WorldWideScience

Sample records for automated toll collection

  1. 23 CFR 950.5 - Requirement to use electronic toll collection technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirement to use electronic toll collection technology... agency using electronic toll collection technology must develop and implement reasonable methods to... electronic toll collection technology must develop, implement, and make publicly available privacy...

  2. Automated License Plate Recognition for Toll Booth Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan S. Shevale

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Smart Vehicle Screening System, which can be installed into a tollbooth for automated recognition of vehicle license plate information using a photograph of a vehicle. An automated system could then be implemented to control the payment of fees, parking areas, highways, bridges or tunnels, etc. There are considered an approach to identify vehicle through recognizing of it license plate using image fusion, neural networks and threshold techniques as well as some experimental results to recognize the license plate successfully.

  3. Concentrations of ultrafine particles at a highway toll collection booth and exposure implications for toll collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Huang, Cheng-Hsiung; Huang, Hsiao-Lin; Tsai, Chuen-Jinn

    2010-12-15

    Research regarding the magnitude of ultrafine particle levels at highway toll stations is limited. This study measured ambient concentrations of ultrafine particles at a highway toll station from October 30 to November 1 and November 5 to November 6, 2008. A scanning mobility particle sizer was used to measure ultrafine particle concentrations at a ticket/cash tollbooth. Levels of hourly average ultrafine particles at the tollbooth were about 3-6 times higher than those in urban backgrounds, indicating that a considerable amount of ultrafine particles are exhausted from passing vehicles. A bi-modal size distribution pattern with a dominant mode at about particle reactions in fresh fumes emitted directly from vehicles. The influences of traffic volume, wind speed, and relative humidity on ultrafine particle concentrations were also determined. High ambient concentrations of ultrafine particles existed under low wind speed, low relative humidity, and high traffic volume. Although different factors account for high ambient concentrations of ultrafine particles at the tollbooth, measurements indicate that toll collectors who work close to traffic emission sources have a high exposure risk.

  4. Automated data collection for macromolecular crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Graeme; McAuley, Katherine E

    2011-09-01

    An overview, together with some practical advice, is presented of the current status of the automation of macromolecular crystallography (MX) data collection, with a focus on MX beamlines at Diamond Light Source, UK.

  5. Workflow Automation: A Collective Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge management has proven to be a sustainable competitive advantage for many organizations. Knowledge management systems are abundant, with multiple functionalities. The literature reinforces the use of workflow automation with knowledge management systems to benefit organizations; however, it was not known if process automation yielded…

  6. Automated Reshelving Statistics as a Tool in Reference Collection Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Jeanie M.; Cauble, Lynn A.; Little, Lara B.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses implementation of the automated recording of reshelving statistics for print reference materials and the use of these statistics in reference-collection development and management, especially in making acquisitions and weeding decisions, based on experiences at the University of North Carolina, Charlotte. (Author/LRW)

  7. Inselect: Automating the Digitization of Natural History Collections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence N Hudson

    Full Text Available The world's natural history collections constitute an enormous evidence base for scientific research on the natural world. To facilitate these studies and improve access to collections, many organisations are embarking on major programmes of digitization. This requires automated approaches to mass-digitization that support rapid imaging of specimens and associated data capture, in order to process the tens of millions of specimens common to most natural history collections. In this paper we present Inselect-a modular, easy-to-use, cross-platform suite of open-source software tools that supports the semi-automated processing of specimen images generated by natural history digitization programmes. The software is made up of a Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux desktop application, together with command-line tools that are designed for unattended operation on batches of images. Blending image visualisation algorithms that automatically recognise specimens together with workflows to support post-processing tasks such as barcode reading, label transcription and metadata capture, Inselect fills a critical gap to increase the rate of specimen digitization.

  8. Inselect: Automating the Digitization of Natural History Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Lawrence N; Blagoderov, Vladimir; Heaton, Alice; Holtzhausen, Pieter; Livermore, Laurence; Price, Benjamin W; van der Walt, Stéfan; Smith, Vincent S

    2015-01-01

    The world's natural history collections constitute an enormous evidence base for scientific research on the natural world. To facilitate these studies and improve access to collections, many organisations are embarking on major programmes of digitization. This requires automated approaches to mass-digitization that support rapid imaging of specimens and associated data capture, in order to process the tens of millions of specimens common to most natural history collections. In this paper we present Inselect-a modular, easy-to-use, cross-platform suite of open-source software tools that supports the semi-automated processing of specimen images generated by natural history digitization programmes. The software is made up of a Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux desktop application, together with command-line tools that are designed for unattended operation on batches of images. Blending image visualisation algorithms that automatically recognise specimens together with workflows to support post-processing tasks such as barcode reading, label transcription and metadata capture, Inselect fills a critical gap to increase the rate of specimen digitization.

  9. 77 FR 14535 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Use the Automated Commercial Environment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP... collection requirement concerning the Application to Use the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE). This... Commercial Environment (ACE) is a trade processing system that will eventually replace the...

  10. Automation as a strategic toll for service stations management; Automacao como ferramenta aliada a gestao de postos de servicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcello Cyrino [GILBARCO do Brasil, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Automacao

    2004-07-01

    The use of automation systems will be approached as fundamental tool in the control of sales in the pumps as well electronic management of stock in the tanks on a consolidated and integrated way, offering reliability and total control in the administration of fuel resale, no matter if the user be a one station owner, a group of dozens stations, or oil companies in general. These systems allow the local control in the gas station as well remotely through internet access or other kind of communication interface which be Also available. We will give some examples, as the possibility of remote stock management through a communication link between the oil company and gas station, in order to setup in the system a minimum stock level in each tank, that when being reached sends an automatic alarm for the oil company and another alarm for the station operator, so that the replenishment is programmed immediately without the need of sending purchase order by fax, e mail or telephone. This process brings a huge reduction of costs in the delivery logistics as well in the operational costs, reverting directly on a growth of the gas station and dealer's profit. Through this control, is also possible the remote management of fuel leak alarms in attendance to CONAMA 273, making possible a shared control and offering higher safety for both parts involved, considering the concept of environmental co-responsibility between gas station and oil company (dealer). (author)

  11. 77 FR 30021 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Use the Automated Commercial Environment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Commercial Environment (ACE). This is a proposed extension of an information collection that was previously...: None. Abstract: The Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) is a trade processing system that...

  12. Analysis of declarations in distance based road toll schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Menzel, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    The main focus of the master thesis lies on developing a methodology to analyse the accuracy of toll declarations within a satellite based toll system. This methodology employs two different approaches to determine reasons why Toll Service Providers (TSP) deliver toll declarations that show charge inaccuracies. Both approaches are carried out to analyse the results of the ARENA project’s field test which was held in April 2010 to test On Board Unit (OBU) solutions for toll collection. In part...

  13. MeshAndCollect: an automated multi-crystal data-collection workflow for synchrotron macromolecular crystallography beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zander, Ulrich [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Bourenkov, Gleb [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Hamburg Outstation, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Popov, Alexander N.; Sanctis, Daniele de; Svensson, Olof [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble (France); McCarthy, Andrew A. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Grenoble Outstation, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90181, 38042 Grenoble (France); Université Grenoble Alpes–EMBL–CNRS, 38042 Grenoble (France); Round, Ekaterina; Gordeliy, Valentin [Université Grenoble Alpes, IBS, 38044 Grenoble (France); CNRS, IBS, 38044 Grenoble (France); CEA, IBS, 38044 Grenoble (France); Institute of Complex Systems (ICS), Research Centre Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudniy 141700 (Russian Federation); Mueller-Dieckmann, Christoph; Leonard, Gordon A., E-mail: leonard@esrf.fr [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, CS 40220, 38043 Grenoble (France)

    2015-10-31

    The fully automated collection and merging of partial data sets from a series of cryocooled crystals of biological macromolecules contained on the same support is presented, as are the results of test experiments carried out on various systems. Here, an automated procedure is described to identify the positions of many cryocooled crystals mounted on the same sample holder, to rapidly predict and rank their relative diffraction strengths and to collect partial X-ray diffraction data sets from as many of the crystals as desired. Subsequent hierarchical cluster analysis then allows the best combination of partial data sets, optimizing the quality of the final data set obtained. The results of applying the method developed to various systems and scenarios including the compilation of a complete data set from tiny crystals of the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin and the collection of data sets for successful structure determination using the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion technique are also presented.

  14. Experiences in Building Python Automation Framework for Verification and Data Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper describes our experiences in building a Python automation framework. Specifically, the automation framework is used to support verification and data collection scripts. The scripts control various test equipments in addition to the device under test (DUT to characterize a specific performance with a specific configuration or to evaluate the correctness of the behaviour of the DUT. The specific focus on this paper is on documenting our experiences in building an automation framework using Python: on the purposes, goals and the benefits, rather than on a tutorial of how to build such a framework.

  15. Fully Automated Data Collection Using PAM and the Development of PAM/SPACE Reversible Cassettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Masahiko; Watanabe, Shokei; Chavas, Leonard M. G.; Yamada, Yusuke; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Igarashi, Noriyuki; Wakatsuki, Soichi; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Miki, Kunio; Baba, Seiki; Ueno, Go; Yamamoto, Masaki; Suzuki, Mamoru; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Tanaka, Isao

    2010-06-01

    To remotely control and automatically collect data in high-throughput X-ray data collection experiments, the Structural Biology Research Center at the Photon Factory (PF) developed and installed sample exchange robots PAM (PF Automated Mounting system) at PF macromolecular crystallography beamlines; BL-5A, BL-17A, AR-NW12A and AR-NE3A. We developed and installed software that manages the flow of the automated X-ray experiments; sample exchanges, loop-centering and X-ray diffraction data collection. The fully automated data collection function has been available since February 2009. To identify sample cassettes, PAM employs a two-dimensional bar code reader. New beamlines, BL-1A at the Photon Factory and BL32XU at SPring-8, are currently under construction as part of Targeted Proteins Research Program (TPRP) by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. However, different robots, PAM and SPACE (SPring-8 Precise Automatic Cryo-sample Exchanger), will be installed at BL-1A and BL32XU, respectively. For the convenience of the users of both facilities, pins and cassettes for PAM and SPACE are developed as part of the TPRP.

  16. Fast whole-brain optical tomography capable of automated slice-collection (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Jiang, Tao; Deng, Lei; Long, Beng; Peng, Jie; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Acquiring brain-wide composite information of neuroanatomical and molecular phenotyping is crucial to understand brain functions. However, current whole-brain imaging methods based on mechnical sectioning haven't achieved brain-wide acquisition of both neuroanatomical and molecular phenotyping due to the lack of appropriate whole-brain immunostaining of embedded samples. Here, we present a novel strategy of acquiring brain-wide structural and molecular maps in the same brain, combining whole-brain imaging and subsequent immunostaining of automated-collected slices. We developed a whole-brain imaging system capable of automatically imaging and then collecting imaged tissue slices in order. The system contains three parts: structured illumination microscopy for high-throughput optical sectioning, vibratome for high-precision sectioning and slice-collection device for automated collecting of tissue slices. Through our system, we could acquire a whole-brain dataset of agarose-embedded mouse brain at lateral resolution of 0.33 µm with z-interval sampling of 100 µm in 9 h, and automatically collect the imaged slices in sequence. Subsequently, we performed immunohistochemistry of the collected slices in the routine way. We acquired mouse whole-brain imaging datasets of multiple specific types of neurons, proteins and gene expression profiles. We believe our method could accelerate systematic analysis of brain anatomical structure with specific proteins or genes expression information and understanding how the brain processes information and generates behavior.

  17. Improvement of an automated protein crystal exchange system PAM for high-throughput data collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, Masahiko, E-mail: masahiko.hiraki@kek.jp; Yamada, Yusuke; Chavas, Leonard M. G. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Wakatsuki, Soichi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, MS 69, Menlo Park, CA 94025-7015 (United States); Stanford University, Beckman Center B105, Stanford, CA 94305-5126 (United States); Matsugaki, Naohiro [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    A special liquid-nitrogen Dewar with double capacity for the sample-exchange robot has been created at AR-NE3A at the Photon Factory, allowing continuous fully automated data collection. In this work, this new system is described and the stability of its calibration is discussed. Photon Factory Automated Mounting system (PAM) protein crystal exchange systems are available at the following Photon Factory macromolecular beamlines: BL-1A, BL-5A, BL-17A, AR-NW12A and AR-NE3A. The beamline AR-NE3A has been constructed for high-throughput macromolecular crystallography and is dedicated to structure-based drug design. The PAM liquid-nitrogen Dewar can store a maximum of three SSRL cassettes. Therefore, users have to interrupt their experiments and replace the cassettes when using four or more of them during their beam time. As a result of investigation, four or more cassettes were used in AR-NE3A alone. For continuous automated data collection, the size of the liquid-nitrogen Dewar for the AR-NE3A PAM was increased, doubling the capacity. In order to check the calibration with the new Dewar and the cassette stand, calibration experiments were repeatedly performed. Compared with the current system, the parameters of the novel system are shown to be stable.

  18. MeshAndCollect: an automated multi-crystal data-collection workflow for synchrotron macromolecular crystallography beamlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Ulrich; Bourenkov, Gleb; Popov, Alexander N; de Sanctis, Daniele; Svensson, Olof; McCarthy, Andrew A; Round, Ekaterina; Gordeliy, Valentin; Mueller-Dieckmann, Christoph; Leonard, Gordon A

    2015-11-01

    Here, an automated procedure is described to identify the positions of many cryocooled crystals mounted on the same sample holder, to rapidly predict and rank their relative diffraction strengths and to collect partial X-ray diffraction data sets from as many of the crystals as desired. Subsequent hierarchical cluster analysis then allows the best combination of partial data sets, optimizing the quality of the final data set obtained. The results of applying the method developed to various systems and scenarios including the compilation of a complete data set from tiny crystals of the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin and the collection of data sets for successful structure determination using the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion technique are also presented.

  19. SYRIAC: The systematic review information automated collection system a data warehouse for facilitating automated biomedical text classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianji J; Cohen, Aaron M; Cohen, Aaron; McDonagh, Marian S

    2008-11-06

    Automatic document classification can be valuable in increasing the efficiency in updating systematic reviews (SR). In order for the machine learning process to work well, it is critical to create and maintain high-quality training datasets consisting of expert SR inclusion/exclusion decisions. This task can be laborious, especially when the number of topics is large and source data format is inconsistent.To approach this problem, we build an automated system to streamline the required steps, from initial notification of update in source annotation files to loading the data warehouse, along with a web interface to monitor the status of each topic. In our current collection of 26 SR topics, we were able to standardize almost all of the relevance judgments and recovered PMIDs for over 80% of all articles. Of those PMIDs, over 99% were correct in a manual random sample study. Our system performs an essential function in creating training and evaluation data sets for SR text mining research.

  20. Automated collection of imaging and phenotypic data to centralized and distributed data repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret D King

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate data collection at the ground level is vital to the integrity of neuroimaging research. Similarly important is the ability to connect and curate data in order to make it meaningful and sharable with other investigators. Collecting data, especially with several different modalities, can be time consuming and expensive. These issues have driven the development of automated collection of neuroimaging and clinical assessment data within COINS (Collaborative Informatics and Neuroimaging Suite. COINS is an end-to-end data management system. It provides a comprehensive platform for data collection, management, secure storage, and flexible data retrieval (Bockholt et al., 2010, Scott et al., 2011. Self Assessment (SAis an application embedded in the Assessment Manager tool in the COINS. It is an innovative tool that allows participants to fill out assessments via the web-based Participant Portal. It eliminates the need for paper collection and data entry by allowing participants to submit their assessments directly to COINS. After a queue has been created for the participant, they can access the Participant Portal via the internet to fill out their assessments. This allows them the flexibility to participate from home, a library, on site, etc. The collected data is stored in a PostgresSQL database at the Mind Research Network behind a firewall to protect sensitive data. An added benefit to using COINS is the ability to collect, store and share imaging data and assessment data with no interaction with outside tools or programs. All study data collected (imaging and assessment are stored and exported with a participant's unique subject identifier so there is no need to keep extra spreadsheets or databases to link and keep track of the data. There is a great need for data collection tools that limit human intervention and error. COINS aims to be a leader in database solutions for research studies collecting data from several different modalities

  1. Simple no-stop electronic toll collection system for vehicles%一种简易不停车收费系统实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻志滨; 徐安然; 张敏

    2014-01-01

    A simple electronic toll collection system is designed in this paper. The single chip AT89C52 is used in this de-sign to control the wireless module and form the X-mitter and receiver for actualizing the information transmission of vehicles. The information is displayed on the computer through the receiver's serial port. It employs The wireless module nRF24L01 and encryption communication principle between digital signal code and secondary modulation mode are adopted in the system. The modular design idea from top to bottom is utilized in the software design to make the system has the distributed and miniaturiza-tion characteristics. The testing results show that the system has the merits such as the strong anti-interference ability,low power consumption,fast reaction rate,high transmission efficiency and simple structure.%设计了一种简易的不停车收费系统。设计用单片机AT89C52控制无线模块,形成发射机和接收机,实现车辆信息的传递,并通过串口显示在计算机上。采用的nRF24L01无线模块、数字信号编码和二次调制方式之间的加密通信原理,软件设计采用自上而下的模块化设计思想,使系统具有分布式、小型化的特点。测试结果表明,该系统具有抗干扰性强、功耗低、反应速度快、传输效率高和简单的特点。

  2. Automation of GIS-Based Population Data-Collection for Transportation Risk Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MILLS,G. SCOTT; NEUHAUSER,SIEGLINDE

    1999-11-01

    Estimation of the potential radiological risks associated with highway transport of radioactive materials (RAM) requires input data describing population densities adjacent to all portions of the route to be traveled. Previously, aggregated risks for entire multi-state routes were adequately estimated from population data with low geographic resolution. Current demands for geographically-specific risk estimates require similar increases in resolution of population density adjacent to route segments. With the advent of commercial geographic information systems (GISs) and databases describing highways, U.S. Census Blocks, and other information that is geographically distributed, it became feasible to determine and tabulate population characteristics along transportation routes with 1-kilometer resolution. This report describes an automated method of collecting population data adjacent to route segments (for calculation of incident-free doses) based on a commercial GIS. It also describes a statistical method of resolving remaining resolution issues, and an adaptation of the automation method to collection of data on population under a hypothetical plume of contamination resulting from a potential transportation accident.

  3. An automated baseline correction protocol for infrared spectra of atmospheric aerosols collected on polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmiakova, Adele; Dillner, Ann M.; Takahama, Satoshi

    2016-06-01

    A growing body of research on statistical applications for characterization of atmospheric aerosol Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) samples collected on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters (e.g., Russell et al., 2011; Ruthenburg et al., 2014) and a rising interest in analyzing FT-IR samples collected by air quality monitoring networks call for an automated PTFE baseline correction solution. The existing polynomial technique (Takahama et al., 2013) is not scalable to a project with a large number of aerosol samples because it contains many parameters and requires expert intervention. Therefore, the question of how to develop an automated method for baseline correcting hundreds to thousands of ambient aerosol spectra given the variability in both environmental mixture composition and PTFE baselines remains. This study approaches the question by detailing the statistical protocol, which allows for the precise definition of analyte and background subregions, applies nonparametric smoothing splines to reproduce sample-specific PTFE variations, and integrates performance metrics from atmospheric aerosol and blank samples alike in the smoothing parameter selection. Referencing 794 atmospheric aerosol samples from seven Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) sites collected during 2011, we start by identifying key FT-IR signal characteristics, such as non-negative absorbance or analyte segment transformation, to capture sample-specific transitions between background and analyte. While referring to qualitative properties of PTFE background, the goal of smoothing splines interpolation is to learn the baseline structure in the background region to predict the baseline structure in the analyte region. We then validate the model by comparing smoothing splines baseline-corrected spectra with uncorrected and polynomial baseline (PB)-corrected equivalents via three statistical applications: (1) clustering analysis, (2) functional group quantification

  4. Automated inter-rater reliability assessment and electronic data collection in a multi-center breast cancer study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enger Shelley M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice between paper data collection methods and electronic data collection (EDC methods has become a key question for clinical researchers. There remains a need to examine potential benefits, efficiencies, and innovations associated with an EDC system in a multi-center medical record review study. Methods A computer-based automated menu-driven system with 658 data fields was developed for a cohort study of women aged 65 years or older, diagnosed with invasive histologically confirmed primary breast cancer (N = 1859, at 6 Cancer Research Network sites. Medical record review with direct data entry into the EDC system was implemented. An inter-rater and intra-rater reliability (IRR system was developed using a modified version of the EDC. Results Automation of EDC accelerated the flow of study information and resulted in an efficient data collection process. Data collection time was reduced by approximately four months compared to the project schedule and funded time available for manuscript preparation increased by 12 months. In addition, an innovative modified version of the EDC permitted an automated evaluation of inter-rater and intra-rater reliability across six data collection sites. Conclusion Automated EDC is a powerful tool for research efficiency and innovation, especially when multiple data collection sites are involved.

  5. 基于收费数据的交通拥堵初发点计算%Calculation of beginning point of traffic jams based on toll collection data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡继启; 彭建; 董国华; 尹波

    2016-01-01

    目前,在高速公路发生拥堵后,如何利用海量收费数据快速准确地得到高速公路交通拥堵初发点,仍然缺少满意的解决方案。经过对湖南省高速公路收费数据检索,提取出车辆出入站时刻、行车时间和车型等相关交通特征参数,依据这些参数特点,提出了一种计算相邻两收费站之间的交通拥堵初发点的计算方法。该方法通过选取同路段上的快、慢2种车型建立方程组,然后根据分析收费数据提取相应的变量代入方程组中,从而计算得出拥堵初发点信息。结果表明,该方法可以有效地计算得出相邻两个收费站之间路段上的拥堵初发点位置和初发时刻。对今后出行服务,运行效率评估和交通组织管理等具有重要的现实意义。%Recently, after the highway traffic jams, how to utilize the huge amounts of toll collection data to quickly and accurately retrieve the beginning point of traffic jams is still lack of satisfactory solutions. This article, based on the high-way toll collection data of Hunan province, retrieves the traffic parametric features, such as the car entry time, car depar-ture time, travel time, and motorcycle type, and proposes a method to calculate the beginning point of jams between adja-cent two toll collection station. The method chooses the farthest and slowest car types in same stretch of roads, establishes corresponding equation set, and retrieves the equation variable values based on toll collection data, thus getting the infor-mation of the beginning point of jams. The evaluation results show that the proposed method can efficiently retrieve the beginning location and the beginning time of the jams between adjacent stations. This study will contribute to the travel services, traffic efficiency evaluation and traffic organization management significantly.

  6. Automated collection of imaging and phenotypic data to centralized and distributed data repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Margaret D; Wood, Dylan; Miller, Brittny; Kelly, Ross; Landis, Drew; Courtney, William; Wang, Runtang; Turner, Jessica A; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-01-01

    Accurate data collection at the ground level is vital to the integrity of neuroimaging research. Similarly important is the ability to connect and curate data in order to make it meaningful and sharable with other investigators. Collecting data, especially with several different modalities, can be time consuming and expensive. These issues have driven the development of automated collection of neuroimaging and clinical assessment data within COINS (Collaborative Informatics and Neuroimaging Suite). COINS is an end-to-end data management system. It provides a comprehensive platform for data collection, management, secure storage, and flexible data retrieval (Bockholt et al., 2010; Scott et al., 2011). It was initially developed for the investigators at the Mind Research Network (MRN), but is now available to neuroimaging institutions worldwide. Self Assessment (SA) is an application embedded in the Assessment Manager (ASMT) tool in COINS. It is an innovative tool that allows participants to fill out assessments via the web-based Participant Portal. It eliminates the need for paper collection and data entry by allowing participants to submit their assessments directly to COINS. Instruments (surveys) are created through ASMT and include many unique question types and associated SA features that can be implemented to help the flow of assessment administration. SA provides an instrument queuing system with an easy-to-use drag and drop interface for research staff to set up participants' queues. After a queue has been created for the participant, they can access the Participant Portal via the internet to fill out their assessments. This allows them the flexibility to participate from home, a library, on site, etc. The collected data is stored in a PostgresSQL database at MRN. This data is only accessible by users that have explicit permission to access the data through their COINS user accounts and access to MRN network. This allows for high volume data collection and

  7. An automated platform for analysis of phosphoproteomic datasets: application to kidney collecting duct phosphoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffert, Jason D; Wang, Guanghui; Pisitkun, Trairak; Shen, Rong-Fong; Knepper, Mark A

    2007-09-01

    Large-scale phosphoproteomic analysis employing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) often requires a significant amount of manual manipulation of phosphopeptide datasets in the post-acquisition phase. To assist in this process, we have created software, PhosphoPIC (PhosphoPeptide Identification and Compilation), which can perform a variety of useful functions including automated selection and compilation of phosphopeptide identifications from multiple MS levels, estimation of dataset false discovery rate, and application of appropriate cross-correlation (XCorr) filters. In addition, the output files generated by this program are compatible with downstream phosphorylation site assignment using the Ascore algorithm, as well as phosphopeptide quantification via QUOIL. In this report, we utilized this software to analyze phosphoproteins from short-term vasopressin-treated rat kidney inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD). A total of 925 phosphopeptides representing 173 unique proteins were identified from membrane-enriched fractions of IMCD with a false discovery rate of 1.5%. Of these proteins, 106 were found only in the membrane-enriched fraction of IMCD cells and not in whole IMCD cell lysates. These identifications included a number of well-studied ion and solute transporters including ClC-1, LAT4, MCT2, NBC3, and NHE1, all of which contained novel phosphorylation sites. Using a label-free quantification approach, we identified phosphoproteins that changed in abundance with vasopressin exposure including aquaporin-2 (AQP2), Hnrpa3, IP3 receptor 3, and pur-beta.

  8. 76 FR 28801 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Automated Commercial Environment Trade Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... Environment Trade Survey AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION... approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Automated Commercial Environment Trade Survey... forms of information. Title: Automated Commercial Environment Trade Survey. OMB Number: Will be...

  9. The future of the perfusion record: automated data collection vs. manual recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottens, Jane; Baker, Robert A; Newland, Richard F; Mazzone, Annette

    2005-12-01

    The perfusion record, whether manually recorded or computer generated, is a legal representation of the procedure. The handwritten perfusion record has been the most common method of recording events that occur during cardiopulmonary bypass. This record is of significant contrast to the integrated data management systems available that provide continuous collection of data automatically or by means of a few keystrokes. Additionally, an increasing number of monitoring devices are available to assist in the management of patients on bypass. These devices are becoming more complex and provide more data for the perfusionist to monitor and record. Most of the data from these can be downloaded automatically into online data management systems, allowing more time for the perfusionist to concentrate on the patient while simultaneously producing a more accurate record. In this prospective report, we compared 17 cases that were recorded using both manual and electronic data collection techniques. The perfusionist in charge of the case recorded the perfusion using the manual technique while a second perfusionist entered relevant events on the electronic record generated by the Stockert S3 Data Management System/Data Bahn (Munich, Germany). Analysis of the two types of perfusion records showed significant variations in the recorded information. Areas that showed the most inconsistency included measurement of the perfusion pressures, flow, blood temperatures, cardioplegia delivery details, and the recording of events, with the electronic record superior in the integrity of the data. In addition, the limitations of the electronic system were also shown by the lack of electronic gas flow data in our hardware. Our results confirm the importance of accurate methods of recording of perfusion events. The use of an automated system provides the opportunity to minimize transcription error and bias. This study highlights the limitation of spot recording of perfusion events in the

  10. 76 FR 63941 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Business Transformation-Automated Integrated Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... ACTION: 30-Day notice of information collection under review: Business Transformation--Electronic... information collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Business Transformation--USCIS Electronic... SECURITY Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities:...

  11. Automated microraft platform to identify and collect non-adherent cells successfully gene-edited with CRISPR-Cas9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attayek, Peter J; Waugh, Jennifer P; Hunsucker, Sally A; Grayeski, Philip J; Sims, Christopher E; Armistead, Paul M; Allbritton, Nancy L

    2017-05-15

    Microraft arrays have been used to screen and then isolate adherent and non-adherent cells with very high efficiency and excellent viability; however, manual screening and isolation limits the throughput and utility of the technology. In this work, novel hardware and software were developed to automate the microraft array platform. The developed analysis software identified microrafts on the array with greater than 99% sensitivity and cells on the microrafts with 100% sensitivity. The software enabled time-lapse imaging and the use of temporally varying characteristics as sort criteria. The automated hardware released microrafts with 98% efficiency and collected released microrafts with 100% efficiency. The automated system was used to examine the temporal variation in EGFP expression in cells transfected with CRISPR-Cas9 components for gene editing. Of 11,499 microrafts possessing a single cell, 220 microrafts were identified as possessing temporally varying EGFP-expression. Candidate cells (n=172) were released and collected from the microraft array and screened for the targeted gene mutation. Two cell colonies were successfully gene edited demonstrating the desired mutation.

  12. Toll modeling in context of road network assignment

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Traffic network assignment is the last phase in the classical 4-phase traffic forecasting model. There are different methods of traffic assignment ranging from the most simple »all or nothing« method to the complex iterative methods such as Tribute method, however, only some of them are suitable for network assignment distribution modeling considering toll collection influence. For toll collection influence modeling we must consider the so called value of time. Value of time is indicated in t...

  13. 76 FR 13204 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Automated Commercial Environment Trade Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... Environment Trade Survey AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security...: Automated Commercial Environment Trade Survey. ] This request for comment is being made pursuant to the... Commercial Environment Trade Survey. OMB Number: Will be assigned upon approval. Form Number: None....

  14. ELECTRONIC ROAD TOLL SYSTEMS IN SLOVAKIA AND A COUNTRY SELECTED FROM CENTRAL EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav FAZEKAŠ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to analyse selected electronic toll systems that are currently used in Slovakia and Poland. In this paper we discuss imposed methods to charge infrastructure used in Slovakia and abroad. Further analysed are various electronic toll systems applied in chosen Central European country and Slovakia. All the electronic toll systems used in the Slovak Republic and Poland are successively analysed. The last section of this thesis focuses on the electronic toll system in Slovakia and its impact on road freight transport via comparison of fixed transport route costs using highway signs and electronic toll collection.

  15. Design of an automated multicapillary instrument with fraction collection for DNA mutation discovery by constant denaturant capillary electrophoresis (CDCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingbo; Deka, Chiranjit; Glassner, Brian J; Arnold, Kevin; Li-Sucholeiki, Xiao-Cheng; Tomita-Mitchell, Aoy; Thilly, William G; Karger, Barry L

    2005-08-01

    A fundamental goal ingenomics is the discovery of genetic variation that contributes to disease states or to differential drug responses. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection has been the focus of much attention in the study of genetic variation over the last decade. These SNPs typically occur at a frequency greater than 1% in the human genome. Recently, low-frequency alleles are also being increasingly recognized as critical to obtain an improved understanding of the correlation between genetic variation and disease. Although many methods have been reported for the discovery and scoringof SNPs, sensitive, automated, and cost-effective methods and platforms for the discovery of low-frequency alleles are not yet readily available. We describe here an automated multicapillary instrument for high-throughput detection of low-frequency alleles from pooled samples using constant denaturant capillary electrophoresis. The instrument features high optical sensitivity (1 x 10(-12) M fluorescein detection limit), precise and stable temperature control (+/- 0.01degrees C), and automation for sample delivery, injection, matrix replacement, and fraction collection. The capillary array is divided into six groups of four capillaries, each of which can be independently set at any temperature ranging from room temperature to 90 degrees C. The key performance characteristics of the instrument are reported.

  16. Automation impact study of Army training management 2: Extension of sampling and collection of installation resource data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanquist, T.F.; McCallum, M.C.; Hunt, P.S.; Slavich, A.L.; Underwood, J.A.; Toquam, J.L.; Seaver, D.A.

    1989-05-01

    This automation impact study of Army training management (TM) was performed for the Army Development and Employment Agency (ADEA) and the Combined Arms Training Activity (CATA) by the Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The primary objective of the study was to provide the Army with information concerning the potential costs and savings associated with automating the TM process. This study expands the sample of units surveyed in Phase I of the automation impact effort (Sanquist et al., 1988), and presents data concerning installation resource management in relation to TM. The structured interview employed in Phase I was adapted to a self-administered survey. The data collected were compatible with that of Phase I, and both were combined for analysis. Three US sites, one reserve division, one National Guard division, and one unit in the active component outside the continental US (OCONUS) (referred to in this report as forward deployed) were surveyed. The total sample size was 459, of which 337 respondents contributed the most detailed data. 20 figs., 62 tabs.

  17. Library Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakne, B. N.; Giri, V. V.; Waghmode, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    New technologies library provides several new materials, media and mode of storing and communicating the information. Library Automation reduces the drudgery of repeated manual efforts in library routine. By use of library automation collection, Storage, Administration, Processing, Preservation and communication etc.

  18. Design and Construction of Toll Gate Control System Based On Microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Mon Aye

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Toll Gate Station is the system which is implemented to automatically a more convenient way of collecting the toll and traffic management. There are millions of drivers passing through the toll gate station every day. Most of the toll collection systems commonly used in Myanmar is manual transaction. This paper describes a new method for toll collection system according to the weight of the vehicles. This electronic toll gate collection system has been fabricated based on microcontroller. The purpose of this work is to collect toll according to the weight of vehicle. There are three portions in toll collection system. They are the weight scales sub-system, Graphic User Interface (GUI in the host computer and the motor driving circuit for barricade control system. The authorized person at the toll gate can check the ID numbers, vehicle numbers, type of vehicle and the amount of balance via GUI on PC. The PIC microcontroller is also used to control the DC motor and display the weight on the LCD. For software implementation, visual basic programming language is used.

  19. Urban Automation Networks: Current and Emerging Solutions for Sensed Data Collection and Actuation in Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Carles; Paradells, Josep

    2015-09-10

    Urban Automation Networks (UANs) are being deployed worldwide in order to enable Smart City applications. Given the crucial role of UANs, as well as their diversity, it is critically important to assess their properties and trade-offs. This article introduces the requirements and challenges for UANs, characterizes the main current and emerging UAN paradigms, provides guidelines for their design and/or choice, and comparatively examines their performance in terms of a variety of parameters including coverage, power consumption, latency, standardization status and economic cost.

  20. Urban Automation Networks: Current and Emerging Solutions for Sensed Data Collection and Actuation in Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Gomez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban Automation Networks (UANs are being deployed worldwide in order to enable Smart City applications. Given the crucial role of UANs, as well as their diversity, it is critically important to assess their properties and trade-offs. This article introduces the requirements and challenges for UANs, characterizes the main current and emerging UAN paradigms, provides guidelines for their design and/or choice, and comparatively examines their performance in terms of a variety of parameters including coverage, power consumption, latency, standardization status and economic cost.

  1. Urban Automation Networks: Current and Emerging Solutions for Sensed Data Collection and Actuation in Smart Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Carles; Paradells, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Urban Automation Networks (UANs) are being deployed worldwide in order to enable Smart City applications. Given the crucial role of UANs, as well as their diversity, it is critically important to assess their properties and trade-offs. This article introduces the requirements and challenges for UANs, characterizes the main current and emerging UAN paradigms, provides guidelines for their design and/or choice, and comparatively examines their performance in terms of a variety of parameters including coverage, power consumption, latency, standardization status and economic cost. PMID:26378534

  2. 76 FR 17145 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Business Transformation-Automated Integrated Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... Operating Environment (IOE) to process benefit applications. The IOE will collect information by asking... and assumptions used; (3) Enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities:...

  3. Protocols for toll road systems

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A problem in a tolling system like AutoPASS is the number of unidentified passages due to unreadable license plates. As a consequence money is lost for the toll road companies. A scheme is proposed that uses anonymous statistics to aid in the process of allocating resources for manual controls. Due to legal requirements for anonymity of data produced at toll plazas, a model that simulates the traffic frequencies on Norwegian roads is developed and implemented in Java. Using the toll plazas th...

  4. Dynamic simulation of energy consumption in mixed traffic flow considering highway toll station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Zeng, Jun-Wei; Shao, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Neng

    2015-01-01

    An improved model of energy consumption including toll station is presented in this paper. Using the model, we study the influences of mixed ratio, the idling energy consumption of vehicle, vehicle peak velocity, dwell time and random deceleration probability on energy consumption of Electronic Toll Collection or Manual Toll Collection mixed traffic flow on single lane under periodic condition. Simulating results indicate that the above five parameters are all increasing functions of total energy consumption, in which the idling energy consumption represents the major amounts with the increase of mixed ratio and occupancy rate. Thus, the existence of toll station has significant effect on the energy consumption of mixed traffic flow.

  5. Protocol for Data Collection and Analysis Applied to Automated Facial Expression Analysis Technology and Temporal Analysis for Sensory Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Courtney A; Duncan, Susan E; Gallagher, Daniel L

    2016-08-26

    We demonstrate a method for capturing emotional response to beverages and liquefied foods in a sensory evaluation laboratory using automated facial expression analysis (AFEA) software. Additionally, we demonstrate a method for extracting relevant emotional data output and plotting the emotional response of a population over a specified time frame. By time pairing each participant's treatment response to a control stimulus (baseline), the overall emotional response over time and across multiple participants can be quantified. AFEA is a prospective analytical tool for assessing unbiased response to food and beverages. At present, most research has mainly focused on beverages. Methodologies and analyses have not yet been standardized for the application of AFEA to beverages and foods; however, a consistent standard methodology is needed. Optimizing video capture procedures and resulting video quality aids in a successful collection of emotional response to foods. Furthermore, the methodology of data analysis is novel for extracting the pertinent data relevant to the emotional response. The combinations of video capture optimization and data analysis will aid in standardizing the protocol for automated facial expression analysis and interpretation of emotional response data.

  6. In vivo traffic of indium-111-oxine labeled human lymphocytes collected by automated apheresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, E.J.; Keenan, A.M.; Carter, C.S.; Yolles, P.S.; Davey, R.J. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The in vivo traffic patterns of autologous lymphocytes were studied in five normal human volunteers using lymphocytes obtained by automated apheresis, separated on Ficoll-Hypaque gradients, and labeled ex vivo with {sup 111}In-oxine. Final lymphocyte infusions contained 1.8-3.1 X 10(9) cells and 270-390 microCi (9.99-14.43 MBq) {sup 111}In, or 11-17 microCi (0.41-0.63 MBq) per 10(8) lymphocytes. Gamma imaging showed transient lung uptake and significant retention of radioactivity in the liver and spleen. Progressive uptake of activity in normal, nonpalpable axillary and inguinal lymph nodes was seen from 24 to 96 hr. Accumulation of radioactivity also was demonstrated at the forearm skin test site, as well as in its associated epitrochlear and axillary lymph nodes, in a subject who had been tested for delayed hypersensitivity with tetanus toxoid. Indium-111-oxine labeled human lymphocytes may provide a useful tool for future studies of normal and abnormal lymphocyte traffic.

  7. Automated Data Collection for Determining Statistical Distributions of Module Power Undergoing Potential-Induced Degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hacke, Peter; Spataru, Sergiu

    We propose a method for increasing the frequency of data collection and reducing the time and cost of accelerated lifetime testing of photovoltaic modules undergoing potential-induced degradation (PID). This consists of in-situ measurements of dark current-voltage curves of the modules at elevated...... stress temperature, their use to determine the maximum power at 25°C standard test conditions (STC), and distribution statistics for determining degradation rates as a function of stress level. The semi-continuous data obtained by this method clearly show degradation curves of the maximum power...

  8. Rapid Collection of Biospecimens by Automated Identification of Patients Eligible for Pharmacoepigenetic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan V. Sun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetics plays an important role in regulating gene expression, and can be modified by environmental factors and physiological conditions. Studying epigenetics is a promising approach to potentially improving the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of human diseases, and to providing personalized medical care. However, the role of epigenetics in the development of diseases is not clear because epigenetic markers may be both mediators and outcomes of human diseases. It is particularly complicated to study pharmacoepigenetics, as medication use may modify the epigenetic profile. To address the challenges facing pharmacoepigenetic research of human diseases, we developed a novel design to rapidly identify, contact, and recruit participants and collect specimens for longitudinal studies of pharmacoepigenetics. Using data in real-time from electronic medical record systems, we can identify patients recently start on new medications and who also have a blood test. Prior to disposal of the leftover blood by the clinical laboratory, we are able to contact and recruit these patients, enabling us to use both their leftover baseline blood sample as well as leftover specimens at future tests. With treatment-naïve and follow-up specimens, this system is able to study both epigenetic markers associated with disease without treatment effect as well as treatment-related epigenetic changes.

  9. A Tool for the Automated Collection of Space Utilization Data: Three Dimensional Space Utilization Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Gordon A.; Fink, Patrick; Ngo, Phong H.; Morency, Richard; Simon, Cory; Williams, Robert E.; Perez, Lance C.

    2017-01-01

    Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element within the Human Research Program (HRP) and the Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Element are conducting research regarding Net Habitable Volume (NHV), the internal volume within a spacecraft or habitat that is available to crew for required activities, as well as layout and accommodations within the volume. NASA needs methods to unobtrusively collect NHV data without impacting crew time. Data required includes metrics such as location and orientation of crew, volume used to complete tasks, internal translation paths, flow of work, and task completion times. In less constrained environments methods exist yet many are obtrusive and require significant post-processing. ?Examplesused in terrestrial settings include infrared (IR) retro-reflective marker based motion capture, GPS sensor tracking, inertial tracking, and multi-camera methods ?Due to constraints of space operations many such methods are infeasible. Inertial tracking systems typically rely upon a gravity vector to normalize sensor readings,and traditional IR systems are large and require extensive calibration. ?However, multiple technologies have not been applied to space operations for these purposes. Two of these include: 3D Radio Frequency Identification Real-Time Localization Systems (3D RFID-RTLS) ?Depth imaging systems which allow for 3D motion capture and volumetric scanning (such as those using IR-depth cameras like the Microsoft Kinect or Light Detection and Ranging / Light-Radar systems, referred to as LIDAR)

  10. Automated Data Collection for Determining Statistical Distributions of Module Power Undergoing Potential-Induced Degradation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacke, P.; Spataru, S.

    2014-08-01

    We propose a method for increasing the frequency of data collection and reducing the time and cost of accelerated lifetime testing of photovoltaic modules undergoing potential-induced degradation (PID). This consists of in-situ measurements of dark current-voltage curves of the modules at elevated stress temperature, their use to determine the maximum power at 25 degrees C standard test conditions (STC), and distribution statistics for determining degradation rates as a function of stress level. The semi-continuous data obtained by this method clearly show degradation curves of the maximum power, including an incubation phase, rates and extent of degradation, precise time to failure, and partial recovery. Stress tests were performed on crystalline silicon modules at 85% relative humidity and 60 degrees C, 72 degrees C, and 85 degrees C. Activation energy for the mean time to failure (1% relative) of 0.85 eV was determined and a mean time to failure of 8,000 h at 25 degrees C and 85% relative humidity is predicted. No clear trend in maximum degradation as a function of stress temperature was observed.

  11. Toll Facilities in the United States - Toll Facilities in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Biennial report containing selected information on toll facilities in the United States that has been provided to FHWA by the States and/or various toll authorities...

  12. Under-filled blood collection tubes containing K2EDTA as anticoagulant are acceptable for automated complete blood counts, white blood cell differential, and reticulocyte count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M; Robbe, V A; Jack, R M; Rutledge, J C

    2010-10-01

    Current laboratory standards from Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and manufacturer's (Becton Dickinson) data indicate that under-filling K(2)EDTA blood collection tubes can result in erroneous hematology values. To accommodate under-filled tubes and reduce collection volumes while optimizing our automation, we explored the acceptable limit of under-filled tubes for hematology values. We collected 8.0 ml of blood from 30 normal adult volunteers. Each donation was aliquoted in the following volumes: 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5 ml x 2. These samples were analyzed within 1 h of blood collection on Sysmex XE-2100 (Sysmex America Inc., Mundelein, IL, USA) for complete blood count, reticulocyte, and white blood cell differentials. Results of the under-filled tubes were compared to those of the standard volume. The Deming regression analysis show excellent correlation for all parameters between each under-filled blood collection volume compared to a standard 4 ml volume. The Bland and Altman analysis shows good agreement between both 1.0 and 2.0 ml compared to a 4.0 ml volume. The 0.5 ml compared to a 4.0 ml volume, however, shows increased variation on many parameters. In addition all three collection volumes show negative bias compared to the standard volume for platelet count, but the difference is considered insignificant with a percent difference of 5.5%, 3.2%, and 1.5% for 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ml collection volume respectively. Finally for 0.5 ml collection volume we noticed a low level of false positive flagging rate for white blood cell. Acceptable complete blood count values of under-filled powdered K(2)EDTA tubes can be obtained with as little as 1.0 ml of blood.

  13. Step tolling with bottleneck queuing congestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den V.A.C.; Verhoef, E.T.; Lindsey, C.R.

    2012-01-01

    . It also proposes a third scheme in which late in the rush hour drivers slow down or stop just before reaching a tolling point, and wait until the toll is lowered from one step to the next step. Such ‘braking’ behaviour has been observed in practice. Analytical derivations and numerical modelling s

  14. EFFECTS OF BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE APPLICATION IN TOLLING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Radivojević

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tolling system is a complex information and communication system that provides toll charging on highway sections. Traffic Management and Supervision System – TMSS enables the communication integration of all the elements of the system, data collection and data processing and generation of the set of reports, based on which it is possible to monitor the operation of the system both in on-line as well as in off-line regime and to control the realization of all the functions in the system. TMSS is developed on the modern technological platform which includes the Business Intelligence technology – BI and the Data Warehousing technology – DWH. The main goal of this paper is to show the usage and effects of the Business Intelligence technology in the TMSS development and exploitation.

  15. Warehouse automation

    OpenAIRE

    Pogačnik, Jure

    2017-01-01

    An automated high bay warehouse is commonly used for storing large number of material with a high throughput. In an automated warehouse pallet movements are mainly performed by a number of automated devices like conveyors systems, trolleys, and stacker cranes. From the introduction of the material to the automated warehouse system to its dispatch the system requires no operator input or intervention since all material movements are done automatically. This allows the automated warehouse to op...

  16. DMPD: Toll-like receptor 3: a link between toll-like receptor, interferon and viruses. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15031527 Toll-like receptor 3: a link between toll-like receptor, interferon and virus... (.csml) Show Toll-like receptor 3: a link between toll-like receptor, interferon and viruses. PubmedID 1503...1527 Title Toll-like receptor 3: a link between toll-like receptor, interferon and virus

  17. The Danish Model for Improvement of Diabetes Care in General Practice: Impact of Automated Collection and Feedback of Patient Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Schroll

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sentinel Data Capture is an IT program designed to collect data automatically from GPs’ electronic health record system. Data include ICPC diagnoses, National Health Service disbursement codes, laboratory analysis, and prescribed drugs. Quality feedback reports are generated individually for each practice on the basis of the accumulated data and are available online only for the specific practice. Objective. To describe the development of the quality of care concerning drug prescriptions for diabetes patients listed with GPs using the Data Capture module. Methods. In a cohort study, among 8320 registered patients with diabetes, we analyzed the change in the proportion of medication for uncontrolled cases of diabetes. Results. From 2009 to 2010, there was an absolute risk reduction of 1.35% (0.89–1.81: <0.001 in proportion of persons not in antidiabetic medication despite an HbA1c above 7.0. Similarly, there was a 4.51% (3.42–5.61: <0.001 absolute risk reduction in patients not in antihypertensive treatment despite systolic blood pressure above 130 mm Hg and 4.73% (3.56–5.90: <0.001 absolute risk reduction in patients with total cholesterol level above 4.5 mmol/L and not receiving lipid-lowering treatment. Conclusions. Structured collection of electronic data from general practice and feedback with reports on quality of care for diabetes patient seems to give a significant reduction in proportion of patients with no medical treatment over one year for participating GPs. Due to lack of a control group, we are, however, not able to say if the drop in the proportion of uncontrolled cases is a result of participation in collection of electronic data and feedback alone.

  18. A centralised remote data collection system using automated traps for managing and controlling the population of the Mediterranean (Ceratitis capitata) and olive (Dacus oleae) fruit flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philimis, Panayiotis; Psimolophitis, Elias; Hadjiyiannis, Stavros; Giusti, Alessandro; Perelló, Josep; Serrat, Albert; Avila, Pedro

    2013-08-01

    The present paper describes the development of a novel monitoring system (e-FlyWatch system) for managing and controlling the population of two of the world's most destructive fruit pests, namely the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae, Rossi - formerly Dacus oleae) and the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, also called medfly). The novel monitoring system consists of a) novel automated traps with optical and motion detection modules for capturing the flies, b) local stations including a GSM/GPRS module, sensors, flash memory, battery, antenna etc. and c) a central station that collects, stores and publishes the results (i.e. insect population in each field, sensor data, possible error/alarm data) via a web-based management software.The centralised data collection system provides also analysis and prediction models, end-user warning modules and historical analysis of infested areas. The e-FlyWatch system enables the SMEs-producers in the Fruit, Vegetable and Olive sectors to improve their production reduce the amount of insecticides/pesticides used and consequently the labour cost for spraying activities, and the labour cost for traps inspection.

  19. Toll-like receptors in neonatal sepsis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, Fiona M

    2013-06-01

    Toll-like receptors are vital transmembrane receptors that initiate the innate immune response to many micro-organisms. The discovery of these receptors has improved our understanding of host-pathogen interactions, and these receptors play an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple neonatal conditions such as sepsis and brain injury. Toll-like receptors, especially TLRs 2 and 4, are associated with necrotizing enterocolitis, periventricular leukomalacia and sepsis.

  20. Automated integration of wireless biosignal collection devices for patient-centred decision-making in point-of-care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menychtas, Andreas; Tsanakas, Panayiotis; Maglogiannis, Ilias

    2016-03-01

    The proper acquisition of biosignals data from various biosensor devices and their remote accessibility are still issues that prevent the wide adoption of point-of-care systems in the routine of monitoring chronic patients. This Letter presents an advanced framework for enabling patient monitoring that utilises a cloud computing infrastructure for data management and analysis. The framework introduces also a local mechanism for uniform biosignals collection from wearables and biosignal sensors, and decision support modules, in order to enable prompt and essential decisions. A prototype smartphone application and the related cloud modules have been implemented for demonstrating the value of the proposed framework. Initial results regarding the performance of the system and the effectiveness in data management and decision-making have been quite encouraging.

  1. Semi-automated bacterial spore detection system with micro-fluidic chips for aerosol collection, spore treatment and ICAN DNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Hisao; Tsuge, Kouichiro; Matsuzawa, Mitsuhiro; Sasaki, Yasuhiko; Togashi, Shigenori; Komano, Asuka; Seto, Yasuo

    2009-07-15

    A semi-automated bacterial spore detection system (BSDS) was developed to detect biological threat agents (e.g., Bacillus anthracis) on-site. The system comprised an aerosol sampler, micro-fluidic chip-A (for spore germination and cell lysis), micro-fluidic chip-B (for extraction and detection of genomic DNA) and an analyzer. An aerosol with bacterial spores was first collected in the collection chamber of chip-A with a velocity of 300 l/min, and the chip-A was taken off from the aerosol sampler and loaded into the analyzer. Reagents packaged in the chip-A were sequentially applied into the chamber. The genomic DNA extract from spore lyzate was manually transferred from chip-A to chip-B and loaded into the analyzer. Genomic DNA in chip-B was first trapped on a glass bead column, washed with various reagents, and eluted to the detection chamber by sequential auto-dispensing. Isothermal and chimeric primer-initiated amplification of nucleic acids (ICAN) with fluorescent measurement was adopted to amplify and detect target DNA. Bacillus subtilis was the stimulant of biological warfare agent in this experiment. Pretreatment conditions were optimized by examining bacterial target DNA recovery in the respective steps (aerosol collection, spore germination, cell lysis, and DNA extraction), by an off-chip experiment using a real-time polymerase chain reaction quantification method. Without the germination step, B. subtilis spores did not demonstrate amplification of target DNA. The detection of 10(4) spores was achieved within 2h throughout the micro-fluidic process.

  2. A fully automated meltwater monitoring and collection system for spatially distributed isotope analysis in snowmelt-dominated catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rücker, Andrea; Boss, Stefan; Von Freyberg, Jana; Zappa, Massimiliano; Kirchner, James

    2016-04-01

    In many mountainous catchments the seasonal snowpack stores a significant volume of water, which is released as streamflow during the melting period. The predicted change in future climate will bring new challenges in water resource management in snow-dominated headwater catchments and their receiving lowlands. To improve predictions of hydrologic extreme events, particularly summer droughts, it is important characterize the relationship between winter snowpack and summer (low) flows in such areas (e.g., Godsey et al., 2014). In this context, stable water isotopes (18O, 2H) are a powerful tool for fingerprinting the sources of streamflow and tracing water flow pathways. For this reason, we have established an isotope sampling network in the Alptal catchment (46.4 km2) in Central-Switzerland as part of the SREP-Drought project (Snow Resources and the Early Prediction of hydrological DROUGHT in mountainous streams). Samples of precipitation (daily), snow cores (weekly) and runoff (daily) are analyzed for their isotopic signature in a regular cycle. Precipitation is also sampled along a horizontal transect at the valley bottom, and along an elevational transect. Additionally, the analysis of snow meltwater is of importance. As the sample collection of snow meltwater in mountainous terrain is often impractical, we have developed a fully automatic snow lysimeter system, which measures meltwater volume and collects samples for isotope analysis at daily intervals. The system consists of three lysimeters built from Decagon-ECRN-100 High Resolution Rain Gauges as standard component that allows monitoring of meltwater flow. Each lysimeter leads the meltwater into a 10-liter container that is automatically sampled and then emptied daily. These water samples are replaced regularly and analyzed afterwards on their isotopic composition in the lab. Snow melt events as well as system status can be monitored in real time. In our presentation we describe the automatic snow lysimeter

  3. RAGE on the Toll Road?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Lin

    2006-01-01

    Mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are cellular pattern-recognizing receptors (PRRs) that recognize the molecular patterns of pathogens. After engaging the pathogenic patterned ligands, the cytosolic portion of the TLRs in monocytes and macrophages, recruits adaptor proteins, via a receptor-driven signaling cascade, activates the transcription factor NF-κB, leading to the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, which trigger inflammation. Such rapid, innate cellular responses serve as the first line of host defense against infection by pathogens, and also stimulate the adaptive immune system to clear the invading microbes. Increasing evidence suggests that TLRs also recognize host-derived ligands, linking this group of PRRs to diseases that may not have an etiology that is associated directly with infections. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are nonenzymatically glycated or oxidated proteins, lipids and nucleic acids that are formed in the environment of oxidant stress and hyperglycemia. Binding of AGEs to their receptor RAGE initiates cellular signals that activate NF-κB, which results in transcription of proinflammatory factors. RAGE can also interact with other endogenous ligands generated by cell death and tissue injuries. RAGE has been implicated in chronic diseases such as diabetes,atherosclerosis, neurodisorders, cancers, as well as aging. This review discusses the possible role of RAGE as a PRR that may use signaling mechanisms parallel to TLRs', to solicit inflammatory reactions. Thus, in this scenario,RAGE may play a prominent role in the regulation of cellular homeostasis in the context of complex disease progression.

  4. Marketing automation supporting sales

    OpenAIRE

    Sandell, Niko

    2016-01-01

    The past couple of decades has been a time of major changes in marketing. Digitalization has become a permanent part of marketing and at the same time enabled efficient collection of data. Personalization and customization of content are playing a crucial role in marketing when new customers are acquired. This has also created a need for automation to facilitate the distribution of targeted content. As a result of successful marketing automation more information of the customers is gathered ...

  5. Accounting Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril1

    2017-01-01

    Accounting Automation   Click Link Below To Buy:   http://hwcampus.com/shop/accounting-automation/  Or Visit www.hwcampus.com Accounting Automation” Please respond to the following: Imagine you are a consultant hired to convert a manual accounting system to an automated system. Suggest the key advantages and disadvantages of automating a manual accounting system. Identify the most important step in the conversion process. Provide a rationale for your response. ...

  6. Home Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I briefly discuss the importance of home automation system. Going in to the details I briefly present a real time designed and implemented software and hardware oriented house automation research project, capable of automating house's electricity and providing a security system to detect the presence of unexpected behavior.

  7. Uncovering the 2010 Haiti earthquake death toll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, J. E.; Khazai, B.; Wenzel, F.

    2013-05-01

    Casualties are estimated for the 12 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti using various reports calibrated by observed building damage states from satellite imagery and reconnaissance reports on the ground. By investigating various damage reports, casualty estimates and burial figures, for a one year period from 12 January 2010 until 12 January 2011, there is also strong evidence that the official government figures of 316 000 total dead and missing, reported to have been caused by the earthquake, are significantly overestimated. The authors have examined damage and casualties report to arrive at their estimation that the median death toll is less than half of this value (±137 000). The authors show through a study of historical earthquake death tolls, that overestimates of earthquake death tolls occur in many cases, and is not unique to Haiti. As death toll is one of the key elements for determining the amount of aid and reconstruction funds that will be mobilized, scientific means to estimate death tolls should be applied. Studies of international aid in recent natural disasters reveal that large distributions of aid which do not match the respective needs may cause oversupply of help, aggravate corruption and social disruption rather than reduce them, and lead to distrust within the donor community.

  8. Step by step: Revisiting step tolling in the bottleneck model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindsey, C.R.; Berg, van den V.A.C.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2010-01-01

    In most dynamic traffic congestion models, congestion tolls must vary continuously over time to achieve the full optimum. This is also the case in Vickrey's (1969) 'bottleneck model'. To date, the closest approximations of this ideal in practice have so-called 'step tolls', in which the toll takes o

  9. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation 2

    2015-01-01

    This paper collection is the second volume of the LNMOB series on Road Vehicle Automation. The book contains a comprehensive review of current technical, socio-economic, and legal perspectives written by experts coming from public authorities, companies and universities in the U.S., Europe and Japan. It originates from the Automated Vehicle Symposium 2014, which was jointly organized by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Burlingame, CA, in July 2014. The contributions discuss the challenges arising from the integration of highly automated and self-driving vehicles into the transportation system, with a focus on human factors and different deployment scenarios. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  10. Risk Evaluation on Port Construction Toll%港口建设费征收工作风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包雄关; 徐翔; 刘景龙

    2014-01-01

    As a governmental charge designated for port construction, the port construction toll, plays an important role in improving national maritime infrastructure. This paper analyzes the risks existing in the toll collection from the perspective of cargo, toll procedure, toll operation, special logistics operation, toll operator and management. An evaluation model is built using fuzzy analysis technique with a case study followed. The study is expected to pave foundation for the toll risk evaluation and the operation analysis.%港口建设费是一项专用于港口建设的国家政府性基金,它对于促进我国水运基础设施建设起到了重要作用。文中从征管货物认定、征管流程、征收业务操作、特殊物流环节、征收财务管理和征管人员等方面分析了港口建设费征收工作中的管理风险,用模糊综合评判方法建立评价模型,并进行了案例分析。为正确认识和评价港口建设费征收风险提供了参考。

  11. Automation or De-automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlach, Igor; Wessel, Oliver

    2008-09-01

    In the global automotive industry, for decades, vehicle manufacturers have continually increased the level of automation of production systems in order to be competitive. However, there is a new trend to decrease the level of automation, especially in final car assembly, for reasons of economy and flexibility. In this research, the final car assembly lines at three production sites of Volkswagen are analysed in order to determine the best level of automation for each, in terms of manufacturing costs, productivity, quality and flexibility. The case study is based on the methodology proposed by the Fraunhofer Institute. The results of the analysis indicate that fully automated assembly systems are not necessarily the best option in terms of cost, productivity and quality combined, which is attributed to high complexity of final car assembly systems; some de-automation is therefore recommended. On the other hand, the analysis shows that low automation can result in poor product quality due to reasons related to plant location, such as inadequate workers' skills, motivation, etc. Hence, the automation strategy should be formulated on the basis of analysis of all relevant aspects of the manufacturing process, such as costs, quality, productivity and flexibility in relation to the local context. A more balanced combination of automated and manual assembly operations provides better utilisation of equipment, reduces production costs and improves throughput.

  12. Toll-like receptors in neurodegeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor

    2009-01-01

    Innate pattern recognition receptors are implicated in first-line defense against pathogens but also participate in maintenance of tissue homeostasis and response to injury. This chapter reviews the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in neuronal and glial responses that are associated with neurod......Innate pattern recognition receptors are implicated in first-line defense against pathogens but also participate in maintenance of tissue homeostasis and response to injury. This chapter reviews the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in neuronal and glial responses that are associated...... with neurodegeneration. Accompanying roles for infection and inflammation, involvement in clinical neurodegenerative disorders, and heterogeneity of glial response are discussed. A "strength of signal" hypothesis is advanced in an attempt to reconcile evolutionarily selected and therefore likely beneficial effects...

  13. Selenium and Other Elements in Water and Adjacent Rock and Sediment of Toll Gate Creek, Aurora, Arapahoe County, Colorado, December 2003 through March 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, J.R.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    Streamwater and solid samples (rock, unconsolidated sediment, stream sediment, and efflorescent material) in the Toll Gate Creek watershed, Colorado, were collected and analyzed for major and trace elements to determine trace-element concentrations and stream loads from December 2003 through March 2004, a period of seasonally low flow. Special emphasis was given to selenium (Se) concentrations because historic Se concentrations exceeded current (2004) stream standards. The goal of the project was to assess the distribution of Se concentration and loads in Toll Gate Creek and to determine the potential for rock and unconsolidated sediment in the basin to be sources of Se to the streamwater. Streamwater samples and discharge measurements were collected during December 2003 and March 2004 along Toll Gate Creek and its two primary tributaries - West Toll Gate Creek and East Toll Gate Creek. During both sampling periods, discharge ranged from 2.5 liters per second to 138 liters per second in the watershed. Discharge was greater in March 2004 than December 2003, but both periods represent low flow in Toll Gate Creek, and results of this study should not be extended to periods of higher flow. Discharge decreased moving downstream in East Toll Gate Creek but increased moving downstream along West Toll Gate Creek and the main stem of Toll Gate Creek, indicating that these two streams gain flow from ground water. Se concentrations in streamwater samples ranged from 7 to 70 micrograms per liter, were elevated in the upstream-most samples, and were greater than the State stream standard of 4.6 micrograms per liter. Se loads ranged from 6 grams per day to 250 grams per day, decreased in a downstream direction along East Toll Gate Creek, and increased in a downstream direction along West Toll Gate Creek and Toll Gate Creek. The largest Se-load increases occurred between two sampling locations on West Toll Gate Creek during both sampling periods and between the two sampling

  14. How a fast lane may replace a congestion toll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    lane is always Pareto improving under Nash equilibrium in arrival times at the bottleneck and inelastic demand. It can replicate the arrival schedule and queueing outcomes of a toll that optimally charges a constant toll during part of the demand peak. Within some bounds, the fast lane scheme is still...

  15. How a fast lane may replace a congestion toll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    lane is always Pareto improving under Nash equilibrium in arrival times at the bottleneck and inelastic demand. It can replicate the arrival schedule and queueing outcomes of a toll that optimally charges a constant toll during part of the demand peak. Within some bounds, the fast lane scheme is still...

  16. Automating Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John

    2007-01-01

    In past years, higher education's financial management side has been riddled with manual processes and aging mainframe applications. This article discusses schools which had taken advantage of an array of technologies that automate billing, payment processing, and refund processing in the case of overpayment. The investments are well worth it:…

  17. Toll-like receptor 2 or toll-like receptor 4 deficiency does not modify lupus in MRLlpr mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Freeley

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease with a high morbidity and nephritis is a common manifestation. Previous studies in murine lupus models have suggest a role for Toll-like receptor 2 and 4. We examined the role of these molecules in MRL lpr mice which is one of the most established and robust murine models. We compared disease parameters in Toll-like receptor 2 or Toll-like receptor 4 deficient mice with their littermate controls. We found no difference in the severity of glomerulonephritis as assessed by histology, serum creatinine and albuminuria when Toll-like receptor 2 or Toll-like receptor 4 deficient MRLlpr mice were compared with Toll-like receptor sufficient controls. We also found similar levels of anti-dsDNA and anti-ssDNA antibodies. These results show that Toll-like receptor 2 and Toll-like receptor 4 do not play a significant role in MRLlpr mice, and therefore they may not be important in human lupus.

  18. Heating automation

    OpenAIRE

    Tomažič, Tomaž

    2013-01-01

    This degree paper presents usage and operation of peripheral devices with microcontroller for heating automation. The main goal is to make a quality system control for heating three house floors and with that, increase efficiency of heating devices and lower heating expenses. Heat pump, furnace, boiler pump, two floor-heating pumps and two radiator pumps need to be controlled by this system. For work, we have chosen a development kit stm32f4 - discovery with five temperature sensors, LCD disp...

  19. Automation Security

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzoev, Dr. Timur

    2014-01-01

    Web-based Automated Process Control systems are a new type of applications that use the Internet to control industrial processes with the access to the real-time data. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks contain computers and applications that perform key functions in providing essential services and commodities (e.g., electricity, natural gas, gasoline, water, waste treatment, transportation) to all Americans. As such, they are part of the nation s critical infrastructu...

  20. Marketing automation

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Dania TODOR

    2017-01-01

    The automation of the marketing process seems to be nowadays, the only solution to face the major changes brought by the fast evolution of technology and the continuous increase in supply and demand. In order to achieve the desired marketing results, businessis have to employ digital marketing and communication services. These services are efficient and measurable thanks to the marketing technology used to track, score and implement each campaign. Due to the...

  1. Toll-Like Receptors and Myocardial Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Feng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs are a member of the innate immune system. TLRs detect invading pathogens through the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs recognition and play an essential role in the host defense. TLRs can also sense a large number of endogenous molecules with the damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs that are produced under various injurious conditions. Animal studies of the last decade have demonstrated that TLR signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of the critical cardiac conditions, where myocardial inflammation plays a prominent role, such as ischemic myocardial injury, myocarditis, and septic cardiomyopathy. This paper reviews the animal data on (1 TLRs, TLR ligands, and the signal transduction system and (2 the important role of TLR signaling in these critical cardiac conditions.

  2. Mycobacterial Signaling through Toll-like Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyoti eBasu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies over the past decade have helped to decipher molecular networks dependent on Toll-like receptor (TLR signaling, in mycobacteria-infected macrophages. Stimulation of TLRs by mycobacteria and their antigenic components rapidly induces intracellular signaling cascades involved in the activation of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, which play important roles in orchestrating proinflammatory responses and innate defense through generation of a variety of antimicrobial effector molecules. Recent studies have provided evidence that mycobacterial TLR-signaling cross talks with other intracellular antimicrobial innate pathways, the autophagy process and functional vitamin D receptor signaling. In this article we describe recent advances in the recognition, responses, and regulation of mycobacterial signaling through TLRs.

  3. Mycoplasma lipoproteins and Toll-like receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling-ling ZUO; Yi-mou WU; Xiao-xing YOU

    2009-01-01

    Mycoplasmas, the smallest free-living, self-replicating bacteria with diameters of 200 to 800 nm, have been reported to be associated with human diseases. It is well known that the mycoplasma lipoprotein/peptide is able to modulate the host immune system, whose N-terminal structure is an important factor in inducing immunity and distinguishing Toll-like receptors (TLRs). However, there is still no clear elucidation about the pathogenic mechanism of mycoplasma lipoprotein/peptide and the signaling pathway. Some researchers have focused on understanding the structures of these proteins and the relationships between their structure and biological function. This review provides an update on the research in this field.

  4. Toll-Like Receptors in Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Grote

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs are known as pattern-recognition receptors related to the Toll protein of Drosophila. After recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns of microbial origin, the TLRs alert the immune system, and initiate innate and adaptive immune responses. The TLR system, though, is not confined solely to the leukocyte-mediated immune defense against exogenous pathogens. Besides myeloid cells, TLR expression has been reported in multiple tissues and cell types, including epithelial and endothelial cells. Moreover, despite the microbial patterns that are commonly accepted as TLR ligands, there is increasing evidence that TLRs also recognize host-derived molecules. In this regard, recent studies point to an involvement of TLRs in various chronic inflammatory disorders and cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and even cancer. A common feature of these disorders is an enhanced so-called inflammation-induced angiogenesis. However, inflammation-induced angiogenesis is not solely a key component of pathogen defense during acute infection or chronic inflammatory disorders, but also plays a critical role in repair mechanisms, e.g., wound healing and subsequent tissue regeneration. Interestingly, the latest research could coincidentally demonstrate that TLR activation promotes angiogenesis in various inflammatory settings in response to both exogenous and endogenous ligands, although the precise mode of action of TLRs in this context still remains ambiguous. The objective of this review is to present evidence for the implication of TLRs in angiogenesis during physiological and pathophysiological processes, and the potential clinical relevance for new treatment regimes involving TLR modulation.

  5. A modified exponential model for reported death toll during earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinyan Wu; Jianhua Gu

    2009-01-01

    Reliable earthquake death toll estimate can provide valuable references for disaster relief headquarters and civil administration departments to make arrangement and deployment plan during post-earthquake relief work, thus increasing the efficiency of the relief work to a certain extent. In this study, we acquired the death toll data of Wenchuan earthquake, fitted the data using modified exponential curve and compared the result with that of the exponential function. Experimental verification with Chi-Chi earthquake and Kobe earthquake data shows that the fitted result by modified exponential curve is more satisfactory. The final death toll resulting from future destructive earthquakes can be estimated by the acquired fitting function.

  6. Determining the Toll and Capacity of a Highway to Be Constructed in Parallel with Subway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Xiang Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of toll and capacity choice of a new highway with a bottleneck added onto an existing transit network under four ownership/tolling regimes: public fine toll, public flat toll, private fine toll, and private flat toll. Whenever fine toll and flat toll are imposed, in a competitive highway/transit network with constant returns to scale in road construction, an optimally designed and priced privately owned highway would produce positive net benefit justly equal to the total markup with respect to all autocommuters, whereas an optimally designed and priced publicly owned highway would lead to a deficit; that is, the toll revenues are insufficient to cover its all costs. The economic conditions to invest a new road are investigated under different ownership/tolling regimes.

  7. Automating the Purple Crow Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicks Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Purple Crow LiDAR (PCL was built to measure short and long term coupling between the lower, middle, and upper atmosphere. The initial component of my MSc. project is to automate two key elements of the PCL: the rotating liquid mercury mirror and the Zaber alignment mirror. In addition to the automation of the Zaber alignment mirror, it is also necessary to describe the mirror’s movement and positioning errors. Its properties will then be added into the alignment software. Once the alignment software has been completed, we will compare the new alignment method with the previous manual procedure. This is the first among several projects that will culminate in a fully-automated lidar. Eventually, we will be able to work remotely, thereby increasing the amount of data we collect. This paper will describe the motivation for automation, the methods we propose, preliminary results for the Zaber alignment error analysis, and future work.

  8. Network based automation for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahabeddini Parizi, Mohammad; Radziwon, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of appropriate automation concepts which increase productivity in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) requires a lot of effort, due to their limited resources. Therefore, it is strongly recommended for small firms to open up for the external sources of knowledge, which...... automation solutions. The empirical data collection involved application of a combination of comparative case study method with action research elements. This article provides an outlook over the challenges in implementing technological improvements and the way how it could be resolved in collaboration...... with other members of the same regional ecosystem. The findings highlight two main automation related areas where manufacturing SMEs could leverage on external sources on knowledge – these are assistance in defining automation problem as well as appropriate solution and provider selection. Consequently...

  9. Annual Death Toll from Alzheimer's Nearly Doubles in 15 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163957.html Annual Death Toll From Alzheimer's Nearly Doubles in 15 Years ... to success in treating other leading causes of death, and partly due to increasing awareness that AD [ ...

  10. Stress May Take Greatest Toll on Younger Women's Hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160597.html Stress May Take Greatest Toll on Younger Women's Hearts: ... 24, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Aug. 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Stress may be especially hard on the hearts of ...

  11. Delivering Career Information on a Toll-Free Hotline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipes, Juanita K.; McDaniels, Carl

    1982-01-01

    Reviews some of the uses of the phone in crisis situations and describes a popular toll-free career information hotline in Virginia. Provides a profile of the mostly adult users along with a user evaluation of the service. (Author)

  12. Flint Water Crisis Taking High Toll on Health, Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160307.html Flint Water Crisis Taking High Toll on Health, Productivity Michigan city ... MONDAY, Aug. 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The water crisis in Flint, Mich., has cost $395 million in ...

  13. Toll-like receptor agonists in cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern-recognition receptors related to the Drosophila Toll protein. TLR activation alerts the immune system to microbial products and initiates innate and adaptive immune responses. The naturally powerful immunostimulatory property of TLR agonists can be exploited for active immunotherapy against cancer. Antitumor activity has been demonstrated in several cancers, and TLR agonists are now undergoing extensive clinical investigation. This review discusses recen...

  14. DMPD: Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: networks regulated byToll-like receptors mediate innate and adaptive immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17223959 Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: networks regulate...ol. 2007 Feb;147(2):199-207. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: network... immunity. PubmedID 17223959 Title Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: networks regulat

  15. Automated High Throughput Drug Target Crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupp, B

    2005-02-18

    The molecular structures of drug target proteins and receptors form the basis for 'rational' or structure guided drug design. The majority of target structures are experimentally determined by protein X-ray crystallography, which as evolved into a highly automated, high throughput drug discovery and screening tool. Process automation has accelerated tasks from parallel protein expression, fully automated crystallization, and rapid data collection to highly efficient structure determination methods. A thoroughly designed automation technology platform supported by a powerful informatics infrastructure forms the basis for optimal workflow implementation and the data mining and analysis tools to generate new leads from experimental protein drug target structures.

  16. Receptores similares a Toll en peces: el inicio de la divergencia Toll-like receptors in fish: the beginning divergence

    OpenAIRE

    IS Rondón-Barragán

    2009-01-01

    La inmunidad innata utiliza mecanismos de basados en el reconocimiento no clonal de componentes microbianos, denominados PAMPs, mediante el uso de receptores de reconocimiento de patrón genéticamente codificados (e.g. receptores similares a toll). Los PAMPs son estructuras esenciales para la fisiología y supervivencia de los microbios. Los receptores similares a Toll son una familia de receptores de transmembrana tipo I, con un dominio rico en leucina aminoterminal y una cola intracelular car...

  17. [Automated anesthesia record system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tao; Liu, Jin

    2005-12-01

    Based on Client/Server architecture, a software of automated anesthesia record system running under Windows operation system and networks has been developed and programmed with Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0, Visual Basic 6.0 and SQL Server. The system can deal with patient's information throughout the anesthesia. It can collect and integrate the data from several kinds of medical equipment such as monitor, infusion pump and anesthesia machine automatically and real-time. After that, the system presents the anesthesia sheets automatically. The record system makes the anesthesia record more accurate and integral and can raise the anesthesiologist's working efficiency.

  18. Toll receptor response to white spot syndrome virus challenge in giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jinling; Zhao, Lingling; Jin, Min; Li, Tingting; Wu, Lei; Chen, Yihong; Ren, Qian

    2016-10-01

    Toll receptors are evolutionary ancient families of pattern recognition receptors with crucial roles in invertebrate innate immune response. In this study, we identified a Toll receptor (MrToll) from giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). The full-length cDNA of MrToll is 4257 bp, which encodes a putative protein of 1367 amino acids. MrToll contains 17 LRR domains, a transmembrane domain, and a TIR domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrToll was grouped with Drosophila Toll7 and other arthropod Tolls. The transcripts of MrToll are mainly distributed in the heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine. A low level of MrToll expression can be detected in hemocytes and the lymphoid organ. MrToll expression in gills was gradually upregulated to the highest level from 24 h to 48 h during the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. The expression levels of the crustin (Cru) genes Cru3 and Cru7 in gills were relatively lower than those of Cru2 and Cru4. The expression levels of Cru3 and Cru7 were inhibited after the RNA interference of MrToll in gills during the WSSV challenge. The anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) genes ALF2, ALF3, ALF4, and ALF5 were also regulated by MrToll in gills during the virus challenge. These findings suggest that MrToll may contribute to the innate immune defense of M. rosenbergii against WSSV.

  19. Automated Budget System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  20. 22 CFR 120.30 - The Automated Export System (AES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The Automated Export System (AES). 120.30... DEFINITIONS § 120.30 The Automated Export System (AES). The Automated Export System (AES) is the Department of... system for collection of export data for the Department of State. In accordance with this subchapter...

  1. Toll-like Receptors and Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu eZhao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men after lung cancer. Immune responses clearly play a critical role in the tumorigenesis and in the efficacy of radiation therapy and chemotherapy in prostate cancer; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Toll-like receptors (TLRs are a well-known family of pattern recognition receptors that play a key role in host immune system. Recent studies demonstrate that there are links between TLRs and cancer; however, the function and biological importance of TLRs in prostate cancer seems complex. To elucidate the role of TLRs and innate immunity in prostate cancer might provide us with a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this disease. Moreover, utilizing the agonists or antagonists of TLRs might represent a promising new strategy against prostate cancer. In this review, we summarize recent advances on the studies of association between TLR signaling and prostate cancer, TLR polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk, and provide some insights about TLRs as potential targets for prostate cancer immunotherapy.

  2. Toll-like receptors of deuterostome invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honoo eSatake

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Defensive systems against pathogens are responsible not only for survival or lifetime of an individual but also for the evolution of a species. Innate immunity is expected to be more important for invertebrates than mammals, given that adaptive immunity has not been acquired in the former. Toll-like receptors (TLRs have been shown to play a crucial role in host defense of pathogenic microbes in innate immunity of mammals. Recent genome-wide analyses have suggested that TLR or their related genes are conserved in invertebrates. In particular, numerous TLR-related gene candidates were detected in deuterostome invertebrates including a sea urchin (222 TLR-related gene candidates and amphioxus (72 TLR-related gene candidates. Molecular phylogenetic analysis verified that most of sea urchin or amphioxus TLR candidates are paralogous, suggesting that these organisms expanded TLR-related genes in a species-specific manner. In contrast, another deuterostome invertebrate, an ascidian, Ciona intestinalis, was found to possess only two TLR genes. Moreover, Ciona TLRs, Ci-TLR1 and -2, were shown to possess hybrid functionality of mammalian TLRs. Such functionality of Ci-TLRs could not be predicted by sequence comparison with vertebrate TLRs, indicating the confounding evolutionary lineages of deuterostome invertebrate TLRs or their candidates. In this review article, we present recent advances in studies of TLRs or their candidates of deuterostome invertebrates, and provide insight into an evolutionary process of TLRs.

  3. Toll-like receptors and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerko Barbić

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Toll like receptors (TLR are receptors with major role in activationof immune system by regulating production of chemokinesand cytokines, which makes them important in different types ofinflammatory reactions- bacterial, viral, parasitic, acute, chronicetc. Having in mind that atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatorydisease, it is clear then that TLRs are a group of immune systemactivators, producing specific immune cells. In human atheroscleroticplaque there is a markedly enhanced expression of TLR1,TLR2, and TLR4. TLRs are expressed in adrenal cells, and TLRagonists stimulate the release of steroids from human adrenalgland, as well. TLR2 deficient mice have an impaired steroid releaseduring endotoxemia. TLR9 stimulation leads to a corticosteroneand inflammatory cytokine response. The best characterizedof all is TLR4. Up to date this TLR has a major role in thedevelopment of atherosclerosis. Enhanced expression of hTLR4(human TLR4 in patients with ACS (acute coronary syndromewas associated with elevations of IL-12 and B7-1 expression, astypical downstream effects of TLR4 activation. It is known that acertain gene polymorphism of TLR4 can slow progression of thedisease. Over expression of TLR2 in mice facilitates ventricularremodeling after myocardial infarction. The CAPS study foundcontrary results, when in 3000 patients no connection had beenfound between TLR2 polymorphism (Arg 753 Gln,-16934A/Tand TLR4 polymorphism (D299G, T399I and the process of atherosclerosis.

  4. Murine Automated Urine Sampler (MAUS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal outlines planned development for a low-power, low-mass automated urine sample collection and preservation system for small mammals, capable of...

  5. Automation 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Zieliński, Cezary; Kaliczyńska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    This book consists of papers presented at Automation 2017, an international conference held in Warsaw from March 15 to 17, 2017. It discusses research findings associated with the concepts behind INDUSTRY 4.0, with a focus on offering a better understanding of and promoting participation in the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Each chapter presents a detailed analysis of a specific technical problem, in most cases followed by a numerical analysis, simulation and description of the results of implementing the solution in a real-world context. The theoretical results, practical solutions and guidelines presented are valuable for both researchers working in the area of engineering sciences and practitioners looking for solutions to industrial problems. .

  6. Marketing automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TODOR Raluca Dania

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The automation of the marketing process seems to be nowadays, the only solution to face the major changes brought by the fast evolution of technology and the continuous increase in supply and demand. In order to achieve the desired marketing results, businessis have to employ digital marketing and communication services. These services are efficient and measurable thanks to the marketing technology used to track, score and implement each campaign. Due to the technical progress, the marketing fragmentation, demand for customized products and services on one side and the need to achieve constructive dialogue with the customers, immediate and flexible response and the necessity to measure the investments and the results on the other side, the classical marketing approached had changed continue to improve substantially.

  7. Autoinmunidad y receptores tipo Toll = Autoimmunity and toll-like receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossa Giraldo, Ana Claudia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta inmune innata está conformada por un conjunto de mecanismos que permiten reconocer los componentes propios del organismo y diferenciarlos de los microorganismos invasores para generar una primera línea de defensa. Este reconocimiento está mediado por diferentes receptores presentes en la superficie y en el interior de células inmunes y no inmunes; entre ellos se encuentran los siguientes: receptores tipo Toll (RTT, receptores de lectinas tipo C, receptores tipo GIR (genes inducibles por ácido retinoico y receptores tipo Nod y NALP, que reconocen patrones moleculares asociados a microorganismos (PMAM. Gracias a esta capacidad de discriminación, adquirida evolutivamente por la inmunidad innata, se ha aceptado tradicionalmente que los procesos autoinmunes no están relacionados con esta sino con la inmunidad adquirida. Sin embargo, varios estudios han demostrado que esa teoría no es totalmente cierta y que algunos mecanismos efectores de la inmunidad innata participan en la generación de las enfermedades autoinmunes o en la potenciación de su fisiopatología. En esta revisión se estudia la contribución de la inmunidad innata a la autoinmunidad con énfasis en el papel de los receptores tipo Toll.

  8. Network based automation for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahabeddini Parizi, Mohammad; Radziwon, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    could be obtained through network interaction. Based on two extreme cases of SMEs representing low-tech industry and an in-depth analysis of their manufacturing facilities this paper presents how collaboration between firms embedded in a regional ecosystem could result in implementation of new...... automation solutions. The empirical data collection involved application of a combination of comparative case study method with action research elements. This article provides an outlook over the challenges in implementing technological improvements and the way how it could be resolved in collaboration......, this paper develops and discusses a set of guidelines for systematic productivity improvement within an innovative collaboration in regards to automation processes in SMEs....

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of a Toll receptor gene from Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuk, Chutima; Longyant, Siwaporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin

    2014-02-01

    Toll receptors are cell surface molecules acting as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that have been implicated in the signaling pathway of innate immune responses. In this study, the full-length cDNA of a Toll receptor gene of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, designated MrToll, was successfully isolated using designed degenerate primers and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The MrToll gene sequence contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2799 nucleotides encoding a protein of 932 amino acid residues. The protein contained distinct structural motifs of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, including an extracellular domain containing 15 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), a transmembrane segment of 23 amino acids, and a cytoplasmic Toll/interleukin-1R (TIR) domain of 139 residues. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MrToll and Toll receptor of Marsupenaeus japonicus (MjToll) evolved closely. However, the MrToll ORF demonstrated only 48-49% identity with shrimp Toll1, suggesting that MrToll isolated from a palaemonid shrimp might belong to a novel class of Toll receptors in shrimp. The transcripts of the MrToll gene were constitutively expressed in various tissues, with high levels in hemocytes, the stomach and muscle. A reverse transcriptase PCR assay demonstrated that the expression patterns of MrToll were distinctly modulated after Aeromonas caviae stimulation, with significant enhancement at 3-12 h post-challenge and a decline to basal levels at 24 h post-challenge. In addition, when MrToll-silenced shrimp were challenged with A. caviae, there was a significant increase in mortality and bacterial CFU counts. These results suggest that MrToll might be involved in host innate defense, especially against the pathogen A. caviae.

  10. Expression of soluble Toll-like receptors in pleural effusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hai-bo; XIE Kai-qing; DENG Jing-min; QIN Shou-ming

    2010-01-01

    Background The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) represent a group of single-pass transmembrane receptors expressed on sentinel cells that are central to innate immune responses.The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of soluble TLRs in pleural effusions, and the diagnostic values of TLRs for pleural effusion with various etiologies.Methods Pleural effusion and serum samples were collected from 102 patients (36 with malignant pleural effusion, 36with tuberculous pleural effusion, 18 with bacterial pleural effusion, and 12 with transudative pleural effusion).The concentrations of TLR1 to TLR10 were determined in effusion and serum samples by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.Four classical parameters (protein, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose and C-reactive protein (CRP)) in the pleural fluid were also assessed.Receiver-operating characteristic curves were used to assess the sensitivity and specificity of pleural fluid TLRs and biochemical parameters for differentiating bacterial pleural effusion.Results The concentrations of TLR1, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7 and TLR9 in bacterial pleural effusion were significantly higher than those in malignant, tuberculous, and transudative groups, respectively.Analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves revealed that the area under the curves of TLR1, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7 and TLR9 were 0.831, 0.843,0.842, 0.883 and 0.786, respectively, suggesting that these TLRs play a role in the diagnosis of bacterial pleural effusion.Also, the diagnostic value of TLRs for bacterial pleural effusions was much better than that of biochemical parameters (protein, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose and CRP).Conclusions The concentrations of TLR1, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7 and TLR9 appeared to be increased in bacterial pleural effusion compared to non-bacterial pleural effusions.Determination of these pleural TLRs may improve the ability of clinicians to differentiate pleural effusion patients of bacterial origin from those with other etiologies.

  11. Transgenic cloned sheep overexpressing ovine toll-like receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shoulong; Li, Guiguan; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Cui, Maosheng; Guo, Yong; Liu, Guoshi; Li, Guangpeng; Feng, Jianzhong; Lian, Zhengxing

    2013-07-01

    An ovine fetal fibroblast cell line highly expressing TLR4 was established by inserting TLR4 into a reconstructive p3S-LoxP plasmid. Transgenic sheep overexpressing TLR4 were produced by transferring TLR4-transfected fetal fibroblasts into metaphase (M)II-stage enucleated oocytes (using SCNT). Because reconstructed embryos derived from MII-stage enucleated oocytes matured in vivo using a delayed-activated method had a higher pregnancy rate (18.52%) than that from MII-stage enucleated oocytes matured in vitro, the former procedure was used. Nine TLR4-transgenic live births were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis. Increased expression of TLR4 at mRNA and protein levels in ear tissues of transgenic lambs were verified using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. More toll-like receptor 4 protein was expressed by peripheral blood monocytes and/or macrophages collected from 3-month-old TLR4-transgenic than nontransgenic lambs at 0, 1, and 4 hours after lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Furthermore, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor α secreted by monocytes and/or macrophages of TLR4-transgenic lambs were significantly higher at 1 hour. Therefore, lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses from monocytes and/or macrophages occurred sooner in TLR4-transgenic lambs, consistent with an enhanced host immune response. In conclusion, transgenic sheep overexpressing TLR4 are a primary model to investigate the role of transgenic animals in disease resistance and have potential for breeding sheep with disease resistance.

  12. DMPD: Toll-like receptors regulation of viral infection and disease. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18280610 Toll-like receptors regulation of viral infection and disease. Thompson JM...how Toll-like receptors regulation of viral infection and disease. PubmedID 18280610 Title Toll-like recepto...rs regulation of viral infection and disease. Authors Thompson JM, Iwasaki A. Pub

  13. The Toll pathway is required in the epidermis for muscle development in the Drosophila embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, M. S.; Keshishian, H.

    1998-01-01

    The Toll signaling pathway functions in several Drosophila processes, including dorsal-ventral pattern formation and the immune response. Here, we demonstrate that this pathway is required in the epidermis for proper muscle development. Previously, we showed that the zygotic Toll protein is necessary for normal muscle development; in the absence of zygotic Toll, close to 50% of hemisegments have muscle patterning defects consisting of missing, duplicated and misinserted muscle fibers (Halfon, M.S., Hashimoto, C., and Keshishian, H., Dev. Biol. 169, 151-167, 1995). We have now also analyzed the requirements for easter, spatzle, tube, and pelle, all of which function in the Toll-mediated dorsal-ventral patterning pathway. We find that spatzle, tube, and pelle, but not easter, are necessary for muscle development. Mutations in these genes give a phenotype identical to that seen in Toll mutants, suggesting that elements of the same pathway used for Toll signaling in dorsal-ventral development are used during muscle development. By expressing the Toll cDNA under the control of distinct Toll enhancer elements in Toll mutant flies, we have examined the spatial requirements for Toll expression during muscle development. Expression of Toll in a subset of epidermal cells that includes the epidermal muscle attachment cells, but not Toll expression in the musculature, is necessary for proper muscle development. Our results suggest that signals received by the epidermis early during muscle development are an important part of the muscle patterning process.

  14. DMPD: Toll like receptors and autoimmunity: a critical appraisal. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17959357 Toll like receptors and autoimmunity: a critical appraisal. Papadimitraki ...ml) Show Toll like receptors and autoimmunity: a critical appraisal. PubmedID 17959357 Title Toll like recep...tors and autoimmunity: a critical appraisal. Authors Papadimitraki ED, Bertsias G

  15. DMPD: Endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15178705 Endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors. Tsan MF, Gao B. J Leukoc Biol. ...2004 Sep;76(3):514-9. Epub 2004 Jun 3. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Endogenous ligands of Toll-like re...ceptors. PubmedID 15178705 Title Endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors. Authors Tsan MF, Gao B. Publicat

  16. DMPD: Toll-like receptors in atherosclerosis. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18031244 Toll-like receptors in atherosclerosis. Tobias PS, Curtiss LK. Biochem Soc... Trans. 2007 Dec;35(Pt 6):1453-5. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Toll-like receptors in atherosclerosis.... PubmedID 18031244 Title Toll-like receptors in atherosclerosis. Authors Tobias PS, Curtiss LK. Publication

  17. Receptores similares a Toll en peces: el inicio de la divergencia Toll-like receptors in fish: the beginning divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IS Rondón-Barragán

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La inmunidad innata utiliza mecanismos de basados en el reconocimiento no clonal de componentes microbianos, denominados PAMPs, mediante el uso de receptores de reconocimiento de patrón genéticamente codificados (e.g. receptores similares a toll. Los PAMPs son estructuras esenciales para la fisiología y supervivencia de los microbios. Los receptores similares a Toll son una familia de receptores de transmembrana tipo I, con un dominio rico en leucina aminoterminal y una cola intracelular carboxiterminal; los cuales son expresados en diversas células incluyendo neutrófilos, macrófagos, células dendríticas, entre otras. Las vías de activación incluyen reclutamiento de proteínas citoplasmáticas adaptadoras que activan kinasas y factores asociados al factor de necrosis tumoral, conllevando a la activación de factores nucleares y a la producción de citoquinas y expresión de moléculas coestimuladoras de superficie en las células presentadoras de antígenos. El conocimiento acerca de los receptores similares a Toll permite el entendimiento de la dinámica de la respuesta inmune así como los procesos involucrados en el reconocimiento de los agentes microbianos. Esta revisión se enfoca en la identificación de los diversos receptores similares a Toll en peces, sus funciones e interacciones con otros así como la homología e identidad entre animales.Innate immunity initiates mechanisms based on the non-clonal recognition of microbial components, so-called PAMPs by using a variety of gene-encoded pattern recognition receptors (e.g. toll-like receptors. PAMPs are essential structures for the physiology and survival of the microbes. Toll-like receptors are transmembrane receptors family type I, with an aminoterminal leucin-rich repeat domain and a carboxiterminal intracellular tail; which are expressed in cells such as neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, as well as others. Activation pathways including the recruitment of

  18. Manufacturing and automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Córdoba Nieto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents concepts and definitions from different sources concerning automation. The work approaches automation by virtue of the author’s experience in manufacturing production; why and how automation prolects are embarked upon is considered. Technological reflection regarding the progressive advances or stages of automation in the production area is stressed. Coriat and Freyssenet’s thoughts about and approaches to the problem of automation and its current state are taken and examined, especially that referring to the problem’s relationship with reconciling the level of automation with the flexibility and productivity demanded by competitive, worldwide manufacturing.

  19. Comparison of different ways of implementing congestion tolls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Ross

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of different methods for improving the toll structure in a road network to achieve better socioeconomically results. By comparing a system using a marginal priced approach and a system using a metaheuristic approach it is investigated which ...

  20. Toll avastas lemmikloomapoest 700 kilo kaitsealuseid koralle / Triin Olvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olvet, Triin

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 3. aug. lk. 2 Maksu- ja tolliameti töötajad avastasid Põhja-Tallinna lemmikloomapoest pea 300 ohustatud liikide hulka kuuluvat kivikoralli, mis olid toodud Indoneesiast. Vt. samas: Toll võtab ära nii kaaviari kui ka topised

  1. Toll-like receptor polymorphisms in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornblit, Brian; Enevold, Christian; Wang, Tao;

    2014-01-01

    To assess the impact of the genetic variation in toll-like receptors (TLRs) on outcome after allogeneic myeloablative conditioning hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), we investigated 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms across 10 TLRs in 816 patients and donors. Only donor genotype of TLR8 rs...

  2. The phosphoproteome of toll-like receptor-activated macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weintz, Gabriele; Olsen, Jesper Velgaard; Frühauf, Katja;

    2010-01-01

    Recognition of microbial danger signals by toll-like receptors (TLR) causes re-programming of macrophages. To investigate kinase cascades triggered by the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on systems level, we performed a global, quantitative and kinetic analysis of the phosphoproteome...

  3. Evidence for adaptation of porcine Toll-like receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darfour-Oduro, Kwame A.; Megens, Hendrik Jan; Roca, Alfred; Groenen, Martien A.M.; Schook, Lawrence B.

    2016-01-01

    Naturally endemic infectious diseases provide selective pressures for pig populations. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) represent the first line of immune defense against pathogens and are likely to play a crucial adaptive role for pig populations. This study was done to determine whether wild and dome

  4. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during July 2016 (NCEI Accession 0156326)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  5. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2005-11 (NODC Accession 0002469)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  6. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during January 2016 (NCEI Accession 0142963)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  7. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during August 2016 (NCEI Accession 0156603)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  8. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2005-07 (NODC Accession 0002372)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  9. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2005-05 (NODC Accession 0002226)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  10. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2005-04 (NODC Accession 0002176)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  11. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2005-06 (NODC Accession 0002309)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  12. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during September 2014 (NCEI Accession 0122592)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  13. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2005-10 (NODC Accession 0002436)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  14. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2005-08 (NODC Accession 0002380)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  15. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during April 2015 (NCEI Accession 0128073)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  16. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during May 2016 (NCEI Accession 0153542)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  17. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2011-12 (NODC Accession 0083918)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  18. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during February 2016 (NCEI Accession 0145373)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  19. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2013-05 (NODC Accession 0108385)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  20. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during December 2014 (NODC Accession 0125264)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  1. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2012-02 (NODC Accession 0086627)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  2. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2012-04 (NODC Accession 0090312)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  3. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2013-06 (NODC Accession 0110477)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  4. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2011-04 (NCEI Accession 0072886)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  5. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2011-05 (NCEI Accession 0073426)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  6. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2013-08 (NODC Accession 0112958)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  7. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2011-07 (NCEI Accession 0074922)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  8. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during December 2015 (NCEI Accession 0140790)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  9. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during October 2014 (NODC Accession 0122591)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  10. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during July 2015 (NCEI Accession 0130916)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  11. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during November 2015 (NCEI Accession 0139254)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  12. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2011-11 (NODC Accession 0082371)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  13. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2013-07 (NODC Accession 0111971)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  14. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2012-01 (NODC Accession 0085139)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  15. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2012-05 (NODC Accession 0090313)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  16. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during September 2015 (NCEI Accession 0136935)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  17. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2012-03 (NODC Accession 0088199)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  18. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2014-07 (NODC Accession 0121505)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  19. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2013-03 (NODC Accession 0104424)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  20. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2014-03 (NODC Accession 0117682)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  1. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during January 2015 (NODC Accession 0125752)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  2. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2013-09 (NODC Accession 0113792)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  3. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during November 2014 (NODC Accession 0122594)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  4. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2013-11 (NODC Accession 0115123)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  5. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2012-08 (NODC Accession 0095593)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  6. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2011-06 (NCEI Accession 0074384)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  7. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2013-04 (NODC Accession 0106521)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  8. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during March 2015 (NODC Accession 0127371)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  9. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during September 2014 (NODC Accession 0122593)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  10. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2011-10 (NODC Accession 0079513)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  11. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during February 2015 (NODC Accession 0126669)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  12. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2011-02 (NCEI Accession 0071368)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  13. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2011-09 (NODC Accession 0078579)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  14. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2012-07 (NODC Accession 0095565)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  15. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during October 2015 (NCEI Accession 0137949)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  16. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during April 2016 (NCEI Accession 0150816)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  17. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2012-12 (NODC Accession 0101426)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  18. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2013-01 (NODC Accession 0103632)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  19. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during June 2016 (NCEI Accession 0155886)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  20. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during May 2015 (NCEI Accession 0129415)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  1. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2012-11 (NODC Accession 0099948)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  2. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2014-08 (NODC Accession 0122005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  3. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2013-02 (NODC Accession 0104259)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  4. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2011-03 (NCEI Accession 0072077)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  5. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2014-04 (NODC Accession 0118539)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  6. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2012-06 (NODC Accession 0092557)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  7. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2014-02 (NODC Accession 0117491)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  8. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2012-09 (NODC Accession 0098547)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  9. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during August 2015 (NCEI Accession 0131704)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  10. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2011-01 (NCEI Accession 0070959)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  11. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2011-08 (NCEI Accession 0077456)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  12. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2014-06 (NODC Accession 0120329)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  13. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during June 2015 (NCEI Accession 0129884)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  14. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2012-10 (NODC Accession 0099428)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  15. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2013-12 (NODC Accession 0115760)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  16. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during March 2016 (NCEI Accession 0146738)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  17. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2014-01 (NODC Accession 0116427)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  18. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2014-05 (NODC Accession 0119474)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  19. Meteorological and oceanographic data collected from the National Data Buoy Center Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) and moored (weather) buoys during 2013-10 (NODC Accession 0114407)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) established the Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) for the National Weather Service in the early 1980's. NDBC has...

  20. Implementing a Data Logger for Home Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Hailegiorgis, Henoke

    2015-01-01

    Today’s technology provides a smart and secure ability to a home automation system. However to overcoming drawbacks and improving the system in a cost effective way needs to be done in a broader sense by paying attention to the most important purpose of a house automation system. The purpose of this thesis is to discuss a data logger, an automatic data collecting device, extension to a home automation system to improve the performance of the system. The focus is on the data logger design a...

  1. An automated swimming respirometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    STEFFENSEN, JF; JOHANSEN, K; BUSHNELL, PG

    1984-01-01

    An automated respirometer is described that can be used for computerized respirometry of trout and sharks.......An automated respirometer is described that can be used for computerized respirometry of trout and sharks....

  2. Configuration Management Automation (CMA) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Configuration Management Automation (CMA) will provide an automated, integrated enterprise solution to support CM of FAA NAS and Non-NAS assets and investments. CMA...

  3. Autonomy and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Jay

    2017-01-01

    A significant level of debate and confusion has surrounded the meaning of the terms autonomy and automation. Automation is a multi-dimensional concept, and we propose that Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) automation should be described with reference to the specific system and task that has been automated, the context in which the automation functions, and other relevant dimensions. In this paper, we present definitions of automation, pilot in the loop, pilot on the loop and pilot out of the loop. We further propose that in future, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) RPAS Panel avoids the use of the terms autonomy and autonomous when referring to automated systems on board RPA. Work Group 7 proposes to develop, in consultation with other workgroups, a taxonomy of Levels of Automation for RPAS.

  4. Automated imaging system for single molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David Charles; Runnheim, Rodney; Forrest, Daniel

    2012-09-18

    There is provided a high throughput automated single molecule image collection and processing system that requires minimal initial user input. The unique features embodied in the present disclosure allow automated collection and initial processing of optical images of single molecules and their assemblies. Correct focus may be automatically maintained while images are collected. Uneven illumination in fluorescence microscopy is accounted for, and an overall robust imaging operation is provided yielding individual images prepared for further processing in external systems. Embodiments described herein are useful in studies of any macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, peptides and proteins. The automated image collection and processing system and method of same may be implemented and deployed over a computer network, and may be ergonomically optimized to facilitate user interaction.

  5. Lack of an antibacterial response defect in Drosophila Toll-9 mutant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Narbonne-Reveau

    Full Text Available Toll and Toll-like receptors represent families of receptors involved in mediating innate immunity response in insects and mammals. Although Drosophila proteome contains multiple Toll paralogs, Toll-1 is, so far, the only receptor to which an immune role has been attributed. In contrast, every single mammalian TLR is a key membrane receptor upstream of the vertebrate immune signaling cascades. The prevailing view is that TLR-mediated immunity is ancient. Structural analysis reveals that Drosophila Toll-9 is the most closely related to vertebrate TLRs and utilizes similar signaling components as Toll-1. This suggests that Toll-9 could be an ancestor of TLR-like receptors and could have immune function. Consistently, it has been reported that over-expression of Toll-9 in immune tissues is sufficient to induce the expression of some antimicrobial peptides in flies. These results have led to the idea that Toll-9 could be a constitutively active receptor that maintain significant levels of antimicrobial molecules and therefore provide constant basal protection against micro-organisms. To test theses hypotheses, we generated and analyzed phenotypes associated with a complete loss-of-function allele of Toll-9. Our results suggest that Toll-9 is neither required to maintain a basal anti-microbial response nor to mount an efficient immune response to bacterial infection.

  6. Workflow automation architecture standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshofsky, R.P.; Rohen, W.T. [Boeing Computer Services Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-11-14

    This document presents an architectural standard for application of workflow automation technology. The standard includes a functional architecture, process for developing an automated workflow system for a work group, functional and collateral specifications for workflow automation, and results of a proof of concept prototype.

  7. Implementation of Fuzzy Logic with High Security Registration Plate (HSRP for Vehicle Classification and Checking in TollPlaza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sathya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In Automobile Industries, to use of High Security Registration plate (HSRP is still a challenging problem. There are more options to misuse the vehicle and exchange its engine, chassis, gear box, axle etc., In an existing system, the Regional Transport Office (RTO only determine an abstract of the vehicle and its owner. The vehicles are classified using piezo sensor and inductive loop systems. The toll-plaza is used only collected fees from the vehicles for maintain the quality roads. There are no authorized agencies allotted to identify the vehicle checking and no possibilities to control the vehicle overloading. The proposed system, toll-plaza will be act as a multi-plaza. Vehicles are classified with weight and speed. Then it is checking in toll-plaza either passed or checked. In this paper, The system uses illumination (such as Infrared and a camera to take the image of the front or rear of the vehicle, then an extracts the plate information. This data is used for enforcement and it can be used to open a gate if the vehicle is checked with RTO data in toll-plaza. In vehicle checking, we develop new rules using a fuzzy logic to improve the performance. The features of this system are implemented in the upgrading vehicles only. It is used to control the overloading to maintain road safety and to identify the theft vehicle to reduce the crime and terrorism. As Bharat Stage Emission (BSE standard vehicles are implemented in India very aggressively. The emission standard vehicles are serviced only in authorized service centre not for doing and end root machines.

  8. Automation in Clinical Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the trend toward automation in clinical pathology laboratories has largely bypassed the clinical microbiology laboratory. In this article, we review the historical impediments to automation in the microbiology laboratory and offer insight into the reasons why we believe that we are on the cusp of a dramatic change that will sweep a wave of automation into clinical microbiology laboratories. We review the currently available specimen-processing instruments as well as the total laboratory automation solutions. Lastly, we outline the types of studies that will need to be performed to fully assess the benefits of automation in microbiology laboratories. PMID:23515547

  9. Laboratory automation: trajectory, technology, and tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, R S; Whalen, S A

    2000-05-01

    Laboratory automation is in its infancy, following a path parallel to the development of laboratory information systems in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Changes on the horizon in healthcare and clinical laboratory service that affect the delivery of laboratory results include the increasing age of the population in North America, the implementation of the Balanced Budget Act (1997), and the creation of disease management companies. Major technology drivers include outcomes optimization and phenotypically targeted drugs. Constant cost pressures in the clinical laboratory have forced diagnostic manufacturers into less than optimal profitability states. Laboratory automation can be a tool for the improvement of laboratory services and may decrease costs. The key to improvement of laboratory services is implementation of the correct automation technology. The design of this technology should be driven by required functionality. Automation design issues should be centered on the understanding of the laboratory and its relationship to healthcare delivery and the business and operational processes in the clinical laboratory. Automation design philosophy has evolved from a hardware-based approach to a software-based approach. Process control software to support repeat testing, reflex testing, and transportation management, and overall computer-integrated manufacturing approaches to laboratory automation implementation are rapidly expanding areas. It is clear that hardware and software are functionally interdependent and that the interface between the laboratory automation system and the laboratory information system is a key component. The cost-effectiveness of automation solutions suggested by vendors, however, has been difficult to evaluate because the number of automation installations are few and the precision with which operational data have been collected to determine payback is suboptimal. The trend in automation has moved from total laboratory automation to a

  10. Current Views of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Yamamoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On microbial invasion, the host immediately evokes innate immune responses. Recent studies have demonstrated that Toll-like receptors (TLRs play crucial roles in innate responses that lead not only to the clearance of pathogens but also to the efficient establishment of acquired immunity by directly detecting molecules from microbes. In terms of intracellular TLR-mediated signaling pathways, cytoplasmic adaptor molecules containing Toll/IL-1R (TIR domains play important roles in inflammatory immune responses through the production of proinflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide, and type I interferon, and upregulation of costimulatory molecules. In this paper, we will describe our current understanding of the relationship between TLRs and their ligands derived from pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Moreover, we will review the historical and current literature to describe the mechanisms behind TLR-mediated activation of innate immune responses.

  11. Automated DNA Sequencing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Ekkebus, C.P.; Hauser, L.J.; Kress, R.L.; Mural, R.J.

    1999-04-25

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a core DNA sequencing facility to support biological research endeavors at ORNL and to conduct basic sequencing automation research. This facility is novel because its development is based on existing standard biology laboratory equipment; thus, the development process is of interest to the many small laboratories trying to use automation to control costs and increase throughput. Before automation, biology Laboratory personnel purified DNA, completed cycle sequencing, and prepared 96-well sample plates with commercially available hardware designed specifically for each step in the process. Following purification and thermal cycling, an automated sequencing machine was used for the sequencing. A technician handled all movement of the 96-well sample plates between machines. To automate the process, ORNL is adding a CRS Robotics A- 465 arm, ABI 377 sequencing machine, automated centrifuge, automated refrigerator, and possibly an automated SpeedVac. The entire system will be integrated with one central controller that will direct each machine and the robot. The goal of this system is to completely automate the sequencing procedure from bacterial cell samples through ready-to-be-sequenced DNA and ultimately to completed sequence. The system will be flexible and will accommodate different chemistries than existing automated sequencing lines. The system will be expanded in the future to include colony picking and/or actual sequencing. This discrete event, DNA sequencing system will demonstrate that smaller sequencing labs can achieve cost-effective the laboratory grow.

  12. Expression of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in gingivitis and chronic periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is the major cause of adult tooth loss and is commonly characterized by a chronic inflammation caused by infection by oral bacteria. Members of Toll-like receptor (TLR family recognize conserved microbial structures, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharides, and activate signaling pathways that result in immune responses against microbial infections. The aim of the present study was to assess the mRNA expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 in gingivitis and chronic periodontitis. Gingival tissue samples were collected from patients with chronic periodontitis, gingivitis, and healthy controls. Total RNA was extracted and RT-PCR was done for TLR-2 and TLR-4. The results showed that TLR-2 was significantly increased in gingivitis compared to TLR-4 expression and decreased in chronic periodontitis.

  13. Toll-like receptor 2 agonists inhibit human fibrocyte differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Maharjan Anu S; Pilling Darrell; Gomer Richard H

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In healing wounds, some monocytes enter the wound and differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes. Since Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are present on monocytes, and pathogens that can infect a wound have and/or release TLR agonists, we examined whether TLR agonists affect fibrocyte differentiation. Results When human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured with TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR7, TLR8 or TLR9 agonists, there was no significant effect on fi...

  14. 75 FR 32199 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request, 1660-0030...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection... (42 U.S.C 5174) authorizes the President to provide mobile homes and other readily fabricated... appropriate automated, electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms...

  15. The Aedes aegypti toll pathway controls dengue virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Xi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue viruses, utilizes its innate immune system to ward off a variety of pathogens, some of which can cause disease in humans. To date, the features of insects' innate immune defenses against viruses have mainly been studied in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which appears to utilize different immune pathways against different types of viruses, in addition to an RNA interference-based defense system. We have used the recently released whole-genome sequence of the Ae. aegypti mosquito, in combination with high-throughput gene expression and RNA interference (RNAi-based reverse genetic analyses, to characterize its response to dengue virus infection in different body compartments. We have further addressed the impact of the mosquito's endogenous microbial flora on virus infection. Our findings indicate a significant role for the Toll pathway in regulating resistance to dengue virus, as indicated by an infection-responsive regulation and functional assessment of several Toll pathway-associated genes. We have also shown that the mosquito's natural microbiota play a role in modulating the dengue virus infection, possibly through basal-level stimulation of the Toll immune pathway.

  16. Toll-like receptors in invertebrate innate immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Zheng

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Among invertebrates, innate immunity is the only defense mechanism against harmful non-self agents.In response to recognition of microbial pattern molecules, Drosophila melanogaster activates either theToll or Imd pathway, leading to the translocation of NF-kB (or Rel transcription factors from the cytoplasmto the nucleus and the subsequent production of antimicrobial peptides, which provide systemic innateimmunity. Toll-like receptors (TLRs are characterized by an extracellular leucine rich repeat (LRRdomain and an intracellular Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR domain. TLRs are found from cnidarians tomammals. Here we argue that TLR mediated innate immunity developed during an early stage ofevolution when organisms acquired a body cavity. This is supported by the distributions of TLR and Relgenes in the animal kingdom. Further, TLR mediated immunity appears to have developed independentlyin invertebrates and vertebrates. Recent studies have shown that microbial molecules, with the potentialto signal through TLR, can be beneficial to host survival. Studies on this signaling pathway could opendoors to a better understanding of the origins of innate immunity in invertebrates and potentialtransmission blocking strategies aimed at ameliorating vector-borne diseases.

  17. 76 FR 81954 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for Review; Information Collection Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ..., companies will consent to making this information public. In turn, the emergency response community will use...) 254-6171. (Not a toll-free number). Mail: Science and Technology Directorate, ATTN: Chief Information... technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting...

  18. Study on effect of toll station on the traffic flow on three-line road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-yu; Li, Wen-bo; Feng, Yu-jie

    2013-03-01

    Based on the NaSch Model, a new three-line cellular automata model emphasizing toll station on the high ways is built to discuss the impact of different amount of toll stations on the traffic flow. The models are as follows: Firstly, the process of cars driving is simulated. Secondly, the process of pulling station is simulated. In this part, two Cellular Automata Models are built separately for two cases, three tollbooths in the toll station and four tollbooths. The result shows that when the density of cars is on medium level, comparing with the toll station with three tollbooths, the toll station with four tollbooths can remit the traffic congestion effectively, but when the density of cars is too high or too low, the toll station with three tollbooths can do better.

  19. Time-varying tolls in a dynamic model of road traffic congestion with elastic demand

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, E.T.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a dynamic model of road traffic congestion is presented, with an elastic overall demand for morning peak road usage, and with the congestion technology used being 'flow congestion'. It is demonstrated that in such a case, the optimal time-varying toll should include a 'flat', time-invariant component when road users share the same desired arrival time. This has important consequences for the design of optimal toll schemes in reality, because it implies that optimal tolls cannot...

  20. The role of Toll signaling in dorsoventral axis formation in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yen-Ta

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of dorsoventral (DV) axis in the Drosophila embryo relies on the Toll/Dorsal signaling pathway. The transcription factor Dorsal acts downstream of Toll forming a nuclear gradient that determines different cell fates along the DV axis. The formation of the DV axis has been studied in two other holometabolous insects, the bee- tle Tribolium and the wasp Nasonia. However, the role of Toll signaling has not been addressed in the more basally branching hemimetabolous insects. Her...

  1. 75 FR 17920 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Proposed Project..., counseling, and/or mentoring of future and current primary health care providers to practice in...

  2. 78 FR 10592 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-Supplemental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ..., including use of appropriate automated, electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques... covers benefits from their electronic benefit transfer (EBT) system. The exception is that State...

  3. Laboratory Automation and Middleware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riben, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The practice of surgical pathology is under constant pressure to deliver the highest quality of service, reduce errors, increase throughput, and decrease turnaround time while at the same time dealing with an aging workforce, increasing financial constraints, and economic uncertainty. Although not able to implement total laboratory automation, great progress continues to be made in workstation automation in all areas of the pathology laboratory. This report highlights the benefits and challenges of pathology automation, reviews middleware and its use to facilitate automation, and reviews the progress so far in the anatomic pathology laboratory.

  4. Automated diagnostic kiosk for diagnosing diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, John Frederick; Birch, James Michael

    2014-02-11

    An automated and autonomous diagnostic apparatus that is capable of dispensing collection vials and collections kits to users interesting in collecting a biological sample and submitting their collected sample contained within a collection vial into the apparatus for automated diagnostic services. The user communicates with the apparatus through a touch-screen monitor. A user is able to enter personnel information into the apparatus including medical history, insurance information, co-payment, and answer a series of questions regarding their illness, which is used to determine the assay most likely to yield a positive result. Remotely-located physicians can communicate with users of the apparatus using video tele-medicine and request specific assays to be performed. The apparatus archives submitted samples for additional testing. Users may receive their assay results electronically. Users may allow the uploading of their diagnoses into a central databank for disease surveillance purposes.

  5. 基于仿真的高速公路混合收费站通行能力确定方法%Method for Determining Expressway Mixed Toll Station Traffic Capacity Based on VISSIM Simulation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑; 刘力力; 胡宾; 翁剑成; 荣建

    2012-01-01

    高速公路收费站通行能力直接决定了高速公路的通行能力,在总体上制约着公路的交通运行状况.随着电子收费系统(ETC)技术的推广和应用,大量人工收费车道和ETC收费车道并存的混合收费站随之出现,合理地确定混合收费站通行能力是收费系统设计的重要问题.分析了高速公路混合收费站中人工收费和ETC收费的交通流特性,结合现场实际调查数据标定参数并建立了VISSIM仿真模型,获得了收费站人工收费车道和ETC收费车道数在不同比例的情况下收费站的综合通行能力,并给出了收费站通行能力最优时,ETC交通量占总交通量的最佳比例.此外,研究还进行了收费站综合服务能力仿真研究,给出了在输入交通量一定的情况下,ETC交通量分别占10%、30%、50%的情况下收费站的服务能力.研究为混合收费站的合理通行能力确定,以及ETC车道开设方法提供了重要的参考.%Expressway toll station traffic capacity directly determines the expressway traffic capacity and generally restricts the expressway operational status. With technology promotion and application of the electronic toll collection system (ETC), a large number of mixed toll station of manual toll lanes and ETC toll lanes emerge. Reasonably determine the traffic capacity of mixed toll station is an important issue for toll system design. The traffic flow characteristics of both manual toll lane and ETC toll lane are respectively analyzed, parameters combined with survey data are calibrated and the VISSIM simulation model is established, the overall traffic capacity of toll station in the case of different proportions of manual toll station and ETC toll lanes is finally obtained. Besides, the best ETC traffic ratio of total traffic is given when the overall traffic capacity is optimal. In addition, a comprehensive service capabilities simulation study is also conducted, the service capabilities of the

  6. Automating checks of plan check automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabi, Tarek; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2014-07-08

    While a few physicists have designed new plan check automation solutions for their clinics, fewer, if any, managed to adapt existing solutions. As complex and varied as the systems they check, these programs must gain the full confidence of those who would run them on countless patient plans. The present automation effort, planCheck, therefore focuses on versatility and ease of implementation and verification. To demonstrate this, we apply planCheck to proton gantry, stereotactic proton gantry, stereotactic proton fixed beam (STAR), and IMRT treatments.

  7. Automation in Warehouse Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg, R.; Verriet, J.

    2012-01-01

    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and support

  8. Automate functional testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kalindri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, software engineers are increasingly turning to the option of automating functional tests, but not always have successful in this endeavor. Reasons range from low planning until over cost in the process. Some principles that can guide teams in automating these tests are described in this article.

  9. More Benefits of Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Malcolm

    1988-01-01

    Describes a study that measured the benefits of an automated catalog and automated circulation system from the library user's point of view in terms of the value of time saved. Topics discussed include patterns of use, access time, availability of information, search behaviors, and the effectiveness of the measures used. (seven references)…

  10. Advances in inspection automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Walter H.; Mair, H. Douglas; Jansen, Dion; Lombardi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    This new session at QNDE reflects the growing interest in inspection automation. Our paper describes a newly developed platform that makes the complex NDE automation possible without the need for software programmers. Inspection tasks that are tedious, error-prone or impossible for humans to perform can now be automated using a form of drag and drop visual scripting. Our work attempts to rectify the problem that NDE is not keeping pace with the rest of factory automation. Outside of NDE, robots routinely and autonomously machine parts, assemble components, weld structures and report progress to corporate databases. By contrast, components arriving in the NDT department typically require manual part handling, calibrations and analysis. The automation examples in this paper cover the development of robotic thickness gauging and the use of adaptive contour following on the NRU reactor inspection at Chalk River.

  11. Automation in immunohematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Meenu; Kaur, Ravneet; Gupta, Ekta

    2012-07-01

    There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process.

  12. Automated model building

    CERN Document Server

    Caferra, Ricardo; Peltier, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    This is the first book on automated model building, a discipline of automated deduction that is of growing importance Although models and their construction are important per se, automated model building has appeared as a natural enrichment of automated deduction, especially in the attempt to capture the human way of reasoning The book provides an historical overview of the field of automated deduction, and presents the foundations of different existing approaches to model construction, in particular those developed by the authors Finite and infinite model building techniques are presented The main emphasis is on calculi-based methods, and relevant practical results are provided The book is of interest to researchers and graduate students in computer science, computational logic and artificial intelligence It can also be used as a textbook in advanced undergraduate courses

  13. Automation in Warehouse Development

    CERN Document Server

    Verriet, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and supports the quality of picking processes. Secondly, the development of models to simulate and analyse warehouse designs and their components facilitates the challenging task of developing warehouses that take into account each customer’s individual requirements and logistic processes. Automation in Warehouse Development addresses both types of automation from the innovative perspective of applied science. In particular, it describes the outcomes of the Falcon project, a joint endeavour by a consortium of industrial and academic partners. The results include a model-based approach to automate warehouse control design, analysis models for warehouse design, concepts for robotic item handling and computer vision, and auton...

  14. Automation in Immunohematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Bajpai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process.

  15. An Automated Gasometer for the Teaching Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Frank; Elamari, Matouk

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of the level of a liquid is needed in many hydrodynamic situations. In the present article, this has been achieved with a conductivity sensor for the specific case of water levels. The use of this system is illustrated by the automation of a gasometer in which the gas is collected in an inverted measuring cylinder resting in a water…

  16. Polymorphisms of the Toll-like receptors and human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David A; Cook, Donald N

    2005-11-15

    The Toll-like receptor (TLR) family regulates both innate and adaptive immune responses. Given its broad effect on immunity, the function of TLRs in various human diseases has been investigated largely by comparing the incidence of disease among persons with different polymorphisms in the genes that participate in TLR signaling. These studies demonstrate that TLR function affects several diseases, including sepsis, immunodeficiencies, atherosclerosis, and asthma. These findings have resulted in new opportunities to study the pathogenesis of disease, identify subpopulations at greater risk of disease, and, potentially, identify novel therapeutic approaches.

  17. Toll-like receptors as modulators of intestinal barrier function

    OpenAIRE

    Estévez Medina, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Las patologías funcionales (síndrome del intestino irritable, IBS) e inflamatorias gastrointestinales (enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal, IBD) se caracterizan por alteraciones de la función barrera epitelial, con un aumento de la permeabilidad, y cambios en la microbiota intestinal. Los receptores de tipo Toll (TLRs) participan en el reconocimiento bacteriano en el intestino y en el control neuroinmune local, estando, por tanto, implicados en la regulación de la función barrera del epitelio ...

  18. Toll-like receptors:function and roles in asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周林福; 殷凯生

    2004-01-01

    @@ Asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease involved with multiple susceptible genes for atopy. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), an ancient though newly characterized and evolutionarily conserved immune receptor family, activate the mononuclear phagocyte system via both myeloid differentiation marker 88 (MyD88)-dependent and -independent signaling pathways. TLRs might play a key role in asthma by recognition of pathogenic microorganisms, activation of innate immunity, regulation of adaptive immunity, and induction of immune tolerance. For future immunotherapy of asthma, it is promising to develop novel immune regulators by selectively targeting blockade of TLRs.

  19. Regulation of Toll-like receptor signaling in innate immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Toll-like receptors sense invading pathogens by recognizing a wide variety of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns(PAMPs).The members of the TLR family selectively utilize adaptor proteins MyD88,TRIF,TIRAP and TRAM to activate overlapping but distinct signal transduction pathways which trigger production of different panels of mediators such as proinflammatory cytokines and type I interferon.These mediators not only control innate immunity but also direct subsequently developed adaptive immunity.TLR activation is strictly and finely regulated at multiple levels of the signal transduction pathways.

  20. A Group Signature Based Electronic Toll Pricing System

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xihui; Mauw, Sjouke; Pang, Jun

    2011-01-01

    With the prevalence and development of GNSS technologies, location-based vehicle services (LBVS) have experienced a rapid growth in recent years. However, location is a sensitive and private piece of information, so the design and development of such services just take the clients' privacy concerns into account. In this paper, we propose a new electronic toll pricing system based on group signatures, which provides a strong guarantee for the clients' anonymity within groups. Our system achieves a balance between privacy and the communication overhead imposed upon the users.

  1. DMPD: Signal transduction by the lipopolysaccharide receptor, Toll-like receptor-4. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15379975 Signal transduction by the lipopolysaccharide receptor, Toll-like receptor... Signal transduction by the lipopolysaccharide receptor, Toll-like receptor-4. PubmedID 15379975 Title Signal transduction by the lip

  2. DMPD: Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: recent advances inunderstanding the role of Toll-like receptors in anti-viral immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17223961 Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: recent advances i...147(2):217-26. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: r...nity. PubmedID 17223961 Title Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: recent advances inund

  3. Toll pathway modulates TNF-induced JNK-dependent cell death in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chenxi; Chen, Changyan; Dai, Jianli; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yujun; Li, Wenzhe; Pastor-Pareja, José Carlos; Xue, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Signalling networks that control the life or death of a cell are of central interest in modern biology. While the defined roles of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway in regulating cell death have been well-established, additional factors that modulate JNK-mediated cell death have yet to be fully elucidated. To identify novel regulators of JNK-dependent cell death, we performed a dominant-modifier screen in Drosophila and found that the Toll pathway participates in JNK-mediated cell death. Loss of Toll signalling suppresses ectopically and physiologically activated JNK signalling-induced cell death. Our epistasis analysis suggests that the Toll pathway acts as a downstream modulator for JNK-dependent cell death. In addition, gain of JNK signalling results in Toll pathway activation, revealed by stimulated transcription of Drosomycin (Drs) and increased cytoplasm-to-nucleus translocation of Dorsal. Furthermore, the Spätzle (Spz) family ligands for the Toll receptor are transcriptionally upregulated by activated JNK signalling in a non-cell-autonomous manner, providing a molecular mechanism for JNK-induced Toll pathway activation. Finally, gain of Toll signalling exacerbates JNK-mediated cell death and promotes cell death independent of caspases. Thus, we have identified another important function for the evolutionarily conserved Toll pathway, in addition to its well-studied roles in embryonic dorso-ventral patterning and innate immunity. PMID:26202785

  4. Systematic review automation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

  5. Simulation of High-Level Way Toll Systemunder the Condition of Mixed Traffic Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Parking-toll on main-line is one of toll models on high-level ways in our country at present. This paper analyzes the flow' s distributing function, queuing model, and vehicle passing time. Through computer simulation, the negative index relationships between carrying capacity and serving time, and the index relationships between the queuing delay and flow are gained under the condition of different serving time and different vehicle type composition. When the flow density is low, the vehicle type composing has less influence on system serving level. Contrarily, also. Disposing toll station by roadway where flow density is high, we can save transection areas of toll station, reduce system queuing delay time, and enhance carrying capacity of toll station.

  6. Cancers take their Toll--the function and regulation of Toll-like receptors in cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, R; Alvero, A B; Silasi, D-A

    2008-01-01

    Cancer could be deemed as an abnormal and uncontrolled tissue repair process. Therefore, it would not be surprising that factors that function in the tissue repair process, such as cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, as well as growth signals for compensatory...... proliferation, would also be key factors in regulating and enhancing cancer progression. The TLR pathways, which play a critical role in tissue repair, are also key regulators in cancer progression as well as chemoresistance. TLRs serve as cell surface sensors that can initiate pathways leading to proliferation...

  7. Chef infrastructure automation cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Marschall, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Chef Infrastructure Automation Cookbook contains practical recipes on everything you will need to automate your infrastructure using Chef. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to automate your server and cloud infrastructure.The book first shows you the simplest way to achieve a certain task. Then it explains every step in detail, so that you can build your knowledge about how things work. Eventually, the book shows you additional things to consider for each approach. That way, you can learn step-by-step and build profound knowledge on how to go about your configuration management

  8. Automation Framework for Flight Dynamics Products Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Robert E.; Esposito, Timothy C.; Watson, John S.; Jun, Linda; Shoan, Wendy; Matusow, Carla

    2010-01-01

    XFDS provides an easily adaptable automation platform. To date it has been used to support flight dynamics operations. It coordinates the execution of other applications such as Satellite TookKit, FreeFlyer, MATLAB, and Perl code. It provides a mechanism for passing messages among a collection of XFDS processes, and allows sending and receiving of GMSEC messages. A unified and consistent graphical user interface (GUI) is used for the various tools. Its automation configuration is stored in text files, and can be edited either directly or using the GUI.

  9. DMPD: Structure, function and regulation of the Toll/IL-1 receptor adaptor proteins. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17667936 Structure, function and regulation of the Toll/IL-1 receptor adaptor prote... (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Structure, function and regulation of the Toll/IL-1 receptor adaptor proteins. ...PubmedID 17667936 Title Structure, function and regulation of the Toll/IL-1 recep

  10. DMPD: Toll-like receptor (TLR)-based networks regulate neutrophilic inflammation inrespiratory disease. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18031251 Toll-like receptor (TLR)-based networks regulate neutrophilic inflammation...l) (.csml) Show Toll-like receptor (TLR)-based networks regulate neutrophilic inflammation inrespiratory dis...ease. PubmedID 18031251 Title Toll-like receptor (TLR)-based networks regulate ne

  11. DMPD: Glucocorticoids and the innate immune system: crosstalk with the toll-likereceptor signaling network. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17576036 Glucocorticoids and the innate immune system: crosstalk with the toll-likereceptor signaling networ...he toll-likereceptor signaling network. PubmedID 17576036 Title Glucocorticoids a...nd the innate immune system: crosstalk with the toll-likereceptor signaling network. Authors Chinenov Y, Rog

  12. 78 FR 56269 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer...) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be...

  13. 78 FR 29207 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer... open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be held...

  14. 78 FR 36304 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer... open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be held...

  15. 78 FR 3500 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer.... (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee...

  16. 78 FR 41193 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer... open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be held...

  17. 78 FR 11277 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer... open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be held...

  18. 77 FR 74920 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer.... (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee...

  19. 78 FR 78517 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer...) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be...

  20. 78 FR 69939 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer...) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be...

  1. 78 FR 15126 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer... open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be held...

  2. 78 FR 22947 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer... open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be held...

  3. 77 FR 67735 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer... Act, 5 U.S.C. App. (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone...

  4. 78 FR 64063 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer...) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be...

  5. DMPD: Proximal effects of Toll-like receptor activation in dendritic cells. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17142025 Proximal effects of Toll-like receptor activation in dendritic cells. Watt...) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Proximal effects of Toll-like receptor activation in dendritic cells. PubmedID... 17142025 Title Proximal effects of Toll-like receptor activation in dendritic ce

  6. DMPD: Innate immunity and toll-like receptors: clinical implications of basic scienceresearch. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15069387 Innate immunity and toll-like receptors: clinical implications of basic science...te immunity and toll-like receptors: clinical implications of basic scienceresearch. PubmedID 15069387 Title... Innate immunity and toll-like receptors: clinical implications of basic sciencer

  7. DMPD: MyDths and un-TOLLed truths: sensor, instructive and effector immunity totuberculosis. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18191460 MyDths and un-TOLLed truths: sensor, instructive and effector immunity tot...g) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show MyDths and un-TOLLed truths: sensor, instructive and effector immunity totube...rculosis. PubmedID 18191460 Title MyDths and un-TOLLed truths: sensor, instructiv

  8. DMPD: Nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like receptors: beyond ligand search. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18321608 Nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like receptors: beyond ligand search. Miyake K. ...id-sensing Toll-like receptors: beyond ligand search. PubmedID 18321608 Title Nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like receptors: beyond liga

  9. DMPD: Toll-like receptors, Notch ligands, and cytokines drive the chronicity of lunginflammation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18073395 Toll-like receptors, Notch ligands, and cytokines drive the chronicity of ...2007 Dec;4(8):635-41. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Toll-like receptors, Notch ligands, and cytokines d...rive the chronicity of lunginflammation. PubmedID 18073395 Title Toll-like receptors, Notch liga

  10. DMPD: Toll-like receptors: novel pharmacological targets for the treatment ofneurological diseases. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17974478 Toll-like receptors: novel pharmacological targets for the treatment ofneu...png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Toll-like receptors: novel pharmacological targets for the treatment ofneur...ological diseases. PubmedID 17974478 Title Toll-like receptors: novel pharmacological targets for the trea...tment ofneurological diseases. Authors Marsh BJ, Stenzel-Poore MP. Publication Curr

  11. DMPD: The negative regulation of Toll-like receptor and associated pathways. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17621314 The negative regulation of Toll-like receptor and associated pathways. Lan...) Show The negative regulation of Toll-like receptor and associated pathways. PubmedID 17621314 Title The ne...gative regulation of Toll-like receptor and associated pathways. Authors Lang T,

  12. DMPD: Toll-like receptors are key participants in innate immune responses. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18064347 Toll-like receptors are key participants in innate immune responses. Aranc...Epub 2007 Nov 21. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Toll-like receptors are key participants in innate immu...ne responses. PubmedID 18064347 Title Toll-like receptors are key participants in

  13. A Method for Estimation of Death Tolls in Disastrous Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, C.; Tien, Y.; Teng, T.

    2004-12-01

    Fatality tolls caused by the disastrous earthquake are the one of the most important items among the earthquake damage and losses. If we can precisely estimate the potential tolls and distribution of fatality in individual districts as soon as the earthquake occurrences, it not only make emergency programs and disaster management more effective but also supply critical information to plan and manage the disaster and the allotments of disaster rescue manpower and medicine resources in a timely manner. In this study, we intend to reach the estimation of death tolls caused by the Chi-Chi earthquake in individual districts based on the Attributive Database of Victims, population data, digital maps and Geographic Information Systems. In general, there were involved many factors including the characteristics of ground motions, geological conditions, types and usage habits of buildings, distribution of population and social-economic situations etc., all are related to the damage and losses induced by the disastrous earthquake. The density of seismic stations in Taiwan is the greatest in the world at present. In the meantime, it is easy to get complete seismic data by earthquake rapid-reporting systems from the Central Weather Bureau: mostly within about a minute or less after the earthquake happened. Therefore, it becomes possible to estimate death tolls caused by the earthquake in Taiwan based on the preliminary information. Firstly, we form the arithmetic mean of the three components of the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) to give the PGA Index for each individual seismic station, according to the mainshock data of the Chi-Chi earthquake. To supply the distribution of Iso-seismic Intensity Contours in any districts and resolve the problems for which there are no seismic station within partial districts through the PGA Index and geographical coordinates in individual seismic station, the Kriging Interpolation Method and the GIS software, The population density depends on

  14. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven

    2016-01-01

    This edited book comprises papers about the impacts, benefits and challenges of connected and automated cars. It is the third volume of the LNMOB series dealing with Road Vehicle Automation. The book comprises contributions from researchers, industry practitioners and policy makers, covering perspectives from the U.S., Europe and Japan. It is based on the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015 which was jointly organized by the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in July 2015. The topical spectrum includes, but is not limited to, public sector activities, human factors, ethical and business aspects, energy and technological perspectives, vehicle systems and transportation infrastructure. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  15. I-94 Automation FAQs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — In order to increase efficiency, reduce operating costs and streamline the admissions process, U.S. Customs and Border Protection has automated Form I-94 at air and...

  16. Hydrometeorological Automated Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of Hydrologic Development of the National Weather Service operates HADS, the Hydrometeorological Automated Data System. This data set contains the last 48...

  17. Automating the Media Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Mary A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the need to develop more efficient information retrieval skills by the use of new technology. Lists four stages used in automating the media center. Describes North Carolina's pilot programs. Proposes benefits and looks at the media center's future. (MVL)

  18. Disassembly automation automated systems with cognitive abilities

    CERN Document Server

    Vongbunyong, Supachai

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a number of aspects to be considered in the development of disassembly automation, including the mechanical system, vision system and intelligent planner. The implementation of cognitive robotics increases the flexibility and degree of autonomy of the disassembly system. Disassembly, as a step in the treatment of end-of-life products, can allow the recovery of embodied value left within disposed products, as well as the appropriate separation of potentially-hazardous components. In the end-of-life treatment industry, disassembly has largely been limited to manual labor, which is expensive in developed countries. Automation is one possible solution for economic feasibility. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  19. ACCOUNTING AUTOMATIONS RISKS

    OpenAIRE

    Муравський, В. В.; Хома, Н. Г.

    2015-01-01

    Accountant accepts active voice in organization of the automated account in the conditions of the informative systems introduction in enterprise activity. Effective accounting automation needs identification and warning of organizational risks. Authors researched, classified and generalized the risks of introduction of the informative accounting systems. The ways of liquidation of the organizational risks sources andminimization of their consequences are gives. The method of the effective con...

  20. Instant Sikuli test automation

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to follow style using the Starter guide approach.This book is aimed at automation and testing professionals who want to use Sikuli to automate GUI. Some Python programming experience is assumed.

  1. Automated security management

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Shaer, Ehab; Xie, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    In this contributed volume, leading international researchers explore configuration modeling and checking, vulnerability and risk assessment, configuration analysis, and diagnostics and discovery. The authors equip readers to understand automated security management systems and techniques that increase overall network assurability and usability. These constantly changing networks defend against cyber attacks by integrating hundreds of security devices such as firewalls, IPSec gateways, IDS/IPS, authentication servers, authorization/RBAC servers, and crypto systems. Automated Security Managemen

  2. Automation of Diagrammatic Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Jamnik, Mateja; Bundy, Alan; Green, Ian

    1997-01-01

    Theorems in automated theorem proving are usually proved by logical formal proofs. However, there is a subset of problems which humans can prove in a different way by the use of geometric operations on diagrams, so called diagrammatic proofs. Insight is more clearly perceived in these than in the corresponding algebraic proofs: they capture an intuitive notion of truthfulness that humans find easy to see and understand. We are identifying and automating this diagrammatic reasoning on mathemat...

  3. Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.

  4. Elements of EAF automation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioana, A.; Constantin, N.; Dragna, E. C.

    2017-01-01

    Our article presents elements of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) automation. So, we present and analyze detailed two automation schemes: the scheme of electrical EAF automation system; the scheme of thermic EAF automation system. The application results of these scheme of automation consists in: the sensitive reduction of specific consummation of electrical energy of Electric Arc Furnace, increasing the productivity of Electric Arc Furnace, increase the quality of the developed steel, increasing the durability of the building elements of Electric Arc Furnace.

  5. Access to Complex Abortion Care Service and Planning Improved through a Toll-Free Telephone Resource Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy V. Norman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Providing equitable access to the full range of reproductive health services over wide geographic areas presents significant challenges to any health system. We present a review of a service provision model which has provided improved access to abortion care; support for complex issues experienced by women seeking nonjudgmental family planning health services; and a mechanism to collect information on access barriers. The toll-free pregnancy options service (POS of British Columbia Women’s Hospital and Health Centre sought to improve access to services and overcome barriers experienced by women seeking abortion. Methods. We describe the development and implementation of a province-wide toll-free telephone counseling and access facilitation service, including establishment of a provincial network of local abortion service providers in the Canadian province of British Columbia from 1998 to 2010. Results. Over 2000 women annually access service via the POS line, networks of care providers are established and linked to central support, and central program planners receive timely information on new service gaps and access barriers. Conclusion. This novel service has been successful in addressing inequities and access barriers identified as priorities before service establishment. The service provided unanticipated benefits to health care planning and monitoring of provincial health care related service delivery and gaps. This model for low cost health service delivery may realize similar benefits when applied to other health care systems where access and referral barriers exist.

  6. Comparison of immune response in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after knock down of Toll and IMD gene in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongjie; Song, Lei; Sun, Yuhang; Liu, Tao; Hou, Fujun; Liu, Xiaolin

    2016-07-01

    The Toll and immune deficiency (IMD) pathways are essential for inducing immune related genes during invasion of pathogens. In the present study, transcripts of eight pathway-related genes in Litopenaeus vannamei, including Toll, IMD, Pelle, IAP1, TRAF6, ALF, Crustin and Penaeidin3 were analyzed to further understand the potential relationship between Toll and IMD pathway. The high transcription levels of TRAF6, Pelle, Toll, IMD and IAP1 in selected tissues indicates their functional roles in Toll and IMD pathways. The increased mRNA expression of Toll and IMD detected in the early stage might suggest the inducible role of Toll and IMD upon bacterial infection. Moreover, the continuous increase of IMD and the high level of Pelle and TRAF6 in Vibrio anguillarum challenged group indicated that Gram-negative bacterium can activate both the Toll and IMD signaling pathway. Silencing of Toll by a dsRNA-mediated RNAi strongly increased the transcripts of IMD, Pelle, TRAF6, IAP1 and Akirin, knocking down of IMD also markedly increased the transcripts of Toll, Pelle, IAP1 and Akirin. Furthermore, ALF expression was significantly increased in response to V. anguillarum and Micrococcus lysodeikticus challenge, while the transcripts of Crustin and Pen3 in hemocytes were significantly reduced in V. anguillarum group, but rose significantly following M. lysodeikticus infection. In summary, we speculate that Toll and IMD pathway are not independent in shrimp, but linked to defense against bacterial infection.

  7. Modeling Increased Complexity and the Reliance on Automation: FLightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the development of a model that is focused on the safety issue of increasing complexity and reliance on automation systems in transport category aircraft. Recent statistics show an increase in mishaps related to manual handling and automation errors due to pilot complacency and over-reliance on automation, loss of situational awareness, automation system failures and/or pilot deficiencies. Consequently, the aircraft can enter a state outside the flight envelope and/or air traffic safety margins which potentially can lead to loss-of-control (LOC), controlled-flight-into-terrain (CFIT), or runway excursion/confusion accidents, etc. The goal of this modeling effort is to provide NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) with a platform capable of assessing the impacts of AvSP technologies and products towards reducing the relative risk of automation related accidents and incidents. In order to do so, a generic framework, capable of mapping both latent and active causal factors leading to automation errors, is developed. Next, the framework is converted into a Bayesian Belief Network model and populated with data gathered from Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). With the insertion of technologies and products, the model provides individual and collective risk reduction acquired by technologies and methodologies developed within AvSP.

  8. A multi-objective model for cordon-based congestion pricing schemes with nonlinear distance tolls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鑫; 刘志远; THOMPSON Russell G; 别一鸣; 翁金贤; 陈淑燕

    2016-01-01

    Congestion pricing is an important component of urban intelligent transport system. The efficiency, equity and the environmental impacts associated with road pricing schemes are key issues that should be considered before such schemes are implemented. This paper focuses on the cordon-based pricing with distance tolls, where the tolls are determined by a nonlinear function of a vehicles’ travel distance within a cordon, termed as toll charge function. The optimal tolls can give rise to:1) higher total social benefits, 2) better levels of equity, and 3) reduced environmental impacts (e.g., less emission). Firstly, a deterministic equilibrium (DUE) model with elastic demand is presented to evaluate any given toll charge function. The distance tolls are non-additive, thus a modified path-based gradient projection algorithm is developed to solve the DUE model. Then, to quantitatively measure the equity level of each toll charge function, the Gini coefficient is adopted to measure the equity level of the flows in the entire transport network based on equilibrium flows. The total emission level is used to reflect the impacts of distance tolls on the environment. With these two indexes/measurements for the efficiency, equity and environmental issues as well as the DUE model, a multi-objective bi-level programming model is then developed to determine optimal distance tolls. The multi-objective model is converted to a single level model using the goal programming. A genetic algorithm (GA) is adopted to determine solutions. Finally, a numerical example is presented to verify the methodology.

  9. Up-regulation of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 in allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uddman Rolf

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toll-like receptors enable the host to recognize a large number of pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide, viral RNA, CpG-containing DNA and flagellin. Toll-like receptors have also been shown to play a pivotal role in both innate and adaptive immune responses. The role of Toll-like receptors as a primary part of our microbe defense system has been shown in several studies, but their possible function as mediators in allergy and asthma remains to be established. The present study was designed to examine the expression of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 in the nasal mucosa of patients with intermittent allergic rhinitis, focusing on changes induced by exposure to pollen. Methods 27 healthy controls and 42 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis volunteered for the study. Nasal biopsies were obtained before and during pollen season as well as before and after allergen challenge. The seasonal material was used for mRNA quantification of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 with real-time polymerase chain reaction, whereas specimens achieved in conjunction with allergen challenge were used for immunohistochemical localization and quantification of corresponding proteins. Results mRNA and protein representing Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 could be demonstrated in all specimens. An increase in protein expression for all three receptors could be seen following allergen challenge, whereas a significant increase of mRNA only could be obtained for Toll-like receptor 3 during pollen season. Conclusion The up-regulation of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 in the nasal mucosa of patients with symptomatic allergic rhinitis supports the idea of a role for Toll-like receptors in allergic airway inflammation.

  10. Targeting Toll-Like Receptors for Treatment of SLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G. Horton

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs are important innate immune receptors for the identification and clearance of invading pathogens. Twelve TLRs that recognize various conserved components of microorganisms are currently known. Among these, the endosomal TLRs 3, 7/8, and 9 recognize dsRNA, ssRNA, and CpG DNA, respectively. Nucleic acid-sensing TLRs, TLR 7 in particular, have been implicated in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and are thought to exacerbate disease pathology. Activation of these TLRs results in the production of inflammatory cytokines and type I interferon. Genome-wide association studies, single nucleotide polymorphism analyses as well as experimental mouse models have provided evidence of TLR signaling involvement in SLE and other autoimmune diseases. Since activation of these receptor pathways promotes autoimmune phenotypes, inhibitory drugs that target these pathways constitute important new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of systemic autoimmunity.

  11. Toll-Like Receptors in Leishmania Infections: Guardians or Promoters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia S. Faria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Protozoa of the genus Leishmania cause a wide variety of pathologies ranging from self-healing skin lesions to visceral damage, depending on the parasite species. The outcome of infection depends on the quality of the adaptive immune response, which is determined by parasite factors and the host genetic background. Innate responses, resulting in the generation of mediators with anti-leishmanial activity, contribute to parasite control and help the development of efficient adaptive responses. Among those, the potential contribution of members of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs family in the control of Leishmania infections started to be investigated about a decade ago. Although most studies appoint a protective role for TLRs, there is growing evidence that in some cases, TLRs facilitate infection. This review highlights recent advances in TLR function during Leishmania infections and discusses their potential role in restraining parasite growth versus yielding disease.

  12. Cannabinoids and Innate Immunity: Taking a Toll on Neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Downer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The biologically active components of cannabis have therapeutic potential in neuroinflammatory disorders due to their anti-inflammatory propensity. Cannabinoids influence immune function in both the peripheral and the central nervous system (CNS, and the components of the cannabinoid system, the cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids, have been detected on immune cells as well as in brain glia. Neuroinflammation is the complex innate immune response of neural tissue to control infection and eliminate pathogens, and Toll-like receptors (TLRs, a major family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs that mediate innate immunity, have emerged as players in the neuroinflammatory processes underpinning various CNS diseases. This review will highlight evidence that cannabinoids interact with the immune system by impacting TLR-mediated signaling events, which may provide cues for devising novel therapeutic approaches for cannabinoid ligands.

  13. Toll-like receptors as therapeutic targets in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Greene, Catherine M

    2008-12-01

    Background: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors that act as a first-line of defence in the innate immune response by recognising and responding to conserved molecular patterns in microbial factors and endogenous danger signals. Cystic fibrosis (CF)-affected airways represent a milieu potentially rich in TLR agonists and the chronic inflammatory phenotype evident in CF airway epithelial cells is probably due in large part to activation of TLRs. Objective\\/methods: To examine the prospects of developing novel therapies for CF by targeting TLRs. We outline the expression and function of TLRs and explore the therapeutic potential of naturally-occurring and synthetic TLR inhibitors for CF. Results\\/conclusion: Modulation of TLRs has therapeutic potential for the inflammatory lung manifestations of CF.

  14. The application of Toll like receptors for cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Young So, Toru Ouchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor (TLR proteins play key roles in immune responses against infection. Using TLR proteins, host can recognize the conserved molecular structures found in pathogens called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs. At the same time, some TLRs are able to detect specific host molecules, such as high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1 and heat shock proteins (hsp, and lead to inflammatory responses. Thus, it has been suggested that TLRs are involved in the development of many pathogenic conditions. Recent advances in TLR-related research not only provide us with scientific information, but also show the therapeutic potential against diseases, such as autoimmune disease and cancer. In this mini review, we demonstrate how TLRs pathways could be involved in cancer development and their therapeutic application, and discuss recent patentable subjects, in particular, that are targeting this unique pathway.

  15. Toll-like receptor responses in IRAK-4-deficient neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bruggen, Robin; Drewniak, Agata; Tool, Anton T J; Jansen, Machiel; van Houdt, Michel; Geissler, Judy; van den Berg, Timo K; Chapel, Helen; Kuijpers, Taco W

    2010-01-01

    Human neutrophils were found to express all known Toll-like receptors (TLRs) except TLR3 and TLR7. IRAK-4-deficient neutrophils were tested for their responsiveness to various TLR ligands. Essentially all TLR responses in neutrophils, including the induction of reactive oxygen species generation, adhesion, chemotaxis and IL-8 secretion, were found to be dependent on IRAK-4. Surprisingly, the reactivity towards certain established TLR ligands, imiquimod and ODN-CpG, was unaffected by IRAK-4 deficiency, demonstrating their activity is independent of TLR. TLR-4-dependent signaling in neutrophils was totally dependent on IRAK-4 without any major TRIF-mediated contribution. We did not observe any defects in killing capacity of IRAK-4-deficient neutrophils for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans, suggesting that microbial killing is primarily TLR independent.

  16. Toll-like receptors as targets for immune disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keogh, Brian

    2012-02-01

    Since the identification of the first Toll-like receptor (TLR) in humans in 1997, understanding of the molecular basis for innate immunity has increased significantly. The TLR family and downstream signalling pathways have been extensively characterised, There is now significant evidence suggesting a role for TLRs in human inflammatory and immune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, allergy\\/asthma and atherosclerosis. Various approaches have been taken to identify novel therapeutic agents targeting TLRs including biologics, small molecules and nucleic acid-based drugs. Several are now being evaluated in the clinic and showing promise against various diseases. This review paper outlines the recent advances in the understanding of TLR biology and highlights novel TLR agonists and antagonists in development for the treatment of immune diseases.

  17. Toll-Like Receptors, Their Ligands, and Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad P. Hodgkinson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a disease characterized by inflammation in the arterial wall. Atherogenesis is dependent on the innate immune response involving activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs and the expression of inflammatory proteins. TLRs, which recognize various pathogen-associated molecular patterns, are expressed in various cell types within the atherosclerotic plaque. Microbial agents are associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and this is, in part, due to activation of TLRs. Recently considerable evidence has been provided suggesting that endogenous proteins promote atherosclerosis by binding to TLRs. In this review, we describe the role of TLRs in atherosclerosis with particular emphasis on those atherogenic endogenous proteins that have been implicated as TLR ligands.

  18. THE IMPACT OF ANTIFUNGALS ON TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Radu Mihu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are increasingly recognized as major pathogens in immunocompromised individuals. The most common invasive fungal infections are caused by Candida spp., Aspergillus spp. and Cryptococcus spp. Amphotericin B has remained the cornerstone of therapy against many fulminant fungal infections but its use is limited by its multitude of side effects. Echinocandins are a newer class of antifungal drugs with activity against Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. and constitutes an alternative to amphotericin B due to superior patient tolerability and fewer side effects. Due to their excellent bioavailability and oral availability, azoles continue to be heavily used for simple, such as fluconazole for candidal vaginitis, and complex diseases, such as voriconazole for aspergilloisis. The objective of this paper is to present current knowledge regarding the multiple interactions between the broad spectrum antifungals and the innate immune response, primarily focusing on the toll-like receptors.

  19. Protein Kinase C and Toll-Like Receptor Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Loegering

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinase C (PKC is a family of kinases that are implicated in a plethora of diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. PKC isoforms can have different, and sometimes opposing, effects in these disease states. Toll-like receptors (TLRs are a family of pattern recognition receptors that bind pathogens and stimulate the secretion of cytokines. It has long been known that PKC inhibitors reduce LPS-stimulated cytokine secretion by macrophages, linking PKC activation to TLR signaling. Recent studies have shown that PKC-α, -δ, -ε, and -ζ are directly involved in multiple steps in TLR pathways. They associate with the TLR or proximal components of the receptor complex. These isoforms are also involved in the downstream activation of MAPK, RhoA, TAK1, and NF-κB. Thus, PKC activation is intimately involved in TLR signaling and the innate immune response.

  20. 78 FR 39296 - Proposed Information Collection Activity; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... at the option of the State, where appropriate, mentoring, counseling, and adult supervision to... of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Consideration will...

  1. 75 FR 56546 - Proposed Information Collection Activity; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... provide abstinence ] education, and at the option of the State, where appropriate, mentoring, counseling... respondents, including through the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of...

  2. 78 FR 39296 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ..., utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and (4) the use of automated collection... this process includes the time for the organization to collect and input the necessary information... Identifier: CMS-10486] Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request...

  3. Traffic-related air quality assessment for open road tolling highway facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jie; Yu, Dan

    2008-09-01

    Open road tolling (ORT) design has been considered as an effective means of smoothing highway traffic and reducing travel delay on toll highways. In this paper it is demonstrated that ORT can also achieve significant air quality benefits over the conventional toll plaza design. The near roadside carbon monoxide (CO) concentration levels can be reduced by up to 37%, and diesel particulate matter (DPM) emissions can decrease by as much as 58%. These large expected air quality benefits have great implications to the regional efforts of reducing mobile source air pollution toward achieving attainment status and healthier living environment.

  4. 78 FR 3968 - Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... Surface Transportation Board Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT... quality, utility, and clarity of the information collected; and (4) ways to minimize the burden of the collection of information on the respondents, including the use of automated collection techniques or...

  5. Materials Testing and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Wayne D.; Zweigoron, Ronald B.

    1980-07-01

    The advent of automation in materials testing has been in large part responsible for recent radical changes in the materials testing field: Tests virtually impossible to perform without a computer have become more straightforward to conduct. In addition, standardized tests may be performed with enhanced efficiency and repeatability. A typical automated system is described in terms of its primary subsystems — an analog station, a digital computer, and a processor interface. The processor interface links the analog functions with the digital computer; it includes data acquisition, command function generation, and test control functions. Features of automated testing are described with emphasis on calculated variable control, control of a variable that is computed by the processor and cannot be read directly from a transducer. Three calculated variable tests are described: a yield surface probe test, a thermomechanical fatigue test, and a constant-stress-intensity range crack-growth test. Future developments are discussed.

  6. Automation of Taxiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Bursík

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the possibility of automation of taxiing, which is the part of a flight, which, under adverse weather conditions, greatly reduces the operational usability of an airport, and is the only part of a flight that has not been affected by automation, yet. Taxiing is currently handled manually by the pilot, who controls the airplane based on information from visual perception. The article primarily deals with possible ways of obtaining navigational information, and its automatic transfer to the controls. Analyzed wand assessed were currently available technologies such as computer vision, Light Detection and Ranging and Global Navigation Satellite System, which are useful for navigation and their general implementation into an airplane was designed. Obstacles to the implementation were identified, too. The result is a proposed combination of systems along with their installation into airplane’s systems so that it is possible to use the automated taxiing.

  7. Automating the CMS DAQ

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gerry; Behrens, Ulf; Branson, James; Chaze, Olivier; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Hartl, Christian; Hegeman, Jeroen Guido; Holzner, Andre Georg; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Franciscus; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius; Morovic, Srecko; Nunez Barranco Fernandez, Carlos; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Ozga, Wojciech Andrzej; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schwick, Christoph; Spataru, Andrei Cristian; Stieger, Benjamin Bastian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Veverka, Jan; Wakefield, Christopher Colin; Zejdl, Petr

    2014-01-01

    We present the automation mechanisms that have been added to the Data Acquisition and Run Control systems of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment during Run 1 of the LHC, ranging from the automation of routine tasks to automatic error recovery and context-sensitive guidance to the operator. These mechanisms helped CMS to maintain a data taking efficiency above 90\\% and to even improve it to 95\\% towards the end of Run 1, despite an increase in the occurrence of single-event upsets in sub-detector electronics at high LHC luminosity.

  8. Automating the CMS DAQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.; et al.

    2014-01-01

    We present the automation mechanisms that have been added to the Data Acquisition and Run Control systems of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment during Run 1 of the LHC, ranging from the automation of routine tasks to automatic error recovery and context-sensitive guidance to the operator. These mechanisms helped CMS to maintain a data taking efficiency above 90% and to even improve it to 95% towards the end of Run 1, despite an increase in the occurrence of single-event upsets in sub-detector electronics at high LHC luminosity.

  9. Automated Detection of Solar Eruptions

    CERN Document Server

    Hurlburt, Neal

    2015-01-01

    Observation of the solar atmosphere reveals a wide range of motions, from small scale jets and spicules to global-scale coronal mass ejections. Identifying and characterizing these motions are essential to advancing our understanding the drivers of space weather. Both automated and visual identifications are currently used in identifying CMEs. To date, eruptions near the solar surface (which may be precursors to CMEs) have been identified primarily by visual inspection. Here we report on EruptionPatrol (EP): a software module that is designed to automatically identify eruptions from data collected by SDO/AIA. We describe the method underlying the module and compare its results to previous identifications found in the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase. EP identifies eruptions events that are consistent with those found by human annotations, but in a significantly more consistent and quantitative manner. Eruptions are found to be distributed within 15Mm of the solar surface. They possess peak speeds ranging from...

  10. Altering user' acceptance of automation through prior automation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekier, Marek; Molesworth, Brett R C

    2016-08-22

    Air navigation service providers worldwide see increased use of automation as one solution to overcome the capacity constraints imbedded in the present air traffic management (ATM) system. However, increased use of automation within any system is dependent on user acceptance. The present research sought to determine if the point at which an individual is no longer willing to accept or cooperate with automation can be manipulated. Forty participants underwent training on a computer-based air traffic control programme, followed by two ATM exercises (order counterbalanced), one with and one without the aid of automation. Results revealed after exposure to a task with automation assistance, user acceptance of high(er) levels of automation ('tipping point') decreased; suggesting it is indeed possible to alter automation acceptance. Practitioner Summary: This paper investigates whether the point at which a user of automation rejects automation (i.e. 'tipping point') is constant or can be manipulated. The results revealed after exposure to a task with automation assistance, user acceptance of high(er) levels of automation decreased; suggesting it is possible to alter automation acceptance.

  11. Vene toll rikkus Eesti kunstnike suurnäituse / Oliver Rand, Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rand, Oliver, 1971-

    2000-01-01

    Sankt-Peterburis pidi avatama eesti kunsti näitus, kuid Ivangorodi toll ei lasknud taieseid vedanud bussi ebapiisavate dokumentide tõttu üle piiri. Näitust organiseeris galerii D 137, konsultant Lada Shamshurina

  12. DMPD: The Toll-like receptors: analysis by forward genetic methods. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ods. Authors Beutler B. Publication Immunogenetics. 2005 Jul;57(6):385-92. Pathwa...y forward genetic methods. PubmedID 16001129 Title The Toll-like receptors: analysis by forward genetic meth

  13. Ligands, cell-based models, and readouts required for Toll-like receptor action.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dellacasagrande, Jerome

    2012-02-01

    This chapter details the tools that are available to study Toll-like receptor (TLR) biology in vitro. This includes ligands, host cells, and readouts. The use of modified TLRs to circumvent some technical problems is also discussed.

  14. Characterization of promoter sequence of toll-like receptor genes in Vechur cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lakshmi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyze the promoter sequence of toll-like receptor (TLR genes in Vechur cattle, an indigenous breed of Kerala with the sequence of Bos taurus and access the differences that could be attributed to innate immune responses against bovine mastitis. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from Jugular vein of Vechur cattle, maintained at Vechur cattle conservation center of Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, using an acid-citrate-dextrose anticoagulant. The genomic DNA was extracted, and polymerase chain reaction was carried out to amplify the promoter region of TLRs. The amplified product of TLR2, 4, and 9 promoter regions was sequenced by Sanger enzymatic DNA sequencing technique. Results: The sequence of promoter region of TLR2 of Vechur cattle with the B. taurus sequence present in GenBank showed 98% similarity and revealed variants for four sequence motifs. The sequence of the promoter region of TLR4 of Vechur cattle revealed 99% similarity with that of B. taurus sequence but not reveals significant variant in motifregions. However, two heterozygous loci were observed from the chromatogram. Promoter sequence of TLR9 gene also showed 99% similarity to B. taurus sequence and revealed variants for four sequence motifs. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that significant variation in the promoter of TLR2 and 9 genes in Vechur cattle breed and may potentially link the influence the innate immunity response against mastitis diseases.

  15. Experimental models of acute infection and Toll-like receptor driven septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferstl, Ruth; Spiller, Stephan; Fichte, Sylvia; Dreher, Stefan; Kirschning, Carsten J

    2009-01-01

    Mainly Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial infections, but also other infections such as with fungal or viral pathogens, can cause the life-threatening clinical condition of septic shock. Transgression of the host immune response from a local level limited to the pathogen's place of entry to the systemic level is recognised as a major mode of action leading to sepsis. This view has been established upon demonstration of the capacity of specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) to elicit symptoms of septic shock upon systemic administration. Immune stimulatory PAMPs are agonists of soluble, cytoplasmic, as well as/or cell membrane-anchored and/or -spanning pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). However, reflection of pathogen-host crosstalk triggering sepsis pathogenesis upon an infection by a host response to challenge with an isolated PAMP is incomplete. Therefore, an experimental model more reflective of pathogen-host interaction requires experimental host confrontation with a specific pathogen in its viable form resulting in a collective stimulation of a variety of specific PRRs. This chapter describes methods to analyse innate pathogen sensing by the host on both a cellular and systemic level.

  16. NILAI GUNA (KEPUASAN GREEN TECHNOLOGY E-TOLL SEBAGAI SALAH SATU ALTERNATIF LAYANAN PADA KONSUMEN PENGGUNA TOL DALAM KOTA JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enggal Sriwardiningsih

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumer satisfaction should be provided by organization. The Government service in the form of e-toll green technology is an alternative service in toll road for public. This service is still new in the implementation. Therefore, it is necessary to do a study in the level of elasticity of the e-toll service. Consumer satisfaction from toll users becomes a measure of the success rate from this service. Consumer satisfaction from toll users who use e-toll will be achieved if they are satisfied with the e-toll product and GTO service. This study aims to test a model that explains consumer satisfaction from e-toll users. The theory underlying this study was service quality and satisfaction. The study was conducted on the toll roads in Jakarta. Unit analysis was e-toll users. Samples were taken based on convenient sampling. Structural Equation Modelling used SPSS 16.0 software and elasticity formula was used to test the hypothesis; while the implication for transport domain

  17. The immune responses triggered by CpG ODNs in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei are associated with LvTolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Lingling; Yue, Feng; Yi, Qilin; Huang, Mengmeng; Liu, Rui; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng

    2014-03-01

    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) represent a kind of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) as well as a novel adjuvant that activate the innate immune system through interaction with Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in mammals. In the present study, the synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides, CpG ODN 2395, was employed to investigate the interactive mode of CpG ODNs with three known Tolls (LvToll1-3) from shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The mature peptides of extracellular domains of LvTolls (LvToll-ECDs) were recombinant expressed and their binding activities to CpG ODN 2395 were further examined by ELISA. rLvToll1-ECD and rLvToll3-ECD exhibited affinity to CpG ODN 2395 in a dose-dependent manner when their concentrations ranged from 0.25 to 2.00 μmol/L, while rLvToll2-ECD did not show any binding activities to CpG ODN 2395 in tested concentrations. Additionally, after the stimulation of CpG ODN 2395, the luciferase activities of HEK293T cells transfected with LvToll1-mosaic or LvToll3-mosaic were significantly increased to 2.38-fold (pvannamei were indispensable for the triggering of immune responses by CpG ODNs, and the results provided a foundation for the application of CpG ODNs as the novel immunostimulants in aquaculture.

  18. Combating Drug Abuse by Targeting Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0345 PROJECT TITLE: Combating drug abuse by targeting toll-like receptor 4 (TLR) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Linda...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER not applicable Combating drug abuse by targeting toll-like receptor 4 (TLR) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0345 5c. PROGRAM...naltrexone; drug abuse ; glial activation; therapeutic approach to treating drug abuse ; opioids; cocaine 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION

  19. Simulation model of discret events applied to the planning and operation of a toll plaza

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    AbstractThis work investigates the congestion and traffic flow in a tool plaza, and proposes a methodology for the classification of highway flows and its service levels based on a combination of the Highway Capacity Manual – HCM and Discrete Events Simulation fundaments. The proposed mesoscopic simulation is used to analyze service levels of different physical and operational arrangements of a particular toll gate. The model considers speed functions, toll gate arrivals and departures,...

  20. 78 FR 48462 - Comment Request for Information Collection: American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), High...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection: American Recovery and... proposed and/or continuing collections of information in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of... via TTY by calling the toll-free Federal Information Relay Service at 1-877-889-5627 (TTY/TDD)....

  1. The Drosophila Toll pathway controls but does not clear Candida glabrata infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintin, Jessica; Asmar, Joelle; Matskevich, Alexey A; Lafarge, Marie-Céline; Ferrandon, Dominique

    2013-03-15

    The pathogenicity of Candida glabrata to patients remains poorly understood for lack of convenient animal models to screen large numbers of mutants for altered virulence. In this study, we explore the minihost model Drosophila melanogaster from the dual perspective of host and pathogen. As in vertebrates, wild-type flies contain C. glabrata systemic infections yet are unable to kill the injected yeasts. As for other fungal infections in Drosophila, the Toll pathway restrains C. glabrata proliferation. Persistent C. glabrata yeasts in wild-type flies do not appear to be able to take shelter in hemocytes from the action of the Toll pathway, the effectors of which remain to be identified. Toll pathway mutant flies succumb to injected C. glabrata. In this immunosuppressed background, cellular defenses provide a residual level of protection. Although both the Gram-negative binding protein 3 pattern recognition receptor and the Persephone protease-dependent detection pathway are required for Toll pathway activation by C. glabrata, only GNBP3, and not psh mutants, are susceptible to the infection. Both Candida albicans and C. glabrata are restrained by the Toll pathway, yet the comparative study of phenoloxidase activation reveals a differential activity of the Toll pathway against these two fungal pathogens. Finally, we establish that the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway and yapsins are required for virulence of C. glabrata in this model. Unexpectedly, yapsins do not appear to be required to counteract the cellular immune response but are needed for the colonization of the wild-type host.

  2. Combined Prediction Model of Death Toll for Road Traffic Accidents Based on Independent and Dependent Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhong-xiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to build a combined model which can meet the variation rule of death toll data for road traffic accidents and can reflect the influence of multiple factors on traffic accidents and improve prediction accuracy for accidents, the Verhulst model was built based on the number of death tolls for road traffic accidents in China from 2002 to 2011; and car ownership, population, GDP, highway freight volume, highway passenger transportation volume, and highway mileage were chosen as the factors to build the death toll multivariate linear regression model. Then the two models were combined to be a combined prediction model which has weight coefficient. Shapley value method was applied to calculate the weight coefficient by assessing contributions. Finally, the combined model was used to recalculate the number of death tolls from 2002 to 2011, and the combined model was compared with the Verhulst and multivariate linear regression models. The results showed that the new model could not only characterize the death toll data characteristics but also quantify the degree of influence to the death toll by each influencing factor and had high accuracy as well as strong practicability.

  3. Microcontroller for automation application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    The description of a microcontroller currently being developed for automation application was given. It is basically an 8-bit microcomputer with a 40K byte random access memory/read only memory, and can control a maximum of 12 devices through standard 15-line interface ports.

  4. Automated Composite Column Wrapping

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    The Automated Composite Column Wrapping is performed by a patented machine known as Robo-Wrapper. Currently there are three versions of the machine available for bridge retrofit work depending on the size of the columns being wrapped. Composite column retrofit jacket systems can be structurally just as effective as conventional steel jacketing in improving the seismic response characteristics of substandard reinforced concrete columns.

  5. Automated Web Applications Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan CĂPRIŢĂ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Unit tests are a vital part of several software development practicesand processes such as Test-First Programming, Extreme Programming andTest-Driven Development. This article shortly presents the software quality andtesting concepts as well as an introduction to an automated unit testingframework for PHP web based applications.

  6. Automated Student Model Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedinger, Kenneth R.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth A.; Stamper, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Student modeling plays a critical role in developing and improving instruction and instructional technologies. We present a technique for automated improvement of student models that leverages the DataShop repository, crowd sourcing, and a version of the Learning Factors Analysis algorithm. We demonstrate this method on eleven educational…

  7. Automated Accounting. Instructor Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Duane R.

    This curriculum guide was developed to assist business instructors using Dac Easy Accounting College Edition Version 2.0 software in their accounting programs. The module consists of four units containing assignment sheets and job sheets designed to enable students to master competencies identified in the area of automated accounting. The first…

  8. ERGONOMICS AND PROCESS AUTOMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Carrión Muñoz, Rolando; Docente de la FII - UNMSM

    2014-01-01

    The article shows the role that ergonomics in automation of processes, and the importance for Industrial Engineering.  El artículo nos muestra el papel que tiene la ergonomía en la automatización de los procesos, y la importancia para la Ingeniería Industrial.

  9. Mechatronic Design Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun

    successfully design analogue filters, vibration absorbers, micro-electro-mechanical systems, and vehicle suspension systems, all in an automatic or semi-automatic way. It also investigates the very important issue of co-designing plant-structures and dynamic controllers in automated design of Mechatronic...

  10. Protokoller til Home Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kristian Ellebæk

    2008-01-01

    computer, der kan skifte mellem foruddefinerede indstillinger. Nogle gange kan computeren fjernstyres over internettet, så man kan se hjemmets status fra en computer eller måske endda fra en mobiltelefon. Mens nævnte anvendelser er klassiske indenfor home automation, er yderligere funktionalitet dukket op...

  11. Myths in test automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmine Francis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myths in automation of software testing is an issue of discussion that echoes about the areas of service in validation of software industry. Probably, the first though that appears in knowledgeable reader would be Why this old topic again? What's New to discuss the matter? But, for the first time everyone agrees that undoubtedly automation testing today is not today what it used to be ten or fifteen years ago, because it has evolved in scope and magnitude. What began as a simple linear scripts for web applications today has a complex architecture and a hybrid framework to facilitate the implementation of testing applications developed with various platforms and technologies. Undoubtedly automation has advanced, but so did the myths associated with it. The change in perspective and knowledge of people on automation has altered the terrain. This article reflects the points of views and experience of the author in what has to do with the transformation of the original myths in new versions, and how they are derived; also provides his thoughts on the new generation of myths.

  12. Automating spectral measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Fred T.

    2008-09-01

    This paper discusses the architecture of software utilized in spectroscopic measurements. As optical coatings become more sophisticated, there is mounting need to automate data acquisition (DAQ) from spectrophotometers. Such need is exacerbated when 100% inspection is required, ancillary devices are utilized, cost reduction is crucial, or security is vital. While instrument manufacturers normally provide point-and-click DAQ software, an application programming interface (API) may be missing. In such cases automation is impossible or expensive. An API is typically provided in libraries (*.dll, *.ocx) which may be embedded in user-developed applications. Users can thereby implement DAQ automation in several Windows languages. Another possibility, developed by FTG as an alternative to instrument manufacturers' software, is the ActiveX application (*.exe). ActiveX, a component of many Windows applications, provides means for programming and interoperability. This architecture permits a point-and-click program to act as automation client and server. Excel, for example, can control and be controlled by DAQ applications. Most importantly, ActiveX permits ancillary devices such as barcode readers and XY-stages to be easily and economically integrated into scanning procedures. Since an ActiveX application has its own user-interface, it can be independently tested. The ActiveX application then runs (visibly or invisibly) under DAQ software control. Automation capabilities are accessed via a built-in spectro-BASIC language with industry-standard (VBA-compatible) syntax. Supplementing ActiveX, spectro-BASIC also includes auxiliary serial port commands for interfacing programmable logic controllers (PLC). A typical application is automatic filter handling.

  13. 78 FR 72066 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. DATES: Consideration will be given....regulations.gov . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Federal Docket Management Systems... Number: Assessing Options for CONUS Domestic Dependents Elementary and Secondary Schools (DDESS);...

  14. 77 FR 3234 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. DATES: Consideration will be given... . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Mail: Federal Docket Management Systems Office, 4800... sponsored research does not unduly interfere with the classroom instructional process or the...

  15. Towards Automated Annotation of Benthic Survey Images: Variability of Human Experts and Operational Modes of Automation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Beijbom

    Full Text Available Global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors have heightened the need to rapidly characterize ecological changes in marine benthic communities across large scales. Digital photography enables rapid collection of survey images to meet this need, but the subsequent image annotation is typically a time consuming, manual task. We investigated the feasibility of using automated point-annotation to expedite cover estimation of the 17 dominant benthic categories from survey-images captured at four Pacific coral reefs. Inter- and intra- annotator variability among six human experts was quantified and compared to semi- and fully- automated annotation methods, which are made available at coralnet.ucsd.edu. Our results indicate high expert agreement for identification of coral genera, but lower agreement for algal functional groups, in particular between turf algae and crustose coralline algae. This indicates the need for unequivocal definitions of algal groups, careful training of multiple annotators, and enhanced imaging technology. Semi-automated annotation, where 50% of the annotation decisions were performed automatically, yielded cover estimate errors comparable to those of the human experts. Furthermore, fully-automated annotation yielded rapid, unbiased cover estimates but with increased variance. These results show that automated annotation can increase spatial coverage and decrease time and financial outlay for image-based reef surveys.

  16. Towards Automated Annotation of Benthic Survey Images: Variability of Human Experts and Operational Modes of Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijbom, Oscar; Edmunds, Peter J.; Roelfsema, Chris; Smith, Jennifer; Kline, David I.; Neal, Benjamin P.; Dunlap, Matthew J.; Moriarty, Vincent; Fan, Tung-Yung; Tan, Chih-Jui; Chan, Stephen; Treibitz, Tali; Gamst, Anthony; Mitchell, B. Greg; Kriegman, David

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change and other anthropogenic stressors have heightened the need to rapidly characterize ecological changes in marine benthic communities across large scales. Digital photography enables rapid collection of survey images to meet this need, but the subsequent image annotation is typically a time consuming, manual task. We investigated the feasibility of using automated point-annotation to expedite cover estimation of the 17 dominant benthic categories from survey-images captured at four Pacific coral reefs. Inter- and intra- annotator variability among six human experts was quantified and compared to semi- and fully- automated annotation methods, which are made available at coralnet.ucsd.edu. Our results indicate high expert agreement for identification of coral genera, but lower agreement for algal functional groups, in particular between turf algae and crustose coralline algae. This indicates the need for unequivocal definitions of algal groups, careful training of multiple annotators, and enhanced imaging technology. Semi-automated annotation, where 50% of the annotation decisions were performed automatically, yielded cover estimate errors comparable to those of the human experts. Furthermore, fully-automated annotation yielded rapid, unbiased cover estimates but with increased variance. These results show that automated annotation can increase spatial coverage and decrease time and financial outlay for image-based reef surveys. PMID:26154157

  17. Toll-Like Receptor Pathways in Autoimmune Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Qing; Szodoray, Peter; Zeher, Margit

    2016-02-01

    Autoimmune diseases are a family of chronic systemic inflammatory disorders, characterized by the dysregulation of the immune system which finally results in the break of tolerance to self-antigen. Several studies suggest that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an essential role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. TLRs belong to the family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize a wide range of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). TLRs are type I transmembrane proteins and located on various cellular membranes. Two main groups have been classified based on their location; the extracelluar group referred to the ones located on the plasma membrane while the intracellular group all located in endosomal compartments responsible for the recognition of nucleic acids. They are released by the host cells and trigger various intracellular pathways which results in the production of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, as well as the expression of co-stimulatory molecules to protect against invading microorganisms. In particular, TLR pathway-associated proteins, such as IRAK, TRAF, and SOCS, are often dysregulated in this group of diseases. TLR-associated gene expression profile analysis together with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assessment could be important to explain the pathomechanism driving autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize recent findings on TLR pathway regulation in various autoimmune diseases, including Sjögren's syndrome (SS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic sclerosis (SSc), and psoriasis.

  18. The Toll-like receptor pathway establishes commensal gut colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, June L.; Lee, S. Melanie; Li, Jennifer; Tran, Gloria; Jabri, Bana; Chatila, Talal A.; Mazmanian, Sarkis K.

    2011-01-01

    Mucosal surfaces are in continuous contact with microbes. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate recognition of microbial molecules to eliminate pathogens. In contrast, we demonstrate here that the prominent gut commensal, Bacteroides fragilis, activates the TLR pathway on T lymphocytes to establish host-microbial symbiosis. TLR2 deletion on CD4+ T cells results in anti-microbial immune responses that reduce B. fragilis colonization of a unique mucosal niche during homeostasis. A symbiosis factor (PSA) of B. fragilis activates TLR2 directly on Foxp3+ regulatory T cells through a novel process to engender mucosal tolerance. Remarkably, B. fragilis lacking PSA is unable to restrain host immune responses and is defective in niche-specific mucosal colonization. Therefore, unlike pathogens whose TLR ligands trigger inflammation, some commensal bacteria exploit the TLR pathway to actively suppress immune reactions. We propose that the immunologic distinction between pathogens and the microbiota is mediated not solely by host mechanisms, but also through specialized molecules evolved by symbiotic bacteria that enable commensal colonization. PMID:21512004

  19. Toll-Like Receptor 9 Agonists for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Melisi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The immune system has acquired increasing importance as a key player in cancer maintenance and growth. Thus, modulating anti-tumor immune mediators has become an attractive strategy for cancer treatment. Toll-like receptors (TLRs have gradually emerged as potential targets of newer immunotherapies. TLR-9 is preferentially expressed on endosome membranes of B-cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC and is known for its ability to stimulate specific immune reactions through the activation of inflammation-like innate responses. Several synthetic CpG oligonucleotides (ODNs have been developed as TLR-9 agonists with the aim of enhancing cancer immune surveillance. In many preclinical models, CpG ODNs were found to suppress tumor growth and proliferation both in monotherapy and in addition to chemotherapies or target therapies. TLR-9 agonists have been also tested in several clinical trials in patients with solid tumors. These agents showed good tolerability and usually met activity endpoints in early phase trials. However, they have not yet been demonstrated to significantly impact survival, neither as single agent treatments, nor in combination with chemotherapies or cancer vaccines. Further investigations in larger prospective studies are required.

  20. The Role of Toll Like Receptors in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Amirchaghmaghi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available For many years, the innate immunity was of less interest than the adaptive immunity because it was perceived to have secondary importance in the functionality of the immune system. During the past decades, with the advancement of knowledge about innate immune system, interest in innate immunity has grown dramatically and thus its function has been extensively studied. Innate immunity plays fundamental roles in the initiation and induction of adaptive immune responses. It consists of several cells and receptors including natural killer (NK cells, macrophages (MQs, dendritic cells (DCs and pattern recognition receptors (PRRs. Two decades ago, Toll like receptors (TLRs family was known as one of the important PRRs with unique functions especially in protection against invading pathogens. Since the female reproductive tract has access to the outside environment and has a unique interaction with different pathogens whether invading microorganisms or normal flora, allogenic sperm and semi allogenic fetus, it has an essential need for effective immune responses. It has therefore been suggested that TLRs may play important roles in the immune regulation of the female reproductive tract. In addition, it has been demonstrated that immune disturbance may be responsible for some adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preeclampsia (PE, recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. Our focus in this review is to show the importance of TLRs in pregnancy with emphasis on the expression of these receptors in different tissues related to pregnancy.

  1. Role of Toll-like receptors in diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudaliar, Harshini; Pollock, Carol; Panchapakesan, Usha

    2014-05-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of kidney failure and its increasing prevalence and incidence has imposed global socio-economic stress on healthcare systems worldwide. Although historically considered a metabolic disorder, recent studies have established that inflammatory responses are central to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. TLRs (Toll-like receptors) are a family of pattern recognition receptors responsible for the initiation of inflammatory and immune responses. The regulation of TLR2 and TLR4 have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various kidney diseases, and emerging evidence shows their involvement in the perpetuation of inflammation in the diabetic kidney. The present review focuses on the relative contributions of TLR2 and TLR4 in recognizing endogenous ligands relevant to diabetic nephropathy and their subsequent activation of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB), which results in the synthesis and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Moreover, we discuss the pro-inflammatory signalling pathways of TLR2 and TLR4, in which their interruption or blockade may prove to be important therapeutic targets, potentially translated into clinical treatments for diabetic nephropathy. Currently, inhibitors to TLR2 and TLR4 are undergoing clinical trials in various inflammatory models of disease, but none in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Given the existing literature, there is a fundamental necessity to undertake trials in patients with diabetic nephropathy with a focus on renal end points.

  2. Comparative studies of Toll-like receptor signalling using zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwal, Zakia; Wiegertjes, Geert F; Veneman, Wouter J; Meijer, Annemarie H; Spaink, Herman P

    2014-09-01

    Zebrafish model systems for infectious disease are increasingly used for the functional analysis of molecular pattern recognition processes. These studies benefit from the high conservation level of all innate immune factors in vertebrates. Zebrafish studies are strategically well positioned for this because of the ease of comparisons with studies in other fish species of which the immune system also has been intensively studied, but that are currently still less amendable to detailed genetic or microscopic studies. In this paper we focus on Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling factors, which currently are the best characterized in mammalian systems. We review the knowledge on TLR signalling in the context of recent advances in zebrafish studies and discuss possibilities for future approaches that can complement studies in cell cultures and rodent models. A focus in these comparisons is the role of negative control mechanisms in immune responses that appear very important in a whole organism to keep adverse systemic responses in check. We also pay much attention to comparisons with studies in common carp that is highly related to zebrafish and that because of its large body mass can complement immune studies in zebrafish.

  3. Mechanisms of disease: Toll-like receptors in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Stefan; Ertl, Georg; Bauersachs, Johann

    2007-08-01

    The innate immune system detects highly conserved, relatively invariant structural motifs of pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been identified as the primary innate immune receptors. TLRs distinguish between different patterns of pathogens and activate a rapid innate immune response; however, TLRs can also be activated by host-derived molecules. In addition to being expressed in immune cells, TLRs are expressed in other tissues, such as those of the cardiovascular system. TLRs could, therefore, be a key link between cardiovascular disease development and the immune system. Indeed, evidence that TLR activation contributes to the development and progression of atherosclerosis, cardiac dysfunction in sepsis, and congestive heart failure, is convincing. Although much has been learned about TLR activation in cellular components of the cardiovascular system, the role individual TLR family members have in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases and hence in clinical practice remains to be defined. Here we review the rapid progress that has been made in this field, which has improved our understanding of vascular as well as myocardial TLR function in basic and clinical science.

  4. DMPD: Toll-like receptors: paving the path to T cell-driven autoimmunity? [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17888644 Toll-like receptors: paving the path to T cell-driven autoimmunity? Marsla...nd BJ, Kopf M. Curr Opin Immunol. 2007 Dec;19(6):611-4. Epub 2007 Sep 21. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Toll-...like receptors: paving the path to T cell-driven autoimmunity? PubmedID 17888644 Title Toll-like recep...tors: paving the path to T cell-driven autoimmunity? Authors Marsland BJ, Kopf M.

  5. 78 FR 52215 - Notice of Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... collection to the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget, 725 17th... in the 14-20 age groups. It connects classroom training to tangible activities that enable practical... burden of the collection of information on respondents, including automated collection techniques or...

  6. Nilai Guna (Kepuasan Green Technology E-Toll sebagai Salah Satu Alternatif Layanan pada Konsumen Pengguna Tol dalam Kota Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enggal Sriwardiningsih

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Consumer satisfaction should be provided by organization. The Government service in the form of etoll green technology is an alternative service in toll road for public. This service is still new in the implementation. Therefore, it is necessary to do a study in the level of elasticity of the e-toll service. Consumer satisfaction from toll users becomes a measure of the success rate from this service. Consumer satisfaction from toll users who use e-toll will be achieved if they are satisfied with the e-toll product and GTO service. This study aims to test a model that explains consumer satisfaction from e-toll users. The theory underlying this study was service quality and satisfaction. The study was conducted on the toll roads in Jakarta. Unit analysis was e-toll users. Samples were taken based on convenient sampling. Structural Equation Modelling used SPSS 16.0 software and elasticity formula was used to test the hypothesis; while the implication for transport domain.

  7. AUTOMATING GROUNDWATER SAMPLING AT HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONNELL CW; HILDEBRAND RD; CONLEY SF; CUNNINGHAM DE

    2009-01-16

    Until this past October, Fluor Hanford managed Hanford's integrated groundwater program for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). With the new contract awards at the Site, however, the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has assumed responsibility for the groundwater-monitoring programs at the 586-square-mile reservation in southeastern Washington State. These programs are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). The purpose of monitoring is to track existing groundwater contamination from past practices, as well as other potential contamination that might originate from RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. An integral part of the groundwater-monitoring program involves taking samples of the groundwater and measuring the water levels in wells scattered across the site. More than 1,200 wells are sampled each year. Historically, field personnel or 'samplers' have been issued pre-printed forms that have information about the well(s) for a particular sampling evolution. This information is taken from the Hanford Well Information System (HWIS) and the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)--official electronic databases. The samplers used these hardcopy forms to document the groundwater samples and well water-levels. After recording the entries in the field, the samplers turned the forms in at the end of the day and the collected information was posted onto a spreadsheet that was then printed and included in a log book. The log book was then used to make manual entries of the new information into the software application(s) for the HEIS and HWIS databases. This is a pilot project for automating this tedious process by providing an electronic tool for automating water-level measurements and groundwater field-sampling activities. The automation will eliminate the manual forms and associated data entry, improve the

  8. ATLAS Distributed Computing Automation

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Borrego, C; Campana, S; Di Girolamo, A; Elmsheuser, J; Hejbal, J; Kouba, T; Legger, F; Magradze, E; Medrano Llamas, R; Negri, G; Rinaldi, L; Sciacca, G; Serfon, C; Van Der Ster, D C

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment benefits from computing resources distributed worldwide at more than 100 WLCG sites. The ATLAS Grid sites provide over 100k CPU job slots, over 100 PB of storage space on disk or tape. Monitoring of status of such a complex infrastructure is essential. The ATLAS Grid infrastructure is monitored 24/7 by two teams of shifters distributed world-wide, by the ATLAS Distributed Computing experts, and by site administrators. In this paper we summarize automation efforts performed within the ATLAS Distributed Computing team in order to reduce manpower costs and improve the reliability of the system. Different aspects of the automation process are described: from the ATLAS Grid site topology provided by the ATLAS Grid Information System, via automatic site testing by the HammerCloud, to automatic exclusion from production or analysis activities.

  9. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-05-31

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC.

  10. The automation of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ross D; Rowland, Jem; Oliver, Stephen G; Young, Michael; Aubrey, Wayne; Byrne, Emma; Liakata, Maria; Markham, Magdalena; Pir, Pinar; Soldatova, Larisa N; Sparkes, Andrew; Whelan, Kenneth E; Clare, Amanda

    2009-04-03

    The basis of science is the hypothetico-deductive method and the recording of experiments in sufficient detail to enable reproducibility. We report the development of Robot Scientist "Adam," which advances the automation of both. Adam has autonomously generated functional genomics hypotheses about the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and experimentally tested these hypotheses by using laboratory automation. We have confirmed Adam's conclusions through manual experiments. To describe Adam's research, we have developed an ontology and logical language. The resulting formalization involves over 10,000 different research units in a nested treelike structure, 10 levels deep, that relates the 6.6 million biomass measurements to their logical description. This formalization describes how a machine contributed to scientific knowledge.

  11. The Automated Medical Office

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    With shock and surprise many physicians learned in the 1980s that they must change the way they do business. Competition for patients, increasing government regulation, and the rapidly escalating risk of litigation forces physicians to seek modern remedies in office management. The author describes a medical clinic that strives to be paperless using electronic innovation to solve the problems of medical practice management. A computer software program to automate information management in a c...

  12. Automation of printing machine

    OpenAIRE

    Sušil, David

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is focused on the automation of the printing machine and comparing the two types of printing machines. The first chapter deals with the history of printing, typesettings, printing techniques and various kinds of bookbinding. The second chapter describes the difference between sheet-fed printing machines and offset printing machines, the difference between two representatives of rotary machines, technological process of the products on these machines, the description of the mac...

  13. Automated Cooperative Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt; Pahle, Joseph; Brown, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of the Automated Cooperative Trajectories project. An introduction to the phenomena of wake vortices is given, along with a summary of past research into the possibility of extracting energy from the wake by flying close parallel trajectories. Challenges and barriers to adoption of civilian automatic wake surfing technology are identified. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is described that will support future research. Finally, a roadmap for future research and technology transition is proposed.

  14. Dockomatic - automated ligand creation and docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hampikian Greg

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of computational modeling to rationally design drugs and characterize macro biomolecular receptors has proven increasingly useful due to the accessibility of computing clusters and clouds. AutoDock is a well-known and powerful software program used to model ligand to receptor binding interactions. In its current version, AutoDock requires significant amounts of user time to setup and run jobs, and collect results. This paper presents DockoMatic, a user friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI application that eases and automates the creation and management of AutoDock jobs for high throughput screening of ligand to receptor interactions. Results DockoMatic allows the user to invoke and manage AutoDock jobs on a single computer or cluster, including jobs for evaluating secondary ligand interactions. It also automates the process of collecting, summarizing, and viewing results. In addition, DockoMatic automates creation of peptide ligand .pdb files from strings of single-letter amino acid abbreviations. Conclusions DockoMatic significantly reduces the complexity of managing multiple AutoDock jobs by facilitating ligand and AutoDock job creation and management.

  15. Automation in biological crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patrick Shaw; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-06-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given.

  16. Automation in biological crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw Stewart, Patrick; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given. PMID:24915074

  17. Contaminant analysis automation demonstration proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, M.G.; Schur, A.; Heubach, J.G.

    1993-10-01

    The nation-wide and global need for environmental restoration and waste remediation (ER&WR) presents significant challenges to the analytical chemistry laboratory. The expansion of ER&WR programs forces an increase in the volume of samples processed and the demand for analysis data. To handle this expanding volume, productivity must be increased. However. The need for significantly increased productivity, faces contaminant analysis process which is costly in time, labor, equipment, and safety protection. Laboratory automation offers a cost effective approach to meeting current and future contaminant analytical laboratory needs. The proposed demonstration will present a proof-of-concept automated laboratory conducting varied sample preparations. This automated process also highlights a graphical user interface that provides supervisory, control and monitoring of the automated process. The demonstration provides affirming answers to the following questions about laboratory automation: Can preparation of contaminants be successfully automated?; Can a full-scale working proof-of-concept automated laboratory be developed that is capable of preparing contaminant and hazardous chemical samples?; Can the automated processes be seamlessly integrated and controlled?; Can the automated laboratory be customized through readily convertible design? and Can automated sample preparation concepts be extended to the other phases of the sample analysis process? To fully reap the benefits of automation, four human factors areas should be studied and the outputs used to increase the efficiency of laboratory automation. These areas include: (1) laboratory configuration, (2) procedures, (3) receptacles and fixtures, and (4) human-computer interface for the full automated system and complex laboratory information management systems.

  18. Toll-like receptor 2 agonists inhibit human fibrocyte differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharjan Anu S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In healing wounds, some monocytes enter the wound and differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes. Since Toll-like receptors (TLRs are present on monocytes, and pathogens that can infect a wound have and/or release TLR agonists, we examined whether TLR agonists affect fibrocyte differentiation. Results When human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were cultured with TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR7, TLR8 or TLR9 agonists, there was no significant effect on fibrocyte differentiation, even though enhanced extracellular tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α accumulation and/or increased cell surface CD86 or major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II levels were observed. However, all TLR2 agonists tested inhibited fibrocyte differentiation without any significant effect on cell survival. Adding TLR2 agonists to purified monocytes had no effect on fibrocyte differentiation. However, some TLR2 agonists caused PBMCs to secrete a factor that inhibits the differentiation of purified monocytes into fibrocytes. This factor is not interferon (IFN-α, IFN-γ, interleukin (IL-12, aggregated immunoglobulin G (IgG or serum amyloid P (SAP, factors known to inhibit fibrocyte differentiation. TLR2 agonist-treated PBMCs secrete low levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and tumor growth factor β1, but combinations of these factors had no effect on fibrocyte differentiation from purified monocytes. Conclusions Our results indicate that TLR2 agonists indirectly inhibit fibrocyte differentiation and that, for some TLR2 agonists, this inhibition involves other cell types in the PBMC population secreting an unknown factor that inhibits fibrocyte differentiation. Together, these data suggest that the presence of some bacterial signals can inhibit fibrocyte differentiation and may thus slow wound closure.

  19. Involvement of Toll-like receptor 4 in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohe, Herbert C; O'Hara, Kimberley A; Hunt, Jane A; Kitzmiller, Tamar J; Wood, Sheryl G; Bement, Jenna L; Bement, William J; Szakacs, Juliana G; Wrighton, Steven A; Jacobs, Judith M; Kostrubsky, Vsevolod; Sinclair, Peter R; Sinclair, Jacqueline F

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has a role in alcohol-mediated acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity. TLR4 is involved in the inflammatory response to endotoxin. Others have found that ethanol-mediated liver disease is decreased in C3H/HeJ mice, which have a mutated TLR4 resulting in a decreased response to endotoxin compared with endotoxin-responsive mice. In the present study, short-term (1 wk) pretreatment with ethanol plus isopentanol, the predominant alcohols in alcoholic beverages, caused no histologically observed liver damage in either C3H/HeJ mice or endotoxin-responsive C3H/HeN mice, despite an increase in nitrotyrosine levels in the livers of C3H/HeN mice. In C3H/HeN mice pretreated with the alcohols, subsequent exposure to APAP caused a transient decrease in liver nitrotyrosine formation, possibly due to competitive interaction of peroxynitrite with APAP producing 3-nitroacetaminophen. Treatment with APAP alone resulted in steatosis in addition to congestion and necrosis in both C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice, but the effects were more severe in endotoxin-responsive C3H/HeN mice. In alcohol-pretreated endotoxin-responsive C3H/HeN mice, subsequent exposure to APAP resulted in further increases in liver damage, including severe steatosis, associated with elevated plasma levels of TNF-alpha. In contrast, alcohol pretreatment of C3H/HeJ mice caused little to no increase in APAP hepatotoxicity and no increase in plasma TNF-alpha. Portal blood endotoxin levels were very low and were not detectably elevated by any of the treatments. In conclusion, this study implicates a role of TLR4 in APAP-mediated hepatotoxicity.

  20. Microbiota regulates type 1 diabetes through Toll-like receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Michael P; Volchkov, Pavel; Kobayashi, Koichi S; Chervonsky, Alexander V

    2015-08-11

    Deletion of the innate immune adaptor myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of type 1 diabetes (T1D) results in microbiota-dependent protection from the disease: MyD88-negative mice in germ-free (GF), but not in specific pathogen-free conditions develop the disease. These results could be explained by expansion of particular protective bacteria ("specific lineage hypothesis") or by dominance of negative (tolerizing) signaling over proinflammatory signaling ("balanced signal hypothesis") in mutant mice. Here we found that colonization of GF mice with a variety of intestinal bacteria was capable of reducing T1D in MyD88-negative (but not wild-type NOD mice), favoring the balanced signal hypothesis. However, the receptors and signaling pathways involved in prevention or facilitation of the disease remained unknown. The protective signals triggered by the microbiota were revealed by testing NOD mice lacking MyD88 in combination with knockouts of several critical components of innate immune sensing for development of T1D. Only MyD88- and TIR-domain containing adapter inducing IFN β (TRIF) double deficient NOD mice developed the disease. Thus, TRIF signaling (likely downstream of Toll-like receptor 4, TLR4) serves as one of the microbiota-induced tolerizing pathways. At the same time another TLR (TLR2) provided prodiabetic signaling by controlling the microbiota, as reduction in T1D incidence caused by TLR2 deletion was reversed in GF TLR2-negative mice. Our results support the balanced signal hypothesis, in which microbes provide signals that both promote and inhibit autoimmunity by signaling through different receptors, including receptors of the TLR family.

  1. HIV-1 activates macrophages independent of Toll-like receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph N Brown

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Macrophages provide an interface between innate and adaptive immunity and are important long-lived reservoirs for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1. Multiple genetic networks involved in regulating signal transduction cascades and immune responses in macrophages are coordinately modulated by HIV-1 infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To evaluate complex interrelated processes and to assemble an integrated view of activated signaling networks, a systems biology strategy was applied to genomic and proteomic responses by primary human macrophages over the course of HIV-1 infection. Macrophage responses, including cell cycle, calcium, apoptosis, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK, and cytokines/chemokines, to HIV-1 were temporally regulated, in the absence of cell proliferation. In contrast, Toll-like receptor (TLR pathways remained unaltered by HIV-1, although TLRs 3, 4, 7, and 8 were expressed and responded to ligand stimulation in macrophages. HIV-1 failed to activate phosphorylation of IRAK-1 or IRF-3, modulate intracellular protein levels of Mx1, an interferon-stimulated gene, or stimulate secretion of TNF, IL-1beta, or IL-6. Activation of pathways other than TLR was inadequate to stimulate, via cross-talk mechanisms through molecular hubs, the production of proinflammatory cytokines typical of a TLR response. HIV-1 sensitized macrophage responses to TLR ligands, and the magnitude of viral priming was related to virus replication. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HIV-1 induced a primed, proinflammatory state, M1(HIV, which increased the responsiveness of macrophages to TLR ligands. HIV-1 might passively evade pattern recognition, actively inhibit or suppress recognition and signaling, or require dynamic interactions between macrophages and other cells, such as lymphocytes or endothelial cells. HIV-1 evasion of TLR recognition and simultaneous priming of macrophages may represent a strategy for viral survival, contribute

  2. Signaling flux redistribution at toll-like receptor pathway junctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Selvarajoo

    Full Text Available Various receptors on cell surface recognize specific extracellular molecules and trigger signal transduction altering gene expression in the nucleus. Gain or loss-of-function mutations of one molecule have shown to affect alternative signaling pathways with a poorly understood mechanism. In Toll-like receptor (TLR 4 signaling, which branches into MyD88- and TRAM-dependent pathways upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation, we investigated the gain or loss-of-function mutations of MyD88. We predict, using a computational model built on the perturbation-response approach and the law of mass conservation, that removal and addition of MyD88 in TLR4 activation, enhances and impairs, respectively, the alternative TRAM-dependent pathway through signaling flux redistribution (SFR at pathway branches. To verify SFR, we treated MyD88-deficient macrophages with LPS and observed enhancement of TRAM-dependent pathway based on increased IRF3 phosphorylation and induction of Cxcl10 and Ifit2. Furthermore, increasing the amount of MyD88 in cultured cells showed decreased TRAM binding to TLR4. Investigating another TLR4 pathway junction, from TRIF to TRAF6, RIP1 and TBK1, the removal of MyD88-dependent TRAF6 increased expression of TRAM-dependent Cxcl10 and Ifit2. Thus, we demonstrate that SFR is a novel mechanism for enhanced activation of alternative pathways when molecules at pathway junctions are removed. Our data suggest that SFR may enlighten hitherto unexplainable intracellular signaling alterations in genetic diseases where gain or loss-of-function mutations are observed.

  3. Toll mediated infection response is altered by gravity and spaceflight in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Taylor

    Full Text Available Space travel presents unlimited opportunities for exploration and discovery, but requires better understanding of the biological consequences of long-term exposure to spaceflight. Immune function in particular is relevant for space travel. Human immune responses are weakened in space, with increased vulnerability to opportunistic infections and immune-related conditions. In addition, microorganisms can become more virulent in space, causing further challenges to health. To understand these issues better and to contribute to design of effective countermeasures, we used the Drosophila model of innate immunity to study immune responses in both hypergravity and spaceflight. Focusing on infections mediated through the conserved Toll and Imd signaling pathways, we found that hypergravity improves resistance to Toll-mediated fungal infections except in a known gravitaxis mutant of the yuri gagarin gene. These results led to the first spaceflight project on Drosophila immunity, in which flies that developed to adulthood in microgravity were assessed for immune responses by transcription profiling on return to Earth. Spaceflight alone altered transcription, producing activation of the heat shock stress system. Space flies subsequently infected by fungus failed to activate the Toll pathway. In contrast, bacterial infection produced normal activation of the Imd pathway. We speculate on possible linkage between functional Toll signaling and the heat shock chaperone system. Our major findings are that hypergravity and spaceflight have opposing effects, and that spaceflight produces stress-related transcriptional responses and results in a specific inability to mount a Toll-mediated infection response.

  4. 76 FR 1640 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Cigarette Trafficking (PACT) Act Registration Form. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol... automated, electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submission of responses. Overview of This...

  5. 78 FR 48687 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ...) the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology to minimize the... of Strategic Operations and Regulatory Affairs, Division of Regulations Development, Attention... agency requests or requirements that members of the public submit reports, keep records, or...

  6. 75 FR 63866 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... reporting + 7,700 recordkeeping) or an average of 125 hours per response (81,765 reporting burden hours/655... use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology? A copy of the...

  7. Greater Buyer Effectiveness through Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    FOB = free on board FPAC = Federal Procurement Automation Council FPDS = Federal Procurement Data System 4GL = fourth generation language GAO = General...Procurement Automation Council ( FPAC ), entitled Compendium of Automated Procurement Systems in Federal Agencies. The FPAC inventory attempted to identify...In some cases we have updated descriptions of systems identified by the FPAC study, but many of the newer systems are identified here for the first

  8. 78 FR 66039 - Modification of National Customs Automation Program Test Concerning Automated Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Modification of National Customs Automation Program Test... National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) test concerning the Simplified Entry functionality in the...'s (CBP's) National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) test concerning Automated...

  9. 77 FR 48527 - National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Test Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Test Concerning...: General notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces modifications to the National Customs Automation Program...) National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) test concerning Automated Commercial Environment...

  10. Effect of smoking on the genetic makeup of toll-like receptors 2 and 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohailan, Muhammad; Alanazi, Mohammad; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Alamri, Abdullah; Parine, Narasimha Reddy; Alhadheq, Abdullah; Basavarajappa, Santhosh; Abdullah Al-Kheraif, Abdul Aziz; Semlali, Abdelhabib

    2016-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for lung cancer, asthma, and oral cancer, and is central to the altered innate immune responsiveness to infection. Many hypotheses have provided evidence that cigarette smoking induces more genetic changes in genes involved in the development of many cigarette-related diseases. This alteration may be from single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in innate immunity genes, especially the toll-like receptors (TLRs). Objective In this study, the genotype frequencies of TLR2 and TLR6 in smoking and nonsmoking population were examined. Methods Saliva samples were collected from 177 smokers and 126 nonsmokers. The SNPs used were rs3804100 (1350 T/C, Ser450Ser) and rs3804099 (597 T/C, Asn199Asn) for TLR2 and rs3796508 (979 G/A, Val327Met) and rs5743810 (745 T/C, Ser249Pro) for TLR6. Results Results showed that TLR2 rs3804100 has a significant effect in short-term smokers (OR =2.63; P=0.04), and this effect is not observed in long-term smokers (>5 years of smoking). Therefore, this early mutation may be repaired by the DNA repair system. For TLR2 rs3804099, the variation in genotype frequencies between the smokers and control patients was due to a late mutation, and its protective role appears only in long-term smokers (OR =0.40, P=0.018). In TLR6 rs5743810, the TT genotype is significantly higher in smokers than in nonsmokers (OR =6.90). The effect of this SNP is observed in long-term smokers, regardless of the smoking regime per day. Conclusion TLR2 (rs3804100 and rs3804099) and TLR6 (rs5743810) can be used as a potential index in the diagnosis and prevention of more diseases caused by smoking. PMID:27920557

  11. Intracellular expression of toll-like receptor 4 in neuroblastoma cells and their unresponsiveness to lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mori Isamu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently it has been reported that, toll-like receptors (TLRs are expressed on a series of tumor cells, such as colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, melanoma and lung cancer. Although some cancer cells like melanoma cells are known to respond to lipopolysaccharide (LPS via TLR4, not all cancer cells are positive for TLR4. There is little information on the expression and function of TLR4 in neuroblastoma cells. In this study, we investigated the expression of TLR4 in human neuroblastoma NB-1 cell line. Methods Expression and localization of TLR4 were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Activation of nuclear factor (NF-κB by LPS was detected by degradation of IκB-α and NF-κB luciferase assay. Activation and expression of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase and interferon regulatory factor (IRF-3 was detected by immunoblot analysis. Results Human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells expressed intracellular form of TLR4, but not the cell surface form. Further, NB-1 cells express CD14, MD2 and MyD88, which are required for LPS response. However, LPS did not significantly induce NF-κB activation in NB-1 cells although it slightly degraded IκB-α. NB-1 cells expressed no IRF-3, which plays a pivotal role on the MyD88-independent pathway of LPS signaling. Collectively, NB-1 cells are capable to avoid their response to LPS. Conclusion Although human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells possessed all the molecules required for LPS response, they did not respond to LPS. It might be responsible for intracellular expression of TLR4 or lack of IRF-3.

  12. Toll-like receptor 2 regulates organic dust-induced airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Jill A; Wyatt, Todd A; Kielian, Tammy; Oldenburg, Peter; Gleason, Angela M; Bauer, Ashley; Golden, Gregory; West, William W; Sisson, Joseph H; Romberger, Debra J

    2011-10-01

    Organic dust exposure in agricultural environments results in significant airway inflammatory diseases. Gram-positive cell wall components are present in high concentrations in animal farming dusts, but their role in mediating dust-induced airway inflammation is not clear. This study investigated the role of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, a pattern recognition receptor for gram-positive cell wall products, in regulating swine facility organic dust extract (DE)-induced airway inflammation in mice. Isolated lung macrophages from TLR2 knockout mice demonstrated reduced TNF-α, IL-6, keratinocyte chemoattractant/CXCL1, but not macrophage inflammatory protein-2/CXCL2 expression, after DE stimulation ex vivo. Next, using an established mouse model of intranasal inhalation challenge, we analyzed bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue in TLR2-deficient and wild-type (WT) mice after single and repetitive DE challenge. Neutrophil influx and select cytokines/chemokines were significantly lower in TLR2-deficient mice at 5 and 24 hours after single DE challenge. After daily exposure to DE for 2 weeks, there were significant reductions in total cellularity, neutrophil influx, and TNF-α, IL-6, CXCL1, but not CXCL2 expression, in TLR2-deficient mice as compared with WT animals. Lung pathology revealed that bronchiolar inflammation, but not alveolar inflammation, was reduced in TLR2-deficient mice after repetitive exposure. Airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine after dust exposure was similar in both groups. Finally, airway inflammatory responses in WT mice after challenge with a TLR2 agonist, peptidoglycan, resembled DE-induced responses. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the TLR2 pathway is important in regulating swine facility organic dust-induced airway inflammation, which suggests the importance of TLR2 agonists in mediating large animal farming-induced airway inflammatory responses.

  13. Toll-Like Receptor (TLR 2 and TLR4 Gene Expression in Canine Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Linde

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs are archetypal pattern recognition receptors of immediate importance for an efficacious innate immune response. TLRs exhibit marked differential tissue activity and their levels within a discrete cell type can be highly dynamic. Of 13 known mammalian paralogues, three TLRs have been identified in the dog. Although cardiac TLR expression has been reported in other species, this study is the first to present evidence that these innate immune receptors are expressed in the canine heart. Heart tissue samples from all four chambers were collected from healthy dogs immediately after euthanasia and stored at -80ºC until analysis. Total RNA was extracted with TRI Regent. Specific primers were designed for amplification of canine TLR2 and TLR4 based on previously reported sequences for these genes. Reverse transcription was performed with M-MLV reverse transcriptase. PCR amplification was performed and PCR products analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Bands were excised from the gel and the DNA isolated and cloned using the TA Cloning® Kit. The correct sequence for each product was verified by nucleotide sequencing. TLR4 expression was detected in the left ventricle and right atrium; TLR2 was detectable at low levels in the right atrium only. Identity of the RT-PCR products was confirmed by sequencing. Our findings show that at least two TLR paralogues- namely TLR2 and TLR4 - are expressed in the canine heart. Additional studies are warranted to determine these immune receptors' potential implication in the development of naturally occurring heart disease in the dog.

  14. World-wide distribution automation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaney, T.M.

    1994-12-31

    A worldwide power distribution automation system is outlined. Distribution automation is defined and the status of utility automation is discussed. Other topics discussed include a distribution management system, substation feeder, and customer functions, potential benefits, automation costs, planning and engineering considerations, automation trends, databases, system operation, computer modeling of system, and distribution management systems.

  15. Automating CPM-GOMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Bonnie; Vera, Alonso; Matessa, Michael; Freed, Michael; Remington, Roger

    2002-01-01

    CPM-GOMS is a modeling method that combines the task decomposition of a GOMS analysis with a model of human resource usage at the level of cognitive, perceptual, and motor operations. CPM-GOMS models have made accurate predictions about skilled user behavior in routine tasks, but developing such models is tedious and error-prone. We describe a process for automatically generating CPM-GOMS models from a hierarchical task decomposition expressed in a cognitive modeling tool called Apex. Resource scheduling in Apex automates the difficult task of interleaving the cognitive, perceptual, and motor resources underlying common task operators (e.g. mouse move-and-click). Apex's UI automatically generates PERT charts, which allow modelers to visualize a model's complex parallel behavior. Because interleaving and visualization is now automated, it is feasible to construct arbitrarily long sequences of behavior. To demonstrate the process, we present a model of automated teller interactions in Apex and discuss implications for user modeling. available to model human users, the Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection (GOMS) method [6, 21] has been the most widely used, providing accurate, often zero-parameter, predictions of the routine performance of skilled users in a wide range of procedural tasks [6, 13, 15, 27, 28]. GOMS is meant to model routine behavior. The user is assumed to have methods that apply sequences of operators and to achieve a goal. Selection rules are applied when there is more than one method to achieve a goal. Many routine tasks lend themselves well to such decomposition. Decomposition produces a representation of the task as a set of nested goal states that include an initial state and a final state. The iterative decomposition into goals and nested subgoals can terminate in primitives of any desired granularity, the choice of level of detail dependent on the predictions required. Although GOMS has proven useful in HCI, tools to support the

  16. Role of Toll-like receptors in etiology of selected diseases of the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilianna Kulczycka

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLR play an important role in anti-infectious defense of organisms. So far in humans 10 receptors have been identified. They were classified into five different subfamilies according to their affinity to characteristic ligands. Every receptor has a similar structure (extracellular part, intramembrane part and cytoplasmic part, irrespective of a type of the ligands with which it reacts. Ligands are present on many cell types, including on those which make up the skin. That is why Toll-like receptors are an important part of the cutaneous, non-specific immunologic response. In the review problems associated with the structure and functions of Toll-like receptors are presented. Moreover, the latest information about the role of TLR in the etiology of some dermatoses (psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, acne vulgaris, rosacea, infections, systemic lupus erythematosus, mycosis fungoides is discussed. In addition, therapeutic implications are ¬described.

  17. Direct and Indirect Role of Toll-Like Receptors in T Cell Mediated Immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DamoXu; HaiyingLiu; MousaKomai-Koma

    2004-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) recognition receptors that play an important role in protective immunity against infection and inflammation. They act as central integrators of a wide variety of signals, responding to diverse agonists of microbial products. Stimulation of Toll-like receptors by microbial products leads to signaling pathways that activate not only innate, but also adaptive immunity by APC dependent or independent mechanisms. Recent evidence revealed that TLR signals played a determining role in the skewing of naive T cells towards either Thl or Th2 responses. Activation of Toll-like receptors also directly or indirectly influences regulatory T cell functions. Therefore, TLRs are required in both immune activation and immune regulation. Study of TLRs has significantly enhanced our understanding of innate and adaptive immune responses and provides novel therapeutic approaches against infectious and inflammatory diseases. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  18. Microscopic simulation of multi-lane traffic under dynamic tolling and information feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tian-liang; HUANG Hai-jun; TIAN Li-jun

    2009-01-01

    To investigate drivers' lane-changing behavior under different information feedback strategies, a microscopic traffic simulation based on the cellular automaton model was made on the typical freeway with a regular lane and a high-occupancy one. A new dynamic tolling scheme in terms of the real-time traffic condition on the high-occupancy lane was further designed to enhance the whole freeway's flow throughput. The results show that the mean velocity feedback strategy is generally more efficient than the travel time feedback strategy in correctly guiding drivers' lane choice behavior. Specifically, the toll level, lane-changing rate and freeway's throughput and congestion coefficient induced by the travel time feedback strategy oscillate with larger amplitude and longer period. In addition, the dynamic tolling scheme can make the high-occupancy lane less congested and maximize the freeway's throughput when the regular-lane inflow rate is larger than 0.45.

  19. Direct and Indirect Role of Toll-Like Receptors in T Cell Mediated Immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Damo Xu; Haiying Liu; Mousa Komai-Koma

    2004-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) recognition receptors that play an important role in protective immunity against infection and inflammation. They act as central integrators of a wide variety of signals, responding to diverse agonists of microbial products. Stimulation of Toll-like receptors by microbial products leads to signaling pathways that activate not only innate, but also adaptive immunity by APC dependent or independent mechanisms. Recent evidence revealed that TLR signals played a determining role in the skewing of na(i)ve T cells towards either Th1 or Th2 responses. Activation of Toll-like receptors also directly or indirectly influences regulatory T cell functions. Therefore, TLRs are required in both immune activation and immune regulation. Study of TLRs has significantly enhanced our understanding of innate and adaptive immune responses and provides novel therapeutic approaches against infectious and inflammatory diseases.

  20. AUTOMATED API TESTING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNIL L. BANGARE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test. With the help of software testing we can verify or validate the software product. Normally testing will be done after development of software but we can perform the software testing at the time of development process also. This paper will give you a brief introduction about Automated API Testing Tool. This tool of testing will reduce lots of headache after the whole development of software. It saves time as well as money. Such type of testing is helpful in the Industries & Colleges also.

  1. The automated medical office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petreman, M

    1990-08-01

    With shock and surprise many physicians learned in the 1980s that they must change the way they do business. Competition for patients, increasing government regulation, and the rapidly escalating risk of litigation forces physicians to seek modern remedies in office management. The author describes a medical clinic that strives to be paperless using electronic innovation to solve the problems of medical practice management. A computer software program to automate information management in a clinic shows that practical thinking linked to advanced technology can greatly improve office efficiency.

  2. DMPD: Toll-like receptors and RNA helicases: two parallel ways to trigger antiviralresponses. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16762830 Toll-like receptors and RNA helicases: two parallel ways to trigger antivi...-like receptors and RNA helicases: two parallel ways to trigger antiviralresponses. PubmedID 16762830 Title ...Toll-like receptors and RNA helicases: two parallel ways to trigger antiviralresp

  3. A systematic review of CD14 and toll-like receptors in relation to asthma in Caucasian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Ester Mm; Thönissen, Brenda Ejt; van Eys, Guillaume; Dompeling, Edward; Jöbsis, Quirijn

    2013-03-15

    The aetiology of childhood asthma is complex. An early dysfunction in the immunological development of the innate immune system in combination with environmental factors possibly triggers asthma. CD14 and toll-like receptors are important components of the innate immune system. The aim of this systematic review was to obtain a better insight into the relation between CD14 and toll-like receptors and childhood asthma in Caucasians. We searched PubMed and EMBASE for relevant articles. In total, 44 articles were included. The quality of the selected studies was independently assessed by the first two authors using the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale. Toll-like receptor 2, toll-like receptor 6, toll-like receptor 9, and toll-like receptor 10 appear to have some association with childhood asthma in Caucasians. The evidence for a relation of CD14 with childhood asthma is limited. In conclusion, there is no convincing evidence yet for a role of CD14 and toll-like receptors in relation to childhood asthma. Future studies should include haplotype analysis and take environmental factors into account to further clarify the role of CD14 and toll-like receptors on childhood asthma.

  4. 23 CFR 661.49 - Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and Toll Road IRR bridges? 661.49 Section 661.49 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.49 Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges? Yes....

  5. Glucose activation of islets of Langerhans up-regulates Toll-like receptor 5: possible mechanism of protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weile, Christian Roar Andersen; Josefsen, Knud Elnegaard; Buschard, Karsten Stig

    2011-01-01

    Toll-like receptors are pattern-recognition receptors of the innate immune system that are activated during viral, bacterial or other infections, as well as during disease progression of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR-5) specifically recognizes bacterial infection through b...

  6. DMPD: When signaling pathways collide: positive and negative regulation of toll-likereceptor signal transduction. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18631453 When signaling pathways collide: positive and negative regulation of toll-...l) Show When signaling pathways collide: positive and negative regulation of toll-likereceptor signal transd...uction. PubmedID 18631453 Title When signaling pathways collide: positive and neg

  7. DMPD: Nuclear factor-kappaB: activation and regulation during toll-like receptorsignaling. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17349209 Nuclear factor-kappaB: activation and regulation during toll-like receptor...signaling. Carmody RJ, Chen YH. Cell Mol Immunol. 2007 Feb;4(1):31-41. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Nuclear... factor-kappaB: activation and regulation during toll-like receptorsignaling. PubmedID 17349209 Title Nuclear

  8. Multiplex screening of 22 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 7 Toll-like receptors: an association study in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevold, Christian; Radstake, Timothy R D; Coenen, Marieke J H;

    2010-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of arthritis. We investigated the role of functional variants of TLR in the disease phenotype and severity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).......Toll-like receptors (TLR) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of arthritis. We investigated the role of functional variants of TLR in the disease phenotype and severity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)....

  9. 77 FR 19010 - Zone J Tolling Co., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Zone J Tolling Co., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Zone J Tolling Co., LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  10. DMPD: Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface Toll-likereceptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17275324 Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface Toll... Show Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface Toll-likereceptors. PubmedID 172...75324 Title Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface

  11. DMPD: Toll receptors, CD14, and macrophage activation and deactivation by LPS. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12106783 Toll receptors, CD14, and macrophage activation and deactivation by LPS. D...ceptors, CD14, and macrophage activation and deactivation by LPS. PubmedID 12106783 Title Toll receptors, CD14, and macrophage activa...tion and deactivation by LPS. Authors Dobrovolskaia MA,

  12. The Architecture of the TIR Domain Signalosome in the Toll-like Receptor-4 Signaling Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Guven-Maiorov; Ozlem Keskin; Attila Gursoy; Carter VanWaes; Zhong Chen; Chung-Jung Tsai; Ruth Nussinov

    2015-01-01

    Scientific Reports | 5:13128 | DOI: 10.1038/srep13128 1 www.nature.com/scientificreports The Architecture of the TIR Domain Signalosome in the Toll-like Receptor-4 Signaling Pathway Emine Guven-Maiorov1,2, Ozlem Keskin1,2, Attila Gursoy2,3, Carter VanWaes4, Zhong Chen4, Chung-Jung Tsai5 & Ruth Nussinov5,6 Activated Toll-like receptors (TLRs) cluster in lipid rafts and induce pro- and anti-tumor responses. The organization of the assembly is critical to the understandin...

  13. Automating quantum experiment control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kelly E.; Amini, Jason M.; Doret, S. Charles; Mohler, Greg; Volin, Curtis; Harter, Alexa W.

    2017-03-01

    The field of quantum information processing is rapidly advancing. As the control of quantum systems approaches the level needed for useful computation, the physical hardware underlying the quantum systems is becoming increasingly complex. It is already becoming impractical to manually code control for the larger hardware implementations. In this chapter, we will employ an approach to the problem of system control that parallels compiler design for a classical computer. We will start with a candidate quantum computing technology, the surface electrode ion trap, and build a system instruction language which can be generated from a simple machine-independent programming language via compilation. We incorporate compile time generation of ion routing that separates the algorithm description from the physical geometry of the hardware. Extending this approach to automatic routing at run time allows for automated initialization of qubit number and placement and additionally allows for automated recovery after catastrophic events such as qubit loss. To show that these systems can handle real hardware, we present a simple demonstration system that routes two ions around a multi-zone ion trap and handles ion loss and ion placement. While we will mainly use examples from transport-based ion trap quantum computing, many of the issues and solutions are applicable to other architectures.

  14. Automated Postediting of Documents

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, K; Knight, Kevin; Chander, Ishwar

    1994-01-01

    Large amounts of low- to medium-quality English texts are now being produced by machine translation (MT) systems, optical character readers (OCR), and non-native speakers of English. Most of this text must be postedited by hand before it sees the light of day. Improving text quality is tedious work, but its automation has not received much research attention. Anyone who has postedited a technical report or thesis written by a non-native speaker of English knows the potential of an automated postediting system. For the case of MT-generated text, we argue for the construction of postediting modules that are portable across MT systems, as an alternative to hardcoding improvements inside any one system. As an example, we have built a complete self-contained postediting module for the task of article selection (a, an, the) for English noun phrases. This is a notoriously difficult problem for Japanese-English MT. Our system contains over 200,000 rules derived automatically from online text resources. We report on l...

  15. Automated Test Case Generation

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I would like to present the concept of automated test case generation. I work on it as part of my PhD and I think it would be interesting also for other people. It is also the topic of a workshop paper that I am introducing in Paris. (abstract below) Please note that the talk itself would be more general and not about the specifics of my PhD, but about the broad field of Automated Test Case Generation. I would introduce the main approaches (combinatorial testing, symbolic execution, adaptive random testing) and their advantages and problems. (oracle problem, combinatorial explosion, ...) Abstract of the paper: Over the last decade code-based test case generation techniques such as combinatorial testing or dynamic symbolic execution have seen growing research popularity. Most algorithms and tool implementations are based on finding assignments for input parameter values in order to maximise the execution branch coverage. Only few of them consider dependencies from outside the Code Under Test’s scope such...

  16. Maneuver Automation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uffelman, Hal; Goodson, Troy; Pellegrin, Michael; Stavert, Lynn; Burk, Thomas; Beach, David; Signorelli, Joel; Jones, Jeremy; Hahn, Yungsun; Attiyah, Ahlam; Illsley, Jeannette

    2009-01-01

    The Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) automates the process of generating commands for maneuvers to keep the spacecraft of the Cassini-Huygens mission on a predetermined prime mission trajectory. Before MAS became available, a team of approximately 10 members had to work about two weeks to design, test, and implement each maneuver in a process that involved running many maneuver-related application programs and then serially handing off data products to other parts of the team. MAS enables a three-member team to design, test, and implement a maneuver in about one-half hour after Navigation has process-tracking data. MAS accepts more than 60 parameters and 22 files as input directly from users. MAS consists of Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) scripts that link, sequence, and execute the maneuver- related application programs: "Pushing a single button" on a graphical user interface causes MAS to run navigation programs that design a maneuver; programs that create sequences of commands to execute the maneuver on the spacecraft; and a program that generates predictions about maneuver performance and generates reports and other files that enable users to quickly review and verify the maneuver design. MAS can also generate presentation materials, initiate electronic command request forms, and archive all data products for future reference.

  17. Automated digital magnetofluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, J; Garcia, A A; Marquez, M [Harrington Department of Bioengineering Arizona State University, Tempe AZ 85287-9709 (United States)], E-mail: tony.garcia@asu.edu

    2008-08-15

    Drops can be moved in complex patterns on superhydrophobic surfaces using a reconfigured computer-controlled x-y metrology stage with a high degree of accuracy, flexibility, and reconfigurability. The stage employs a DMC-4030 controller which has a RISC-based, clock multiplying processor with DSP functions, accepting encoder inputs up to 22 MHz, provides servo update rates as high as 32 kHz, and processes commands at rates as fast as 40 milliseconds. A 6.35 mm diameter cylindrical NdFeB magnet is translated by the stage causing water drops to move by the action of induced magnetization of coated iron microspheres that remain in the drop and are attracted to the rare earth magnet through digital magnetofluidics. Water drops are easily moved in complex patterns in automated digital magnetofluidics at an average speed of 2.8 cm/s over a superhydrophobic polyethylene surface created by solvent casting. With additional components, some potential uses for this automated microfluidic system include characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces, water quality analysis, and medical diagnostics.

  18. Toll-likereceptor4-mediatedapoptosisof pancreaticcellsincerulein-inducedacute pancreatitisinmice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-Qin Ding; Yuan Li; Zong-Guang Zhou; Cun Wang; Lan Zhan; Bin Zhou

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays an important role in the occurrence and development of acute pancreatitis (AP). Apoptosis of pancreatic cells is closely related to the severity of AP. TLR4 is known to induce apoptosis in some cell types and therefore it is of importance to investigate potential associations between TLR4 activity and apoptosis in the setting of AP. METHODS: A total of 50 wild-type (C57BL/10J) and TLR4-deifcient (C57BL/10ScNJ) mice were divided into three groups:2-hour, 4-hour, and control groups. Each group was divided into two equal subgroups: TLR4-wild-type mice and TLR4-deifcient mice. AP was experimentally induced by 7 intraperitoneal injections of 50μg/kg cerulein at hourly intervals. Control mice received 7 injections of equal volumes of saline. The severity of pancreatic injury during AP was assessed by serum amylase concentration and histopathology. The level of apoptosis of pancreatic cells in response to AP was evaluated by calculating the apoptotic index (AI) and comparing the expression levels of cytochrome C and Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) between TLR4-wild-type and TLR4-deifcient mice at 2 time points. RESULTS: The AI was found to be signiifcantly lower in the pancreas of TLR4-deifcient mice with AP compared to TLR4-wild-type mice at two hours after the last treatment injection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction also revealed signiifcantly lower expression of cytochrome C and FADD in the pancreas of TLR4-deifcient mice than in TLR4-wild-type animals at the same time point. Serum amylase concentration and morphological severity of AP in pancreatic tissue were found to be similar in the two strains of mice at both time points. CONCLUSION: We postulate that TLR4 can mediate apoptosis of pancreatic cells during the early stages of AP, via the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathways.

  19. 76 FR 79689 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Guidance for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... the responsibility for interim analysis and reporting to the DMC; and Minimize the risks of bias that... information to be collected; and (4) ways to minimize the burden of the collection of information on respondents, including through the use of automated collection techniques, when appropriate, and other...

  20. 78 FR 63208 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... CMS' intention to collect information from the public. Under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (the... enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and the use of automated... use the collected information to establish Part B enrollment. Form Number: CMS-40B (OCN:...

  1. DMPD: Adipose tissue as an immunological organ: Toll-like receptors, C1q/TNFs andCTRPs. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17681884 Adipose tissue as an immunological organ: Toll-like receptors, C1q/TNFs an...ng) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Adipose tissue as an immunological organ: Toll-like receptors, C1q/TNFs andC...TRPs. PubmedID 17681884 Title Adipose tissue as an immunological organ: Toll-like

  2. DMPD: Toll-like receptors: from the discovery of NFkappaB to new insights intotranscriptional regulations in innate immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16930560 Toll-like receptors: from the discovery of NFkappaB to new insights intotr...2-13. Epub 2006 Aug 22. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Toll-like receptors: from the discovery of NFkapp...6930560 Title Toll-like receptors: from the discovery of NFkappaB to new insights intotranscriptional regula

  3. DMPD: Toll-like receptors, RIG-I-like RNA helicases and the antiviral innate immuneresponse. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17667934 Toll-like receptors, RIG-I-like RNA helicases and the antiviral innate imm...g) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Toll-like receptors, RIG-I-like RNA helicases and the antiviral innate immune...response. PubmedID 17667934 Title Toll-like receptors, RIG-I-like RNA helicases and the anti

  4. DMPD: TICAM-1 and TICAM-2: toll-like receptor adapters that participate in inductionof type 1 interferons. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15618008 TICAM-1 and TICAM-2: toll-like receptor adapters that participate in induc... Mar;37(3):524-9. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show TICAM-1 and TICAM-2: toll-like receptor adapters that part... TICAM-2: toll-like receptor adapters that participate in inductionof type 1 interferons. Authors Seya T, Os

  5. DMPD: The Troll in Toll: Mal and Tram as bridges for TLR2 and TLR4 signaling. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17449723 The Troll in Toll: Mal and Tram as bridges for TLR2 and TLR4 signaling. Sh...Show The Troll in Toll: Mal and Tram as bridges for TLR2 and TLR4 signaling. PubmedID 17449723 Title The Troll in Toll: Mal and Tram

  6. Automated detection of solar eruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurlburt N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Observation of the solar atmosphere reveals a wide range of motions, from small scale jets and spicules to global-scale coronal mass ejections (CMEs. Identifying and characterizing these motions are essential to advancing our understanding of the drivers of space weather. Both automated and visual identifications are currently used in identifying Coronal Mass Ejections. To date, eruptions near the solar surface, which may be precursors to CMEs, have been identified primarily by visual inspection. Here we report on Eruption Patrol (EP: a software module that is designed to automatically identify eruptions from data collected by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO/AIA. We describe the method underlying the module and compare its results to previous identifications found in the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase. EP identifies eruptions events that are consistent with those found by human annotations, but in a significantly more consistent and quantitative manner. Eruptions are found to be distributed within 15 Mm of the solar surface. They possess peak speeds ranging from 4 to 100 km/s and display a power-law probability distribution over that range. These characteristics are consistent with previous observations of prominences.

  7. Get smart! automate your house!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Amstel, P.; Gorter, N.; De Rouw, J.

    2016-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability This manual will help you in reducing both energy usage and costs by automating your home. It gives an introduction to a number of home automation systems that every homeowner can install.

  8. Opening up Library Automation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the history of library automation, the author has seen a steady advancement toward more open systems. In the early days of library automation, when proprietary systems dominated, the need for standards was paramount since other means of inter-operability and data exchange weren't possible. Today's focus on Application Programming…

  9. Classification of Automated Search Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehrer, Greg; Stokes, Jack W.; Chellapilla, Kumar; Platt, John C.

    As web search providers seek to improve both relevance and response times, they are challenged by the ever-increasing tax of automated search query traffic. Third party systems interact with search engines for a variety of reasons, such as monitoring a web site’s rank, augmenting online games, or possibly to maliciously alter click-through rates. In this paper, we investigate automated traffic (sometimes referred to as bot traffic) in the query stream of a large search engine provider. We define automated traffic as any search query not generated by a human in real time. We first provide examples of different categories of query logs generated by automated means. We then develop many different features that distinguish between queries generated by people searching for information, and those generated by automated processes. We categorize these features into two classes, either an interpretation of the physical model of human interactions, or as behavioral patterns of automated interactions. Using the these detection features, we next classify the query stream using multiple binary classifiers. In addition, a multiclass classifier is then developed to identify subclasses of both normal and automated traffic. An active learning algorithm is used to suggest which user sessions to label to improve the accuracy of the multiclass classifier, while also seeking to discover new classes of automated traffic. Performance analysis are then provided. Finally, the multiclass classifier is used to predict the subclass distribution for the search query stream.

  10. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyewsky, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  11. Automated Methods Of Corrosion Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Reeve, John Ch

    1997-01-01

    The chapter describes the following automated measurements: Corrosion Measurements by Titration, Imaging Corrosion by Scanning Probe Microscopy, Critical Pitting Temperature and Application of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Permeation Cell.......The chapter describes the following automated measurements: Corrosion Measurements by Titration, Imaging Corrosion by Scanning Probe Microscopy, Critical Pitting Temperature and Application of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Permeation Cell....

  12. Comparative analysis of species-specific ligand recognition in Toll-like receptor 8 signaling: a hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Gandhi Govindaraj

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs play a central role in the innate immune response by recognizing conserved structural patterns in a variety of microbes. TLRs are classified into six families, of which TLR7 family members include TLR7, 8, and 9, which are localized to endolysosomal compartments recognizing viral infection in the form of foreign nucleic acids. In our current study, we focused on TLR8, which has been shown to recognize different types of ligands such as viral or bacterial ssRNA as well as small synthetic molecules. The primary sequences of rodent and non-rodent TLR8s are similar, but the antiviral compound (R848 that activates the TLR8 pathway is species-specific. Moreover, the factors underlying the receptor's species-specificity remain unknown. To this end, comparative homology modeling, molecular dynamics simulations refinement, automated docking and computational mutagenesis studies were employed to probe the intermolecular interactions between this anti-viral compound and TLR8. Furthermore, comparative analyses of modeled TLR8 (rodent and non-rodent structures have shown that the variation mainly occurs at LRR14-15 (undefined region; hence, we hypothesized that this variation may be the primary reason for the exhibited species-specificity. Our hypothesis was further bolstered by our docking studies, which clearly showed that this undefined region was in close proximity to the ligand-binding site and thus may play a key role in ligand recognition. In addition, the interface between the ligand and TLR8s varied depending upon the amino acid charges, free energy of binding, and interaction surface. Therefore, our current work provides a hypothesis for previous in vivo studies in the context of TLR signaling.

  13. Examination of Automation-Induced Complacency and Individual Difference Variates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; DeVries, Holly; Freeman, Fred G.; Mikulka, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Automation-induced complacency has been documented as a cause or contributing factor in many airplane accidents throughout the last two decades. It is surmised that the condition results when a crew is working in highly reliable automated environments in which they serve as supervisory controllers monitoring system states for occasional automation failures. Although many reports have discussed the dangers of complacency, little empirical research has been produced to substantiate its harmful effects on performance as well as what factors produce complacency. There have been some suggestions, however, that individual characteristics could serve as possible predictors of performance in automated systems. The present study examined relationship between the individual differences of complacency potential, boredom proneness, and cognitive failure, automation-induced complacency. Workload and boredom scores were also collected and analyzed in relation to the three individual differences. The results of the study demonstrated that there are personality individual differences that are related to whether an individual will succumb to automation-induced complacency. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  14. 78 FR 42803 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Job Corps Health Questionnaire (OMB Control No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... 20210. Telephone number: 202-693-3283 (this is not a toll-free number). Individuals with hearing or..., and other factors, in accordance with the Competition in Contracting Act and the Federal Acquisition..., electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of information...

  15. 77 FR 70475 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Contractor Information Gathering, Extension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... is not a toll-free number). Individuals with hearing or speech impairments may access the telephone... evaluates potential operators' technical expertise, proposed costs, past performance, and other factors, in... other technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g.,...

  16. 78 FR 44157 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Generic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... submit comments by either one of the following methods: Email: Javar.Janet.O@dol.gov ; Mail or Courier... approval of the information collection request. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Janet Javar by telephone at 202-693- 5959 (this is not a toll-free number) or by email at...

  17. 76 FR 45297 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Design of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... toll-free number) or by e-mail at DOL_PRA_PUBLIC@dol.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The design of... information, see the related notice published in the Federal Register on April 6, 2011 (76 FR 19129... of the Secretary Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment...

  18. 78 FR 45947 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Section 8 Renewal Policy Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Section 8 Renewal Policy Guide... other available information. Persons with hearing or speech impairments may access this number through... or speech impairments may access this number through TTY by calling the toll-free Federal...

  19. 76 FR 27090 - Comment Request for Extension of Information Collection (Without Revisions): Form ETA 9033-A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... Revisions): Form ETA 9033-A, Attestation by Employers Using Alien Crewmembers for Longshore Activities in... collection by Form ETA 9033-A, OMB Control Number 1205-0352, Attestation by Employers Using Alien Crewmembers... at (202) 693-3010 (this is not a toll-free number); by fax at (202) 693-2768; or by e-mail at...

  20. Friction ridge skin - Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier

    2009-01-01

    This contribution describes the development and the forensic use of automated fingerprint identification systems (AFISs). AFISs were initially developed in order to overcome the limitations of the paper-based fingerprint collections, by digitizing the ten-print cards in computerized databases and to

  1. An Automated Data Analysis Tool for Livestock Market Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Galen S.; Raper, Kellie Curry

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an automated data analysis tool that allows Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service educators to disseminate results in a timely manner. Primary data collected at Oklahoma Quality Beef Network (OQBN) certified calf auctions across the state results in a large amount of data per sale site. Sale summaries for an individual sale…

  2. "BRAIN": Baruch Retrieval of Automated Information for Negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Aaron, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    A data processing program that can be used as a research and collective bargaining aid for colleges is briefly described and the fields of the system are outlined. The system, known as BRAIN (Baruch Retrieval of Automated Information for Negotiations), is designed primarily as an instrument for quantitative and qualitative analysis. BRAIN consists…

  3. Advanced Data Collection for Inventory Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opresko, G. A.; Leet, J. H.; Mcgrath, D. F.; Eidson, J.

    1987-01-01

    Bar-coding, radio-frequency, and voice-operated systems selected. Report discusses study of state-of-the-art in automated collection of data for management of large inventories. Study included comprehensive search of literature on data collection and inventory management, visits to existing automated inventory systems, and tours of selected supply and transportation facilities at Kennedy Space Center. Information collected analyzed in view of needs of conceptual inventory-management systems for Kennedy Space Center and for manned space station and other future space projects.

  4. Automated Standard Hazard Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebler, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The current system used to generate standard hazard reports is considered cumbersome and iterative. This study defines a structure for this system's process in a clear, algorithmic way so that standard hazard reports and basic hazard analysis may be completed using a centralized, web-based computer application. To accomplish this task, a test server is used to host a prototype of the tool during development. The prototype is configured to easily integrate into NASA's current server systems with minimal alteration. Additionally, the tool is easily updated and provides NASA with a system that may grow to accommodate future requirements and possibly, different applications. Results of this project's success are outlined in positive, subjective reviews complete by payload providers and NASA Safety and Mission Assurance personnel. Ideally, this prototype will increase interest in the concept of standard hazard automation and lead to the full-scale production of a user-ready application.

  5. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  6. [From automation to robotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The introduction of automation into the laboratory of biology seems to be unavoidable. But at which cost, if it is necessary to purchase a new machine for every new application? Fortunately the same image processing techniques, belonging to a theoretic framework called Mathematical Morphology, may be used in visual inspection tasks, both in car industry and in the biology lab. Since the market for industrial robotics applications is much higher than the market of biomedical applications, the price of image processing devices drops, and becomes sometimes less than the price of a complete microscope equipment. The power of the image processing methods of Mathematical Morphology will be illustrated by various examples, as automatic silver grain counting in autoradiography, determination of HLA genotype, electrophoretic gels analysis, automatic screening of cervical smears... Thus several heterogeneous applications may share the same image processing device, provided there is a separate and devoted work station for each of them.

  7. Automated electronic filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Amal

    2017-01-01

    This book describes a novel, efficient and powerful scheme for designing and evaluating the performance characteristics of any electronic filter designed with predefined specifications. The author explains techniques that enable readers to eliminate complicated manual, and thus error-prone and time-consuming, steps of traditional design techniques. The presentation includes demonstration of efficient automation, using an ANSI C language program, which accepts any filter design specification (e.g. Chebyschev low-pass filter, cut-off frequency, pass-band ripple etc.) as input and generates as output a SPICE(Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) format netlist. Readers then can use this netlist to run simulations with any version of the popular SPICE simulator, increasing accuracy of the final results, without violating any of the key principles of the traditional design scheme.

  8. Automated Essay Scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semire DIKLI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated Essay Scoring Semire DIKLI Florida State University Tallahassee, FL, USA ABSTRACT The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali, 2004. AES is defined as the computer technology that evaluates and scores the written prose (Shermis & Barrera, 2002; Shermis & Burstein, 2003; Shermis, Raymat, & Barrera, 2003. Revision and feedback are essential aspects of the writing process. Students need to receive feedback in order to increase their writing quality. However, responding to student papers can be a burden for teachers. Particularly if they have large number of students and if they assign frequent writing assignments, providing individual feedback to student essays might be quite time consuming. AES systems can be very useful because they can provide the student with a score as well as feedback within seconds (Page, 2003. Four types of AES systems, which are widely used by testing companies, universities, and public schools: Project Essay Grader (PEG, Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA, E-rater, and IntelliMetric. AES is a developing technology. Many AES systems are used to overcome time, cost, and generalizability issues in writing assessment. The accuracy and reliability of these systems have been proven to be high. The search for excellence in machine scoring of essays is continuing and numerous studies are being conducted to improve the effectiveness of the AES systems.

  9. 75 FR 32823 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... filers to provide investors with information necessary to evaluate an investment in the security. This... the use of automated collection ] techniques or other forms of information technology. Consideration... ``Commission'') is soliciting comments on the collection of information summarized below. The Commission...

  10. 75 FR 82416 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    .... Providing the information required by rule 206(3)-3T is necessary for investment advisers also registered as... through the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Consideration... (the ``Commission'') is soliciting comments on the collections of information summarized below....

  11. 76 FR 71555 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... the information collection on respondents, through the use of automated collection techniques and... submitting comments. Mail: Federal Docket Management System Office, 4800 Mark Center Drive, 2nd Floor, East..., or supplement other Federal funds to construct, renovate, repair, or expand elementary and...

  12. 77 FR 27540 - Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... collection of information on the respondents, including the use of automated collection techniques or other... Affairs, Attention: Patrick Fuchs, Surface Transportation Board Desk Officer, by fax at (202) 395-5167; by...), includes agency requirements that persons submit reports, keep records, or provide information to...

  13. 75 FR 51502 - Proposed Collection Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... submitting the following information collection request to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for... interested in promoting global education in the classroom. Respondents Obligation to Reply: Voluntary. Burden... information on those who are to respond, including through the use of automated collection techniques,...

  14. 78 FR 23315 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... sufficient liquid assets to meet their current liabilities, particularly the claims of customers. The rule... Commission plans to submit this existing collection of information to the Office of Management and Budget... the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology....

  15. 75 FR 22637 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... distributions, (iii) the investment company's assets and liabilities, (iv) the events leading to the request to... Commission plans to submit this existing collection of information to the Office of Management and Budget for... respondents, including through the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of...

  16. The Challenges in Developing Academic Library Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankowski, Andrew

    1987-01-01

    Defines collection development and discusses several issues related to this function in the academic library: (1) the importance of a collection development policy; (2) material selection; (3) faculty-library cooperation; (4) cooperation with other library departments; (5) weeding; and (6) effects of automation. Nine references are listed. (MES)

  17. MECHANISMS OF ANTIINFECTIOUS FUNCTIONS OF INNATE IMMUNITY: ROLE OF TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Suskov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the main role of toll-like receptors of innate immunity for pathogen recognition; signaling; production of inflammatory response. Also Interrelation of innate and adaptive Immunity in conditions of pathology and organ transplantation were considered. 

  18. The Emotional Toll of Obligation and Teachers' Disengagement from the Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Melanie D.; Phelan, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    Obligation, or the binding responsibility to respond to the other, both lends teaching its moral integrity, but also takes an enormous emotional toll on those who teach. Obligation is of particular importance today given that education is increasingly being restructured by ideologies of the market and managerialism that seek to minimize the moral…

  19. Relationship between Toll-Like Receptor 8 Gene Polymorphisms and Pediatric Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Dalgic

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Genetic variants in Toll-like receptors (TLRs are considered a potential indicator for host susceptibility to and outcome of several infectious diseases including tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether −129 C/G and Met1Val polymorphisms of TLR8 were associated with pediatric pulmonary tuberculosis in Turkish population.

  20. Evolutionary patterns of Toll-like receptor signaling pathway genes in the Suidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darfour-Oduro, K.A.; Megens, Hendrik Jan; Roca, A.L.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Schook, L.B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway constitutes an essential component of the innate immune system. Highly conserved proteins, indicative of their critical roles in host survival, characterize this pathway. Selective constraints could vary depending on the gene's position w

  1. Toll-like receptors as an escape mechanism from the host defense.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netea, M.G.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Kullberg, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are probably the most important class of pattern-recognition receptors. Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by TLRs, either alone or in heterodimerization with other TLR or non-TLR receptors, induces the production of signals that are responsible

  2. Identification and functional characterization of nonmammalian Toll-like receptor 20

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietretti, D.; Scheer, M.H.; Fink, I.R.; Taverne, N.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Spaink, H.P.; Forlenza, M.; Wiegertjes, G.

    2014-01-01

    Like other vertebrate Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the TLRs of teleost fish can be subdivided into six major families, each of which recognize a general class of molecular patterns. However, there also are a number of Tlrs with unknown function, the presence of which seems unique to the bony fish, am

  3. Toll-like Receptors in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Prospects for Therapeutic Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wan-Uk; Sreih, Antoine; Bucala, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Recent experimental and clinical studies have placed new emphasis on the role of the innate immune system in SLE. Nucleic acid-containing immune complexes activate the innate response by engaging specific Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and promote the generation of autoantibodies. Pharmacologic modulation of TLR-directed pathways may offer new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of SLE. PMID:18722558

  4. Activation of toll-like receptors and dendritic cells by a broad range of bacterial molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boele, L.C.L.; Bajramovic, J.J.; Vries, A.M.M.B.C. de; Voskamp-Visser, I.A.I.; Kaman, W.E.; Kleij, D. van der

    2009-01-01

    Activation of pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) by pathogens leads to activation and maturation of dendritic cells (DC), which orchestrate the development of the adaptive immune response. To create an overview of the effects of a broad range of pathogenic bacteria, the

  5. Toll-like receptors as targets for inflammation, development and repair in the central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, J.M. van

    2007-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that play key roles in inflammation are also widely expressed in the CNS. While they are well known to activate inflammatory responses to microbial products, TLRs fulfill additional roles in the absence of infection. Emerging evidence suggests that several TLRs play a role

  6. The Role of Toll-Like Receptor 2 in Inflammation and Fibrosis during Progressive Renal Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, J.C.; Butter, L.M.; Pulskens, W.P.C.; Teske, G.J.D.; Claessen, N.; van der Poll, T.; Florquin, S.

    2009-01-01

    Tissue fibrosis and chronic inflammation are common causes of progressive organ damage, including progressive renal disease, leading to loss of physiological functions. Recently, it was shown that Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is expressed in the kidney and activated by endogenous danger signals. The

  7. Toll-like Receptor 4 Signaling in Ventilator-induced Diaphragm Atrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, W.J.M.; Hees, H.W.H. van; Vaneker, M.; Linkels, M.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Scheffer, G.J.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Heunks, L.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Mechanical ventilation induces diaphragm muscle atrophy, which plays a key role in difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation. The signaling pathways involved in ventilator-induced diaphragm atrophy are poorly understood. The current study investigated the role of Toll-like receptor

  8. Toll-like receptor 2 signaling in response to brain injury: an innate bridge to neuroinflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babcock, Alicia; Wirenfeldt, Martin; Holm, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Reactive gliosis is a prominent feature of neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory disease in the CNS, yet the stimuli that drive this response are not known. There is growing appreciation that signaling through Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which is key to generating innate responses to infection,...... to neuroinflammation. Udgivelsesdato: Dec-6...

  9. Analysis of a National Toll Free Suicide Crisis Line in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Sue-Ann; Broom, Yvonne

    2007-01-01

    The first national toll free suicide crisis line for South Africa was launched in October 2003 with the aim of providing a service dedicated to the prevention of suicide in this country. The intervention was motivated by South Africa's suicide rate which had risen higher than the global suicide rate, with the majority of attempted suicides…

  10. Bartonella quintana lipopolysaccharide is a natural antagonist of Toll-like receptor 4.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, C.; Abdollahi-Roodsaz, S.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Takahashi, N.; Sprong, T.; Matera, G.; Liberto, M.C.; Foca, A.; Deuren, M. van; Kullberg, B.J.; Berg, W.B. van den; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Netea, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Bartonella quintana is a gram-negative microorganism that causes trench fever and chronic bacteremia. B. quintana lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was unable to induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines in human monocytes. Interestingly, B. quintana LPS is a potent antagonist of Toll-like receptor

  11. The Janus face of Bartonella quintana recognition by Toll-like receptors (TLRs): a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matera, G.; Liberto, M.C.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Vinci, M.; Quirino, A.; Pulicari, M.C.; Kullberg, B.J.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Netea, M.G.; Foca, A.

    2008-01-01

    Bartonella quintana (B. quintana) is a facultative, intracellular bacterium, which causes trench fever, chronic bacteraemia and bacillary angiomatosis. Little is known about the recognition of B. quintana by the innate immune system. In this review, we address the impact of Toll-like receptors (TLRs

  12. Adaptive evolution of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the family Suidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darfour-Oduro, K.A.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Roca, A.L.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Schook, L.B.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the family Suidae have diverged over extended evolutionary periods in diverse environments, suggesting that adaptation in response to endemic infectious agents may have occurred. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) comprise a multigene family that acts as the first line of defense against infectio

  13. Reptile Toll-like receptor 5 unveils adaptive evolution of bacterial flagellin recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogdt, Carlos G.P.; Bouwman, Lieneke I.; Kik, Marja J.L.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Putten, Van Jos P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are ancient innate immune receptors crucial for immune homeostasis and protection against infection. TLRs are present in mammals, birds, amphibians and fish but have not been functionally characterized in reptiles despite the central position of this animal class in vert

  14. DMPD: All is not Toll: new pathways in DNA recognition. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available thways in DNA recognition. PubmedID 16446382 Title All is not Toll: new pathways in DNA recognition. Authors Wagner H, Bauer S. Publi...cation J Exp Med. 2006 Feb 20;203(2):265-8. Epub 2006 Ja

  15. The complement system and toll-like receptors as integrated players in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovland, Anders; Jonasson, Lena; Garred, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    of innate immunity. The complement system and toll-like receptors (TLRs), and the crosstalk between them, may be of particular interest both with respect to pathogenesis and as therapeutic targets in atherosclerosis. Animal studies indicate that inhibition of C3a and C5a reduces atherosclerosis. In humans...

  16. Toll-Like Receptor (TLR2 and TLR4) Polymorphisms and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budulac, S.E.; Boezen, H.M.; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Lapperre, Therese S.; Vonk, Judith M.; Timens, W.; Postma, D.S.

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) participate in the defence against bacterial infections that are common in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We studied all tagging SNPs in TLR2 and TLR4 and their associations with the level and change over time of both FEV1 and sputum inflammato

  17. 78 FR 3453 - Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Establish an Information Collection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. DATES: Written comments on this... include research opportunities and mentoring for educators, scholars, and university students, as well...

  18. 76 FR 71107 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Gender Assessment Surveys, OMB Control Number...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    .... State Department Global Women's Mentoring Partnership Program participants from 2006 through 2010... respond, including the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of technology. ] Abstract...

  19. 33 CFR 402.10 - Schedule of tolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Snell) for pleasure craft is $30 U.S. or $30 Canadian per lock. The applicable charge under item 3 at the Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation's locks (Eisenhower, Snell) will be collected in...

  20. Control and automation of the Pegasus multi-point Thomson scattering system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, G M; Bongard, M W; Fonck, R J; Reusch, J A; Rodriguez Sanchez, C; Schlossberg, D J

    2016-11-01

    A new control system for the Pegasus Thomson scattering diagnostic has recently been deployed to automate the laser operation, data collection process, and interface with the system-wide Pegasus control code. Automation has been extended to areas outside of data collection, such as manipulation of beamline cameras and remotely controlled turning mirror actuators to enable intra-shot beam alignment. Additionally, the system has been upgraded with a set of fast (∼1 ms) mechanical shutters to mitigate contamination from background light. Modification and automation of the Thomson system have improved both data quality and diagnostic reliability.

  1. Collection Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Explains collection mapping for library media collections. Discusses purposes for creating collection maps, including helping with selection and weeding decisions, showing how the collection supports the curriculum, and making budget decisions; and methods of data collection, including evaluating a collaboratively taught unit with the classroom…

  2. Building Automation Using Wired Communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Supriya Gund*,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a building automation system where communication technology LAN has been used. This paper mainly focuses on the controlling of home appliances remotely and providing security when the user is away from the place. This system provides ideal solution to the problems faced by home owners in daily life. This system provides security against intrusion as well as automates various home appliances using LAN. To demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed system, the device such as fire sensor, gas sensor, panic switch, intruder switch along with the smartcard have been developed and evaluated with the building automation system. These techniques are successfully merged in a single building automation system. This system offers a complete, low cost powerful and user friendly way of real-time monitoring and remote control of a building.

  3. Evolution of Home Automation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Rihan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern society home and office automation has becomeincreasingly important, providing ways to interconnectvarious home appliances. This interconnection results infaster transfer of information within home/offices leading tobetter home management and improved user experience.Home Automation, in essence, is a technology thatintegrates various electrical systems of a home to provideenhanced comfort and security. Users are grantedconvenient and complete control over all the electrical homeappliances and they are relieved from the tasks thatpreviously required manual control. This paper tracks thedevelopment of home automation technology over the lasttwo decades. Various home automation technologies havebeen explained briefly, giving a chronological account of theevolution of one of the most talked about technologies ofrecent times.

  4. Home automation with Intel Galileo

    CERN Document Server

    Dundar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    This book is for anyone who wants to learn Intel Galileo for home automation and cross-platform software development. No knowledge of programming with Intel Galileo is assumed, but knowledge of the C programming language is essential.

  5. National Automated Conformity Inspection Process -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The National Automated Conformity Inspection Process (NACIP) Application is intended to expedite the workflow process as it pertains to the FAA Form 81 0-10 Request...

  6. Evolution of Home Automation Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd. Rihan; M. Salim Beg

    2009-01-01

    In modern society home and office automation has becomeincreasingly important, providing ways to interconnectvarious home appliances. This interconnection results infaster transfer of information within home/offices leading tobetter home management and improved user experience.Home Automation, in essence, is a technology thatintegrates various electrical systems of a home to provideenhanced comfort and security. Users are grantedconvenient and complete control over all the electrical homeappl...

  7. Technology modernization assessment flexible automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, D.W.; Boyd, D.R.; Hansen, N.H.; Hansen, M.A.; Yount, J.A.

    1990-12-01

    The objectives of this report are: to present technology assessment guidelines to be considered in conjunction with defense regulations before an automation project is developed to give examples showing how assessment guidelines may be applied to a current project to present several potential areas where automation might be applied successfully in the depot system. Depots perform primarily repair and remanufacturing operations, with limited small batch manufacturing runs. While certain activities (such as Management Information Systems and warehousing) are directly applicable to either environment, the majority of applications will require combining existing and emerging technologies in different ways, with the special needs of depot remanufacturing environment. Industry generally enjoys the ability to make revisions to its product lines seasonally, followed by batch runs of thousands or more. Depot batch runs are in the tens, at best the hundreds, of parts with a potential for large variation in product mix; reconfiguration may be required on a week-to-week basis. This need for a higher degree of flexibility suggests a higher level of operator interaction, and, in turn, control systems that go beyond the state of the art for less flexible automation and industry in general. This report investigates the benefits and barriers to automation and concludes that, while significant benefits do exist for automation, depots must be prepared to carefully investigate the technical feasibility of each opportunity and the life-cycle costs associated with implementation. Implementation is suggested in two ways: (1) develop an implementation plan for automation technologies based on results of small demonstration automation projects; (2) use phased implementation for both these and later stage automation projects to allow major technical and administrative risk issues to be addressed. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs. (JF)

  8. Aprendizaje automático

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Antonio

    1994-01-01

    En este libro se introducen los conceptos básicos en una de las ramas más estudiadas actualmente dentro de la inteligencia artificial: el aprendizaje automático. Se estudian temas como el aprendizaje inductivo, el razonamiento analógico, el aprendizaje basado en explicaciones, las redes neuronales, los algoritmos genéticos, el razonamiento basado en casos o las aproximaciones teóricas al aprendizaje automático.

  9. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’15, held in Fuzhou, China. The topics include adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, reconfigurable control, etc. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into interdisciplinary solutions in the field of intelligent automation.

  10. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  11. Multifunction automated crawling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Joffe, Benjamin (Inventor); Backes, Paul Gregory (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an automated crawling robot system including a platform, a first leg assembly, a second leg assembly, first and second rails attached to the platform, and an onboard electronic computer controller. The first leg assembly has an intermittent coupling device and the second leg assembly has an intermittent coupling device for intermittently coupling the respective first and second leg assemblies to a particular object. The first and second leg assemblies are slidably coupled to the rail assembly and are slidably driven by motors to thereby allow linear movement. In addition, the first leg assembly is rotary driven by a rotary motor to thereby provide rotary motion relative to the platform. To effectuate motion, the intermittent coupling devices of the first and second leg assemblies alternately couple the respective first and second leg assemblies to an object. This motion is done while simultaneously moving one of the leg assemblies linearly in the desired direction and preparing the next step. This arrangement allows the crawler of the present invention to traverse an object in a range of motion covering 360 degrees.

  12. Automated ISS Flight Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Jan Tuzlic

    2016-01-01

    During my internship at NASA Johnson Space Center, I worked in the Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG), where I was tasked with a number of projects focused on the automation of tasks and activities related to the operation of the International Space Station (ISS). As I worked on a number of projects, I have written short sections below to give a description for each, followed by more general remarks on the internship experience. My first project is titled "General Exposure Representation EVADOSE", also known as "GEnEVADOSE". This project involved the design and development of a C++/ ROOT framework focused on radiation exposure for extravehicular activity (EVA) planning for the ISS. The utility helps mission managers plan EVAs by displaying information on the cumulative radiation doses that crew will receive during an EVA as a function of the egress time and duration of the activity. SRAG uses a utility called EVADOSE, employing a model of the space radiation environment in low Earth orbit to predict these doses, as while outside the ISS the astronauts will have less shielding from charged particles such as electrons and protons. However, EVADOSE output is cumbersome to work with, and prior to GEnEVADOSE, querying data and producing graphs of ISS trajectories and cumulative doses versus egress time required manual work in Microsoft Excel. GEnEVADOSE automates all this work, reading in EVADOSE output file(s) along with a plaintext file input by the user providing input parameters. GEnEVADOSE will output a text file containing all the necessary dosimetry for each proposed EVA egress time, for each specified EVADOSE file. It also plots cumulative dose versus egress time and the ISS trajectory, and displays all of this information in an auto-generated presentation made in LaTeX. New features have also been added, such as best-case scenarios (egress times corresponding to the least dose), interpolated curves for trajectories, and the ability to query any time in the

  13. Automated Gas Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Allen; Clark, Henry

    2012-10-01

    The cyclotron of Texas A&M University is one of the few and prized cyclotrons in the country. Behind the scenes of the cyclotron is a confusing, and dangerous setup of the ion sources that supplies the cyclotron with particles for acceleration. To use this machine there is a time consuming, and even wasteful step by step process of switching gases, purging, and other important features that must be done manually to keep the system functioning properly, while also trying to maintain the safety of the working environment. Developing a new gas distribution system to the ion source prevents many of the problems generated by the older manually setup process. This developed system can be controlled manually in an easier fashion than before, but like most of the technology and machines in the cyclotron now, is mainly operated based on software programming developed through graphical coding environment Labview. The automated gas distribution system provides multi-ports for a selection of different gases to decrease the amount of gas wasted through switching gases, and a port for the vacuum to decrease the amount of time spent purging the manifold. The Labview software makes the operation of the cyclotron and ion sources easier, and safer for anyone to use.

  14. Genetic circuit design automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Alec A K; Der, Bryan S; Shin, Jonghyeon; Vaidyanathan, Prashant; Paralanov, Vanya; Strychalski, Elizabeth A; Ross, David; Densmore, Douglas; Voigt, Christopher A

    2016-04-01

    Computation can be performed in living cells by DNA-encoded circuits that process sensory information and control biological functions. Their construction is time-intensive, requiring manual part assembly and balancing of regulator expression. We describe a design environment, Cello, in which a user writes Verilog code that is automatically transformed into a DNA sequence. Algorithms build a circuit diagram, assign and connect gates, and simulate performance. Reliable circuit design requires the insulation of gates from genetic context, so that they function identically when used in different circuits. We used Cello to design 60 circuits forEscherichia coli(880,000 base pairs of DNA), for which each DNA sequence was built as predicted by the software with no additional tuning. Of these, 45 circuits performed correctly in every output state (up to 10 regulators and 55 parts), and across all circuits 92% of the output states functioned as predicted. Design automation simplifies the incorporation of genetic circuits into biotechnology projects that require decision-making, control, sensing, or spatial organization.

  15. Automated sugar analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Alcides MARQUES

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sugarcane monosaccharides are reducing sugars, and classical analytical methodologies (Lane-Eynon, Benedict, complexometric-EDTA, Luff-Schoorl, Musson-Walker, Somogyi-Nelson are based on reducing copper ions in alkaline solutions. In Brazil, certain factories use Lane-Eynon, others use the equipment referred to as “REDUTEC”, and additional factories analyze reducing sugars based on a mathematic model. The objective of this paper is to understand the relationship between variations in millivolts, mass and tenors of reducing sugars during the analysis process. Another objective is to generate an automatic model for this process. The work herein uses the equipment referred to as “REDUTEC”, a digital balance, a peristaltic pump, a digital camcorder, math programs and graphics programs. We conclude that the millivolts, mass and tenors of reducing sugars exhibit a good mathematical correlation, and the mathematical model generated was benchmarked to low-concentration reducing sugars (<0.3%. Using the model created herein, reducing sugars analyses can be automated using the new equipment.

  16. Automated particulate sampler field test model operations guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowyer, S.M.; Miley, H.S.

    1996-10-01

    The Automated Particulate Sampler Field Test Model Operations Guide is a collection of documents which provides a complete picture of the Automated Particulate Sampler (APS) and the Field Test in which it was evaluated. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Automated Particulate Sampler was developed for the purpose of radionuclide particulate monitoring for use under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Its design was directed by anticipated requirements of small size, low power consumption, low noise level, fully automatic operation, and most predominantly the sensitivity requirements of the Conference on Disarmament Working Paper 224 (CDWP224). This guide is intended to serve as both a reference document for the APS and to provide detailed instructions on how to operate the sampler. This document provides a complete description of the APS Field Test Model and all the activity related to its evaluation and progression.

  17. Toll-like receptors expressed by dermal fibroblasts contribute to hypertrophic scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, JianFei; Hori, Keijiro; Ding, Jie; Huang, Yue; Kwan, Peter; Ladak, Adil; Tredget, Edward E

    2011-05-01

    Hypertrophic scar (HTS), a fibroproliferative disorder (FPD), complicates burn wound healing. Although the pathogenesis is not understood, prolonged inflammation is a known contributing factor. Emerging evidence suggests that fibroblasts regulate immune/inflammatory responses through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) through adaptor molecules, leading to nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells and mitogen-activated protein kinases activation, cytokine gene transcription and co-stimulatory molecule expression resulting in inflammation. This study explored the possible role of TLR4 in HTS formation. Paired normal and HTS tissue from burn patients was collected and dermal fibroblasts isolated and cultured. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissues demonstrated increased TLR4 staining in HTS tissue. Quantitative RT-PCR of three pairs of fibroblasts demonstrated mRNA levels for TLR4 and its legend myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in HTS fibroblasts were increased significantly compared with normal fibroblasts. Flow cytometry showed increased TLR4 expression in HTS fibroblasts compared with normal. ELISA demonstrated protein levels for prostaglandin E2, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly increased in HTS fibroblasts compared to normal. When paired normal and HTS fibroblasts were stimulated with LPS, significant increases in mRNA and protein levels for MyD88, IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 were detected. However, when transfected with MyD88 small interfering RNA (siRNA), then stimulated with LPS, a significant decrease in mRNA and protein levels for these molecules compared to only LPS-stimulated fibroblasts was detected. In comparison, a scramble siRNA transfection did not affect mRNA or protein levels for these molecules. Results demonstrate LPS stimulates proinflammatory cytokine expression in dermal fibroblasts and MyD88 siRNA eliminates the expression. Therefore

  18. Extensible automated dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Songqing; Hu, Lu; Chen, Ketao; Gao, Haixiang, E-mail: hxgao@cau.edu.cn

    2015-05-04

    Highlights: • An extensible automated dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction was developed. • A fully automatic SPE workstation with a modified operation program was used. • Ionic liquid-based in situ DLLME was used as model method. • SPE columns packed with nonwoven polypropylene fiber was used for phase separation. • The approach was applied to the determination of benzoylurea insecticides in water. - Abstract: In this study, a convenient and extensible automated ionic liquid-based in situ dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (automated IL-based in situ DLLME) was developed. 1-Octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethane)sulfonyl]imide ([C{sub 8}MIM]NTf{sub 2}) is formed through the reaction between [C{sub 8}MIM]Cl and lithium bis[(trifluoromethane)sulfonyl]imide (LiNTf{sub 2}) to extract the analytes. Using a fully automatic SPE workstation, special SPE columns packed with nonwoven polypropylene (NWPP) fiber, and a modified operation program, the procedures of the IL-based in situ DLLME, including the collection of a water sample, injection of an ion exchange solvent, phase separation of the emulsified solution, elution of the retained extraction phase, and collection of the eluent into vials, can be performed automatically. The developed approach, coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection (HPLC–DAD), was successfully applied to the detection and concentration determination of benzoylurea (BU) insecticides in water samples. Parameters affecting the extraction performance were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method achieved extraction recoveries of 80% to 89% for water samples. The limits of detection (LODs) of the method were in the range of 0.16–0.45 ng mL{sup −1}. The intra-column and inter-column relative standard deviations (RSDs) were <8.6%. Good linearity (r > 0.9986) was obtained over the calibration range from 2 to 500 ng mL{sup −1}. The proposed

  19. Generic solutions for substation automation in wind energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckel, Juergen [Siemens AG (Germany); Niejahr, Joerg [Siemens Canada Ltd. (Canada). Business Unit Canada

    2010-07-01

    Depending on the size and the type of a wind energy plants different primary component groups were used to build the power collection grid, which link the Wind Turbine Towers and connect them to the public network, respectively: - LV/MV Transformer and fuse in each WTT (Wind Turbine Towers) with the wind turbine itself; - MV cables which link a group of WTT's to a feeder and connect them to the - MV Switchgear which connect directly to the MV public network or, depending on the size of the plant to the - MV/HV transformer and HV switchgear for connection to the HV public grid. To fulfill the requirements of the substation automation and protection for the different types e.g. onshore or offshore and sizes of wind energy plant in an economic and consistent way the design and technology must be standardized for all level of automation from the bottom in the WTT up to the HV-substation. Based on wide experience in substation automation of large and small offshore and onshore wind energy parks, generic solutions for wind power plants defines a set of typicals for the substation automation system and protection., covering the requirements of the WTT-, MV- and HV-Switchgear as well. With these construction kit for Substation Automation the complete range of different types and sizes of wind power plants are covered. The use of intelligent devices, an open IEC 61850 architecture, powerful substation computers, equipment knowledge modules and local storage assure cost efficiency, high availability and sustainability. This paper focus on the concept, components and benefits of ''generic solutions substation'' wind energy for automation and protection for all levels of the power collection grid of wind energy parks with focus on the aspects to build a seamless system for the complete windfarm. (orig.)

  20. Penehyclidine hydrochloride: a potential drug for treating COPD by attenuating Toll-like receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao HT

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Hong-Tao Xiao,1,* Zhi Liao,2,* Rong-Sheng Tong11Department of Pharmacy, 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences and Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, Chengdu, China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The aim of this review was to evaluate and summarize the available scientific information on penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD as a result of its ability to attenuate Toll-like receptors. Penehyclidine hydrochloride is an anticholinergic drug manufactured in China, with both antimuscarinic and antinicotinic activity. PHC is used widely in the clinic as a reversal agent in cases of organic phosphorus poisoning and soman poisoning, but also may also have an important role as a bronchodilator in the treatment of obstructive airway disease, including asthma and, in particular, COPD.Methods: Our bibliographic sources included the CAPLUS, MEDLINE, REGISTRY, CASREACT, CHEMLIST, CHEMCATS, and CNKI databases, updated to September 2012. In order to assess the data in detail, we used the search terms “penehyclidine hydrochloride,” “COPD,” “muscarinic receptor,” and “toll-like receptors.” Papers were restricted to those published in the English and Chinese languages, and to “paper” and “review” as the document type. Patents were also reviewed.Results: Our survey mainly yielded the results of research on PHC and the mechanisms of COPD. COPD is a preventable and treatable disease with some significant extrapulmonary manifestations that may contribute to its severity in some patients. Recently, it has been shown that muscarinic receptors may interact with Toll-like receptors. Basic and clinical studies of the relationship between the mechanism of action and the effects of PHC in the respiratory tract have been studied by a number of laboratories and institutions. The main advantages of PHC are that it has few M2

  1. Role of toll-like receptor 2 and toll-like receptor 4 in post-ischemic coronary endothelial dysfunction in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.FAVRE; P.MUSETTE; JPHENRY; C.THUILLEZ; V.RICHARD

    2004-01-01

    AIM: A growing body of evidence suggests a role of the toll-like receptors (TLR) in inflammatory processes. In addition to LPS,TLR are activated by many endogenous ligands such as heat shock proteins and oxygeil-derived free radicals which are both produced during cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Among TLR,TLR-2 and TLR-4 are expressed in endothelial and myocardial cells and appear to regulate neutrophil-endothelial interactions.Since neutrophil adhesion is a critical event in endothelial injury

  2. Multiplex screening of 22 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 7 Toll-like receptors: an association study in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevold, Christian; Radstake, Timothy R D; Coenen, Marieke J H

    2010-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of arthritis. We investigated the role of functional variants of TLR in the disease phenotype and severity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)....

  3. Space and time: New considerations about the relationship between Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and type I interferons (IFNs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Darren J; Vogel, Stefanie N

    2015-08-01

    The Toll like receptors (TLRs) and the type I interferons have critical roles to play in innate immunity. In this review we will discuss new developments relating to the important area of TLR/IFN cross regulation.

  4. Tissue Expression of Toll-9 Receptor Gene of Locusta migratoria manilensis(Meyen)%东亚飞蝗Toll-9受体基因及组织定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎群英; 夏玉先

    2008-01-01

    采用RT-PCR争RACE方法获得了东亚飞蝗(Locusta migratoria manilensis)Toll-9受体基因(Lm Toll-9)的部分cDNA序列(GeneBank登录号:EU573213),分析了该基因的组织表达特征.获得的cDNA包括3'端,长1231 bp,含一个长918 bp的开放阅读框,编码305个氨基酸,推测的氨基酸序列与其它昆虫的Toll-9受体基因有较高的相似性.东亚飞蝗Toll-9受体具有昆虫Toll受体家族的典型结构,包括胞内的TIR结构域和跨膜区域.半定量RT-PCR研究表明,LmToll-9基因只在东亚飞蝗的中肠组织中表达,而在东亚飞蝗的头部、脂肪体、后腿和血细胞中均没有发现LmToll-9基因的转录.

  5. Toll-like receptor 4 mutant and null mice retain morphine-induced tolerance, hyperalgesia, and physical dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Alexandra Mattioli

    Full Text Available The innate immune system modulates opioid-induced effects within the central nervous system and one target that has received considerable attention is the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4. Here, we examined the contribution of TLR4 in the development of morphine tolerance, hyperalgesia, and physical dependence in two inbred mouse strains: C3H/HeJ mice which have a dominant negative point mutation in the Tlr4 gene rendering the receptor non-functional, and B10ScNJ mice which are TLR4 null mutants. We found that neither acute antinociceptive response to a single dose of morphine, nor the development of analgesic tolerance to repeated morphine treatment, was affected by TLR4 genotype. Likewise, opioid induced hyperalgesia and opioid physical dependence (assessed by naloxone precipitated withdrawal were not altered in TLR4 mutant or null mice. We also examined the behavioural consequence of two stereoisomers of naloxone: (- naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, and (+ naloxone, a purported antagonist of TLR4. Both stereoisomers of naloxone suppressed opioid induced hyperalgesia in wild-type control, TLR4 mutant, and TLR4 null mice. Collectively, our data suggest that TLR4 is not required for opioid-induced analgesic tolerance, hyperalgesia, or physical dependence.

  6. Functional Toll-like receptor 4 expressed in lactotrophs mediates LPS-induced proliferation in experimental pituitary hyperplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabatino, María Eugenia; Sosa, Liliana del Valle; Petiti, Juan Pablo; Mukdsi, Jorge Humberto [Centro de Microscopía Electrónica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (INICSA-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Av. Enrique Barros y Enfermera Gordillo, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 5000, Córdoba (Argentina); Mascanfroni, Iván Darío; Pellizas, Claudia Gabriela [Centro de Investigaciones en Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunología (CIBICI-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Av. Haya de la Torre y Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 5000, Córdoba (Argentina); Gutiérrez, Silvina; Torres, Alicia Inés [Centro de Microscopía Electrónica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (INICSA-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Av. Enrique Barros y Enfermera Gordillo, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 5000, Córdoba (Argentina); De Paul, Ana Lucía, E-mail: adepaul@cmefcm.uncor.edu [Centro de Microscopía Electrónica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud (INICSA-CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Av. Enrique Barros y Enfermera Gordillo, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 5000, Córdoba (Argentina)

    2013-11-15

    Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been characterized for its ability to recognize bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Considering that infections or inflammatory processes might contribute to the progression of pituitary tumors, we analyzed the TLR4 functional role by evaluating the LPS effect on lactotroph proliferation in primary cultures from experimental pituitary tumors, and examined the involvement of PI3K-Akt and NF-κB activation in this effect. In addition, the role of 17β-estradiol as a possible modulator of LPS-induced PRL cell proliferation was further investigated. In estrogen-induced hyperplasic pituitaries, LPS triggered lactotroph cell proliferation. However, endotoxin failed to increase the number of lactotrophs taking up BrdU in normal pituitaries. Moreover, incubation with anti-TLR4 antibody significantly reduced LPS-induced lactotroph proliferation, suggesting a functional role of this receptor. As a sign of TLR4 activation, an LPS challenge increased IL-6 release in normal and tumoral cells. By flow cytometry, TLR4 baseline expression was revealed at the plasma membrane of tumoral lactotrophs, without changes noted in the percentage of double PRL/TLR4 positive cells after LPS stimulus. Increases in TLR4 intracellular expression were detected as well as rises in CD14, p-Akt and NF-κB after an LPS challenge, as assessed by western blotting. The TLR4/PRL and PRL/NF-κB co-localization was also corroborated by immunofluorescence and the involvement of PI3K/Akt signaling in lactotroph proliferation and IL-6 release was revealed through the PI3K inhibitor Ly-294002. In addition, 17β-estradiol attenuated the LPS-evoked increase in tumoral lactotroph proliferation and IL-6 release. Collectively these results demonstrate the presence of functional TLR4 in lactotrophs from estrogen-induced hyperplasic pituitaries, which responded to the proliferative stimulation and IL-6 release induced by LPS through TLR4/CD14, with a contribution of the PI3K

  7. AUTOMATED ANALYSIS OF BREAKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Farhadzade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breakers relate to Electric Power Systems’ equipment, the reliability of which influence, to a great extend, on reliability of Power Plants. In particular, the breakers determine structural reliability of switchgear circuit of Power Stations and network substations. Failure in short-circuit switching off by breaker with further failure of reservation unit or system of long-distance protection lead quite often to system emergency.The problem of breakers’ reliability improvement and the reduction of maintenance expenses is becoming ever more urgent in conditions of systematic increasing of maintenance cost and repair expenses of oil circuit and air-break circuit breakers. The main direction of this problem solution is the improvement of diagnostic control methods and organization of on-condition maintenance. But this demands to use a great amount of statistic information about nameplate data of breakers and their operating conditions, about their failures, testing and repairing, advanced developments (software of computer technologies and specific automated information system (AIS.The new AIS with AISV logo was developed at the department: “Reliability of power equipment” of AzRDSI of Energy. The main features of AISV are:· to provide the security and data base accuracy;· to carry out systematic control of breakers conformity with operating conditions;· to make the estimation of individual  reliability’s value and characteristics of its changing for given combination of characteristics variety;· to provide personnel, who is responsible for technical maintenance of breakers, not only with information but also with methodological support, including recommendations for the given problem solving  and advanced methods for its realization.

  8. Toll-like receptor 4 dependent responses to lung injury in a murine model of pulmonary contusion

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Blunt chest trauma resulting in pulmonary contusion with an accompanying acute inflammatory response is a common but poorly understood injury. We previously demonstrated that toll-like receptor 2 participates in the inflammatory response to lung injury. We hypothesized that the toll-like receptor 4, in a MyD88-dependent manner, may also participate in the response to lung injury. To investigate this, we used a model of pulmonary contusion in the mouse that is similar to that observed clinical...

  9. 76 FR 2753 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... of the Comptroller of the Currency, Mail Stop 2-3, Attention: 1557-0202, 250 E Street, SW.... Description: The regulation requires national banks to make disclosures and keep records regarding whether a... collection on respondents, including through the use of automated collection techniques or other forms...

  10. 78 FR 56770 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Information Collection Renewal; Comment Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

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    2013-11-08

    ... collected; and (4) the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology to..., Attention: Document Identifier/OMB Control Number --------, Room C4-26-05, 7500 Security Boulevard... includes agency requests or requirements that members of the public submit reports, keep records,...

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    2011-03-14

    ... Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for clearance simultaneously with the publication of this second... of appropriate automated, electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or... administration, research, teaching, other Center outcomes: Students receiving degrees and type degree...

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    2013-11-22

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  14. Exploitation of the Toll-like receptor system in cancer: a doubled-edged sword?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, S D

    2012-02-03

    The toll-like receptor (TLR) system constitutes a pylogenetically ancient, evolutionary conserved, archetypal pattern recognition system, which underpins pathogen recognition by and activation of the immune system. Toll-like receptor agonists have long been used as immunoadjuvants in anti cancer immunotherapy. However, TLRs are increasingly implicated in human disease pathogenesis and an expanding body of both clinical and experimental evidence suggests that the neoplastic process may subvert TLR signalling pathways to advance cancer progression. Recent discoveries in the TLR system open a multitude of potential therapeutic avenues. Extrapolation of such TLR system manipulations to a clinical oncological setting demands care to prevent potentially deleterious activation of TLR-mediated survival pathways. Thus, the TLR system is a double-edge sword, which needs to be carefully wielded in the setting of neoplastic disease.

  15. Toll-like receptors recognize distinct proteinase-resistant glycoconjugates in Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phongsisay, Vongsavanh; Hara, Hiromitsu; Fujimoto, Shuji

    2015-03-01

    Campylobacter jejuni causes gastroenteritis and autoimmune neuropathy Guillain-Barré syndrome. The mechanism by which C. jejuni infection results in such the hyperimmunity is not completely understood. Host immunity plays an important role in the disease pathogenesis; however, little is known how immune system recognizes this human pathogen. In this study, we report that Toll-like receptors recognize distinct proteinase K-resistant glycoconjugates in C. jejuni and Escherichia coli. Lipopolysaccharide is solely proteinase-resistant glycoconjugate in E. coli. In contrast, C. jejuni possesses at least five different components that are resistant to proteinase digestion and are capable of inducing NF-κB activation through TLR2 and TLR4. Possession of multiple activators of Toll-like receptors may be the unique strategy of C. jejuni to trigger hyperimmunity.

  16. Automation: Decision Aid or Decision Maker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skitka, Linda J.

    1998-01-01

    This study clarified that automation bias is something unique to automated decision making contexts, and is not the result of a general tendency toward complacency. By comparing performance on exactly the same events on the same tasks with and without an automated decision aid, we were able to determine that at least the omission error part of automation bias is due to the unique context created by having an automated decision aid, and is not a phenomena that would occur even if people were not in an automated context. However, this study also revealed that having an automated decision aid did lead to modestly improved performance across all non-error events. Participants in the non- automated condition responded with 83.68% accuracy, whereas participants in the automated condition responded with 88.67% accuracy, across all events. Automated decision aids clearly led to better overall performance when they were accurate. People performed almost exactly at the level of reliability as the automation (which across events was 88% reliable). However, also clear, is that the presence of less than 100% accurate automated decision aids creates a context in which new kinds of errors in decision making can occur. Participants in the non-automated condition responded with 97% accuracy on the six "error" events, whereas participants in the automated condition had only a 65% accuracy rate when confronted with those same six events. In short, the presence of an AMA can lead to vigilance decrements that can lead to errors in decision making.

  17. Alcohol,nutrition and liver cancer:Role of Toll-like receptor signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel; W; French; Joan; Oliva; Barbara; A; French; Fawzia; Bardag-Gorce

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the evidence that ties the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to the natural immune pro-inflammatory response to chronic liver disease, with a focus on the role of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling as the mechanism of liver stem cell/progenitor transformation to HCC. Two exemplary models of this phenomenon are reviewed in detail. One model applies chronic ethanol/lipopolysaccharide feeding to the activated TLR4 signaling pathway. The other applies chronic feeding of a carcin...

  18. Differential expression of toll-like receptors in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brint, Elizabeth K

    2011-02-01

    The pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is poorly understood. One contributory factor may be low-grade mucosal inflammation, perhaps initiated by the microbiota. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of pathogen-recognition receptors of the innate immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential involvement of TLRs in IBS to further understand the involvement of the innate immune system in this complex disorder.

  19. Transgenic alteration of Toll immune pathway in the female mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Guowu; Shin, Sang Woon; Cheon, Hyang-Mi; Kokoza, Vladimir; Raikhel, Alexander S

    2005-09-20

    Reverse genetics is a powerful tool for understanding gene functions and their interactions in the mosquito innate immunity. We took the transgenic approach, in combination with the RNA interference (RNAi) technique, to elucidate the role of mosquito REL1, a homolog of Drosophila Dorsal, in regulation of Toll immune pathway in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. By transforming the mosquitoes with DeltaREL1-A or a double-stranded RNA construct of REL1 driven by the female fat body-specific vitellogenin (Vg) promoter with the pBac[3xP3-EGFP, afm] vector, we generated two different transgenic mosquito strains, one with overexpressed AaREL1 and the second with AaREL1 knockdown. Both strains had a single copy of the respective transgene, and the expression in both transgenic mosquitoes was highly activated by blood feeding. Vg-DeltaREL1-A transgenic mosquitoes activate Toll immune pathway in the fat body by blood feeding. The overexpression of both isoforms, AaREL1-A and AaREL1-B, in Vg-DeltaREL1-A transgenic mosquitoes resulted in the concomitant activation of Aedes Spätzle1A and Serpin-27A, independent of septic injury. The same phenotype was observed in the mosquitoes with RNAi knockdown of an Aedes homolog to Drosophila cactus, an IkappaB inhibitor of Drosophila Toll pathway. The effect of the transgenic RNAi knockdown of AaREL1 on mosquito innate immunity was revealed by increased susceptibility to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana and the reduced induction of Spz1A and Serpin-27A gene expression after fungal challenge. These results have proven that AaREL1 is a key downstream regulator of Toll immune pathway in the mosquito A. aegypti.

  20. Integrated Regulation of Toll-like Receptor Responses by Notch and Interferon-γ Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) responses are regulated to avoid toxicity and achieve coordinated responses appropriate for the cell environment. We found that Notch and TLR pathways cooperated to activate canonical Notch target genes, including transcriptional repressors Hes1 and Hey1, and to increase production of canonical TLR-induced cytokines TNF, IL-6 and IL-12. Cooperation by these pathways to increase target gene expression was mediated the Notch pathway component and transcription factor RB...