WorldWideScience

Sample records for automated toll collection

  1. Electronic Toll Collection System (ETC) User Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Yim, Youngbin

    1991-01-01

    This is a summary of several surveys concerning the use of an electronic toll collection system (ETC) among San Francisco Bay Area motorists. The objective of these surveys was to determine the level of interest in subscribing to an electronic toll collection service for Bay Area toll bridges. The issues addressed in the surveys were: (1) interest in the ETC service; (2) preferred types of automated vehicle identification (AVI) tags; (3) preferred location or placement of AVI tags on the vehi...

  2. 23 CFR 950.5 - Requirement to use electronic toll collection technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirement to use electronic toll collection technology... technology. (a) Any toll agency operating a toll facility pursuant to authority under a 1604 toll program... agency using electronic toll collection technology must develop and implement reasonable methods...

  3. A Model for Optimizing Electronic Toll Collection Systems

    OpenAIRE

    David Levinson; Elva Chang

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the deployment of electronic toll collection (ETC) and develops a model to maximize social welfare associated with a toll plaza. A payment choice model estimates the share of traffic using ETC as a function of delay, price, and a fixed cost of acquiring the in-vehicle transponder. Delay in turn depends on the relative number of ETC and Manual Collection Lanes. Price depends on the discount given to users of the ETC Lanes. The fixed cost of acquiring the transponder (not si...

  4. The Administrative and Compliance Cost of Manual Highway Toll Collection: Evidence From Massachusetts and New Jersey

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, David A.; Waldfogel, Joel

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of highway toll collection costs in Massachusetts and New Jersey. Compares manual collection with other compliance costs (electronic tolls, income and sales taxes), factors in the time value of driver delays, and calculates rush-hour compliance costs.

  5. Automated License Plate Recognition for Toll Booth Application

    OpenAIRE

    Ketan S. Shevale

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the Smart Vehicle Screening System, which can be installed into a tollbooth for automated recognition of vehicle license plate information using a photograph of a vehicle. An automated system could then be implemented to control the payment of fees, parking areas, highways, bridges or tunnels, etc. There are considered an approach to identify vehicle through recognizing of it license plate using image fusion, neural networks and threshold techniques as wel...

  6. Automated License Plate Recognition for Toll Booth Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan S. Shevale

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Smart Vehicle Screening System, which can be installed into a tollbooth for automated recognition of vehicle license plate information using a photograph of a vehicle. An automated system could then be implemented to control the payment of fees, parking areas, highways, bridges or tunnels, etc. There are considered an approach to identify vehicle through recognizing of it license plate using image fusion, neural networks and threshold techniques as well as some experimental results to recognize the license plate successfully.

  7. Nonlinear Pricing on Private Roads with Congestion and Toll Collection Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey, Robin; Wang, Judith; Yang, Hai

    2010-01-01

    Nonlinear pricing (a form of second-degree price discrimination) is widely used in transportation and other industries but it has been largely overlooked in the road-pricing literature. This paper explores the incentives for a profit-maximizing toll-road operator to adopt some simple nonlinear pricing schemes when there is congestion and collecting tolls is costly. Users are assumed to differ in their demands to use the road. Regardless of the severity of congestion, an access fee is always p...

  8. Spatial Diffusion of Innovation: A Spatial Panel Analysis of Electronic Toll Collecting Transponders in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yutaka Hamaoka

    2009-01-01

    The spatial panel model is applied to a new data set: monthly data of the number of ETC (Electronic Toll Collecting) transponders newly installed in 47 Japanese prefectures. The model incorporates marketing variables and highway-related variables. Regarding the spatial panel model, this work estimates fixed-effect and random-effect model for spatial-lag model and spatial-error model. For each formulation, four types of weight matrix, geographical adjacency matrix, automobile traffic OD (Origi...

  9. Innovative Processing of Toll Collection Data: Filtering, Enrichment and Real-time Fusion with Loop detectors for Travel Time Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    DE MOUZON, O; EL-FAOUZI, NE

    2006-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to prove the benefits of making use of toll collection data for travel time purposes. This data is easily available but the travel time information it carries is almost never used. This report proposes a methodology for highway travel time estimation and short-term prediction using both traffic data measured by conventional detectors and data from toll collection systems. It shows that it is possible to regularly make corrections to the classical cumulative traff...

  10. Workflow Automation: A Collective Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge management has proven to be a sustainable competitive advantage for many organizations. Knowledge management systems are abundant, with multiple functionalities. The literature reinforces the use of workflow automation with knowledge management systems to benefit organizations; however, it was not known if process automation yielded…

  11. The effect of a new intercity expressway based on travel time reliability using electronic toll collection data

    OpenAIRE

    Yamazaki, H.; Uno, N.; Kurauchi, F.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a method of evaluating the level of service of road networks, based on the average travel time and travel time reliability using electronic toll collection (ETC) data. The authors focused on the variance in travel time under normal circumstances, thus, traffic accidents were removed from the database, and any effect of individual vehicle preference was excluded. They evaluated the travel time distribution based on the average travel time from ETC data for each 15-min inte...

  12. Capillary Electrophoresis coupled with Automated Fraction Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huge, Bonnie Jaskowski; Flaherty, Ryan; Dada, Oluwatosin O.; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2014-01-01

    A fraction collector based on a drop-on-demand ink-jet printer was developed to interface capillary zone electrophoresis with a 96 well microtiter plate. We first evaluated the performance of the collector by using capillary zone electrophoresis to analyze a 1 mM solution of tetramethylrhodamine; a fluorescent microtiter plate reader was then used to detect the analyte and characterize fraction carryover between wells. Relative standard deviation in peak height was 20% and the relative standard deviation in migration time was 1%. The mean and standard deviation of the tetramethylrhodamine peak width was 5 ± 1 s and likely limited by the 4-s period between droplet deposition. We next injected a complex mixture of DNA fragments and used real-time PCR to quantify the product in a CE-SELEX experiment. The reconstructed electrophoretic peak was 27 s in duration. Finally, we repeated the experiment in the presence of a 30-μM thrombin solution under CE-SELEX conditions; fractions were collected and next-generation sequencing was used to characterize the DNA binders. Over 25,000 sequences were identified with close matches to known thrombin binding aptamers. PMID:25159411

  13. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with automated fraction collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huge, Bonnie Jaskowski; Flaherty, Ryan J; Dada, Oluwatosin O; Dovichi, Norman J

    2014-12-01

    A fraction collector based on a drop-on-demand ink-jet printer was developed to interface capillary zone electrophoresis with a 96 well microtiter plate. We first evaluated the performance of the collector by using capillary zone electrophoresis to analyze a 1mM solution of tetramethylrhodamine; a fluorescent microtiter plate reader was then used to detect the analyte and characterize fraction carryover between wells. Relative standard deviation in peak height was 20% and the relative standard deviation in migration time was 1%. The mean and standard deviation of the tetramethylrhodamine peak width was 5 ± 1 s and likely limited by the 4-s period between droplet deposition. We next injected a complex mixture of DNA fragments and used real-time PCR to quantify the product in a CE-SELEX experiment. The reconstructed electrophoretic peak was 27 s in duration. Finally, we repeated the experiment in the presence of a 30-µM thrombin solution under CE-SELEX conditions; fractions were collected and next-generation sequencing was used to characterize the DNA binders. Over 25,000 sequences were identified with close matches to known thrombin binding aptamers. PMID:25159411

  14. Mobile Collection and Automated Interpretation of EEG Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Frederick; Moynihan, Philip

    2007-01-01

    A system that would comprise mobile and stationary electronic hardware and software subsystems has been proposed for collection and automated interpretation of electroencephalographic (EEG) data from subjects in everyday activities in a variety of environments. By enabling collection of EEG data from mobile subjects engaged in ordinary activities (in contradistinction to collection from immobilized subjects in clinical settings), the system would expand the range of options and capabilities for performing diagnoses. Each subject would be equipped with one of the mobile subsystems, which would include a helmet that would hold floating electrodes (see figure) in those positions on the patient s head that are required in classical EEG data-collection techniques. A bundle of wires would couple the EEG signals from the electrodes to a multi-channel transmitter also located in the helmet. Electronic circuitry in the helmet transmitter would digitize the EEG signals and transmit the resulting data via a multidirectional RF patch antenna to a remote location. At the remote location, the subject s EEG data would be processed and stored in a database that would be auto-administered by a newly designed relational database management system (RDBMS). In this RDBMS, in nearly real time, the newly stored data would be subjected to automated interpretation that would involve comparison with other EEG data and concomitant peer-reviewed diagnoses stored in international brain data bases administered by other similar RDBMSs.

  15. Inselect: Automating the Digitization of Natural History Collections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence N Hudson

    Full Text Available The world's natural history collections constitute an enormous evidence base for scientific research on the natural world. To facilitate these studies and improve access to collections, many organisations are embarking on major programmes of digitization. This requires automated approaches to mass-digitization that support rapid imaging of specimens and associated data capture, in order to process the tens of millions of specimens common to most natural history collections. In this paper we present Inselect-a modular, easy-to-use, cross-platform suite of open-source software tools that supports the semi-automated processing of specimen images generated by natural history digitization programmes. The software is made up of a Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux desktop application, together with command-line tools that are designed for unattended operation on batches of images. Blending image visualisation algorithms that automatically recognise specimens together with workflows to support post-processing tasks such as barcode reading, label transcription and metadata capture, Inselect fills a critical gap to increase the rate of specimen digitization.

  16. 77 FR 14535 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Use the Automated Commercial Environment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP... collection requirement concerning the Application to Use the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE). This... Commercial Environment (ACE) is a trade processing system that will eventually replace the...

  17. Comparison of Manual Versus Automated Data Collection Method for an Evidence-Based Nursing Practice Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, M.D.; Jordan, T.R.; Welle, T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate and improve the use of automated data collection procedures for nursing research and quality assurance. Methods A descriptive, correlational study analyzed 44 orthopedic surgical patients who were part of an evidence-based practice (EBP) project examining post-operative oxygen therapy at a Midwestern hospital. The automation work attempted to replicate a manually-collected data set from the EBP project. Results Automation was successful in replicating data collection for study data elements that were available in the clinical data repository. The automation procedures identified 32 “false negative” patients who met the inclusion criteria described in the EBP project but were not selected during the manual data collection. Automating data collection for certain data elements, such as oxygen saturation, proved challenging because of workflow and practice variations and the reliance on disparate sources for data abstraction. Automation also revealed instances of human error including computational and transcription errors as well as incomplete selection of eligible patients. Conclusion Automated data collection for analysis of nursing-specific phenomenon is potentially superior to manual data collection methods. Creation of automated reports and analysis may require initial up-front investment with collaboration between clinicians, researchers and information technology specialists who can manage the ambiguities and challenges of research and quality assurance work in healthcare. PMID:23650488

  18. Automation as a strategic toll for service stations management; Automacao como ferramenta aliada a gestao de postos de servicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcello Cyrino [GILBARCO do Brasil, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Automacao

    2004-07-01

    The use of automation systems will be approached as fundamental tool in the control of sales in the pumps as well electronic management of stock in the tanks on a consolidated and integrated way, offering reliability and total control in the administration of fuel resale, no matter if the user be a one station owner, a group of dozens stations, or oil companies in general. These systems allow the local control in the gas station as well remotely through internet access or other kind of communication interface which be Also available. We will give some examples, as the possibility of remote stock management through a communication link between the oil company and gas station, in order to setup in the system a minimum stock level in each tank, that when being reached sends an automatic alarm for the oil company and another alarm for the station operator, so that the replenishment is programmed immediately without the need of sending purchase order by fax, e mail or telephone. This process brings a huge reduction of costs in the delivery logistics as well in the operational costs, reverting directly on a growth of the gas station and dealer's profit. Through this control, is also possible the remote management of fuel leak alarms in attendance to CONAMA 273, making possible a shared control and offering higher safety for both parts involved, considering the concept of environmental co-responsibility between gas station and oil company (dealer). (author)

  19. Design and Construction of Toll Gate Control System Based On Microcontroller

    OpenAIRE

    Yin Mon Aye; Zaw Myo Tun; Hla Myo Tun

    2014-01-01

    Electronic Toll Gate Station is the system which is implemented to automatically a more convenient way of collecting the toll and traffic management. There are millions of drivers passing through the toll gate station every day. Most of the toll collection systems commonly used in Myanmar is manual transaction. This paper describes a new method for toll collection system according to the weight of the vehicles. This electronic toll gate collection system has been fabricated based on microcont...

  20. Analysis of declarations in distance based road toll schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Menzel, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    The main focus of the master thesis lies on developing a methodology to analyse the accuracy of toll declarations within a satellite based toll system. This methodology employs two different approaches to determine reasons why Toll Service Providers (TSP) deliver toll declarations that show charge inaccuracies. Both approaches are carried out to analyse the results of the ARENA project’s field test which was held in April 2010 to test On Board Unit (OBU) solutions for toll collection. In part...

  1. Improving Access to Archival Collections with Automated Entity Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Kyle Banerjee; Max Johnson

    2015-01-01

    The complexity and diversity of archival resources make constructing rich metadata records time consuming and expensive, which in turn limits access to these valuable materials. However, significant automation of the metadata creation process would dramatically reduce the cost of providing access points, improve access to individual resources, and establish connections between resources that would otherwise remain unknown. Using a case study at Oregon Health & Science University as a len...

  2. Automated method for egg collection and new pupae separation device for medfly mass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is an environmentally friendly approach for suppression or eradication of insect pests and is used in many area-wide integrated programmes against tephritid fruit fly pests, particularly the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The mass-rearing procedures, used in specialized sterile medfly males producing facilities, still require considerable physical labor. Increasing demand for sterile males of high quality and acceptable cost for extending SIT programmes require a reduction of human labor by automation of the production process or some of its parts. The aim of this work was to develop an automated system for egg collection, as well as a new device for the separation of pupae from the pupation medium (sawdust). Both devices were tested in the medfly lab at the Institute of Zoology, SAS. Automated system for egg collection: The automated egg collecting system includes continuous collection of produced eggs in gentle stream of water, which permanently circulates in collecting channels. The eggs accumulate in collecting pots, which have a bottom constructed from soft mesh. Eggs are gently washed by a soft stream of well-oxygenated water and can be easily collected for the subsequent bubbling procedure. The automated egg collecting system consists of the following components: collecting channels, holders of collecting channels, water inlet, water pump, egg collecting pot and water reservoir. The developed new egg collecting system is fully automated and egg collecting is the only needed manual labor. Operating of the new egg collecting system is simpler and can be done in a shorter time than in other systems. Currently used separators usually utilise vibration to separate the pupae from the pupation medium. It results in a dusty environment in the pupae separation area. In the developed separator, the sawdust is exhausted in the initial phase of the sawdust-pupae mixture movement on the endless belt and small

  3. 77 FR 30021 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Use the Automated Commercial Environment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... collection was previously published in the Federal Register (77 FR 14535) on March 12, 2012, allowing for a... the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Commercial Environment (ACE). This is a proposed extension of an information collection that was...

  4. Strategies for Automated CryoEM Data Collection Using Direct Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, A; Tan, Y Z; Dandey, V P; Potter, C S; Carragher, B

    2016-01-01

    The new generation of direct electron detectors has been a major contributor to the recent resolution revolution in cryo-electron microscopy. Optimal use of these new cameras using automated data collection software is critical for high-throughput near-atomic resolution cryo-electron microscopy research. We present an overview of the practical aspects of automated data collection in the context of this new generation of direct detectors, highlighting the differences, challenges, and opportunities the new detectors provide compared to the previous generation of data acquisition media. PMID:27572724

  5. Selection and Cataloging for an Automated Retrieval Collection: Viewpoint of a Cataloger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Debra G.

    2010-01-01

    In the summer of 2004, Georgia Southern University began a library construction project that was to last 4 years. An important aspect was the installation of an Automated Retrieval System (ARC) to house a substantial portion of the library collections so that more space could be available for students, faculty, and the services to meet their…

  6. Experiences in Building Python Automation Framework for Verification and Data Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper describes our experiences in building a Python automation framework. Specifically, the automation framework is used to support verification and data collection scripts. The scripts control various test equipments in addition to the device under test (DUT to characterize a specific performance with a specific configuration or to evaluate the correctness of the behaviour of the DUT. The specific focus on this paper is on documenting our experiences in building an automation framework using Python: on the purposes, goals and the benefits, rather than on a tutorial of how to build such a framework.

  7. Fully Automated Data Collection Using PAM and the Development of PAM/SPACE Reversible Cassettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Masahiko; Watanabe, Shokei; Chavas, Leonard M. G.; Yamada, Yusuke; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Igarashi, Noriyuki; Wakatsuki, Soichi; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Miki, Kunio; Baba, Seiki; Ueno, Go; Yamamoto, Masaki; Suzuki, Mamoru; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Tanaka, Isao

    2010-06-01

    To remotely control and automatically collect data in high-throughput X-ray data collection experiments, the Structural Biology Research Center at the Photon Factory (PF) developed and installed sample exchange robots PAM (PF Automated Mounting system) at PF macromolecular crystallography beamlines; BL-5A, BL-17A, AR-NW12A and AR-NE3A. We developed and installed software that manages the flow of the automated X-ray experiments; sample exchanges, loop-centering and X-ray diffraction data collection. The fully automated data collection function has been available since February 2009. To identify sample cassettes, PAM employs a two-dimensional bar code reader. New beamlines, BL-1A at the Photon Factory and BL32XU at SPring-8, are currently under construction as part of Targeted Proteins Research Program (TPRP) by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. However, different robots, PAM and SPACE (SPring-8 Precise Automatic Cryo-sample Exchanger), will be installed at BL-1A and BL32XU, respectively. For the convenience of the users of both facilities, pins and cassettes for PAM and SPACE are developed as part of the TPRP.

  8. Application of bar codes to the automation of analytical sample data collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Health Protection Department at the Savannah River Plant collects 500 urine samples per day for tritium analyses. Prior to automation, all sample information was compiled manually. Bar code technology was chosen for automating this program because it provides a more accurate, efficient, and inexpensive method for data entry. The system has three major functions: sample labeling is accomplished at remote bar code label stations composed of an Intermec 8220 (Intermec Corp.) interfaced to an IBM-PC, data collection is done on a central VAX 11/730 (Digital Equipment Corp.). Bar code readers are used to log-in samples to be analyzed on liquid scintillation counters. The VAX 11/730 processes the data and generates reports, data storage is on the VAX 11/730 and backed up on the plant's central computer. A brief description of several other bar code applications at the Savannah River Plant is also presented

  9. A realization of an automated data flow for data collecting, processing, storing and retrieving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GEONET is a database system developed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center for the alignment of the Stanford Linear Collider. It features an automated data flow, ranging from data collection using HP110 handheld computers to processing, storing and retrieving data and finally to adjusted coordinates. This paper gives a brief introduction to the SLC project and the applied survey methods. It emphasizes the hardware and software implementation of GEONET using a network of IBM PC/XT's. 14 refs., 4 figs

  10. Fast whole-brain optical tomography capable of automated slice-collection (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Jiang, Tao; Deng, Lei; Long, Beng; Peng, Jie; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Acquiring brain-wide composite information of neuroanatomical and molecular phenotyping is crucial to understand brain functions. However, current whole-brain imaging methods based on mechnical sectioning haven't achieved brain-wide acquisition of both neuroanatomical and molecular phenotyping due to the lack of appropriate whole-brain immunostaining of embedded samples. Here, we present a novel strategy of acquiring brain-wide structural and molecular maps in the same brain, combining whole-brain imaging and subsequent immunostaining of automated-collected slices. We developed a whole-brain imaging system capable of automatically imaging and then collecting imaged tissue slices in order. The system contains three parts: structured illumination microscopy for high-throughput optical sectioning, vibratome for high-precision sectioning and slice-collection device for automated collecting of tissue slices. Through our system, we could acquire a whole-brain dataset of agarose-embedded mouse brain at lateral resolution of 0.33 µm with z-interval sampling of 100 µm in 9 h, and automatically collect the imaged slices in sequence. Subsequently, we performed immunohistochemistry of the collected slices in the routine way. We acquired mouse whole-brain imaging datasets of multiple specific types of neurons, proteins and gene expression profiles. We believe our method could accelerate systematic analysis of brain anatomical structure with specific proteins or genes expression information and understanding how the brain processes information and generates behavior.

  11. Improvement of an automated protein crystal exchange system PAM for high-throughput data collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A special liquid-nitrogen Dewar with double capacity for the sample-exchange robot has been created at AR-NE3A at the Photon Factory, allowing continuous fully automated data collection. In this work, this new system is described and the stability of its calibration is discussed. Photon Factory Automated Mounting system (PAM) protein crystal exchange systems are available at the following Photon Factory macromolecular beamlines: BL-1A, BL-5A, BL-17A, AR-NW12A and AR-NE3A. The beamline AR-NE3A has been constructed for high-throughput macromolecular crystallography and is dedicated to structure-based drug design. The PAM liquid-nitrogen Dewar can store a maximum of three SSRL cassettes. Therefore, users have to interrupt their experiments and replace the cassettes when using four or more of them during their beam time. As a result of investigation, four or more cassettes were used in AR-NE3A alone. For continuous automated data collection, the size of the liquid-nitrogen Dewar for the AR-NE3A PAM was increased, doubling the capacity. In order to check the calibration with the new Dewar and the cassette stand, calibration experiments were repeatedly performed. Compared with the current system, the parameters of the novel system are shown to be stable

  12. Remotely Managing Operation, Data Collection and processing in Modern Automated ET Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D.; Xu, L.; Li, J.; Yuan, G.; Sun, X.; Zhu, Z.; Tang, X.; Velgersdyk, M.; Beaty, K.; Fratini, G.; Kathilankal, J. C.; Burba, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    The significant increase in overall data generation and available computing power in the recent years has greatly improved spatial and temporal data coverage of evapotranspiration (ET) measurements on multiple scales, ranging from a single station to continental scale ET networks. With the increased number of ET stations and increased amount of data flowing from each station, modern tools are needed to effectively and efficiently handle the entire infrastructure (hardware, software and data management). These tools can automate key stages of ET network operation, remotely providing real-time ET rates and alerts for the health of the instruments. This can help maximize time dedicated to answering research questions, rather than to station management. This year, the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN) within the Chinese Academy of Sciences implemented a large-scale 27-station national ET network across China to measure and understand the water cycle from a variety of ecosystems. It includes automated eddy covariance systems, on-site flux computations, wireless communication, and a network server for system, data, and user management. This presentation will discuss the latest information on the CERN network, methods and hardware for ET measurements, tools for automated data collection, data processing and quality control, and data transport and management of the multiple stations. This system description is beneficial for individuals and institutions interested in setting up or modifying present ET networks consisting of single or multiple stations spread over geographic locations ranging from single field site or watershed to national or continental scale.

  13. A realization of an automated data flow for data collecting, processing, storing and retrieving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedsam, H.; Pushor, R.; Ruland, R.

    1986-11-01

    GEONET is a database system developed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center for the alignment of the Stanford Linear Collider. It features an automated data flow, ranging from data collection using HP110 handheld computers to processing, storing and retrieving data and finally to adjusted coordinates. This paper gives a brief introduction to the SLC project and the applied survey methods. It emphasizes the hardware and software implementation of GEONET using a network of IBM PC/XT's. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Automated collection of imaging and phenotypic data to centralized and distributed data repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret D King

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate data collection at the ground level is vital to the integrity of neuroimaging research. Similarly important is the ability to connect and curate data in order to make it meaningful and sharable with other investigators. Collecting data, especially with several different modalities, can be time consuming and expensive. These issues have driven the development of automated collection of neuroimaging and clinical assessment data within COINS (Collaborative Informatics and Neuroimaging Suite. COINS is an end-to-end data management system. It provides a comprehensive platform for data collection, management, secure storage, and flexible data retrieval (Bockholt et al., 2010, Scott et al., 2011. Self Assessment (SAis an application embedded in the Assessment Manager tool in the COINS. It is an innovative tool that allows participants to fill out assessments via the web-based Participant Portal. It eliminates the need for paper collection and data entry by allowing participants to submit their assessments directly to COINS. After a queue has been created for the participant, they can access the Participant Portal via the internet to fill out their assessments. This allows them the flexibility to participate from home, a library, on site, etc. The collected data is stored in a PostgresSQL database at the Mind Research Network behind a firewall to protect sensitive data. An added benefit to using COINS is the ability to collect, store and share imaging data and assessment data with no interaction with outside tools or programs. All study data collected (imaging and assessment are stored and exported with a participant's unique subject identifier so there is no need to keep extra spreadsheets or databases to link and keep track of the data. There is a great need for data collection tools that limit human intervention and error. COINS aims to be a leader in database solutions for research studies collecting data from several different modalities

  15. Automated collection of medical images for research from heterogeneous systems: trials and tribulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M. N.; Looney, P.; Young, K.; Halling-Brown, M. D.

    2014-03-01

    Radiological imaging is fundamental within the healthcare industry and has become routinely adopted for diagnosis, disease monitoring and treatment planning. Over the past two decades both diagnostic and therapeutic imaging have undergone a rapid growth, the ability to be able to harness this large influx of medical images can provide an essential resource for research and training. Traditionally, the systematic collection of medical images for research from heterogeneous sites has not been commonplace within the NHS and is fraught with challenges including; data acquisition, storage, secure transfer and correct anonymisation. Here, we describe a semi-automated system, which comprehensively oversees the collection of both unprocessed and processed medical images from acquisition to a centralised database. The provision of unprocessed images within our repository enables a multitude of potential research possibilities that utilise the images. Furthermore, we have developed systems and software to integrate these data with their associated clinical data and annotations providing a centralised dataset for research. Currently we regularly collect digital mammography images from two sites and partially collect from a further three, with efforts to expand into other modalities and sites currently ongoing. At present we have collected 34,014 2D images from 2623 individuals. In this paper we describe our medical image collection system for research and discuss the wide spectrum of challenges faced during the design and implementation of such systems.

  16. A continuous flow from sample collection to data acceptability determination using an automated system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its role as regulator, EPA is the recipient of enormous reams of analytical data, especially within the Superfund Program. In order to better manage the volume of paper that comes in daily, Superfund has required its laboratories to provide data that is contained on reporting forms to be delivered also on a diskette for uploading into data bases for various purposes, such as checking for contractual compliance, tracking quality assurance parameters, and, ultimately, for reviewing the data by computer. This last area, automated review of the data, has generated programs that are not necessarily appropriate for use by clients other than Superfund. Such is the case with Los Alamos National Laboratory's Environmental Chemistry Group and its emerging subcontractor community, designed to meet the needs of the remedial action program at LANL. LANL is in the process of implementing an automated system that will be used from the planning stage of sample collection to the production of a project-specific report on analytical data quality. Included are electronic scheduling and tracking of samples, data entry, checking and transmission, data assessment and qualification for use, and report generation that will tie the analytical data quality back to the performance criteria defined prior to sample collection. Industry standard products will be used (e.g., ORACLE, Microsoft Excel) to ensure support for users, prevent dependence on proprietary software, and to protect LANL's investment for the future

  17. Scaling up Ecological Measurements of Coral Reefs Using Semi-Automated Field Image Collection and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel González-Rivero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological measurements in marine settings are often constrained in space and time, with spatial heterogeneity obscuring broader generalisations. While advances in remote sensing, integrative modelling and meta-analysis enable generalisations from field observations, there is an underlying need for high-resolution, standardised and geo-referenced field data. Here, we evaluate a new approach aimed at optimising data collection and analysis to assess broad-scale patterns of coral reef community composition using automatically annotated underwater imagery, captured along 2 km transects. We validate this approach by investigating its ability to detect spatial (e.g., across regions and temporal (e.g., over years change, and by comparing automated annotation errors to those of multiple human annotators. Our results indicate that change of coral reef benthos can be captured at high resolution both spatially and temporally, with an average error below 5%, among key benthic groups. Cover estimation errors using automated annotation varied between 2% and 12%, slightly larger than human errors (which varied between 1% and 7%, but small enough to detect significant changes among dominant groups. Overall, this approach allows a rapid collection of in-situ observations at larger spatial scales (km than previously possible, and provides a pathway to link, calibrate, and validate broader analyses across even larger spatial scales (10–10,000 km2.

  18. Getting to MARS: Working with an Automated Retrieval System in the Special Collections Department at the University of Nevada, Reno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrand, Jacquelyn K.

    2011-01-01

    The University of Nevada, Reno's Special Collections and University Archives Department moved into a new facility and had to utilize an automated storage and retrieval systems (ASRS) for storage of manuscript and archival collections. Using ASRS bins presented theoretical challenges in planning for the move. This article highlights how well the…

  19. RFID: The missing link to comprehensive automated refuse collection and recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdams, C.L.

    1994-04-01

    Variable-rate and pay-by-weight programs are gaining momentum across the country. Over 1,000 communities are expected to adopt a variable rate program in 1994. Hundreds have already implemented programs and have seen reported reductions of up to 40% in disposal tonnage. In any variable-rate or pay-by-weight system, the ability to track refuse and/or recyclables at the point of collection is imperative. The use of a radio frequency identification system (RFID) is one way of assuring such accountability. In an automated collection program using RFID technology, each resident or customer'' has one or more roll-out carts installed with a transponder or tag'' that contains a unique identification number. This number correlates with a customer profile'', which is usually found in the city data base. An RFID customer'' profile may contain such information as name, address, size and color of cart, rate, collection day, and a chronological history of collection and cart maintenance over a designated period of time. In most cases, the database and software can be customized to meed individual municipal needs as well as specific needs of refuse hauling companies.

  20. 25OHD analogues and vacuum blood collection tubes dramatically affect the accuracy of automated immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Songlin; Cheng, Xinqi; Fang, Huiling; Zhang, Ruiping; Han, Jianhua; Qin, Xuzhen; Cheng, Qian; Su, Wei; Hou, Li'an; Xia, Liangyu; Qiu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Variations in vitamin D quantification methods are large, and influences of vitamin D analogues and blood collection methods have not been systematically examined. We evaluated the effects of vitamin D analogues 25OHD2 and 3-epi 25OHD3 and blood collection methods on vitamin D measurement, using five immunoassay systems and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Serum samples (332) were selected from routine vitamin D assay requests, including samples with or without 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3, and analysed using various immunoassay systems. In samples with no 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3, all immunoassays correlated well with LC-MS/MS. However, the Siemens system produced a large positive mean bias of 12.5 ng/mL and a poor Kappa value when using tubes with clot activator and gel separator. When 25OHD2 or 3-epi 25OHD3 was present, correlations and clinical agreement decreased for all immunoassays. Serum 25OHD in VACUETTE tubes with gel and clot activator, as measured by the Siemens system, produced significantly higher values than did samples collected in VACUETTE tubes with no additives. Bias decreased and clinical agreement improved significantly when using tubes with no additives. In conclusion, most automated immunoassays showed acceptable correlation and agreement with LC-MS/MS; however, 25OHD analogues and blood collection tubes dramatically affected accuracy. PMID:26420221

  1. An automated baseline correction protocol for infrared spectra of atmospheric aerosols collected on polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmiakova, Adele; Dillner, Ann M.; Takahama, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    A growing body of research on statistical applications for characterization of atmospheric aerosol Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) samples collected on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters (e.g., Russell et al., 2011; Ruthenburg et al., 2014) and a rising interest in analyzing FT-IR samples collected by air quality monitoring networks call for an automated PTFE baseline correction solution. The existing polynomial technique (Takahama et al., 2013) is not scalable to a project with a large number of aerosol samples because it contains many parameters and requires expert intervention. Therefore, the question of how to develop an automated method for baseline correcting hundreds to thousands of ambient aerosol spectra given the variability in both environmental mixture composition and PTFE baselines remains. This study approaches the question by detailing the statistical protocol, which allows for the precise definition of analyte and background subregions, applies nonparametric smoothing splines to reproduce sample-specific PTFE variations, and integrates performance metrics from atmospheric aerosol and blank samples alike in the smoothing parameter selection. Referencing 794 atmospheric aerosol samples from seven Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) sites collected during 2011, we start by identifying key FT-IR signal characteristics, such as non-negative absorbance or analyte segment transformation, to capture sample-specific transitions between background and analyte. While referring to qualitative properties of PTFE background, the goal of smoothing splines interpolation is to learn the baseline structure in the background region to predict the baseline structure in the analyte region. We then validate the model by comparing smoothing splines baseline-corrected spectra with uncorrected and polynomial baseline (PB)-corrected equivalents via three statistical applications: (1) clustering analysis, (2) functional group quantification

  2. Three-dimensional rotation electron diffraction: software RED for automated data collection and data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Wei; Sun, Junliang; Su, Jie; Hovmöller, Sven; Zou, Xiaodong

    2013-12-01

    Implementation of a computer program package for automated collection and processing of rotation electron diffraction (RED) data is described. The software package contains two computer programs: RED data collection and RED data processing. The RED data collection program controls the transmission electron microscope and the camera. Electron beam tilts at a fine step (0.05-0.20°) are combined with goniometer tilts at a coarse step (2.0-3.0°) around a common tilt axis, which allows a fine relative tilt to be achieved between the electron beam and the crystal in a large tilt range. An electron diffraction (ED) frame is collected at each combination of beam tilt and goniometer tilt. The RED data processing program processes three-dimensional ED data generated by the RED data collection program or by other approaches. It includes shift correction of the ED frames, peak hunting for diffraction spots in individual ED frames and identification of these diffraction spots as reflections in three dimensions. Unit-cell parameters are determined from the positions of reflections in three-dimensional reciprocal space. All reflections are indexed, and finally a list with hkl indices and intensities is output. The data processing program also includes a visualizer to view and analyse three-dimensional reciprocal lattices reconstructed from the ED frames. Details of the implementation are described. Data collection and data processing with the software RED are demonstrated using a calcined zeolite sample, silicalite-1. The structure of the calcined silicalite-1, with 72 unique atoms, could be solved from the RED data by routine direct methods. PMID:24282334

  3. Automation of High-Throughput Crystal Screening and Data Collection at SSRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A robotic system for auto-mounting crystals from liquid nitrogen is now operational on SSRL beamlines (Cohen et al., J. Appl. Cryst. (2002). 35, 720-726). The system uses a small industrial 4-axis robot with a custom built actuator. Once mounted, automated alignment of the sample loop to the X-ray beam readies the crystal for data collection. After data collection, samples are returned to the cassette. The beamline Dewar accommodates three compact sample cassettes (holding up to 96 samples each). During the past 4 months, the system on beamline 11-1 has been used to screen over 1000 crystals. The system has reduced both screening time and manpower. Integration of the hardware components is accomplished in the Distributed Control System architecture developed at SSRL (McPhillips et al., J. Synchrotron Rad. (2002) 9, 401-406). A crystal-screening interface has been implemented in Blu-Ice. Sample details can be uploaded from an Excel spreadsheet. The JCSG generates these spreadsheets automatically from their tracking database using standard database tools (http://www.jcsg.org). New diffraction image analysis tools are being employed to aid in extracting results. Automation also permits tele-presence. For example, samples have been changed during the night without leaving home and scientists have screened crystals 1600 miles from the beamline. The system developed on beamline 11-1 has been replicated onto 1-5, 9-1, 9-2, and 11-3 and is used by both general users and the JCSG

  4. Fast automated protein NMR data collection and assignment by ADAPT-NMR on Bruker spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woonghee; Hu, Kaifeng; Tonelli, Marco; Bahrami, Arash; Neuhardt, Elizabeth; Glass, Karen C.; Markley, John L.

    2013-11-01

    ADAPT-NMR (Assignment-directed Data collection Algorithm utilizing a Probabilistic Toolkit in NMR) supports automated NMR data collection and backbone and side chain assignment for [U-13C, U-15N]-labeled proteins. Given the sequence of the protein and data for the orthogonal 2D 1H-15N and 1H-13C planes, the algorithm automatically directs the collection of tilted plane data from a variety of triple-resonance experiments so as to follow an efficient pathway toward the probabilistic assignment of 1H, 13C, and 15N signals to specific atoms in the covalent structure of the protein. Data collection and assignment calculations continue until the addition of new data no longer improves the assignment score. ADAPT-NMR was first implemented on Varian (Agilent) spectrometers [A. Bahrami, M. Tonelli, S.C. Sahu, K.K. Singarapu, H.R. Eghbalnia, J.L. Markley, PLoS One 7 (2012) e33173]. Because of broader interest in the approach, we present here a version of ADAPT-NMR for Bruker spectrometers. We have developed two AU console programs (ADAPT_ORTHO_run and ADAPT_NMR_run) that run under TOPSPIN Versions 3.0 and higher. To illustrate the performance of the algorithm on a Bruker spectrometer, we tested one protein, chlorella ubiquitin (76 amino acid residues), that had been used with the Varian version: the Bruker and Varian versions achieved the same level of assignment completeness (98% in 20 h). As a more rigorous evaluation of the Bruker version, we tested a larger protein, BRPF1 bromodomain (114 amino acid residues), which yielded an automated assignment completeness of 86% in 55 h. Both experiments were carried out on a 500 MHz Bruker AVANCE III spectrometer equipped with a z-gradient 5 mm TCI probe. ADAPT-NMR is available at http://pine.nmrfam.wisc.edu/ADAPT-NMR in the form of pulse programs, the two AU programs, and instructions for installation and use.

  5. Automated collection of imaging and phenotypic data to centralized and distributed data repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Margaret D; Wood, Dylan; Miller, Brittny; Kelly, Ross; Landis, Drew; Courtney, William; Wang, Runtang; Turner, Jessica A; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-01-01

    Accurate data collection at the ground level is vital to the integrity of neuroimaging research. Similarly important is the ability to connect and curate data in order to make it meaningful and sharable with other investigators. Collecting data, especially with several different modalities, can be time consuming and expensive. These issues have driven the development of automated collection of neuroimaging and clinical assessment data within COINS (Collaborative Informatics and Neuroimaging Suite). COINS is an end-to-end data management system. It provides a comprehensive platform for data collection, management, secure storage, and flexible data retrieval (Bockholt et al., 2010; Scott et al., 2011). It was initially developed for the investigators at the Mind Research Network (MRN), but is now available to neuroimaging institutions worldwide. Self Assessment (SA) is an application embedded in the Assessment Manager (ASMT) tool in COINS. It is an innovative tool that allows participants to fill out assessments via the web-based Participant Portal. It eliminates the need for paper collection and data entry by allowing participants to submit their assessments directly to COINS. Instruments (surveys) are created through ASMT and include many unique question types and associated SA features that can be implemented to help the flow of assessment administration. SA provides an instrument queuing system with an easy-to-use drag and drop interface for research staff to set up participants' queues. After a queue has been created for the participant, they can access the Participant Portal via the internet to fill out their assessments. This allows them the flexibility to participate from home, a library, on site, etc. The collected data is stored in a PostgresSQL database at MRN. This data is only accessible by users that have explicit permission to access the data through their COINS user accounts and access to MRN network. This allows for high volume data collection and

  6. ELECTRONIC ROAD TOLL SYSTEMS IN SLOVAKIA AND A COUNTRY SELECTED FROM CENTRAL EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav FAZEKAŠ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to analyse selected electronic toll systems that are currently used in Slovakia and Poland. In this paper we discuss imposed methods to charge infrastructure used in Slovakia and abroad. Further analysed are various electronic toll systems applied in chosen Central European country and Slovakia. All the electronic toll systems used in the Slovak Republic and Poland are successively analysed. The last section of this thesis focuses on the electronic toll system in Slovakia and its impact on road freight transport via comparison of fixed transport route costs using highway signs and electronic toll collection.

  7. Which consumers benefit from congestion tolls?

    OpenAIRE

    Glazer, Amihai; Niskanen, Esko

    2000-01-01

    A large literature demonstrates that congestion tolls can increase aggregate welfare. Nevertheless, congestion tolls are rarely observed. And though road tolls are imposed to raise revenue (as on bridges, tunnels, and some highways), almost always the tolls are imposed on the faster of several alternative modes. Thus highways designed for fast travel may be tolled, but local roads on the same route are not tolled. Governments often charge fees at airports (the fast mode) but not tolls on a ro...

  8. Collective Tuning Initiative: automating and accelerating development and optimization of computing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fursin, Grigori

    2009-01-01

    International audience Computing systems rarely deliver best possible performance due to ever increasing hardware and software complexity and limitations of the current optimization technology. Additional code and architecture optimizations are often required to improve execution time, size, power consumption, reliability and other important characteristics of computing systems. However, it is often a tedious, repetitive, isolated and time consuming process. In order to automate, simplify ...

  9. Design and Construction of Toll Gate Control System Based On Microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Mon Aye

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Toll Gate Station is the system which is implemented to automatically a more convenient way of collecting the toll and traffic management. There are millions of drivers passing through the toll gate station every day. Most of the toll collection systems commonly used in Myanmar is manual transaction. This paper describes a new method for toll collection system according to the weight of the vehicles. This electronic toll gate collection system has been fabricated based on microcontroller. The purpose of this work is to collect toll according to the weight of vehicle. There are three portions in toll collection system. They are the weight scales sub-system, Graphic User Interface (GUI in the host computer and the motor driving circuit for barricade control system. The authorized person at the toll gate can check the ID numbers, vehicle numbers, type of vehicle and the amount of balance via GUI on PC. The PIC microcontroller is also used to control the DC motor and display the weight on the LCD. For software implementation, visual basic programming language is used.

  10. The Tobacco Health Toll

    OpenAIRE

    World Health Organization, Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean

    2005-01-01

    Introduction With the increasing realization of the devastating effects tobacco use has, and the heavy toll it exacts on the health of individuals, the health of the young, the wellbeing of families and societies, and the economies of countries, the need for a clear, comprehensive document covering the full range of the negative effects tobacco and its use has on human health was apparent. This publication sums up and simplifies the answers to the questions that the public, individua...

  11. Noise Control And Speech Intelligibility Improvement Of A Toll Plaza

    OpenAIRE

    Mongeau, Luc; Bernhard, Robert J.; Feist, Jeffery P.

    2002-01-01

    Vehicular toll roads are one component of many municipal transportation systems. Open communication windows, often used in tollbooths, facilitate essential communication and monetary transactions. However, the vehicle noise generated outside the booth is easily transmitted into the booth via the open window. Personnel working at toll collection plazas are exposed to extended, continuous traffic noise. Sustained noise levels of this nature may cause hearing loss, induce fatigue or stress, and ...

  12. An Automated Platform for Analysis of Phosphoproteomic Datasets: Application to Kidney Collecting Duct Phosphoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Jason D. Hoffert; Wang, Guanghui; Pisitkun, Trairak; Shen, Rong-Fong; Knepper, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale phosphoproteomic analysis employing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) often requires a significant amount of manual manipulation of phosphopeptide datasets in the postacquisition phase. To assist in this process, we have created software, PhosphoPIC (PhosphoPeptide Identification and Compilation), which can perform a variety of useful functions including automated selection and compilation of phosphopeptide identifications from multiple MS levels, estimatio...

  13. A Molecular Fraction Collecting Tool for the ABI 310 Automated Sequencer

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ming-Tseh; Rich, Roy G.; Shipley, Royce F.; Hafez, Michael J.; Tseng, Li-Hui; Murphy, Kathleen M.; Gocke, Christopher D.; Eshleman, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Several methods exist to retrieve and purify DNA fragments after agarose or polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for subsequent analyses. However, molecules present in low concentration and molecules similar in size to their neighbors are difficult to purify. Capillary electrophoresis has become popular in molecular diagnostic laboratories because of its automation, excellent resolution, and high sensitivity. In the current study, the ABI Prism 310 Genetic Analyzer was reconfigured into a fract...

  14. 10111 Abstracts Collection -- Practical Software Testing : Tool Automation and Human Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Harman, Mark; Muccini, Henry; Schulte, Wolfram; Xie, Tao

    2010-01-01

    From March 14, 2010 to March 19, 2010, the Dagstuhl Seminar 10111 ``Practical Software Testing : Tool Automation and Human Factors'' was held in Schloss Dagstuhl~--~Leibniz Center for Informatics. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discussed. Abstracts of the presentations given during the seminar as well as abstracts of seminar results and ideas are put together in this paper. The first section des...

  15. Automation impact study of Army training management 2: Extension of sampling and collection of installation resource data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanquist, T.F.; McCallum, M.C.; Hunt, P.S.; Slavich, A.L.; Underwood, J.A.; Toquam, J.L.; Seaver, D.A.

    1989-05-01

    This automation impact study of Army training management (TM) was performed for the Army Development and Employment Agency (ADEA) and the Combined Arms Training Activity (CATA) by the Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The primary objective of the study was to provide the Army with information concerning the potential costs and savings associated with automating the TM process. This study expands the sample of units surveyed in Phase I of the automation impact effort (Sanquist et al., 1988), and presents data concerning installation resource management in relation to TM. The structured interview employed in Phase I was adapted to a self-administered survey. The data collected were compatible with that of Phase I, and both were combined for analysis. Three US sites, one reserve division, one National Guard division, and one unit in the active component outside the continental US (OCONUS) (referred to in this report as forward deployed) were surveyed. The total sample size was 459, of which 337 respondents contributed the most detailed data. 20 figs., 62 tabs.

  16. Urban Automation Networks: Current and Emerging Solutions for Sensed Data Collection and Actuation in Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Carles; Paradells, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Urban Automation Networks (UANs) are being deployed worldwide in order to enable Smart City applications. Given the crucial role of UANs, as well as their diversity, it is critically important to assess their properties and trade-offs. This article introduces the requirements and challenges for UANs, characterizes the main current and emerging UAN paradigms, provides guidelines for their design and/or choice, and comparatively examines their performance in terms of a variety of parameters including coverage, power consumption, latency, standardization status and economic cost. PMID:26378534

  17. Urban Automation Networks: Current and Emerging Solutions for Sensed Data Collection and Actuation in Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Gomez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban Automation Networks (UANs are being deployed worldwide in order to enable Smart City applications. Given the crucial role of UANs, as well as their diversity, it is critically important to assess their properties and trade-offs. This article introduces the requirements and challenges for UANs, characterizes the main current and emerging UAN paradigms, provides guidelines for their design and/or choice, and comparatively examines their performance in terms of a variety of parameters including coverage, power consumption, latency, standardization status and economic cost.

  18. ARCPAS - Automatic radiation control point access system an automated data collection terminal for radiation dose and access control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear facilities such as nuclear power plants or fuel processing facilities are required to maintain accurate records of personnel access, exposure and work performed. Most facilities today have some sort of computerized data collection system for radiation dose and access control. The great majority rely on handwritten records, i.e., dose card or sign-in sheet which in turn are transferred to a computerized records management system manually. The ARCPAS terminal provides a method for automating personnel exposure data collection and processing. The terminal is a user interactive device which contains a unit for automatically reading and zeroing pocket dosemeters, a security badge reader for personnel identification, a 16 digit key pad for RWP information entry, a high resolution color CRT for interactive communication and a high speed tape printer providing an entry chit. The chit provides the individual worker with a record of the transaction including an individual identifying number, remaining dose for the quarter or period and RWP under which the worker entered the controlled area. The purpose of automating the access control is to provide fast, accurate, realtime data to the records management system. A secondary purpose is to relieve trained health physics technicians of control point duties so that their training and skills can be utilized more effectively in a facility's health physics program

  19. Library Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakne, B. N.; Giri, V. V; Waghmode, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    New technologies library provides several new materials, media and mode of storing and communicating the information. Library Automation reduces the drudgery of repeated manual efforts in library routine. By use of library automation collection, Storage, Administration, Processing, Preservation and communication etc.

  20. Collecting and analyzing microstructures in three dimensions: A fully automated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spowart, Jonathan E.; Mullens, Herbert E.; Puchala, Brian T.

    2003-10-01

    Robo-Met.3D is a fully automated robotic serial sectioning device that was custom-built for three-dimensional (3-D) characterization of advanced microstructures at the Air Force Research Laboratory’s Materials and Manufacturing Directorate. The machine is capable of automatically performing metallographic serial sectioning at unprecedented rates and at slice thicknesses between 0.1 µm and 10 µm. Imaging is also fully automatic, using either bright-field or polarized light microscopy, and the high-resolution digital images are combined using custom software to produce accurate 3-D datasets of the material microstructure in near-realtime. Robo-Met.3D is U.S. patent pending.

  1. Recent developments in the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility Waste Tracking System-automated data collection pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The waste management and environmental compliance group (NMT-7) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory has initiated a pilot project for demonstrating the feasibility and utility of automated data collection as a solution for tracking waste containers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility. This project, the Los Alamos Waste Tracking System (LAWTS), tracks waste containers during their lifecycle at the facility. LAWTS is a two-tiered system consisting of a server/workstation database and reporting engine and a hand-held data terminal-based client program for collecting data directly from tracked containers. New containers may be added to the system from either the client unit or from the server database. Once containers are in the system, they can be tracked through one of three primary transactions: Move, Inventory, and Shipment. Because LAWTS is a pilot project, it also serves as a learning experience for all parties involved. This paper will discuss many of the lessons learned in implementing a data collection system in the restricted environment. Specifically, the authors will discuss issues related to working with the PPT 4640 terminal system as the data collection unit. They will discuss problems with form factor (size, usability, etc.) as well as technical problems with wireless radio frequency functions. They will also discuss complications that arose from outdoor use of the terminal (barcode scanning failures, screen readability problems). The paper will conclude with a series of recommendations for proceeding with LAWTS based on experience to date

  2. 25OHD analogues and vacuum blood collection tubes dramatically affect the accuracy of automated immunoassays

    OpenAIRE

    Songlin Yu; Xinqi Cheng; Huiling Fang; Ruiping Zhang; Jianhua Han; Xuzhen Qin; Qian Cheng; Wei Su; Li’an Hou; Liangyu Xia; Ling Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Variations in vitamin D quantification methods are large, and influences of vitamin D analogues and blood collection methods have not been systematically examined. We evaluated the effects of vitamin D analogues 25OHD2 and 3-epi 25OHD3 and blood collection methods on vitamin D measurement, using five immunoassay systems and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Serum samples (332) were selected from routine vitamin D assay requests, including samples with or without 25OHD...

  3. In vivo traffic of indium-111-oxine labeled human lymphocytes collected by automated apheresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in vivo traffic patterns of autologous lymphocytes were studied in five normal human volunteers using lymphocytes obtained by automated apheresis, separated on Ficoll-Hypaque gradients, and labeled ex vivo with 111In-oxine. Final lymphocyte infusions contained 1.8-3.1 X 10(9) cells and 270-390 microCi (9.99-14.43 MBq) 111In, or 11-17 microCi (0.41-0.63 MBq) per 10(8) lymphocytes. Gamma imaging showed transient lung uptake and significant retention of radioactivity in the liver and spleen. Progressive uptake of activity in normal, nonpalpable axillary and inguinal lymph nodes was seen from 24 to 96 hr. Accumulation of radioactivity also was demonstrated at the forearm skin test site, as well as in its associated epitrochlear and axillary lymph nodes, in a subject who had been tested for delayed hypersensitivity with tetanus toxoid. Indium-111-oxine labeled human lymphocytes may provide a useful tool for future studies of normal and abnormal lymphocyte traffic

  4. Development of an Automated Microfluidic System for DNA Collection, Amplification, and Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, Bethany S.; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.

    2002-12-01

    This project was focused on developing and testing automated routines for a microfluidic Pathogen Detection System. The basic pathogen detection routine has three primary components; cell concentration, DNA amplification, and detection. In cell concentration, magnetic beads are held in a flow cell by an electromagnet. Sample liquid is passed through the flow cell and bacterial cells attach to the beads. These beads are then released into a small volume of fluid and delivered to the peltier device for cell lysis and DNA amplification. The cells are lysed during initial heating in the peltier device, and the released DNA is amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or strand displacement amplification (SDA). Once amplified, the DNA is then delivered to a laser induced fluorescence detection unit in which the sample is detected. These three components create a flexible platform that can be used for pathogen detection in liquid and sediment samples. Future developments of the system will include on-line DNA detection during DNA amplification and improved capture and release methods for the magnetic beads during cell concentration.

  5. Document Classification in Support of Automated Metadata Extraction Form Heterogeneous Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    A number of federal agencies, universities, laboratories, and companies are placing their documents online and making them searchable via metadata fields such as author, title, and publishing organization. To enable this, every document in the collection must be catalogued using the metadata fields. Though time consuming, the task of identifying…

  6. Automated Data Collection for Determining Statistical Distributions of Module Power Undergoing Potential-Induced Degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hacke, Peter; Spataru, Sergiu

    We propose a method for increasing the frequency of data collection and reducing the time and cost of accelerated lifetime testing of photovoltaic modules undergoing potential-induced degradation (PID). This consists of in-situ measurements of dark current-voltage curves of the modules at elevated...... stress temperature, their use to determine the maximum power at 25°C standard test conditions (STC), and distribution statistics for determining degradation rates as a function of stress level. The semi-continuous data obtained by this method clearly show degradation curves of the maximum power...

  7. A Tool for the Automated Collection of Space Utilization Data: Three Dimensional Space Utilization Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Gordon A.; Fink, Patrick; Ngo, Phong H.; Morency, Richard; Simon, Cory; Williams, Robert E.; Perez, Lance C.

    2015-01-01

    Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element within the Human Research Program (HRP), in collaboration with the Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Element, is conducting research regarding Net Habitable Volume (NHV), the internal volume within a spacecraft or habitat that is available to crew for required activities, as well as layout and accommodations within that volume. NASA is looking for innovative methods to unobtrusively collect NHV data without impacting crew time. Data required includes metrics such as location and orientation of crew, volume used to complete tasks, internal translation paths, flow of work, and task completion times. In less constrained environments methods for collecting such data exist yet many are obtrusive and require significant post-processing. Example technologies used in terrestrial settings include infrared (IR) retro-reflective marker based motion capture, GPS sensor tracking, inertial tracking, and multiple camera filmography. However due to constraints of space operations many such methods are infeasible, such as inertial tracking systems which typically rely upon a gravity vector to normalize sensor readings, and traditional IR systems which are large and require extensive calibration. However multiple technologies have not yet been applied to space operations for these explicit purposes. Two of these include 3-Dimensional Radio Frequency Identification Real-Time Localization Systems (3D RFID-RTLS) and depth imaging systems which allow for 3D motion capture and volumetric scanning (such as those using IR-depth cameras like the Microsoft Kinect or Light Detection and Ranging / Light-Radar systems, referred to as LIDAR).

  8. Bibliomining for Automated Collection Development in a Digital Library Setting: Using Data Mining To Discover Web-Based Scholarly Research Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Scott

    2003-01-01

    Discusses quality issues regarding Web sites and describes research that created an intelligent agent for automated collection development in a digital academic library setting, which uses a predictive model based on facets of each Web page to select scholarly works. Describes the use of bibliomining, or data mining for libraries. (Author/LRW)

  9. Drug Use on Mont Blanc: A Study Using Automated Urine Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robach, Paul; Trebes, Gilles; Lasne, Françoise; Buisson, Corinne; Méchin, Nathalie; Mazzarino, Monica; de la Torre, Xavier; Roustit, Matthieu; Kérivel, Patricia; Botré, Francesco; Bouzat, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Mont Blanc, the summit of Western Europe, is a popular but demanding high-altitude ascent. Drug use is thought to be widespread among climbers attempting this summit, not only to prevent altitude illnesses, but also to boost physical and/or psychological capacities. This practice may be unsafe in this remote alpine environment. However, robust data on medication during the ascent of Mont Blanc are lacking. Individual urine samples from male climbers using urinals in mountain refuges on access routes to Mont Blanc (Goûter and Cosmiques mountain huts) were blindly and anonymously collected using a hidden automatic sampler. Urine samples were screened for a wide range of drugs, including diuretics, glucocorticoids, stimulants, hypnotics and phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors. Out of 430 samples analyzed from both huts, 35.8% contained at least one drug. Diuretics (22.7%) and hypnotics (12.9%) were the most frequently detected drugs, while glucocorticoids (3.5%) and stimulants (3.1%) were less commonly detected. None of the samples contained PDE-5 inhibitors. Two substances were predominant: the diuretic acetazolamide (20.6%) and the hypnotic zolpidem (8.4%). Thirty three samples were found positive for at least two substances, the most frequent combination being acetazolamide and a hypnotic (2.1%). Based on a novel sampling technique, we demonstrate that about one third of the urine samples collected from a random sample of male climbers contained one or several drugs, suggesting frequent drug use amongst climbers ascending Mont Blanc. Our data suggest that medication primarily aims at mitigating the symptoms of altitude illnesses, rather than enhancing performance. In this hazardous environment, the relatively high prevalence of hypnotics must be highlighted, since these molecules may alter vigilance. PMID:27253728

  10. Drug Use on Mont Blanc: A Study Using Automated Urine Collection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Robach

    Full Text Available Mont Blanc, the summit of Western Europe, is a popular but demanding high-altitude ascent. Drug use is thought to be widespread among climbers attempting this summit, not only to prevent altitude illnesses, but also to boost physical and/or psychological capacities. This practice may be unsafe in this remote alpine environment. However, robust data on medication during the ascent of Mont Blanc are lacking. Individual urine samples from male climbers using urinals in mountain refuges on access routes to Mont Blanc (Goûter and Cosmiques mountain huts were blindly and anonymously collected using a hidden automatic sampler. Urine samples were screened for a wide range of drugs, including diuretics, glucocorticoids, stimulants, hypnotics and phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE-5 inhibitors. Out of 430 samples analyzed from both huts, 35.8% contained at least one drug. Diuretics (22.7% and hypnotics (12.9% were the most frequently detected drugs, while glucocorticoids (3.5% and stimulants (3.1% were less commonly detected. None of the samples contained PDE-5 inhibitors. Two substances were predominant: the diuretic acetazolamide (20.6% and the hypnotic zolpidem (8.4%. Thirty three samples were found positive for at least two substances, the most frequent combination being acetazolamide and a hypnotic (2.1%. Based on a novel sampling technique, we demonstrate that about one third of the urine samples collected from a random sample of male climbers contained one or several drugs, suggesting frequent drug use amongst climbers ascending Mont Blanc. Our data suggest that medication primarily aims at mitigating the symptoms of altitude illnesses, rather than enhancing performance. In this hazardous environment, the relatively high prevalence of hypnotics must be highlighted, since these molecules may alter vigilance.

  11. Automated Data Collection for Determining Statistical Distributions of Module Power Undergoing Potential-Induced Degradation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacke, P.; Spataru, S.

    2014-08-01

    We propose a method for increasing the frequency of data collection and reducing the time and cost of accelerated lifetime testing of photovoltaic modules undergoing potential-induced degradation (PID). This consists of in-situ measurements of dark current-voltage curves of the modules at elevated stress temperature, their use to determine the maximum power at 25 degrees C standard test conditions (STC), and distribution statistics for determining degradation rates as a function of stress level. The semi-continuous data obtained by this method clearly show degradation curves of the maximum power, including an incubation phase, rates and extent of degradation, precise time to failure, and partial recovery. Stress tests were performed on crystalline silicon modules at 85% relative humidity and 60 degrees C, 72 degrees C, and 85 degrees C. Activation energy for the mean time to failure (1% relative) of 0.85 eV was determined and a mean time to failure of 8,000 h at 25 degrees C and 85% relative humidity is predicted. No clear trend in maximum degradation as a function of stress temperature was observed.

  12. Rapid Collection of Biospecimens by Automated Identification of Patients Eligible for Pharmacoepigenetic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan V. Sun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetics plays an important role in regulating gene expression, and can be modified by environmental factors and physiological conditions. Studying epigenetics is a promising approach to potentially improving the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of human diseases, and to providing personalized medical care. However, the role of epigenetics in the development of diseases is not clear because epigenetic markers may be both mediators and outcomes of human diseases. It is particularly complicated to study pharmacoepigenetics, as medication use may modify the epigenetic profile. To address the challenges facing pharmacoepigenetic research of human diseases, we developed a novel design to rapidly identify, contact, and recruit participants and collect specimens for longitudinal studies of pharmacoepigenetics. Using data in real-time from electronic medical record systems, we can identify patients recently start on new medications and who also have a blood test. Prior to disposal of the leftover blood by the clinical laboratory, we are able to contact and recruit these patients, enabling us to use both their leftover baseline blood sample as well as leftover specimens at future tests. With treatment-naïve and follow-up specimens, this system is able to study both epigenetic markers associated with disease without treatment effect as well as treatment-related epigenetic changes.

  13. Time Consistency of Congestion Tolls

    OpenAIRE

    Glazer, Amihai

    2000-01-01

    Consider users who can choose between using two modes of travel (say a road and mass transit), and who can choose to incur a fixed cost that reduces the future cots of using mass transit. A congestion toll on the road may serve two purposes. First, it can induce users in the current period to use transit instead of the congested road. Second, users who anticipate the imposition of tolls may be induced to incur the aforementioned fixed cost, thereby reducing demand for use of the congested roa...

  14. Time Consistency of Congestion Tolls

    OpenAIRE

    Glazer, Amihai

    2000-01-01

    Consider users who can choose between using two modes of travel (say a road and mass transit), and who can choose to incur a fixed cost that reduces the future costs of using mass transit. A congestion toll on the road may serve two purposes. First, it can induce users in the current period to use transit instead of the congested road. Second, users who anticipate the imposition of tolls may be induced to incur the aforementioned fixed cost, thereby reducing demand for use of the congested ro...

  15. Time Consistency of Congestion Tolls

    OpenAIRE

    Glazer, Amihai

    1999-01-01

    Consider users who can choose between using two modes of travel (say a road and mass transit), and who can choose to incur a fixed cost that reduces the future costs of using mass transit. A congestion toll on the road may serve two purposes. First, it can induce users in the current period to use transit instead of the congested road. Second, users who anticipate the imposition of tolls may be induced to incur the aforementioned fixed cost, thereby reducing demand for use of the congested ro...

  16. Toll Roads : Recent Trends in Private Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Gisele F. Silva

    2000-01-01

    During the 1990s developing countries increasingly turned to the private sector for construction, management, and maintenance of toll roads. Between 1990 and 1999, US$61 billion of private investment was committed to 279 projects in 26 developing countries, comprising 34,369 kilometers of toll highways, bridges and tunnels. This Note analyzes the main trends in private participation in toll ...

  17. Innovative travel time estimation for toll motorways by combining detectors and ETC data

    OpenAIRE

    DE MOUZON, O; EL-FAOUZI, NE

    2006-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to prove the benefits of making use of toll collection data for travel time purposes. This data is easily available but the travel time information it carries is almost never used. This report proposes a methodology for highway travel time estimation and short-term prediction using both traffic data measured by conventional detectors and data from toll collection systems. It shows that it is possible to regularly make corrections to the classical cumulative traff...

  18. Automated Weather Observing System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS) is a suite of sensors, which measure, collect, and disseminate weather data to help meteorologists, pilots, and flight...

  19. Placing Manuscript and Archival Collections into an Automated Storage and Retrieval System at the University of Nevada, Reno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrand, Jacquelyn K.

    2008-01-01

    Academic libraries are turning to automated storage and retrieval systems (ASRS) as a long-term cost effective means of gaining additional space in their open stacks areas by removing lesser used books and other materials for storage and placement into ASRS bins. The new library building under construction at the University of Nevada-Reno will…

  20. Toll Facilities in the United States - Toll Facilities in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Biennial report containing selected information on toll facilities in the United States that has been provided to FHWA by the States and/or various toll authorities...

  1. Private Toll Roads: A Dynamic Equilibrium Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey, Robin; De Palma, André

    1997-01-01

    In recent years there has been a surge of interest in private toll roads as an alternative to public free-access road infrastructure. Private toll roads have gained favour for a variety of reasons, including theirpotential to alleviate traffic congestion, shrinking public funds for road construction and maintenance,and growing acceptance of the user-pay principle.This paper takes the profitability of private toll roads as given, and focuses on their allocativeefficiency. The model features on...

  2. 47 CFR 52.111 - Toll free number assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Toll free number assignment. 52.111 Section 52...) NUMBERING Toll Free Numbers § 52.111 Toll free number assignment. Toll free numbers shall be made available on a first-come, first-served basis unless otherwise directed by the Commission....

  3. [A new separation protocol (DRBCP-F) for automated blood component donation with the MCS 3p cell separator for collection of leukocyte depleted erythrocyte concentrates and plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, T; Kretschmer, V

    1997-01-01

    Previously published studies on automated blood component donation with the MCS 3p cell separator proved fairly good quality of the collected red blood cells (RBC) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP), with the disadvantage of a low hematocrit of the filtered RBC and a high platelet contamination of the FFP (RBCP-F protocol.) The DRBCP-F protocol was designed to eliminate the above-mentioned disadvantages and to provide 1 unit of leuko-depleted (filtered) RBC, 2 units of FFP, and additionally 1 platelet concentrate (PC) from the buffy coat. Twenty automated blood component collections (2 cycles, Latham bowl at 5,500 rpm, 230 ml isotonic saline for volume balance, PAGGS-M as additive solution) were performed. The RBC were filtered in a closed system after storage at 4 degrees C for 24 h. Blood cell counts and biochemical parameters of the RBC were determined initially and after 49 days. PC were separated from buffy coat after a soft spin. The volume of the RBC amounted to 293 +/- 12 ml (mean +/- SD) with a hematocrit of 0.61 +/- 0.05 l/l. Residual leukocytes after filtration were found to be 0.04 x 10(6) +/- 0.06 per unit. After storage, the following data were obtained: hemolysis 0.38%, ATP 2.1 +/- 0.4 mumol/g Hb, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) 1.4 +/- 0.3 mumol/g Hb, ph 6.3 +/- 0.1, potassium 6.4 mmol per unit, and LDH in the supernatant was 219 U/l. None of the RBC showed bacterial growth after 49 days. The volume of the collected FFP was 398 +/- 32 ml, with 3.4 +/- 3.5 x 10(3) residual platelets and 5 +/- 12 leukocytes per microliter. Platelet concentrates contained 90.2 +/- 32 x 10(9) platelets in 88 +/- 14 ml plasma. Automated blood donation with the DRBCP-F protocol provided RBC with very low residual leukocyte counts, adequate hematocrit and good metabolic status up to 49 days, and FFP with low platelet contamination. The platelet concentrates were even superior to those prepared from whole blood using the buffy coat method. The storable leuko-depleted RBC are

  4. Second-best urban tolling with distributive concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz, Andrea; Proost, Stef

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the optimal urban congestion toll in a second-best setting where only one road in a network can be tolled. Both heterogeneity in labor productivity and income distribution concerns are considered. The optimal toll balances two types of considerations. The first consideration is the correction of the congestion externality on the tolled road given the distortion on the non-tolled roads, while the second is the equity consideration that takes into account which income group ...

  5. DMPD: Toll-like receptor 3: a link between toll-like receptor, interferon and viruses. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15031527 Toll-like receptor 3: a link between toll-like receptor, interferon and viruses... (.csml) Show Toll-like receptor 3: a link between toll-like receptor, interferon and viruses. PubmedID 1503...1527 Title Toll-like receptor 3: a link between toll-like receptor, interferon and viruses

  6. Talking, Texting Teen Drivers Take Deadly Toll

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159138.html Talking, Texting Teen Drivers Take Deadly Toll Distractions played role in ... too many cases -- killing people in crashes involving teen drivers, a new report shows. A full 60 ...

  7. Talking, Texting Teen Drivers Take Deadly Toll

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159138.html Talking, Texting Teen Drivers Take Deadly Toll Distractions played role in ... too many cases -- killing people in crashes involving teen drivers, a new report shows. A full 60 ...

  8. Toll-like receptors in neonatal sepsis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, Fiona M

    2013-06-01

    Toll-like receptors are vital transmembrane receptors that initiate the innate immune response to many micro-organisms. The discovery of these receptors has improved our understanding of host-pathogen interactions, and these receptors play an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple neonatal conditions such as sepsis and brain injury. Toll-like receptors, especially TLRs 2 and 4, are associated with necrotizing enterocolitis, periventricular leukomalacia and sepsis.

  9. A centralised remote data collection system using automated traps for managing and controlling the population of the Mediterranean (Ceratitis capitata) and olive (Dacus oleae) fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philimis, Panayiotis; Psimolophitis, Elias; Hadjiyiannis, Stavros; Giusti, Alessandro; Perelló, Josep; Serrat, Albert; Avila, Pedro

    2013-08-01

    The present paper describes the development of a novel monitoring system (e-FlyWatch system) for managing and controlling the population of two of the world's most destructive fruit pests, namely the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae, Rossi - formerly Dacus oleae) and the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, also called medfly). The novel monitoring system consists of a) novel automated traps with optical and motion detection modules for capturing the flies, b) local stations including a GSM/GPRS module, sensors, flash memory, battery, antenna etc. and c) a central station that collects, stores and publishes the results (i.e. insect population in each field, sensor data, possible error/alarm data) via a web-based management software.The centralised data collection system provides also analysis and prediction models, end-user warning modules and historical analysis of infested areas. The e-FlyWatch system enables the SMEs-producers in the Fruit, Vegetable and Olive sectors to improve their production reduce the amount of insecticides/pesticides used and consequently the labour cost for spraying activities, and the labour cost for traps inspection.

  10. Automated integration of wireless biosignal collection devices for patient-centred decision-making in point-of-care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menychtas, Andreas; Tsanakas, Panayiotis; Maglogiannis, Ilias

    2016-03-01

    The proper acquisition of biosignals data from various biosensor devices and their remote accessibility are still issues that prevent the wide adoption of point-of-care systems in the routine of monitoring chronic patients. This Letter presents an advanced framework for enabling patient monitoring that utilises a cloud computing infrastructure for data management and analysis. The framework introduces also a local mechanism for uniform biosignals collection from wearables and biosignal sensors, and decision support modules, in order to enable prompt and essential decisions. A prototype smartphone application and the related cloud modules have been implemented for demonstrating the value of the proposed framework. Initial results regarding the performance of the system and the effectiveness in data management and decision-making have been quite encouraging. PMID:27222731

  11. A fully automated meltwater monitoring and collection system for spatially distributed isotope analysis in snowmelt-dominated catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rücker, Andrea; Boss, Stefan; Von Freyberg, Jana; Zappa, Massimiliano; Kirchner, James

    2016-04-01

    In many mountainous catchments the seasonal snowpack stores a significant volume of water, which is released as streamflow during the melting period. The predicted change in future climate will bring new challenges in water resource management in snow-dominated headwater catchments and their receiving lowlands. To improve predictions of hydrologic extreme events, particularly summer droughts, it is important characterize the relationship between winter snowpack and summer (low) flows in such areas (e.g., Godsey et al., 2014). In this context, stable water isotopes (18O, 2H) are a powerful tool for fingerprinting the sources of streamflow and tracing water flow pathways. For this reason, we have established an isotope sampling network in the Alptal catchment (46.4 km2) in Central-Switzerland as part of the SREP-Drought project (Snow Resources and the Early Prediction of hydrological DROUGHT in mountainous streams). Samples of precipitation (daily), snow cores (weekly) and runoff (daily) are analyzed for their isotopic signature in a regular cycle. Precipitation is also sampled along a horizontal transect at the valley bottom, and along an elevational transect. Additionally, the analysis of snow meltwater is of importance. As the sample collection of snow meltwater in mountainous terrain is often impractical, we have developed a fully automatic snow lysimeter system, which measures meltwater volume and collects samples for isotope analysis at daily intervals. The system consists of three lysimeters built from Decagon-ECRN-100 High Resolution Rain Gauges as standard component that allows monitoring of meltwater flow. Each lysimeter leads the meltwater into a 10-liter container that is automatically sampled and then emptied daily. These water samples are replaced regularly and analyzed afterwards on their isotopic composition in the lab. Snow melt events as well as system status can be monitored in real time. In our presentation we describe the automatic snow lysimeter

  12. Uncovering the 2010 Haiti earthquake death toll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Daniell

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Casualties are estimated for the 12 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti using various reports calibrated by observed building damage states from satellite imagery and reconnaissance reports on the ground. By investigating various damage reports, casualty estimates and burial figures, for a one year period from 12 January 2010 until 12 January 2011, there is also strong evidence that the official government figures of 316 000 total dead and missing, reported to have been caused by the earthquake, are significantly overestimated. The authors have examined damage and casualties report to arrive at their estimation that the median death toll is less than half of this value (±137 000$. The authors show through a study of historical earthquake death tolls, that overestimates of earthquake death tolls occur in many cases, and is not unique to Haiti. As death toll is one of the key elements for determining the amount of aid and reconstruction funds that will be mobilized, scientific means to estimate death tolls should be applied. Studies of international aid in recent natural disasters reveal that large distributions of aid which do not match the respective needs may cause oversupply of help, aggravate corruption and social disruption rather than reduce them, and lead to distrust within the donor community.

  13. Private Toll Roads: Learning from the 19th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel B. Klein; Fielding, Gordon J.

    1992-01-01

    California has authorized four toll roads to be constructed and operated by private groups, and it is considering more. Construction on a similar 14-mile project in Virginia will begin in 1992. Florida, Texas, and Colorado are considering proposals for private toll roads, and there is talk of a 500-mile private connection between Chicago and Kansas City. Outside the United States, private groups are operating toll roads in France and Italy. Indeed, the idea of private toll roads is making a c...

  14. COMPREHENSIVE URBAN ROAD TOLL EVALUATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Klumpp

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban road toll systems are increasingly on the political agenda in order to achieve environmental, urban and traffic management as well as financial objectives. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS as for example Global Positioning System (GPS or Galileo may enhance the usability and also financial soundness of city road pricing and shall be included into the overall concept selection process – in spite of relatively high investment costs. As this contribution shows with a comprehensive evaluation scheme, for example GNSS-related toll systems may contribute to improved telematics and road pricing in cities.

  15. Home Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I briefly discuss the importance of home automation system. Going in to the details I briefly present a real time designed and implemented software and hardware oriented house automation research project, capable of automating house's electricity and providing a security system to detect the presence of unexpected behavior.

  16. Automated phantom assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an automated phantom assay system developed for assaying phantoms spiked with minute quantities of radionuclides. The system includes a computer-controlled linear-translation table that positions the phantom at exact distances from a spectrometer. A multichannel analyzer (MCA) interfaces with a computer to collect gamma spectral data. Signals transmitted between the controller and MCA synchronize data collection and phantom positioning. Measured data are then stored on disk for subsequent analysis. The automated system allows continuous unattended operation and ensures reproducible results

  17. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation 2

    2015-01-01

    This paper collection is the second volume of the LNMOB series on Road Vehicle Automation. The book contains a comprehensive review of current technical, socio-economic, and legal perspectives written by experts coming from public authorities, companies and universities in the U.S., Europe and Japan. It originates from the Automated Vehicle Symposium 2014, which was jointly organized by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Burlingame, CA, in July 2014. The contributions discuss the challenges arising from the integration of highly automated and self-driving vehicles into the transportation system, with a focus on human factors and different deployment scenarios. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  18. The biology of Toll-like receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, T K; Golenbock, D T; Fenton, M J

    2000-09-01

    In 1997, a human homologue of the Drosophila Toll protein was described, a protein later to be designated Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Since that time, additional human and murine TLR proteins have been identified. Mammalian TLR proteins appear to represent a conserved family of innate immune recognition receptors. These receptors are coupled to a signaling pathway that is conserved in mammals, insects, and plants, resulting in the activation of genes that mediate innate immune defenses. Numerous studies have now identified a wide variety of chemically-diverse bacterial products that serve as putative ligands for TLR proteins. More recent studies have identified the first endogenous protein ligands for TLR proteins. TLR signaling represents a key feature of innate immune response to pathogen invasion. PMID:10817965

  19. Dedicated lanes, tolls and ITS technology

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey, Robin

    2009-01-01

    The merits of separating cars and trucks have long been debated. Potential advantages include smoother traffic flows, lower accident rates, improved air quality and reduced maintenance and road infrastructure costs. Large trucks are often banned from urban roads and restricted to certain lanes on many highways but there are no dedicated truck facilities. However, truck-only lanes and truck tollways are now being actively studied. Tolls on cars and trucks are also becoming increasingly common ...

  20. Leptospirosis: A Toll Road from B Lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Werts

    2010-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonosis caused byLeptospira interrogans, a pathogen transmitted by asymptomaticinfected rodents. Leptospiral lipoproteins andlipopolysaccharide (LPS) have been shown to stimulate murinecells via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4. Host defensemechanisms remain obscure, although TLR4 has been associatedwith clearing Leptospira. In a recent study, we showedthat in response to Leptospira infection, double (TLR2 andTLR4) knock-out (DKO) mice unexpectedly developed T...

  1. Validation of an automated ELISA system for detection of antibodies to Aleutian mink disease virus using blood samples collected in filter paper strips

    OpenAIRE

    Knuuttila, Anna; Aronen, Pirjo; Eerola, Majvor; Gardner, Ian A; Virtala, Anna-Maija K; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-01-01

    Background Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is the cause of a chronic immune complex disease, Aleutian disease (AD), which is common in mink-producing countries. In 2005, implementation of an AMDV eradication programme in Finland created a need for an automated high-throughput assay. The aim of this study was to validate an AMDV-VP2 -recombinant antigen ELISA, which we developed earlier, in an automated assay format for the detection of anti-AMDV antibodies in mink blood and to determine th...

  2. Highway toll and air pollution: evidence from Chinese cities

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Shihe; Gu, Yizhen

    2014-01-01

    Most highways in urban China are tolled to finance their construction. During the eight-day National Day holiday in 2012, highway tolls are waived nationwide for passenger vehicles. We use this to test highway tolls’ effect on air pollution. Using daily pollution and weather data for 98 Chinese cities in 2011 and 2012 and employing both a regression discontinuity design and differences-in-differences method with 2011 National Day holiday as a control, we find that eliminating tolls increases ...

  3. Private toll roads: Competition under various ownership regimes

    OpenAIRE

    AndrÊ de Palma; Robin Lindsey

    2000-01-01

    Interest is growing in private toll roads as an alternative to public free-access road infrastructure. Private toll roads have gained favour for various reasons, including a dearth of public funds for road construction and maintenance, increasing traffic congestion, and growing acceptance of the user-pay principle in general, and road pricing in particular. This paper focuses on allocative efficiency of private toll roads. The model features one origin and one destination linked by two parall...

  4. Process automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process automation technology has been pursued in the chemical processing industries and to a very limited extent in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Its effective use has been restricted in the past by the lack of diverse and reliable process instrumentation and the unavailability of sophisticated software designed for process control. The Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility was developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in part to demonstrate new concepts for control of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A demonstration of fuel reprocessing equipment automation using advanced instrumentation and a modern, microprocessor-based control system is nearing completion in the facility. This facility provides for the synergistic testing of all chemical process features of a prototypical fuel reprocessing plant that can be attained with unirradiated uranium-bearing feed materials. The unique equipment and mission of the IET facility make it an ideal test bed for automation studies. This effort will provide for the demonstration of the plant automation concept and for the development of techniques for similar applications in a full-scale plant. A set of preliminary recommendations for implementing process automation has been compiled. Some of these concepts are not generally recognized or accepted. The automation work now under way in the IET facility should be useful to others in helping avoid costly mistakes because of the underutilization or misapplication of process automation. 6 figs

  5. Automation of plasma-process fultext bibliography databases. An on-line data-collection, data-mining and data-input system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searching for relevant data, information retrieval, data extraction and data input are time- and resource-consuming activities in most data centers. Here we develop a Linux system automating the process in case of bibliography, abstract and fulltext databases. The present system is an open-source free-software low-cost solution that connects the target and provider databases in cyberspace through various web publishing formats. The abstract/fulltext relevance assessment is interfaced to external software modules. (author)

  6. Toll-like receptors in neurodegeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor

    2009-01-01

    Innate pattern recognition receptors are implicated in first-line defense against pathogens but also participate in maintenance of tissue homeostasis and response to injury. This chapter reviews the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in neuronal and glial responses that are associated with...... neurodegeneration. Accompanying roles for infection and inflammation, involvement in clinical neurodegenerative disorders, and heterogeneity of glial response are discussed. A "strength of signal" hypothesis is advanced in an attempt to reconcile evolutionarily selected and therefore likely beneficial effects of...... TLR signaling in the nervous system with capability for neurotoxocity and gliotoxicity....

  7. Toll-like receptors in brain development and homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter H; Holm, Thomas Hellesøe; Owens, Trevor

    2007-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are best known as initiators of the innate immune response to pathogens. Recent reports now reveal intriguing roles for TLRs in the central nervous system (CNS). These include the regulation of neuroinflammation and of neurite outgrowth. The archetypal Toll protein in...

  8. Toll-like receptor 2 or toll-like receptor 4 deficiency does not modify lupus in MRLlpr mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Freeley

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease with a high morbidity and nephritis is a common manifestation. Previous studies in murine lupus models have suggest a role for Toll-like receptor 2 and 4. We examined the role of these molecules in MRL lpr mice which is one of the most established and robust murine models. We compared disease parameters in Toll-like receptor 2 or Toll-like receptor 4 deficient mice with their littermate controls. We found no difference in the severity of glomerulonephritis as assessed by histology, serum creatinine and albuminuria when Toll-like receptor 2 or Toll-like receptor 4 deficient MRLlpr mice were compared with Toll-like receptor sufficient controls. We also found similar levels of anti-dsDNA and anti-ssDNA antibodies. These results show that Toll-like receptor 2 and Toll-like receptor 4 do not play a significant role in MRLlpr mice, and therefore they may not be important in human lupus.

  9. Toll-Like Receptors and Myocardial Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Feng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs are a member of the innate immune system. TLRs detect invading pathogens through the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs recognition and play an essential role in the host defense. TLRs can also sense a large number of endogenous molecules with the damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs that are produced under various injurious conditions. Animal studies of the last decade have demonstrated that TLR signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of the critical cardiac conditions, where myocardial inflammation plays a prominent role, such as ischemic myocardial injury, myocarditis, and septic cardiomyopathy. This paper reviews the animal data on (1 TLRs, TLR ligands, and the signal transduction system and (2 the important role of TLR signaling in these critical cardiac conditions.

  10. Mycoplasma lipoproteins and Toll-like receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling-ling ZUO; Yi-mou WU; Xiao-xing YOU

    2009-01-01

    Mycoplasmas, the smallest free-living, self-replicating bacteria with diameters of 200 to 800 nm, have been reported to be associated with human diseases. It is well known that the mycoplasma lipoprotein/peptide is able to modulate the host immune system, whose N-terminal structure is an important factor in inducing immunity and distinguishing Toll-like receptors (TLRs). However, there is still no clear elucidation about the pathogenic mechanism of mycoplasma lipoprotein/peptide and the signaling pathway. Some researchers have focused on understanding the structures of these proteins and the relationships between their structure and biological function. This review provides an update on the research in this field.

  11. Toll Roads: A New Direction for U.S. Highways?

    OpenAIRE

    Deakin, Elizabeth

    1989-01-01

    Toll financing is emerging as a major means of paying for new highways in the United States. Some 1200 miles (1900 km) of new toll facilities are under study, design, or construction, with some thirty-five projects in seventeen states. While toll roads are not new to the US - a number were constructed in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and those built in the 1940s and 1950s serve today as the major interregional highways in many states - the current crop of projects will add as much ...

  12. A modified exponential model for reported death toll during earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinyan Wu; Jianhua Gu

    2009-01-01

    Reliable earthquake death toll estimate can provide valuable references for disaster relief headquarters and civil administration departments to make arrangement and deployment plan during post-earthquake relief work, thus increasing the efficiency of the relief work to a certain extent. In this study, we acquired the death toll data of Wenchuan earthquake, fitted the data using modified exponential curve and compared the result with that of the exponential function. Experimental verification with Chi-Chi earthquake and Kobe earthquake data shows that the fitted result by modified exponential curve is more satisfactory. The final death toll resulting from future destructive earthquakes can be estimated by the acquired fitting function.

  13. Toll-Like Receptors in Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Grote

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs are known as pattern-recognition receptors related to the Toll protein of Drosophila. After recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns of microbial origin, the TLRs alert the immune system, and initiate innate and adaptive immune responses. The TLR system, though, is not confined solely to the leukocyte-mediated immune defense against exogenous pathogens. Besides myeloid cells, TLR expression has been reported in multiple tissues and cell types, including epithelial and endothelial cells. Moreover, despite the microbial patterns that are commonly accepted as TLR ligands, there is increasing evidence that TLRs also recognize host-derived molecules. In this regard, recent studies point to an involvement of TLRs in various chronic inflammatory disorders and cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and even cancer. A common feature of these disorders is an enhanced so-called inflammation-induced angiogenesis. However, inflammation-induced angiogenesis is not solely a key component of pathogen defense during acute infection or chronic inflammatory disorders, but also plays a critical role in repair mechanisms, e.g., wound healing and subsequent tissue regeneration. Interestingly, the latest research could coincidentally demonstrate that TLR activation promotes angiogenesis in various inflammatory settings in response to both exogenous and endogenous ligands, although the precise mode of action of TLRs in this context still remains ambiguous. The objective of this review is to present evidence for the implication of TLRs in angiogenesis during physiological and pathophysiological processes, and the potential clinical relevance for new treatment regimes involving TLR modulation.

  14. Flint Water Crisis Taking High Toll on Health, Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Flint Water Crisis Taking High Toll on Health, Productivity Michigan city accounted for 5 percent of lead ... Flint, Mich., has cost $395 million in lost productivity, increased welfare use and criminal justice spending, according ...

  15. Stress May Take Greatest Toll on Younger Women's Hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160597.html Stress May Take Greatest Toll on Younger Women's Hearts: Study Female heart disease patients under ... may be especially hard on the hearts of younger women who have heart disease, new research suggests. ...

  16. Sleep Apnea May Take Toll on Your Mood, Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Apnea May Take Toll on Your Mood, Thinking Skills Study found altered levels of brain chemicals that ... of Health, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: ...

  17. Financing of business with energetic sources through tolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many firms that have in present time difficult financial problems are not successful during finding of new sources for financing of their activity. Banks do not provide credits for such problematic firms; investors are choosing only the firms that fulfill very sophisticated conditions. Situation at the other ways of financing is similar. Solution for such seemingly inconclusive situation can be financing through tolling mechanism. Tolling means using of additional foreign sources for financing of the business, that bank (or financing institution) does not provide to the individual business maker, but to the tolling institution, and consequently it is obligatory to pay back provided means to the financing institution. Presented article describes possibilities of financial sources obtaining through tolling for area of business with energetic sources in conditions of Slovak republic. (authors)

  18. Structure and function of Toll receptors and their ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Nicholas J; Gangloff, Monique

    2007-01-01

    The Toll family of class I transmembrane receptors recognizes and responds to diverse structures associated with pathogenic microorganisms. These receptors mediate initial responses in innate immunity and are required for the development of the adaptive immune response. Toll receptor signaling pathways are also implicated in serious autoimmune diseases such as endotoxic shock and thus are important therapeutic targets. In this review we discuss how microbial structures as different as nucleic acids and lipoproteins can be recognized by the extracellular domains of Toll receptors. We review recent evidence that the mechanism of signal transduction is complex and involves sequential changes in the conformation of the receptor induced by binding of the ligand. Finally, we assess the emerging area of cross talk in the Toll pathways. Recent work suggests that signaling through TLR4 in response to endotoxin is modified by inputs from at least two other pathways acting through beta2 integrins and protein kinase Cepsilon. PMID:17362201

  19. Pan-Vertebrate Toll-Like Receptors During Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Aya; Matsumoto, Misako; Seya, Tsukasa

    2008-01-01

    Human toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) to raise innate immune responses. The human TLR family was discovered because of its sequence similarity to fruit fly (Drosophila) Toll, which is involved in an anti-fungal response. In this review, we focus on the origin of the vertebrate TLR family highlighted through functional and phylogenetic analyses of TLRs in non-mammalian vertebrates. Recent extensive genome projects revealed that teleosts conta...

  20. Price elasticity of demand for toll roads in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Saens; Germán Lobos

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of a road pricing scheme to optimize the use of transport infrastructure depends on the available information regarding the price elasticity of demand for bridges, tunnels and highways. The aim of this paper is to estimate the price elasticity of demand for toll roads in Chile using the seemingly unrelated regressions (SUR) method and a panel of 48 monthly data drawn from 21 toll plazas (48 x 21). Our results show that, even when controlling for gasoline prices and economic act...

  1. Cracking the Toll-like receptor code in fungal infections

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Cristina; Romani, Luigina; Carvalho, Agostinho

    2010-01-01

    Innate control of fungal infection requires the specific recognition of invariant fungal molecular structures by a variety of innate immune receptors, including Toll-like receptors. In addition to the role in inducing protective immune responses, Toll-like receptor engagement may paradoxically favor fungal infections, by inducing inflammatory pathology and impairing antifungal immunity. Although the dissection of complex genetic traits modulating susceptibility to fungal infections is complex...

  2. DMPD: Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: networks regulated byToll-like receptors mediate innate and adaptive immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17223959 Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: networks regulate...ol. 2007 Feb;147(2):199-207. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: networks... immunity. PubmedID 17223959 Title Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: networks regulat

  3. Automation Security

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzoev, Dr. Timur

    2014-01-01

    Web-based Automated Process Control systems are a new type of applications that use the Internet to control industrial processes with the access to the real-time data. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks contain computers and applications that perform key functions in providing essential services and commodities (e.g., electricity, natural gas, gasoline, water, waste treatment, transportation) to all Americans. As such, they are part of the nation s critical infrastructu...

  4. Automating the Purple Crow Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Shannon; Sica, R. J.; Argall, P. S.

    2016-06-01

    The Purple Crow LiDAR (PCL) was built to measure short and long term coupling between the lower, middle, and upper atmosphere. The initial component of my MSc. project is to automate two key elements of the PCL: the rotating liquid mercury mirror and the Zaber alignment mirror. In addition to the automation of the Zaber alignment mirror, it is also necessary to describe the mirror's movement and positioning errors. Its properties will then be added into the alignment software. Once the alignment software has been completed, we will compare the new alignment method with the previous manual procedure. This is the first among several projects that will culminate in a fully-automated lidar. Eventually, we will be able to work remotely, thereby increasing the amount of data we collect. This paper will describe the motivation for automation, the methods we propose, preliminary results for the Zaber alignment error analysis, and future work.

  5. Toll-like receptors of deuterostome invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honoo eSatake

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Defensive systems against pathogens are responsible not only for survival or lifetime of an individual but also for the evolution of a species. Innate immunity is expected to be more important for invertebrates than mammals, given that adaptive immunity has not been acquired in the former. Toll-like receptors (TLRs have been shown to play a crucial role in host defense of pathogenic microbes in innate immunity of mammals. Recent genome-wide analyses have suggested that TLR or their related genes are conserved in invertebrates. In particular, numerous TLR-related gene candidates were detected in deuterostome invertebrates including a sea urchin (222 TLR-related gene candidates and amphioxus (72 TLR-related gene candidates. Molecular phylogenetic analysis verified that most of sea urchin or amphioxus TLR candidates are paralogous, suggesting that these organisms expanded TLR-related genes in a species-specific manner. In contrast, another deuterostome invertebrate, an ascidian, Ciona intestinalis, was found to possess only two TLR genes. Moreover, Ciona TLRs, Ci-TLR1 and -2, were shown to possess hybrid functionality of mammalian TLRs. Such functionality of Ci-TLRs could not be predicted by sequence comparison with vertebrate TLRs, indicating the confounding evolutionary lineages of deuterostome invertebrate TLRs or their candidates. In this review article, we present recent advances in studies of TLRs or their candidates of deuterostome invertebrates, and provide insight into an evolutionary process of TLRs.

  6. Application of high-resolution capillary array electrophoresis with automated fraction collection for GeneCalling analysis of the yeast genomic DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berka, J.; Ruiz-Martinez, M. C.; Hammond, R.; Minarik, M.; Foret, František; Sosic, Z.; Klepárník, Karel; Karger, B. L.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 4 (2003), s. 639-647. ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/00/0772; GA ČR GA303/00/0928 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : capillary array * fraction collection * gene expression profiling Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.040, year: 2003

  7. Autoinmunidad y receptores tipo Toll = Autoimmunity and toll-like receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossa Giraldo, Ana Claudia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta inmune innata está conformada por un conjunto de mecanismos que permiten reconocer los componentes propios del organismo y diferenciarlos de los microorganismos invasores para generar una primera línea de defensa. Este reconocimiento está mediado por diferentes receptores presentes en la superficie y en el interior de células inmunes y no inmunes; entre ellos se encuentran los siguientes: receptores tipo Toll (RTT, receptores de lectinas tipo C, receptores tipo GIR (genes inducibles por ácido retinoico y receptores tipo Nod y NALP, que reconocen patrones moleculares asociados a microorganismos (PMAM. Gracias a esta capacidad de discriminación, adquirida evolutivamente por la inmunidad innata, se ha aceptado tradicionalmente que los procesos autoinmunes no están relacionados con esta sino con la inmunidad adquirida. Sin embargo, varios estudios han demostrado que esa teoría no es totalmente cierta y que algunos mecanismos efectores de la inmunidad innata participan en la generación de las enfermedades autoinmunes o en la potenciación de su fisiopatología. En esta revisión se estudia la contribución de la inmunidad innata a la autoinmunidad con énfasis en el papel de los receptores tipo Toll.

  8. Automated underwater object classification using optical imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Shihavuddin, A.S.M.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of automated underwater optical image characterization. Remote underwater optical sensing allows the collection and storage of vast amounts of data for which manual classification may take months. Supervised automated classification of such datasets can save time and resources and can also enable extraction of valuableinformation related to marine and geological research

  9. Working toward Transparency in Library Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding, Marshall

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author argues the need for transparency with regard to the automation systems used in libraries. As librarians make decisions regarding automation software and services, they should have convenient access to information about the organizations it will potentially acquire technology from and about the collective experiences of…

  10. 25 CFR 170.131 - How can a tribe find out more about designing and operating a toll facility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... operating a toll facility? Information on designing and operating a toll highway, bridge or tunnel is available from the International Bridge, Tunnel and Turnpike Association. The Association publishes...

  11. Pipelines update : new tolls and new opportunities in gas gathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the new TransCanada energy transmission system was given. TransCanada has ownership interests in seven other North American natural gas pipelines and the integration of former NOVA Gas Transmission, TransCanada Energy Transmission and ANG Pipeline organizations into a single organization is nearing completion. Integration efforts have been driven by TransCanada's commitment to provide customers with lower costs and improved service levels. The service enhancements will include one-stop shopping, customer advisory councils, harmonized design criteria, optimized operations/maintenance, and consistent billing processes. The new toll design which will replace the current postage-stamp pricing regime offered by NGTL was also reviewed, emphasizing key features such as pricing, term linked tolls, interruptible/short term tolls, renewal incentive, risk/reward collar, transition period and new services

  12. Murine Automated Urine Sampler (MAUS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal outlines planned development for a low-power, low-mass automated urine sample collection and preservation system for small mammals, capable of...

  13. Automated Budget System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  14. 78 FR 36563 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Single Family Premium Collection Subsystem...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Single Family Premium Collection... to the proposal by name and/or OMB Control Number and should be sent to: HUD Desk Officer, Office of... access this number through TTY by calling the toll-free Federal Relay Service at (800) 877-8339. This...

  15. Energy consumption and intensity of toll highway transport in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Martínez, Pedro; Miranda, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the energy consumption of toll highway transport on a number of Spanish roads. Regression parameters are balanced according to coefficients from an empirical analysis based on survey data by vehicle type. The mean energy consumption and subsequent CO2 emissions on the toll highway sections are estimated as 1895 MJ/h/lane-km and 0.15 tCO2 eq./h/lane-km, values that increase to 2644 and 0.22 when energy and carbon emissions of transport infrastructure are considered based on the lif...

  16. DMPD: Toll-like receptor signal transduction. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17934330 Toll-like receptor signal transduction. Krishnan J, Selvarajoo K, Tsuchiya... M, Lee G, Choi S. Exp Mol Med. 2007 Aug 31;39(4):421-38. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Toll-like receptor signal tran...sduction. PubmedID 17934330 Title Toll-like receptor signal transduction. Authors Krishnan J,

  17. DMPD: Toll like receptors and autoimmunity: a critical appraisal. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17959357 Toll like receptors and autoimmunity: a critical appraisal. Papadimitraki ...ml) Show Toll like receptors and autoimmunity: a critical appraisal. PubmedID 17959357 Title Toll like recep...tors and autoimmunity: a critical appraisal. Authors Papadimitraki ED, Bertsias G

  18. DMPD: The Toll-like receptors: analysis by forward genetic methods. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16001129 The Toll-like receptors: analysis by forward genetic methods. Beutler B. I...mmunogenetics. 2005 Jul;57(6):385-92. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show The Toll-like receptors: analysis by forward genetic methods.... PubmedID 16001129 Title The Toll-like receptors: analysis by forward genetic methods

  19. DMPD: Endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15178705 Endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors. Tsan MF, Gao B. J Leukoc Biol. ...2004 Sep;76(3):514-9. Epub 2004 Jun 3. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Endogenous ligands of Toll-like re...ceptors. PubmedID 15178705 Title Endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors. Authors Tsan MF, Gao B. Publicat

  20. DMPD: Toll-like receptors and Type I interferons. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17395581 Toll-like receptors and Type I interferons. Uematsu S, Akira S. J Biol Che...m. 2007 May 25;282(21):15319-23. Epub 2007 Mar 29. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Toll-like receptors and Type... I interferons. PubmedID 17395581 Title Toll-like receptors and Type I interferons. Authors Uematsu S,

  1. DMPD: Viral recognition by Toll-like receptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17336545 Viral recognition by Toll-like receptors. Barton GM. Semin Immunol. 2007 F...eb;19(1):33-40. Epub 2007 Mar 2. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Viral recognition by Toll-like receptors.... PubmedID 17336545 Title Viral recognition by Toll-like receptors. Authors Barton GM. Publication Semin Imm

  2. DMPD: All is not Toll: new pathways in DNA recognition. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16446382 All is not Toll: new pathways in DNA recognition. Wagner H, Bauer S. J Exp... Med. 2006 Feb 20;203(2):265-8. Epub 2006 Jan 30. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show All is not Toll: new pa...thways in DNA recognition. PubmedID 16446382 Title All is not Toll: new pathways in DNA recognition. Authors

  3. DMPD: Toll-like receptors regulation of viral infection and disease. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18280610 Toll-like receptors regulation of viral infection and disease. Thompson JM...how Toll-like receptors regulation of viral infection and disease. PubmedID 18280610 Title Toll-like recepto...rs regulation of viral infection and disease. Authors Thompson JM, Iwasaki A. Pub

  4. DMPD: A Toll-like receptor in horseshoe crabs. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15199958 A Toll-like receptor in horseshoe crabs. Inamori K, Ariki S, Kawabata S. I...mmunol Rev. 2004 Apr;198:106-15. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show A Toll-like receptor in horseshoe crabs.... PubmedID 15199958 Title A Toll-like receptor in horseshoe crabs. Authors Inamori K, Ariki S, Kawabata S. Pu

  5. Automated Data Quality Assessment of Marine Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Daniel V; Leon Reznik; Paulo A. Souza; Timms, Greg P.

    2011-01-01

    The automated collection of data (e.g., through sensor networks) has led to a massive increase in the quantity of environmental and other data available. The sheer quantity of data and growing need for real-time ingestion of sensor data (e.g., alerts and forecasts from physical models) means that automated Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) is necessary to ensure that the data collected is fit for purpose. Current automated QA/QC approaches provide assessments based upon hard classific...

  6. Data collection system of greenhouse corps based on micro automated guided vehicle%基于微型自动导引运输车的盆栽作物数据采集系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立舒; 丁晓成; 时启凡

    2014-01-01

    为了满足作物育/选种过程中高频次获取样本植株个体的生理指标及生长环境数据的需求,该文以微型自动导引运输车(automated guided vehicle,AGV)为基础结合ARM(advanced RISC machines)嵌入式技术设计了一套温室盆栽作物数据采集系统。该文介绍了温室盆栽作物数据采集系统的工作原理,组成结构和功能测试。系统由微型AGV、车载数据采集系统、通讯与控制系统等部分组成,微型AGV携带数据采集系统按照作业指令依次对样本植株个体的图像信息以及环境参数信息进行采集,解决了育/选种过程中需要人工方式对培育的样本植株个体数据进行采集的问题。随机选取160盆大豆样本进行数据采集试验,试验结果表明,采集的大豆植株图像完整、清晰,生长环境数据精确度高,平均误差不大于2%,对160个样本点的图像数据进行采集用时约9 min,数据采集效率大幅提高。试验过程中系统运行稳定,定位准确,误差为±6 mm,且无脱轨现象。该研究为温室盆栽作物个体的数据自动化采集提供了参考。%During the process of growing and selecting corps, it is significant to high-frequently gain of biological indexes of individual samples and their surrounding environmental parameters. Under normal circumstances, the number of samples is large, data acquisition cycle is long. To realize high-level automation of the process of growing and selecting crops, Data collection system (DCS) of corps was designed based on micro automated guided vehicle (AGV) in this paper. Techniques of advanced RISC machines (ARM), radio frequency identification (RFID), sensors, wireless communication, and modern control, etc were also use to the DCS. The DCS consisted of micro AGV, VDAS (vehicle data acquisition system), communication and control system. Specifically, the micro AGV, made up of control unit, action unit, guiding unit and

  7. Comparison of different ways of implementing congestion tolls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Ross

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of different methods for improving the toll structure in a road network to achieve better socioeconomically results. By comparing a system using a marginal priced approach and a system using a metaheuristic approach it is investigated which...

  8. MAPPING OF TOLL LIKE RECEPTOR (TLR) GENES IN RAINBOW TROUT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of transmembrane proteins that recognize conserved pathogen structures to induce innate immune effector molecules. In vertebrates, TLRs can distinguish among classes of pathogens and serve an important role in orchestrating the appropriate adaptive immune resp...

  9. Toll-like receptor polymorphisms in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornblit, Brian; Enevold, Christian; Wang, Tao; Spellman, Stephen; Haagenson, Mike; Lee, Stephanie J; Müller, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    To assess the impact of the genetic variation in toll-like receptors (TLRs) on outcome after allogeneic myeloablative conditioning hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), we investigated 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms across 10 TLRs in 816 patients and donors. Only donor genotype of TLR8 rs...... of TLR8 rs3764879 of the donor is associated with outcome after myeloablative conditioned allogeneic HCT....

  10. Manufacturing and automation

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Córdoba Nieto

    2010-01-01

    The article presents concepts and definitions from different sources concerning automation. The work approaches automation by virtue of the author’s experience in manufacturing production; why and how automation prolects are embarked upon is considered. Technological reflection regarding the progressive advances or stages of automation in the production area is stressed. Coriat and Freyssenet’s thoughts about and approaches to the problem of automation and its current state are taken and e...

  11. OXIDATIVE BURST MEDIATED BY TOLL LIKE RECEPTORS (TLR) AND CD14 ON AVIAN HETEROPHILS STIMULATED WITH BACTERIAL TOLL AGONISTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), which are found in the cell walls of gram negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. This study was conducted to determine if TLRs are present on...

  12. Implementation of Fuzzy Logic with High Security Registration Plate (HSRP for Vehicle Classification and Checking in TollPlaza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sathya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In Automobile Industries, to use of High Security Registration plate (HSRP is still a challenging problem. There are more options to misuse the vehicle and exchange its engine, chassis, gear box, axle etc., In an existing system, the Regional Transport Office (RTO only determine an abstract of the vehicle and its owner. The vehicles are classified using piezo sensor and inductive loop systems. The toll-plaza is used only collected fees from the vehicles for maintain the quality roads. There are no authorized agencies allotted to identify the vehicle checking and no possibilities to control the vehicle overloading. The proposed system, toll-plaza will be act as a multi-plaza. Vehicles are classified with weight and speed. Then it is checking in toll-plaza either passed or checked. In this paper, The system uses illumination (such as Infrared and a camera to take the image of the front or rear of the vehicle, then an extracts the plate information. This data is used for enforcement and it can be used to open a gate if the vehicle is checked with RTO data in toll-plaza. In vehicle checking, we develop new rules using a fuzzy logic to improve the performance. The features of this system are implemented in the upgrading vehicles only. It is used to control the overloading to maintain road safety and to identify the theft vehicle to reduce the crime and terrorism. As Bharat Stage Emission (BSE standard vehicles are implemented in India very aggressively. The emission standard vehicles are serviced only in authorized service centre not for doing and end root machines.

  13. Capillary Electrophoresis coupled with Automated Fraction Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Huge, Bonnie Jaskowski; Flaherty, Ryan; Dada, Oluwatosin O.; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2014-01-01

    A fraction collector based on a drop-on-demand ink-jet printer was developed to interface capillary zone electrophoresis with a 96 well microtiter plate. We first evaluated the performance of the collector by using capillary zone electrophoresis to analyze a 1 mM solution of tetramethylrhodamine; a fluorescent microtiter plate reader was then used to detect the analyte and characterize fraction carryover between wells. Relative standard deviation in peak height was 20% and the relative standa...

  14. Expression of Toll-Like Receptors on Breast Tumors: Taking a Toll on Tumor Microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer remains a major cause of death in women in the developed world. As Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are widely expressed on tumor cells and play important roles in the initiation and progression of cancer, they may thus serve as important targets and have an effective perspective on breast cancer treatment. Expression of TLRs on breast cancer cells and mononuclear inflammatory cells can promote inflammation and cell survival in the tumor microenvironment. Inflammation and cancer are related. It is well known that persistent inflammatory conditions can induce cancer formation, due to production of cytokines and chemokines, which play a crucial role in promoting angiogenesis, metastasis, and subversion of adaptive immunity. TLR signaling in tumor cells can mediate tumor cell immune escape and tumor progression, and it is regarded as one of the mechanisms for chronic inflammation in tumorigenesis and progression. This paper delineates the expression of various TLRs in promotion of inflammation and development of mammary tumors. Understanding the mechanisms through which TLRs on breast cancer cells and inflammatory cells regulate growth, survival, and metastatic progression can make them potential targets for breast cancer therapy

  15. Manufacturing and automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Córdoba Nieto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents concepts and definitions from different sources concerning automation. The work approaches automation by virtue of the author’s experience in manufacturing production; why and how automation prolects are embarked upon is considered. Technological reflection regarding the progressive advances or stages of automation in the production area is stressed. Coriat and Freyssenet’s thoughts about and approaches to the problem of automation and its current state are taken and examined, especially that referring to the problem’s relationship with reconciling the level of automation with the flexibility and productivity demanded by competitive, worldwide manufacturing.

  16. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during September 2014 (NODC Accession 0122593)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  17. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during June 2015 (NCEI Accession 0129884)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  18. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2011-06 (NCEI Accession 0074384)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  19. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2005-04 (NODC Accession 0002176)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  20. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2011-12 (NODC Accession 0083918)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  1. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during January 2016 (NCEI Accession 0142963)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  2. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2005-06 (NODC Accession 0002309)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  3. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2011-07 (NCEI Accession 0074922)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  4. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during October 2014 (NODC Accession 0122591)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  5. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during February 2015 (NODC Accession 0126669)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  6. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2013-10 (NODC Accession 0114407)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  7. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2005-07 (NODC Accession 0002372)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  8. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during November 2015 (NCEI Accession 0139254)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  9. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during April 2016 (NCEI Accession 0150816)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  10. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2013-12 (NODC Accession 0115760)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  11. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2014-05 (NODC Accession 0119474)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  12. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during July 2016 (NCEI Accession 0156326)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  13. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2013-04 (NODC Accession 0106521)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  14. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during September 2015 (NCEI Accession 0136935)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  15. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2014-08 (NODC Accession 0122005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  16. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during February 2016 (NCEI Accession 0145373)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  17. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2014-01 (NODC Accession 0116427)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  18. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during May 2015 (NCEI Accession 0129415)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  19. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2011-08 (NCEI Accession 0077456)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  20. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2012-03 (NODC Accession 0088199)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  1. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2013-11 (NODC Accession 0115123)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  2. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during October 2015 (NCEI Accession 0137949)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  3. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during June 2016 (NCEI Accession 0155886)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  4. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2014-04 (NODC Accession 0118539)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  5. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2013-02 (NODC Accession 0104259)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  6. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2011-09 (NODC Accession 0078579)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  7. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2011-10 (NODC Accession 0079513)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  8. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during December 2015 (NCEI Accession 0140790)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  9. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2012-12 (NODC Accession 0101426)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  10. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2011-11 (NODC Accession 0082371)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  11. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2012-01 (NODC Accession 0085139)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  12. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2013-09 (NODC Accession 0113792)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  13. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2012-04 (NODC Accession 0090312)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  14. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2013-01 (NODC Accession 0103632)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  15. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2012-09 (NODC Accession 0098547)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  16. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during December 2014 (NODC Accession 0125264)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  17. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2013-07 (NODC Accession 0111971)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  18. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2012-05 (NODC Accession 0090313)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  19. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2012-11 (NODC Accession 0099948)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  20. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2011-03 (NCEI Accession 0072077)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  1. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2011-05 (NCEI Accession 0073426)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  2. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2013-03 (NODC Accession 0104424)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  3. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2012-06 (NODC Accession 0092557)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  4. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2011-02 (NCEI Accession 0071368)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  5. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during July 2015 (NCEI Accession 0130916)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  6. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2012-07 (NODC Accession 0095565)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  7. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2012-08 (NODC Accession 0095593)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  8. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2011-04 (NCEI Accession 0072886)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  9. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2014-06 (NODC Accession 0120329)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  10. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2014-03 (NODC Accession 0117682)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  11. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during August 2015 (NCEI Accession 0131704)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  12. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2012-10 (NODC Accession 0099428)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  13. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during April 2015 (NCEI Accession 0128073)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  14. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during March 2016 (NCEI Accession 0146738)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  15. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during January 2015 (NODC Accession 0125752)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  16. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2013-08 (NODC Accession 0112958)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  17. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during November 2014 (NODC Accession 0122594)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  18. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2014-07 (NODC Accession 0121505)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  19. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2011-01 (NCEI Accession 0070959)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  20. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2013-06 (NODC Accession 0110477)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  1. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2012-02 (NODC Accession 0086627)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  2. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2014-02 (NODC Accession 0117491)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  3. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2013-05 (NODC Accession 0108385)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  4. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during May 2016 (NCEI Accession 0153542)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  5. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during March 2015 (NODC Accession 0127371)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  6. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2005-08 (NODC Accession 0002380)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  7. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2005-11 (NODC Accession 0002469)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  8. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2005-10 (NODC Accession 0002436)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  9. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during September 2014 (NODC Accession 0122592)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  10. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2005-05 (NODC Accession 0002226)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  11. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2005-09 (NODC Accession 0002415)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  12. Small Business Innovations (Automated Information)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Bruce G. Jackson & Associates Document Director is an automated tool that combines word processing and database management technologies to offer the flexibility and convenience of text processing with the linking capability of database management. Originally developed for NASA, it provides a means to collect and manage information associated with requirements development. The software system was used by NASA in the design of the Assured Crew Return Vehicle, as well as by other government and commercial organizations including the Southwest Research Institute.

  13. Implementing a Data Logger for Home Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Hailegiorgis, Henoke

    2015-01-01

    Today’s technology provides a smart and secure ability to a home automation system. However to overcoming drawbacks and improving the system in a cost effective way needs to be done in a broader sense by paying attention to the most important purpose of a house automation system. The purpose of this thesis is to discuss a data logger, an automatic data collecting device, extension to a home automation system to improve the performance of the system. The focus is on the data logger design a...

  14. Current Views of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Yamamoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On microbial invasion, the host immediately evokes innate immune responses. Recent studies have demonstrated that Toll-like receptors (TLRs play crucial roles in innate responses that lead not only to the clearance of pathogens but also to the efficient establishment of acquired immunity by directly detecting molecules from microbes. In terms of intracellular TLR-mediated signaling pathways, cytoplasmic adaptor molecules containing Toll/IL-1R (TIR domains play important roles in inflammatory immune responses through the production of proinflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide, and type I interferon, and upregulation of costimulatory molecules. In this paper, we will describe our current understanding of the relationship between TLRs and their ligands derived from pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Moreover, we will review the historical and current literature to describe the mechanisms behind TLR-mediated activation of innate immune responses.

  15. An automated swimming respirometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    STEFFENSEN, JF; JOHANSEN, K; BUSHNELL, PG

    1984-01-01

    An automated respirometer is described that can be used for computerized respirometry of trout and sharks.......An automated respirometer is described that can be used for computerized respirometry of trout and sharks....

  16. Configuration Management Automation (CMA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Configuration Management Automation (CMA) will provide an automated, integrated enterprise solution to support CM of FAA NAS and Non-NAS assets and investments. CMA...

  17. Expression of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in gingivitis and chronic periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is the major cause of adult tooth loss and is commonly characterized by a chronic inflammation caused by infection by oral bacteria. Members of Toll-like receptor (TLR family recognize conserved microbial structures, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharides, and activate signaling pathways that result in immune responses against microbial infections. The aim of the present study was to assess the mRNA expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 in gingivitis and chronic periodontitis. Gingival tissue samples were collected from patients with chronic periodontitis, gingivitis, and healthy controls. Total RNA was extracted and RT-PCR was done for TLR-2 and TLR-4. The results showed that TLR-2 was significantly increased in gingivitis compared to TLR-4 expression and decreased in chronic periodontitis.

  18. Assembly of Oligomeric Death Domain Complexes during Toll Receptor Signaling*

    OpenAIRE

    Moncrieffe, Martin C.; Grossmann, J. Günter; Gay, Nicholas J.

    2008-01-01

    The Drosophila Toll receptor is activated by the endogenous protein ligand Spätzle in response to microbial stimuli in immunity and spatial cues during embryonic development. Downstream signaling is mediated by the adaptor proteins Tube, the kinase Pelle, and the Drosophila homologue of myeloid differentiation primary response protein (dMyD88). Here we have characterized heterodimeric (dMyD88-Tube) and heterotrimeric (dMyD88-Tube-Pelle) death domain complexes. We show ...

  19. The toll index: Innovation-based economic telemetry

    OpenAIRE

    Askitas, Nikos; Zimmermann, Klaus F.

    2011-01-01

    We present the operationalized Toll Index, which is a new type of early indicator for the German business cycle. We present the basic idea and document the power of the indicator for the purpose of nowcasting. The data will be regularly available at the IDSC, the data bank center of IZA and will be accessible there through the homepage. We further emphasize several policy recommendations regarding data.

  20. Viscosity solutions theory for tolling agreements and swing options

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    We investigate a constrained stochastic control problem connected to a financial contract representing a virtual factory. Commonly known as tolling agreements, these contracts are traded in free energy markets and include exercise flexibility in volume as well as in timing. Allowing for very general models for jump-diffusion processes with possibly time-dependant jump intensity, we study the control problem under the dynamic programming framework. After rigorously proving the dynamic programm...

  1. Intervention on toll-like receptors in pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, Juan; Andersson, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a devastating disease with pronounced morbidity and a high mortality rate. Currently available treatments lack convincing cost-efficiency determinations and are in most cases not associated with relevant success rate. Experimental stimulation of the immune system in murine PDA models has revealed some promising results. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pillars of the immune system that have been linked to several forms of malignancy, including lung, bre...

  2. The Bergen and Oslo toll rings and infrastructure investment schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Lian, Jon Inge

    2005-01-01

    When the toll rings around Bergen and Oslo was established in 1986 and 1990 respectively, they were part of a major scheme to speed up road investments. In Oslo twenty percent of the revenue was allocated to public transport investments. The paper studies the impact of these major investments in road and public transport infrastructure on car travel and on public transport services. The paper comprises of three parts: Firstly, it describes the important features of the schemes. Emphasis is pl...

  3. Microbial Hijacking of Complement–Toll-like Receptor Crosstalk*

    OpenAIRE

    WANG Min; Krauss, Jennifer L.; Domon, Hisanori; Hosur, Kavita B.; Liang, Shuang; Magotti, Paola; Triantafilou, Martha; Triantafilou, Kathy; Lambris, John D.; Hajishengallis, George

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that complement and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) crosstalk to coordinate innate immunity. We report a novel immune subversion mechanism involving microbial exploitation of the ability of complement and TLRs for communication. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major oral and systemic pathogen expressing complement C5 convertase-like activity, was shown to synergize with C5a for cAMP elevation resulting in macrophage immunosuppression and enhanced pathogen survival in vitro and...

  4. The evolution of vertebrate Toll-like receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Roach, Jared C.; Glusman, Gustavo; Rowen, Lee; Kaur, Amardeep; Purcell, Maureen K.; Smith, Kelly D.; Hood, Leroy E.; Aderem, Alan

    2005-01-01

    The complete sequences of Takifugu Toll-like receptor (TLR) loci and gene predictions from many draft genomes enable comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis. Strong selective pressure for recognition of and response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns has maintained a largely unchanging TLR recognition in all vertebrates. There are six major families of vertebrate TLRs. This repertoire is distinct from that of invertebrates. TLRs within a family recognize a general class of pathog...

  5. Toll-like receptor sensing of human herpesvirus infection

    OpenAIRE

    John A West; Gregory, Sean M.; Damania, Blossom

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are evolutionarily conserved pathogen sensors that constitute the first line of defense in the human immune system. Herpesviruses are prevalent throughout the world and cause significant disease in the human population. Sensing of herpesviruses via TLRs has only been documented in the last 10 years and our understanding of the relationship between these sentinels of the immune system and herpesvirus infection has already provided great insight into how the host cell...

  6. Human herpesvirus 6 infection impairs Toll-like receptor signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Ochi Toshiki; Suemori Koichiro; An Jun; Fujiwara Hiroshi; Tanimoto Kazushi; Murakami Yuichi; Hasegawa Hitoshi; Yasukawa Masaki

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) has a tropism for immunocompetent cells, including T lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs) suggesting that HHV-6 infection affects the immunosurveillance system. Toll-like receptor (TLR) system plays an important role in innate immunity against various pathogens. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HHV-6 infection on the expression and intracellular signaling of TLRs in DCs. Although expression levels of TLRs were no...

  7. Toll-like receptors in invertebrate innate immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Zheng

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Among invertebrates, innate immunity is the only defense mechanism against harmful non-self agents.In response to recognition of microbial pattern molecules, Drosophila melanogaster activates either theToll or Imd pathway, leading to the translocation of NF-kB (or Rel transcription factors from the cytoplasmto the nucleus and the subsequent production of antimicrobial peptides, which provide systemic innateimmunity. Toll-like receptors (TLRs are characterized by an extracellular leucine rich repeat (LRRdomain and an intracellular Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR domain. TLRs are found from cnidarians tomammals. Here we argue that TLR mediated innate immunity developed during an early stage ofevolution when organisms acquired a body cavity. This is supported by the distributions of TLR and Relgenes in the animal kingdom. Further, TLR mediated immunity appears to have developed independentlyin invertebrates and vertebrates. Recent studies have shown that microbial molecules, with the potentialto signal through TLR, can be beneficial to host survival. Studies on this signaling pathway could opendoors to a better understanding of the origins of innate immunity in invertebrates and potentialtransmission blocking strategies aimed at ameliorating vector-borne diseases.

  8. Workflow automation architecture standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshofsky, R.P.; Rohen, W.T. [Boeing Computer Services Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-11-14

    This document presents an architectural standard for application of workflow automation technology. The standard includes a functional architecture, process for developing an automated workflow system for a work group, functional and collateral specifications for workflow automation, and results of a proof of concept prototype.

  9. Study on effect of toll station on the traffic flow on three-line road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-yu; Li, Wen-bo; Feng, Yu-jie

    2013-03-01

    Based on the NaSch Model, a new three-line cellular automata model emphasizing toll station on the high ways is built to discuss the impact of different amount of toll stations on the traffic flow. The models are as follows: Firstly, the process of cars driving is simulated. Secondly, the process of pulling station is simulated. In this part, two Cellular Automata Models are built separately for two cases, three tollbooths in the toll station and four tollbooths. The result shows that when the density of cars is on medium level, comparing with the toll station with three tollbooths, the toll station with four tollbooths can remit the traffic congestion effectively, but when the density of cars is too high or too low, the toll station with three tollbooths can do better.

  10. Time-Varying Tolls in a Dynamic Model of Road Traffic Congestion with Elastic Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, Erik

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a dynamic model of road traffic congestion is presented, with an elastic overall demand for morning peak road usage, and with the congestion technology used being 'flow congestion'. It is demonstrated that in such a case, the optimal time-varying toll should include a 'flat', time-invariant component when road users share the same desired arrival time. This has important consequences for the design of optimal toll schemes in reality, because it implies that optimal tolls cannot...

  11. Toll-like receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with allergic rhinitis: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson Daniel; Andiappan Anand; Halldén Christer; Yun Wang; Säll Torbjörn; Tim Chew; Cardell Lars-Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The Toll-like receptor proteins are important in host defense and initiation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. A number of studies have identified associations between genetic variation in the Toll-like receptor genes and allergic disorders such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. The present study aim to search for genetic variation associated with allergic rhinitis in the Toll-like receptor genes. Methods A first association analysis genotyped 73 SNPs in 182 case...

  12. Shoe-String Automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, M.L.

    2001-07-30

    Faced with a downsizing organization, serious budget reductions and retirement of key metrology personnel, maintaining capabilities to provide necessary services to our customers was becoming increasingly difficult. It appeared that the only solution was to automate some of our more personnel-intensive processes; however, it was crucial that the most personnel-intensive candidate process be automated, at the lowest price possible and with the lowest risk of failure. This discussion relates factors in the selection of the Standard Leak Calibration System for automation, the methods of automation used to provide the lowest-cost solution and the benefits realized as a result of the automation.

  13. Role of Toll-like receptor 4 in inflammatory reactions of hippocampal neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yae Hu; Jiahui Mao; Yu Zhang; Ailing Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide stimulates Toll-like receptor 4 on immune cells to produce immune mediators. Toll-like receptor 4 is also expressed by non-immune cells, which can be stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. However, whether Toll-like receptor 4 is expressed by primary cultured hippocampal neurons and its specific role in lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation is currently undefined. In this study, Toll-like receptor 4 antibody blocking was used to analyze the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway and changes in inflammation of lipopolysaccharide stimulated hippocampal neurons. Immunofluorescence showed that Toll-like receptor 4 protein was mainly located in the membrane of hippocampal neurons. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and western blot assay showed that after stimulation of lipopolysaccharide, the mRNA and protein levels of Toll-like receptor 4 and the mRNA levels of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α were significantly increased. In addition, there was increased phosphorylation and degradation of kappa B α inhibitor in the cytosol and increased nuclear factor-κB p65 expression in the nuclei. Pretreatment with Toll-like receptor 4 antibody could almost completely block this increase. These experimental findings indicate that lipopolysaccharide participates in neuroinflammation by stimulating Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor-κB pathway in hippocampal neurons, which may be both "passive victims" and "activators" of neuroinflammation.

  14. Elemental and organic carbon exposure in highway tollbooths: a study of Taiwanese toll station workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Tung-Sheng; Lai, Ching-Huang; Hung, Hsueh-Fen; Ku, Shiou-Ying; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Yang, Tsan; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Loh, Ching-Hui; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2008-09-01

    The carbon composition of fine particles (PM(2.5)) from traffic exhausts may play a role in adverse health effects. The objective of this study was to assess the concentrations of elemental and organic carbon in PM(2.5) in traffic exhausts from different types of vehicles in the booths of Taiwanese toll station workers and estimate the relations between traffic density and carbon concentrations. Tollbooth indoor monitoring samples were collected for 10 days to assess the 8 h integrated PM(2.5) concentration. Particle samples were analyzed for the content of total carbon, and elemental, and organic carbon. The mean carbon concentrations in the bus and truck lanes were [total: 167.7 microg/m(3) (SD 79.8 microg/m(3)); elemental: 131.7 (66.2); organic: 36.0 (25.8)], substantially higher compared with the car lanes with cash payment [39.2 (29.5); 20.2 (19.5); 19.2 (14.6)] and the car lanes with ticket payment [34.1 (26.1); 15.8 (17.6); 18.5 (12.2)]. The increase in elemental carbon concentration per vehicle in the bus and truck lane was 14 and 9 times greater than that of car lanes of ticket payment and car lanes of cash payment. The mass fraction of carbonaceous species in PM(2.5) accounted for 54% in bus and truck lanes, whereas the corresponding figure was 30-31% for car lanes. Elemental carbon is an important component of diesel exhaust. Workers in toll stations are exposed to high levels of both elemental and organic carbon. PMID:18550151

  15. 78 FR 5805 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... curriculum for each health professions field; how both the philosophy and substantive findings of PCOR..., including the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology....

  16. 75 FR 54295 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Evaluation of SNAP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... appropriate automated, electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of... University of Kentucky Extension Service is modifying its Literacy, Eating and Activity for...

  17. Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE) methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated approach to facility safeguards effectiveness evaluation has been developed. This automated process, called Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation (SAFE), consists of a collection of a continuous stream of operational modules for facility characterization, the selection of critical paths, and the evaluation of safeguards effectiveness along these paths. The technique has been implemented on an interactive computer time-sharing system and makes use of computer graphics for the processing and presentation of information. Using this technique, a comprehensive evaluation of a safeguards system can be provided by systematically varying the parameters that characterize the physical protection components of a facility to reflect the perceived adversary attributes and strategy, environmental conditions, and site operational conditions. The SAFE procedure has broad applications in the nuclear facility safeguards field as well as in the security field in general. Any fixed facility containing valuable materials or components to be protected from theft or sabotage could be analyzed using this same automated evaluation technique

  18. Toll-like receptors:function and roles in asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周林福; 殷凯生

    2004-01-01

    @@ Asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease involved with multiple susceptible genes for atopy. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), an ancient though newly characterized and evolutionarily conserved immune receptor family, activate the mononuclear phagocyte system via both myeloid differentiation marker 88 (MyD88)-dependent and -independent signaling pathways. TLRs might play a key role in asthma by recognition of pathogenic microorganisms, activation of innate immunity, regulation of adaptive immunity, and induction of immune tolerance. For future immunotherapy of asthma, it is promising to develop novel immune regulators by selectively targeting blockade of TLRs.

  19. Toll-Like Receptor 3 in Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Yin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3 is a member of the TLR family that can recognize double-stranded RNA (dsRNA, playing an important role in antiviral immunity. Recent studies have shown that TLR3 is also expressed on parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells in the liver as well as on several types of immune cells. In this review, we summarize the role of TLR3 in liver injury, inflammation, regeneration, and liver fibrosis, and discuss the implication of TLR3 in the pathogenesis of human liver diseases including viral hepatitis and autoimmune liver disease.

  20. Toll-like receptor 4 modulates skeletal muscle substrate metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Frisard, Madlyn I.; McMillan, Ryan P.; Marchand, Julie; Wahlberg, Kristin A.; Wu, Yaru; Voelker, Kevin A.; Heilbronn, Leonie; Haynie, Kimberly; Muoio, Brendan; Li, Liwu; Hulver, Matthew W.

    2010-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a protein integral to innate immunity, is elevated in skeletal muscle of obese and type 2 diabetic humans and has been implicated in the development of lipid-induced insulin resistance. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of TLR4 as a modulator of basal (non-insulin-stimulated) substrate metabolism in skeletal muscle with the hypothesis that its activation would result in reduced fatty acid oxidation and increased partitioning of fatty acids toward n...

  1. Toll-Like Receptor Initiated Host Defense against Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Y. Denkers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular pathogen notable for its ability to establish a stable host-parasite relationship amongst a wide range of host species and in a large percentage of the human population. Toll-like receptor signaling through MyD88 is a critical pathway in initiating defense against this opportunistic protozoan and may also be a mediator of pathology during immune dysfunction. Other MyD88 independent signaling pathways are also involved in the host-parasite interaction. These responses can be triggered by the parasite itself, but interactions with the intestinal microbiota add additional complexity during enteric infection.

  2. Automated diagnostic kiosk for diagnosing diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, John Frederick; Birch, James Michael

    2014-02-11

    An automated and autonomous diagnostic apparatus that is capable of dispensing collection vials and collections kits to users interesting in collecting a biological sample and submitting their collected sample contained within a collection vial into the apparatus for automated diagnostic services. The user communicates with the apparatus through a touch-screen monitor. A user is able to enter personnel information into the apparatus including medical history, insurance information, co-payment, and answer a series of questions regarding their illness, which is used to determine the assay most likely to yield a positive result. Remotely-located physicians can communicate with users of the apparatus using video tele-medicine and request specific assays to be performed. The apparatus archives submitted samples for additional testing. Users may receive their assay results electronically. Users may allow the uploading of their diagnoses into a central databank for disease surveillance purposes.

  3. Automated stopcock actuator

    OpenAIRE

    Vandehey, N. T.; O'Neil, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We have developed a low-cost stopcock valve actuator for radiochemistry automation built using a stepper motor and an Arduino, an open-source single-board microcontroller. The con-troller hardware can be programmed to run by serial communication or via two 5–24 V digital lines for simple integration into any automation control system. This valve actuator allows for automated use of a single, disposable stopcock, providing a number of advantages over stopcock manifold systems ...

  4. The Adaptive Automation Design

    OpenAIRE

    Calefato, Caterina; Montanari, Roberto; TESAURI, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    After considering the positive effects of adaptive automation implementation, this chapter focuses on two partly overlapping phenomena: on the one hand, the role of trust in automation is considered, particularly as to the effects of overtrust and mistrust in automation's reliability; on the other hand, long-term lack of exercise on specific operation may lead users to skill deterioration. As a future work, it will be interesting and challenging to explore the conjunction of adaptive automati...

  5. Service functional test automation

    OpenAIRE

    Hillah, Lom Messan; Maesano, Ariele-Paolo; Rosa, Fabio; Maesano, Libero; Lettere, Marco; Fontanelli, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the automation of the functional test of services (black-box testing) and services architectures (grey-box testing) that has been developed by the MIDAS project and is accessible on the MIDAS SaaS. In particular, the paper illustrates the solutions of tough functional test automation problems such as: (i) the configuration of the automated test execution system against large and complex services architectures, (ii) the constraint-based test input generation, (iii) the spec...

  6. DMPD: Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: recent advances inunderstanding the role of Toll-like receptors in anti-viral immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17223961 Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: recent advances i...147(2):217-26. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: recent advances...nity. PubmedID 17223961 Title Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: recent advances inund

  7. DMPD: Interferon gene regulation: not all roads lead to Tolls. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16095970 Interferon gene regulation: not all roads lead to Tolls. Jefferies CA, Fit...zgerald KA. Trends Mol Med. 2005 Sep;11(9):403-11. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Interferon gene regulation: not all road...s lead to Tolls. PubmedID 16095970 Title Interferon gene regulation: not all roads lead to

  8. 77 FR 17464 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. ACTION: Agency Information Collection Activities: Information..., including through the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. DATES..., production, demand, technology, and related economic and statistical information. This information is used...

  9. 77 FR 45593 - Proposed Agency Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. DATES: Comments.... Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Avenue SW.,...

  10. 78 FR 13333 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Agency Information Collection Activities: Information... the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. DATES: Comments... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  11. 77 FR 43067 - Proposed Agency Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. DATES: Comments... disseminates information on energy resource reserves, production, demand, technology, and related economic...

  12. 75 FR 53348 - Notice of Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... respondents, including automated collection techniques or the use of other forms of information technology... Incorporating Research and Education Experience) Application. OMB Number: 2700-0133. Type of Review: New... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and...

  13. Laboratory Automation and Middleware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riben, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The practice of surgical pathology is under constant pressure to deliver the highest quality of service, reduce errors, increase throughput, and decrease turnaround time while at the same time dealing with an aging workforce, increasing financial constraints, and economic uncertainty. Although not able to implement total laboratory automation, great progress continues to be made in workstation automation in all areas of the pathology laboratory. This report highlights the benefits and challenges of pathology automation, reviews middleware and its use to facilitate automation, and reviews the progress so far in the anatomic pathology laboratory. PMID:26065792

  14. Automated cloning methods.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne has developed a series of automated protocols to generate bacterial expression clones by using a robotic system designed to be used in procedures associated with molecular biology. The system provides plate storage, temperature control from 4 to 37 C at various locations, and Biomek and Multimek pipetting stations. The automated system consists of a robot that transports sources from the active station on the automation system. Protocols for the automated generation of bacterial expression clones can be grouped into three categories (Figure 1). Fragment generation protocols are initiated on day one of the expression cloning procedure and encompass those protocols involved in generating purified coding region (PCR)

  15. Enhancing Seismic Calibration Research Through Software Automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruppert, S; Dodge, D; Elliott, A; Ganzberger, M; Hauk, T; Matzel, E; Ryall, F

    2004-07-09

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Engineering (GNEM R&E) Program has made significant progress enhancing the process of deriving seismic calibrations and performing scientific integration with automation tools. We present an overview of our software automation efforts and framework to address the problematic issues of very large datasets and varied formats utilized during seismic calibration research. The software and scientific automation initiatives directly support the rapid collection of raw and contextual seismic data used in research, provide efficient interfaces for researchers to measure/analyze data, and provide a framework for research dataset integration. The automation also improves the researcher's ability to assemble quality controlled research products for delivery into the NNSA Knowledge Base (KB). The software and scientific automation tasks provide the robust foundation upon which synergistic and efficient development of, GNEM R&E Program, seismic calibration research may be built. The task of constructing many seismic calibration products is labor intensive and complex, hence expensive. However, aspects of calibration product construction are susceptible to automation and future economies. We are applying software and scientific automation to problems within two distinct phases or 'tiers' of the seismic calibration process. The first tier involves initial collection of waveform and parameter (bulletin) data that comprise the 'raw materials' from which signal travel-time and amplitude correction surfaces are derived and is highly suited for software automation. The second tier in seismic research content development activities include development of correction surfaces and other calibrations. This second tier is less susceptible to complete automation, as these activities require the judgment of scientists skilled in the interpretation of often highly

  16. The Expression of Toll-like Receptors in Dermatological Diseases and the Therapeutic Effect of Current and Newer Topical Toll-like Receptor Modulators

    OpenAIRE

    Valins, Whitney; Amini, Sadegh; Berman, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Toll-like receptors are a group of glycoproteins located mostly in cellular membranes, capable of recognizing certain molecules in exogenous microorganisms and initiating immune responses against them through the activation of several intracellular signaling pathways. Toll-like receptors can be stimulated when an inflammatory reaction is needed for the treatment of conditions, such as viral infections or skin cancer, or can be inhibited when a reduction of inflammation is necessary for the tr...

  17. Simulation of High-Level Way Toll Systemunder the Condition of Mixed Traffic Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Parking-toll on main-line is one of toll models on high-level ways in our country at present. This paper analyzes the flow' s distributing function, queuing model, and vehicle passing time. Through computer simulation, the negative index relationships between carrying capacity and serving time, and the index relationships between the queuing delay and flow are gained under the condition of different serving time and different vehicle type composition. When the flow density is low, the vehicle type composing has less influence on system serving level. Contrarily, also. Disposing toll station by roadway where flow density is high, we can save transection areas of toll station, reduce system queuing delay time, and enhance carrying capacity of toll station.

  18. Infrared vision for the nondestructive inspection of the historic Dery Bridge toll panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dery Gorge holds one of the first toll bridges in Quebec that was in effect from the construction of the bridge in 1804 to be finally abolished in 1910. The toll pricing was indicated on a wooden panel, which was originally installed on the bridge's toll keeper's house, In its present condition this panel shows the toll rates in French and English corresponding to the last period during which the toll was in operation (c.1860-1870), Nevertheless, some indications of older inscriptions can also be partially seen. The main goal of this work was to improve the visibility of the hidden inscriptions by exploring two infrared vision techniques: infrared reflectography and infrared thermography. (author)

  19. A WntD-Dependent Integral Feedback Loop Attenuates Variability in Drosophila Toll Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Neta; Averbukh, Inna; Haskel-Ittah, Michal; Degani, Neta; Schejter, Eyal D; Barkai, Naama; Shilo, Ben-Zion

    2016-02-22

    Patterning by morphogen gradients relies on the capacity to generate reproducible distribution profiles. Morphogen spread depends on kinetic parameters, including diffusion and degradation rates, which vary between embryos, raising the question of how variability is controlled. We examined this in the context of Toll-dependent dorsoventral (DV) patterning of the Drosophila embryo. We find that low embryo-to-embryo variability in DV patterning relies on wntD, a Toll-target gene expressed initially at the posterior pole. WntD protein is secreted and disperses in the extracellular milieu, associates with its receptor Frizzled4, and inhibits the Toll pathway by blocking the Toll extracellular domain. Mathematical modeling predicts that WntD accumulates until the Toll gradient narrows to its desired spread, and we support this feedback experimentally. This circuit exemplifies a broadly applicable induction-contraction mechanism, which reduces patterning variability through a restricted morphogen-dependent expression of a secreted diffusible inhibitor. PMID:26906736

  20. DMPD: When signaling pathways collide: positive and negative regulation of toll-likereceptor signal transduction. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18631453 When signaling pathways collide: positive and negative regulation of toll-likereceptor signal tran...l) Show When signaling pathways collide: positive and negative regulation of toll-likereceptor signal transd...ative regulation of toll-likereceptor signal transduction. Authors O'Neill LA. Publication Immunity. 2008 Ju

  1. DMPD: Proximal effects of Toll-like receptor activation in dendritic cells. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17142025 Proximal effects of Toll-like receptor activation in dendritic cells. Watt...) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Proximal effects of Toll-like receptor activation in dendritic cells. PubmedID... 17142025 Title Proximal effects of Toll-like receptor activation in dendritic ce

  2. DMPD: Toll-like receptors: paving the path to T cell-driven autoimmunity? [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17888644 Toll-like receptors: paving the path to T cell-driven autoimmunity? Marsla... Toll-like receptors: paving the path to T cell-driven autoimmunity? PubmedID 17888644 Title Toll-like recep...tors: paving the path to T cell-driven autoimmunity? Authors Marsland BJ, Kopf M.

  3. DMPD: Toll-like receptors are key participants in innate immune responses. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18064347 Toll-like receptors are key participants in innate immune responses. Aranc...Epub 2007 Nov 21. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Toll-like receptors are key participants in innate immune response...s. PubmedID 18064347 Title Toll-like receptors are key participants in innate immune response

  4. DMPD: Structure, function and regulation of the Toll/IL-1 receptor adaptor proteins. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17667936 Structure, function and regulation of the Toll/IL-1 receptor adaptor prote... (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Structure, function and regulation of the Toll/IL-1 receptor adaptor proteins. ...PubmedID 17667936 Title Structure, function and regulation of the Toll/IL-1 recep

  5. DMPD: Innate immunity and toll-like receptors: clinical implications of basic scienceresearch. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15069387 Innate immunity and toll-like receptors: clinical implications of basic sc...te immunity and toll-like receptors: clinical implications of basic scienceresearch. PubmedID 15069387 Title... Innate immunity and toll-like receptors: clinical implications of basic sciencer

  6. DMPD: Toll-like receptors: novel pharmacological targets for the treatment ofneurological diseases. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17974478 Toll-like receptors: novel pharmacological targets for the treatment ofneu...png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Toll-like receptors: novel pharmacological targets for the treatment ofneur...ological diseases. PubmedID 17974478 Title Toll-like receptors: novel pharmacological targets for the trea...tment ofneurological diseases. Authors Marsh BJ, Stenzel-Poore MP. Publication Curr

  7. DMPD: MyDths and un-TOLLed truths: sensor, instructive and effector immunity totuberculosis. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18191460 MyDths and un-TOLLed truths: sensor, instructive and effector immunity tot...g) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show MyDths and un-TOLLed truths: sensor, instructive and effector immunity totube...rculosis. PubmedID 18191460 Title MyDths and un-TOLLed truths: sensor, instructiv

  8. Toll-like receptors as sensors of pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, M; Rämet, M; Ezekowitz, R A

    2001-09-01

    Initial recognition of microbes, as they enter the body, is based on germ line-encoded pattern recognition receptors that selectively bind to essential components of pathogens. This allows the body to respond immediately to the microbial invasion before the development of active immunity. The signal-transducing receptors that trigger the acute inflammatory cascade have been elusive until very recently. On the basis of their genetic similarity to the Toll signaling pathway in Drosophila, mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been identified. By now, nine transmembrane proteins in the TLR family have been described. Mammalian TLR4 is the signal-transducing receptor activated by the bacterial lipopolysaccharide. The activation of TLR4 leads to DNA binding of the transcription factor NF-kappaB, resulting in activation of the inflammatory cascade. Activation of other TLRs is likely to have similar consequences. TLR2 mediates the host response to Gram-positive bacteria and yeast. TLR1 and TLR6 may participate in the activation of macrophages by Gram-positive bacteria, whereas TLR9 appears to respond to a specific sequence of bacterial DNA. The TLRs that control the onset of an acute inflammatory response are critical antecedents for the development of adaptive acquired immunity. Genetic and developmental variation in the expression of microbial pattern recognition receptors may affect the individual's predisposition to infections in childhood and may contribute to susceptibility to severe neonatal inflammatory diseases, allergies, and autoimmune diseases. PMID:11518816

  9. Automated ship image acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, T. R.

    2008-04-01

    The experimental Automated Ship Image Acquisition System (ASIA) collects high-resolution ship photographs at a shore-based laboratory, with minimal human intervention. The system uses Automatic Identification System (AIS) data to direct a high-resolution SLR digital camera to ship targets and to identify the ships in the resulting photographs. The photo database is then searchable using the rich data fields from AIS, which include the name, type, call sign and various vessel identification numbers. The high-resolution images from ASIA are intended to provide information that can corroborate AIS reports (e.g., extract identification from the name on the hull) or provide information that has been omitted from the AIS reports (e.g., missing or incorrect hull dimensions, cargo, etc). Once assembled into a searchable image database, the images can be used for a wide variety of marine safety and security applications. This paper documents the author's experience with the practicality of composing photographs based on AIS reports alone, describing a number of ways in which this can go wrong, from errors in the AIS reports, to fixed and mobile obstructions and multiple ships in the shot. The frequency with which various errors occurred in automatically-composed photographs collected in Halifax harbour in winter time were determined by manual examination of the images. 45% of the images examined were considered of a quality sufficient to read identification markings, numbers and text off the entire ship. One of the main technical challenges for ASIA lies in automatically differentiating good and bad photographs, so that few bad ones would be shown to human users. Initial attempts at automatic photo rating showed 75% agreement with manual assessments.

  10. Library Automation Style Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord Bros., Liverpool, NY.

    This library automation style guide lists specific terms and names often used in the library automation industry. The terms and/or acronyms are listed alphabetically and each is followed by a brief definition. The guide refers to the "Chicago Manual of Style" for general rules, and a notes section is included for the convenience of individual…

  11. Automation in Warehouse Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg, R.; Verriet, J.

    2012-01-01

    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and support

  12. Automate functional testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kalindri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, software engineers are increasingly turning to the option of automating functional tests, but not always have successful in this endeavor. Reasons range from low planning until over cost in the process. Some principles that can guide teams in automating these tests are described in this article.

  13. Automation in Immunohematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Bajpai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process.

  14. Automated model building

    CERN Document Server

    Caferra, Ricardo; Peltier, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    This is the first book on automated model building, a discipline of automated deduction that is of growing importance Although models and their construction are important per se, automated model building has appeared as a natural enrichment of automated deduction, especially in the attempt to capture the human way of reasoning The book provides an historical overview of the field of automated deduction, and presents the foundations of different existing approaches to model construction, in particular those developed by the authors Finite and infinite model building techniques are presented The main emphasis is on calculi-based methods, and relevant practical results are provided The book is of interest to researchers and graduate students in computer science, computational logic and artificial intelligence It can also be used as a textbook in advanced undergraduate courses

  15. Automation in Warehouse Development

    CERN Document Server

    Verriet, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and supports the quality of picking processes. Secondly, the development of models to simulate and analyse warehouse designs and their components facilitates the challenging task of developing warehouses that take into account each customer’s individual requirements and logistic processes. Automation in Warehouse Development addresses both types of automation from the innovative perspective of applied science. In particular, it describes the outcomes of the Falcon project, a joint endeavour by a consortium of industrial and academic partners. The results include a model-based approach to automate warehouse control design, analysis models for warehouse design, concepts for robotic item handling and computer vision, and auton...

  16. Advances in inspection automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Walter H.; Mair, H. Douglas; Jansen, Dion; Lombardi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    This new session at QNDE reflects the growing interest in inspection automation. Our paper describes a newly developed platform that makes the complex NDE automation possible without the need for software programmers. Inspection tasks that are tedious, error-prone or impossible for humans to perform can now be automated using a form of drag and drop visual scripting. Our work attempts to rectify the problem that NDE is not keeping pace with the rest of factory automation. Outside of NDE, robots routinely and autonomously machine parts, assemble components, weld structures and report progress to corporate databases. By contrast, components arriving in the NDT department typically require manual part handling, calibrations and analysis. The automation examples in this paper cover the development of robotic thickness gauging and the use of adaptive contour following on the NRU reactor inspection at Chalk River.

  17. AUTOMATION OF EXPERIMENTS WITH A HAND-HELD PROGRAMMABLE CALCULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technological developments have dramatically reduced the cost of data collection, experimental control and computation. Products are now available which allow automation of experiments both in the laboratory and in the field at substantially lower cost and with less technical exp...

  18. Characteristics and Educational Advantages of Laboratory Automation in High School Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid B. Revzin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of automation in the high school chemical inquiry based laboratory. Simple computer-controlled devices for automation of basic manual operations were constructed and applied in students' laboratory experiments together with the Fourier-Systems Inc. data collection and management systems. We examined characteristics of learning in the new automated laboratory environment and discussed educational outcomes.

  19. Characteristics and Educational Advantages of Laboratory Automation in High School Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Leonid B. Revzin; Igor M. Verner

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a study of automation in the high school chemical inquiry based laboratory. Simple computer-controlled devices for automation of basic manual operations were constructed and applied in students' laboratory experiments together with the Fourier-Systems Inc. data collection and management systems. We examined characteristics of learning in the new automated laboratory environment and discussed educational outcomes.

  20. Up-regulation of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 in allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uddman Rolf

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toll-like receptors enable the host to recognize a large number of pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide, viral RNA, CpG-containing DNA and flagellin. Toll-like receptors have also been shown to play a pivotal role in both innate and adaptive immune responses. The role of Toll-like receptors as a primary part of our microbe defense system has been shown in several studies, but their possible function as mediators in allergy and asthma remains to be established. The present study was designed to examine the expression of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 in the nasal mucosa of patients with intermittent allergic rhinitis, focusing on changes induced by exposure to pollen. Methods 27 healthy controls and 42 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis volunteered for the study. Nasal biopsies were obtained before and during pollen season as well as before and after allergen challenge. The seasonal material was used for mRNA quantification of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 with real-time polymerase chain reaction, whereas specimens achieved in conjunction with allergen challenge were used for immunohistochemical localization and quantification of corresponding proteins. Results mRNA and protein representing Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 could be demonstrated in all specimens. An increase in protein expression for all three receptors could be seen following allergen challenge, whereas a significant increase of mRNA only could be obtained for Toll-like receptor 3 during pollen season. Conclusion The up-regulation of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 in the nasal mucosa of patients with symptomatic allergic rhinitis supports the idea of a role for Toll-like receptors in allergic airway inflammation.

  1. A multi-objective model for cordon-based congestion pricing schemes with nonlinear distance tolls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鑫; 刘志远; THOMPSON Russell G; 别一鸣; 翁金贤; 陈淑燕

    2016-01-01

    Congestion pricing is an important component of urban intelligent transport system. The efficiency, equity and the environmental impacts associated with road pricing schemes are key issues that should be considered before such schemes are implemented. This paper focuses on the cordon-based pricing with distance tolls, where the tolls are determined by a nonlinear function of a vehicles’ travel distance within a cordon, termed as toll charge function. The optimal tolls can give rise to:1) higher total social benefits, 2) better levels of equity, and 3) reduced environmental impacts (e.g., less emission). Firstly, a deterministic equilibrium (DUE) model with elastic demand is presented to evaluate any given toll charge function. The distance tolls are non-additive, thus a modified path-based gradient projection algorithm is developed to solve the DUE model. Then, to quantitatively measure the equity level of each toll charge function, the Gini coefficient is adopted to measure the equity level of the flows in the entire transport network based on equilibrium flows. The total emission level is used to reflect the impacts of distance tolls on the environment. With these two indexes/measurements for the efficiency, equity and environmental issues as well as the DUE model, a multi-objective bi-level programming model is then developed to determine optimal distance tolls. The multi-objective model is converted to a single level model using the goal programming. A genetic algorithm (GA) is adopted to determine solutions. Finally, a numerical example is presented to verify the methodology.

  2. 78 FR 59722 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... those who are to respond, including through the ] use of appropriate automated, electronic, mechanical...., permitting electronic submission of responses. Summary of Information Collection (1) Type of Information... relics to facilitate a personal collection in interstate and foreign commerce. The information...

  3. Toll-like receptors as therapeutic targets in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Greene, Catherine M

    2008-12-01

    Background: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors that act as a first-line of defence in the innate immune response by recognising and responding to conserved molecular patterns in microbial factors and endogenous danger signals. Cystic fibrosis (CF)-affected airways represent a milieu potentially rich in TLR agonists and the chronic inflammatory phenotype evident in CF airway epithelial cells is probably due in large part to activation of TLRs. Objective\\/methods: To examine the prospects of developing novel therapies for CF by targeting TLRs. We outline the expression and function of TLRs and explore the therapeutic potential of naturally-occurring and synthetic TLR inhibitors for CF. Results\\/conclusion: Modulation of TLRs has therapeutic potential for the inflammatory lung manifestations of CF.

  4. Toll-Like Receptors in Leishmania Infections: Guardians or Promoters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia S. Faria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Protozoa of the genus Leishmania cause a wide variety of pathologies ranging from self-healing skin lesions to visceral damage, depending on the parasite species. The outcome of infection depends on the quality of the adaptive immune response, which is determined by parasite factors and the host genetic background. Innate responses, resulting in the generation of mediators with anti-leishmanial activity, contribute to parasite control and help the development of efficient adaptive responses. Among those, the potential contribution of members of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs family in the control of Leishmania infections started to be investigated about a decade ago. Although most studies appoint a protective role for TLRs, there is growing evidence that in some cases, TLRs facilitate infection. This review highlights recent advances in TLR function during Leishmania infections and discusses their potential role in restraining parasite growth versus yielding disease.

  5. The application of Toll like receptors for cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Young So, Toru Ouchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor (TLR proteins play key roles in immune responses against infection. Using TLR proteins, host can recognize the conserved molecular structures found in pathogens called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs. At the same time, some TLRs are able to detect specific host molecules, such as high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1 and heat shock proteins (hsp, and lead to inflammatory responses. Thus, it has been suggested that TLRs are involved in the development of many pathogenic conditions. Recent advances in TLR-related research not only provide us with scientific information, but also show the therapeutic potential against diseases, such as autoimmune disease and cancer. In this mini review, we demonstrate how TLRs pathways could be involved in cancer development and their therapeutic application, and discuss recent patentable subjects, in particular, that are targeting this unique pathway.

  6. Reprint of: Microglial toll-like receptors and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fan; Bai, Feng; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-07-01

    Microglial activation represents an important pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and emerging data highlight the involvement of microglial toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the course of AD. TLRs have been observed to exert both beneficial and detrimental effects on AD-related pathologies, and transgenic animal models have provided direct and credible evidence for an association between TLRs and AD. Moreover, analyses of genetic polymorphisms have suggested interactions between genetic polymorphisms in TLRs and AD risk, further supporting the hypothesis that TLRs are involved in AD. In this review, we summarize the key evidence in this field. Future studies should focus on exploring the mechanisms underlying the potential roles of TLRs in AD. PMID:27255539

  7. Toll-like receptors as targets for immune disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keogh, Brian

    2012-02-01

    Since the identification of the first Toll-like receptor (TLR) in humans in 1997, understanding of the molecular basis for innate immunity has increased significantly. The TLR family and downstream signalling pathways have been extensively characterised, There is now significant evidence suggesting a role for TLRs in human inflammatory and immune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, allergy\\/asthma and atherosclerosis. Various approaches have been taken to identify novel therapeutic agents targeting TLRs including biologics, small molecules and nucleic acid-based drugs. Several are now being evaluated in the clinic and showing promise against various diseases. This review paper outlines the recent advances in the understanding of TLR biology and highlights novel TLR agonists and antagonists in development for the treatment of immune diseases.

  8. THE IMPACT OF ANTIFUNGALS ON TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MirceaRaduMihu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are increasingly recognized as major pathogens in immunocompromised individuals. The most common invasive fungal infections are caused by Candida spp., Aspergillus spp. and Cryptococcus spp. Amphotericin B has remained the cornerstone of therapy against many fulminant fungal infections but its use is limited by its multitude of side effects. Echinocandins are a newer class of antifungal drugs with activity against Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. and constitutes an alternative to amphotericin B due to superior patient tolerability and fewer side effects. Due to their excellent bioavailability and oral availability, azoles continue to be heavily used for simple, such as fluconazole for candidal vaginitis, and complex diseases, such as voriconazole for aspergilloisis. The objective of this paper is to present current knowledge regarding the multiple interactions between the broad spectrum antifungals and the innate immune response, primarily focusing on the toll-like receptors.

  9. The phosphoproteome of toll-like receptor-activated macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weintz, Gabriele; Olsen, Jesper Velgaard; Frühauf, Katja;

    2010-01-01

    Recognition of microbial danger signals by toll-like receptors (TLR) causes re-programming of macrophages. To investigate kinase cascades triggered by the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on systems level, we performed a global, quantitative and kinetic analysis of the phosphoproteome of...... identified 1850 phosphoproteins with 6956 phosphorylation sites, two thirds of which were not reported earlier. LPS caused major dynamic changes in the phosphoproteome (24% up-regulation and 9% down-regulation). Functional bioinformatic analyses confirmed canonical players of the TLR pathway and highlighted...... other signalling modules (e.g. mTOR, ATM/ATR kinases) and the cytoskeleton as hotspots of LPS-regulated phosphorylation. Finally, weaving together phosphoproteome and nascent transcriptome data by in silico promoter analysis, we implicated several phosphorylated TFs in primary LPS-controlled gene...

  10. Automation Framework for Flight Dynamics Products Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Robert E.; Esposito, Timothy C.; Watson, John S.; Jun, Linda; Shoan, Wendy; Matusow, Carla

    2010-01-01

    XFDS provides an easily adaptable automation platform. To date it has been used to support flight dynamics operations. It coordinates the execution of other applications such as Satellite TookKit, FreeFlyer, MATLAB, and Perl code. It provides a mechanism for passing messages among a collection of XFDS processes, and allows sending and receiving of GMSEC messages. A unified and consistent graphical user interface (GUI) is used for the various tools. Its automation configuration is stored in text files, and can be edited either directly or using the GUI.

  11. Improvement of Test Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Räsänen, Timo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose for this study was to find out how to ensure that the automated testing of MME in the Network Verification will continue smooth and reliable while using the in-house developed test automation framework. The goal of this thesis was to reveal the reasons of the currently challenging situation and to find the key elements to be improved in the MME testing carried by the test automation. Also a reason for the study was to get solutions as to how to change the current procedures and wa...

  12. Chef infrastructure automation cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Marschall, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Chef Infrastructure Automation Cookbook contains practical recipes on everything you will need to automate your infrastructure using Chef. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to automate your server and cloud infrastructure.The book first shows you the simplest way to achieve a certain task. Then it explains every step in detail, so that you can build your knowledge about how things work. Eventually, the book shows you additional things to consider for each approach. That way, you can learn step-by-step and build profound knowledge on how to go about your configuration management

  13. Toll-Like Receptor Gene Expression during Trichinella spiralis Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sin; Park, Mi Kyung; Yu, Hak Sun

    2015-08-01

    In Trichinella spiralis infection, type 2 helper T (Th2) cell-related and regulatory T (Treg) cell-related immune responses are the most important immune events. In order to clarify which Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are closely associated with these responses, we analyzed the expression of mouse TLR genes in the small intestine and muscle tissue during T. spiralis infection. In addition, the expression of several chemokine- and cytokine-encoding genes, which are related to Th2 and Treg cell mediated immune responses, were analyzed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) isolated from myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/TIR-associated proteins (TIRAP) and Toll receptor-associated activator of interferons (TRIF) adapter protein deficient and wild type (WT) mice. The results showed significantly increased TLR4 and TLR9 gene expression in the small intestine after 2 weeks of T. spiralis infection. In the muscle, TLR1, TLR2, TLR5, and TLR9 gene expression significantly increased after 4 weeks of infection. Only the expression of the TLR4 and TLR9 genes was significantly elevated in WT MEF cells after treatment with excretory-secretory (ES) proteins. Gene expression for Th2 chemokine genes were highly enhanced by ES proteins in WT MEF cells, while this elevation was slightly reduced in MyD88/TIRAP(-/-) MEF cells, and quite substantially decreased in TRIF(-/-) MEF cells. In contrast, IL-10 and TGF-β expression levels were not elevated in MyD88/TIRAP(-/-) MEF cells. In conclusion, we suggest that TLR4 and TLR9 might be closely linked to Th2 cell and Treg cell mediated immune responses, although additional data are needed to convincingly prove this observation. PMID:26323841

  14. I-94 Automation FAQs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — In order to increase efficiency, reduce operating costs and streamline the admissions process, U.S. Customs and Border Protection has automated Form I-94 at air and...

  15. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven

    2016-01-01

    This edited book comprises papers about the impacts, benefits and challenges of connected and automated cars. It is the third volume of the LNMOB series dealing with Road Vehicle Automation. The book comprises contributions from researchers, industry practitioners and policy makers, covering perspectives from the U.S., Europe and Japan. It is based on the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015 which was jointly organized by the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in July 2015. The topical spectrum includes, but is not limited to, public sector activities, human factors, ethical and business aspects, energy and technological perspectives, vehicle systems and transportation infrastructure. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  16. Hydrometeorological Automated Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of Hydrologic Development of the National Weather Service operates HADS, the Hydrometeorological Automated Data System. This data set contains the last...

  17. An automated Certification Authority

    CERN Document Server

    Shamardin, L V

    2002-01-01

    This note describe an approach to building an automated Certification Authority. It is compatible with basic requirements of RFC2527. It also supports Registration Authorities and Globus Toolkit grid-cert-renew automatic certificate renewal.

  18. Disassembly automation automated systems with cognitive abilities

    CERN Document Server

    Vongbunyong, Supachai

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a number of aspects to be considered in the development of disassembly automation, including the mechanical system, vision system and intelligent planner. The implementation of cognitive robotics increases the flexibility and degree of autonomy of the disassembly system. Disassembly, as a step in the treatment of end-of-life products, can allow the recovery of embodied value left within disposed products, as well as the appropriate separation of potentially-hazardous components. In the end-of-life treatment industry, disassembly has largely been limited to manual labor, which is expensive in developed countries. Automation is one possible solution for economic feasibility. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  19. Cancers take their Toll--the function and regulation of Toll-like receptors in cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, R; Alvero, A B; Silasi, D-A; Steffensen, K D; Mor, G

    2008-01-01

    proliferation, would also be key factors in regulating and enhancing cancer progression. The TLR pathways, which play a critical role in tissue repair, are also key regulators in cancer progression as well as chemoresistance. TLRs serve as cell surface sensors that can initiate pathways leading to proliferation...... and chemoresistance; as well as mediators that are able to regulate the infiltrating immune cells to provide further support for cancer progression.......Cancer could be deemed as an abnormal and uncontrolled tissue repair process. Therefore, it would not be surprising that factors that function in the tissue repair process, such as cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, as well as growth signals for compensatory...

  20. Automated security management

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Shaer, Ehab; Xie, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    In this contributed volume, leading international researchers explore configuration modeling and checking, vulnerability and risk assessment, configuration analysis, and diagnostics and discovery. The authors equip readers to understand automated security management systems and techniques that increase overall network assurability and usability. These constantly changing networks defend against cyber attacks by integrating hundreds of security devices such as firewalls, IPSec gateways, IDS/IPS, authentication servers, authorization/RBAC servers, and crypto systems. Automated Security Managemen

  1. Automating Supplier Selection Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Davidrajuh, Reggie

    2001-01-01

    This dissertation describes a methodology, tools, and implementation techniques of automating supplier selection procedures of a small and medium-sized agile virtual enterprise. Firstly, a modeling approach is devised that can be used to model the supplier selection procedures of an enterprise. This modeling approach divides the supplier selection procedures broadly into three stages, the pre-selection, selection, and post-selection stages. Secondly, a methodology is presented for automating ...

  2. Taiwan Automated Telescope Network

    OpenAIRE

    Shuhrat Ehgamberdiev; Alexander Serebryanskiy; Antonio Jimenez; Li-Han Wang; Ming-Tsung Sun; Javier Fernandez Fernandez; Dean-Yi Chou

    2010-01-01

    A global network of small automated telescopes, the Taiwan Automated Telescope (TAT) network, dedicated to photometric measurements of stellar pulsations, is under construction. Two telescopes have been installed in Teide Observatory, Tenerife, Spain and Maidanak Observatory, Uzbekistan. The third telescope will be installed at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, USA. Each system uses a 9-cm Maksutov-type telescope. The effective focal length is 225 cm, corresponding to an f-ratio of 25. The field...

  3. Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.

  4. Automated functional software testing

    OpenAIRE

    Jelnikar, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    The following work describes an approach to software test automation of functional testing. In the introductory part we are introducing what testing problems development companies are facing. The second chapter describes some testing methods, what role does testing have in software development, some approaches to software development and the meaning of testing environment. Chapter 3 is all about test automation. After a brief historical presentation, we are demonstrating through s...

  5. Instant Sikuli test automation

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to follow style using the Starter guide approach.This book is aimed at automation and testing professionals who want to use Sikuli to automate GUI. Some Python programming experience is assumed.

  6. Automated diagnostics scoping study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadrel, R.W.; Lash, T.A.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the Automated Diagnostics Scoping Study was to investigate the needs for diagnostics in building operation and to examine some of the current technologies in automated diagnostics that can address these needs. The study was conducted in two parts. In the needs analysis, the authors interviewed facility managers and engineers at five building sites. In the technology survey, they collected published information on automated diagnostic technologies in commercial and military applications as well as on technologies currently under research. The following describe key areas that the authors identify for the research, development, and deployment of automated diagnostic technologies: tools and techniques to aid diagnosis during building commissioning, especially those that address issues arising from integrating building systems and diagnosing multiple simultaneous faults; technologies to aid diagnosis for systems and components that are unmonitored or unalarmed; automated capabilities to assist cause-and-effect exploration during diagnosis; inexpensive, reliable sensors, especially those that expand the current range of sensory input; technologies that aid predictive diagnosis through trend analysis; integration of simulation and optimization tools with building automation systems to optimize control strategies and energy performance; integration of diagnostic, control, and preventive maintenance technologies. By relating existing technologies to perceived and actual needs, the authors reached some conclusions about the opportunities for automated diagnostics in building operation. Some of a building operator`s needs can be satisfied by off-the-shelf hardware and software. Other needs are not so easily satisfied, suggesting directions for future research. Their conclusions and suggestions are offered in the final section of this study.

  7. Ligands, cell-based models, and readouts required for Toll-like receptor action.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dellacasagrande, Jerome

    2012-02-01

    This chapter details the tools that are available to study Toll-like receptor (TLR) biology in vitro. This includes ligands, host cells, and readouts. The use of modified TLRs to circumvent some technical problems is also discussed.

  8. Toll-like Receptor 1 Polymorphisms Affect Innate Immune Responses and Outcomes in Sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Wurfel, Mark M.; Gordon, Anthony C.; Holden, Tarah D.; Radella, Frank; Strout, Jeanna; Kajikawa, Osamu; Ruzinski, John T.; Rona, Gail; Black, R. Anthony; Stratton, Seth; Jarvik, Gail P.; Hajjar, Adeline M.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Rieder, Mark; Sevransky, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: Polymorphisms affecting Toll-like receptor (TLR)–mediated responses could predispose to excessive inflammation during an infection and contribute to an increased risk for poor outcomes in patients with sepsis.

  9. Poverty Takes Bigger Toll on A Man's Health If He's Black

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159937.html Poverty Takes Bigger Toll on a Man's Health If ... t surprised by the finding. "The fact that poverty in African Americans can be considered a life- ...

  10. Trichomonas vaginalis infection activates cells through toll-like receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zariffard, M Reza; Harwani, Sailesh; Novak, Richard M; Graham, Parrie J; Ji, Xin; Spear, Gregory T

    2004-04-01

    While Trichomonas vaginalis infection can cause inflammation and influx of leukocytes into the female genital tract, the molecular pathways important in inducing these effects are not known. This study determined if infection with T. vaginalis activates cells through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Genital tract secretions from infected women stimulated TNF-alpha production by cells with functional TLR4 (350 pg/ml) but significantly less by cells that are unresponsive to TLR4 ligands (44 pg/ml, P = 0.001). Secretions collected after clearance of infection also induced significantly lower responses by cells with functional TLR4 (136 pg/ml, P = 0.008). TNF-alpha responses were not reduced by Polymyxin B and did not correlate with beta(2)-defensin levels, indicating that stimulation of cells was not through lipopolysaccharide or beta(2)-defensin. These studies show that T. vaginalis infection results in the appearance in the genital tract of substance(s) that stimulate cells through TLR4, suggesting a mechanism for the inflammation caused by this infection. PMID:15093558

  11. Characterization of promoter sequence of toll-like receptor genes in Vechur cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lakshmi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyze the promoter sequence of toll-like receptor (TLR genes in Vechur cattle, an indigenous breed of Kerala with the sequence of Bos taurus and access the differences that could be attributed to innate immune responses against bovine mastitis. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from Jugular vein of Vechur cattle, maintained at Vechur cattle conservation center of Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, using an acid-citrate-dextrose anticoagulant. The genomic DNA was extracted, and polymerase chain reaction was carried out to amplify the promoter region of TLRs. The amplified product of TLR2, 4, and 9 promoter regions was sequenced by Sanger enzymatic DNA sequencing technique. Results: The sequence of promoter region of TLR2 of Vechur cattle with the B. taurus sequence present in GenBank showed 98% similarity and revealed variants for four sequence motifs. The sequence of the promoter region of TLR4 of Vechur cattle revealed 99% similarity with that of B. taurus sequence but not reveals significant variant in motifregions. However, two heterozygous loci were observed from the chromatogram. Promoter sequence of TLR9 gene also showed 99% similarity to B. taurus sequence and revealed variants for four sequence motifs. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that significant variation in the promoter of TLR2 and 9 genes in Vechur cattle breed and may potentially link the influence the innate immunity response against mastitis diseases.

  12. Toll4 (TLR4) expression in cardiac myocytes in normal and failing myocardium

    OpenAIRE

    Frantz, Stefan; Kobzik, Lester; Kim, Young-Dae; Fukazawa, Ryuji; Medzhitov, Ruslan; Lee, Richard T.; Kelly, Ralph A.

    1999-01-01

    Expression of innate immune response proteins, including IL-1β, TNF, and the cytokine-inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), have been documented in the hearts of humans and experimental animals with heart failure regardless of etiology, although the proximal events leading to their expression are unknown. Noting that expression of a human homologue of Drosophila Toll, a proximal innate immunity transmembrane signaling protein in the fly, now termed human Toll-like receptor 4 (hTL...

  13. Chapter 1. Overview of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the CNS

    OpenAIRE

    Kielian, Tammy

    2009-01-01

    Mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were first identified in 1997 based on their homology with Drosophila Toll, which mediates innate immunity in the fly. Over the past 8 years, the number of manuscripts describing TLR expression and function in the central nervous system (CNS) has been increasing steadily and expanding beyond their traditional roles in infectious diseases to neurodegenerative disorders and injury. Interest in the field serves as the impetus for this volume in the Current To...

  14. Ironic Appropriation of Hemingway's For Whom the Bell Tolls in Bulosan's The Cry and the Dedication

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In his article "Ironic Appropriation of Hemingway's For Whom the Bell Tolls in Bulosan's The Cry and the Dedication" Robert Brown discusses Carlos Bulosan's The Cry and the Dedication and Ernest Hemingway's For Whom the Bell Tolls. Brown claims that Bulosan's appropriation of For Whom borders on plagiarism and that this in part defines The Cry as a postcolonial text. Brown maintains that E. San Juan Jr.'s otherwise comprehensive introduction to The Cry ignores Hemingway's text in favor of a F...

  15. The molecular activation and regulation mechanisms of proteolytic Toll signaling cascade in insect innate immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH Ryu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently we biochemically determined the molecular recognition and regulatory mechanisms of how beetle’s larvae recognize Gram-positive bacteria and fungi via Toll signaling cascade. The biochemical analysis of newly identified molecules provides us how beetles recognize invading pathogenic microbes and how they defend their bodies using elegant innate immunity. Here, we will focus on reviewing the biochemical analyses and biological functions of newly identified molecules involved in insect Toll signaling cascade.

  16. Combined Prediction Model of Death Toll for Road Traffic Accidents Based on Independent and Dependent Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhong-xiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to build a combined model which can meet the variation rule of death toll data for road traffic accidents and can reflect the influence of multiple factors on traffic accidents and improve prediction accuracy for accidents, the Verhulst model was built based on the number of death tolls for road traffic accidents in China from 2002 to 2011; and car ownership, population, GDP, highway freight volume, highway passenger transportation volume, and highway mileage were chosen as the factors to build the death toll multivariate linear regression model. Then the two models were combined to be a combined prediction model which has weight coefficient. Shapley value method was applied to calculate the weight coefficient by assessing contributions. Finally, the combined model was used to recalculate the number of death tolls from 2002 to 2011, and the combined model was compared with the Verhulst and multivariate linear regression models. The results showed that the new model could not only characterize the death toll data characteristics but also quantify the degree of influence to the death toll by each influencing factor and had high accuracy as well as strong practicability.

  17. The Drosophila Toll pathway controls but does not clear Candida glabrata infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintin, Jessica; Asmar, Joelle; Matskevich, Alexey A; Lafarge, Marie-Céline; Ferrandon, Dominique

    2013-03-15

    The pathogenicity of Candida glabrata to patients remains poorly understood for lack of convenient animal models to screen large numbers of mutants for altered virulence. In this study, we explore the minihost model Drosophila melanogaster from the dual perspective of host and pathogen. As in vertebrates, wild-type flies contain C. glabrata systemic infections yet are unable to kill the injected yeasts. As for other fungal infections in Drosophila, the Toll pathway restrains C. glabrata proliferation. Persistent C. glabrata yeasts in wild-type flies do not appear to be able to take shelter in hemocytes from the action of the Toll pathway, the effectors of which remain to be identified. Toll pathway mutant flies succumb to injected C. glabrata. In this immunosuppressed background, cellular defenses provide a residual level of protection. Although both the Gram-negative binding protein 3 pattern recognition receptor and the Persephone protease-dependent detection pathway are required for Toll pathway activation by C. glabrata, only GNBP3, and not psh mutants, are susceptible to the infection. Both Candida albicans and C. glabrata are restrained by the Toll pathway, yet the comparative study of phenoloxidase activation reveals a differential activity of the Toll pathway against these two fungal pathogens. Finally, we establish that the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway and yapsins are required for virulence of C. glabrata in this model. Unexpectedly, yapsins do not appear to be required to counteract the cellular immune response but are needed for the colonization of the wild-type host. PMID:23401590

  18. Modeling Increased Complexity and the Reliance on Automation: FLightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the development of a model that is focused on the safety issue of increasing complexity and reliance on automation systems in transport category aircraft. Recent statistics show an increase in mishaps related to manual handling and automation errors due to pilot complacency and over-reliance on automation, loss of situational awareness, automation system failures and/or pilot deficiencies. Consequently, the aircraft can enter a state outside the flight envelope and/or air traffic safety margins which potentially can lead to loss-of-control (LOC), controlled-flight-into-terrain (CFIT), or runway excursion/confusion accidents, etc. The goal of this modeling effort is to provide NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) with a platform capable of assessing the impacts of AvSP technologies and products towards reducing the relative risk of automation related accidents and incidents. In order to do so, a generic framework, capable of mapping both latent and active causal factors leading to automation errors, is developed. Next, the framework is converted into a Bayesian Belief Network model and populated with data gathered from Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). With the insertion of technologies and products, the model provides individual and collective risk reduction acquired by technologies and methodologies developed within AvSP.

  19. 45 CFR 1355.52 - Funding authority for statewide automated child welfare information systems (SACWIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... information system, to the extent such system: (1) Provides for the State to collect and electronically report... automated information system that collects information relating to the eligibility of individuals under... automated information system described in paragraph (a) of this section are eligible for FFP at the...

  20. Automated Camera Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siqi; Cheng, Yang; Willson, Reg

    2006-01-01

    Automated Camera Calibration (ACAL) is a computer program that automates the generation of calibration data for camera models used in machine vision systems. Machine vision camera models describe the mapping between points in three-dimensional (3D) space in front of the camera and the corresponding points in two-dimensional (2D) space in the camera s image. Calibrating a camera model requires a set of calibration data containing known 3D-to-2D point correspondences for the given camera system. Generating calibration data typically involves taking images of a calibration target where the 3D locations of the target s fiducial marks are known, and then measuring the 2D locations of the fiducial marks in the images. ACAL automates the analysis of calibration target images and greatly speeds the overall calibration process.

  1. Automated telescope scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-08-01

    With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

  2. Toll-Like Receptor 7-Targeted Therapy in Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebold, Katie M; Jacoby, David B; Drake, Matthew G

    2016-03-01

    Allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis are inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract characterized by an excessive type-2 T helper cell (Th2) immune response. Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) is a single-stranded viral RNA receptor expressed in the airway that initiates a Th1 immune response and has garnered interest as a novel therapeutic target for treatment of allergic airway diseases. In animal models, synthetic TLR7 agonists reduce airway hyperreactivity, eosinophilic inflammation, and airway remodeling while decreasing Th2-associated cytokines. Furthermore, activation of TLR7 rapidly relaxes airway smooth muscle via production of nitric oxide. Thus, TLR7 has dual bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory effects. Two TLR7 ligands with promising pharmacologic profiles have entered clinical trials for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Moreover, TLR7 agonists are potential antiviral therapies against respiratory viruses. TLR7 agonists enhance influenza vaccine efficacy and also reduce viral titers when given during an active airway infection. In this review, we examine the current data supporting TLR7 as a therapeutic target in allergic airway diseases. PMID:27226793

  3. Toll-like receptor signaling in primary immune deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Paul J; Simchoni, Noa; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2015-11-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize common microbial or host-derived macromolecules and have important roles in early activation of the immune system. Patients with primary immune deficiencies (PIDs) affecting TLR signaling can elucidate the importance of these proteins to the human immune system. Defects in interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-4 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) lead to susceptibility to infections with bacteria, while mutations in nuclear factor-κB essential modulator (NEMO) and other downstream mediators generally induce broader susceptibility to bacteria, viruses, and fungi. In contrast, TLR3 signaling defects are specific for susceptibility to herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis. Other PIDs induce functional alterations of TLR signaling pathways, such as common variable immunodeficiency in which plasmacytoid dendritic cell defects enhance defective responses of B cells to shared TLR agonists. Dampening of TLR responses is seen for TLRs 2 and 4 in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). Enhanced TLR responses, meanwhile, are seen for TLRs 5 and 9 in CGD, TLRs 4, 7/8, and 9 in XLA, TLRs 2 and 4 in hyper IgE syndrome, and for most TLRs in adenosine deaminase deficiency. PMID:25930993

  4. Cathepsins are required for Toll-like receptor 9 responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) recognize a variety of microbial products and activate defense responses. Pathogen sensing by TLR2/4 requires accessory molecules, whereas little is known about a molecule required for DNA recognition by TLR9. After endocytosis of microbes, microbial DNA is exposed and recognized by TLR9 in lysosomes. We here show that cathepsins, lysosomal cysteine proteases, are required for TLR9 responses. A cell line Ba/F3 was found to be defective in TLR9 responses despite enforced TLR9 expression. Functional cloning with Ba/F3 identified cathepsin B/L as a molecule required for TLR9 responses. The protease activity was essential for the complementing effect. TLR9 responses were also conferred by cathepsin S or F, but not by cathepsin H. TLR9-dependent B cell proliferation and CD86 upregulation were apparently downregulated by cathepsin B/L inhibitors. Cathepsin B inhibitor downregulated interaction of CpG-B with TLR9 in 293T cells. These results suggest roles for cathepsins in DNA recognition by TLR9

  5. Toll-Like Receptor 9 in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandholm, Jouko; Selander, Katri S.

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is a cellular DNA receptor of the innate immune system. DNA recognition via TLR9 results in an inflammatory reaction, which eventually also activates a Th1-biased adaptive immune attack. In addition to cells of the immune system, TLR9 mRNA and protein are also widely expressed in breast cancer cell lines and in clinical breast cancer specimens. Although synthetic TLR9-ligands induce cancer cell invasion in vitro, the role of TLR9 in cancer pathophysiology has remained unclear. In the studies conducted so far, tumor TLR9 expression has been shown to have prognostic significance only in patients that have triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Specifically, high tumor TLR9 expression predicts good prognosis among TNBC patients. Pre-clinical studies suggest that TLR9 expression may affect tumor immunophenotype and contribute to the immunogenic benefit of chemotherapy. In this review, we discuss the possible contribution of tumor TLR9 to the pathogenesis and treatment responses in breast cancer. PMID:25101078

  6. Toll-Like Receptor 9 Agonists for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Melisi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The immune system has acquired increasing importance as a key player in cancer maintenance and growth. Thus, modulating anti-tumor immune mediators has become an attractive strategy for cancer treatment. Toll-like receptors (TLRs have gradually emerged as potential targets of newer immunotherapies. TLR-9 is preferentially expressed on endosome membranes of B-cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC and is known for its ability to stimulate specific immune reactions through the activation of inflammation-like innate responses. Several synthetic CpG oligonucleotides (ODNs have been developed as TLR-9 agonists with the aim of enhancing cancer immune surveillance. In many preclinical models, CpG ODNs were found to suppress tumor growth and proliferation both in monotherapy and in addition to chemotherapies or target therapies. TLR-9 agonists have been also tested in several clinical trials in patients with solid tumors. These agents showed good tolerability and usually met activity endpoints in early phase trials. However, they have not yet been demonstrated to significantly impact survival, neither as single agent treatments, nor in combination with chemotherapies or cancer vaccines. Further investigations in larger prospective studies are required.

  7. Toll-like Receptors and Renal Bacterial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Vandewalle

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis are mainly dueto uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC, and are commoninfectious diseases that constitute a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. They are also the most frequent infectious complications in renal transplant patients, andcan impair long-term renal graft function and outcome. UPECmay invade the kidneys via the systemic circulation or by localretrograde infection. They induce the proinflammatory mediators, which are intended to defend the host and clear bacteriafrom the kidneys. The Toll-like receptors (TLRs play a keyrole in the recognition of bacterial components and in inducingthe inflammatory response that is mediated by various intracellular signaling pathways. To date, 13 TLRs have been identified in mammals. Recent studies have provided evidence suggesting that renal tubule epithelial cells express most of theTLRs initially identified in bone marrow-derived cells. Murine renal tubule cells expressTLR1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 11. TLR4, which recognizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS, the main constituent of Gram-negative bacteria, plays a key role in inducing the inflammatory responseselicited by UPEC. This review will consider some aspects of TLR function in the kidney,particularly in the renal tubule epithelial cells, and the role of these receptors in enabling thebody to cope with urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis caused by UPECs.

  8. Toll-Like Receptor Pathways in Autoimmune Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Qing; Szodoray, Peter; Zeher, Margit

    2016-02-01

    Autoimmune diseases are a family of chronic systemic inflammatory disorders, characterized by the dysregulation of the immune system which finally results in the break of tolerance to self-antigen. Several studies suggest that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an essential role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. TLRs belong to the family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize a wide range of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). TLRs are type I transmembrane proteins and located on various cellular membranes. Two main groups have been classified based on their location; the extracelluar group referred to the ones located on the plasma membrane while the intracellular group all located in endosomal compartments responsible for the recognition of nucleic acids. They are released by the host cells and trigger various intracellular pathways which results in the production of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, as well as the expression of co-stimulatory molecules to protect against invading microorganisms. In particular, TLR pathway-associated proteins, such as IRAK, TRAF, and SOCS, are often dysregulated in this group of diseases. TLR-associated gene expression profile analysis together with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assessment could be important to explain the pathomechanism driving autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize recent findings on TLR pathway regulation in various autoimmune diseases, including Sjögren's syndrome (SS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic sclerosis (SSc), and psoriasis. PMID:25687121

  9. The Role of Toll Like Receptors in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Amirchaghmaghi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available For many years, the innate immunity was of less interest than the adaptive immunity because it was perceived to have secondary importance in the functionality of the immune system. During the past decades, with the advancement of knowledge about innate immune system, interest in innate immunity has grown dramatically and thus its function has been extensively studied. Innate immunity plays fundamental roles in the initiation and induction of adaptive immune responses. It consists of several cells and receptors including natural killer (NK cells, macrophages (MQs, dendritic cells (DCs and pattern recognition receptors (PRRs. Two decades ago, Toll like receptors (TLRs family was known as one of the important PRRs with unique functions especially in protection against invading pathogens. Since the female reproductive tract has access to the outside environment and has a unique interaction with different pathogens whether invading microorganisms or normal flora, allogenic sperm and semi allogenic fetus, it has an essential need for effective immune responses. It has therefore been suggested that TLRs may play important roles in the immune regulation of the female reproductive tract. In addition, it has been demonstrated that immune disturbance may be responsible for some adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preeclampsia (PE, recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. Our focus in this review is to show the importance of TLRs in pregnancy with emphasis on the expression of these receptors in different tissues related to pregnancy.

  10. Human herpesvirus 6 infection impairs Toll-like receptor signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochi Toshiki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6 has a tropism for immunocompetent cells, including T lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs suggesting that HHV-6 infection affects the immunosurveillance system. Toll-like receptor (TLR system plays an important role in innate immunity against various pathogens. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HHV-6 infection on the expression and intracellular signaling of TLRs in DCs. Although expression levels of TLRs were not decreased or slightly elevated following HHV-6 infection, the amounts of cytokines produced following stimulation with ligands for TLRs appeared to be dramatically decreased in HHV-6-infected DCs as compared to mock-infected DCs. Similarly, phosphorylation levels of TAK-1, IκB kinase, and IκB-α following stimulation of HHV-6-infected DCs with lipopolysaccharide, which is the ligand for TLR4, appeared to be decreased. These data show that HHV-6 impairs intracellular signaling through TLRs indicating the novel mechanism of HHV-6-mediated immunomodulation.

  11. DMPD: Toll-like receptors, Notch ligands, and cytokines drive the chronicity of lunginflammation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18073395 Toll-like receptors, Notch ligands, and cytokines drive the chronicity of lung...ors, Notch ligands, and cytokines drive the chronicity of lunginflammation. Authors Raymond T, Schaller M, H...2007 Dec;4(8):635-41. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Toll-like receptors, Notch ligands, and cytokines d...rive the chronicity of lunginflammation. PubmedID 18073395 Title Toll-like recept

  12. DMPD: Signaling to NF-kappaB by Toll-like receptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18029230 Signaling to NF-kappaB by Toll-like receptors. Kawai T, Akira S. Trends Mo...l Med. 2007 Nov;13(11):460-9. Epub 2007 Oct 29. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Signaling to NF-kappaB by... Toll-like receptors. PubmedID 18029230 Title Signaling to NF-kappaB by Toll-like receptors. Authors Kawai T

  13. Myths in test automation

    OpenAIRE

    Jazmine Francis

    2015-01-01

    Myths in automation of software testing is an issue of discussion that echoes about the areas of service in validation of software industry. Probably, the first though that appears in knowledgeable reader would be Why this old topic again? What's New to discuss the matter? But, for the first time everyone agrees that undoubtedly automation testing today is not today what it used to be ten or fifteen years ago, because it has evolved in scope and magnitude. What began as a simple linear script...

  14. 78 FR 48910 - Notice of Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... Technology (NIST) Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 201: Personal Identity Verification of... respondents, including automated collection techniques or the use of other forms of information technology..., employment history, biometric identifiers (e.g. fingerprints), signature, digital photograph. NASA...

  15. 78 FR 53005 - Agency Information Collection Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...- Vehicle Performance Research (NVS-331), National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1200 New Jersey... Safety Research. BILLING CODE 4910-59-P...

  16. Automated heating plants: from theory to reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassin, P. [Agence de l`Environnement et de la Maitrise de l`Energie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1993-12-31

    This paper deals with the role of Ademe (Agence de l`Environnement et de la Maitrise de l`Energie) and the situation after ten years of work. The establishment of automated heating plants in public buildings and local collectivities is one of the priorities of the Agency. From 1983 to 1993, 350 heating plants in housing have been set up, research teams have been constituted and a network of competent professionals has been organised. (TEC). 1 fig.

  17. Starting Over: The Automated Payment Transaction Tax

    OpenAIRE

    Feige, Edgar L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a 21st century global fiscal architecture to replace the present system of personal and corporate income, sales, excise, capital gains, import and export duties, gift and estate taxes with a single comprehensive revenue neutral Automated Payment Transaction (APT) tax. In its simplest form, the APT tax consists of a flat tax levied on all transactions. The tax is automatically assessed and collected when transactions are settled through the electronic technology of the ban...

  18. Automating the single crystal x-ray diffraction experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Light, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Ever decreasing data collection times and an explosion in demand present us with the situation where an automated single crystal instrument is not only advantageous but essential. With recent developments in software, instrumentation and robotics it has been possible to fully automate structure determination from mounted crystal to completed crystal structure. In Southampton we have developed a system that takes pre-mounted samples, loads them onto the diffractometer, assesses their diff...

  19. Automated conflict resolution issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion is presented of how conflicts for Space Network resources should be resolved in the ATDRSS era. The following topics are presented: a description of how resource conflicts are currently resolved; a description of issues associated with automated conflict resolution; present conflict resolution strategies; and topics for further discussion.

  20. Protokoller til Home Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kristian Ellebæk

    2008-01-01

    computer, der kan skifte mellem foruddefinerede indstillinger. Nogle gange kan computeren fjernstyres over internettet, så man kan se hjemmets status fra en computer eller måske endda fra en mobiltelefon. Mens nævnte anvendelser er klassiske indenfor home automation, er yderligere funktionalitet dukket op...

  1. Myths in test automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmine Francis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myths in automation of software testing is an issue of discussion that echoes about the areas of service in validation of software industry. Probably, the first though that appears in knowledgeable reader would be Why this old topic again? What's New to discuss the matter? But, for the first time everyone agrees that undoubtedly automation testing today is not today what it used to be ten or fifteen years ago, because it has evolved in scope and magnitude. What began as a simple linear scripts for web applications today has a complex architecture and a hybrid framework to facilitate the implementation of testing applications developed with various platforms and technologies. Undoubtedly automation has advanced, but so did the myths associated with it. The change in perspective and knowledge of people on automation has altered the terrain. This article reflects the points of views and experience of the author in what has to do with the transformation of the original myths in new versions, and how they are derived; also provides his thoughts on the new generation of myths.

  2. Automated data model evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modeling process is essential phase within information systems development and implementation. This paper presents methods and techniques for analysis and evaluation of data model correctness. Recent methodologies and development results regarding automation of the process of model correctness analysis and relations with ontology tools has been presented. Key words: Database modeling, Data model correctness, Evaluation

  3. Automated solvent concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J. S.; Stuart, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    Designed for automated drug identification system (AUDRI), device increases concentration by 100. Sample is first filtered, removing particulate contaminants and reducing water content of sample. Sample is extracted from filtered residue by specific solvent. Concentrator provides input material to analysis subsystem.

  4. ELECTROPNEUMATIC AUTOMATION EDUCATIONAL LABORATORY

    OpenAIRE

    Dolgorukov, S. O.; National Aviation University; Roman, B. V.; National Aviation University

    2013-01-01

    The article reflects current situation in education regarding mechatronics learning difficulties. Com-plex of laboratory test benches on electropneumatic automation are considered as a tool in advancing through technical science. Course of laboratory works developed to meet the requirement of efficient and reliable way of practical skills acquisition is regarded the simplest way for students to learn the ba-sics of mechatronics.

  5. Automating spectral measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Fred T.

    2008-09-01

    This paper discusses the architecture of software utilized in spectroscopic measurements. As optical coatings become more sophisticated, there is mounting need to automate data acquisition (DAQ) from spectrophotometers. Such need is exacerbated when 100% inspection is required, ancillary devices are utilized, cost reduction is crucial, or security is vital. While instrument manufacturers normally provide point-and-click DAQ software, an application programming interface (API) may be missing. In such cases automation is impossible or expensive. An API is typically provided in libraries (*.dll, *.ocx) which may be embedded in user-developed applications. Users can thereby implement DAQ automation in several Windows languages. Another possibility, developed by FTG as an alternative to instrument manufacturers' software, is the ActiveX application (*.exe). ActiveX, a component of many Windows applications, provides means for programming and interoperability. This architecture permits a point-and-click program to act as automation client and server. Excel, for example, can control and be controlled by DAQ applications. Most importantly, ActiveX permits ancillary devices such as barcode readers and XY-stages to be easily and economically integrated into scanning procedures. Since an ActiveX application has its own user-interface, it can be independently tested. The ActiveX application then runs (visibly or invisibly) under DAQ software control. Automation capabilities are accessed via a built-in spectro-BASIC language with industry-standard (VBA-compatible) syntax. Supplementing ActiveX, spectro-BASIC also includes auxiliary serial port commands for interfacing programmable logic controllers (PLC). A typical application is automatic filter handling.

  6. 76 FR 69251 - Proposed Agency Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... Proposed Agency Information Collection AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice and request... the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. DATES: Comments... Title: Department of Energy Better Buildings Challenge Information Collection Request. (3) Type...

  7. Rationalizing the Collections Policy: A Computerized Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, W. R. M.; Standers, O. R.

    The University of Calgary Library has developed an automated information system to aid decision making in the area of collections development. The traditional format for collections policies in a written description of the areas and levels where a particular institution is collecting actively. Using a computer-based management information system…

  8. Toll mediated infection response is altered by gravity and spaceflight in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Taylor

    Full Text Available Space travel presents unlimited opportunities for exploration and discovery, but requires better understanding of the biological consequences of long-term exposure to spaceflight. Immune function in particular is relevant for space travel. Human immune responses are weakened in space, with increased vulnerability to opportunistic infections and immune-related conditions. In addition, microorganisms can become more virulent in space, causing further challenges to health. To understand these issues better and to contribute to design of effective countermeasures, we used the Drosophila model of innate immunity to study immune responses in both hypergravity and spaceflight. Focusing on infections mediated through the conserved Toll and Imd signaling pathways, we found that hypergravity improves resistance to Toll-mediated fungal infections except in a known gravitaxis mutant of the yuri gagarin gene. These results led to the first spaceflight project on Drosophila immunity, in which flies that developed to adulthood in microgravity were assessed for immune responses by transcription profiling on return to Earth. Spaceflight alone altered transcription, producing activation of the heat shock stress system. Space flies subsequently infected by fungus failed to activate the Toll pathway. In contrast, bacterial infection produced normal activation of the Imd pathway. We speculate on possible linkage between functional Toll signaling and the heat shock chaperone system. Our major findings are that hypergravity and spaceflight have opposing effects, and that spaceflight produces stress-related transcriptional responses and results in a specific inability to mount a Toll-mediated infection response.

  9. Toll mediated infection response is altered by gravity and spaceflight in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Katherine; Kleinhesselink, Kurt; George, Michael D; Morgan, Rachel; Smallwood, Tangi; Hammonds, Ann S; Fuller, Patrick M; Saelao, Perot; Alley, Jeff; Gibbs, Allen G; Hoshizaki, Deborah K; von Kalm, Laurence; Fuller, Charles A; Beckingham, Kathleen M; Kimbrell, Deborah A

    2014-01-01

    Space travel presents unlimited opportunities for exploration and discovery, but requires better understanding of the biological consequences of long-term exposure to spaceflight. Immune function in particular is relevant for space travel. Human immune responses are weakened in space, with increased vulnerability to opportunistic infections and immune-related conditions. In addition, microorganisms can become more virulent in space, causing further challenges to health. To understand these issues better and to contribute to design of effective countermeasures, we used the Drosophila model of innate immunity to study immune responses in both hypergravity and spaceflight. Focusing on infections mediated through the conserved Toll and Imd signaling pathways, we found that hypergravity improves resistance to Toll-mediated fungal infections except in a known gravitaxis mutant of the yuri gagarin gene. These results led to the first spaceflight project on Drosophila immunity, in which flies that developed to adulthood in microgravity were assessed for immune responses by transcription profiling on return to Earth. Spaceflight alone altered transcription, producing activation of the heat shock stress system. Space flies subsequently infected by fungus failed to activate the Toll pathway. In contrast, bacterial infection produced normal activation of the Imd pathway. We speculate on possible linkage between functional Toll signaling and the heat shock chaperone system. Our major findings are that hypergravity and spaceflight have opposing effects, and that spaceflight produces stress-related transcriptional responses and results in a specific inability to mount a Toll-mediated infection response. PMID:24475130

  10. Toll-like receptor 2 agonists inhibit human fibrocyte differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharjan Anu S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In healing wounds, some monocytes enter the wound and differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes. Since Toll-like receptors (TLRs are present on monocytes, and pathogens that can infect a wound have and/or release TLR agonists, we examined whether TLR agonists affect fibrocyte differentiation. Results When human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were cultured with TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR7, TLR8 or TLR9 agonists, there was no significant effect on fibrocyte differentiation, even though enhanced extracellular tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α accumulation and/or increased cell surface CD86 or major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II levels were observed. However, all TLR2 agonists tested inhibited fibrocyte differentiation without any significant effect on cell survival. Adding TLR2 agonists to purified monocytes had no effect on fibrocyte differentiation. However, some TLR2 agonists caused PBMCs to secrete a factor that inhibits the differentiation of purified monocytes into fibrocytes. This factor is not interferon (IFN-α, IFN-γ, interleukin (IL-12, aggregated immunoglobulin G (IgG or serum amyloid P (SAP, factors known to inhibit fibrocyte differentiation. TLR2 agonist-treated PBMCs secrete low levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and tumor growth factor β1, but combinations of these factors had no effect on fibrocyte differentiation from purified monocytes. Conclusions Our results indicate that TLR2 agonists indirectly inhibit fibrocyte differentiation and that, for some TLR2 agonists, this inhibition involves other cell types in the PBMC population secreting an unknown factor that inhibits fibrocyte differentiation. Together, these data suggest that the presence of some bacterial signals can inhibit fibrocyte differentiation and may thus slow wound closure.

  11. Toll-like receptor polymorphisms in malaria-endemic populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmerman Peter A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toll-like receptors (TLR and related downstream signaling pathways of innate immunity have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Because of their potential role in malaria pathogenesis, polymorphisms in these genes may be under selective pressure in populations where this infectious disease is endemic. Methods A post-PCR Ligation Detection Reaction-Fluorescent Microsphere Assay (LDR-FMA was developed to determine the frequencies of TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, MyD88-Adaptor Like Protein (MAL single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and TLR2 length polymorphisms in 170 residents of two regions of Kenya where malaria transmission is stable and high (holoendemic or episodic and low, 346 residents of a malaria holoendemic region of Papua New Guinea, and 261 residents of North America of self-identified ethnicity. Results The difference in historical malaria exposure between the two Kenyan sites has significantly increased the frequency of malaria protective alleles glucose-6-phoshpate dehydrogenase (G6PD and Hemoglobin S (HbS in the holoendemic site compared to the episodic transmission site. However, this study detected no such difference in the TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, and MAL allele frequencies between the two study sites. All polymorphisms were in Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium in the Kenyan and Papua New Guinean populations. TLR9 SNPs and length polymorphisms within the TLR2 5' untranslated region were the only mutant alleles present at a frequency greater than 10% in all populations. Conclusion Similar frequencies of TLR2, TLR4, TLR9, and MAL genetic polymorphisms in populations with different histories of malaria exposure suggest that these innate immune pathways have not been under strong selective pressure by malaria. Genotype frequencies are consistent with Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium and the Neutral Theory, suggesting that genetic drift has influenced allele frequencies to a greater extent than selective

  12. 76 FR 28244 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    ... through the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology; and (d) ways... automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. DATES: Written comments should be... receiving research support from the National Institutes of Health. Use of the Information: Analysis of...

  13. 77 FR 70165 - Proposed Information Collection Activity; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... through the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Consideration... forwarded by writing to the Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Proposed Information Collection...

  14. 78 FR 16509 - Proposed Information Collection Activity; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Consideration will be... to the Administration for Children and Families, Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, 370 L... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Proposed Information Collection...

  15. 78 FR 32477 - Collection of Information; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... through the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Consideration... COMMISSION Collection of Information; Comment Request Upon Written Request, Copies Available From: Securities and Exchange Commission, Office of Investor Education and Advocacy, Washington, DC...

  16. Towards Automated Annotation of Benthic Survey Images: Variability of Human Experts and Operational Modes of Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijbom, Oscar; Edmunds, Peter J; Roelfsema, Chris; Smith, Jennifer; Kline, David I; Neal, Benjamin P; Dunlap, Matthew J; Moriarty, Vincent; Fan, Tung-Yung; Tan, Chih-Jui; Chan, Stephen; Treibitz, Tali; Gamst, Anthony; Mitchell, B Greg; Kriegman, David

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors have heightened the need to rapidly characterize ecological changes in marine benthic communities across large scales. Digital photography enables rapid collection of survey images to meet this need, but the subsequent image annotation is typically a time consuming, manual task. We investigated the feasibility of using automated point-annotation to expedite cover estimation of the 17 dominant benthic categories from survey-images captured at four Pacific coral reefs. Inter- and intra- annotator variability among six human experts was quantified and compared to semi- and fully- automated annotation methods, which are made available at coralnet.ucsd.edu. Our results indicate high expert agreement for identification of coral genera, but lower agreement for algal functional groups, in particular between turf algae and crustose coralline algae. This indicates the need for unequivocal definitions of algal groups, careful training of multiple annotators, and enhanced imaging technology. Semi-automated annotation, where 50% of the annotation decisions were performed automatically, yielded cover estimate errors comparable to those of the human experts. Furthermore, fully-automated annotation yielded rapid, unbiased cover estimates but with increased variance. These results show that automated annotation can increase spatial coverage and decrease time and financial outlay for image-based reef surveys. PMID:26154157

  17. Towards Automated Annotation of Benthic Survey Images: Variability of Human Experts and Operational Modes of Automation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Beijbom

    Full Text Available Global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors have heightened the need to rapidly characterize ecological changes in marine benthic communities across large scales. Digital photography enables rapid collection of survey images to meet this need, but the subsequent image annotation is typically a time consuming, manual task. We investigated the feasibility of using automated point-annotation to expedite cover estimation of the 17 dominant benthic categories from survey-images captured at four Pacific coral reefs. Inter- and intra- annotator variability among six human experts was quantified and compared to semi- and fully- automated annotation methods, which are made available at coralnet.ucsd.edu. Our results indicate high expert agreement for identification of coral genera, but lower agreement for algal functional groups, in particular between turf algae and crustose coralline algae. This indicates the need for unequivocal definitions of algal groups, careful training of multiple annotators, and enhanced imaging technology. Semi-automated annotation, where 50% of the annotation decisions were performed automatically, yielded cover estimate errors comparable to those of the human experts. Furthermore, fully-automated annotation yielded rapid, unbiased cover estimates but with increased variance. These results show that automated annotation can increase spatial coverage and decrease time and financial outlay for image-based reef surveys.

  18. Trichostatin A Protects Liver against Septic Injury through Inhibiting Toll-Like Receptor Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Jin; Park, Jin-Sook; Lee, Do-Won; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2016-07-01

    Sepsis, a serious clinical problem, is characterized by a systemic inflammatory response to infection and leads to organ failure. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is intimately implicated in hyper-inflammatory responses and tissue injury during sepsis. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective mechanisms of trichostatin A (TSA), a HDAC inhibitor, associated with TLR signaling pathway during sepsis. The anti-inflammatory properties of TSA were assayed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Polymicrobial sepsis was induced in mice by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a clinically relevant model of sepsis. The mice were intraperitoneally received TSA (1, 2 or 5 mg/kg) 30 min before CLP. The serum and liver samples were collected 6 and 24-h after CLP. TSA inhibited the increased production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. TSA improved sepsis-induced mortality, attenuated liver injury and decreased serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels. CLP increased the levels of TLR4, TLR2 and myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) protein expression and association of MyD88 with TLR4 and TLR2, which were attenuated by TSA. CLP increased nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B and decreased cytosolic inhibitor of kappa B (IκB) protein expression, which were attenuated by TSA. Moreover, CLP decreased acetylation of IκB kinase (IKK) and increased association of IKK with IκB and TSA attenuated these alterations. Our findings suggest that TSA attenuates liver injury by inhibiting TLR-mediated inflammatory response during sepsis. PMID:27068262

  19. Intracellular expression of toll-like receptor 4 in neuroblastoma cells and their unresponsiveness to lipopolysaccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently it has been reported that, toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed on a series of tumor cells, such as colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, melanoma and lung cancer. Although some cancer cells like melanoma cells are known to respond to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) via TLR4, not all cancer cells are positive for TLR4. There is little information on the expression and function of TLR4 in neuroblastoma cells. In this study, we investigated the expression of TLR4 in human neuroblastoma NB-1 cell line. Expression and localization of TLR4 were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB by LPS was detected by degradation of IκB-α and NF-κB luciferase assay. Activation and expression of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 was detected by immunoblot analysis. Human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells expressed intracellular form of TLR4, but not the cell surface form. Further, NB-1 cells express CD14, MD2 and MyD88, which are required for LPS response. However, LPS did not significantly induce NF-κB activation in NB-1 cells although it slightly degraded IκB-α. NB-1 cells expressed no IRF-3, which plays a pivotal role on the MyD88-independent pathway of LPS signaling. Collectively, NB-1 cells are capable to avoid their response to LPS. Although human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells possessed all the molecules required for LPS response, they did not respond to LPS. It might be responsible for intracellular expression of TLR4 or lack of IRF-3

  20. Intracellular expression of toll-like receptor 4 in neuroblastoma cells and their unresponsiveness to lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mori Isamu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently it has been reported that, toll-like receptors (TLRs are expressed on a series of tumor cells, such as colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, melanoma and lung cancer. Although some cancer cells like melanoma cells are known to respond to lipopolysaccharide (LPS via TLR4, not all cancer cells are positive for TLR4. There is little information on the expression and function of TLR4 in neuroblastoma cells. In this study, we investigated the expression of TLR4 in human neuroblastoma NB-1 cell line. Methods Expression and localization of TLR4 were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Activation of nuclear factor (NF-κB by LPS was detected by degradation of IκB-α and NF-κB luciferase assay. Activation and expression of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase and interferon regulatory factor (IRF-3 was detected by immunoblot analysis. Results Human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells expressed intracellular form of TLR4, but not the cell surface form. Further, NB-1 cells express CD14, MD2 and MyD88, which are required for LPS response. However, LPS did not significantly induce NF-κB activation in NB-1 cells although it slightly degraded IκB-α. NB-1 cells expressed no IRF-3, which plays a pivotal role on the MyD88-independent pathway of LPS signaling. Collectively, NB-1 cells are capable to avoid their response to LPS. Conclusion Although human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells possessed all the molecules required for LPS response, they did not respond to LPS. It might be responsible for intracellular expression of TLR4 or lack of IRF-3.

  1. Direct and Indirect Role of Toll-Like Receptors in T Cell Mediated Immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DamoXu; HaiyingLiu; MousaKomai-Koma

    2004-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) recognition receptors that play an important role in protective immunity against infection and inflammation. They act as central integrators of a wide variety of signals, responding to diverse agonists of microbial products. Stimulation of Toll-like receptors by microbial products leads to signaling pathways that activate not only innate, but also adaptive immunity by APC dependent or independent mechanisms. Recent evidence revealed that TLR signals played a determining role in the skewing of naive T cells towards either Thl or Th2 responses. Activation of Toll-like receptors also directly or indirectly influences regulatory T cell functions. Therefore, TLRs are required in both immune activation and immune regulation. Study of TLRs has significantly enhanced our understanding of innate and adaptive immune responses and provides novel therapeutic approaches against infectious and inflammatory diseases. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  2. Direct and Indirect Role of Toll-Like Receptors in T Cell Mediated Immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Damo Xu; Haiying Liu; Mousa Komai-Koma

    2004-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) recognition receptors that play an important role in protective immunity against infection and inflammation. They act as central integrators of a wide variety of signals, responding to diverse agonists of microbial products. Stimulation of Toll-like receptors by microbial products leads to signaling pathways that activate not only innate, but also adaptive immunity by APC dependent or independent mechanisms. Recent evidence revealed that TLR signals played a determining role in the skewing of na(i)ve T cells towards either Th1 or Th2 responses. Activation of Toll-like receptors also directly or indirectly influences regulatory T cell functions. Therefore, TLRs are required in both immune activation and immune regulation. Study of TLRs has significantly enhanced our understanding of innate and adaptive immune responses and provides novel therapeutic approaches against infectious and inflammatory diseases.

  3. Microscopic simulation of multi-lane traffic under dynamic tolling and information feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tian-liang; HUANG Hai-jun; TIAN Li-jun

    2009-01-01

    To investigate drivers' lane-changing behavior under different information feedback strategies, a microscopic traffic simulation based on the cellular automaton model was made on the typical freeway with a regular lane and a high-occupancy one. A new dynamic tolling scheme in terms of the real-time traffic condition on the high-occupancy lane was further designed to enhance the whole freeway's flow throughput. The results show that the mean velocity feedback strategy is generally more efficient than the travel time feedback strategy in correctly guiding drivers' lane choice behavior. Specifically, the toll level, lane-changing rate and freeway's throughput and congestion coefficient induced by the travel time feedback strategy oscillate with larger amplitude and longer period. In addition, the dynamic tolling scheme can make the high-occupancy lane less congested and maximize the freeway's throughput when the regular-lane inflow rate is larger than 0.45.

  4. DMPD: Signal transduction by the lipopolysaccharide receptor, Toll-like receptor-4. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15379975 Signal transduction by the lipopolysaccharide receptor, Toll-like receptor...-4. Palsson-McDermott EM, O'Neill LA. Immunology. 2004 Oct;113(2):153-62. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Signal... transduction by the lipopolysaccharide receptor, Toll-like receptor-4. PubmedID 15379975 Title Signal

  5. DMPD: Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface Toll-likereceptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17275324 Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface Toll... Show Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface Toll-likereceptors. PubmedID 172...75324 Title Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface

  6. DMPD: The negative regulation of Toll-like receptor and associated pathways. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17621314 The negative regulation of Toll-like receptor and associated pathways. Lan...g T, Mansell A. Immunol Cell Biol. 2007 Aug-Sep;85(6):425-34. Epub 2007 Jul 10. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show The... negative regulation of Toll-like receptor and associated pathways. PubmedID 17621314 Title The ne

  7. DMPD: Toll-like receptors and RNA helicases: two parallel ways to trigger antiviralresponses. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16762830 Toll-like receptors and RNA helicases: two parallel ways to trigger antiviralresponse...-like receptors and RNA helicases: two parallel ways to trigger antiviralresponses. PubmedID 16762830 Title ...Toll-like receptors and RNA helicases: two parallel ways to trigger antiviralresponse

  8. DMPD: Glucocorticoids and the innate immune system: crosstalk with the toll-likereceptor signaling network. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17576036 Glucocorticoids and the innate immune system: crosstalk with the toll-like...07 May 13. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Glucocorticoids and the innate immune system: crosstalk with t...he toll-likereceptor signaling network. PubmedID 17576036 Title Glucocorticoids a

  9. DMPD: Nuclear factor-kappaB: activation and regulation during toll-like receptorsignaling. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17349209 Nuclear factor-kappaB: activation and regulation during toll-like receptor...signaling. Carmody RJ, Chen YH. Cell Mol Immunol. 2007 Feb;4(1):31-41. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Nuclear factor...-kappaB: activation and regulation during toll-like receptorsignaling. PubmedID 17349209 Title Nuclear factor

  10. Reload safety analysis automation tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performing core physics calculations for the sake of reload safety analysis is a very demanding and time consuming process. This process generally begins with the preparation of libraries for the core physics code using a lattice code. The next step involves creating a very large set of calculations with the core physics code. Lastly, the results of the calculations must be interpreted, correctly applying uncertainties and checking whether applicable limits are satisfied. Such a procedure requires three specialized experts. One must understand the lattice code in order to correctly calculate and interpret its results. The next expert must have a good understanding of the physics code in order to create libraries from the lattice code results and to correctly define all the calculations involved. The third expert must have a deep knowledge of the power plant and the reload safety analysis procedure in order to verify, that all the necessary calculations were performed. Such a procedure involves many steps and is very time consuming. At ÚJV Řež, a.s., we have developed a set of tools which can be used to automate and simplify the whole process of performing reload safety analysis. Our application QUADRIGA automates lattice code calculations for library preparation. It removes user interaction with the lattice code and reduces his task to defining fuel pin types, enrichments, assembly maps and operational parameters all through a very nice and user-friendly GUI. The second part in reload safety analysis calculations is done by CycleKit, a code which is linked with our core physics code ANDREA. Through CycleKit large sets of calculations with complicated interdependencies can be performed using simple and convenient notation. CycleKit automates the interaction with ANDREA, organizes all the calculations, collects the results, performs limit verification and displays the output in clickable html format. Using this set of tools for reload safety analysis simplifies

  11. Automated Preferences Elicitation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárný, Miroslav; Guy, Tatiana Valentine

    Prague : Institute of Information Theory and Automation, 2011, s. 20-25. ISBN 978-80-903834-6-3. [The 2nd International Workshop od Decision Making with Multiple Imperfect Decision Makers. Held in Conjunction with the 25th Annual Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS 2011). Sierra Nevada (ES), 16.12.2011-16.12.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/08/0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : elicitation * decision making * Bayesian decision making * fully probabilistic design Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/AS/karny-automated preferences elicitation.pdf

  12. Automated drawing generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since automated CAD drawing generation systems still require human intervention, improvements were focussed on an interactive processing section (data input and correcting operation) which necessitates a vast amount of work. As a result, human intervention was eliminated, the original objective of a computerized system. This is the first step taken towards complete automation. The effects of development and commercialization of the system are as described below. (1) The interactive processing time required for generating drawings was improved. It was determined that introduction of the CAD system has reduced the time required for generating drawings. (2) The difference in skills between workers preparing drawings has been eliminated and the quality of drawings has been made uniform. (3) The extent of knowledge and experience demanded of workers has been reduced. (author)

  13. Terminal automation system maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffelt, D.; Hewitt, J. [Engineered Systems Inc., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Nothing has improved petroleum product loading in recent years more than terminal automation systems. The presence of terminal automation systems (TAS) at loading racks has increased operational efficiency and safety and enhanced their accounting and management capabilities. However, like all finite systems, they occasionally malfunction or fail. Proper servicing and maintenance can minimize this. And in the unlikely event a TAS breakdown does occur, prompt and effective troubleshooting can reduce its impact on terminal productivity. To accommodate around-the-clock loading at racks, increasingly unattended by terminal personnel, TAS maintenance, servicing and troubleshooting has become increasingly demanding. It has also become increasingly important. After 15 years of trial and error at petroleum and petrochemical storage and transfer terminals, a number of successful troubleshooting programs have been developed. These include 24-hour {open_quotes}help hotlines,{close_quotes} internal (terminal company) and external (supplier) support staff, and {open_quotes}layered{close_quotes} support. These programs are described.

  14. ATLAS Distributed Computing Automation

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Borrego, C; Campana, S; Di Girolamo, A; Elmsheuser, J; Hejbal, J; Kouba, T; Legger, F; Magradze, E; Medrano Llamas, R; Negri, G; Rinaldi, L; Sciacca, G; Serfon, C; Van Der Ster, D C

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment benefits from computing resources distributed worldwide at more than 100 WLCG sites. The ATLAS Grid sites provide over 100k CPU job slots, over 100 PB of storage space on disk or tape. Monitoring of status of such a complex infrastructure is essential. The ATLAS Grid infrastructure is monitored 24/7 by two teams of shifters distributed world-wide, by the ATLAS Distributed Computing experts, and by site administrators. In this paper we summarize automation efforts performed within the ATLAS Distributed Computing team in order to reduce manpower costs and improve the reliability of the system. Different aspects of the automation process are described: from the ATLAS Grid site topology provided by the ATLAS Grid Information System, via automatic site testing by the HammerCloud, to automatic exclusion from production or analysis activities.

  15. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC

  16. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-05-31

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC.

  17. Automated Extraction of Flow Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorney, Suzanne (Technical Monitor); Haimes, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are routinely performed as part of the design process of most fluid handling devices. In order to efficiently and effectively use the results of a CFD simulation, visualization tools are often used. These tools are used in all stages of the CFD simulation including pre-processing, interim-processing, and post-processing, to interpret the results. Each of these stages requires visualization tools that allow one to examine the geometry of the device, as well as the partial or final results of the simulation. An engineer will typically generate a series of contour and vector plots to better understand the physics of how the fluid is interacting with the physical device. Of particular interest are detecting features such as shocks, re-circulation zones, and vortices (which will highlight areas of stress and loss). As the demand for CFD analyses continues to increase the need for automated feature extraction capabilities has become vital. In the past, feature extraction and identification were interesting concepts, but not required in understanding the physics of a steady flow field. This is because the results of the more traditional tools like; isc-surface, cuts and streamlines, were more interactive and easily abstracted so they could be represented to the investigator. These tools worked and properly conveyed the collected information at the expense of a great deal of interaction. For unsteady flow-fields, the investigator does not have the luxury of spending time scanning only one "snapshot" of the simulation. Automated assistance is required in pointing out areas of potential interest contained within the flow. This must not require a heavy compute burden (the visualization should not significantly slow down the solution procedure for co-processing environments). Methods must be developed to abstract the feature of interest and display it in a manner that physically makes sense.

  18. Automated Microbial Metabolism Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Development of the automated microbial metabolism laboratory (AMML) concept is reported. The focus of effort of AMML was on the advanced labeled release experiment. Labeled substrates, inhibitors, and temperatures were investigated to establish a comparative biochemical profile. Profiles at three time intervals on soil and pure cultures of bacteria isolated from soil were prepared to establish a complete library. The development of a strategy for the return of a soil sample from Mars is also reported.

  19. Components for automated microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determann, H.; Hartmann, H.; Schade, K. H.; Stankewitz, H. W.

    1980-12-01

    A number of devices, aiming at automated analysis of microscopic objects as regards their morphometrical parameters or their photometrical values, were developed. These comprise: (1) a device for automatic focusing tuned on maximum contrast; (2) a feedback system for automatic optimization of microscope illumination; and (3) microscope lenses with adjustable pupil distances for usage in the two previous devices. An extensive test program on histological and zytological applications proves the wide application possibilities of the autofocusing device.

  20. Automation of dissolution tests

    OpenAIRE

    Rolf Rolli

    2003-01-01

    Dissolution testing of drug formulations was introduced in the 1960s and accepted by health regulatory authorities in the 1970s. Since then, the importance of dissolution has grown rapidly as have the number of tests and demands in quality-control laboratories. Recent research works lead to the development of in-vitro dissolution tests as replacements for human and animal bioequivalence studies. For many years, a lot of time and effort has been invested in automation of dissolution tests. The...

  1. Automated uranium assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precise, timely inventories of enriched uranium stocks are vital to help prevent the loss, theft, or diversion of this material for illicit use. A wet-chemistry analyzer has been developed at LLL to assist in these inventories by performing automated analyses of uranium samples from different stages in the nuclear fuel cycle. These assays offer improved accuracy, reduced costs, significant savings in manpower, and lower radiation exposure for personnel compared with present techniques

  2. Construction Automation and Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Bock, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Due to the high complexity of the construction process and the stagnating technological development a long-term preparation is necessary to adapt it to advanced construction methods. Architects, engineers and all other participants of the construction process have to be integrated in this adaptation process. The short- and long-term development of automation will take place step-by-step and will be oriented to the respective application and requirements. In the initial phase existing building...

  3. Shielded cells transfer automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear waste from shielded cells is removed, packaged, and transferred manually in many nuclear facilities. To reduce radiation exposure to operators, technological advances in remote handling and automation were employed. An industrial robot and a specially designed end effector, access port, and sealing machine were used to remotely bag waste containers out of a glove box. The system is operated from a control panel outside the work area via television cameras

  4. Training tolls for nuclear education at INSTN: software applications, research reactor and simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foulon, F.; Jedrzejewski, F. [Atomic Energy Commission, Saclay Research Centre, 91191 - Gif Sur Yvette (France)

    2010-07-01

    As a part of the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), the National Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology (INSTN) is a higher education institution. Its objective is to provide to engineers and researchers a high level of scientific and technological qualification in all disciplines related to nuclear science. This includes the organisation of international courses in nuclear engineering. In order to complete and to illustrate the theoretical courses on reactor physics, an extensive range of training tolls are used. These tolls that include software applications, the use of research reactors and simulators are presented. (authors)

  5. Involvement of Toll-like receptors in acute radiation syndrome and radiation therapy for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are one of pattern recognition receptors that are indispensable for antibacterial and antiviral immunity. After TLRs sense pathogen-derived components, they activate intracellular signaling pathways, which results in the induction of proinflammatory cytokines. Although it is well known that radiation therapy is one of effective cancer therapies, radiation affects immune system. Recent evidences show the involvement of TLR in acute radiation syndrome and radiation therapy for cancer. I summarize to date knowledge on the involvement of Toll-like receptors in acute radiation syndromes and radiation therapy for cancer, and discuss the effects of ionizing radiation on TLR of innate immune cells. (author)

  6. A bacterial carbohydrate links innate and adaptive responses through Toll-like receptor 2

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qun; McLoughlin, Rachel M.; Cobb, Brian A; Charrel-Dennis, Marie; Zaleski, Kathleen J.; Golenbock, Douglas; Tzianabos, Arthur O.; Kasper, Dennis L.

    2006-01-01

    Commensalism is critical to a healthy Th1/Th2 cell balance. Polysaccharide A (PSA), which is produced by the intestinal commensal Bacteroides fragilis, activates CD4+ T cells, resulting in a Th1 response correcting the Th2 cell skew of germ-free mice. We identify Toll-like receptors as crucial to the convergence of innate and adaptive responses stimulated by PSA. Optimization of the Th1 cytokine interferon-γ in PSA-stimulated dendritic cell–CD4+ T cell co-cultures depends on both Toll-like re...

  7. Toll-like receptor-2 mediates mycobacteria-induced proinflammatory signaling in macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Underhill, David M; Ozinsky, Adrian; Smith, Kelly D.; Aderem, Alan

    1999-01-01

    The recognition of mycobacterial cell wall components causes macrophages to secrete tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and other cytokines that are essential for the development of a protective inflammatory response. We show that toll-like receptors are required for the induction of TNF-α in macrophages by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Expression of a dominant negative form of MyD88 (a signaling component required for toll-like receptor signaling) in a mouse macrophage cell line blocks TNF-α produ...

  8. The Architecture of the TIR Domain Signalosome in the Toll-like Receptor-4 Signaling Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Guven-Maiorov; Ozlem Keskin; Attila Gursoy; Carter VanWaes; Zhong Chen; Chung-Jung Tsai; Ruth Nussinov

    2015-01-01

    Scientific Reports | 5:13128 | DOI: 10.1038/srep13128 1 www.nature.com/scientificreports The Architecture of the TIR Domain Signalosome in the Toll-like Receptor-4 Signaling Pathway Emine Guven-Maiorov1,2, Ozlem Keskin1,2, Attila Gursoy2,3, Carter VanWaes4, Zhong Chen4, Chung-Jung Tsai5 & Ruth Nussinov5,6 Activated Toll-like receptors (TLRs) cluster in lipid rafts and induce pro- and anti-tumor responses. The organization of the assembly is critical to the understandin...

  9. Training tolls for nuclear education at INSTN: software applications, research reactor and simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), the National Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology (INSTN) is a higher education institution. Its objective is to provide to engineers and researchers a high level of scientific and technological qualification in all disciplines related to nuclear science. This includes the organisation of international courses in nuclear engineering. In order to complete and to illustrate the theoretical courses on reactor physics, an extensive range of training tolls are used. These tolls that include software applications, the use of research reactors and simulators are presented. (authors)

  10. LINAC control automation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 7 MeV Electron Beam Linear Accelerator (LINAC) being used for pulse radiolysis experiments at RC and CDD, B.A.R.C. has been automated with a PLC based control panel designed and developed by Computer Division, B.A.R.C.. The control panel after power on switches ON various units in a pre-defined sequence and intervals on a single turn of START key from OFF to ON position. The control panel also generates various ramp signals in a pre-defined sequence and rate and steady values and feeds to the LINAC bringing it to the ready for experiment condition. Similarly on a single turn of STOP key from OFF to ON position, the panel ramps down the various signals in pre-defined manners and makes OFF the various units in predefined sequence and timing providing safety to the machine. The steady values for various signals are on line settable as and when required so. This automation system relieves the operator from fatigue of time consuming manual ramping up or down of various signals and running around in four rooms for switching ON or OFF the various units enhancing efficiency and safety. This also facilitates the user scientist to do start up and shutdown operation in the absence of skilled operators and thus adds flexibility for working up to extended timing. This unit has been working satisfactorily since August 2002. For extraordinary condition automation to manual or vice versa change over has been provided. (author)

  11. Role of Toll-like receptors in lung innate defense against invasive aspergillosis. Distinct impact in immunocompetent and immunocompromized hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chignard, Michel; Balloy, Viviane; Sallenave, Jean-Michel; Si-Tahar, Mustapha

    2007-09-01

    Toll-like receptors are key to pathogen recognition by a host and to the subsequent triggering of an innate immune response. Experimental and clinical evidence shows that defects in Toll-like receptors or in signaling pathways downstream from these receptors render hosts susceptible to various types of infection, including aspergillosis. Patients receiving an immunosuppressive regimen, including corticosteroid therapy or cytotoxic chemotherapy, are also susceptible to infections. Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic pathogen that infects the lungs of immunosuppressed hosts. Here, we review the evidence that experimental inactivation of various Toll-like receptors and of their signaling pathways may worsen cases of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Moreover, the literature clearly indicates that the type of immunosuppression is very important, as it influences whether or not Toll-like receptors contribute to infection. The involvement of Toll-like receptors, based on the immunological status of the patient, should be considered if an immunosuppressive treatment must be administered. PMID:17604224

  12. DMPD: Inhibition of toll-like receptor and cytokine signaling--a unifying theme inischemic tolerance. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15545925 Inhibition of toll-like receptor and cytokine signaling--a unifying theme ...png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Inhibition of toll-like receptor and cytokine signaling--a unifying theme i...nischemic tolerance. PubmedID 15545925 Title Inhibition of toll-like receptor and

  13. DMPD: TICAM-1 and TICAM-2: toll-like receptor adapters that participate in inductionof type 1 interferons. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15618008 TICAM-1 and TICAM-2: toll-like receptor adapters that participate in induc... Mar;37(3):524-9. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show TICAM-1 and TICAM-2: toll-like receptor adapters that part... TICAM-2: toll-like receptor adapters that participate in inductionof type 1 interferons. Authors Seya T, Os

  14. DMPD: Toll-like receptors: from the discovery of NFkappaB to new insights intotranscriptional regulations in innate immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16930560 Toll-like receptors: from the discovery of NFkappaB to new insights intotr...2-13. Epub 2006 Aug 22. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Toll-like receptors: from the discovery of NFkappaB to new...6930560 Title Toll-like receptors: from the discovery of NFkappaB to new insights intotranscriptional regula

  15. DMPD: Adipose tissue as an immunological organ: Toll-like receptors, C1q/TNFs andCTRPs. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17681884 Adipose tissue as an immunological organ: Toll-like receptors, C1q/TNFs an...ng) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Adipose tissue as an immunological organ: Toll-like receptors, C1q/TNFs andC...TRPs. PubmedID 17681884 Title Adipose tissue as an immunological organ: Toll-like

  16. A functional variant at miR-34a binding site in toll-like receptor 4 gene alters susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma in a Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zi-Cheng; Tang, Xian-Mei; Zhao, Ying-Ren; Zheng, Lei

    2014-12-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a key role in prompting the innate or immediate response. A growing body of evidence suggests that genetic variants of TLR4 gene were associated with the development of cancers. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of a functional variant (rs1057317) at microRNA-34a (miR-34a) binding site in toll-like receptor 4 gene and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. A single center-based case-control study was conducted. In this study, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing were used to genotype sequence variants of TLR4 in 426 hepatocellular carcinoma cases and 438 controls. The modification of rs1057317 on the binding of hsa-miR-34a to TLR4 messenger RNA (mRNA) was measured by luciferase activity assay. Individuals carrying the AA genotypes for the rs1057317 were associated significantly with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma comparing with those carrying wild-type homozygous CC genotypes (adjusted odds ratio [OR] by sex and age, from 1.116 to 2.452, P = 0.013). The activity of the reporter vector was lower in the reporter vector carrying C allele than the reporter vector carrying A allele. Furthermore, the expression of TLR4 was detected in the peripheral blood mononucleated cell of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, suggesting that mRNA and protein levels of TLR4 might be associated with SNP rs1057317. Collectively, these results suggested that the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma was associated with a functional variant at miR-34a binding site in toll-like receptor 4 gene. miR-34a/TLR4 axis may play an important role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:25179842

  17. 75 FR 30032 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... individuals requiring organ transplants, maintains a computerized system for matching donor organs with... of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Proposed Project: Organ..., by contract, provide for the establishment and operation of an Organ Procurement and...

  18. Toll-Like Receptor–2/6 and Toll-Like Receptor–9 Agonists Suppress Viral Replication but Not Airway Hyperreactivity in Guinea Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Drake, Matthew G.; Evans, Scott E.; Dickey, Burton F.; Fryer, Allison D.; Jacoby, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory virus infections cause airway hyperreactivity (AHR). Preventative strategies for virus-induced AHR remain limited. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been suggested as a therapeutic target because of their central role in triggering antiviral immune responses. Previous studies showed that concurrent treatment with TLR2/6 and TLR9 agonists reduced lethality and the microbial burden in murine models of bacterial and viral pneumonia. This study investigated the effects of TLR2/6 and TLR...

  19. Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) user's manual. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Automated Transportation Management System (ATMS) Software User Guide (SUG) constitutes the user procedures for the ATMS System. Information in this document will be used by the user to operate the automated system. It is intended to be used as a reference manual to guide and direct the user(s) through the ATMS software product and its environment. The objectives of ATMS are as follows: to better support the Procurement function with freight rate information; to free Transportation Logistics personnel from routine activities such as the auditing and input of freight billing information; to comply with Headquarters Department of Energy-Inspector General (DOE-IG) audit findings to automate transportation management functions; to reduce the keying of data into the Shipment Mobility Accountability Collection (SMAC) database; and to provide automation for the preparing of Bill of Lading, Declaration of Dangerous Goods, Emergency Response Guide and shipping Labels using HM181 Retrieval of hazardous material table text information

  20. M2m Automation: Matlab-To-Map Reduce Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana C S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract- MapReduce is a very popular parallel programming model for cloud computing platforms, and has become an effective method for processing massive data by using a cluster of computers. Program language -to-MapReduce Automator is a possible solution to help traditional programmers easily deploy an application to cloud systems through translating sequential codes to MapReduce codes.M2M Automation mainly focuses on automating numerical computations by using hadoop at the back end. M2M automates Hadoop, for faster execution of Matlab commands using MapReduce code.

  1. Towards Automated Annotation of Benthic Survey Images: Variability of Human Experts and Operational Modes of Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Beijbom; Edmunds, Peter J.; Chris Roelfsema; Jennifer Smith; Kline, David I.; Neal, Benjamin P.; Matthew J Dunlap; Vincent Moriarty; Tung-Yung Fan; Chih-Jui Tan; Stephen Chan; Tali Treibitz; Anthony Gamst; B. Greg Mitchell; David Kriegman

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors have heightened the need to rapidly characterize ecological changes in marine benthic communities across large scales. Digital photography enables rapid collection of survey images to meet this need, but the subsequent image annotation is typically a time consuming, manual task. We investigated the feasibility of using automated point-annotation to expedite cover estimation of the 17 dominant benthic categories from survey-images capture...

  2. 78 FR 11273 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Information Collection Renewal; Comment Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ...: Title of Information Collection: Funding and Liquidity Risk Management. OMB Control No.: 1557-0244. Type..., including through the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology; and... Collection Renewal; Comment Request; Funding and Liquidity Risk Management AGENCY: Office of the...

  3. Automated Assessment, Face to Face

    OpenAIRE

    Rizik M. H. Al-Sayyed; Amjad Hudaib; Muhannad AL-Shboul; Yousef Majdalawi; Mohammed Bataineh

    2010-01-01

    This research paper evaluates the usability of automated exams and compares them with the paper-and-pencil traditional ones. It presents the results of a detailed study conducted at The University of Jordan (UoJ) that comprised students from 15 faculties. A set of 613 students were asked about their opinions concerning automated exams; and their opinions were deeply analyzed. The results indicate that most students reported that they are satisfied with using automated exams but they have sugg...

  4. Automation System Products and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rintala, Mikko; Sormunen, Jussi; Kuisma, Petri; Rahkala, Matti

    2014-01-01

    Automation systems are used in most buildings nowadays. In the past they were mainly used in industry to control and monitor critical systems. During the past few decades the automation systems have become more common and are used today from big industrial solutions to homes of private customers. With the growing need for ecologic and cost-efficient management systems, home and building automation systems are becoming a standard way of controlling lighting, ventilation, heating etc. Auto...

  5. Software Testing and Documenting Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Tsybin, Anton; Lyadova, Lyudmila

    2008-01-01

    This article describes some approaches to problem of testing and documenting automation in information systems with graphical user interface. Combination of data mining methods and theory of finite state machines is used for testing automation. Automated creation of software documentation is based on using metadata in documented system. Metadata is built on graph model. Described approaches improve performance and quality of testing and documenting processes.

  6. Embedded system for building automation

    OpenAIRE

    Rolih, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    Home automation is a fast developing field of computer science and electronics. Companies are offering many different products for home automation. Ranging anywhere from complete systems for building management and control, to simple smart lights that can be connected to the internet. These products offer the user greater living comfort and lower their expenses by reducing the energy usage. This thesis shows the development of a simple home automation system that focuses mainly on the enhance...

  7. BURN-INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR-MEDIATED RESPONSES BY BRONCHOALVEOLAR LAVAGE CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Richard F. Oppeltz; Rani, Meenakshi; Zhang, Qiong; Schwacha, Martin G.

    2011-01-01

    Burn is associated with profound inflammation and activation of the innate immune system in multiple organ beds, including the lung. Similarly, toll-like receptors (TLR) are associated with innate immune activation. Nonetheless, it is unclear what impact burn has on TLR-induced inflammatory responses in the lung.

  8. Relationship between Toll-Like Receptor 8 Gene Polymorphisms and Pediatric Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Dalgic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Genetic variants in Toll-like receptors (TLRs are considered a potential indicator for host susceptibility to and outcome of several infectious diseases including tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether −129 C/G and Met1Val polymorphisms of TLR8 were associated with pediatric pulmonary tuberculosis in Turkish population.

  9. First evidence of independent pseudogenization of Toll-like receptor 5 in passerine birds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bainová, H.; Králová, Tereza; Bryjová, Anna; Albrecht, Tomáš; Bryja, Josef; Vinkler, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2014), s. 151-155. ISSN 0145-305X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1871 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Birds * Expression * Innate immunity * Toll-like receptor 5 * Pseudogene * Flagellin Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.815, year: 2014

  10. Inter- and intraspecific polymorphism in passerine Toll-like receptor 4

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bainová, H.; Bryjová, Anna; Promerová, Marta; Bryja, Josef; Johnsen, A.; Lifjeld, J. T.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Vinkler, Michal

    Tübingen: Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, 2011. s. 492. [Congress of the European Society for Evolution ary Biology ESEB /13./. 20.08.2011-25.08.2011, Tübingen] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : passerine * Toll-like receptor Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  11. 47 CFR 64.1504 - Restrictions on the use of toll-free numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... charged for the information; (vi) The subscriber's choice of payment method, which may be by direct remit... information service provider includes in response to each call an introductory message that: (i) Clearly... advertised or widely understood to be toll-free, in a manner that would result in: (a) The calling party...

  12. Differences in evolution of Toll-like receptors 4 and 7 genes in wild rodents (Murinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fornůsková, Alena; Vinkler, Michal; Galan, M.; Morand, S.; Charbonnel, N.; Bryja, Josef; Cosson, J.-F.

    Vantaa: Finnish Forest Research Institute, 2012 - (Henttonen, H.; Huitu, O.). s. 77 ISBN 978-951-40-2374-3. [Rodens et Spatium /13./. 16.07.2012-20.07.2012, Rovaniemi] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Toll-like receptors Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  13. Evolution of toll-like receptors 4 and 7 genes in wild rodents (Murinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fornůsková, Alena; Galan, M.; Cerqueira, F.; Bryja, Josef; Charbonnel, N.; Cosson, J.-F.

    Paris: Université P. et M. Curie, 2011. s. 12 [European Congress of Mammalogy /7./. 19.07.2011-23.07.2011, Paris] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : rodents * toll-like receptors Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://www.alphavisa.com/ecm2011/pdf/ECM2011-Abstract_Book.pdf

  14. Intra-uterine Growth Restriction Downregulates the Hepatic Toll Like Receptor-4 Expression and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Ozlem Equils; Sapna Singh; Semra Karaburun; Daning Lu; Manikkavasagar Thamotharan; Devaskar, Sherin U.

    2005-01-01

    Maternal starvation is a significant cause of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in the world and increases the risk of infection in the neonate. We examined the effect of maternal starvation on Toll like receptor (TLR)4 expression in hepatic, splenic and intestinal tissues obtained from the adult IUGR offspring of prenatal calorie restricted rats. The hepatic TLR4 protein concentration was undetectable in the...

  15. MECHANISMS OF ANTIINFECTIOUS FUNCTIONS OF INNATE IMMUNITY: ROLE OF TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Suskov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the main role of toll-like receptors of innate immunity for pathogen recognition; signaling; production of inflammatory response. Also Interrelation of innate and adaptive Immunity in conditions of pathology and organ transplantation were considered. 

  16. Structure and variability of Toll-like receptor genes in Grey Partridge (Perdix perdix)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomášek, Oldřich; Vinkler, Michal; Bainová, H.; Opatová, Pavlína; Bryjová, Anna; Bryja, Josef; Albrecht, Tomáš

    Tübingen : Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, 2011. s. 1030. [ Congress of the European Society for Evolutionary Biology ESEB /13./. 20.08.2011-25.08.2011, Tübingen] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Grey Partridge * Toll-like receptor Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  17. Toll-like Receptors Involved in the Pathogenesis of Experimental Candida albicans Keratitis

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Xiaoyong; Wilhelmus, Kirk R.

    2010-01-01

    Toll-like receptors mediate innate immune responses at the onset of infection, including keratomycosis. Based on corneal gene expression studies and the use of TLR-deficient mice, TLR2 appears partly responsible for the release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines that recruit leukocytes to restrain fungal growth during Candida albicans keratitis.

  18. HIGH GLUCOSE INDUCES TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN HUMAN MONOCYTES: MECHANISM OF ACTIVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Hyperglycemia induced inflammation is central in diabetes complications and monocytes are important in orchestrating these effects. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in innate immune responses as well as inflammation. However, there is a paucity of data examining the expression a...

  19. World-wide distribution automation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaney, T.M.

    1994-12-31

    A worldwide power distribution automation system is outlined. Distribution automation is defined and the status of utility automation is discussed. Other topics discussed include a distribution management system, substation feeder, and customer functions, potential benefits, automation costs, planning and engineering considerations, automation trends, databases, system operation, computer modeling of system, and distribution management systems.

  20. AUTOMATED API TESTING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNIL L. BANGARE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test. With the help of software testing we can verify or validate the software product. Normally testing will be done after development of software but we can perform the software testing at the time of development process also. This paper will give you a brief introduction about Automated API Testing Tool. This tool of testing will reduce lots of headache after the whole development of software. It saves time as well as money. Such type of testing is helpful in the Industries & Colleges also.

  1. Automated radioimmunoassay of nicotine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have developed an automated nonequilibrium procedure for the radioimmunoassay of nicotine. The use of a unique iodinated nicotine derivative in this procedure gave a sensitivity of 10 μg/l for nicotine with a between-run precision of 7.4% and within-run precision of 6.0%. Nicotine levels of 60 to 67 μg/l were found in subjects 15 min after smoking one standard cigarette. The technique herein reported is a very rapid, and sensitive radioimmunoassay for nicotine and facilitates the determination of nicotine in smoking subjects during the actual process of smoking. (Auth.)

  2. Automated Motivic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lartillot, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Motivic analysis provides very detailed understanding of musical composi- tions, but is also particularly difficult to formalize and systematize. A computational automation of the discovery of motivic patterns cannot be reduced to a mere extraction of all possible sequences of descriptions....... The systematic approach inexorably leads to a proliferation of redundant structures that needs to be addressed properly. Global filtering techniques cause a drastic elimination of interesting structures that damages the quality of the analysis. On the other hand, a selection of closed patterns allows...

  3. Mechatronic Design Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun

    This book proposes a novel design method that combines both genetic programming (GP) to automatically explore the open-ended design space and bond graphs (BG) to unify design representations of multi-domain Mechatronic systems. Results show that the method, formally called GPBG method, can...... successfully design analogue filters, vibration absorbers, micro-electro-mechanical systems, and vehicle suspension systems, all in an automatic or semi-automatic way. It also investigates the very important issue of co-designing plant-structures and dynamic controllers in automated design of Mechatronic...

  4. β-Arrestins Negatively Regulate the Toll Pathway in Shrimp by Preventing Dorsal Translocation and Inhibiting Dorsal Transcriptional Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie-Jie; Lan, Jiang-Feng; Shi, Xiu-Zhen; Yang, Ming-Chong; Niu, Guo-Juan; Ding, Ding; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2016-04-01

    The Toll signaling pathway plays an important role in the innate immunity ofDrosophila melanogasterand mammals. The activation and termination of Toll signaling are finely regulated in these animals. Although the primary components of the Toll pathway were identified in shrimp, the functions and regulation of the pathway are seldom studied. We first demonstrated that the Toll signaling pathway plays a central role in host defense againstStaphylococcus aureusby regulating expression of antimicrobial peptides in shrimp. We then found that β-arrestins negatively regulate Toll signaling in two different ways. β-Arrestins interact with the C-terminal PEST domain of Cactus through the arrestin-N domain, and Cactus interacts with the RHD domain of Dorsal via the ankyrin repeats domain, forming a heterotrimeric complex of β-arrestin·Cactus·Dorsal, with Cactus as the bridge. This complex prevents Cactus phosphorylation and degradation, as well as Dorsal translocation into the nucleus, thus inhibiting activation of the Toll signaling pathway. β-Arrestins also interact with non-phosphorylated ERK (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase) through the arrestin-C domain to inhibit ERK phosphorylation, which affects Dorsal translocation into the nucleus and phosphorylation of Dorsal at Ser(276)that impairs Dorsal transcriptional activity. Our study suggests that β-arrestins negatively regulate the Toll signaling pathway by preventing Dorsal translocation and inhibiting Dorsal phosphorylation and transcriptional activity. PMID:26846853

  5. Comparison of immune response in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after knock down of Toll and IMD gene in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongjie; Song, Lei; Sun, Yuhang; Liu, Tao; Hou, Fujun; Liu, Xiaolin

    2016-07-01

    The Toll and immune deficiency (IMD) pathways are essential for inducing immune related genes during invasion of pathogens. In the present study, transcripts of eight pathway-related genes in Litopenaeus vannamei, including Toll, IMD, Pelle, IAP1, TRAF6, ALF, Crustin and Penaeidin3 were analyzed to further understand the potential relationship between Toll and IMD pathway. The high transcription levels of TRAF6, Pelle, Toll, IMD and IAP1 in selected tissues indicates their functional roles in Toll and IMD pathways. The increased mRNA expression of Toll and IMD detected in the early stage might suggest the inducible role of Toll and IMD upon bacterial infection. Moreover, the continuous increase of IMD and the high level of Pelle and TRAF6 in Vibrio anguillarum challenged group indicated that Gram-negative bacterium can activate both the Toll and IMD signaling pathway. Silencing of Toll by a dsRNA-mediated RNAi strongly increased the transcripts of IMD, Pelle, TRAF6, IAP1 and Akirin, knocking down of IMD also markedly increased the transcripts of Toll, Pelle, IAP1 and Akirin. Furthermore, ALF expression was significantly increased in response to V. anguillarum and Micrococcus lysodeikticus challenge, while the transcripts of Crustin and Pen3 in hemocytes were significantly reduced in V. anguillarum group, but rose significantly following M. lysodeikticus infection. In summary, we speculate that Toll and IMD pathway are not independent in shrimp, but linked to defense against bacterial infection. PMID:26855014

  6. Maneuver Automation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uffelman, Hal; Goodson, Troy; Pellegrin, Michael; Stavert, Lynn; Burk, Thomas; Beach, David; Signorelli, Joel; Jones, Jeremy; Hahn, Yungsun; Attiyah, Ahlam; Illsley, Jeannette

    2009-01-01

    The Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) automates the process of generating commands for maneuvers to keep the spacecraft of the Cassini-Huygens mission on a predetermined prime mission trajectory. Before MAS became available, a team of approximately 10 members had to work about two weeks to design, test, and implement each maneuver in a process that involved running many maneuver-related application programs and then serially handing off data products to other parts of the team. MAS enables a three-member team to design, test, and implement a maneuver in about one-half hour after Navigation has process-tracking data. MAS accepts more than 60 parameters and 22 files as input directly from users. MAS consists of Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) scripts that link, sequence, and execute the maneuver- related application programs: "Pushing a single button" on a graphical user interface causes MAS to run navigation programs that design a maneuver; programs that create sequences of commands to execute the maneuver on the spacecraft; and a program that generates predictions about maneuver performance and generates reports and other files that enable users to quickly review and verify the maneuver design. MAS can also generate presentation materials, initiate electronic command request forms, and archive all data products for future reference.

  7. Automated Test Case Generation

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I would like to present the concept of automated test case generation. I work on it as part of my PhD and I think it would be interesting also for other people. It is also the topic of a workshop paper that I am introducing in Paris. (abstract below) Please note that the talk itself would be more general and not about the specifics of my PhD, but about the broad field of Automated Test Case Generation. I would introduce the main approaches (combinatorial testing, symbolic execution, adaptive random testing) and their advantages and problems. (oracle problem, combinatorial explosion, ...) Abstract of the paper: Over the last decade code-based test case generation techniques such as combinatorial testing or dynamic symbolic execution have seen growing research popularity. Most algorithms and tool implementations are based on finding assignments for input parameter values in order to maximise the execution branch coverage. Only few of them consider dependencies from outside the Code Under Test’s scope such...

  8. Automation from pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state transition diagram (STD) model has been helpful in the design of real time software, especially with the emergence of graphical computer aided software engineering (CASE) tools. Nevertheless, the translation of the STD to real time code has in the past been primarily a manual task. At Los Alamos we have automated this process. The designer constructs the STD using a CASE tool (Cadre Teamwork) using a special notation for events and actions. A translator converts the STD into an intermediate state notation language (SNL), and this SNL is compiled directly into C code (a state program). Execution of the state program is driven by external events, allowing multiple state programs to effectively share the resources of the host processor. Since the design and the code are tightly integrated through the CASE tool, the design and code never diverge, and we avoid design obsolescence. Furthermore, the CASE tool automates the production of formal technical documents from the graphic description encapsulated by the CASE tool. (author)

  9. Automated digital magnetofluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, J; Garcia, A A; Marquez, M [Harrington Department of Bioengineering Arizona State University, Tempe AZ 85287-9709 (United States)], E-mail: tony.garcia@asu.edu

    2008-08-15

    Drops can be moved in complex patterns on superhydrophobic surfaces using a reconfigured computer-controlled x-y metrology stage with a high degree of accuracy, flexibility, and reconfigurability. The stage employs a DMC-4030 controller which has a RISC-based, clock multiplying processor with DSP functions, accepting encoder inputs up to 22 MHz, provides servo update rates as high as 32 kHz, and processes commands at rates as fast as 40 milliseconds. A 6.35 mm diameter cylindrical NdFeB magnet is translated by the stage causing water drops to move by the action of induced magnetization of coated iron microspheres that remain in the drop and are attracted to the rare earth magnet through digital magnetofluidics. Water drops are easily moved in complex patterns in automated digital magnetofluidics at an average speed of 2.8 cm/s over a superhydrophobic polyethylene surface created by solvent casting. With additional components, some potential uses for this automated microfluidic system include characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces, water quality analysis, and medical diagnostics.

  10. Automated Postediting of Documents

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, K; Knight, Kevin; Chander, Ishwar

    1994-01-01

    Large amounts of low- to medium-quality English texts are now being produced by machine translation (MT) systems, optical character readers (OCR), and non-native speakers of English. Most of this text must be postedited by hand before it sees the light of day. Improving text quality is tedious work, but its automation has not received much research attention. Anyone who has postedited a technical report or thesis written by a non-native speaker of English knows the potential of an automated postediting system. For the case of MT-generated text, we argue for the construction of postediting modules that are portable across MT systems, as an alternative to hardcoding improvements inside any one system. As an example, we have built a complete self-contained postediting module for the task of article selection (a, an, the) for English noun phrases. This is a notoriously difficult problem for Japanese-English MT. Our system contains over 200,000 rules derived automatically from online text resources. We report on l...

  11. 76 FR 73775 - Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the Department, including whether the information will have practical utility; the accuracy of the Department's estimate of... respondents, including the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology....

  12. 75 FR 77006 - Notice of Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ...-1351, Lori.Parker@nasa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract Contractors performing research and... respondents, including automated collection techniques or the use of other forms of information technology... Technology Summary Report reporting form is being used for this purpose. II. Method of Collection NASA...

  13. 78 FR 15034 - Information Collection Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ..., including the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Please note... funds to assist in the monitoring of active volcanoes and to conduct volcano- related research....S. Geological Survey Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey,...

  14. 77 FR 19275 - Proposed Agency Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. The proposed... needed to research information would have been completed previously; (5) Annual Estimated Number of... Proposed Agency Information Collection AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy, DoE. ACTION: Notice and...

  15. 75 FR 36375 - Proposed Agency Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... transformational new energy technologies and systems through funding and managing research and development (R&D... the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. DATES: Comments...) Information Collection Request Title: Advanced Research Projects Agency--Energy (ARPA-E); (3) Type of...

  16. 77 FR 11106 - Proposed Agency Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. DATES: Comments... research project. Lab technical proposals must be completed by DOE National Laboratories in order to... Proposed Agency Information Collection AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice and...

  17. Using Collective Intelligence to Route Internet Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    David H. Wolpert; Tumer, Kagan; Frank, Jeremy

    1999-01-01

    A COllective INtelligence (COIN) is a set of interacting reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms designed in an automated fashion so that their collective behavior optimizes a global utility function. We summarize the theory of COINs, then present experiments using that theory to design COINs to control internet traffic routing. These experiments indicate that COINs outperform all previously investigated RL-based, shortest path routing algorithms.

  18. Characterization of a honey bee Toll related receptor gene Am18w and its potential involvement in antimicrobial immune defense

    OpenAIRE

    Aronstein, Katherine; Saldivar, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    International audience Toll receptors are involved in intracellular signal transduction and initiation of insect antimicrobial immune responses. Here we report the isolation and characterization of a novel gene (Am18w) from honey bee Apis mellifera, which encodes for the Toll-like receptor and shares a striking 51.4% similarity with Bombyx mori 18-wheeler, 46.6% with Drosophila Toll-7 receptor and 42.5% with Drosophila 18-wheeler. The sequence analysis of the deduced 18W protein revealed a...

  19. Testing automation of projects in telecommunication domain

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey, Veselov; Vsevolod, Kotlyarov

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated approach to testing automation of telecommunication projects along with proposals to automation of conformance testing. The underlying idea is to benefit from combining formal verification and testing automation techniques in order to improve product quality.

  20. Automated Methods of Corrosion Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    . Mechanical control, recording, and data processing must therefore be automated to a high level of precision and reliability. These general techniques and the apparatus involved have been described extensively. The automated methods of such high-resolution microscopy coordinated with computerized...

  1. Opening up Library Automation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the history of library automation, the author has seen a steady advancement toward more open systems. In the early days of library automation, when proprietary systems dominated, the need for standards was paramount since other means of inter-operability and data exchange weren't possible. Today's focus on Application Programming…

  2. Automation, Performance and International Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Lene; Sørensen, Anders

    productivity growth than other firms. Moreover, automation improves the efficiency of all stages of the production process by reducing setup time, run time, and inspection time and increasing uptime and quantity produced per worker. The efficiency improvement varies by type of automation....

  3. Automated separation for heterogeneous immunoassays

    OpenAIRE

    Truchaud, A.; Barclay, J; Yvert, J. P.; Capolaghi, B.

    1991-01-01

    Beside general requirements for modern automated systems, immunoassay automation involves specific requirements as a separation step for heterogeneous immunoassays. Systems are designed according to the solid phase selected: dedicated or open robots for coated tubes and wells, systems nearly similar to chemistry analysers in the case of magnetic particles, and a completely original design for those using porous and film materials.

  4. Automated Test-Form Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Diao, Qi

    2011-01-01

    In automated test assembly (ATA), the methodology of mixed-integer programming is used to select test items from an item bank to meet the specifications for a desired test form and optimize its measurement accuracy. The same methodology can be used to automate the formatting of the set of selected items into the actual test form. Three different…

  5. Automated Methods Of Corrosion Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Reeve, John Ch;

    1997-01-01

    The chapter describes the following automated measurements: Corrosion Measurements by Titration, Imaging Corrosion by Scanning Probe Microscopy, Critical Pitting Temperature and Application of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Permeation Cell.......The chapter describes the following automated measurements: Corrosion Measurements by Titration, Imaging Corrosion by Scanning Probe Microscopy, Critical Pitting Temperature and Application of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Permeation Cell....

  6. An Automated Data Analysis Tool for Livestock Market Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Galen S.; Raper, Kellie Curry

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an automated data analysis tool that allows Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service educators to disseminate results in a timely manner. Primary data collected at Oklahoma Quality Beef Network (OQBN) certified calf auctions across the state results in a large amount of data per sale site. Sale summaries for an individual sale…

  7. Odor control in swine buildings: recycle flush vs. automated scraper

    Science.gov (United States)

    A research project was conducted to compare odor concentrations in exhaust of traditional flush barns and barns equipped with automated scrapers. The study was conducted at commercial tunnel-ventilated swine barns in northwest Missouri. Odor samples were collected from the barn exhaust in polyvinyl ...

  8. Friction ridge skin - Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier

    2009-01-01

    This contribution describes the development and the forensic use of automated fingerprint identification systems (AFISs). AFISs were initially developed in order to overcome the limitations of the paper-based fingerprint collections, by digitizing the ten-print cards in computerized databases and to

  9. Automated Home Measurement of Infants Preferential Discrimination of Loudness Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Bernard Z.; Cyrulik, Antoinette

    This brief report summarizes a study to identify primary bound conditions of sound level selection as a first step in collecting base-line data for evaluating selective listening performance in infants with known or suspected hearing loss. Ten normal 9 to 22 month old infants in their home cribs played with an automated operant "toy" that allowed…

  10. 77 FR 70873 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Overseas Schools Grant Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... respond, including the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology... for assisting American- sponsored overseas schools to demonstrate U.S. educational philosophy...

  11. Automated Standard Hazard Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebler, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The current system used to generate standard hazard reports is considered cumbersome and iterative. This study defines a structure for this system's process in a clear, algorithmic way so that standard hazard reports and basic hazard analysis may be completed using a centralized, web-based computer application. To accomplish this task, a test server is used to host a prototype of the tool during development. The prototype is configured to easily integrate into NASA's current server systems with minimal alteration. Additionally, the tool is easily updated and provides NASA with a system that may grow to accommodate future requirements and possibly, different applications. Results of this project's success are outlined in positive, subjective reviews complete by payload providers and NASA Safety and Mission Assurance personnel. Ideally, this prototype will increase interest in the concept of standard hazard automation and lead to the full-scale production of a user-ready application.

  12. Expedition automated flow fluorometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikun, V. A.; Salyuk, P. A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes an apparatus and operation of automated flow-through dual-channel fluorometer for studying the fluorescence of dissolved organic matter, and the fluorescence of phytoplankton cells with open and closed reaction centers in sea areas with oligotrophic and eutrophic water type. The step-by step excitation by two semiconductor lasers or two light-emitting diodes is realized in the current device. The excitation wavelengths are 405nm and 532nm in the default configuration. Excitation radiation of each light source can be changed with different durations, intensities and repetition rate. Registration of the fluorescence signal carried out by two photo-multipliers with different optical filters of 580-600 nm and 680-700 nm band pass diapasons. The configuration of excitation sources and spectral diapasons of registered radiation can be changed due to decided tasks.

  13. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  14. Berkeley automated supernova search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Berkeley automated supernova search employs a computer controlled 36-inch telescope and charge coupled device (CCD) detector to image 2500 galaxies per night. A dedicated minicomputer compares each galaxy image with stored reference data to identify supernovae in real time. The threshold for detection is m/sub v/ = 18.8. We plan to monitor roughly 500 galaxies in Virgo and closer every night, and an additional 6000 galaxies out to 70 Mpc on a three night cycle. This should yield very early detection of several supernovae per year for detailed study, and reliable premaximum detection of roughly 100 supernovae per year for statistical studies. The search should be operational in mid-1982

  15. Automated synthetic scene generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Ryan N.

    Physics-based simulations generate synthetic imagery to help organizations anticipate system performance of proposed remote sensing systems. However, manually constructing synthetic scenes which are sophisticated enough to capture the complexity of real-world sites can take days to months depending on the size of the site and desired fidelity of the scene. This research, sponsored by the Air Force Research Laboratory's Sensors Directorate, successfully developed an automated approach to fuse high-resolution RGB imagery, lidar data, and hyperspectral imagery and then extract the necessary scene components. The method greatly reduces the time and money required to generate realistic synthetic scenes and developed new approaches to improve material identification using information from all three of the input datasets.

  16. Automated Electrostatics Environmental Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos; Lewis, Dean C.; Buchanan, Randy K.; Buchanan, Aubri

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Electrostatics Chamber (MEC) is an environmental chamber designed primarily to create atmospheric conditions like those at the surface of Mars to support experiments on electrostatic effects in the Martian environment. The chamber is equipped with a vacuum system, a cryogenic cooling system, an atmospheric-gas replenishing and analysis system, and a computerized control system that can be programmed by the user and that provides both automation and options for manual control. The control system can be set to maintain steady Mars-like conditions or to impose temperature and pressure variations of a Mars diurnal cycle at any given season and latitude. In addition, the MEC can be used in other areas of research because it can create steady or varying atmospheric conditions anywhere within the wide temperature, pressure, and composition ranges between the extremes of Mars-like and Earth-like conditions.

  17. [From automation to robotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The introduction of automation into the laboratory of biology seems to be unavoidable. But at which cost, if it is necessary to purchase a new machine for every new application? Fortunately the same image processing techniques, belonging to a theoretic framework called Mathematical Morphology, may be used in visual inspection tasks, both in car industry and in the biology lab. Since the market for industrial robotics applications is much higher than the market of biomedical applications, the price of image processing devices drops, and becomes sometimes less than the price of a complete microscope equipment. The power of the image processing methods of Mathematical Morphology will be illustrated by various examples, as automatic silver grain counting in autoradiography, determination of HLA genotype, electrophoretic gels analysis, automatic screening of cervical smears... Thus several heterogeneous applications may share the same image processing device, provided there is a separate and devoted work station for each of them. PMID:4091303

  18. Automating the multiprocessing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpasi, Dale J.

    1989-01-01

    An approach to automate the programming and operation of tree-structured networks of multiprocessor systems is discussed. A conceptual, knowledge-based operating environment is presented, and requirements for two major technology elements are identified as follows: (1) An intelligent information translator is proposed for implementating information transfer between dissimilar hardware and software, thereby enabling independent and modular development of future systems and promoting a language-independence of codes and information; (2) A resident system activity manager, which recognizes the systems capabilities and monitors the status of all systems within the environment, is proposed for integrating dissimilar systems into effective parallel processing resources to optimally meet user needs. Finally, key computational capabilities which must be provided before the environment can be realized are identified.

  19. Escherichia coli Strain Nissle 1917 Ameliorates Experimental Colitis via Toll-Like Receptor 2- and Toll-Like Receptor 4-Dependent Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Grabig, A.; Paclik, D.; Guzy, C.; Dankof, A.; Baumgart, D.C.; Erckenbrecht, J.; Raupach, B; Sonnenborn, U.; Eckert, J.; Schumann, R. R.; Wiedenmann, B; Dignass, A U; Sturm, A

    2006-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key components of the innate immune system that trigger antimicrobial host defense responses. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle strain 1917 in experimental colitis induced in TLR-2 and TLR-4 knockout mice. Colitis was induced in wild-type (wt), TLR-2 knockout, and TLR-4 knockout mice via administration of 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Mice were treated with either 0.9% NaCl or 107 E. coli Nissle 1917 ...

  20. Role of toll-like receptor 2 and toll-like receptor 4 in post-ischemic coronary endothelial dysfunction in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.FAVRE; P.MUSETTE; JPHENRY; C.THUILLEZ; V.RICHARD

    2004-01-01

    AIM: A growing body of evidence suggests a role of the toll-like receptors (TLR) in inflammatory processes. In addition to LPS,TLR are activated by many endogenous ligands such as heat shock proteins and oxygeil-derived free radicals which are both produced during cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Among TLR,TLR-2 and TLR-4 are expressed in endothelial and myocardial cells and appear to regulate neutrophil-endothelial interactions.Since neutrophil adhesion is a critical event in endothelial injury

  1. 25 CFR 170.130 - How can tribes use Federal highway funds for toll and ferry facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... To initiate construction of a . . . A tribe must . . . (1) Toll highway, bridge, or tunnel (i) Meet... into a self-tunnel governance agreement or self-determination contract with the Secretary of...

  2. Evidence for Activation of Toll-Like Receptor and Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products in Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taketoshi Noguchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Individuals with inflammation have a myriad of pregnancy aberrations including increasing their preterm birth risk. Toll-like receptors (TLRs and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE and their ligands were all found to play a key role in inflammation. In the present study, we reviewed TLR and RAGE expression, their ligands, and signaling in preterm birth. Research Design and Methods. A systematic search was performed in the electronic databases PubMed and ScienceDirect up to July 2010, combining the keywords “preterm birth,” “TLR”, “RAGE”, “danger signal”, “alarmin”, “genomewide,” “microarray,” and “proteomics” with specific expression profiles of genes and proteins. Results. This paper provides data on TLR and RAGE levels and critical downstream signaling events including NF-kappaB-dependent proinflammatory cytokine expression in preterm birth. About half of the genes and proteins specifically present in preterm birth have the properties of endogenous ligands “alarmin” for receptor activation. The interactions between the TLR-mediated acute inflammation and RAGE-mediated chronic inflammation have clear implications for preterm birth via the TLR and RAGE system, which may be acting collectively. Conclusions. TLR and RAGE expression and their ligands, signaling, and functional activation are increased in preterm birth and may contribute to the proinflammatory state.

  3. Toll-like receptor 4 mutant and null mice retain morphine-induced tolerance, hyperalgesia, and physical dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Alexandra Mattioli

    Full Text Available The innate immune system modulates opioid-induced effects within the central nervous system and one target that has received considerable attention is the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4. Here, we examined the contribution of TLR4 in the development of morphine tolerance, hyperalgesia, and physical dependence in two inbred mouse strains: C3H/HeJ mice which have a dominant negative point mutation in the Tlr4 gene rendering the receptor non-functional, and B10ScNJ mice which are TLR4 null mutants. We found that neither acute antinociceptive response to a single dose of morphine, nor the development of analgesic tolerance to repeated morphine treatment, was affected by TLR4 genotype. Likewise, opioid induced hyperalgesia and opioid physical dependence (assessed by naloxone precipitated withdrawal were not altered in TLR4 mutant or null mice. We also examined the behavioural consequence of two stereoisomers of naloxone: (- naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, and (+ naloxone, a purported antagonist of TLR4. Both stereoisomers of naloxone suppressed opioid induced hyperalgesia in wild-type control, TLR4 mutant, and TLR4 null mice. Collectively, our data suggest that TLR4 is not required for opioid-induced analgesic tolerance, hyperalgesia, or physical dependence.

  4. Gut flora, Toll-like receptors and nuclear receptors: a tripartite communication that tunes innate immunity in large intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Annelie; Bok, Chek Mei; Aronsson, Linda; Björkholm, Britta; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Pott, Sebastian; Arulampalam, Velmurugesan; Hibberd, Martin; Rafter, Joseph; Pettersson, Sven

    2008-05-01

    Separating the large intestine from gut flora is a robust layer of epithelial cells. This barrier is armed with an array of recognizing receptors that collectively set the host innate response. Here, we use nuclear receptors (NRs) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs), suggested to act as second messengers in the communication between microorganisms and epithelial cells, as probes to assess the impact of gut flora on innate immunity in germ-free (GF) mice. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses, we show that 37/49 NRs are expressed in colonic cells of GF mice. Of these, 5 can be modulated by resident flora: LXRalpha, RORgamma and CAR show reduced expression and Nur77 and GCNF display elevated expression in conventionally raised mice compared with GF. Moreover, increased expression levels of TLR-2 and TLR-5 are observed in specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice compared with GF mice, and CAR expression is connected to the TLR-2 signalling pathway. Infections of GF or SPF mice with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, show that GF intestinal epithelial cells fail to respond, except for CAR, which is downregulated. In contrast, SPF epithelial cells show a downregulation of all the NRs except CAR, which appears to be unaffected. Our findings indicate that gut flora contributes to the development of an intact barrier function. PMID:18088401

  5. Evolutionary redesign of the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) Toll-like receptor repertoire by gene losses and expansions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbakken, Monica H; Tørresen, Ole K; Nederbragt, Alexander J; Seppola, Marit; Gregers, Tone F; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Jentoft, Sissel

    2016-01-01

    Genome sequencing of the teleost Atlantic cod demonstrated loss of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class II, an extreme gene expansion of MHC class I and gene expansions and losses in the innate pattern recognition receptor (PRR) family of Toll-like receptors (TLR). In a comparative genomic setting, using an improved version of the genome, we characterize PRRs in Atlantic cod with emphasis on TLRs demonstrating the loss of TLR1/6, TLR2 and TLR5 and expansion of TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, TLR22 and TLR25. We find that Atlantic cod TLR expansions are strongly influenced by diversifying selection likely to increase the detectable ligand repertoire through neo- and subfunctionalization. Using RNAseq we find that Atlantic cod TLRs display likely tissue or developmental stage-specific expression patterns. In a broader perspective, a comprehensive vertebrate TLR phylogeny reveals that the Atlantic cod TLR repertoire is extreme with regards to losses and expansions compared to other teleosts. In addition we identify a substantial shift in TLR repertoires following the evolutionary transition from an aquatic vertebrate (fish) to a terrestrial (tetrapod) life style. Collectively, our findings provide new insight into the function and evolution of TLRs in Atlantic cod as well as the evolutionary history of vertebrate innate immunity. PMID:27126702

  6. Downregulation of toll-like receptor 4 and IL-6 following irradiation of the rat urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, D; Wasén, C; Mölne, J; Suchy, D; Swanpalmer, J; Jabonero Valbuena, J; Tobin, G; Ny, L

    2016-07-01

    The pathophysiology behind radiation cystitis is poorly understood. Here we investigated whether bladder irradiation affects the immune system of the rat urinary bladder. Female rats were sedated and exposed to one single radiation dose of 20 Gy or only sedated (controls) and killed 16 h to 14 days later. Rats were placed in a metabolic cage at 16 h, 3 days, 7 days and 14 days following bladder irradiation. The urinary bladders were harvested and analysed with qPCR, immunohistochemistry and/or Western blot for the expression of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, nitric oxide synthases (eNOS, iNOS and nNOS), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Urine was collected and analysed for IL-6 and nitrite (reflecting nitric oxide activity) with ELISA and the Griess reaction, respectively. Irradiation increased bladder frequency and decreased voiding volumes 14 days following bladder irradiation. Bladder irradiation increased the expression of IL-10 and collagen in the bladder, while TLR4 and IL-6 expressions were decreased in the urothelium concomitantly with a decrease in mast cells in the submucosa and urine levels of IL-6 and nitrite. The present findings show that bladder irradiation leads to urodynamic changes in the bladder and may suppress important immunoregulatory pathways in the urinary bladder. PMID:27117224

  7. Functional Toll-like receptor 4 expressed in lactotrophs mediates LPS-induced proliferation in experimental pituitary hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been characterized for its ability to recognize bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Considering that infections or inflammatory processes might contribute to the progression of pituitary tumors, we analyzed the TLR4 functional role by evaluating the LPS effect on lactotroph proliferation in primary cultures from experimental pituitary tumors, and examined the involvement of PI3K-Akt and NF-κB activation in this effect. In addition, the role of 17β-estradiol as a possible modulator of LPS-induced PRL cell proliferation was further investigated. In estrogen-induced hyperplasic pituitaries, LPS triggered lactotroph cell proliferation. However, endotoxin failed to increase the number of lactotrophs taking up BrdU in normal pituitaries. Moreover, incubation with anti-TLR4 antibody significantly reduced LPS-induced lactotroph proliferation, suggesting a functional role of this receptor. As a sign of TLR4 activation, an LPS challenge increased IL-6 release in normal and tumoral cells. By flow cytometry, TLR4 baseline expression was revealed at the plasma membrane of tumoral lactotrophs, without changes noted in the percentage of double PRL/TLR4 positive cells after LPS stimulus. Increases in TLR4 intracellular expression were detected as well as rises in CD14, p-Akt and NF-κB after an LPS challenge, as assessed by western blotting. The TLR4/PRL and PRL/NF-κB co-localization was also corroborated by immunofluorescence and the involvement of PI3K/Akt signaling in lactotroph proliferation and IL-6 release was revealed through the PI3K inhibitor Ly-294002. In addition, 17β-estradiol attenuated the LPS-evoked increase in tumoral lactotroph proliferation and IL-6 release. Collectively these results demonstrate the presence of functional TLR4 in lactotrophs from estrogen-induced hyperplasic pituitaries, which responded to the proliferative stimulation and IL-6 release induced by LPS through TLR4/CD14, with a contribution of the PI3K

  8. Functional Toll-like receptor 4 expressed in lactotrophs mediates LPS-induced proliferation in experimental pituitary hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabatino, María Eugenia; Sosa, Liliana del Valle; Petiti, Juan Pablo; Mukdsi, Jorge Humberto [Centro de Microscopía Electrónica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (INICSA-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Av. Enrique Barros y Enfermera Gordillo, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 5000, Córdoba (Argentina); Mascanfroni, Iván Darío; Pellizas, Claudia Gabriela [Centro de Investigaciones en Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunología (CIBICI-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Av. Haya de la Torre y Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 5000, Córdoba (Argentina); Gutiérrez, Silvina; Torres, Alicia Inés [Centro de Microscopía Electrónica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (INICSA-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Av. Enrique Barros y Enfermera Gordillo, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 5000, Córdoba (Argentina); De Paul, Ana Lucía, E-mail: adepaul@cmefcm.uncor.edu [Centro de Microscopía Electrónica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (INICSA-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Av. Enrique Barros y Enfermera Gordillo, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 5000, Córdoba (Argentina)

    2013-11-15

    Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been characterized for its ability to recognize bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Considering that infections or inflammatory processes might contribute to the progression of pituitary tumors, we analyzed the TLR4 functional role by evaluating the LPS effect on lactotroph proliferation in primary cultures from experimental pituitary tumors, and examined the involvement of PI3K-Akt and NF-κB activation in this effect. In addition, the role of 17β-estradiol as a possible modulator of LPS-induced PRL cell proliferation was further investigated. In estrogen-induced hyperplasic pituitaries, LPS triggered lactotroph cell proliferation. However, endotoxin failed to increase the number of lactotrophs taking up BrdU in normal pituitaries. Moreover, incubation with anti-TLR4 antibody significantly reduced LPS-induced lactotroph proliferation, suggesting a functional role of this receptor. As a sign of TLR4 activation, an LPS challenge increased IL-6 release in normal and tumoral cells. By flow cytometry, TLR4 baseline expression was revealed at the plasma membrane of tumoral lactotrophs, without changes noted in the percentage of double PRL/TLR4 positive cells after LPS stimulus. Increases in TLR4 intracellular expression were detected as well as rises in CD14, p-Akt and NF-κB after an LPS challenge, as assessed by western blotting. The TLR4/PRL and PRL/NF-κB co-localization was also corroborated by immunofluorescence and the involvement of PI3K/Akt signaling in lactotroph proliferation and IL-6 release was revealed through the PI3K inhibitor Ly-294002. In addition, 17β-estradiol attenuated the LPS-evoked increase in tumoral lactotroph proliferation and IL-6 release. Collectively these results demonstrate the presence of functional TLR4 in lactotrophs from estrogen-induced hyperplasic pituitaries, which responded to the proliferative stimulation and IL-6 release induced by LPS through TLR4/CD14, with a contribution of the PI3K

  9. Automating the radiographic NDT process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automation, the removal of the human element in inspection, has not been generally applied to film radiographic NDT. The justication for automating is not only productivity but also reliability of results. Film remains in the automated system of the future because of its extremely high image content, approximately 8 x 109 bits per 14 x 17. The equivalent to 2200 computer floppy discs. Parts handling systems and robotics applied for manufacturing and some NDT modalities, should now be applied to film radiographic NDT systems. Automatic film handling can be achieved with the daylight NDT film handling system. Automatic film processing is becoming the standard in industry and can be coupled to the daylight system. Robots offer the opportunity to automate fully the exposure step. Finally, computer aided interpretation appears on the horizon. A unit which laser scans a 14 x 17 (inch) film in 6 - 8 seconds can digitize film information for further manipulation and possible automatic interrogations (computer aided interpretation). The system called FDRS (for Film Digital Radiography System) is moving toward 50 micron (*approx* 16 lines/mm) resolution. This is believed to meet the need of the majority of image content needs. We expect the automated system to appear first in parts (modules) as certain operations are automated. The future will see it all come together in an automated film radiographic NDT system (author)

  10. Automating the radiographic ndt process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automation, the removal of the human element in inspection, has not been generally applied to film radiographic NDT. The justification for automating is not only productivity but also reliability of results. Film remains in the automated system of the future because of its extremely high image content, approximately 8 x 109 bits per 14 x 17. This is equivalent to 2200 computer floppy discs. Parts handling systems and robotics applied for manufacturing and some NDT modalities, should now be applied to film radiographic NDT systems. Automatic film handling can be achieved with the daylight NDT film handling system. Automatic film processing is becoming the standard in industry and can be coupled to the daylight system. Robots offer the opportunity to automate fully the exposure step. Finally, computer aided interpretation appears on the horizon. A unit which laser scans a 14 x 17 inch film in 6 - 8 seconds can digitize film information for further manipulation and possible automatic interrogations (computer aided interpretation). The system called FDRS (for Film Digital Radiography System) is moving toward 50 micron (16 lines/mm) resolution. This is believed to meet the need of the majority of image content needs. We expect the automated system to appear first in separate parts (modules) as certain operations are automated. The future will see it all come together in an automated film radiographic NDT system

  11. New Highways, House Prices, and Urban Development: A Case Study of Toll Roads in Orange County, CA

    OpenAIRE

    Boarnet, Marlon G.; Chalermpong, Saksith

    2003-01-01

    We examine the link between highways and urban development by employing both hedonic analysis and multiple sales techniques to study the impact of the construction of toll roads in Orange County, California, on house prices. Urban economic theory predicts that if highways improve accessibility, that accessibility premium will be reflected in higher land prices. Our empirical analysis of house sales prices provide strong evidence that the toll roads, the Foothill Transportation Corrid...

  12. Role of Toll-like receptors in lung innate defense against invasive aspergillosis. Distinct impact in immunocompetent and immunocompromized hosts.

    OpenAIRE

    Chignard, Michel; Balloy, Viviane; Sallenave, Jean-Michel; Si-Tahar, Mustapha

    2007-01-01

    Toll-like receptors are key to pathogen recognition by a host and to the subsequent triggering of an innate immune response. Experimental and clinical evidence shows that defects in Toll-like receptors or in signaling pathways downstream from these receptors render hosts susceptible to various types of infection, including aspergillosis. Patients receiving an immunosuppressive regimen, including corticosteroid therapy or cytotoxic chemotherapy, are also susceptible to infections. Aspergillus ...

  13. Toll-like receptor 4 dependent responses to lung injury in a murine model of pulmonary contusion

    OpenAIRE

    Hoth, J. Jason; Wells, Jonathan D.; Brownlee, Noel A.; Hiltbold, Elizabeth M.; Meredith, J Wayne; McCall, Charles E.; Yoza, Barbara K.

    2009-01-01

    Blunt chest trauma resulting in pulmonary contusion with an accompanying acute inflammatory response is a common but poorly understood injury. We previously demonstrated that toll-like receptor 2 participates in the inflammatory response to lung injury. We hypothesized that the toll-like receptor 4, in a MyD88-dependent manner, may also participate in the response to lung injury. To investigate this, we used a model of pulmonary contusion in the mouse that is similar to that observed clinical...

  14. A systematic review of CD14 and toll-like receptors in relation to asthma in Caucasian children

    OpenAIRE

    Klaassen, Ester MM; Thönissen, Brenda EJT; van Eys, Guillaume; Dompeling, Edward; Jöbsis, Quirijn

    2013-01-01

    The aetiology of childhood asthma is complex. An early dysfunction in the immunological development of the innate immune system in combination with environmental factors possibly triggers asthma. CD14 and toll-like receptors are important components of the innate immune system. The aim of this systematic review was to obtain a better insight into the relation between CD14 and toll-like receptors and childhood asthma in Caucasians. We searched PubMed and EMBASE for relevant articles. In total,...

  15. Reduced expression of Toll-like receptor 4 inhibits human breast cancer cells proliferation and inflammatory cytokines secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Xie Xiaofang; Wen Huiyan; Zhou Xiaoni; Feng Ping; Zhou Huiqin; Yang Huan; Shen Haiying; Zhu Xueming

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Tumor cell expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) can promote inflammation and cell survival in the tumor microenvironment. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in tumor cells can mediate tumor cell immune escape and tumor progression, and it is regarded as one of the mechanisms for chronic inflammation in tumorigenesis and progression. The expression of TLR4 in human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and its biological function in the development and progression of br...

  16. Collection Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Libraries in Canada, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Includes 21 articles that discuss collection development in Canadian school libraries. Topics include digital collections in school library media centers; print and electronic library resources; library collections; collaborative projects; print-disabled students; informing administrators of the importance of collection development; censorship;…

  17. Automated method of tracing proton tracks in nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low performance of the manual recognition of proton-recoil tracks in nuclear emulsions has limited its application to energy spectrum measurement of a pulsed neutron source. We developed an automated microscope system to trace proton-recoil tracks in nuclear emulsions. Given a start point on the proton track of interest, the microscope system can automatically trace and record the entire track using an image processing algorithm. Tests indicate that no interaction of the operator is needed in tracing the entire track. This automated microscope greatly reduces the labor of the operator and increases the efficiency of track data collection in nuclear emulsion

  18. Automated method of tracing proton tracks in nuclear emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, Jin-lu, E-mail: rjl@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. box 69-9, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710024 (China); Li, Hong-yun; Song, Ji-wen [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. box 69-9, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710024 (China); Zhang, Jian-fu, E-mail: zhang_jianfu@163.com [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. box 69-9, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710024 (China); Academy of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Chen, Liang; Zhang, Zhong-bing; Liu, Jin-liang; Liu, Lin-yue [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. box 69-9, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710024 (China)

    2015-07-21

    The low performance of the manual recognition of proton-recoil tracks in nuclear emulsions has limited its application to energy spectrum measurement of a pulsed neutron source. We developed an automated microscope system to trace proton-recoil tracks in nuclear emulsions. Given a start point on the proton track of interest, the microscope system can automatically trace and record the entire track using an image processing algorithm. Tests indicate that no interaction of the operator is needed in tracing the entire track. This automated microscope greatly reduces the labor of the operator and increases the efficiency of track data collection in nuclear emulsion.

  19. Automated Quality Assurance of Online NIR Analysers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Aaljoki

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern NIR analysers produce valuable data for closed-loop process control and optimisation practically in real time. Thus it is highly important to keep them in the best possible shape. Quality assurance (QA of NIR analysers is an interesting and complex issue because it is not only the instrument and sample handling that has to be monitored. At the same time, validity of prediction models has to be assured. A system for fully automated QA of NIR analysers is described. The system takes care of collecting and organising spectra from various instruments, relevant laboratory, and process management system (PMS data. Validation of spectra is based on simple diagnostics values derived from the spectra. Predictions are validated against laboratory (LIMS or other online analyser results (collected from PMS. The system features automated alarming, reporting, trending, and charting functions for major key variables for easy visual inspection. Various textual and graphical reports are sent to maintenance people through email. The software was written with Borland Delphi 7 Enterprise. Oracle and PMS ODBC interfaces were used for accessing LIMS and PMS data using appropriate SQL queries. It will be shown that it is possible to take actions even before the quality of predictions is seriously affected, thus maximising the overall uptime of the instrument.

  20. Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Automated remote fluid servicing will be necessary for future space missions, as future satellites will be designed for on-orbit consumable replenishment. In order to develop an on-orbit remote servicing capability, a standard interface between a tanker and the receiving satellite is needed. The objective of the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) program is to design, fabricate, and functionally demonstrate compliance with all design requirements for an automated fluid interface system. A description and documentation of the Fairchild AFIS design is provided.