metadata Discovery. Difficulties and Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strub, R. F.; Falke, S. R.; Kempler, S.; Fialkowski, E.; Goussev, O.; Lynnes, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Atmospheric Composition Portal (ACP) is an aggregator and curator of information related to remotely sensed atmospheric composition data and analysis. It uses existing tools and technologies and, where needed, enhances those capabilities to provide interoperable access, tools, and contextual guidance for scientists and value-adding organizations using remotely sensed atmospheric composition data. The initial focus is on Essential Climate Variables identified by the Global Climate Observing System - CH4, CO, CO2, NO2, O3, SO2 and aerosols. This poster addresses our efforts in building the ACP Data Table, an interface to help discover and understand remotely sensed data that are related to atmospheric composition science and applications. We harvested GCMD, CWIC, GEOSS metadata catalogs using machine to machine technologies - OpenSearch, Web Services. We also manually investigated the plethora of CEOS data providers portals and other catalogs where that data might be aggregated. This poster is our experience of the excellence, variety, and challenges we encountered.Conclusions:1.The significant benefits that the major catalogs provide are their machine to machine tools like OpenSearch and Web Services rather than any GUI usability improvements due to the large amount of data in their catalog.2.There is a trend at the large catalogs towards simulating small data provider portals through advanced services. 3.Populating metadata catalogs using ISO19115 is too complex for users to do in a consistent way, difficult to parse visually or with XML libraries, and too complex for Java XML binders like CASTOR.4.The ability to search for Ids first and then for data (GCMD and ECHO) is better for machine to machine operations rather than the timeouts experienced when returning the entire metadata entry at once. 5.Metadata harvest and export activities between the major catalogs has led to a significant amount of duplication. (This is currently being addressed) 6.Most (if not all) Earth science atmospheric composition data providers store a reference to their data at GCMD.

  5. Automated Service Discovery using Autonomous Control Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With the advent of mobile commerce technologies, the realization of pervasive computing and the formation of ad-hoc networks can be leveraged to the benefit of the...

  6. An Analysis on Teaching College English Vocabulary-From an Etymo-logical Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘菊

    2014-01-01

    Language and culture have influenced each other. They cannot be separated as isolated one. Culture finds a better rep-resentation through language use. Language is an indispensible carrier of culture. Many words have their origins in religion, my-thology stories and literary works. Looking at English vocabulary from an etymological perspective is a good way to go in teach-ing college English vocabulary. This paper gives a brief introduction about the characteristics of English vocabulary and some ad-vantages of teaching vocabulary from an etymological perspective, also, suggestions in using etymological perspective to teach col-lege English vocabulary.

  7. Reliable knowledge discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Honghua; Smirnov, Evgueni

    2012-01-01

    Reliable Knowledge Discovery focuses on theory, methods, and techniques for RKDD, a new sub-field of KDD. It studies the theory and methods to assure the reliability and trustworthiness of discovered knowledge and to maintain the stability and consistency of knowledge discovery processes. RKDD has a broad spectrum of applications, especially in critical domains like medicine, finance, and military. Reliable Knowledge Discovery also presents methods and techniques for designing robust knowledge-discovery processes. Approaches to assessing the reliability of the discovered knowledge are introduc

  8. Does L1 Make a Difference? Evidence from the Receptive Vocabulary Size of Spanish and German EFL Primary School Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustin Llach, Maria Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The present paper explores and compares the receptive vocabulary sizes of two groups of learners of different native languages. One of the most widely used vocabulary size tests is the Vocabulary Levels Test designed by Nation. Some reservations have been raised in relation to the adequacy of the Vocabulary Levels Test to estimate the vocabulary…

  9. A Book Reading Intervention with Preschool Children Who Have Limited Vocabularies: The Benefits of Regular Reading and Dialogic Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrave, Anne C.; Senechal, Monique

    2000-01-01

    Examined effects of two types of storybook reading experiences on acquisition of vocabulary of 36 preschoolers behind chronological age in expressive vocabulary. Found that children in the dialogic-reading condition made significantly larger gains in vocabulary introduced in the books, as well as gains on a standardized expressive vocabulary test,…

  10. Learning English Vocabulary Collaboratively in a Technology-Supported Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Cheng; Hsiao, Hsien-Sheng; Tseng, Sheng-ping; Chan, Hsin-jung

    2014-01-01

    This study was intended to investigate whether computer-assisted collaborative learning is comparable with computer-free and individual learning; in particular, it examined each of their effects on learning English vocabulary, followed by an analysis of their behavior patterns. In a junior high school in northern Taiwan, a normal classroom was…

  11. Conceptual Coherence, Comprehension, and Vocabulary Acquisition: A Knowledge Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervetti, Gina N.; Wright, Tanya S.; Hwang, HyeJin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has documented the role of readers' existing topic knowledge in supporting students' comprehension of text; yet, we know less about how to build students' knowledge in order to support comprehension and vocabulary learning. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that knowledge can be built and leveraged simultaneously in…

  12. Infant Word Segmentation and Childhood Vocabulary Development: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Leher; Reznick, J. Steven; Xuehua, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Infants begin to segment novel words from speech by 7.5 months, demonstrating an ability to track, encode and retrieve words in the context of larger units. Although it is presumed that word recognition at this stage is a prerequisite to constructing a vocabulary, the continuity between these stages of development has not yet been empirically…

  13. Child, home and institutional predictors of preschool vocabulary growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Druten-Frietman, L.J.G.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Gijsel, M.A.R.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines vocabulary growth and stability over time in 385 young children (two to four years of age) who attended a preschool. The relation between child, family, and institutional factors (i.c gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES), family background (native/non-native), teacher educatio

  14. Joint Book Reading and Receptive Vocabulary: A Parallel Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to understand the reciprocal, bidirectional longitudinal relation between joint book reading and English receptive vocabulary. To address the research goals, a nationally representative sample of Head Start children, the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (2003 cohort), was used for analysis. The…

  15. A Preliminary Study of Cognitive Strategies in English Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚丽

    2009-01-01

    The paper tries to put forward some methods to learn English words effectively from the perspective of cognitive psychology. According to objective cognition rules: human are easier to know things from near surroundings, from similar group, from familiar situations and so on. The article explores that some cognitive strategies such as category, semantic net, context, and chunk are helpful for English vocabulary learning.

  16. Speaking My Mind: Why I No Longer Teach Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heverly, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    It's one of those assumptions of the English teaching game that students must learn and store up vocabulary as a precondition of tackling literature or history or any of those fields that feature big words. How, some ask, could a child read a challenging passage if he or she didn't understand those key, usually multisyllabic, words often sprinkled…

  17. Direct and Extended Vocabulary Instruction in Kindergarten: Investigating Transfer Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Michael D.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Loftus, Susan; Zipoli, Richard, Jr.; Ruby, Maureen; Crevecoeur, Yvel C.; Kapp, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an 18-week program of direct and extended vocabulary instruction with kindergarten students on both proximal measures of target word knowledge and transfer measures of generalized language and literacy. A second purpose was to examine whether treatment effects would be moderated by…

  18. Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Iranian Upper-Intermediate EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Mohammad; Hassanzadeh, Mohammad; Rezaei, Saeed

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the preferred vocabulary learning strategies of Iranian upper-intermediate EFL learners. In order to identify the aforementioned group in terms of language proficiency, a TOEFL test was administered to a population of 146 undergraduate EFL students at the university of Vali-e-Asr in Rafsanjan, Iran. Those scoring above 480 were…

  19. A Study of Multimedia Application-Based Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jing

    2012-01-01

    The development of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) has created the opportunity for exploring the effects of the multimedia application on foreign language vocabulary acquisition in recent years. This study provides an overview the computer-assisted language learning (CALL) and detailed a developing result of CALL--multimedia. With the…

  20. Vocabulary and Working Memory in Children Fit with Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Derek J.; McGregor, Karla K.; Bentler, Ruth A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether children with mild-to-moderately severe sensorineural hearing loss (CHL) present with disturbances in working memory and whether these disturbances relate to the size of their receptive vocabularies. Method: Children 6 to 9 years of age participated. Aspects of working memory were tapped by articulation rate, forward…

  1. Receptive Vocabulary Differences in Monolingual and Bilingual Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi

    2012-01-01

    English receptive vocabulary scores from 797 monolingual and 808 bilingual participants between the ages of 17 and 89 years old were aggregated from 20 studies to compare standard scores across language groups. The distribution of scores was unimodal for both groups but the mean score was significantly different, with monolinguals obtaining higher…

  2. Receptive and Productive Vocabulary Sizes of L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between receptive and productive vocabulary size. The experimental design expanded upon earlier methodologies by using equivalent receptive and productive test formats with different receptive and productive target words to provide more accurate results. Translation tests were scored at two levels of…

  3. Developing Vocabulary and Speaking Skills for EFL Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽波

    2013-01-01

    [Introduction]A great number of researchers have investigated how to improve EFL learners’sub-skills through various classroom activities. Within this,some research has been specifically conducted on why teachers should help learners enlarge their vocabulary knowledge and to develop their speaking skills through diverse tasks(Thurston,1997;Marco,1998;Nation,2004;Demo,2001). One common outcome from the above research indicates that the most productive way for learners to develop speaking and vocabulary learning skills is through different activities rather than for example repeating words;memorizing grammatical rules or simply talking to native speakers whenever learners have the chance. It can be concluded from the previous research that it is essential for teachers to investigate what activities/tasks are appropriate to be utilised in order to help learners develop their sub-skills and vocabulary. This article aims to shed light on two activities which are designed to help EFL learners develop their vocabulary knowledge and speaking skills. These activities are specifically organised for EFL learners to gradually develop their discourse skills. The targeted EFL learners are intermediate learners who are year 12 learners in China. The ultimate goal of the article is to share opinions with EFL teachers about what kinds of activities are efficient and should be adopted in the EFL classroom teaching.

  4. Internal and External Influences on Vocabulary Development in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Susanne; Lockl, Kathrin; Weinert, Sabine; Anders, Yvonne; Kluczniok, Katharina; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther

    2013-01-01

    Competency in society's lingua franca plays a major role in the emergence of social disparities within education. Therefore, the present longitudinal study investigates vocabulary development and its predictors in preschool years. We focus on whether internal (phonological working memory) and external variables (preschool and home learning…

  5. Virtual Vocabulary: Research and Learning in Lexical Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetze, Ulf; Weimer-Stuckmann, Gerlinde

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the concept development, research programming, and learning design of a lexical processing web application, Virtual Vocabulary, which was developed using theories in both cognitive psychology and second language acquisition (SLA). It is being tested with first-year students of German at the University of Victoria in Canada,…

  6. How Large a Vocabulary Is Needed for Reading and Listening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, I. S. P.

    2006-01-01

    This article has two goals: to report on the trialling of fourteen 1,000 word-family lists made from the British National Corpus, and to use these lists to see what vocabulary size is needed for unassisted comprehension of written and spoken English. The trialling showed that the lists were properly sequenced and there were no glaring omissions…

  7. Reading and vocabulary acquisition: Supporting evidence and some objections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Krashen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I continue here the long-standing discussion on the familiar topic of whether subconscious language acquisition is more powerful than conscious language learning, with a focus on vocabulary, adding recent studies as well as older ones I missed in previous publications on this topic (e.g. Krashen, 2004.

  8. Vocabulary and Sentence Structure in Emergent Spanish Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Dual language and bilingual education programs are increasing in number and popularity across the country. However, little information is available on how to teach children to read and write in Spanish. This article explores some of the similarities and differences in vocabulary and sentence structure in Spanish and English and considers the…

  9. ESP vocabulary and social networking: The case of Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pérez-Sabater

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the results of an innovative study that applied a social networking tool to a task explicitly designed to practise specialised vocabulary. The exploratory study, framed within a blended learning approach, examined whether the use of Twitter, a microblogging tool, can help increase students’ confidence in using ESP vocabulary. The research questions addressed the role of Twitter in enhancing vocabulary acquisition, in providing peer and teacher feedback, and promoting communication skills. The paper comes to the conclusion that ESP students do not frequently experience problems using vocabulary specific to their specialised field of study. In terms of peer feedback, often students simply approved their peers’ Tweets, were unable to detect errors, and preferred feedback from their teacher. A significantly positive outcome is the role of Twitter in enhancing student participation. Additionally, regarding communication skills, a particularly important finding was the effectiveness of this blended approach in involving the learners in the classroom and beyond, creating the sense of a learning community

  10. The Latin-Greek Connection: Building Vocabulary through Morphological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinski, Timothy V.; Padak, Nancy; Newton, Joanna; Newton, Evangeline

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors make a case for teaching vocabulary in the elementary grades through a focus on the morphological structure of words, in particular English words that are derived through Latin and Greek roots and affixes. The authors present a set of engaging instructional ideas for the use of Latin and Greek derivations to teach…

  11. A Learning Environment for English Vocabulary Using Quick Response Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Yuksel Deniz; Ozen, Sevil Orhan

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the process of developing a learning environment that uses tablets and Quick Response (QR) codes to enhance participants' English language vocabulary knowledge. The author employed the concurrent triangulation strategy, a mixed research design. The study was conducted at a private school in Izmir, Turkey during the 2012-2013…

  12. Reexamining the Effectiveness of Vocabulary Learning via Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haisen; Song, Wei; Burston, Jack

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reexamine the effectiveness of vocabulary learning via mobile phones. Students (N=78) from two intact classes of sophomores at a Chinese university were assigned to two groups: the SMS group (the experimental group) and the paper group (the control group). Then, they were administered a pretest to identify the level…

  13. How Well Does Teacher Talk Support Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Marlise

    2010-01-01

    Opportunities for incidental vocabulary acquisition were explored in a 121,000-word corpus of teacher talk addressed to advanced adult learners of English as a second language (ESL) in a communicatively-oriented conversation class. In contrast to previous studies that relied on short excerpts, the corpus contained all of the teacher speech the…

  14. The Effectiveness of Multimedia Programmes in Children's Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acha, Joana

    2009-01-01

    The present experiment investigated the effect of three different presentation modes in children's vocabulary learning with a self-guided multimedia programmes. Participants were 135 third and fourth grade children who read a short English language story presented by a computer programme. For 12 key (previously unknown) words in the story,…

  15. KEEFEKTIFAN METODE SCHOOLYARD INQUIRY TERHADAP PENINGKATAN PEMAHAMAN SCIENCE VOCABULARY

    OpenAIRE

    S. D. Pamelasari; M. Khusniati

    2014-01-01

    Tantangan yang harus dihadapi dalam mengajar Bahasa Inggris di pada mahasiswa selain jurusan Bahasa Inggris adalah tingkat pemahaman kosakata yang rendah. Hal tersebut berpengaruh pada pemahaman materi mereka, berdasarkan permasalahan tersebut metode schoolyard inquiry digagas untuk membantu meningkatkan pemahaman mereka dalam memahami science vocabulary sebagai metode alternative untuk membantu mereka belajar. Schoolyard inquiry adalah metode belajar kosakata secara mandiri di luar kelas. Ha...

  16. Examining Multiple Dimensions of Word Knowledge for Content Vocabulary Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervetti, Gina N.; Tilson, Jennifer L.; Castek, Jill; Bravo, Marco A.; Trainin, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This study traces the development of a vocabulary measure designed to assess multiple types of word knowledge. The assessment, which was administered in conjunction with a science unit about weather and the water cycle for third-and-fourth graders, included items for six knowledge types--recognition, definition, classification/example, context,…

  17. Sentence Reading and Writing for Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichette, Francois; de Serres, Linda; Lafontaine, Marc

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the relative effectiveness of reading and writing sentences for the incidental acquisition of new vocabulary in a second language. It also examines if recall varies according to the concreteness of target words. Participants were 203 French-speaking intermediate and advanced English as second language (ESL) learners, tested for…

  18. Enhancing ESL Vocabulary Development through the Use of Mobile Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Deanna; Austin, Dayna

    2013-01-01

    Applications, or apps, that are available for both smart phones and tablets can be an effective tool for promoting vocabulary development among adult learners in English as a second language programs. An app is a software program for a mobile phone or computer operating system. Examples of such apps are provided along with practical…

  19. Enhancing Vocabulary and Spelling Proficiencies in Prison Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, James

    1991-01-01

    A group of 19 inmates took 3 spelling tests: the first following study of a blackboard word list, the second following students' copying of words from the blackboard, and the third following definitions of the words. A recall test showed that inclusion of meanings enhanced retention of vocabulary and spelling. (SK)

  20. Gamified Vocabulary: Online Resources and Enriched Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Sandra Schamroth; Walsh, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the ways "gamification" can play a role in adolescents' development of vocabulary. Gamification involves the application of game-design thinking and play elements to non-game activities, such as routine homework or classroom lessons. Drawing upon data from in-school and after-school settings, the authors…

  1. Reflecting the environmental vocabulary in the works of Bashkir Writers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulfira Abdullina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the reflection of environmental vocabulary in the works of Bashkir writers. Analyzed novels, short stories, poems by contemporary writers, poets, examples on ekoleksemy. It is stated that writers and poets in their works not only call for mankind to protect the environment, but also use a variety of numerous ekoslov.

  2. What Is Most Important to Know about Vocabulary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucan, Linda

    2012-01-01

    This article makes use of Perfetti's Lexical Quality Hypothesis as a perspective for thinking about vocabulary instruction in terms of semantics (meaning), phonology (pronunciation), orthography (spelling), morphology (meaningful word parts), and syntax (how words function in sentences). Examples are presented of how these aspects of vocabulary…

  3. A teaching method to help improve vocabulary retention in students

    OpenAIRE

    Minotti, Tony; Tony, Minotti

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an exploratory classroom study that investigates how to improve students' retention level of vocabulary learned in a classroom setting. I compared a teacher-led teaching method and a peer-led method. The results showed an overall improvement in scores when a peer-led teaching method was used.

  4. Teaching Techniques: Physical Vocabulary in the Beginner-Level Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiullo, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    After having success with this warm-up activity in his theater classes, the author adapted it for his beginner-level English classes, knowing his students would appreciate the opportunity to move around. The activity allows students to create their own physical interpretation of a vocabulary word, which increases their ability to remember it…

  5. Prototype Theory and Its Implication into English Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑禄娟; 张锐

    2015-01-01

    Prototype is the cognitive reference point that human beings use to categorize the world.It is the best and most typical member in the category while the other members of the category are centered on it.Guided by prototype theory,this paper will discuss some implications to English vocabulary teaching.

  6. The Question of Teaching Vocabulary: Which Words? In What Ways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of vocabulary for comprehension, Wilhelm asks two key questions: "which words do I teach and how should I teach them?" Through years of trial and error, Wilhelm has adopted these principles to answer "which words": teach "important" words students will see and use again; words necessary to conceptual understanding; words…

  7. Comparative Effectiveness of Contextual and Structural Method of Teaching Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behlol, Malik; Kaini, Mohammad Munir

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to find out effectiveness of contextual an, structural method of teaching vocabulary in English at secondary level. It was an experimental study in which the pretest posttest design was used. The population of the study was the students of secondary classes studying in Government secondary schools of Rawalpindi District.…

  8. Pre-Service Teacher Cognition and Vocabulary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macalister, John

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge and beliefs that teachers hold are an important determiner of what happens in the classroom. Ideally teacher cognition should be informed by research and theory about effective language learning. This paper examines the beliefs related to vocabulary teaching held by a cohort of 60 Malaysian pre-service teachers engaged in a…

  9. CHINESE LEARNERS’STRATEGIES FOR ENGLISH VOCABULARY LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This thesis focuses mainly on vocabulary learning strategies,which is one of the most difficult areas for Chinese learners.Having investigated through questionnaires,discussed andsummarized respectively the five steps in vocabulary learning,the authors put forward some factual statements about the mostdifficult aspects in vocabulary commanding.In addition,theauthors suggest some theoretical basis for the solutions to theseaspects.When talking about vocabulary learning,Payne made aformal study in its strategies by ESL students.Based on Payne’sdata,Brown and Payne(1994)did an analysis that resulted in amodel where the strategies fall into five steps:(1)havingsources for encountering new words;(2)getting a clear image,either visual or auditory or both,for the forms of the newwords;(3)learning the meaning;(4)making a strong memoryconnection between forms and meanings;and(5)using thewords.In order to further describe in which step(s)do Chineselearners have troubles we have designed some questionnaires.The informants are 174 average non-English majors,learning"College English".They are from both science and artdepartments.They came from all over the country,so they aretypical in a way.Sex and whether they are good or bad studentsor whether they are science or art students are not taken asinvestigating elements since what we want to know is a generalphenomenon among average learners.

  10. Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Japanese Life Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Andrea; Kobayashi, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates vocabulary learning strategy (VLS) preferences of lower and higher proficiency Japanese university science students studying English as a foreign language. The study was conducted over a 9-week period as the participants received supplemental explicit VLS instruction on six strategies. The 38 participants (14 males and 24…

  11. Definitions and explanations of the new financial vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurgood, J

    NHS reforms have led to a new vocabulary for nurses. This article explains the meaning of the terms budgetary control, establishment, pay and non-pay, zero-based budgeting, trust regimens and the external financing limit. An understanding of these terms will help nurses implement the reforms. PMID:8485366

  12. The Function of Negotiation in Iranian EFL Students’ Vocabulary Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Soleimani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation is believed to play a key role in language learning in general and vocabulary learning in particular. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of types of instructions (negotiation, non-negotiation, or in isolation on learning and recalling of new words by Iranian learners. Using a quasi-experimental research design, 39 EFL students of a secondary school were sampled and assigned into three experimental groups: the input plus negotiated group (IPN, the input without negotiated group (IWN, and the elaborative, un-instructed input group (EUI. The first group had the chance for negotiated interaction; the second one received the input without any negotiation with their instructor and the last group received elaborative input without any interaction with their teachers. The groups were rated on their degree of comprehension and the acquisition of vocabulary items. The results revealed that negotiation had a non-significant effect over non-negotiation tasks. However, the results indicated that negotiation was significantly effective against un-instruction task. Thus, in acquisition and retention of new vocabulary, IPN group was not significantly different than IWN group, but they outperformed those learners who used their own strategy to learn new words (EUI.Keywords:  Acquisition of Vocabulary, Negotiated Input, Pre-modified Input, Elaboration, Enhancement.

  13. Second Language Vocabulary Learning and Teaching: Still a Hot Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrotta, Clarena

    2011-01-01

    For many reasons second language vocabulary learning and teaching continues to be a topic of interest for learners, instructors, and researchers. This article describes the implementation of personal glossaries in a community program offering English as second language classes to Latina/o Spanish speaking adults. Field notes, interviews, and…

  14. Learning Words for Life: Promoting Vocabulary in Dual Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillanders, Cristina; Castro, Dina C.; Franco, Ximena

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary development plays a critical role in young dual language learners' success in school. As teachers become aware of how they use language in the classroom, systematically teach specific words in a variety of ways, and learn about dual language learners' level of English acquisition and sociocultural experiences, they can help…

  15. Effective Academic Vocabulary Instruction in the Urban Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Joan G.; Lesaux, Nonie K.; Kieffer, Michael J.; Faller, S. Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    In urban middle schools, educators find it challenging to meet the literacy needs of the many struggling readers in their classrooms, including language-minority (LM) learners and students from low-income backgrounds. One strategy for improving these students' reading comprehension is to teach essential academic vocabulary in a meaningful,…

  16. Posters, Self-Directed Learning, and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Yakup; Flamand, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Posters, either as promotions by various ELT publishing houses or prepared by ELT teachers and students, are widely used on the walls of many foreign language classrooms. Many of them consist of colourful pictures along with L2 vocabulary, grammar, and texts in order to contribute to the foreign language learning process. However, many ELT…

  17. Impact of Using CALL on Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Melor Md; Salehi, Hadi; Amini, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) integration in EFL contexts has intensified noticeably in recent years. This integration might be in different ways and for different purposes such as vocabulary acquisition, grammar learning, phonology, writing skills, etc. More explicitly, this study is an attempt to explore the effect of using CALL on…

  18. Exploiting statistical methodologies and controlled vocabularies for prioritized functional analysis of genomic experiments: The StRAnGER web application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristotle A Chatziioannou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available StRAnGER is a web application for the automated statistical analysis of annotated gene profiling experiments, exploiting controlled biological vocabularies, like the Gene Ontology or the KEGG pathways terms. Starting from annotated lists of differentially expressed genes and gene enrichment scores, regarding the terms of each vocabulary, StRAnGER repartitions and reorders the initial distribution of terms to define a new distribution of elements. Each element pools terms holding the same enrichment score. The new distribution thus derived, is reordered in a decreasing order to the right, according to the observation score of the elements, while elements with the same score, are sorted again in a decreasing order of their enrichment scores. By applying bootstrapping techniques, a corrected measure of the statistical significance of these elements is derived, which enables the selection of terms mapped to these elements, unambiguously associated with respective significant gene sets. The selected terms are immunized against the bias infiltrating statistical enrichment analyses, producing technically very high statistical scores, due to the finite nature of the data population. Besides their high statistical score, another selection criterion for the terms is the number of their members, something that incurs a biological prioritization in line with a Systems Biology context. The output derived, represents a detailed ranked list of significant terms, which constitute a starting point for further functional analysis.

  19. A Survey and Suggestions on Students’Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Senior High School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄璐

    2014-01-01

    This paper is about a survey and suggestion on students’vocabulary learning strategies in senior high school.Vocabulary is one of the three elements of a language and the basic material of a language. So the vocabulary learning in English is especially important.In order to help the students to have a better understanding of the significance of language and lay a solid foundation for deep vocabulary acquisition, it is necessary for teachers to find effective ways to learn English vocabulary.So in this paper the author hopes to find what the vocabulary learning strategies the students have used through the survey and give more effective learning strategies according to the available English vocabulary learning strategies.

  20. The effect of enhanced storybook interaction on signing deaf children's vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussell, Jessica W; Easterbrooks, Susan R

    2014-07-01

    The link between vocabulary and later literacy is well documented in the research base. One way children gain vocabulary is through incidental learning. Deaf or hard-of-hearing children (D/HH) often struggle with incidental learning and require vocabulary intervention to increase their lexicon. An effective vocabulary intervention is storybook reading. When dialogic methods are added to storybook reading, the gains are greater than with traditional storybook reading. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an enhanced storybook reading intervention, which included scripted questions and picture prompts, on the vocabulary of young signing D/HH children. We utilized a multiple baseline across content probe design. We discovered a functional relation between the storybook intervention and picture vocabulary identification for several participants. This outcome offers insight into appropriate interventions to increase vocabulary for signing D/HH children. PMID:24344161

  1. Knowledge Discovery in Databases and Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Dhiman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The advancement in information and communication technology (ICT has outpaced our abilities to analyse, summarise, and extract knowledge from the data. Today, database technology has provided us with the basic tools for the efficient storage and lookup of large data sets, but the issue of how to help human beings to understand and analyse large bodies of data remains a difficult and unsolved problem. So, intelligent tools for automated data mining and knowledge discovery are needed to deal with enormous data. As library and information centre are considered the backbone of knowledge organisation, knowledge discovery in databases (KDD is also getting attention of library and information scientists. This paper highlights the basics of KDD process and its importance in digital libraries.

  2. Developing Academic Vocabulary with AWL Gapmaker and Corpus Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Križan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing need for the development of at least some academic vocabulary in students of EFL (studying English for teaching and non-teaching purposes, if one of the main aims of EFL study is to produce competent users of English. Students are expected to read and understand advanced professional texts, not simply to successfully complete their degrees but to become a part of educated society, and to be able to meet the demands placed upon their knowledge in a prefessional environment. The reading and understanding of professional texts can be a highly demanding activity because of the number of academic and professional terms such texts include. This paper exemplifies the usefulness of a gap-fill exercise, as one among a range of options for developing and testing academic vocabulary in a professional context. The exercise was compiled with AWL gapmaker based on a professional review text, which includes academic items of vocabulary. The gap-fill exercise was used with two groups of EFL students in the same year of study and installed at two difficulty levels for two reasons: to test students’ existing knowledge of academic vocabulary, and to enrich it through the analysis of words in context/co-text relation using a concordancing program. The paper compares the answers of both groups to determine the most problematic entries (incorrect answers, and to provide the possible reasons for them. Further, contextual clues are taken into consideration as a helpful source for determining correct entries, and tested with the concordancing program. Besides the emphasis on the usefulness of such gap-fill exercises combined with corpus for the development and enrichment of academic vocabulary, the paper also emphasizes the importance of guiding students in how to search for different grammatical and other contextual clues to make correct inferences, and how to use concordances to support or reject the claims.

  3. Decades of Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    For the past two-and-a-half decades, the Office of Science at the U.S. Department of Energy has been at the forefront of scientific discovery. Over 100 important discoveries supported by the Office of Science are represented in this document.

  4. Academic Drug Discovery Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Henriette Schultz; Valentin, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Academic drug discovery centres (ADDCs) are seen as one of the solutions to fill the innovation gap in early drug discovery, which has proven challenging for previous organisational models. Prior studies of ADDCs have identified the need to analyse them from the angle of their economic...

  5. Higgs Discovery Movie

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS & CMS Experiments Celebrate the 2nd Anniversary of the Discovery of the Higgs boson. Here, are some images of the path from LHC startup to Nobel Prize, featuring a musical composition by Roger Zare, performed by the Donald Sinta Quartet, called “LHC”. Happy Discovery Day!

  6. The Relationship between Learner Autonomy and Vocabulary Learning Strategies in Iranian EFL Learners with Different Language Proficiency Level

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim Azimi Mohammad Abadi; Abdollah Baradaran

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary learning is incredibly noteworthy to English language acquisition. It is unfeasible for a learner to communicate without the required vocabulary. In high education levels, learners are habitually forced to become autonomous and make conscious effort to learn vocabulary outside of the classroom. Consequently, the autonomy of the learners plays an important role in developing and enhancing their vocabulary. Learner autonomy is a huge assistance for learners in vocabulary learning sin...

  7. We cruised through a terrible storm: A Critical Evaluation of Vocabulary in Use: Intermediate (Cambridge University Press).

    OpenAIRE

    Ian, Munby

    2004-01-01

    This paper begins with a background to Vocabulary In Use Intermediate and an overview of the importance and treatment of vocabulary in the recent history of language learning. In Part One, the approach underlying the treatment, selection, organization and presentation of vocabulary in the book is discussed. In Part Two, the text is evaluated in the light of what is known about vocabulary acquisition and approaches to vocabulary acquisition, with particular emphasis on the role of memory, stra...

  8. "Eureka, Eureka!" Discoveries in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pankaj

    2011-01-01

    Accidental discoveries have been of significant value in the progress of science. Although accidental discoveries are more common in pharmacology and chemistry, other branches of science have also benefited from such discoveries. While most discoveries are the result of persistent research, famous accidental discoveries provide a fascinating…

  9. Automated stopcock actuator

    OpenAIRE

    Vandehey, N. T.; O'Neil, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We have developed a low-cost stopcock valve actuator for radiochemistry automation built using a stepper motor and an Arduino, an open-source single-board microcontroller. The con-troller hardware can be programmed to run by serial communication or via two 5–24 V digital lines for simple integration into any automation control system. This valve actuator allows for automated use of a single, disposable stopcock, providing a number of advantages over stopcock manifold systems ...

  10. The Adaptive Automation Design

    OpenAIRE

    Calefato, Caterina; Montanari, Roberto; TESAURI, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    After considering the positive effects of adaptive automation implementation, this chapter focuses on two partly overlapping phenomena: on the one hand, the role of trust in automation is considered, particularly as to the effects of overtrust and mistrust in automation's reliability; on the other hand, long-term lack of exercise on specific operation may lead users to skill deterioration. As a future work, it will be interesting and challenging to explore the conjunction of adaptive automati...

  11. Service functional test automation

    OpenAIRE

    Hillah, Lom Messan; Maesano, Ariele-Paolo; Rosa, Fabio; Maesano, Libero; Lettere, Marco; Fontanelli, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the automation of the functional test of services (black-box testing) and services architectures (grey-box testing) that has been developed by the MIDAS project and is accessible on the MIDAS SaaS. In particular, the paper illustrates the solutions of tough functional test automation problems such as: (i) the configuration of the automated test execution system against large and complex services architectures, (ii) the constraint-based test input generation, (iii) the spec...

  12. Automated Weather Observing System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS) is a suite of sensors, which measure, collect, and disseminate weather data to help meteorologists, pilots, and flight...

  13. Laboratory Automation and Middleware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riben, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The practice of surgical pathology is under constant pressure to deliver the highest quality of service, reduce errors, increase throughput, and decrease turnaround time while at the same time dealing with an aging workforce, increasing financial constraints, and economic uncertainty. Although not able to implement total laboratory automation, great progress continues to be made in workstation automation in all areas of the pathology laboratory. This report highlights the benefits and challenges of pathology automation, reviews middleware and its use to facilitate automation, and reviews the progress so far in the anatomic pathology laboratory. PMID:26065792

  14. Automated cloning methods.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne has developed a series of automated protocols to generate bacterial expression clones by using a robotic system designed to be used in procedures associated with molecular biology. The system provides plate storage, temperature control from 4 to 37 C at various locations, and Biomek and Multimek pipetting stations. The automated system consists of a robot that transports sources from the active station on the automation system. Protocols for the automated generation of bacterial expression clones can be grouped into three categories (Figure 1). Fragment generation protocols are initiated on day one of the expression cloning procedure and encompass those protocols involved in generating purified coding region (PCR)

  15. Worldwide Discoveries Help People Everywhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Worldwide Discoveries Help People Everywhere Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table ... shows examples of discoveries and their impact. Diseases Discoveries The Benefits for All Americans Huntington's Disease Venezuela— ...

  16. Discovery informatics in biological and biomedical sciences: research challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honavar, Vasant

    2015-01-01

    New discoveries in biological, biomedical and health sciences are increasingly being driven by our ability to acquire, share, integrate and analyze, and construct and simulate predictive models of biological systems. While much attention has focused on automating routine aspects of management and analysis of "big data", realizing the full potential of "big data" to accelerate discovery calls for automating many other aspects of the scientific process that have so far largely resisted automation: identifying gaps in the current state of knowledge; generating and prioritizing questions; designing studies; designing, prioritizing, planning, and executing experiments; interpreting results; forming hypotheses; drawing conclusions; replicating studies; validating claims; documenting studies; communicating results; reviewing results; and integrating results into the larger body of knowledge in a discipline. Against this background, the PSB workshop on Discovery Informatics in Biological and Biomedical Sciences explores the opportunities and challenges of automating discovery or assisting humans in discovery through advances (i) Understanding, formalization, and information processing accounts of, the entire scientific process; (ii) Design, development, and evaluation of the computational artifacts (representations, processes) that embody such understanding; and (iii) Application of the resulting artifacts and systems to advance science (by augmenting individual or collective human efforts, or by fully automating science). PMID:25592607

  17. The Greatest Mathematical Discovery?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2010-05-12

    What mathematical discovery more than 1500 years ago: (1) Is one of the greatest, if not the greatest, single discovery in the field of mathematics? (2) Involved three subtle ideas that eluded the greatest minds of antiquity, even geniuses such as Archimedes? (3) Was fiercely resisted in Europe for hundreds of years after its discovery? (4) Even today, in historical treatments of mathematics, is often dismissed with scant mention, or else is ascribed to the wrong source? Answer: Our modern system of positional decimal notation with zero, together with the basic arithmetic computational schemes, which were discovered in India about 500 CE.

  18. Advances in Computer, Communication, Control and Automation

    CERN Document Server

    011 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation

    2012-01-01

    The volume includes a set of selected papers extended and revised from the 2011 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation (3CA 2011). 2011 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation (3CA 2011) has been held in Zhuhai, China, November 19-20, 2011. This volume  topics covered include signal and Image processing, speech and audio Processing, video processing and analysis, artificial intelligence, computing and intelligent systems, machine learning, sensor and neural networks, knowledge discovery and data mining, fuzzy mathematics and Applications, knowledge-based systems, hybrid systems modeling and design, risk analysis and management, system modeling and simulation. We hope that researchers, graduate students and other interested readers benefit scientifically from the proceedings and also find it stimulating in the process.

  19. Library Automation Style Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord Bros., Liverpool, NY.

    This library automation style guide lists specific terms and names often used in the library automation industry. The terms and/or acronyms are listed alphabetically and each is followed by a brief definition. The guide refers to the "Chicago Manual of Style" for general rules, and a notes section is included for the convenience of individual…

  20. Automation in Warehouse Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg, R.; Verriet, J.

    2012-01-01

    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and support

  1. Automate functional testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kalindri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, software engineers are increasingly turning to the option of automating functional tests, but not always have successful in this endeavor. Reasons range from low planning until over cost in the process. Some principles that can guide teams in automating these tests are described in this article.

  2. Automation in Immunohematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Bajpai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process.

  3. Automated model building

    CERN Document Server

    Caferra, Ricardo; Peltier, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    This is the first book on automated model building, a discipline of automated deduction that is of growing importance Although models and their construction are important per se, automated model building has appeared as a natural enrichment of automated deduction, especially in the attempt to capture the human way of reasoning The book provides an historical overview of the field of automated deduction, and presents the foundations of different existing approaches to model construction, in particular those developed by the authors Finite and infinite model building techniques are presented The main emphasis is on calculi-based methods, and relevant practical results are provided The book is of interest to researchers and graduate students in computer science, computational logic and artificial intelligence It can also be used as a textbook in advanced undergraduate courses

  4. Automation in Warehouse Development

    CERN Document Server

    Verriet, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and supports the quality of picking processes. Secondly, the development of models to simulate and analyse warehouse designs and their components facilitates the challenging task of developing warehouses that take into account each customer’s individual requirements and logistic processes. Automation in Warehouse Development addresses both types of automation from the innovative perspective of applied science. In particular, it describes the outcomes of the Falcon project, a joint endeavour by a consortium of industrial and academic partners. The results include a model-based approach to automate warehouse control design, analysis models for warehouse design, concepts for robotic item handling and computer vision, and auton...

  5. Advances in inspection automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Walter H.; Mair, H. Douglas; Jansen, Dion; Lombardi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    This new session at QNDE reflects the growing interest in inspection automation. Our paper describes a newly developed platform that makes the complex NDE automation possible without the need for software programmers. Inspection tasks that are tedious, error-prone or impossible for humans to perform can now be automated using a form of drag and drop visual scripting. Our work attempts to rectify the problem that NDE is not keeping pace with the rest of factory automation. Outside of NDE, robots routinely and autonomously machine parts, assemble components, weld structures and report progress to corporate databases. By contrast, components arriving in the NDT department typically require manual part handling, calibrations and analysis. The automation examples in this paper cover the development of robotic thickness gauging and the use of adaptive contour following on the NRU reactor inspection at Chalk River.

  6. Vocabulary used by sexual offenders: meaning and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchoki, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how some sexual violence offenders use culturally acquired vocabularies to describe episodes of rape. The paper is based on an analysis of 12 accounts obtained from death-row inmates in Kenya who had been convicted of violent crimes and sexual violence. The accounts were elicited while conducting a larger study to explore the individual motivations, and social and cultural factors that predispose men to acts of rape. Findings suggest that some sex offenders are immersed in normative cultural expectations about sexuality and gender and that, within this framework, they endeavour to create a picture that shifts the blame from themselves to their victims. They attempt to foster the belief that women and girls, in one way or another, provoke rape. Such vocabularies are used to trivialise and neutralise instances of rape within the wider society. PMID:20721766

  7. Enhancing students’ vocabulary knowledge using the Facebook environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kamarul Kabilan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effectiveness of using Facebook in enhancing vocabulary knowledge among Community College students. Thirty-three (33 Community College students are exposed to the use of Facebook as an environment of learning and enhancing their English vocabulary. They are given a pre-test and a post-test and the findings indicate that students perform significantly better in the post-test compared to the pre-test. It appears that Facebook could be considered as a supplementary learning environment or learning platform or a learning tool; with meaningful and engaging activities that require students to collaborate, network and functions as a community of practice, particularly for introverted students with low proficiency levels and have low self-esteem.

  8. Early productive vocabulary predicts academic achievement 10 years later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleses, Dorthe; Makransky, Guido; Dale, Philip;

    2016-01-01

    comprehension, can be predicted from an early vocabulary measure as early as 16 months with effect sizes (in proportion of variance accounted for) comparable to one year’s mean growth in reading scores. The findings confirm in a relatively large population based study that late talkers are at risk for later......We use a longitudinal design to examine associations for 2,120 16-30 months old children between early expressive vocabulary and later reading and math outcomes in the 6th Grade based on a large and diverse sample of Danish children. Educational outcomes, in particular decoding and reading...... educational attainment as the majority of children experiencing early language delay obtain scores below average in measures of reading in the 6th Grade. Low scores have the greatest predictive power indicating that children with early delays have elevated risk for later reading problems....

  9. On the Use of Synonyms in Vocabulary Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏卫华

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary in any language is a complex system. Groups of words with synonymous relationship are known as synonyms. A language with a long history has rich vocabulary. English is extremely rich in synonyms because of historical reasons. Each group of synonyms has the same or very close basic meaning. That’s the basis of forming synonyms.The discrimination of synonyms plays an important role in communication and expression of ideas. It can improve one’s language ability such as reading, writing and speaking. It can have different expressions of objective things and avoid repetition of the same word. So it can make the English conversation and writing more lively. It can avoid expressing too frankly. The correct use of synonyms can have a better effect on modification.

  10. Toxins and drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Alan L

    2014-12-15

    Components from venoms have stimulated many drug discovery projects, with some notable successes. These are briefly reviewed, from captopril to ziconotide. However, there have been many more disappointments on the road from toxin discovery to approval of a new medicine. Drug discovery and development is an inherently risky business, and the main causes of failure during development programmes are outlined in order to highlight steps that might be taken to increase the chances of success with toxin-based drug discovery. These include having a clear focus on unmet therapeutic needs, concentrating on targets that are well-validated in terms of their relevance to the disease in question, making use of phenotypic screening rather than molecular-based assays, and working with development partners with the resources required for the long and expensive development process. PMID:25448391

  11. Leadership and Discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Goethals, George R

    2009-01-01

    This book, a collection of essays from scholars across disciplines, explores leadership of discovery, probing the guided and collaborative exploration and interpretation of the experience of our inner thoughts and feelings, and of our external worlds

  12. Fateful discovery almost forgotten

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    "The discovery of the fission of uranium exactly half a century ago is at risk of passing unremarked because of the general ambivalence towards the consequences of this development. Can that be wise?" (4 pages)

  13. On the Influence of Turkic Languages on Kalmyk Vocabulary

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Ivanovich Rassadin; Svetlana Menkenovna Trofimova

    2015-01-01

    The article covers the development and enrichment of vocabulary in the Kalmyk language and its dialects influenced by Turkic languages from ancient times when there were a hypothetical so called Altaic linguistic community in the period of general Mongolian linguistic condition and general Oirat condition. After Kalmyks moved to Volga, they already had an independent Kalmyk language. The research showed how the Kalmyk language was influenced by the ancient Turkic language, the Uigur language ...

  14. Early Vocabulary Development in Rural and Urban Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Vogt; J. Douglas Mastin; Suzanne Aussems

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (short version) into three languages spoken in Southern Mozambique. The tool was adapted to study vocabulary development among children of 12 to 25 months of age in two communities: a rural, monolingual Changana speaking community and an urban bilingual Ronga and Portuguese speaking community. We present a norming study carried out with the adaptation, as well as a validation study. The norming stud...

  15. WASSUP? LOL : Characterizing Out-of-Vocabulary Words in Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Maity, Suman Kalyan; Sarda, Chaitanya; Chaudhary, Anshit; Patil, Abhijeet; Kumar, Shraman; Mondal, Akash; Mukherjee, Animesh

    2016-01-01

    Language in social media is mostly driven by new words and spellings that are constantly entering the lexicon thereby polluting it and resulting in high deviation from the formal written version. The primary entities of such language are the out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words. In this paper, we study various sociolinguistic properties of the OOV words and propose a classification model to categorize them into at least six categories. We achieve 81.26% accuracy with high precision and recall. We ob...

  16. The Point Approach and the Phrase Approach to Vocabulary Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘梦媛

    2013-01-01

      As is known to all, vocabulary acquisition plays an essential role in English learning. However, it was supposed very dif⁃ficult to many Chinese learners. For the reason that so many kinds of approaches exists in the real life, English learners are always do not know which one is suitable and more effective. To solve this problem, the paper will analyze two approaches (point approach and phrase approach) for you.

  17. The NIFSTD and BIRNLex Vocabularies: Building Comprehensive Ontologies for Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Bug, William J.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.; Grethe, Jeffrey S.; Gupta, Amarnath; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Laird, Angela R.; Stephen D Larson; Rubin, Daniel; Gordon M Shepherd; Turner, Jessica A.; Martone, Maryann E

    2008-01-01

    A critical component of the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) project is a consistent, flexible terminology for describing and retrieving neuroscience-relevant resources. Although the original NIF specification called for a loosely structured controlled vocabulary for describing neuroscience resources, as the NIF system evolved, the requirement for a formally structured ontology for neuroscience with sufficient granularity to describe and access a diverse collection of information beca...

  18. THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON VOCABULARY LEARNING

    OpenAIRE

    Sim Monica-Ariana; Pop Anamaria-Mirabela

    2014-01-01

    The paper aims at investigating the impact of computer and social media in improving students’ knowledge of English language namely vocabulary acquisition (focused on Facebook) with intermediate and upper intermediate first and second year ELT students in Economics at the Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Oradea. Social media technologies take on many different forms including magazines, Internet forums, weblogs, social blogs, wikis, social networks, podcasts, pictures, videos etc. ...

  19. Evaluating the success of vocabulary reconciliation for cultural heritage collections

    OpenAIRE

    Van Hooland, Seth; Verborgh, Ruben; De Wilde, Max; Hercher, Johannes; Mannens, Erik; Van de Walle, Rik

    2013-01-01

    The concept of Linked Data has made its entrance in the cultural heritage sector due to its potential use for the integration of heterogeneous collections and deriving additional value out of existing metadata. However, practitioners and researchers alike need a better understanding of what outcome they can reasonably expect of the reconciliation process between their local metadata and established controlled vocabularies which are already a part of the Linked Data cloud. This paper offers an...

  20. Key Vocabulary Learning Strategies in ESP And EGP Course Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Akbari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of research evidence is showing the advantages of using certain skills and behaviours called language learning strategies in general and vocabulary learning strategies (VLSs in particular in the process of L2 acquisition. University students who require reading English texts in their fields of study have to expand their vocabulary knowledge in a much more efficient way than ordinary ESL/EFL learners.  And ELT course books are a good place to incorporate learner training in this regard. The purpose of this study is to see how vocabulary learning strategies are treated in both the book designer's claims section and the exercises of English for Specific Purposes (ESP course books for students of medicine and para-medicine on the one hand and English for General Purposes (EGP course book used commonly by these students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran on the other. In other words, the specified course books were analyzed based on the insights gained from VLS research to gauge the extent to which they have incorporated VLSs and training in using them. These books were published under the supervision of the center for studying and compiling university books in humanities (SAMT. Based on the review of the relevant literature, three key strategies were identified and an analytic framework was devised. The framework was then applied to the course books. It was found that the treatments in the specified course books were deemed unlikely to improve students’ abilities with these important skills and strategies.Keywords: Vocabulary Learning Strategies (VLSs, English for General Purposes (EGP, English for Specific Purposes (ESP, medical course books, paramedical course books, University students