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Sample records for automated steering mechanism

  1. Workshop on automated beam steering and shaping (ABS). Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A workshop on Automated Beam Steering and Shaping (ABS) was held at CERN in December 1998. This was the first workshop dedicated to this subject. The workshop had two major goals: to review the present status of ABS algorithms and systems around the world and to create a worldwide ABS community. These proceedings contain summary reports from all sessions, contributions from several presentations held at the workshop, and a complete set of abstracts for all presentations. (orig.)

  2. New steering mechanism for wheeled mobile robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sidibe Marie Bernard; FU Yi-li; XU He; MA Yu-lin

    2007-01-01

    A new castor wheel mechanism for omni-directional mobile platform is presented. A motion of translation is transformed into a rotation to steer the wheel with the help of a helical path fits into a translation joint and three rollers whose axes are connected to the driving shaft of the wheel. When the path moves in translation it acts on the rollers for steering. The path-roller friction transmission, the wheel kinematics and the maneuverability have been analyzed.

  3. A steering mechanism for phototaxis in Chlamydomonas

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, Rachel R

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydomonas shows both positive and negative phototaxis. It has a single eyespot near its equator and as the cell rotates during forward motion the light signal received by the eyespot varies. We use a simple mechanical model of Chlamydomonas that couples the flagellar beat pattern to the light intensity at the eyespot to demonstrate a mechanism for phototactic steering that is consistent with observations. The direction of phototaxis is controlled by a parameter in our model and the steering mechanism is robust to noise. Our model shows switching between directed phototaxis when the light is on and run-and-tumble behaviour in the dark.

  4. A steering mechanism for phototaxis in Chlamydomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rachel; Golestanian, Ramin

    2015-03-01

    Chlamydomonas shows both positive and negative phototaxis. It has a single eyespot near its equator and as the cell rotates during forward motion the light signal received by the eyespot varies. We use a simple mechanical model of Chlamydomonas that couples the flagellar beat pattern to the light intensity at the eyespot to demonstrate a mechanism for phototactic steering that is consistent with observations. The direction of phototaxis is controlled by a parameter in our model and the steering mechanism is robust to noise. In the dark, our model shows emergent run-and-tumble behavior and we see switching between directed phototaxis and run-and-tumble when we switch the light on and off.

  5. Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM) Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A.; Cramer, Alexander K.; Gostin, Alan B.; Hakun, Claef F.; Haney, Paul G.; Hinkle, Matthew R.; Lee, Kenneth Y.; Lugo, Carlos F.; Matuszeski, Adam J.; Morell, Armando; Armani, Nerses V.; Bonafede, Joseph; Jackson, Molly I.; Steigner, Peter J.; Stromsdorfer, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design, testing, and lessons learned during the development of the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM). The BSM is a 2 degree-of-freedom tip-tilt mechanism for the purpose of pointing a flat mirror to tightly control the co-alignment of the transmitted laser and the receiver telescope of the ATLAS instrument. High resolution needs of the mission resulted in sub-arcsecond pointing and knowledge requirements, which have been met. Development of methodology to verify performance was a significant effortadvancement. The BSM will fly as part of the Ice, Cloud, and Elevation Satellite 2 Mission (ICESat 2), which is scheduled to be launched in 2017. The ICESat 2 primary mission is to map the earths surface topography for the determination of seasonal changes of ice sheet thickness as well as vegetation canopy thickness.

  6. ATLAS Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM) Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A.; Cramer, Alexander K.; Gosten, Alan B.; Hakun, Claef F.; Haney, Paul G.; Hinkle, Matthew R.; Lee, Kenneth Y.; Lugo, Carlos F.; Matuszeski, Adam J.; Morell, Armando; Armani, Nerses V.; Bonafede, Joseph; Jackson, Molly I.; Steigner, Peter J.; Stromsdorfer, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design, testing, and lessons learned during the development of the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM). The BSM is a 2 degree-of-freedom tip-tilt mechanism for the purpose of pointing a flat mirror to tightly control the co-alignment of the transmitted laser and the receiver telescope of the ATLAS instrument. The high resolution needs of the mission resulted in sub-arcsecond pointing and knowledge requirements, which have been met. Development of the methodology to verify performance required significant effort. The BSM will fly as part of the Ice, Cloud, and Elevation Satellite II Mission (ICESat II), which is scheduled to be launched in 2017. The ICESat II primary mission is to map the Earth's surface topography for the determination of seasonal changes of ice sheet thickness and vegetation canopy thickness to establish long-term trends.

  7. ATLAS Beam Steering Mechanism Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A.; Cramer, Alexander K.; Gostin, Alan B.; Hakun, Claef F.; Haney, Paul G.; Hinkle, Matthew R.; Lee, Kenneth Y.; Lugo, Carlos F.; Matuszeski, Adam J.; Morrell, Armando; Armani, Nerses V.; Bonafede, Joseph; Jackson, Molly I.; Steigner, Peter J.; Stromsdorfer, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design, testing, and lessons learned during the development of the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM). The BSM is a 2 degree-of-freedom tip-tilt mechanism for the purpose of pointing a flat mirror to tightly control the co-alignment of the transmitted laser and the receiver telescope of the ATLAS instrument. The high resolution needs of the mission resulted in sub-arcsecond pointing and knowledge requirements, which have been met. Development of the methodology to verify performance required significant effort. The BSM will fly as part of the Ice, Cloud, and Elevation Satellite II Mission (ICESat II), which is scheduled to be launched in 2017. The ICESat II primary mission is to map the earth's surface topography for the determination of seasonal changes of ice sheet thickness and vegetation canopy thickness to establish long-term trends.

  8. How automation helps steer the revenue cycle process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpas, Phil

    2013-06-01

    top-of-mind issue as we see how healthcare reform plays out. Here's what our select group of experts had to say about how automation helps to steer the revenue cycle process. PMID:23855249

  9. Steered Molecular Dynamics Methods Applied to Enzyme Mechanism and Energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, C L; Martí, M A; Roitberg, A E

    2016-01-01

    One of the main goals of chemistry is to understand the underlying principles of chemical reactions, in terms of both its reaction mechanism and the thermodynamics that govern it. Using hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM)-based methods in combination with a biased sampling scheme, it is possible to simulate chemical reactions occurring inside complex environments such as an enzyme, or aqueous solution, and determining the corresponding free energy profile, which provides direct comparison with experimental determined kinetic and equilibrium parameters. Among the most promising biasing schemes is the multiple steered molecular dynamics method, which in combination with Jarzynski's Relationship (JR) allows obtaining the equilibrium free energy profile, from a finite set of nonequilibrium reactive trajectories by exponentially averaging the individual work profiles. However, obtaining statistically converged and accurate profiles is far from easy and may result in increased computational cost if the selected steering speed and number of trajectories are inappropriately chosen. In this small review, using the extensively studied chorismate to prephenate conversion reaction, we first present a systematic study of how key parameters such as pulling speed, number of trajectories, and reaction progress are related to the resulting work distributions and in turn the accuracy of the free energy obtained with JR. Second, and in the context of QM/MM strategies, we introduce the Hybrid Differential Relaxation Algorithm, and show how it allows obtaining more accurate free energy profiles using faster pulling speeds and smaller number of trajectories and thus smaller computational cost. PMID:27497165

  10. Mechanical design aspects of a "Long-Waveguide" version of the remote steering ECRH upper port launcher for ITER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronden, D. M. S.; van den Berg, M.; Bongers, W. A.; Elzendoorn, B. S. Q.; Graswinckel, M. F.; Lamers, B.; Van Nigtevecht, K.; Verhoeven, A. G. A.; Henderson, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    The current status of the mechanical design of the remote steering electron cyclotron resonance heating upper port launching system for ITER is presented. Although an alternative front steering launcher has now been selected as the reference design for ITER, the development of a remote steering laun

  11. Mechanics of Flexible Needles Robotically Steered through Soft Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Misra, S.; Reed, K.B.; Schafer, B.W.; Ramesh, K.T.; Okamura, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    The tip asymmetry of a bevel-tip needle results in the needle naturally bending when it is inserted into soft tissue. This enables robotic needle steering, which can be used in medical procedures to reach subsurface targets inaccessible by straight-line trajectories. However, accurate path planning

  12. Mechanics of Thin Strip Steering in Hot Rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhengyi; Tieu, Kiet A.

    2004-06-01

    The hot rolling of thin strip can result in several problems in hot rolling, for instance, the control of strip steering, strip shape and flatness and surface roughness etc. Therefore, the hot rolling of thin strip brings out a requirement of innovative technologies such as the extended control of shape and flatness, steering control and reduction of load by roll gap lubrication. In this paper, the authors focus on the analysis of thin strip snaking movement, as well as solve the related problems such as the shape and flatness due to a larger reduction applied when the strip is thinner. A finite element method was used to simulate this nonsymmetricity rolling considering the non-uniform reduction along the strip width. The calculated spread is compared with the measured values obtained from the rolling mill in laboratory and the friction effect is also discussed.

  13. The modeling of transfer of steering between automated vehicle and human driver using hybrid control framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaustubh, M.; Willemsen, D.M.C.; Mazo, M.

    2016-01-01

    Proponents of autonomous driving pursue driverless technologies, whereas others foresee a gradual transition where there will be automated driving systems that share the control of the vehicle with the driver. With such advances it becomes pertinent that the developed automated systems need to be sa

  14. Fully Mechanically Controlled Automated Electron Microscopic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxin; Li, Hongchang; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Meng; Yu, Yadong; Peng, Bo; Celis, César Díaz; Xu, April; Zou, Qin; Yang, Xu; Chen, Xuefeng; Ren, Gang

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of three-dimensional (3D) structures of each individual particles of asymmetric and flexible proteins is essential in understanding those proteins’ functions; but their structures are difficult to determine. Electron tomography (ET) provides a tool for imaging a single and unique biological object from a series of tilted angles, but it is challenging to image a single protein for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction due to the imperfect mechanical control capability of the specimen goniometer under both a medium to high magnification (approximately 50,000–160,000×) and an optimized beam coherence condition. Here, we report a fully mechanical control method for automating ET data acquisition without using beam tilt/shift processes. This method could reduce the accumulation of beam tilt/shift that used to compensate the error from the mechanical control, but downgraded the beam coherence. Our method was developed by minimizing the error of the target object center during the tilting process through a closed-loop proportional-integral (PI) control algorithm. The validations by both negative staining (NS) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) suggest that this method has a comparable capability to other ET methods in tracking target proteins while maintaining optimized beam coherence conditions for imaging.

  15. 5-DOF Dynamic Model of Vehicle Shimmy System with Clearance at Universal Joint in Steering Handling Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Jianwei Lu; Yi Xu; Chen Hu; Vakakis, Alexander F.; Bergman, Lawrence A.

    2013-01-01

    5-DOF dynamic model of vehicle shimmy system with clearance in universal joint of steering handling mechanism is presented. The sub model of cross shaft universal joint with clearance is built based on Hertz' theory, and two-state model is applied to describe the contact force. The sub model of the universal joint is combined with the simplified dynamic model of steering system, and a 5-DOF dynamic model of vehicle shimmy system with consideration of assembling clearance in universal joint of...

  16. Modelling Accuracy of a Car Steering Mechanism with Rack and Pinion and McPherson Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapczyk, J.; Kucybała, P.

    2016-08-01

    Modelling accuracy of a car steering mechanism with a rack and pinion and McPherson suspension is analyzed. Geometrical parameters of the model are described by using the coordinates of centers of spherical joints, directional unit vectors and axis points of revolute, cylindrical and prismatic joints. Modelling accuracy is assumed as the differences between the values of the wheel knuckle position and orientation coordinates obtained using a simulation model and the corresponding measured values. The sensitivity analysis of the parameters on the model accuracy is illustrated by two numerical examples.

  17. 3-point support mechanical steering system for high intensity focused ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a simple approach for mechanically scanning a focused bowl ultrasound (US) transducer for either hyperthermia or tissue ablation therapies called the 3-point support (3PS) mechanical steering technique. The scanning involves translation of the required 3D motion of the ultrasound transducer to the more manageable linear movement of three support rods. It is a cost-effective alternative, especially compared with electronic scanning and other previous implementations of mechanically scanned systems. The 3PS approach is particularly well suited for integration with our microwave breast imaging technique-the combination of which could be an effective, low-cost thermal therapy/monitoring approach. The results show that the US focus can be moved laterally in a spiral pattern 3 cm below the surface in a gel phantom and that similar patterns can be moved to multiple locations within the phantom volume in succession. The feasibility of simultaneously acquiring microwave thermal images is also demonstrated

  18. Project calculation of the steering mechanism hydraulic servo control in motor vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Đukan Majkić

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic servo controls are designed to facilitate rotation in place without providing increased ppower to steering wheels. In the initial design phase, the dimensions required for control systems are usually obtained through the calculation of their load when wheels rotate in place, where the torque is calculated empirically. The starting point in the project calculation is thus to determine the hydraulic power steering torque torsional resistance which is then used to determine the maximum value of force i.e. the torque on the stering wheel. The calculation of the control system servo control consists of determining the basic parameters, the required pump capacity, the main dimensions of the hub and the  pipeline and the conditions for the stability of the system control mechanism. Introduction The aim of the calculation of the steering control system is to determine the basic parameters of its components which ensure the fulfilment of requirements of the control system. Calculations are performed in several stages with a simultaneous  detailed constructive analysis of the control system leading to the best variant. At each stage, design and control calculations of the hydraulic servo of the steering mechanism are performed. The design allows the computation to complete the selection of basic dimensions of the amplifer elements, starting from the approved scheme and the basic building loads of approximate values. Calculations control is carried out to clarify the structural solution and to obtain the output characteristics of the control amplifier which are applied in the  estimation of  potential properties of the structure. Project calculation Baseline data must be sufficiently reliable, ie. must correspond to the construction characteristics of the vehicle design and the control system as well as to service conditions..A proper deterimination of the torque calculation of torsional resistance in wheels is of utmost importance. Moment of

  19. 5-DOF Dynamic Model of Vehicle Shimmy System with Clearance at Universal Joint in Steering Handling Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 5-DOF dynamic model of vehicle shimmy system with clearance in universal joint of steering handling mechanism is presented. The sub model of cross shaft universal joint with clearance is built based on Hertz' theory, and two-state model is applied to describe the contact force. The sub model of the universal joint is combined with the simplified dynamic model of steering system, and a 5-DOF dynamic model of vehicle shimmy system with consideration of assembling clearance in universal joint of steering handling mechanism is presented. Based on this model, numerical analysis is carried out to evaluate the influence of clearance in universal joint on the dynamic behavior of the vehicle shimmy system. The results show that the clearance and some other parameters, such as vehicle speed, have coupled contribution to the dynamic behavior of the vehicle shimmy system. The conclusions provide theoretical basis for effective attenuation of vehicle shimmy, especially for those in-service vehicles.

  20. MAcro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MÆMS) based concept for microwave beam steering in reflectarray antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni Hasan Abadi, Seyed Mohamad Amin; Booske, John H.; Behdad, Nader

    2016-08-01

    We present a new approach to perform beam steering in reflecting type apertures such as reflectarray antennas. The proposed technique exploits macro-scale mechanical movements of parts of the structure to achieve two-dimensional microwave beam steering without using any solid-state devices or phase shifters integrated within the aperture of the antenna. The principles of operation of this microwave beam steering technique are demonstrated in an aperture occupied by ground-plane-backed, sub-wavelength capacitive patches with identical dimensions. We demonstrate that by tilting the ground plane underneath the entire patch array layer, a phase shift gradient can be created over the aperture of the reflectarray that determines the direction of the radiated beam. Changing the direction and slope of this phase shift gradient on the aperture allows for performing beam steering in two dimensions using only one control parameter (i.e., tilt vector of the ground plane). A proof-of-concept prototype of the structure operating at X-band is designed, fabricated, and experimentally characterized. Experiments demonstrate that small mechanical movements of the ground plane (in the order of 0.05λ0) can be used to steer the beam direction in the ±10° in two dimensions. It is also demonstrated that this beam scanning range can be greatly enhanced to ±30° by applying this concept to the same structure when its ground plane is segmented.

  1. Study on Roll Instability Mechanism and Stability Index of Articulated Steering Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the roll instability mechanism and stability index of articulated steering vehicles (ASVs by taking wheel loaders as the research object. A seven-degree-of-freedom nonlinear dynamics model of the ASVs is built on the basis of multibody dynamics. A physical prototype model of an ASV is designed and manufactured to validate the dynamic model. Test results reasonably agree with the simulation results, which indicates that the established dynamic model can reasonably describe ASV movements. Detailed analysis of the rollover stability of the wheel loader is performed with the use of the established dynamic model. Analysis results show that rollover will occur when the roll angular velocity exceeds a critical threshold, which is affected by lateral acceleration and slope angle. On this basis, a dynamic stability index applicable to the ASVs is presented.

  2. Industrial Automation Mechanic Model Curriculum Project. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo Public Schools, OH.

    This document describes a demonstration program that developed secondary level competency-based instructional materials for industrial automation mechanics. Program activities included task list compilation, instructional materials research, learning activity packet (LAP) development, construction of lab elements, system implementation,…

  3. Front-End Types. Automotive Mechanics. Steering & Suspension. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automotive steering and suspension, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with automobile front-end types. Covered in the module are three common types of passenger car front suspension systems and their major components as well as two types…

  4. Design the Rocker Arm Mechanism in Double Front Axle Steering Mechanism%双前桥转向机构中摇臂机构的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兰兰; 王健楠

    2012-01-01

    为了适当调整摇臂机构的设计参数,根据已有的基本型双前桥转向的摇臂机构.用作图法计算出二桥节臂转角肛,再计算出二桥节臂理论转角β2理,根据β2-β2理=δ古是否小于1°来判断该机构是否合理:如不合理,通过改变摇臂长度R的尺寸得到合理的数值后,再用三维模型进行了校核,得到了合适的设计数据。此方法缩短了设计周期,为双摇臂机构的设计提供了参考。%Abstract according the existing rocker mechanism about the double front axle steering mechanism, the comer of the knuckle arm about the second steering axle β2 was calculated from the comer of knuckle arm about the first steering axle r, by graphical method, and the theory comer of knuckle arm of the second steering axle β2L, was counted, then the rocker mechanism's rationality was determined according the formula β2- β2L=δ;if δ≤ 1°,the mechanism is reasonable ;if δ 〉 1°,then the parameter R was changed to obtain the reasonable data about the rocker mechanism ;final, the corresponding 3D model was build to check the design. Design time was saved by this method, and reference was given to the other designers.

  5. 载重汽车双前桥转向机构优化设计%Optimization Design of Double - front - axle Steering Mechanism of Heavy Truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾; 董恩国; 梁立学

    2012-01-01

    Based on multi-body dynamitic theory and the software of ADAMS, it builds a simulation model on a double-front-axle steering mechanism, establishes a mathematic model on a steering mechanism and rocker mechanism. The simulation analysis is performance according to the minimum steering error of the double-front-axle steering mechanism. Based on the simulation, it obtains the optimization results and researches the steering performance evaluation conclusions.%以多体系统动力学理论为基础,应用多体动力学软件ADAMS建立了载重汽车双前桥转向机构动力学仿真模型,以及转向梯形机构及中间摇臂机构的数学模型.基于各机构转角误差最小对设计参数进行了仿真优化分析.通过仿真分析,得到了双前桥转向机构的优化结果以及转向性能的评价结论.

  6. Loophole-free quantum steering

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmann, Bernhard; Steinlechner, Fabian; Langford, Nathan K; Brunner, Nicolas; Wiseman, Howard; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton

    2011-01-01

    Tests of the predictions of quantum mechanics for entangled systems have provided increasing evidence against local realistic theories 1-6. However, there still remains the crucial challenge of simultaneously closing all major loopholes - the locality, freedom-of-choice, and detection loopholes - in a single experiment. An important sub-class of local realistic theories can be tested with the concept of "steering". The term steering was introduced by Schr\\"odinger in 1935 for the fact that entanglement would seem to allow an experimenter to remotely steer the state of a distant system 7. Einstein called this "spooky action at a distance" 8. Steering has recently been rigorously formulated as a quantum information task opening it up to new experimental tests 9-11. Here, we present the first loophole-free demonstration of steering by violating three-setting quadratic steering inequality, tested with polarization entangled photons shared between two distant laboratories. Our experiment demonstrates this effect w...

  7. Exploration and Practice of Personnel Cultivation for Agricultural Mechanization and Automation Specialities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Firstly, based on significance of developing agricultural mechanization and automation and current situations of agricultural mechanization and automation specialities in colleges and universities, we put forward objectives of personnel cultivation for agricultural mechanization and automation specialities. Then, we analyze the exploration and practice of personnel cultivation for agricultural mechanization and automation specialities from four aspects, including course system setting, teaching materials construction, laboratory construction, and construction of practical teaching link. Finally, it is expected to provide references for running schools and cultivating excellent professional personnel.

  8. Effects of ligand binding on the mechanical stability of protein GB1 studied by steered molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ji-Guo; Zhao, Shu-Xin; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Li, Chun-Hua; Li, Jing-Yuan

    2016-08-01

    Regulation of the mechanical properties of proteins plays an important role in many biological processes, and sheds light on the design of biomaterials comprised of protein. At present, strategies to regulate protein mechanical stability focus mainly on direct modulation of the force-bearing region of the protein. Interestingly, the mechanical stability of GB1 can be significantly enhanced by the binding of Fc fragments of human IgG antibody, where the binding site is distant from the force-bearing region of the protein. The mechanism of this long-range allosteric control of protein mechanics is still elusive. In this work, the impact of ligand binding on the mechanical stability of GB1 was investigated using steered molecular dynamics simulation, and a mechanism underlying the enhanced protein mechanical stability is proposed. We found that the external force causes deformation of both force-bearing region and ligand binding site. In other words, there is a long-range coupling between these two regions. The binding of ligand restricts the distortion of the binding site and reduces the deformation of the force-bearing region through a long-range allosteric communication, which thus improves the overall mechanical stability of the protein. The simulation results are very consistent with previous experimental observations. Our studies thus provide atomic-level insights into the mechanical unfolding process of GB1, and explain the impact of ligand binding on the mechanical properties of the protein through long-range allosteric regulation, which should facilitate effective modulation of protein mechanical properties. PMID:27444879

  9. Effects of ligand binding on the mechanical stability of protein GB1 studied by steered molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ji-Guo; Zhao, Shu-Xin; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Li, Chun-Hua; Li, Jing-Yuan

    2016-08-01

    Regulation of the mechanical properties of proteins plays an important role in many biological processes, and sheds light on the design of biomaterials comprised of protein. At present, strategies to regulate protein mechanical stability focus mainly on direct modulation of the force-bearing region of the protein. Interestingly, the mechanical stability of GB1 can be significantly enhanced by the binding of Fc fragments of human IgG antibody, where the binding site is distant from the force-bearing region of the protein. The mechanism of this long-range allosteric control of protein mechanics is still elusive. In this work, the impact of ligand binding on the mechanical stability of GB1 was investigated using steered molecular dynamics simulation, and a mechanism underlying the enhanced protein mechanical stability is proposed. We found that the external force causes deformation of both force-bearing region and ligand binding site. In other words, there is a long-range coupling between these two regions. The binding of ligand restricts the distortion of the binding site and reduces the deformation of the force-bearing region through a long-range allosteric communication, which thus improves the overall mechanical stability of the protein. The simulation results are very consistent with previous experimental observations. Our studies thus provide atomic-level insights into the mechanical unfolding process of GB1, and explain the impact of ligand binding on the mechanical properties of the protein through long-range allosteric regulation, which should facilitate effective modulation of protein mechanical properties.

  10. SIMULATION IN THE STUDYING OF NON-STATIONARY PROCESSES AND LOADED ELEMENTS OF STEERING SYSTEM WITH INTEGRATED GEAR MECHANISM AND ROTARY VALVES

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhailov, V; E. Strock

    2013-01-01

    In the paper mathematical model of steering system is shown. The model was described through hydraulic and mechanical connections of differential equations. Some test results are represented.This model allows to analyze transient processes in different combination of kinematics disturbances and power factors, and also to determine functional suitability of System.This Model can be recommended for Control System testing. 

  11. Automated assembly of micro mechanical parts in a Microfactory setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gegeckaite, Asta;

    2006-01-01

    Many micro products in use today are manufactured using semi-automatic assembly. Handling, assembly and transport of the parts are especially labour intense processes. Automation of these processes holds a large potential, especially if flexible, modular microfactories can be developed. This paper...... focuses on the issues that have to be taken into consideration in order to go from a semi-automatic production into an automated microfactory. The application in this study is a switch consisting of 7 parts. The development of a microfactory setup to take care of the automated assembly of the switch...

  12. Quantum coherence of steered states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xueyuan; Milne, Antony; Zhang, Boyang; Fan, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Lying at the heart of quantum mechanics, coherence has recently been studied as a key resource in quantum information theory. Quantum steering, a fundamental notion originally considered by Schödinger, has also recently received much attention. When Alice and Bob share a correlated quantum system, Alice can perform a local measurement to ‘steer’ Bob’s reduced state. We introduce the maximal steered coherence as a measure describing the extent to which steering can remotely create coherence; more precisely, we find the maximal coherence of Bob’s steered state in the eigenbasis of his original reduced state, where maximization is performed over all positive-operator valued measurements for Alice. We prove that maximal steered coherence vanishes for quantum-classical states whilst reaching a maximum for pure entangled states with full Schmidt rank. Although invariant under local unitary operations, maximal steered coherence may be increased when Bob performs a channel. For a two-qubit state we find that Bob’s channel can increase maximal steered coherence if and only if it is neither unital nor semi-classical, which coincides with the condition for increasing discord. Our results show that the power of steering for coherence generation, though related to discord, is distinct from existing measures of quantum correlation.

  13. Development of a Mechanism for Measuring Forces and Aligning Moment Acting on the Steering Wheels of a Four-Wheel Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hajiahmad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a low-cost dynamometer for rolling, steered wheels is described. The dynamometer was constructed to determine whether such an instrumented mechanism was practical. Four S-beam load cells, an Opto-counter and a potentiometer were used to obtain all moments, and forces using dynamic and kinematic analysis. Minimal simplifying assumptions considered for the required calculations. Overturning, aligning and rolling resistance moments besides vertical force are directly measured by the load cells. The Opto-counter detects wheel angular velocity and the potentiometer was used to measure the steering angle. The results showed that the mechanism was very well calibrated with a coefficient of determination of over 0.99 and can be used to define wheel dynamic behavior.

  14. SIMULATION IN THE STUDYING OF NON-STATIONARY PROCESSES AND LOADED ELEMENTS OF STEERING SYSTEM WITH INTEGRATED GEAR MECHANISM AND ROTARY VALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mikhailov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper mathematical model of steering system is shown. The model was described through hydraulic and mechanical connections of differential equations. Some test results are represented.This model allows to analyze transient processes in different combination of kinematics disturbances and power factors, and also to determine functional suitability of System.This Model can be recommended for Control System testing. 

  15. Computational exploration of single-protein mechanics by steered molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hair cell mechanotransduction happens in tens of microseconds, involves forces of a few picoNewtons, and is mediated by nanometer-scale molecular conformational changes. As proteins involved in this process become identified and their high resolution structures become available, multiple tools are being used to explore their “single-molecule responses” to force. Optical tweezers and atomic force microscopy offer exquisite force and extension resolution, but cannot reach the high loading rates expected for high frequency auditory stimuli. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can reach these fast time scales, and also provide a unique view of the molecular events underlying protein mechanics, but its predictions must be experimentally verified. Thus a combination of simulations and experiments might be appropriate to study the molecular mechanics of hearing. Here I review the basics of MD simulations and the different methods used to apply force and study protein mechanics in silico. Simulations of tip link proteins are used to illustrate the advantages and limitations of this method

  16. Computational exploration of single-protein mechanics by steered molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotomayor, Marcos [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Hair cell mechanotransduction happens in tens of microseconds, involves forces of a few picoNewtons, and is mediated by nanometer-scale molecular conformational changes. As proteins involved in this process become identified and their high resolution structures become available, multiple tools are being used to explore their “single-molecule responses” to force. Optical tweezers and atomic force microscopy offer exquisite force and extension resolution, but cannot reach the high loading rates expected for high frequency auditory stimuli. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can reach these fast time scales, and also provide a unique view of the molecular events underlying protein mechanics, but its predictions must be experimentally verified. Thus a combination of simulations and experiments might be appropriate to study the molecular mechanics of hearing. Here I review the basics of MD simulations and the different methods used to apply force and study protein mechanics in silico. Simulations of tip link proteins are used to illustrate the advantages and limitations of this method.

  17. Computational exploration of single-protein mechanics by steered molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor, Marcos

    2015-12-01

    Hair cell mechanotransduction happens in tens of microseconds, involves forces of a few picoNewtons, and is mediated by nanometer-scale molecular conformational changes. As proteins involved in this process become identified and their high resolution structures become available, multiple tools are being used to explore their "single-molecule responses" to force. Optical tweezers and atomic force microscopy offer exquisite force and extension resolution, but cannot reach the high loading rates expected for high frequency auditory stimuli. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can reach these fast time scales, and also provide a unique view of the molecular events underlying protein mechanics, but its predictions must be experimentally verified. Thus a combination of simulations and experiments might be appropriate to study the molecular mechanics of hearing. Here I review the basics of MD simulations and the different methods used to apply force and study protein mechanics in silico. Simulations of tip link proteins are used to illustrate the advantages and limitations of this method.

  18. ATLID beam steering mechanism and derived new piezoelectric-based devices for optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgain, F.; Barillot, F.; Belly, C.; Claeyssen, F.

    2015-09-01

    In Space & Defence (as well as in many others fields), there is a trend for miniaturisation in active optics requiring new actuators. Applications also often require the ability to withstand high vibrations and shocks levels, as well as vacuum compatibility for space applications. A new generation of small and smart actuators such as piezoelectric (piezo) actuators, are resolving this trend, thanks to their capacity to offer high energy density and to support both extreme and various requirements. This paper first presents the BSM mechanism and its requirements, the technologies involved in the design and the validation campaign results. Secondly, a derived XY piezoelectric positioning stage based on the same APA® and associated Strain Gage sensing technology is presented with its associated performances. Finally, a new piezoelectric motor based on the APA® technology, which allows the combination of long stroke while maintaining high resolution positioning of optical elements, is presented with experimental performances.

  19. Automated forward mechanical modeling of wrinkle ridges on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Amanda; Peterson, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    One of the main goals of the InSight mission to Mars is to understand the internal structure of Mars [1], in part through passive seismology. Understanding the shallow surface structure of the landing site is critical to the robust interpretation of recorded seismic signals. Faults, such as the wrinkle ridges abundant in the proposed landing site in Elysium Planitia, can be used to determine the subsurface structure of the regions they deform. Here, we test a new automated method for modeling of the topography of a wrinkle ridge (WR) in Elysium Planitia, allowing for faster and more robust determination of subsurface fault geometry for interpretation of the local subsurface structure. We perform forward mechanical modeling of fault-related topography [e.g., 2, 3], utilizing the modeling program Coulomb [4, 5] to model surface displacements surface induced by blind thrust faulting. Fault lengths are difficult to determine for WR; we initially assume a fault length of 30 km, but also test the effects of different fault lengths on model results. At present, we model the wrinkle ridge as a single blind thrust fault with a constant fault dip, though WR are likely to have more complicated fault geometry [e.g., 6-8]. Typically, the modeling is performed using the Coulomb GUI. This approach can be time consuming, requiring user inputs to change model parameters and to calculate the associated displacements for each model, which limits the number of models and parameter space that can be tested. To reduce active user computation time, we have developed a method in which the Coulomb GUI is bypassed. The general modeling procedure remains unchanged, and a set of input files is generated before modeling with ranges of pre-defined parameter values. The displacement calculations are divided into two suites. For Suite 1, a total of 3770 input files were generated in which the fault displacement (D), dip angle (δ), depth to upper fault tip (t), and depth to lower fault tip (B

  20. An Efficient Automated English to Bengali Script Conversion Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Enakshi Mukhopadhyay; Priyanka Mazumder; Saberi Goswami; Romit S Beed

    2014-01-01

    The authors aim at developing an efficient, unequivocal and automated method of generating Bengali language using English alphabets and simple English punctuation notes. Such art of writing Bengali language using English scripts shall be of immense help for those Bengali-speaking persons who cannot write in Bengali, yet can speak well and would require written communication in Bengali for official and personal conversation. Currently, Bengali keyboards are not available in the market, and acc...

  1. Diode laser lidar wind velocity sensor using a liquid-crystal retarder for non-mechanical beam-steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Iversen, Theis Faber Quist; Hu, Qi;

    2014-01-01

    We extend the functionality of a low-cost CW diode lasercoherent lidar from radial wind speed (scalar) sensing to wind velocity(vector) measurements. Both speed and horizontal direction of the wind at~80 m remote distance are derived from two successive radial speedestimates by alternately steering...

  2. Intelligent Control Mechanism of Part Picking Operations of Automated Warehouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chwen-Tzeng; Su

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the part picking operations of a ut omated warehouse. It assumed the demand of picking orders of automated warehouse are dynamic generated. Once the picking orders of certain period of time are kn own, it is necessary to decide an efficient order picking sequence and routing t o minimize the total travel distance to complete those orders. Assumed there are n i items to be picked in order O i. Each item in the picking ord er is located in different locations in the warehouse. Since i...

  3. Electric Power Controller for Steering Wheel Management in Electric Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Milanés, Vicente; Pérez Rastelli, Joshué; Onieva, Enrique; González, Carlos; Pedro, Teresa de

    2009-01-01

    International audience Driverless driving is one of the most interesting topics in the field of the intelligent transportation systems. Among these topics, the automation of the actuators involved in the management of a car, and out of them the control of the steering wheel constitute one of the most complex. In this paper, automatic power steering architecture to manage the steering wheel via Ethernet controller is developed. An on-board PC is connected to the controller to permit handlin...

  4. 基于蒙特卡罗方法的汽车双前桥转向机构稳健分析%Robust Analysis on Double-front-axle Steering Mechanism based on Monte Carlo Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董恩国; 张蕾; 关志伟

    2012-01-01

    Robustness on double-front-axle steering mechanism of a heavy truck is analyzed with Monte Carlo method. The optimum objectives are the minimum steering angle error of each steering trapezoid mechanism and middle connection mechanism. The design variables are the structure parameters of 13 on steering trapezoid mechanism and middle connection mechanism. The constraint condition is steering angle error and dimension limit constrain. Secondly, the result robustness attained by certainty optimum method is analyzed with Monte Carlo method.%应用蒙特卡罗方法对某重型汽车双前桥六杆转向机构进行了稳健性能分析.以前、后桥转向梯形机构转角以及中间摇臂转角误差最小为优化目标,以转向梯形机构、中间摇臂的13个结构参数为设计变量,以各机构的转角误差、尺寸限制等为约束条件建立双前桥转向机构数学模型;应用蒙特卡罗方法分析了采用确定性优化方法所得结果的稳健性能.

  5. INTELLIGENT MECHANISM TO SUPPORT DFX-ABILITIESIN AUTOMATED DESIGNER'S ENVIRONMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    From the information integration point of view, design activities are the processes of the information handling. Mechanism module in DesignerSpace, like an operator, operates on the information (which can be thought as the input or output) being processed during certain design activity, as shown in Fig.3. Therefore, Mechanism is a comprehensive framework which intends to integrate more computational technologies along the whole product design process.  Because of different engineering application domains involved in solving a design problem, Mechanism offers generaloperator and specialoperator. The former is proposed for general mechanical product design, such as DFX; and the latter has definite application scope and needs special design technologies, for example, blankdisc design in aircraft. Any mechanism operator is giving the constraints on design, but CAD system is needed to help construct PDMD under the constraints. Generaloperator or specialoperator is made up of three basic components: knowledgebase, algorithmbase and monitoring/debugging. The components of DFX mechanism with Process module and Resource module in DesignerSpace are described in EXPRESS-G in Fig.4.2.1 Product models and operated product model data  The DFX intelligent mechanism operates on the product model data for obtaining the optimized product model data which are of DFX abilities. The product models used in DesignerSpace are structured into two levels: geometricmodel and featuremodel[11].

  6. Automated Mechanical Characterization of 2-D Materials using SEM based Visual Servoing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Sören; Tiemerding, Tobias; Li, Tie; Wang, Wenrong; Wang, Yuelin; Fatikow, Sergej

    2013-10-01

    Nanorobotic techniques are well-known for characterization and processing of two-dimensional materials. However, until now, most of the proposed handling procedures required manual feedback. This article presents an automated handling approach of two-dimensional nanomaterials using a robotic setup inside a high-resolution scanning electron microscope. Applying image processing of the visual feedback provided by the electron microscope, a fully automated sequence is developed to align a robotic driven force sensor with sub-micrometer accuracy and to conduct nanoindentation measurements on a periodically perforated substrate. As an example, this automated sequence is utilized to examine the mechanical properties of a few-layer graphene membrane. The results of the mechanical characterization are compared to Raman spectroscopy data. The article discusses the advantages and restrictions of this technique and responds to further application scenarios.

  7. More About Beam-Steering Subsystem For Laser Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Norman A.; Chen, Chien-Chu; Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James R.

    1995-01-01

    Two reports present additional information about developmental beam-steering subsystem of laser-communication system. Aspects of this subsystem described previously in "Beam-Steering Subsystem for Laser Communication" (NPO-19069) and "Digital Controller for Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem" (NPO-19193). Reports reiterate basic principles of operation of beam-steering subsystem and of laser-communication system as whole. Also presents some of details of optical and mechanical design of prototype of subsystem, called Optical Communication Demonstrator.

  8. Mechanisms for Automated Negotiation in State Oriented Domains

    OpenAIRE

    Zlotkin, G.; Rosenschein, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper lays part of the groundwork for a domain theory of negotiation, that is, a way of classifying interactions so that it is clear, given a domain, which negotiation mechanisms and strategies are appropriate. We define State Oriented Domains, a general category of interaction. Necessary and sufficient conditions for cooperation are outlined. We use the notion of worth in an altered definition of utility, thus enabling agreements in a wider class of joint-goal reachable situations. An a...

  9. Mechanisms for Automated Negotiation in State Oriented Domains

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenschein, J S; 10.1613/jair.72

    2011-01-01

    This paper lays part of the groundwork for a domain theory of negotiation, that is, a way of classifying interactions so that it is clear, given a domain, which negotiation mechanisms and strategies are appropriate. We define State Oriented Domains, a general category of interaction. Necessary and sufficient conditions for cooperation are outlined. We use the notion of worth in an altered definition of utility, thus enabling agreements in a wider class of joint-goal reachable situations. An approach is offered for conflict resolution, and it is shown that even in a conflict situation, partial cooperative steps can be taken by interacting agents (that is, agents in fundamental conflict might still agree to cooperate up to a certain point). A Unified Negotiation Protocol (UNP) is developed that can be used in all types of encounters. It is shown that in certain borderline cooperative situations, a partial cooperative agreement (i.e., one that does not achieve all agents' goals) might be preferred by all agents,...

  10. Steer assistance for teleoperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Olivier; Houbloup, Philippe; Leveque, Stephane

    2005-05-01

    Giat Industries, expert in combat system, designs and integrates the technologies (electrical network, mechanical design, ergonomic and mobility command and control) for the French military and civil robotic. One of the main problems of current robotics is to treat the lack of operator's perception due to teleoperation. The article details the assistance for the steer control part of mobility command and control. The purpose of the assistance is to secure the vehicle, to insure the continuity of the command (in particular for tracked vehicle equipped of hydrostatic steering group), and to adapt the command (to use all the range of the command even at high speed and to adapt the speed to the desired curve). The advantage of the system presented in the article is to filter the order first and to transmit to the actuators only safe orders preserving the vehicle. This approach transforms the telepilot's order watching and correction problem, to a telepilot's order filtering problem. We pass here, from a logical "a posteriori" to a logical of "a priori" processing. The assistance includes: a model of the dynamic behavior of the vehicle and an open loop, some feed forward with appropriate filters and a closed loop. The article presents the result of the command studies from time simulation to "man on the loop" simulation. This system, at present time applied to the French Observation Robot demonstrator SYRANO (developped for the DGA-French Defence Procurement Agency), is the subject of a patent.

  11. 基于不完全齿轮齿条转向的避障小车研究%Study on the Obstacle Avoidance Car Based on Incomplete Gear Rack Mechanism for Steering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹光明; 王东雄; 尹志朋; 刘源泂; 沈欢

    2014-01-01

    设计了一种以不完全齿轮和齿条啮合来控制转向的避障小车。小车在前行过程中能自动避开相隔一定距离的障碍物。该小车由转向系统、传动系统和车架等组成。转向系统由两个不完全齿轮与齿条啮合驱动转向轮转向;传动系统由齿轮机构组成。实践表明该避障小车的设计是合理可行的。%A car whose steering system is based on incomplete gear and rack is designed .The car could automatically avoid an obstruction at intervals when running. The car is composed of steering system, transmission system and frame. Steering system driven by two incomplete gear and rack joint steering wheel steering;Driving system consists of gear mechanism. Practice shows that the design of the car is feasible.

  12. Two Automated Mechanisms to Create Electures and to Videotape Regular Lectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nael Hirzallah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many institutes are offering lectures that students may watch online. These lectures vary in type from true multimedia sophisticated documents to eLectures to videotaped regular lectures that may include auto generated closed caption. This paper studies some formats that can be easily composed by instructors. Whether adopting the eLectures format or videotaped lecture format, the paper proposes two automated mechanisms to create such lectures without the intervention of a camera or video mixer operator. The first mechanism depends on the absence of mouse motion events; while the second mechanism depends on the instructors facial and hand detections.

  13. Beam Steering Devices Reduce Payload Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Scientists have long been able to shift the direction of a laser beam, steering it toward a target, but often the strength and focus of the light is altered. For precision applications, where the quality of the beam cannot be compromised, scientists have typically turned to mechanical steering methods, redirecting the source of the beam by swinging the entire laser apparatus toward the target. Just as the mechanical methods used for turning cars has evolved into simpler, lighter, power steering methods, so has the means by which researchers can direct lasers. Some of the typical contraptions used to redirect lasers are large and bulky, relying on steering gimbals pivoted, rotating supports to shift the device toward its intended target. These devices, some as large and awkward as a piece of heavy luggage, are subject to the same issues confronted by mechanical parts: Components rub, wear out, and get stuck. The poor reliability and bulk not to mention the power requirements to run one of the machines have made mechanical beam steering components less than ideal for use in applications where weight, bulk, and maneuverability are prime concerns, such as on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or a microscope. The solution to developing reliable, lighter weight, nonmechanical steering methods to replace the hefty steering boxes was to think outside the box, and a NASA research partner did just that by developing a new beam steering method that bends and redirects the beam, as opposed to shifting the entire apparatus. The benefits include lower power requirements, a smaller footprint, reduced weight, and better control and flexibility in steering capabilities. Such benefits are realized without sacrificing aperture size, efficiency, or scanning range, and can be applied to myriad uses: propulsion systems, structures, radiation protection systems, and landing systems.

  14. Performance on steering power ratio of tracked vehicles influenced by soil parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Chi Yuan; Zhang Rongrong; Wang Hongtao; Shi Dandan

    2015-01-01

    In order to study tracked vehicle adopting different steering mechanism, we use steering power ratio to evaluate its performance. The influencing factors of steering power ratio have been theoretically studied. And we designed the experimental prototype to test. We find that steering power ratio is related to vehicle parameters, resistance coefficient, turning radius, skid ratio, slip ratio and steering coefficient not only, but also it is related to soil parameters (including soil cohesion, ...

  15. Steering the ATLAS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Comune, G; Morettini, P; Stamen, R; Tapprogge, S; George, S; Schiavi, C; Computing In High Energy and Nuclear Physics

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the Steering mechanism of the ATLAS High Level Trigger (HLT). The Steering software is responsible for the implementation of the seeded and stepwise execution of algorithms in a portion of the full event called Region of Interest (RoI). The Steering is responsible for the global event accept/reject decision based on a static configuration matched against the dynamic event outcome in terms of Trigger Conditions validated by the Trigger algorithms. In the case of an event being accepted the Steering is in charge of the creation of the Detailed Event Result and in order to enable this it provides tools for reconstructed objects serialization and a fast data navigation mechanism that allows to organize the objects in memory with logical relations and all objects in an RoI back to the initial RoI seed.

  16. Research on Torque Ratio Based on the Steering Wheel Torque Characteristic for Steer-by-Wire System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandong Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Steer-by-wire system can improve the performance of vehicle handling stability. Removing the mechanical linkages between the front wheels and the steering wheel leads to a key technique of force feedback for steer-by-wire system. In view of the characteristic of variable torque transmission ratio for steer-by-wire system, this paper proposes a method for designing torque ratio based on the steering wheel torque characteristic for steer-by-wire system. It converts the torque ratio design into equivalent assist torque design by analyzing their relationship. It achieves the torque ratio design at different conditions based on the negative equivalent assist torque characteristic curve. Simulations and vehicle experiments are conducted by the proposed method, and the results show that the design goal has been achieved and the steering wheel torque characteristic obtained is very similar to that of the reference car.

  17. Responder fast steering mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Andrew; Shawki, Islam

    2013-10-01

    Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems (SAS) has designed, built and tested a 3.3-inch diameter fast steering mirror (FSM) for space application. This 2-axis FSM operates over a large angle (over 10 degree range), has a very high servo bandwidth (over 3.3 Khz closed loop bandwidth), has nanoradian-class noise, and is designed to support microradian class line of sight accuracy. The FSM maintains excellent performance over large temperature ranges (which includes wave front error) and has very high reliability with the help of fully redundant angle sensors and actuator circuits. The FSM is capable of achieving all its design requirements while also being reaction-compensated. The reaction compensation is achieved passively and does not need a separate control loop. The FSM has undergone various environmental testing which include exported forces and torques and thermal vacuum testing that support the FSM design claims. This paper presents the mechanical design and test results of the mechanism which satisfies the rigorous vacuum and space application requirements.

  18. Online optimized hysteresis-based steering feel model for steer-by-wire systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kirli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In rubber-wheeled road vehicles, the mechanical connection between steering wheel and front wheels provides steering-related feedback to the driver. The torque fed back to the driver through the steering linkages and steering wheel, which is called steering feel, helps the driver in controlling the vehicle. The torque feedback is reproduced via artificial methods in steer-by-wire systems due to the lack of mechanical connection. In this work, in order to minimize the physical workload and the lateral acceleration under the consideration of handling performance, optimization of a hysteresis-based steering feel has been studied. A 2-degree-of-freedom bicycle model based on the magic formula tire model has been used for simulations and hardware-in-the-loop experiments. A mathematical model is proposed in order to create an adaptive model-based optimization of the hysteresis parameters simultaneously while driving. A hardware-in-the-loop experimental setup has been used for the driving tests. The weave and the double-lane change tests have been performed with different drivers in order to demonstrate and quantify the optimization methods that are presented in this work.

  19. AFNMR: automated fragmentation quantum mechanical calculation of NMR chemical shifts for biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swails, Jason [Rutgers University, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology and BioMaPS Institute (United States); Zhu, Tong; He, Xiao, E-mail: xiaohe@phy.ecnu.edu.cn [East China Normal University, State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, Institute of Theoretical and Computational Science (China); Case, David A., E-mail: case@biomaps.rutgers.edu [Rutgers University, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology and BioMaPS Institute (United States)

    2015-10-15

    We evaluate the performance of the automated fragmentation quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics approach (AF-QM/MM) on the calculation of protein and nucleic acid NMR chemical shifts. The AF-QM/MM approach models solvent effects implicitly through a set of surface charges computed using the Poisson–Boltzmann equation, and it can also be combined with an explicit solvent model through the placement of water molecules in the first solvation shell around the solute; the latter substantially improves the accuracy of chemical shift prediction of protons involved in hydrogen bonding with solvent. We also compare the performance of AF-QM/MM on proteins and nucleic acids with two leading empirical chemical shift prediction programs SHIFTS and SHIFTX2. Although the empirical programs outperform AF-QM/MM in predicting chemical shifts, the differences are in some cases small, and the latter can be applied to chemical shifts on biomolecules which are outside the training set employed by the empirical programs, such as structures containing ligands, metal centers, and non-standard residues. The AF-QM/MM described here is implemented in version 5 of the SHIFTS software, and is fully automated, so that only a structure in PDB format is required as input.

  20. Steering the Self-Assembly of Octadecylamine Monolayers on Mica by Controlled Mechanical Energy Transfer from the AFM Tip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, J.J.; Heredia-Guerrero, J.A.; Salmeron, M.

    2010-06-24

    We have studied the effect of mechanical energy transfer from the tip of an Atomic Force Microscope on the dynamics of self-assembly of monolayer films of octadecylamine on mica. The formation of the self-assembled film proceeds in two successive stages, the first being a fast adsorption from solution that follows a Langmuir isotherm. The second is a slower process of island growth by aggregation of the molecules dispersed on the surface. We found that the dynamics of aggregation can be altered substantially by the addition of mechanical energy into the system through controlled tip-surface interactions. This leads to either the creation of pinholes in existing islands as a consequence of vacancy concentration, and to the assembly of residual molecules into more compact islands.

  1. Automated thermal treatment of metals with a mechanically fluidized vacuum machine. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, W.E.

    1997-09-05

    The ERIP project {open_quotes}Automated Thermal Treatment of Metals with a Mechanically Fluidized Vacuum Machine{close_quotes} produced more benefits in unintended areas than in the original intent of the program. The first project was directed to heat treating of solid parts using a retort half filled with fine powder. The treatment of metal powders was not originally envisioned at the time of proposal preparation. This second application, where the powder itself is being treated, has turned out to be multi-billion dollar market in which the Mechanical Fluidized Vacuum machine can create revolutionary changes. Consequently most efforts in recent years have been dedicated to further growth of the powder markets. These efforts procured a second ERIP grant titled {open_quotes}Thermal Heat and Diffusion Treatment of Bulk Powders.{close_quotes}

  2. Oblique incidence effect on steering efficiency of liquid crystal polarization gratings used for optical phased array beam steering amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangjie, Zhao; Jiazhu, Duan; Dayong, Zhang; Cangli, Liu; Yongquan, Luo

    2016-07-01

    A liquid crystal polarization grating (LCPG) is proposed that amplifies the steering angle of a liquid crystal optical phased array for non-mechanical beam steering, taking advantage of its high steering efficiency under normal incidence. However, oblique incidence may play an important role in the overall steering efficiency. The effect of oblique incidence on steering efficiency of a LCPG was analyzed by numerically solving the extended Jones matrix and considering propagation crosstalk. The results indicate that the outgoing laser beam is amplitude-modulated under the effect of oblique incidence and behaves as a sinusoidal-modulated amplitude grating, which diffracts certain energies to non-blazed orders. Over-oblique incidence may even eliminate the steering effect of the incident beam. The modulation depth of the induced amplitude grating was found to be proportional to the product of sinusoidal value of oblique incidence angle and the LC layer thickness, and inversely proportional to the periodic pitch length of the LCPG. Both in-plane incidence and out-of-plane incidence behave similarly to influence the steering efficiency. Finally, the overall steering efficiency for cascaded LCPGs was analyzed and a difference of up to 11 % steering efficiency can be induced between different LCPG configurations, even without considering the over-oblique incidence effect. Both the modulation depth and final steering efficiency can be optimized by varying the LC birefringence and layer thickness.

  3. Determination of Steering Wheel Angles during CAR Alignment by Image Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, M.; Voegtle, T.

    2016-06-01

    Optical systems for automatic visual inspections are of increasing importance in the field of automation in the industrial domain. A new application is the determination of steering wheel angles during wheel track setting of the final inspection of car manufacturing. The camera has to be positioned outside the car to avoid interruptions of the processes and therefore, oblique images of the steering wheel must be acquired. Three different approaches of computer vision are considered in this paper, i.e. a 2D shape-based matching (by means of a plane to plane rectification of the oblique images and detection of a shape model with a particular rotation), a 3D shape-based matching approach (by means of a series of different perspectives of the spatial shape of the steering wheel derived from a CAD design model) and a point-to-point matching (by means of the extraction of significant elements (e.g. multifunctional buttons) of a steering wheel and a pairwise connection of these points to straight lines). The HALCON system (HALCON, 2016) was used for all software developments and necessary adaptions. As reference a mechanical balance with an accuracy of 0.1° was used. The quality assessment was based on two different approaches, a laboratory test and a test during production process. In the laboratory a standard deviation of ±0.035° (2D shape-based matching), ±0.12° (3D approach) and ±0.029° (point-to-point matching) could be obtained. The field test of 291 measurements (27 cars with varying poses and angles of the steering wheel) results in a detection rate of 100% and ±0.48° (2D matching) and ±0.24° (point-to-point matching). Both methods also fulfil the request of real time processing (three measurements per second).

  4. DETERMINATION OF STEERING WHEEL ANGLES DURING CAR ALIGNMENT BY IMAGE ANALYSIS METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mueller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical systems for automatic visual inspections are of increasing importance in the field of automation in the industrial domain. A new application is the determination of steering wheel angles during wheel track setting of the final inspection of car manufacturing. The camera has to be positioned outside the car to avoid interruptions of the processes and therefore, oblique images of the steering wheel must be acquired. Three different approaches of computer vision are considered in this paper, i.e. a 2D shape-based matching (by means of a plane to plane rectification of the oblique images and detection of a shape model with a particular rotation, a 3D shape-based matching approach (by means of a series of different perspectives of the spatial shape of the steering wheel derived from a CAD design model and a point-to-point matching (by means of the extraction of significant elements (e.g. multifunctional buttons of a steering wheel and a pairwise connection of these points to straight lines. The HALCON system (HALCON, 2016 was used for all software developments and necessary adaptions. As reference a mechanical balance with an accuracy of 0.1° was used. The quality assessment was based on two different approaches, a laboratory test and a test during production process. In the laboratory a standard deviation of ±0.035° (2D shape-based matching, ±0.12° (3D approach and ±0.029° (point-to-point matching could be obtained. The field test of 291 measurements (27 cars with varying poses and angles of the steering wheel results in a detection rate of 100% and ±0.48° (2D matching and ±0.24° (point-to-point matching. Both methods also fulfil the request of real time processing (three measurements per second.

  5. Mechanical characterization of two thermoplastic composites fabricated by automated tow placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Larry C.; Deaton, Jerry W.

    1993-01-01

    AS4/PEEK towpreg and IM7/Radel 8320 slit tape were used to make flat panels by automated tow placement. The panels were tested in notched and un-notched tension, notched and un-notched compression and compression after impact (CAI) at room temperature and under hot/wet conditions (notched and un-notched compression and CAI only). The properties were compared with AS4/PEEK tape laminate properties found in the literature. The tow placed AS4/PEEK material was stronger in tension but weaker in compression than the AS4/PEEK tape laminates. The tow placed AS4/PEEK was stronger but less stiff than the tow placed IM7/Radel 8320 in all compression tests. The IM7/Radel performed better in all other mechanical tests. The IM7/Radel outperformed the AS4/PEEK in all CAI tests.

  6. 基于改进粒子群算法的车辆转向梯形机构优化%Optimization design of steering trapezoid mechanism based on an improved particle swarm optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘岭; 闫光荣; 雷毅; 肖丹; 汤修映

    2013-01-01

      通过对车辆转向机构的尺寸和定位参数进行优化,能有效减小车辆转向机构的实际运动轨迹和理论运动轨迹间误差,进而有效改善车辆的操纵性能和提高转向安全性。该文研究了转向梯形机构的工作原理及其对车辆转向性能的影响,建立了转向梯形机构的非线性优化模型;然后引入越界检测函数改进传统粒子群优化算法,并给出了求解转向梯形机构非线性优化模型的方法;编制了改进粒子群算法的实现程序,并对3款不同车型的转向梯形机构进行了优化设计;最后选取3种不同智能算法分别对途乐 GRX 转向梯形机构进行多组优化试验。试验结果表明,改进粒子群算法的收敛速度快于传统粒子群算法和基于模拟退火的粒子群算法,求解精度略逊于基于模拟退火的粒子群算法,但仍能保证求解精度。%Errors exist between actual trajectories and theoretic trajectories of vehicle steering trapezoid mechanisms in the process of steering, which leads to shorter service life of wheels and worse vehicle handling, stability, and safety. Parameter optimization of steering trapezoid mechanisms can efficiently reduce these errors and improve the safety of these vehicles. The principal purpose of this paper is to develop an improved particle swarm optimization for an optimal design of steering trapezoid mechanisms. First, a nonlinear optimization model of the steering trapezoid mechanism is established by investigating how they work and how they influence the stability of vehicle maneuvering characteristics. The sum of the absolute value of difference between actual rotational angle of anterolateral steering wheel and theoretical rotational angle of anterolateral steering wheel is taken as the objective function of the nonlinear optimization model, while the bottom angle and steering arm length of steering trapezoid mechanisms are selected to be design

  7. Database automation of accelerator operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Database management techniques are applied to automating the setup of operating parameters of a heavy-ion accelerator used in nuclear physics experiments. Data files consist of ion-beam attributes, the interconnection assignments of the numerous power supplies and magnetic elements that steer the ions' path through the system, the data values that represent the electrical currents supplied by the power supplies, as well as the positions of motors and status of mechanical actuators. The database is relational and permits searching on ranges of any subset of the ion-beam attributes. A file selected from the database is used by the control software to replicate the ion beam conditions by adjusting the physical elements in a continuous manner

  8. 49 CFR 570.60 - Steering system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering system. 570.60 Section 570.60... 10,000 Pounds § 570.60 Steering system. (a) System play. Lash or free play in the steering system... excessive lash or free play in the steering system. Table 2. Steering Wheel Free Play Values Steering...

  9. Tunable beam steering enabled by graphene metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orazbayev, B; Beruete, M; Khromova, I

    2016-04-18

    We demonstrate tunable mid-infrared (MIR) beam steering devices based on multilayer graphene-dielectric metamaterials. The effective refractive index of such metamaterials can be manipulated by changing the chemical potential of each graphene layer. This can arbitrarily tailor the spatial distribution of the phase of the transmitted beam, providing mechanisms for active beam steering. Three different beam steerer (BS) designs are discussed: a graded-index (GRIN) graphene-based metamaterial block, an array of metallic waveguides filled with graphene-dielectric metamaterial and an array of planar waveguides created in a graphene-dielectric metamaterial block with a specific spatial profile of graphene sheets doping. The performances of the BSs are numerically analyzed, showing the tunability of the proposed designs for a wide range of output angles (up to approximately 70°). The proposed graphene-based tunable beam steering can be used in tunable transmitter/receiver modules for infrared imaging and sensing.

  10. Electrical steering of vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Thomsen, Jesper Sandberg

    2006-01-01

    solutions and still meet strict requirements to functional safety. The paper applies graph-based analysis of functional system structure to find a novel fault-tolerant architecture for an electrical steering where a dedicated AC-motor design and cheap voltage measurements ensure ability to detect all...

  11. Automation and mechanization of in-service inspection of selected equipment in FRG's nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedures and equipment are described for the automation and mechanization of in-service inspection in nuclear power plants in the FRG, used by the KWU company. Checks of the pressure vessel are done by visual means using a colour tv camera, the method of eddy currents and the ultrasonic method. An analysis is made of the time schedule of ultrasonic inspections, and the central column manipulator is described which allows to check all internal regions of the pressure vessel. Attention is also devoted to other devices, e.g., those for prestressing shanks, cleaning shanks, cleaning thread apertures, etc. A combined probe using the ultrasonic method and the eddy current method serves the inspection of heat exchange tubes in the steam generator. For inspecting the primary circuit the KWU company uses devices for checking and working the inner surface of pipes. Briefly described are examples of using KWU equipment in nuclear power plants in CMEA countries. (Z.M.). 11 figs., 6 refs

  12. FLOW CHARACTERISTICS FORMATION OF POWER STEERING WITH ROTARY DISTRIBUTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhailov, V; E. Strock

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain an adequate mathematical model of vehicle hydro-mechanical steering which is  equipped with a steering mechanism combined with power steering and a rotary distributor  it is initially   necessary to get current consumption values in the units of hydraulic scheme which are determined by dynamic changes of flow passages of pressure and drain circuits according to turning angle of the distributor. Such characteristics are usually determined experimentally.The paper  proposes  ...

  13. FLOW CHARACTERISTICS FORMATION OF POWER STEERING WITH ROTARY DISTRIBUTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mikhailov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain an adequate mathematical model of vehicle hydro-mechanical steering which is  equipped with a steering mechanism combined with power steering and a rotary distributor  it is initially   necessary to get current consumption values in the units of hydraulic scheme which are determined by dynamic changes of flow passages of pressure and drain circuits according to turning angle of the distributor. Such characteristics are usually determined experimentally.The paper  proposes  a sequence which is recommended for determination of consumption characteristics which is formed with due account of multi-directional kinematic perturbations, mechanical clearance, possible emergence of hydraulic backlash and desired throttling law. The factors account makes it possible to obtain an acceptable mathematical analogue of a hydro-mechanical steering for execution of robust investigations. 

  14. Laser beam steering device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, M. E.; Andrews, A. P.; Gunning, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Agile beam steering is a critical requirement for airborne and space based LIDAR and optical communication systems. Design and test results are presented for a compact beam steering device with low inertia which functions by dithering two complementary (positive and negative) binary optic microlens arrays relative to each other in directions orthogonal to the direction of light propagation. The miniaturized system has been demonstrated at scan frequencies as high as 300 Hz, generating a 13 x 13 spot array with a total field of view of 2.4 degrees. The design is readily extendable to a 9.5 degree field of view and a 52 x 52 scan pattern. The system is compact - less than 2 in. on a side. Further size reductions are anticipated.

  15. Dynamic Coordinated Shifting Control of Automated Mechanical Transmissions without a Clutch in a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Xinlei Liu; Zhentong Liu; Liming Zhu; Hongwen He

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the shifting process of automated mechanical transmissions (AMTs) for traditional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and by combining the features of electric machines with fast response speed, the dynamic model of the hybrid electric AMT vehicle powertrain is built up, the dynamic characteristics of each phase of shifting process are analyzed, and a control strategy in which torque and speed of the engine and electric ma...

  16. Manufacturing Characteristics of the Continuous Multi-Tow Shearing for High-Volume Manufacturing of Tow-Steered Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Zympeloudis, Evangelos D; Weaver, Paul; Potter,Kevin; Kim, Byung Chul

    2015-01-01

    Automation is a highly sought-after property in composites manufacturing and especially in the aerospace industry. The demands of the industry, however, exceed the manufacturing capabilities of automated material placement machines. In particular, as the application of fibre placement technologies expanded to more complex parts, tow steering became one of the most critical capabilities. The steering process causes many different types of defects, and their minimisation has become a major issu...

  17. The value of the dynamic mechanical spinal test in the management of automated percutaneous lumbar discectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To prospectively assess the predictive power of centralization phenomenon in the curative effect of automated PLD. Methods: The survey population was consisted of 109 patients with inclusion heraiation demonstrated by CT/MRI, 74 men and 35 women with average age of 43.1 years(17-75 years). All were complained of low back pain, with varying degrees of lower extremity pain and altered sensation, lasting for more than 2 months; including one symptomatic disc in 99 patients and two symptomatic discs in 10 patients. Patients were undergone dynamic mechanical spinal test and reported whether the test would aggravate their pain. The assessment included forward flexion, extension, rotation of the trunk to the right and left, rotation to the left with right extension, rotation to the right with left extension, and whether straight leg raising in the supine position would aggravate back pain or leg pain. Symptom resposes were categorized into three groups: centralization group (CG), partial-centralization group (PCG) and noncentralization group (NCG). Centralization of pain is the progressive retreat of the most distal extent of the referred or radicular pain toward or to the lumbar midline. Noncentralization of pain is the peripheralization of pain in one or more directions, and no change in the distal-most pain location or intensity. All patients received a single therapy with PLD. Results: A follow-up of 109 patients for 3 to 6 months, including 46 cases with 24 as exellent and 22 as good reaching 100% of excellent good rate in CG by MacNab standards; 43 cases with 5 as exellent, 29 as good, 9 as fair and poor, with total effective rate of 79.1% in PCG. Twenty cases of NCG symptoms showed no improvement and therefore surgery was considered. Conclusions: Centralization phenomenon occurrence during initial mechanical evaluation is a very accurate predictor for successful PLD outcome. Nonoccurrence of centralization would accurately predict poor PLD outcome and

  18. Boundaries can steer active Janus spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sambeeta; Garg, Astha; Campbell, Andrew I.; Howse, Jonathan; Sen, Ayusman; Velegol, Darrell; Golestanian, Ramin; Ebbens, Stephen J.

    2015-12-01

    The advent of autonomous self-propulsion has instigated research towards making colloidal machines that can deliver mechanical work in the form of transport, and other functions such as sensing and cleaning. While much progress has been made in the last 10 years on various mechanisms to generate self-propulsion, the ability to steer self-propelled colloidal devices has so far been much more limited. A critical barrier in increasing the impact of such motors is in directing their motion against the Brownian rotation, which randomizes particle orientations. In this context, here we report directed motion of a specific class of catalytic motors when moving in close proximity to solid surfaces. This is achieved through active quenching of their Brownian rotation by constraining it in a rotational well, caused not by equilibrium, but by hydrodynamic effects. We demonstrate how combining these geometric constraints can be utilized to steer these active colloids along arbitrary trajectories.

  19. Holographic memory using beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Hanan, Jay C. (Inventor); Reyes, George F. (Inventor); Zhou, Hanying (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method, apparatus, and system provide the ability for storing holograms at high speed. A single laser diode emits a collimated laser beam to both write to and read from a photorefractice crystal. One or more liquid crystal beam steering spatial light modulators (BSSLMs) steer a reference beam, split from the collimated laser beam, at high speed to the photorefractive crystal.

  20. 机械制造与自动化应用的探究%An Exploration into Mechanical Manufacturing Automation Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振涛

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the mechanical manufacturing and automation application, this paper first introduced pre-sent status of mechanical manufacturing and automation applications from aspects of management, design, automation technology and processing . Finally, it introduced the application of mechanical automation technology .%为了研究机械制造与自动化应用,文章首先从管理、设计、自动化技术以及制造工艺四个方面介绍了我国机械制造与自动化应用的现状。最后介绍了机械自动化技术的应用。

  1. A knowledge- and model-based system for automated weaning from mechanical ventilation: technical description and first clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädler, Dirk; Mersmann, Stefan; Frerichs, Inéz; Elke, Gunnar; Semmel-Griebeler, Thomas; Noll, Oliver; Pulletz, Sven; Zick, Günther; David, Matthias; Heinrichs, Wolfgang; Scholz, Jens; Weiler, Norbert

    2014-10-01

    To describe the principles and the first clinical application of a novel prototype automated weaning system called Evita Weaning System (EWS). EWS allows an automated control of all ventilator settings in pressure controlled and pressure support mode with the aim of decreasing the respiratory load of mechanical ventilation. Respiratory load takes inspired fraction of oxygen, positive end-expiratory pressure, pressure amplitude and spontaneous breathing activity into account. Spontaneous breathing activity is assessed by the number of controlled breaths needed to maintain a predefined respiratory rate. EWS was implemented as a knowledge- and model-based system that autonomously and remotely controlled a mechanical ventilator (Evita 4, Dräger Medical, Lübeck, Germany). In a selected case study (n = 19 patients), ventilator settings chosen by the responsible physician were compared with the settings 10 min after the start of EWS and at the end of the study session. Neither unsafe ventilator settings nor failure of the system occurred. All patients were successfully transferred from controlled ventilation to assisted spontaneous breathing in a mean time of 37 ± 17 min (± SD). Early settings applied by the EWS did not significantly differ from the initial settings, except for the fraction of oxygen in inspired gas. During the later course, EWS significantly modified most of the ventilator settings and reduced the imposed respiratory load. A novel prototype automated weaning system was successfully developed. The first clinical application of EWS revealed that its operation was stable, safe ventilator settings were defined and the respiratory load of mechanical ventilation was decreased.

  2. Electrical power assisted steering for EVs and HEVs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Haibo; Yang Ying

    2011-01-01

    Electrical power assisted steering (EPAS) is one of the key components, especially for electrical vehicle. It has attracted much attention for their advantages with respect to improved fuel economy and has been widely adopted as automotive power-steering equipment in recent years. EPS (electrical power steering) controllers contain MCU (microprocessor control unit) to implement the complex control algorithms. EPS control strategy development is the core technology of the whole system. To achieve the better performance of driving, both mechanical structures and electrical structures are totally designed as a whole. Model-based development is recommended to software design. There are several trends about EPS' future, such as high power EPS development, high voltage EPS development and steering-bywire technology.

  3. Loophole-free Einstein Podolsky Rosen Experiment via Quantum Steering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Experiments testing quantum mechanics have provided increasing evidence against local realistic theories. However, a conclusive test that simultaneously closes all major loopholes (the locality, freedom-of-choice, and detection loopholes) remains an open challenge. An important class of local realistic theories incorporates the assumption of quantum mechanic and can be tested with the concept of EPR-steering. The term steering was introduced by Schrödinger in 1935 for the fact that entanglement would seem to allow an experimenter to remotely steer or pilot the state of a distant system as used in the original Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR) paradox. EPR-Steering can be described in theory by the test of local hidden states. Here, we present the first loophole-free steering experiment. We use entangled photons shared between two distant laboratories and close all loopholes by a large separation, ultra-fast switching and quantum random number generation, and high, overall detection efficiency. Beside its foundational importance loop-hole-free steering is relevant for the secure distribution of quantum entanglement. (author)

  4. Indexing system for optical beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Mark T.; Cannon, David M.; Debra, Daniel B.; Young, Jeffrey A.; Mansfield, Joseph A.; Carmichael, Roger E.; Lissol, Peter S.; Pryor, G. M.; Miklosy, Les G.; Lee, Jeffrey H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of an indexing system for optical-beam steering. The cryogenic beam-steering mechanism is a 360-degree rotation device capable of discrete, high-precision alignment positions. It uses low-precision components for its rough alignment and kinematic design to meet its stringent repeatability and stability requirements (of about 5 arcsec). The principal advantages of this design include a decoupling of the low-precision, large angular motion from the high-precision alignment, and a power-off alignment position that potentially extends the life or hold time of cryogenic systems. An alternate design, which takes advantage of these attributes while reducing overall motion, is also presented. Preliminary test results show the kinematic mount capable of sub-arc second repeatability.

  5. ACTIVE FRONT STEERING DURING BRAKING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Deling; CHEN Li; YIN Chengliang; ZHANG Yong

    2008-01-01

    An active front steering (AFS) intervention control during braking for vehicle stability is presented. Based on the investigation of AFS mechanism, a simplified model of steering system is established and integrated with vehicle model. Then the AFS control on vehicle handling dynamics during braking is designed. Due to the difficulties associated with the sideslip angle measurement of vehicle, a state observer is designed to provide real time estimation. Thereafter, the controller with the feedback of both sideslip and yaw angle is implemented. To evaluate the system control, the proposed AFS controlled vehicle has been tested in the Hardware-in-the-loop-simulation (HILS) system and compared with that of conventional vehicle. Results show that AFS can improve vehicle lateral stability effectively without reducing the braking performance.

  6. Steering magnetic micropropellers along independent trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-microrobot control is highly promising for the assembly of matter on the microscale, in situ sensing, targeted drug delivery or nanosurgery. Magnetic micropropellers can be powered and steered by external magnetic fields and therefore represent a promising microrobotic actuation mechanism. However, the simultaneous actuation of multiple propellers along independent trajectories has yet to be realized. This is challenging, specifically because all propellers are steered by the same fields. We identify here an optimal control strategy based on a thorough theoretical analysis of multi-microrobot control. Based on analytical results and simulations, we estimate the limitations to the achievable control precisions due to diffusion, errors in the field application, and interactions between propellers. We find that control precisions of a few micrometers might be achievable. (paper)

  7. Repositioning and steering laser beam power via coherent combination of multiple Airy beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ze; Ye, Zhuoyi; Song, Daohong; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Zhigang

    2013-12-10

    We study numerically and experimentally laser coherent combination (LCC) with multiple one- or two-dimensional Airy beams. It is shown that the method of LCC using Airy beams leads to a higher combining efficiency and a better feature of propagation than that using conventional Gaussian beams. Based on such coherent Airy beams combination, we propose a laser steering approach that could achieve large-angle beam steering (over 0.6°) without the need of using any mechanical steering component.

  8. Acoustic hemostasis device for automated treatment of bleeding in limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekins, K. Michael; Zeng, Xiaozheng; Barnes, Stephen; Hopple, Jerry; Kook, John; Moreau-Gobard, Romain; Hsu, Stephen; Ahiekpor-Dravi, Alexis; Lee, Chi-Yin; Ramachandran, Suresh; Maleke, Caroline; Eaton, John; Wong, Keith; Keneman, Scott

    2012-10-01

    A research prototype automated image-guided acoustic hemostasis system for treatment of deep bleeding was developed and tested in limb phantoms. The system incorporated a flexible, conformal acoustic applicator cuff. Electronically steered and focused therapeutic arrays (Tx) populated the cuff to enable dosing from multiple Tx's simultaneously. Similarly, multiple imaging arrays (Ix) were deployed on the cuff to enable 3D compounded images for targeting and treatment monitoring. To affect a lightweight cuff, highly integrated Tx electrical circuitry was implemented, fabric and lightweight structural materials were used, and components were minimized. Novel cuff and Ix and Tx mechanical registration approaches were used to insure targeting accuracy. Two-step automation was implemented: 1) targeting (3D image volume acquisition and stitching, Power and Pulsed Wave Doppler automated bleeder detection, identification of bone, followed by closed-loop iterative Tx beam targeting), and 2) automated dosing (auto-selection of arrays and Tx dosing parameters, power initiation and then monitoring by acoustic thermometry for power shut-off). In final testing the device automatically detected 65% of all bleeders (with various bleeder flow rates). Accurate targeting was achieved in HIFU phantoms with end-dose (30 sec) temperature rise reaching the desired 33-58°C. Automated closed-loop targeting and treatment was demonstrated in separate phantoms.

  9. STEER Coastal Use Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Use Mapping Project is designed to collect critical information on human activities in and near the St. Thomas East End Reserves (STEER). The project...

  10. Frequency Steered Acoustic Transducer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase II project is to fabricate, characterize, and verify performance of a new type of frequency steered acoustic...

  11. Frequency Steered Acoustic Transducer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project is to develop, fabricate, and characterize a novel frequency steered acoustic transducer (FSAT) for the...

  12. Hybrid Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering in an atom-optomechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Huatang; Sun, Lihui

    2015-12-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering manifests a type of quantum correlations intermediate between entanglement and Bell nonlocality. In this paper we propose a scheme for realizing hybrid atom-mechanical quantum steering in the steady-state regime. In our scheme, an optomechanical two-mode cavity is coupled to a distant ensemble of double-λ atoms in a cascade way, which induces the dissipative interaction between the mechanics and the internal atomic states. We show that strong cavity dissipation can lead to two-way atom-mechanical steering and the optimal steering exhibited in an approximate two-mode squeezed-vacuum atom-mechanical state. Moreover, we find that for the present cascade coupling scheme, the one-way steering from the mechanical oscillator to the atoms is achievable under certain conditions, while the reverse one-way steering is impossible to obtain. The reason for achieving the asymmetric steering is analyzed and the effect of mechanical thermal noise on the steering is also studied.

  13. On the Feasibility of Dynamic Power Steering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, Kevin J.; Kerbyson, Darren J.; Anger, Eric A.

    2014-11-16

    While high performance has always been the primary constraint behind large-scale system design, future systems will be built with increasing energy efficiency in mind. Mechanisms such as fine-grained power scaling and gating will provide tools to system-software and application developers to ensure the most efficient use of tightly constrained power budgets. Such approaches to-date have been focused on node level optimizations to impact overall system energy efficiency. In this work we introduce Dynamic Power Steering, in which power can be dynamically routed across a system to resources where it will be of most benefit and away from other resources to maintain a near-constant overall power budget. This, a higher level algorithmic approach to improving energy efficiency, considers the whole extent of a system being used by an application. It can be used for applications in which there is load imbalance that varies over its execution. Using two classes of applications, namely those that contain a wave front type processing, and a particle-in-cell, we quantify the benefit of Dynamic Power Steering for a variety of workload characteristics and derive some insight into the ways in which workload behavior affect Power Steering applicability.

  14. Automated Rotational Percussion Bed and Bronchoscopy Improves Respiratory Mechanics and Oxygenation in ARDS Patients Supported with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nirmal S; Wille, Keith M; Bellot, S Christopher; Diaz-Guzman, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used to provide "lung rest" through the use of low tidal volume (6 ml/kg) and ultralow tidal volume (respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Low and ultralow tidal volume ventilation can result in low dynamic respiratory compliance and potentially increased retention of airway secretions. We present our experience using automated rotational percussion beds (ARPBs) and bronchoscopy in four ARDS patients to manage increased pulmonary secretions. These beds performed automated side-to-side tilt maneuver and intermittent chest wall percussion. Their use resulted in substantial reduction in peak and plateau pressures in two patients on volume control ventilation, while the driving pressures (inspiratory pressure) to attain the desired tidal volumes in patients on pressure control ventilation also decreased. In addition, mean partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio (109 pre-ARPB vs. 157 post-ARPB), positive end-expiratory pressure (10 cm H2O vs. 8 cm H2O), and FiO2 (0.88 vs. 0.52) improved after initiation of ARPB. The improvements in the respiratory mechanics and oxygenation helped us to initiate early ECMO weaning. Based on our experience, the use of chest physiotherapy, frequent body repositioning, and bronchoscopy may be helpful in the management of pulmonary secretions in patients supported with ECMO. PMID:26771392

  15. Modeling, Validation, and Control of Electronically Actuated Pitman Arm Steering for Armored Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal Rau Aparow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 2 DOF mathematical models of Pitman arm steering system are derived using Newton’s law of motion and modeled in MATLAB/SIMULINK software. The developed steering model is included with a DC motor model which is directly attached to the steering column. The Pitman arm steering model is then validated with actual Pitman arm steering test rig using various lateral inputs such as double lane change, step steer, and slalom test. Meanwhile, a position tracking control method has been used in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the validated model to be implemented in active safety system of a heavy vehicle. The similar method has been used to test the actual Pitman arm steering mechanism using hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS technique. Additional friction compensation is added in the HILS technique in order to minimize the frictional effects that occur in the mechanical configuration of the DC motor and Pitman arm steering. The performance of the electronically actuated Pitman arm steering system can be used to develop a firing-on-the-move actuator (FOMA for an armored vehicle. The FOMA can be used as an active safety system to reject unwanted yaw motion due to the firing force.

  16. Development of Estimation Force Feedback Torque Control Algorithm for Driver Steering Feel in Vehicle Steer by Wire System: Hardware in the Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Muhammad Hafiz Fahami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In conventional steering system, a feedback torque is produced from the contact between tire and road surface and its flows through mechanical column shaft directly to driver. This allows the driver to sense the steering feel during driving. However, in steer by wire (SBW system, the elimination of the mechanical column shaft requires the system to generate the feedback torque which should produce similar performance with conventional steering system. Therefore, this paper proposes a control algorithm to create the force feedback torque for SBW system. The direct current measurement approach is used to estimate torque at the steering wheel and front axle motor as elements to the feedback torque, while, adding the compensation torque for a realistic feedback torque. The gain scheduling with a linear quadratic regulator controller is used to control the feedback torque and to vary a steering feel gain. To investigate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, a real-time hardware in the loop (HIL methodology is developed using Matlab XPC target toolbox. The results show that the proposed algorithm is able to generate the feedback torque similar to EPS steering system. Furthermore, the compensation torque is able to improve the steering feel and stabilize the system.

  17. Backwards planning approach for rapid attitude maneuvers steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbin, D.

    Remote sensing satellites are often built with payloads that do not include line of sight steering mechanisms. In cases, when frequent line of sight retargeting is required, there is a need for efficient actuators and control schemes that would support rapid attitude manoeuvring together with adequate pointing accuracy and stability between the manoeuvres. Within this frame, this research develops the Backwards Planning approach as one of the possible control methods for rapid manoeuvring. The method is based on state feedback and combines time efficient together with straight forward computation flow. Novel efficient methods to execute the Backwards Planning Control in the 3D attitude space are proposed here. The methods refer both for the first saturated control phase of the manoeuvre and for the last braking phase. The actuators used for the spacecraft control in this research are either Reaction Wheels (RWs) or Single Gimbal Control Moments Gyros (SGCMGs) or both of them together. The advantage of the SGCMG is in rapid rotational manoeuvring, but their application for high quality pointing requires very accurate gimbal mechanisms. On the other hand, RWs are usually more suitable for accurate pointing, but their torque to power performance is inferior in manoeuvring. It is shown that the coordination of SGCMGs and RWs together enables to draw more performance from the SGCMGs in terms of agility and meet the pointing requirements between manoeuvres where only the RWs are used. Novel SGCMG steering laws are suggested as well. While the steering laws determine the required angular rate for each gimbal, most steering laws are defined in the angular momentum domain and output the gimbals angular rates to produce a given required torque or angular momentum increment. This research however, practices a novel steering law in the gimbal angles domain. While both steering laws turn to be dynamically equivalent for small control signals, as in the steady state, it is shown

  18. Dynamic Coordinated Shifting Control of Automated Mechanical Transmissions without a Clutch in a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinlei Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the shifting process of automated mechanical transmissions (AMTs for traditional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs, and by combining the features of electric machines with fast response speed, the dynamic model of the hybrid electric AMT vehicle powertrain is built up, the dynamic characteristics of each phase of shifting process are analyzed, and a control strategy in which torque and speed of the engine and electric machine are coordinatively controlled to achieve AMT shifting control for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV without clutch is proposed. In the shifting process, the engine and electric machine are well controlled, and the shift jerk and power interruption and restoration time are reduced. Simulation and real car test results show that the proposed control strategy can more efficiently improve the shift quality for PHEVs equipped with AMTs.

  19. Fermilab Steering Group Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beier, Eugene; /Pennsylvania U.; Butler, Joel; /Fermilab; Dawson, Sally; /Brookhaven; Edwards, Helen; /Fermilab; Himel, Thomas; /SLAC; Holmes, Stephen; /Fermilab; Kim, Young-Kee; /Fermilab /Chicago U.; Lankford, Andrew; /UC, Irvine; McGinnis, David; /Fermilab; Nagaitsev, Sergei; /Fermilab; Raubenheimer, Tor; /SLAC /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    The Fermilab Steering Group has developed a plan to keep U.S. accelerator-based particle physics on the pathway to discovery, both at the Terascale with the LHC and the ILC and in the domain of neutrinos and precision physics with a high-intensity accelerator. The plan puts discovering Terascale physics with the LHC and the ILC as Fermilab's highest priority. While supporting ILC development, the plan creates opportunities for exciting science at the intensity frontier. If the ILC remains near the Global Design Effort's technically driven timeline, Fermilab would continue neutrino science with the NOVA experiment, using the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) proton plan, scheduled to begin operating in 2011. If ILC construction must wait somewhat longer, Fermilab's plan proposes SNuMI, an upgrade of NuMI to create a more powerful neutrino beam. If the ILC start is postponed significantly, a central feature of the proposed Fermilab plan calls for building an intense proton facility, Project X, consisting of a linear accelerator with the currently planned characteristics of the ILC combined with Fermilab's existing Recycler Ring and the Main Injector accelerator. The major component of Project X is the linac. Cryomodules, radio-frequency distribution, cryogenics and instrumentation for the linac are the same as or similar to those used in the ILC at a scale of about one percent of a full ILC linac. Project X's intense proton beams would open a path to discovery in neutrino science and in precision physics with charged leptons and quarks. World-leading experiments would allow physicists to address key questions of the Quantum Universe: How did the universe come to be? Are there undiscovered principles of nature: new symmetries, new physical laws? Do all the particles and forces become one? What happened to the antimatter? Building Project X's ILC-like linac would offer substantial support for ILC development by accelerating the

  20. Fermilab Steering Group Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steering Group, Fermilab; /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    The Fermilab Steering Group has developed a plan to keep U.S. accelerator-based particle physics on the pathway to discovery, both at the Terascale with the LHC and the ILC and in the domain of neutrinos and precision physics with a high-intensity accelerator. The plan puts discovering Terascale physics with the LHC and the ILC as Fermilab's highest priority. While supporting ILC development, the plan creates opportunities for exciting science at the intensity frontier. If the ILC remains near the Global Design Effort's technically driven timeline, Fermilab would continue neutrino science with the NOvA experiment, using the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) proton plan, scheduled to begin operating in 2011. If ILC construction must wait somewhat longer, Fermilab's plan proposes SNuMI, an upgrade of NuMI to create a more powerful neutrino beam. If the ILC start is postponed significantly, a central feature of the proposed Fermilab plan calls for building an intense proton facility, Project X, consisting of a linear accelerator with the currently planned characteristics of the ILC combined with Fermilab's existing Recycler Ring and the Main Injector accelerator. The major component of Project X is the linac. Cryomodules, radio-frequency distribution, cryogenics and instrumentation for the linac are the same as or similar to those used in the ILC at a scale of about one percent of a full ILC linac. Project X's intense proton beams would open a path to discovery in neutrino science and in precision physics with charged leptons and quarks. World-leading experiments would allow physicists to address key questions of the Quantum Universe: How did the universe come to be? Are there undiscovered principles of nature: new symmetries, new physical laws? Do all the particles and forces become one? What happened to the antimatter? Building Project X's ILC-like linac would offer substantial support for ILC development by accelerating the

  1. The Human Factor - Introducing Game Mechanics to Computerized Home Automation Systems: User experience as a method for reducing consumption in domestic buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, I.; Turrin, M.; Heinzelmann, F.; Welzner, I.

    2013-01-01

    A method of integration of game mechanics and game dynamics into a user interface for a home automation system as means of reducing the inhabitant’s environmental footprint is described and detailed up to the point of proof of concept. In detail, the paper describes the game framework and the method

  2. A Closed-Loop Proportional-Integral (PI) Control Software for Fully Mechanically Controlled Automated Electron Microscopic Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-23

    A closed-loop proportional-integral (PI) control software is provided for fully mechanically controlled automated electron microscopic tomography. The software is developed based on Gatan DigitalMicrograph�, and is compatible with Zeiss LIBRA� 120 transmission electron microscope. However, it can be expanded to other TEM instrument with modification. The software consists of a graphical user interface, a digital PI controller, an image analyzing unit, and other drive units (i.e.: image acquire unit and goniometer drive unit). During a tomography data collection process, the image analyzing unit analyzes both the accumulated shift and defocus value of the latest acquired image, and provides the results to the digital PI controller. The digital PI control compares the results with the preset values and determines the optimum adjustments of the goniometer. The goniometer drive unit adjusts the spatial position of the specimen according to the instructions given by the digital PI controller for the next tilt angle and image acquisition. The goniometer drive unit achieves high precision positioning by using a backlash elimination method. The major benefits of the software are: 1) the goniometer drive unit keeps pre-aligned/optimized beam conditions unchanged and achieves position tracking solely through mechanical control; 2) the image analyzing unit relies on only historical data and therefore does not require additional images/exposures; 3) the PI controller enables the system to dynamically track the imaging target with extremely low system error.

  3. Interagency Advanced Power Group -- Steering group meeting minutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-18

    This document contains the draft meeting minutes of the Steering Group of the Interagency Advanced Power Group. Included are the discussions resulting from the presentation of working group reports and the results of a discussion of IAPG policies and procedures. In the appendix are the reports of the following working groups: Electrical, Mechanical, Solar, and Systems.

  4. AN ALGORITHM FOR STEERING CONTROL WITH SIMULATION RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Apeksha V. Sakhare,; Prof. Dr. V. M. Thakare; Prof. R. V. Dharaskar

    2010-01-01

    The idea behind the paper was channelization of human thoughts to automated realization. It is decided to implement the theme of automatic maneuvering of vehicles and the unanimous choice of sensor was touch screen. It was started with the thought of being able to replace the steering of a car completely by a touch screen. It is drawn on the experience of driving to reach at the choice of touch screen as a drive interface. Another innovation was the touch screen controller being wireless. The...

  5. A theoretical model of speed-dependent steering torque for rolling tyres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yintao; Oertel, Christian; Liu, Yahui; Li, Xuebing

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that the tyre steering torque is highly dependent on the tyre rolling speed. In limited cases, i.e. parking manoeuvre, the steering torque approaches the maximum. With the increasing tyre speed, the steering torque decreased rapidly. Accurate modelling of the speed-dependent behaviour for the tyre steering torque is a key factor to calibrate the electric power steering (EPS) system and tune the handling performance of vehicles. However, no satisfactory theoretical model can be found in the existing literature to explain this phenomenon. This paper proposes a new theoretical framework to model this important tyre behaviour, which includes three key factors: (1) tyre three-dimensional transient rolling kinematics with turn-slip; (2) dynamical force and moment generation; and (3) the mixed Lagrange-Euler method for contact deformation solving. A nonlinear finite-element code has been developed to implement the proposed approach. It can be found that the main mechanism for the speed-dependent steering torque is due to turn-slip-related kinematics. This paper provides a theory to explain the complex mechanism of the tyre steering torque generation, which helps to understand the speed-dependent tyre steering torque, tyre road feeling and EPS calibration.

  6. Two dimensional thermo-optic beam steering using a silicon photonic optical phased array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Rita; Preussner, Marcel W.; Rabinovich, William S.; Goetz, Peter G.; Kozak, Dmitry A.; Ferraro, Mike S.; Murphy, James L.

    2016-03-01

    Components for free space optical communication terminals such as lasers, amplifiers, and receivers have all seen substantial reduction in both size and power consumption over the past several decades. However, pointing systems, such as fast steering mirrors and gimbals, have remained large, slow and power-hungry. Optical phased arrays provide a possible solution for non-mechanical beam steering devices that can be compact and lower in power. Silicon photonics is a promising technology for phased arrays because it has the potential to scale to many elements and may be compatible with CMOS technology thereby enabling batch fabrication. For most free space optical communication applications, two-dimensional beam steering is needed. To date, silicon photonic phased arrays have achieved two-dimensional steering by combining thermo-optic steering, in-plane, with wavelength tuning by means of an output grating to give angular tuning, out-of-plane. While this architecture might work for certain static communication links, it would be difficult to implement for moving platforms. Other approaches have required N2 controls for an NxN element phased array, which leads to complexity. Hence, in this work we demonstrate steering using the thermo-optic effect for both dimensions with a simplified steering mechanism requiring only two control signals, one for each steering dimension.

  7. An Automated High-throughput Array Microscope for Cancer Cell Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Cribb, Jeremy A.; Osborne, Lukas D.; Kellie Beicker; Matthew Psioda; Jian Chen; E. Timothy O’Brien; Taylor II, Russell M.; Leandra Vicci; Joe Ping-Lin Hsiao; Chong Shao; Michael Falvo; Ibrahim, Joseph G.; Wood, Kris C.; Blobe, Gerard C.; Richard Superfine

    2016-01-01

    Changes in cellular mechanical properties correlate with the progression of metastatic cancer along the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Few high-throughput methodologies exist that measure cell compliance, which can be used to understand the impact of genetic alterations or to screen the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. We have developed a novel array high-throughput microscope (AHTM) system that combines the convenience of the standard 96-well plate with the ability to image ...

  8. Multi-Layer Traffic Steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Polignano, Michele; Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria;

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the potentials of traffic steering in the Radio Resource Control (RRC) Idle state by evaluating the Absolute Priorities (AP) framework in a multilayer Long Term Evolution (LTE) macrocell scenario. Frequency priorities are broadcast on the system information and RRC Idle...

  9. Necrobacillary bronchopneumonia in a steer.

    OpenAIRE

    Bundza, A; Garcia, M. M.; Kokoskin-Nelson, E

    1987-01-01

    A one and one-half year old steer killed in a slaughterhouse had necrobacillary fibrinous bronchopneumonia with abscessation. Histologically, there were variably sized areas of coagulation necrosis in the lungs, thrombosis of pulmonary lymphatics, and fibrin deposits in the bronchioli and adjacent alveoli. Fusobacterium necrophorum in pure culture was isolated from the lung.

  10. Sensing for advancing mining automation capability:A review of underground automation technology development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ralston Jonathon; Reid David; Hargrave Chad; Hainsworth David

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the role of automation technologies for improving the safety, productivity, and environmental sustainability of underground coal mining processes. This is accomplished by reviewing the impact that the introduction of automation technology has made through the longwall shearer auto-mation research program of Longwall Automation Steering Committee (LASC). This result has been achieved through close integration of sensing, processing, and control technologies into the longwall mining process. Key to the success of the automation solution has been the development of new sensing methods to accurately measure the location of longwall equipment and the spatial configuration of coal seam geology. The relevance of system interoperability and open communications standards for facilitat-ing effective automation is also discussed. Importantly, the insights gained through the longwall automa-tion development process are now leading to new technology transfer activity to benefit other underground mining processes.

  11. INTELLIGENT MECHANISM TO SUPPORT DFX-ABILITIES IN AUTOMATED DESIGNER'S ENVIRONMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The paper aims at providing a computerized design environment to support product design practically. The authors solved this problem by taking the product life-cycle issues into consideration as more as possible during the design process from the designer-oriented perspective of view. Design for X-abilities (DFX) is an effective approach to this philosophy. So the paper mainly presents the infrastructure of an intelligent DFX mechanism which is the essential part of the developed product design environment. At first the designer-oriented computer environment DesignerSpace is introduced for understanding the designer how to implement design activities and DFX method better. In order to integrate design knowledge from downstream aspects for the optimization and the design decision-making, an intelligent DFX mechanism is developed to incorporate knowledge base, algorithm-base and monitoring/debugging tools. DesignerSpace is implemented with DFX abilities and applied to the blisk design of aircraft engine and the further development is strongly intended.

  12. Objective Evaluation Method of Steering Comfort Based on Movement Quality Evaluation of Driver Steering Maneuver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yiyong; LIU Yahui; WANG Man; JI Run; JI Xuewu

    2014-01-01

    The existing research of steering comfort mainly focuses on the subjective evaluation, aiming at designing and optimizing the steering system. In the development of steering system, especially the evaluation of steering comfort, the objective evaluation methods considered the kinematic characteristics of driver steering maneuver are not proposed, which means that the objective evaluation of steering cannot be conducted with the evaluation of kinematic characteristics of driver in steering maneuver. In order to propose the objective evaluation methods of steering comfort, the evaluation of steering movement quality of driver is developed on the basis of the study of the kinematic characteristics of steering maneuver. First, the steering motion trajectories of the driver in both comfortable and certain extreme uncomfortable operation conditions are detected using the Vicon motion capture system. The operation conditions are under the restrictions of the vertical height and horizontal distance between steering wheel center and the H-point of driver, and the steering resisting torque else. Next, the movement quality evaluation of driver steering maneuver is assessed using twelve kinds of evaluation indices based on the kinematic analyses of the steering motion trajectories to propose an objective evaluation method. Finally, an integrated discomfort index of steering maneuver is proposed on the basis of the regression analysis of subjective evaluation rating and the movement quality evaluation indices, including the Jerk, Discomfort and Joint Torque indices. The test results show that the proposed integrated discomfort index gives a good fitting with the subjective evaluation of discomfort, which means it can be used to evaluate or predict the discomfort level of steering maneuver. This paper proposes an objective evaluation method of steering comfort based on the movement quality evaluation of driver steering maneuver.

  13. Provenance for Runtime Workflow Steering and Validation in Computational Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinuso, A.; Krischer, L.; Krause, A.; Filgueira, R.; Magnoni, F.; Muraleedharan, V.; David, M.

    2014-12-01

    Provenance systems may be offered by modern workflow engines to collect metadata about the data transformations at runtime. If combined with effective visualisation and monitoring interfaces, these provenance recordings can speed up the validation process of an experiment, suggesting interactive or automated interventions with immediate effects on the lifecycle of a workflow run. For instance, in the field of computational seismology, if we consider research applications performing long lasting cross correlation analysis and high resolution simulations, the immediate notification of logical errors and the rapid access to intermediate results, can produce reactions which foster a more efficient progress of the research. These applications are often executed in secured and sophisticated HPC and HTC infrastructures, highlighting the need for a comprehensive framework that facilitates the extraction of fine grained provenance and the development of provenance aware components, leveraging the scalability characteristics of the adopted workflow engines, whose enactment can be mapped to different technologies (MPI, Storm clusters, etc). This work looks at the adoption of W3C-PROV concepts and data model within a user driven processing and validation framework for seismic data, supporting also computational and data management steering. Validation needs to balance automation with user intervention, considering the scientist as part of the archiving process. Therefore, the provenance data is enriched with community-specific metadata vocabularies and control messages, making an experiment reproducible and its description consistent with the community understandings. Moreover, it can contain user defined terms and annotations. The current implementation of the system is supported by the EU-Funded VERCE (http://verce.eu). It provides, as well as the provenance generation mechanisms, a prototypal browser-based user interface and a web API built on top of a NoSQL storage

  14. The Parkinsonian Gait Spatiotemporal Parameters Quantified by a Single Inertial Sensor before and after Automated Mechanical Peripheral Stimulation Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kleiner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the change in gait spatiotemporal parameters in subjects with Parkinson’s disease (PD before and after Automated Mechanical Peripheral Stimulation (AMPS treatment. Thirty-five subjects with PD and 35 healthy age-matched subjects took part in this study. A dedicated medical device (Gondola was used to administer the AMPS. All patients with PD were treated in off levodopa phase and their gait performances were evaluated by an inertial measurement system before and after the intervention. The one-way ANOVA for repeated measures was performed to assess the differences between pre- and post-AMPS and the one-way ANOVA to assess the differences between PD patients and the control group. Spearman’s correlations assessed the associations between patients with PD clinical status (H&Y and the percentage of improvement of the gait variables after AMPS (α<0.05 for all tests. The PD group had an improvement of 14.85% in the stride length; 14.77% in the gait velocity; and 29.91% in the gait propulsion. The correlation results showed that the higher the H&Y classification, the higher the stride length percentage of improvement. The treatment based on AMPS intervention seems to induce a better performance in the gait pattern of PD patients, mainly in intermediate and advanced stages of the condition.

  15. Cone-beam computed tomography analysis of the apical third of curved roots after mechanical preparation with different automated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cesar Augusto Pereira; Pascoalato, Cristina [University of Southern Santa Catarina (UNISUL), Tubarao, SC (Brazil); Meurer, Maria Ines [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Silvio Rocha Correa, E-mail: silvio@foar.unesp.b [Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The present study evaluated by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) the apical canal transportation and centralizing ability of different automated systems after root canal preparation. The mesiobuccal canals of maxillary first molars (n=10 per group) were prepared with: GI - reciprocating system with K-Flexofile; GII - reciprocating system with NiTiFlex files; GIII - rotary system with K3 instruments; GIV - rotary system with RaCe instruments. CBCT scans were taken before and after biomechanical preparation up to a 40.02 diameter. Canal transportation was determined by measuring the smallest distance between the inner canal walls and the mesial and distal sides of the root. The centralization ability corresponded to the difference between the measurements from transportation evaluation, using the linear voxel to voxel method of analysis. The mean transportation was 0.06 +- 0.14 mm, with a tendency to deviate to the mesial side of the root (n=22), with no statistically significant difference among the groups (p=0.4153). The mean centralization index was 0.15 +- 0.65 also without statistically significant difference among the groups (p=0.0881). It may be concluded that apical canal transportation and centralization ability were not influenced by the type of mechanical movement and instruments used. (author)

  16. Research on Dynamics Modeling of Steering Mechanisms of Low Velocity Maglev Trains%低速磁浮列车转向机构动力学建模研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任少云; 刘思楠

    2013-01-01

    Research purposes:By using solid design software,ADAMS software and the multi -body dynamics theory, solid model and dynamics model of the steering mechanisms of low velocity maglev trains have been developed.The stylized simulation platform developed can predict dynamic characteristics of low velocity city maglev trains in many typical conditions and can lay theory analysis foundation for the structure parameters design and optimization. Research conclusions:(1 )Compared with the results of the traditional analytical method in many typical conditions,a high accuracy and reliability multi -body model of the steering mechanisms of a low velocity city maglev train with 87 degree of freedom has been built.The model can simulate dynamic response characteristics of the system under various special conditions which can not be calculated accurately by the traditional analytical method.(2)Virtue no mass moving 5 planets which contour maglev railway are created in the model.(3)Non -linear air -springs,non -contact maglev force elements and railway constraints are expressed in the built model.(4)The stylized simulation model developed in this paper is more suitable for parameter optimization design of the steering mechanisms and can be meaningful to the virtue platform of low velocity city maglev trains which will be created in the future.%研究目的:利用实体软件,基于多体系统动力学理论及其虚拟仿真 ADAMS 软件,建立低速磁浮列车转向机构动力学实体分析模型和多体动力学仿真计算模型,准确仿真计算和分析低速磁浮列车多种典型运行工况动态响应特性,为磁浮车辆转向机构结构参数化设计与优化分析提供可靠的程式化理论计算方法。  研究结论:(1)在典型工况下,通过与传统解析分析方法计算结果印证,建立高精确性和可靠性的城市低速磁悬浮车辆转向机构87自由度计算模型,所建模型可以仿真在特殊要求工

  17. Volumetric imaging with an amplitude-steered array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Catherine H; Hughes, W Jack; O'Brien, William D

    2002-12-01

    Volumetric acoustic imaging is desirable for the visualization of underwater objects and structures; however, the implementation of a volumetric imaging system is difficult due to the high channel count of a fully populated two-dimensional array. Recently, a linear amplitude-steered array with a reduced electronics requirement was presented, which is capable of collecting a two-dimensional set of data with a single transmit pulse. In this study, we demonstrate the use of the linear amplitude-steered array and associated image formation algorithms for collecting and displaying volumetric data; that is, proof of principle of the amplitude-steering concept and the associated image formation algorithms is demonstrated. Range and vertical position are obtained by taking advantage of the frequency separation of a vertical linear amplitude-steered array. The third dimension of data is obtained by rotating the array such that the mainlobe is mechanically steered in azimuth. Data are collected in a water tank at the Pennsylvania State University Applied Research Laboratory for two targets: a ladder and three pipes. These data are the first experimental data collected with an amplitude-steered array for the purposes of imaging. The array is 10 cm in diameter and is operated in the frequency range of 80 to 304 kHz. Although the array is small for high-resolution imaging at these frequencies, the rungs of the ladder are recognizable in the images. The three pipes are difficult to discern in two of the projection images; however, the pipes separated in range are clear in the image showing vertical position versus range. The imaging concept is demonstrated on measured data, and the simulations agree well with the experimental results. PMID:12508995

  18. Technology Development of Automated Rendezvous and Docking/Capture Sensors and Docking Mechanism for the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkel, Heather; Strube, Matthew; Zipay, John J.; Cryan, Scott

    2016-01-01

    This paper will describe the technology development efforts NASA has underway for Automated Rendezvous and Docking/Capture (AR&D/C) sensors and a docking mechanism and the challenges involved. The paper will additionally address how these technologies will be extended to other missions requiring AR&D/C whether robotic or manned. NASA needs AR&D/C sensors for both the robotic and crewed segments of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM). NASA recently conducted a commonality assessment of the concept of operations for the robotic Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) and the crewed mission segment using the Orion spacecraft. The commonality assessment also considered several future exploration and science missions requiring an AR&D/C capability. Missions considered were asteroid sample return, satellite servicing, and planetary entry, descent, and landing. This assessment determined that a common sensor suite consisting of one or more visible wavelength cameras, a three-dimensional LIDAR along with long-wavelength infrared cameras for robustness and situational awareness could be used on each mission to eliminate the cost of multiple sensor developments and qualifications. By choosing sensor parameters at build-time instead of at design-time and, without having to requalify flight hardware, a specific mission can design overlapping bearing, range, relative attitude, and position measurement availability to suit their mission requirements with minimal non-recurring engineering costs. The resulting common sensor specification provides the union of all performance requirements for each mission and represents an improvement over the current systems used for AR&D/C today. These sensor specifications are tightly coupled to the docking system capabilities and requirements for final docking conditions. The paper will describe NASA's efforts to develop a standard docking system for use across NASA human spaceflight missions to multiple destinations. It will describe the current

  19. Application of Automation Technology in Mechanical Manufacturing%自动化技术在机械制造方面的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周正

    2016-01-01

    自动化技术在机械制造方面应用十分广泛,已经成为工学机械类的一门学科,自动化技术对于提高机械制造的加工质量和生产效率具有重要作用。文章介绍了机械制造自动化的应用特征以及自动化技术应用的价值意义,重点介绍了现代化机械制造业中自动化技术的应用,包括:柔性自动化、集成化、虚拟化、智能化等。自动化技术将推动制造业和整个社会生产效率的提高,促进现代化加工和科学技术进步。%The automation technology is widely used in machinery manufacturing and has become a discipline of engineering machinery,which plays an important role in the improvement of machinery manufacturing processing quality and production effi-ciency.The article introduces the application of mechanical manufacturing automation features and application value of automation technology,the application of automation technology in modern machinery manufacturing industry,including:flexible automation, integration,virtualization,intelligent,etc.Automation technology will drive the manufacturing industry and production efficiency, and promote the modernization process and the progress of science and technology.

  20. Proactive Steering Toward Oriented Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Boulic, R

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a real-time steering controller ensuring the reach of a (possible mobile) target position and orientation, without requiring to build/update the full trajectory to that target. We name it the funnelling control. The final orientation is achieved through the continuous adjustment of the heading direction. This control mode is proactive in the sense that it anticipates the success/failure of the reach and adjusts the desired speed accordingly. Both features rely on an...

  1. A new generation of IC based beam steering devices for free-space optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Vijit

    Free Space Optical (FSO) communication has tremendously advanced within the last decade to meet the ever increasing demand for higher communication bandwidth. Advancement in laser technology since its invention in the 1960's [1] attracted them to be the dominant source in FSO communication modules. The future of FSO systems lay in implementing semiconductor lasers due to their small size, power efficiency and mass fabrication abilities. In the near future, these systems are very likely to be used in space and ground based applications and revolutionary beam steering technologies will be required for distant communications in free-space. The highly directional characteristic inherent to a laser beam challenges and calls for new beam pointing and steering technologies for such type of communication. In this dissertation, research is done on a novel FSO communication device based on semiconductor lasers for high bandwidth communication. The "Fly eye transceiver" is an extremely wide steering bandwidth, completely non-mechanical FSO laser communication device primarily designed to replace traditional mechanical beam steering optical systems. This non-mechanical FSO device possesses a full spherical steering range and a very high tracking bandwidth. Inspired by the evolutionary model of a fly's eye, the full spherical steering range is assured by electronically controlled switching of its sub-eyes. Non mechanical technologies used in the past for beam steering such as acousto-optic Bragg cells, liquid crystal arrays or piezoelectric elements offer the wide steering bandwidth and fast response time, but are limited in their angular steering range. Mechanical gimbals offer a much greater steering range but face a much slower response time or steering bandwidth problem and often require intelligent adaptive controls with bulky driver amplifiers to feed their actuators. As a solution to feed both the fast and full spherical steering, the Fly-eye transceiver is studied as

  2. 煤矿综采工作面自动化技术探究%Automation Technology of Coal Mine Fully Mechanized Working Face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田成立

    2015-01-01

    我国煤炭资源丰富,煤矿企业居多。由于煤矿开采作业环境恶劣,运用自动化技术即可提高产量,又能降低劳动强度。发展自动化开采技术有利于促进煤矿企业安全高效生产。研究和应用自动化采煤技术是煤炭行业的重点任务。从综采工作面自动化技术的构成、功能、控制等方面进行阐述。%My country is rich in coal resources, coal mining enterprises in the majority. Because of the bad coal mining operation environment, use of automation technology can increase production, and can reduce labor intensity. Development of automated production technology is helpful to promote the safe and efficient production of coal mining enterprises. Coal mining research and application of automation technology is the focus of the coal industry. This article from the automation technology of fully mechanized working face of structure, function, control, etc.

  3. HUMAN-SIMULATING VEHICLE STEERING CONTROL ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Youchun; LI Keqiang; CHANG Ming; CHEN Jun

    2006-01-01

    A new vehicle steering control algorithm is presented. Unlike the traditional methods do,the algorithm uses a sigmoid function to describe the principle of the human driver's steering strategy.Based on this function, a human simulating vehicle steering model, human-simulating steering control(HS) algorithm is designed. In order to improve the adaptability to different environments, a parameter adaptive adjustment algorithm is presented. This algorithm can online modify the value of the key parameters of the HS real time. HS controller is used on a vehicle equipped with computer vision system and computer controlled steering actuator system, the result from the automatic vehicle steering experiment shows that the HS algorithm gives good performance at different speed, even at the maximum speed of 172 km/h.

  4. Phase shifter for antenna beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Ravi; Razban, Tchanguiz

    2016-03-01

    Wide band Array Antenna operates in Ku-band (10.7-12.7 GHz) frequency composed of N×N radiating elements. This antenna aims at the reception of television satellite signals. The goal of this research is to provide better possibility of electronic beam control instead of manual or mechanical control, and design compact and low cost phase shifters to be inserted in the feeding network of this antenna. The electronic control of the phase shifter will allow the control of beam steering. The emphasis of this project will be done at the beginning on the design of a good phase shifter in Ku band. The aim of this research is to define, simulate, release and measure a continuous phase shifter. Better reflection loss, low transmission loss, low Cost of array antennas, large range of phase-shifter, phase flatness and bandwidth will be achieved by providing better gain.

  5. Vehicle Steering control: A model of learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, A.; Reid, L.; Fraser, M.

    1978-01-01

    A hierarchy of strategies were postulated to describe the process of learning steering control. Vehicle motion and steering control data were recorded for twelve novices who drove an instrumented car twice a week during and after a driver training course. Car-driver describing functions were calculated, the probable control structure determined, and the driver-alone transfer function modelled. The data suggested that the largest changes in steering control with learning were in the way the driver used the lateral position cue.

  6. Auditory orientation in crickets: Pattern recognition controls reactive steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, James F. A.; Hedwig, Berthold

    2005-10-01

    Many groups of insects are specialists in exploiting sensory cues to locate food resources or conspecifics. To achieve orientation, bees and ants analyze the polarization pattern of the sky, male moths orient along the females' odor plume, and cicadas, grasshoppers, and crickets use acoustic signals to locate singing conspecifics. In comparison with olfactory and visual orientation, where learning is involved, auditory processing underlying orientation in insects appears to be more hardwired and genetically determined. In each of these examples, however, orientation requires a recognition process identifying the crucial sensory pattern to interact with a localization process directing the animal's locomotor activity. Here, we characterize this interaction. Using a sensitive trackball system, we show that, during cricket auditory behavior, the recognition process that is tuned toward the species-specific song pattern controls the amplitude of auditory evoked steering responses. Females perform small reactive steering movements toward any sound patterns. Hearing the male's calling song increases the gain of auditory steering within 2-5 s, and the animals even steer toward nonattractive sound patterns inserted into the speciesspecific pattern. This gain control mechanism in the auditory-to-motor pathway allows crickets to pursue species-specific sound patterns temporarily corrupted by environmental factors and may reflect the organization of recognition and localization networks in insects. localization | phonotaxis

  7. Programmable agile beam steering based on a liquid crystal prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To meet the application need for agile precision beam steering, a novel liquid crystal prism device with a simple structure, convenient control, low cost and applicable performance is presented, and analysed theoretically and experimentally. The relationships between the optical path and the thickness of the liquid crystal cell under different voltages are investigated quantitatively by using a theoretical model. Analysis results show that the optical path profile of the liquid crystal prism has a quasi-linear slope and the standard deviation of the linear slope is less than 16 nm. The slope ratio can be changed by a voltage, which achieves the programmable beam steering and control. Practical liquid crystal prism devices are fabricated. Their deflection angles and wavefront profiles with different voltages are experimentally tested. The results are in good agreement with the simulated results. The results imply that the agile beam steering in a scope of 100 μrad with a micro-rad resolution is substantiated in the device. The two-dimensional beam steering is also achieved by cascading two liquid crystal prism devices. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  8. Driver behavior following an automatic steering intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Nicola; Griesche, Stefan; Schieben, Anna; Hesse, Tobias; Baumann, Martin

    2015-10-01

    The study investigated driver behavior toward an automatic steering intervention of a collision mitigation system. Forty participants were tested in a driving simulator and confronted with an inevitable collision. They performed a naïve drive and afterwards a repeated exposure in which they were told to hold the steering wheel loosely. In a third drive they experienced a false alarm situation. Data on driving behavior, i.e. steering and braking behavior as well as subjective data was assessed in the scenarios. Results showed that most participants held on to the steering wheel strongly or counter-steered during the system intervention during the first encounter. Moreover, subjective data collected after the first drive showed that the majority of drivers was not aware of the system intervention. Data from the repeated drive in which participants were instructed to hold the steering wheel loosely, led to significantly more participants holding the steering wheel loosely and thus complying with the instruction. This study seems to imply that without knowledge and information of the system about an upcoming intervention, the most prevalent driving behavior is a strong reaction with the steering wheel similar to an automatic steering reflex which decreases the system's effectiveness. Results of the second drive show some potential for countermeasures, such as informing drivers shortly before a system intervention in order to prevent inhibiting reactions. PMID:26310799

  9. Classical communication cost of quantum steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz, Ana Belén; Aolita, Leandro; Brunner, Nicolas; Gallego, Rodrigo; Skrzypczyk, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Quantum steering is observed when performing appropriate local measurements on an entangled state. Here we discuss the possibility of simulating classically this effect, using classical communication instead of entanglement. We show that infinite communication is necessary for exactly simulating steering for any pure entangled state, as well as for a class of mixed entangled states. Moreover, we discuss the communication cost of steering for general entangled states, as well as approximate simulation. Our findings reveal striking differences between Bell nonlocality and steering and provide a natural way of measuring the strength of the latter.

  10. Home Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I briefly discuss the importance of home automation system. Going in to the details I briefly present a real time designed and implemented software and hardware oriented house automation research project, capable of automating house's electricity and providing a security system to detect the presence of unexpected behavior.

  11. 78 FR 23961 - Request for Steering Committee Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION Request for Steering Committee Nominations ACTION: Request for nominations to the Steering Committee for the Foundation's Innovation in Medical Evidence Development and.... IMEDS Steering Committee Positions and Selection Criteria RUF is seeking nominations for seven...

  12. Overview the study of automotive steering system%汽车转向系统研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毓; 张伯俊

    2012-01-01

    The function of automotive steering system is introduced in this paper. On the basis of analyzing the electric power steering system's development, structural principle, key assemblies, advantages and weak points, the characteristics of mechanical steering system, hydraulic power steering system, electro hydraulic power steering system, electric power steering system and steering-by-wire system are elaborated. Moreover, the performance of three steering systems are analyzed and compared. The development trends of future steering system are also described.%介绍了汽车转向系统的功用,在分析机械转向系统、液压动力转向系统、电控液压动力转向系统、电动助力转向系统、线控转向系统特点的基础上,着重阐述了电动助力转向系统的结构原理、关键部件及特点,对比分析了3种不同转向系统的性能,并指出未来汽车转向系统的发展趋势。

  13. Performance on steering power ratio of tracked vehicles influenced by soil parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study tracked vehicle adopting different steering mechanism, we use steering power ratio to evaluate its performance. The influencing factors of steering power ratio have been theoretically studied. And we designed the experimental prototype to test. We find that steering power ratio is related to vehicle parameters, resistance coefficient, turning radius, skid ratio, slip ratio and steering coefficient not only, but also it is related to soil parameters (including soil cohesion, internal friction angle of soil and shear modulus of soil. On the condition that vehicle parameters and resistance coefficient are determined, the soil shear tests were carried out, which acquired that the average moisture content of soil is 16.85%,soil cohesion is 14.071 Kpa, internal friction angle of soil is 17.93°, and shear modulus of soil is 0.00027 m. Through being researched, steering power ratio is related to turning radius, skid ratio and slip ratio, which has the important significance on the study of steering power ratio.

  14. Loophole-free Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiment via quantum steering

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmann, Bernhard; Ramelow, Sven; Steinlechner, Fabian; Langford, Nathan K.; Brunner, Nicolas; Wiseman, Howard; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Tests of the predictions of quantum mechanics for entangled systems have provided increasing evidence against local realistic theories. However, there still remains the crucial challenge of simultaneously closing all major loopholes - the locality, freedom-of-choice, and detection loopholes - in a single experiment. An important sub-class of local realistic theories can be tested with the concept of "steering". The term steering was introduced by Schr\\"odinger in 1935 for the fact that entang...

  15. Loophole-free Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiment via quantum steering

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmann, Bernhard; Ramelow, Sven; Steinlechner, Fabian; Langford, Nathan K.; Brunner, Nicolas; Wiseman, Howard; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton

    2011-01-01

    Tests of the predictions of quantum mechanics for entangled systems have provided increasing evidence against local realistic theories. However, there still remains the crucial challenge of simultaneously closing all major loopholes - the locality, freedom-of-choice, and detection loopholes - in a single experiment. An important sub-class of local realistic theories can be tested with the concept of "steering". The term steering was introduced by Schr\\"odinger in 1935 for the fact that entang...

  16. A new model to compute the desired steering torque for steer-by-wire vehicles and driving simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankem, Steve; Müller, Steffen

    2014-05-01

    This paper deals with the control of the hand wheel actuator in steer-by-wire (SbW) vehicles and driving simulators (DSs). A novel model for the computation of the desired steering torque is presented. The introduced steering torque computation does not only aim to generate a realistic steering feel, which means that the driver should not miss the basic steering functionality of a modern conventional steering system such as an electric power steering (EPS) or hydraulic power steering (HPS), and this in every driving situation. In addition, the modular structure of the steering torque computation combined with suitably selected tuning parameters has the objective to offer a high degree of customisability of the steering feel and thus to provide each driver with his preferred steering feel in a very intuitive manner. The task and the tuning of each module are firstly described. Then, the steering torque computation is parameterised such that the steering feel of a series EPS system is reproduced. For this purpose, experiments are conducted in a hardware-in-the-loop environment where a test EPS is mounted on a steering test bench coupled with a vehicle simulator and parameter identification techniques are applied. Subsequently, how appropriate the steering torque computation mimics the test EPS system is objectively evaluated with respect to criteria concerning the steering torque level and gradient, the feedback behaviour and the steering return ability. Finally, the intuitive tuning of the modular steering torque computation is demonstrated for deriving a sportier steering feel configuration.

  17. 46 CFR 176.814 - Steering systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering systems. 176.814 Section 176.814 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.814 Steering systems. At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification the owner...

  18. Investigation of Motorcycle Steering Torque Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossalter, V.; Lot, R.; Massaro, M.; Peretto, M.

    2011-10-01

    When driving along a circular path, the rider controls a motorcycle mainly by the steering torque. This work addresses an in-depth analysis of the steady state cornering and in particular the decomposition of the motorcycle steering torque in its main components, such as road-tyre forces, gyroscopic torques, centrifugal and gravity effects. A detailed and experimentally validated multibody model of the motorcycle is used herein to analyze the steering torque components at different speeds and lateral accelerations. First the road tests are compared with the numerical results for three different vehicles and then a numerical investigation is carried out to decompose the steering torque. Finally, the effect of longitudinal acceleration and deceleration on steering torque components is presented.

  19. Wireless traffic steering for green cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shan; Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces wireless traffic steering as a paradigm to realize green communication in multi-tier heterogeneous cellular networks. By matching network resources and dynamic mobile traffic demand, traffic steering helps to reduce on-grid power consumption with on-demand services provided. This book reviews existing solutions from the perspectives of energy consumption reduction and renewable energy harvesting. Specifically, it explains how traffic steering can improve energy efficiency through intelligent traffic-resource matching. Several promising traffic steering approaches for dynamic network planning and renewable energy demand-supply balancing are discussed. This book presents an energy-aware traffic steering method for networks with energy harvesting, which optimizes the traffic allocated to each cell based on the renewable energy status. Renewable energy demand-supply balancing is a key factor in energy dynamics, aimed at enhancing renewable energy sustainability to reduce on-grid energy consum...

  20. A practical toolkit for computational steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, S M; Haines, R; Pinning, R L; Porter, A R

    2005-08-15

    Computational steering refers to the real-time interaction of a scientist with their running simulation code. Despite the many benefits associated with computational steering, its uptake to date has been limited. In this paper we discuss the reasons for this and how the computational steering library and associated tools developed as part of the RealityGrid project aim to tackle them. We describe the functionality of the steering library and the use of Grid services in constructing a generic, dynamic architecture for discovering, steering and connecting visualization software to running simulations. The use of on-line visualization for providing feedback to the scientist is described, including the ways in which it may be enhanced through tools such as Chromium and Access Grid. Finally, we illustrate the flexibility of our approach by describing the functionality that has been added to various simulation codes as part of the RealityGrid project.

  1. Operator space approach to steering inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Junge and Palazuelos (2011 Commun. Math. Phys. 306 695–746) and Junge et al (2010 Commun. Math. Phys. 300 715–39) the operator space theory was applied to study bipartite Bell inequalities. The aim of the paper is to follow this line of research and use the operator space technique to analyze the steering scenario. We obtain a bipartite steering functional with unbounded largest violation of steering inequality, as well as constructing all ingredients explicitly. It turns out that the unbounded largest violation is obtained by a non maximally entangled state. Moreover, we focus on the bipartite dichotomic case where we construct a steering functional with unbounded largest violation of steering inequality. This phenomenon is different to the Bell scenario where only the bounded largest violation can be obtained by any bipartite dichotomic Bell functional. (paper)

  2. Novel insights in agent-based complex automated negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Carmona, Miguel; Ito, Takayuki; Zhang, Minjie; Bai, Quan; Fujita, Katsuhide

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on all aspects of complex automated negotiations, which are studied in the field of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems. This book consists of two parts. I: Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiations, and II: Automated Negotiation Agents Competition. The chapters in Part I are extended versions of papers presented at the 2012 international workshop on Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiation (ACAN), after peer reviews by three Program Committee members. Part II examines in detail ANAC 2012 (The Third Automated Negotiating Agents Competition), in which automated agents that have different negotiation strategies and are implemented by different developers are automatically negotiated in the several negotiation domains. ANAC is an international competition in which automated negotiation strategies, submitted by a number of universities and research institutes across the world, are evaluated in tournament style. The purpose of the competition is to steer the research in the area of bilate...

  3. Tumor-induced remote ECM network orientation steers angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balcioglu, H.E.; Water, van de B.; Danen, E.H.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis promotes tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we use automated sequential microprinting of tumor and endothelial cells in extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds to study its mechanical aspects. Quantitative reflection microscopy shows that tumor spheroids induce radial orientation of

  4. 转向驱动桥变径全空心半轴的设计及力学特性%Design of steering drive axles variable diameter hollow half shaft and its mechanical characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪朝晖; 朱发渊; 吕密; 王法平

    2015-01-01

    基于材料低载强化特性,研发设计了一种新型转向驱动桥变径全空心半轴结构,建立了包含英制渐开线花键齿和合理的圆角过渡等精细特征的新型半轴三维模型,运用有限元法对新型半轴的模态振型、等效应力及疲劳寿命等力学特性进行了分析,结果表明:半轴的前10阶非零振型主要为弯曲变形,新型半轴的固有频率与实心半轴的固有频率相近,在使用过程中可有效避免共振;新型半轴等效应力最大值发生在花键末端圆角过渡部位,低于半轴材料的抗扭强度,满足强度设计要求;在扭矩为1500N·m的交变载荷下,新型半轴疲劳寿命最小值发生在花键末端圆角过渡处,与半轴应力集中节点位置一致,实际加工制造时应采用半轴冷精锻和花键轴向冷挤成型技术,以提高新型半轴的强度和使用寿命。%Based on the characteristics of low‐loading strengthening for material design ,a new type of steering drive axle variable diameter hollow half shaft structure was designed ,and its three‐dimen‐sional mode including imperial involute spline teeth ,reasonable transition fillet and other fine features was established .The modal vibration mode ,equivalent stress and fatigue life of the mechanical char‐acteristics of the new type half shaft were analyzed by finite element methods .The results show that the first ten order non‐zero mode of half shaft is mainly bending deformation ,and the natural frequen‐cy of the new half shaft and the solid half shaft is similar ,which can avoid resonance effectively during the half shaft using process .Maximum equivalent stress of new half shaft occurs to the end of transi‐tion fillet ,and less than torsional strength of the half shaft material ,which satisfies the requirements for strength design of the shaft .When the torque of the new half shaft is 1 500 N · m under cyclic loading ,the minimum fatigue life

  5. Digital Controller For Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem: Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Homayoon; Voisinet, Leeann

    1995-01-01

    A report presents additional information about laser-beam-steering apparatus described in "Digital Controller for Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem" (NPO-19193) and "More About Beam-Steering Subsystem for Laser Communication" (NPO-19381). Reiterates basic principles of operation of beam-steering subsystem, with emphasis on modes of operation, basic design concepts, and initial experiments on partial prototype of apparatus.

  6. Library Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakne, B. N.; Giri, V. V; Waghmode, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    New technologies library provides several new materials, media and mode of storing and communicating the information. Library Automation reduces the drudgery of repeated manual efforts in library routine. By use of library automation collection, Storage, Administration, Processing, Preservation and communication etc.

  7. Networks: structure and action : steering in and steering by policy networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dassen, Adrie

    2010-01-01

    This thesis explores the opportunities to build a structural policy network model that is rooted in social network theories. By making a distinction between a process of steering in networks, and a process of steering by networks, it addresses the effects of network structures on network dynamics as well as on the production of policy outputs. Steering in policy networks refers to the process of horizontal bargaining over policy positions in which resources are exchanged between individual ne...

  8. Automating the CMS DAQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.; et al.

    2014-01-01

    We present the automation mechanisms that have been added to the Data Acquisition and Run Control systems of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment during Run 1 of the LHC, ranging from the automation of routine tasks to automatic error recovery and context-sensitive guidance to the operator. These mechanisms helped CMS to maintain a data taking efficiency above 90% and to even improve it to 95% towards the end of Run 1, despite an increase in the occurrence of single-event upsets in sub-detector electronics at high LHC luminosity.

  9. Erasmus Darwin's improved design for steering carriages and cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-Hele, Desmond

    2002-01-01

    Carriage journeys in England during the eighteenth century were notoriously dangerous. Rutted and pot-holed roads exacerbated the deficiencies in steering, springing and stability. In 1758 the young Dr. Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802; F. R. S. 1761) was travelling about 10,000 miles a year in visits to patients from his house at Lichfield. To alleviate the danger and discomfort of his journey, he developed a design for improved carriage steering and stability, which he road-tested over 20,000 miles on two carriages. In 1765 Richard Lovell Edgeworth (1744-1817; F. R. S. 1718) heard about Darwin's design, urged the Society of Arts to enquire about it, and then visited Darwin himself. With the aid of manuscripts from the Archive of the Royal Society of Arts and elsewhere, I offer a reconstruction of Darwin's improved method of steering, which relies on four jointed rods, initially in the form of an isosceles trapezium. The mechanism was reinvented more than 50 years later, and came to be used widely in early modern cars.

  10. Active steering control strategy for articulated vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyong-il KIM; Hsin GUAN; Bo WANG; Rui GUO; Fan LIANG

    2016-01-01

    To improve maneuverability and stability of articulated vehicles, we design an active steering controller, including tractor and trailer controllers, based on linear quadratic regulator (LQR) theory. First, a three-degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) model of the tractor-trailer with steered trailer axles is built. The simulated annealing particle swarm optimization (SAPSO) algorithm is applied to identify the key parameters of the model under specified vehicle speed and steering wheel angle. Thus, the key pa-rameters of the simplified model can be obtained according to the vehicle conditions using an online look-up table and interpola-tion. Simulation results show that vehicle parameter outputs of the simplified model and TruckSim agree well, thus providing the ideal reference yaw rate for the controller. Then the active steering controller of the tractor and trailer based on LQR is designed to follow the desired yaw rate and minimize their side-slip angle of the center of gravity (CG) at the same time. Finally, simulation tests at both low speed and high speed are conducted based on the TruckSim-Simulink program. The results show significant effects on the active steering controller on improving maneuverability at low speed and lateral stability at high speed for the articulated vehicle. The control strategy is applicable for steering not only along gentle curves but also along sharp curves.

  11. Process automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process automation technology has been pursued in the chemical processing industries and to a very limited extent in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Its effective use has been restricted in the past by the lack of diverse and reliable process instrumentation and the unavailability of sophisticated software designed for process control. The Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility was developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in part to demonstrate new concepts for control of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A demonstration of fuel reprocessing equipment automation using advanced instrumentation and a modern, microprocessor-based control system is nearing completion in the facility. This facility provides for the synergistic testing of all chemical process features of a prototypical fuel reprocessing plant that can be attained with unirradiated uranium-bearing feed materials. The unique equipment and mission of the IET facility make it an ideal test bed for automation studies. This effort will provide for the demonstration of the plant automation concept and for the development of techniques for similar applications in a full-scale plant. A set of preliminary recommendations for implementing process automation has been compiled. Some of these concepts are not generally recognized or accepted. The automation work now under way in the IET facility should be useful to others in helping avoid costly mistakes because of the underutilization or misapplication of process automation. 6 figs

  12. Improvement of motor inertia influence of electric power steering; Dendoshiki power steering no motor kansei no eikyo to hosho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takehara, S.; Sakamoto, K.; Hanamoto, Y. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan); Noritsugu, T. [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Motor inertia of electric power steering affects not only steering characteristics but vehicle dynamics. We have investigated the influence of motor inertia and proposed a feedback strategy to compensate it. Weight of the test vehicle is 1100Kg and the steering system is pinion type electric power steering. By using simulation model and vehicle test, we have realized natural steering maneuvering and stable vehicle dynamics. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Networks: structure and action : steering in and steering by policy networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dassen, Adrie

    2010-01-01

    This thesis explores the opportunities to build a structural policy network model that is rooted in social network theories. By making a distinction between a process of steering in networks, and a process of steering by networks, it addresses the effects of network structures on network dynamics as

  14. Simulation of the Dynamic Behavior of Electric Power Steering Systems Using Dedicated Finite Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, François; Ferraris, Guy; Guingand, Michèle; Vaujany, Jean-Pierre De

    During the last decade, many new technical solutions dedicated to the comfort of automotive vehicle's drivers have raised, like Electrical Power Steering (EPS). To fulfill the more and more demanding requirements in terms of vibration and acoustics, the dynamic behavior of the whole steering is studied. The system is divided into dedicated finite elements (FE) describing the whole steering. The stress was first put on the gears models (worm gear and rack-and-pinion) and their anti-backlash systems as they have been identified as potential vibration sources. Mechanical non-linearities (clearances, non-linear stiffness) of the mechanical system are taken into account in these models. Then, this model allows simulating the transient response of the system to an input excitation. Each developed element is validated using a fitted experimental test bench. Then, the general model is correlated the same way. Hence models can be used to study the dynamic behavior of EPS systems or sub-systems.

  15. Avaliação da acurácia no direcionamento com piloto automático e contraste da capacidade de campo operacional no plantio mecanizado da cana-de-açúcar Auto guidance accuracy evaluation and contrast of the operational field capacity on the mechanized plantation system of sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio H. R. Baio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o crescimento da mecanização da cana-de-açúcar, é necessária uma dinamização dos processos, como no uso de técnicas de agricultura de precisão para uma diminuição do custo de produção. O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de contrastar a acurácia nas passadas orientadas por dois sistemas de direcionamento, autodirecionamento via satélite versus manual, assim como comparar as capacidades de campo e a eficiência operacional envolvidos no plantio mecanizado da cana-de-açúcar. Foram analisados dois tratamentos: com e sem o auxílio do piloto automático por GPS RTK na operação de plantio mecanizado. As avaliações foram realizadas em condições de campo, na Usina IACO Agrícola S.A., em Chapadão do Sul - MS. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, afirmou-se que o uso do piloto automático na operação de plantio da cana-de-açúcar ofereceu uma acurácia de 0,033 m entre as passadas, sendo cinco vezes maior do que aquela obtida com o direcionamento manual, e que o seu uso não melhorou a eficiência operacional do conjunto mecanizado na operação de plantio, sendo limitada pelo sistema de colheita e transporte da cana muda para a plantadora.With the growth of mechanization on the sugar cane plantation, the processes need to be speeded up, such as with the use of precision farming techniques to decrease the production cost. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy achieved by an auto guidance system driving the passes of a sugar cane planter machine over the field versus the manual system, compare the operational field capacity and compare the operational efficiency. Two treatments were analyzed: auto guidance by RTK GPS and manual guidance on the sugar cane planting operation. The evaluations were conducted under field conditions at IACO Agrícola S/A mill, in Chapadão do Sul-MS. According to the results, it was stated that the use of auto guidance system on sugar cane planting operation

  16. Aeroelastic Tailoring via Tow Steered Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Bret K.; Jutte, Christine V.

    2014-01-01

    The use of tow steered composites, where fibers follow prescribed curvilinear paths within a laminate, can improve upon existing capabilities related to aeroelastic tailoring of wing structures, though this tailoring method has received relatively little attention in the literature. This paper demonstrates the technique for both a simple cantilevered plate in low-speed flow, as well as the wing box of a full-scale high aspect ratio transport configuration. Static aeroelastic stresses and dynamic flutter boundaries are obtained for both cases. The impact of various tailoring choices upon the aeroelastic performance is quantified: curvilinear fiber steering versus straight fiber steering, certifiable versus noncertifiable stacking sequences, a single uniform laminate per wing skin versus multiple laminates, and identical upper and lower wing skins structures versus individual tailoring.

  17. Influence of different shoulder-elbow configurations on steering precision and steering velocity in automotive context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Susanne; Seiberl, Wolfgang; Schwirtz, Ansgar

    2015-01-01

    Ergonomic design requirements are needed to develop optimum vehicle interfaces for the driver. The majority of the current specifications consider only anthropometric conditions and subjective evaluations of comfort. This paper examines specific biomechanical aspects to improve the current ergonomic requirements. Therefore, a research which involved 40 subjects was carried out to obtain more knowledge in the field of steering movement while driving a car. Five different shoulder-elbow joint configurations were analyzed using a driving simulator to find optimum posture for driving in respect of steering precision and steering velocity. Therefore, a 20 s precision test and a test to assess maximum steering velocity over a range of 90° steering motion have been conducted. The results show that driving precision, as well as maximum steering velocity, are significantly increased in mid-positions (elbow angles of 95° and 120°) compared to more flexed (70°) or extended (145° and 160°) postures. We conclude that driver safety can be enhanced by implementing these data in the automotive design process because faster and highly precise steering can be important during evasive actions and in accident situations. In addition, subjective comfort rating, analyzed with questionnaires, confirmed experimental results.

  18. Effects of Melt Treatment on the Casting Defects and Mechanical Properties of Metal Mould Casting Al-10Si Alloy Steering Pump%熔体处理对金属型铸造Al-10Si合金转向泵性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈刚; 徐志锋

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the slag inclusion, shrinkage hole and pinhole defects in 228 automobile steering pumps during metal mould casting process, the effects of melt treatment on casting defects and mechanical properties of 228 automobile steering pumps were investigated. The results show that the modification effects of Al-Ti-C + Al-Sr compound modifier are obviously superior to those of Al-Ti-B+ Al-Sr compound modifier in refining grain size, and tensile strength and elongation of the steering pump with Al-Ti-C+Al-Sr compound modifier are improved by 10% and approximately 40%—50%, respectively. Compared with the flux method, the rotating bubble floating method exhibits the more acceptable ability to slag removal and degassing. With rotating velocity of 400 r/min, gas flow of 5 L/min and rotating refining for 15 min as well as holding for 9 min, the reject rate is decreased from 36. 2% to below 1. 2% , and the qualified rate is increased by 97%.%针对228型汽车转向泵Al-10Si铸件金属型铸造存在的渣孔、缩松及针孔等缺陷,研究了合金熔体处理工艺对转向泵铸件金属型铸造缺陷和力学性能的影响.试验表明,Al-Ti C+ Al-Sr复合变质比Al-Ti-B+ Al-Sr复合变质有更好的晶粒细化效果,使铸件的抗拉强度提高了10%,伸长率提高了40%~50%;在Al-10Si合金熔体的精炼净化处理方面,旋转精炼气泡浮游法比熔剂法有更强的除渣、除气能力.旋转气泡浮游法在转速为400 r/min、气体流量为5 L/min、旋转精炼15 min、静置9 min后,夹渣废品率从原来的36.2%降至1.2%以下,铸件合格率提高至97%.

  19. A computer algorithm for automatic beam steering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drennan, E.

    1992-06-01

    Beam steering is done by modifying the current in a trim or bending magnet. If the current change is the right amount the beam can be made to bend in such a manner that it will hit a swic or BPM downstream from the magnet at a predetermined set point. Although both bending magnets and trim magnets can be used to modify beam angle, beam steering is usually done with trim magnets. This is so because, during beam steering the beam angle is usually modified only by a small amount which can be easily achieved with a trim magnet. Thus in this note, all steering magnets will be assumed to be trim magnets. There are two ways of monitoring beam position. One way is done using a BPM and the other is done using a swic. For simplicity, beam position monitoring in this paper will be referred to being done with a swic. Beam steering can be done manually by changing the current through a trim magnet and monitoring the position of the beam downstream from the magnet with a swic. Alternatively the beam can be positioned automatically using a computer which periodically updates the current through a specific number of trim magnets. The purpose of this note is to describe the steps involved in coming up with such a computer program. There are two main aspects to automatic beam steering. First a relationship between the beam position and the bending magnet is needed. Secondly a beamline setup of swics and trim magnets has to be chosen that will position the beam according to the desired specifications. A simple example will be looked at that will show that once a mathematical relationship between the needed change of the beam position on a swic and the change in trim currents is established, a computer could be programmed to calculate and update the trim currents.

  20. Experimental Quantification of Asymmetric Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Ye, Xiang-Jun; Xu, Jin-Shi; Xu, Xiao-Ye; Tang, Jian-Shun; Wu, Yu-Chun; Chen, Jing-Ling; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-04-22

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering describes the ability of one observer to nonlocally "steer" the other observer's state through local measurements. EPR steering exhibits a unique asymmetric property; i.e., the steerability can differ between observers, which can lead to one-way EPR steering in which only one observer obtains steerability in the steering process. This property is inherently different from the symmetric concepts of entanglement and Bell nonlocality, and it has attracted increasing interest. Here, we experimentally demonstrate asymmetric EPR steering for a class of two-qubit states in the case of two measurement settings. We propose a practical method to quantify the steerability. We then provide a necessary and sufficient condition for EPR steering and clearly demonstrate one-way EPR steering. Our work provides new insight into the fundamental asymmetry of quantum nonlocality and has potential applications in asymmetric quantum information processing. PMID:27152778

  1. Experimental Quantification of Asymmetric Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Ye, Xiang-Jun; Xu, Jin-Shi; Xu, Xiao-Ye; Tang, Jian-Shun; Wu, Yu-Chun; Chen, Jing-Ling; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-04-22

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering describes the ability of one observer to nonlocally "steer" the other observer's state through local measurements. EPR steering exhibits a unique asymmetric property; i.e., the steerability can differ between observers, which can lead to one-way EPR steering in which only one observer obtains steerability in the steering process. This property is inherently different from the symmetric concepts of entanglement and Bell nonlocality, and it has attracted increasing interest. Here, we experimentally demonstrate asymmetric EPR steering for a class of two-qubit states in the case of two measurement settings. We propose a practical method to quantify the steerability. We then provide a necessary and sufficient condition for EPR steering and clearly demonstrate one-way EPR steering. Our work provides new insight into the fundamental asymmetry of quantum nonlocality and has potential applications in asymmetric quantum information processing.

  2. Disassembly automation automated systems with cognitive abilities

    CERN Document Server

    Vongbunyong, Supachai

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a number of aspects to be considered in the development of disassembly automation, including the mechanical system, vision system and intelligent planner. The implementation of cognitive robotics increases the flexibility and degree of autonomy of the disassembly system. Disassembly, as a step in the treatment of end-of-life products, can allow the recovery of embodied value left within disposed products, as well as the appropriate separation of potentially-hazardous components. In the end-of-life treatment industry, disassembly has largely been limited to manual labor, which is expensive in developed countries. Automation is one possible solution for economic feasibility. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  3. Steering in spin tomographic probability representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man'ko, V. I.; Markovich, L. A.

    2016-09-01

    The steering property known for two-qubit state in terms of specific inequalities for the correlation function is translated for the state of qudit with the spin j = 3 / 2. Since most steering detection inequalities are based on the correlation functions we introduce analogs of such functions for the single qudit systems. The tomographic probability representation for the qudit states is applied. The connection between the correlation function in the two-qubit system and the single qudit is presented in an integral form with an intertwining kernel calculated explicitly in tomographic probability terms.

  4. DG-AMMOS: A New tool to generate 3D conformation of small molecules using Distance Geometry and Automated Molecular Mechanics Optimization for in silico Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villoutreix Bruno O

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discovery of new bioactive molecules that could enter drug discovery programs or that could serve as chemical probes is a very complex and costly endeavor. Structure-based and ligand-based in silico screening approaches are nowadays extensively used to complement experimental screening approaches in order to increase the effectiveness of the process and facilitating the screening of thousands or millions of small molecules against a biomolecular target. Both in silico screening methods require as input a suitable chemical compound collection and most often the 3D structure of the small molecules has to be generated since compounds are usually delivered in 1D SMILES, CANSMILES or in 2D SDF formats. Results Here, we describe the new open source program DG-AMMOS which allows the generation of the 3D conformation of small molecules using Distance Geometry and their energy minimization via Automated Molecular Mechanics Optimization. The program is validated on the Astex dataset, the ChemBridge Diversity database and on a number of small molecules with known crystal structures extracted from the Cambridge Structural Database. A comparison with the free program Balloon and the well-known commercial program Omega generating the 3D of small molecules is carried out. The results show that the new free program DG-AMMOS is a very efficient 3D structure generator engine. Conclusion DG-AMMOS provides fast, automated and reliable access to the generation of 3D conformation of small molecules and facilitates the preparation of a compound collection prior to high-throughput virtual screening computations. The validation of DG-AMMOS on several different datasets proves that generated structures are generally of equal quality or sometimes better than structures obtained by other tested methods.

  5. Control for 4-Wheel Individual Steering and 4-Wheel Driving Electronic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Hiroyasu; Tani, Masashi; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Ishii, Akira; Imai, Katsuya

    An indoor 4-wheel individual steering and driving vehicle with full electronics was built for evaluating the system ability and the performance in practical use. Mechanical parts such as the connecting rod and the differential gear are not provided for this vehicle. From trial operation, the characteristics are fully performed as in design, but some problems that originated from the design concept are disclosed. Rotating radius (R) of the vehicle was taken for steering command parameter, but it was found that it is not an appropriate parameter for driving operation. The reasons are as follows 1) R has much different sense of driving conformability for the driver, because it doesn’t refer to the running direction, but to the rotating radius of crosswise direction. 2) Sensitivity of each wheel steering angle against R differs over double figures in full range of R. 3) R changed from plus to minus and also the other way in most practical situations around go-straight operation. For these reasons, the steering command parameter was changed from R to α, where α is the angle between vehicle lengthwise direction and the moving direction. The steering control algorithm using α parameter has been proven to solve the above mentioned problems 1), 2), and 3).

  6. 14 CFR 23.745 - Nose/tail wheel steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nose/tail wheel steering. 23.745 Section 23.745 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Landing Gear § 23.745 Nose/tail wheel steering. (a) If nose/tail wheel steering is installed, it must...

  7. Digital Controller For Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Homayoon

    1995-01-01

    Report presents additional information about proposed apparatus described in "Beam-Steering Subsystem for Laser Communication" (NPO-19069). Discusses design of digital beam-steering control subsystem and, in particular, that part of design pertaining to digital compensation for frequency response of steering mirror.

  8. 9 CFR 78.21 - Bison steers and spayed heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bison steers and spayed heifers. 78.21... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.21 Bison steers and spayed heifers. Bison steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate without restriction under this subpart....

  9. 9 CFR 78.6 - Steers and spayed heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steers and spayed heifers. 78.6... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.6 Steers and spayed heifers. Steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate without restriction under this subpart....

  10. Working paper on public steering of privately owned sports facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Evald Bundgård

    This short paper discusses how municipalities can steer privately owned sports facilities. Firstly I analyse why steering of privately owned facilities is an interesting subject. Secondly I discuss what the advantages and drawbacks of using different approaches for steering sports facilities are...

  11. Speed choice and steering behavior in curve driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winsum, W.; Godthelp, J

    1996-01-01

    The relation between speed choice and steering performance during curve negotiation was studied in a driving simulator. The hypothesis was that curve radius and steering competence both affect steering error during curve driving, resulting in compensatory speed choice. In this, the control of safety

  12. Error analysis and a new steering law design for spacecraft control system using SGCMGs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JinJin; Jing-Rui Zhang; Zao-Zhen Liu

    2011-01-01

    Based on the singular value decomposition theory,this paper analyzed the mechanism of escaping/avoiding singularity using generalized and weighted singularity-robust steering laws for a spacecraft that uses single gimbal control moment gyros (SGCMGs) as the actuator for the attitude control system.The expression of output-torque error is given at the point of singularity,proving the incompatible relationship between the gimbal rate and the output-torque error.The method of establishing a balance between the gimbal rate and the output-torque error is discussed,and a new steering law is designed.Simulation results show that the proposed steering law can effectively drive SGCMGs to escape away from singularities.

  13. Automated Determination of the Power Required and Selection of Electric Motors for Forging Fly-Press Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Karakoulidis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current work deals with appropriate selection of electric motors for forging fly-press machines. To solve the equation of motion of the electric drive of these mechanisms characterized by impact (pulsating load and presence of flywheel, numerical methods (calculus have been used.

  14. Effect of physical and mechanical properties of cassava tubers on the performance of an automated peeling machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.C. Ademosun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Peeling of cassava tuber at all levels is still largely carried out manually; however, this work is presented with a view to investigate the effect of physical and mechanical properties of cassava tubers on mechanical peeling and hence provides a basis for cassava peeling mechanization. These properties include size of the tuber, tl, proportion by weight of peel, wp, average moisture content of the peel, map, peel thickness, tp, tuber diameter, td, tuber surface taper angle, α, peel penetration force, F, and peel shearing stress, ts. The results showed that for Slmhf; tl ranged from 140-460mm, wp ranged from 13.12-20.06%, map was 76.27%, tp ranged from 1.62-4.34mm, td ranged from 31.08-136.63mm, α ranged from 9.03-23.130, F ranged from 0.17-1.85N/mm, ts ranged from 0.85-9.25N/mm2 and quality performance of the machine, QPE, for this tuber ranged from 70.82-96.21%. Similarly, for Ssmlf; tl ranged from 125-362mm, wp ranged from 10.52-16.66%, map was 70.97%, tp ranged from 1.22-4.12mm, td ranged from 18.86-99.29mm, α ranged from 5.20-12.290, F ranged from 0.13-1.54N/mm, ts ranged from 0.65-7.70N/mm2 and quality performance of the machine, QPE, for this tuber ranged from 67.27-92.25 %. The results confirm influence of physico-mechanical properties of cassava tuber on mechanical peeling.

  15. Automating Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John

    2007-01-01

    In past years, higher education's financial management side has been riddled with manual processes and aging mainframe applications. This article discusses schools which had taken advantage of an array of technologies that automate billing, payment processing, and refund processing in the case of overpayment. The investments are well worth it:…

  16. Anabolic implant effects on visceral organ mass, chemical body composition, and estimated energetic efficiency in cloned (genetically identical) beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, J P; Johnson, D E; Gerken, C L; Morgan, J B; Tatum, J D

    1997-10-01

    Six sets of four genetically identical Brangus steers (n = 24; X BW 409 kg) were used to determine the effect of different anabolic implants on visceral organ mass, chemical body composition, estimated tissue deposition, and energetic efficiency. Steers within a clone set were randomly assigned to one of the following implant treatments: C, no implant; E, estrogenic; A, androgenic, or AE, androgenic + estrogenic. Steers were slaughtered 112 d after implanting; visceral organs were weighed and final body composition determined by mechanical grinding and chemical analysis of the empty body. Mass of the empty gastrointestinal tract (GIT) was reduced approximately 9% (P .10) the efficiency of ME utilization. In general, estrogenic implants decreased GIT, androgenic implants increased liver, and all implants increased hide mass. Steers implanted with an AE combination had additive effects on protein deposition compared with either implant alone. The NEg requirements for body gain are estimated to be reduced 19% by estrogenic or combination implants. PMID:9331863

  17. Ultramaneuverable steering control algorithms for terrain transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrie, Mel W.; Koch, Ralf; Bahl, Vikas; Cripps, Don

    1999-07-01

    The Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems has built several vehicles with ultra-maneuverable steering capability. Each drive wheel on the vehicle can be independently set at any angle with respect to the vehicle body and the vehicles can rotate or translate in any direction. The vehicles are expected to operate on a wide range of terrain surfaces and problems arise in effectively controlling changes in wheel steering angles as the vehicle transitions from one extreme running surface to another. Controllers developed for smooth surfaces may not perform well on rough or 'sticky' surfaces and vice versa. The approach presented involves the development of a model of the steering motor with the static and viscous friction of the steering motor load included. The model parameters are then identified through a series of environmental tests using a vehicle wheel assembly and the model thus obtained is used for control law development. Four different robust controllers were developed and evaluated through simulation and vehicle testing. The findings of this development will be presented.

  18. Development of steering system in network environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have been developing the steering system, which can successively observe the-data obtained during the numerical computation and change the parameters in the analysis. Moreover, this system is also extended to link the network. By using this system, a user can easily detect errors immediately and achieve the rapid and accurate analysis with lower computation cost. (Author)

  19. Parametrizable cameras for 3D computational steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.D.; Wijk, J.J. van

    1997-01-01

    We present a method for the definition of multiple views in 3D interfaces for computational steering. The method uses the concept of a point-based parametrizable camera object. This concept enables a user to create and configure multiple views on his custom 3D interface in an intuitive graphical man

  20. Steered wheel for the support and/or steering of a vehicle, particularly hovercraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duell, H.J.; Kirchner, G.

    1977-04-07

    The invention concerns a steered wheel for the support or steering of a hovercraft, whose wheel suspension is provided with an eccentric journal for automatic setting in the direction of travel. So that the vehicle will not leave its track during changes of direction when the wheel is turned around the eccentric axis, according to the invention the wheel is supported on movable bearings at the journal in the direction of the driving axle.

  1. A randomised controlled trial of an automated oxygen delivery algorithm for preterm neonates receiving supplemental oxygen without mechanical ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata, James; Gómez, John Jairo; Araque Campo, Robinson; Matiz Rubio, Alejandro; Sola, Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Aim Providing consistent levels of oxygen saturation (SpO2) for infants in neonatal intensive care units is not easy. This study explored how effectively the Auto-Mixer® algorithm automatically adjusted fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) levels to maintain SpO2 within an intended range in extremely low birth weight infants receiving supplemental oxygen without mechanical ventilation. Methods Twenty extremely low birth weight infants were randomly assigned to the Auto-Mixer® group or the manua...

  2. Method of Controlling Steering of a Ground Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Andrew D. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Atluri, Venkata Prasad (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method of controlling steering of a vehicle through setting wheel angles of a plurality of modular electronic corner assemblies (eModules) is provided. The method includes receiving a driving mode selected from a mode selection menu. A position of a steering input device is determined in a master controller. A velocity of the vehicle is determined, in the master controller, when the determined position of the steering input device is near center. A drive mode request corresponding to the selected driving mode to the plurality of steering controllers is transmitted to the master controller. A required steering angle of each of the plurality of eModules is determined, in the master controller, as a function of the determined position of the steering input device, the determined velocity of the vehicle, and the selected first driving mode. The eModules are set to the respective determined steering angles.

  3. Automation Security

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzoev, Dr. Timur

    2014-01-01

    Web-based Automated Process Control systems are a new type of applications that use the Internet to control industrial processes with the access to the real-time data. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks contain computers and applications that perform key functions in providing essential services and commodities (e.g., electricity, natural gas, gasoline, water, waste treatment, transportation) to all Americans. As such, they are part of the nation s critical infrastructu...

  4. Acoustic Prism for Continuous Beam Steering Based on Piezoelectric Metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jiawen

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates an acoustic prism for continuous acoustic beam steering by a simple frequency sweep. This idea takes advantages of acoustic wave velocity shifting in metamaterials in the vicinity of local resonance. We apply this concept into the piezoelectric metamaterial consisting of host medium and piezoelectric LC shunt. Theoretical modeling and FEM simulations are carried out. It is shown that the phase velocity of acoustic wave changes dramatically in the vicinity of local resonance. The directions of acoustic wave can be adjusted continuously between 2 to 16 degrees by a simple sweep of the excitation frequency. Such an electro-mechanical coupling system has a feature of adjusting local resonance without altering the mechanical part of the system.

  5. Mid-sized omnidirectional robot with hydraulic drive and steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Carl G.; Perry, Trent; Cook, Douglas; Maxfield, Russell; Davidson, Morgan E.

    2003-09-01

    Through funding from the US Army-Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command's (TACOM) Intelligent Mobility Program, Utah State University's (USU) Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) has developed the T-series of omni-directional robots based on the USU omni-directional vehicle (ODV) technology. The ODV provides independent computer control of steering and drive in a single wheel assembly. By putting multiple omni-directional (OD) wheels on a chassis, a vehicle is capable of uncoupled translational and rotational motion. Previous robots in the series, the T1, T2, T3, ODIS, ODIS-T, and ODIS-S have all used OD wheels based on electric motors. The T4 weighs approximately 1400 lbs and features a 4-wheel drive wheel configuration. Each wheel assembly consists of a hydraulic drive motor and a hydraulic steering motor. A gasoline engine is used to power both the hydraulic and electrical systems. The paper presents an overview of the mechanical design of the vehicle as well as potential uses of this technology in fielded systems.

  6. Electrowetting-Controlled Dual Liquid Prism for Adaptive Beam Steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiangtao

    2015-03-01

    The use of concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology has been the most promising method of harvesting solar radiation. These CPV systems often require motor-driven tracking devices to steer the sun's beams onto solar cells. The cost of maintaining these tracking systems is the primary inhibitor for widespread application. We aim to overcome the need for mechanical trackers through the use of an electrowetting-driven solar tracking (EWST) system. The electrowetting-driven solar tracking system consists of an array of novel electrowetting-controlled dual liquid prisms, which are filled with immiscible fluids that have large differences in refractive indices. The naturally formed meniscus between the fluids can function as a dynamic optical prism. Via the full-range modulation of the liquid prisms, incident sunlight can be adaptively tracked, steered, and focused onto CPV cells through a fixed optical condenser. Furthermore, unlike the conventional and cumbersome motor-driven tracking systems used today, the liquid prism system would be suitable for rooftop applications. The results of this project reveal that the EWST system has the potential to generate ~ 70% more green energy at 50% of the conventional capital cost.

  7. Electronically-Controlled Beam-Steering through Vanadium Dioxide Metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammed Reza M.; Yang, Shang-Hua; Wang, Tongyu; Sepúlveda, Nelson; Jarrahi, Mona

    2016-10-01

    Engineered metamaterials offer unique functionalities for manipulating the spectral and spatial properties of electromagnetic waves in unconventional ways. Here, we report a novel approach for making reconfigurable metasurfaces capable of deflecting electromagnetic waves in an electronically controllable fashion. This is accomplished by tilting the phase front of waves through a two-dimensional array of resonant metasurface unit-cells with electronically-controlled phase-change materials embedded inside. Such metasurfaces can be placed at the output facet of any electromagnetic radiation source to deflect electromagnetic waves at a desired frequency, ranging from millimeter-wave to far-infrared frequencies. Our design does not use any mechanical elements, external light sources, or reflectarrays, creating, for the first time, a highly robust and fully-integrated beam-steering device solution. We demonstrate a proof-of-concept beam-steering metasurface optimized for operation at 100 GHz, offering up to 44° beam deflection in both horizontal and vertical directions. Dynamic control of electromagnetic wave propagation direction through this unique platform could be transformative for various imaging, sensing, and communication applications, among others.

  8. Electronically-Controlled Beam-Steering through Vanadium Dioxide Metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammed Reza M.; Yang, Shang-Hua; Wang, Tongyu; Sepúlveda, Nelson; Jarrahi, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Engineered metamaterials offer unique functionalities for manipulating the spectral and spatial properties of electromagnetic waves in unconventional ways. Here, we report a novel approach for making reconfigurable metasurfaces capable of deflecting electromagnetic waves in an electronically controllable fashion. This is accomplished by tilting the phase front of waves through a two-dimensional array of resonant metasurface unit-cells with electronically-controlled phase-change materials embedded inside. Such metasurfaces can be placed at the output facet of any electromagnetic radiation source to deflect electromagnetic waves at a desired frequency, ranging from millimeter-wave to far-infrared frequencies. Our design does not use any mechanical elements, external light sources, or reflectarrays, creating, for the first time, a highly robust and fully-integrated beam-steering device solution. We demonstrate a proof-of-concept beam-steering metasurface optimized for operation at 100 GHz, offering up to 44° beam deflection in both horizontal and vertical directions. Dynamic control of electromagnetic wave propagation direction through this unique platform could be transformative for various imaging, sensing, and communication applications, among others. PMID:27739471

  9. Magnetic circuit of a contactless torque sensor for electric power steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Ekkehart; Jerems, Frank

    Modern passenger cars are increasingly equipped with electromechanical steering assist rather than hydraulic systems known for many decades. Major benefits are reduced fuel consumption (up to 0.2l/100 km) and increased functionality. As such a system reacts to the drivers input in terms of steering torque or steering effort, a sensor is required that accurately measures the steering torque. Valeo has adopted a magnetic technology and has improved the performance by adding specially designed flux concentration devices. The magnetic circuit consists of a multi-pole ring magnet and a pair of ring-shaped soft magnetic parts rotating together with the steering shaft and an additional pair of soft magnetic flux concentration devices which are fixed stationary inside the housing. The steering torque causes a relative twist between magnet and the soft magnetic rings, therefore implementing a proportional magnetisation of the latter. A U-shape was chosen for the flux concentration devices in order to compensate mechanical tolerances of the system. The main focus of this paper will be on the tolerance behaviour of the sensor system and the impact of the flux concentration devices. Because of the nonlinear nature of the magnetisation curve of the NiFe alloy used extensive 3D FEM simulation was necessary. Simulation enables us to have a look inside the soft magnetic material and predict the spatial magnetisation distribution with the benefit of avoiding saturation. The result is an optimised sensor, which meets both the harsh environmental conditions inside the motor compartment as well as the cost pressure in the automotive business.

  10. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’15, held in Fuzhou, China. The topics include adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, reconfigurable control, etc. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into interdisciplinary solutions in the field of intelligent automation.

  11. Some studies on mechanical properties and microstructural characterization of automated TIG welding of thin commercially pure titanium sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) is a commonly used welding process for welding Titanium materials. Welding of titanium and its alloys poses several intricacies to the designer as they are prone to oxidation phenomenon. To overcome this contamination, a relatively new type of shielding arrangement is experimented. The proposed design and arrangement have been employed for joining commercially pure titanium sheets with variations in the GTAW process parameters namely the welding current and travel speed. Bead on plate (BoP) trials were conducted on thin sheets of 2 mm thickness by varying the process parameters. Subsequently, the macro structure images were captured. Based on these results, the process parameters are chosen for carrying out full penetration butt joints on 1.6 mm and 2 mm thick titanium sheets. The influences of these parameters of GTAW on the microstructure, mechanical properties and surface morphology at the fractured locations of the welded joints are examined. The microstructural properties of base metal, heat affected zone and fusion zone are analyzed through optical microscopy. The welded joints showed an ultimate tensile strength of about 383 MPa with 15.7% elongation. The hardness value at fusion zone and base metal are typically observed to be 191 and 153 HV-0.5, respectively. X-ray diffraction study is conducted to examine the chemical composition in the parent metal and fusion zone of the weld. Fractured surface is examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy which revealed dimple kind of rupture present at the fractured surfaces owing to insufficient or excessive heat with slight impurities that prevents the accomplishment of stronger micro-level weld integrity

  12. Some studies on mechanical properties and microstructural characterization of automated TIG welding of thin commercially pure titanium sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpagaraj, A.; Siva shanmugam, N., E-mail: nsiva@nitt.edu; Sankaranarayanasamy, K.

    2015-07-29

    Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) is a commonly used welding process for welding Titanium materials. Welding of titanium and its alloys poses several intricacies to the designer as they are prone to oxidation phenomenon. To overcome this contamination, a relatively new type of shielding arrangement is experimented. The proposed design and arrangement have been employed for joining commercially pure titanium sheets with variations in the GTAW process parameters namely the welding current and travel speed. Bead on plate (BoP) trials were conducted on thin sheets of 2 mm thickness by varying the process parameters. Subsequently, the macro structure images were captured. Based on these results, the process parameters are chosen for carrying out full penetration butt joints on 1.6 mm and 2 mm thick titanium sheets. The influences of these parameters of GTAW on the microstructure, mechanical properties and surface morphology at the fractured locations of the welded joints are examined. The microstructural properties of base metal, heat affected zone and fusion zone are analyzed through optical microscopy. The welded joints showed an ultimate tensile strength of about 383 MPa with 15.7% elongation. The hardness value at fusion zone and base metal are typically observed to be 191 and 153 HV-0.5, respectively. X-ray diffraction study is conducted to examine the chemical composition in the parent metal and fusion zone of the weld. Fractured surface is examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy which revealed dimple kind of rupture present at the fractured surfaces owing to insufficient or excessive heat with slight impurities that prevents the accomplishment of stronger micro-level weld integrity.

  13. Research of Automation Integrated Monitoring System for Fully Mechanized Coal Face%煤矿综采面综合自动化监测系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琦; 张宝红

    2015-01-01

    针对煤矿机械化综采面高产量、高效率的要求,研究了由CAN总线、ModBus协议和iFIX软件组成的综合自动化监测系统,iFIX软件基于高点数和大容量工业现场总线。该系统可以实现机械化综采面所有设备的监测、地面和井下的远程监控和网络远程发布。分析了设备节点分布、循环网络配置、远程通信技术、Modbus协议和iFIX配置。实践结果表明,该监控系统可以实现煤矿机械化综采面的自动化和信息化。%At the requirements of high yield and high efficiency for the fully mechanized coal face, a integrated system with CAN bus, Modbus protocol and iFIX software based on the high point number and large capacity industry field-bus technology has been researched, which can realize the monitoring of all devices at the coal face, the remote communication between the ground and the underground, as well as the WEB remote publishing. Here the device node distribution, loop network configuration, remote communication technology, Modbus protocol and the configuration of iFIX are given out. The practice results verify that this kind of monitoring system can effectively come true the automation and informatization for the fully mechanized coal face.

  14. SPS Beam Steering for LHC Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana [Fermilab; Bartosik, Hannes [CERN; Cornelis, Karel [CERN; Norderhaug Drøsdal, Lene [CERN; Goddard, Brennan [CERN; Kain, Verena [CERN; Meddahi, Malika [CERN; Papaphilippou, Yannis [CERN; Wenninger, Jorg [CERN

    2014-07-01

    The CERN Super Proton Synchrotron accelerates beams for the Large Hadron Collider to 450 GeV. In addition it produces beams for fixed target facilities which adds complexity to the SPS operation. During the run 2012-2013 drifts of the extracted beam trajectories have been observed and lengthy optimizations in the transfer lines were performed to reduce particle losses in the LHC. The observed trajectory drifts are consistent with the measured SPS orbit drifts at extraction. While extensive studies are going on to understand, and possibly suppress, the source of such SPS orbit drifts the feasibility of an automatic beam steering towards a “golden” orbit at the extraction septa, by means of the interlocked correctors, is also being investigated. The challenges and constraints related to the implementation of such a correction in the SPS are described. Simulation results are presented and a possible operational steering strategy is proposed.

  15. Pointing Device Performance in Steering Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, Ransalu; Goonetilleke, Ravindra S

    2016-06-01

    Use of touch-screen-based interactions is growing rapidly. Hence, knowing the maneuvering efficacy of touch screens relative to other pointing devices is of great importance in the context of graphical user interfaces. Movement time, accuracy, and user preferences of four pointing device settings were evaluated on a computer with 14 participants aged 20.1 ± 3.13 years. It was found that, depending on the difficulty of the task, the optimal settings differ for ballistic and visual control tasks. With a touch screen, resting the arm increased movement time for steering tasks. When both performance and comfort are considered, whether to use a mouse or a touch screen for person-computer interaction depends on the steering difficulty. Hence, a input device should be chosen based on the application, and should be optimized to match the graphical user interface. PMID:27216944

  16. SPS Beam Steering for LHC Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Gianfelice Wendt, E; Cornelis, K; Norderhaug Drosdal, L; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Papaphilippou, Y; Wenninger, J

    2014-01-01

    Beside producing beams for fixed target operation, the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) accelerates beams for injection into the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). During the 2012-2013 run drifts of the extracted beam horizontal trajectories have been observed and lengthy optimizations in the transfer lines were performed to reduce particle losses. The observed trajectory drifts are consistent with the measured SPS orbit drifts at extraction. The feasibility of an automatic beam steering towards a “golden” orbit at the extraction septa, has been therefore investigated. The challenges and constraints related to the implementation of such a correction in the SPS are described. Simulation results are presented and a possible operational steering strategy is proposed. As the observed drift is mainly horizontal, the horizontal plane only will be considered.

  17. Steering System Vibration : Information and Perception Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomin, J; Woo, Y. J.

    2005-01-01

    Automobile drivers are regularly exposed to vibrational and acoustic stimuli. These stimuli cause discomfort, and methods for analysing the noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) properties of automobiles are in regular use. Most manufacturers currently dedicate significant attention to the NVH characteristics of their products. NVH criteria are regularly applied to the design of the steering system, whose vibration spectra can reach frequencies as high as 300 Hz. The design of s...

  18. Electromagnetic tracking and steering for catheter navigation

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donoghue, Kilian

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores the use of electromagnetics for both steering and tracking of medical instruments in minimally invasive surgeries. The end application is virtual navigation of the lung for biopsy of early stage cancer nodules. Navigation to the peripheral regions of the lung is difficult due to physical dimensions of the bronchi and current methods have low successes rates for accurate diagnosis. Firstly, the potential use of DC magnetic fields for the actuation of catheter devices with ...

  19. Stress indicators in steers at slaughtering

    OpenAIRE

    Zarrilli, A.; G. Marsico; Grimaldi, M.; S. Dimatteo; E. Micera

    2010-01-01

    This work aimed to assess the blood modifications of some slaughtering-linked stress hormones in cattle subject to butcher standardized procedures. The blood samples of 20 Limousine 12-13 months old steers have been collected before slaughtering, during lairage, and after stunning by captive bolt gun, during exsanguination. The plasma level of epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol and beta-endorphin have been assayed by EIA. The data indicate that catecholamines, cortisol and beta-endorphin d...

  20. TRANSFERRING OF MOVEMENT FOR STEERING EQUIPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Outhier, Maxime; Rydström, Vilhelm; Sanz, Imanol

    2001-01-01

    This Examination Thesis was done at the Blekinge Institute of Technology of Karlskrona. The work is a part of the education to Bachelor of Science in product development. The task consists of changing the steering wheel transmission of the DYNAPAC CA soil compactor machine made by Svedala Compaction Equipment AB. During the work we have followed the Fredy Olsson product development method. The work is divided in two parts: The Concept phase and The Primary Construction phase. In the Concept p...

  1. Self-testing through EPR-steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šupić, Ivan; Hoban, Matty J.

    2016-07-01

    The verification of quantum devices is an important aspect of quantum information, especially with the emergence of more advanced experimental implementations of quantum computation and secure communication. Within this, the theory of device-independent robust self-testing via Bell tests has reached a level of maturity now that many quantum states and measurements can be verified without direct access to the quantum systems: interaction with the devices is solely classical. However, the requirements for this robust level of verification are daunting and require high levels of experimental accuracy. In this paper we discuss the possibility of self-testing where we only have direct access to one part of the quantum device. This motivates the study of self-testing via EPR-steering, an intermediate form of entanglement verification between full state tomography and Bell tests. Quantum non-locality implies EPR-steering so results in the former can apply in the latter, but we ask what advantages may be gleaned from the latter over the former given that one can do partial state tomography? We show that in the case of self-testing a maximally entangled two-qubit state, or ebit, EPR-steering allows for simpler analysis and better error tolerance than in the case of full device-independence. On the other hand, this improvement is only a constant improvement and (up to constants) is the best one can hope for. Finally, we indicate that the main advantage in self-testing based on EPR-steering could be in the case of self-testing multi-partite quantum states and measurements. For example, it may be easier to establish a tensor product structure for a particular party’s Hilbert space even if we do not have access to their part of the global quantum system.

  2. 78 FR 15062 - Cohen & Steers Real Assets Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... COMMISSION Cohen & Steers Real Assets Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application March 4, 2013. AGENCY...: Cohen & Steers Real Assets Fund, Inc. (the ``Corporation''), Cohen & Steers Real Assets Fund, Ltd. (the ``Subsidiary''), and Cohen & Steers Capital Management, Inc. (``Cohen & Steers'' or the ``Advisor'')....

  3. Multipartite Gaussian steering: monogamy constraints and cryptographical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, Yu; Adesso, Gerardo; He, Qiongyi

    2016-01-01

    We derive laws for the distribution of quantum steering among different parties in multipartite Gaussian states under Gaussian measurements. We prove that a monogamy relation akin to the generalized Coffman-Kundu-Wootters inequality holds quantitatively for a recently introduced measure of Gaussian steering. We then define the residual Gaussian steering, stemming from the monogamy inequality, as an indicator of collective steering-type correlations. For pure three-mode Gaussian states, the residual acts a quantifier of genuine multipartite steering, and is interpreted operationally in terms of the guaranteed key rate in the task of secure quantum secret sharing. Optimal resource states for the latter protocol are identified, and their possible experimental implementation discussed. Our results pin down the role of multipartite steering for quantum communication.

  4. Gaussian quantum steering and its asymmetry in curved spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jieci; Jing, Jiliang; Fan, Heng

    2015-01-01

    We study Gaussian quantum steering and its asymmetry in the background of a Schwarzschild black hole. We present a Gaussian channel description of quantum state evolution under the influence of Hawking radiation. We find that thermal noise introduced by Hawking effect will destroy the steerability between an inertial observer Alice and an accelerated observer Bob who hovers outside an event horizon, while it generates steerability between Bob and a hypothetical observer Anti-Bob inside the event horizon. Besides, unlike entanglement behaviors in curved spacetime, here the steering from Alice to Bob suffers from a ``sudden death" and the steering from Anti-Bob to Bob appears a ``sudden birth" with the increasing of Hawking temperature. We also find that the Gaussian steering is always asymmetric and the maximum steering asymmetry can \\emph{ exceed} $\\ln 2$ in curved spacetime, which is quite different from the flat spacetime case [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 060403 (2015)] where the steering asymmetry can \\emph{neve...

  5. Toward fully automated high performance computing drug discovery: a massively parallel virtual screening pipeline for docking and molecular mechanics/generalized Born surface area rescoring to improve enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohua; Wong, Sergio E; Lightstone, Felice C

    2014-01-27

    In this work we announce and evaluate a high throughput virtual screening pipeline for in-silico screening of virtual compound databases using high performance computing (HPC). Notable features of this pipeline are an automated receptor preparation scheme with unsupervised binding site identification. The pipeline includes receptor/target preparation, ligand preparation, VinaLC docking calculation, and molecular mechanics/generalized Born surface area (MM/GBSA) rescoring using the GB model by Onufriev and co-workers [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2007, 3, 156-169]. Furthermore, we leverage HPC resources to perform an unprecedented, comprehensive evaluation of MM/GBSA rescoring when applied to the DUD-E data set (Directory of Useful Decoys: Enhanced), in which we selected 38 protein targets and a total of ∼0.7 million actives and decoys. The computer wall time for virtual screening has been reduced drastically on HPC machines, which increases the feasibility of extremely large ligand database screening with more accurate methods. HPC resources allowed us to rescore 20 poses per compound and evaluate the optimal number of poses to rescore. We find that keeping 5-10 poses is a good compromise between accuracy and computational expense. Overall the results demonstrate that MM/GBSA rescoring has higher average receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under curve (AUC) values and consistently better early recovery of actives than Vina docking alone. Specifically, the enrichment performance is target-dependent. MM/GBSA rescoring significantly out performs Vina docking for the folate enzymes, kinases, and several other enzymes. The more accurate energy function and solvation terms of the MM/GBSA method allow MM/GBSA to achieve better enrichment, but the rescoring is still limited by the docking method to generate the poses with the correct binding modes.

  6. Steered molecular dynamics simulations of protein-ligand interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Yechun; SHEN; Jianhua; LUO; Xiaomin; SHEN; Xu; CHEN; Ka

    2004-01-01

    Studies of protein-ligand interactions are helpful to elucidating the mechanisms of ligands, providing clues for rational drug design. The currently developed steered molecular dynamics (SMD) is a complementary approach to experimental techniques in investigating the biochemical processes occurring at microsecond or second time scale, thus SMD may provide dynamical and kinetic processes of ligand-receptor binding and unbinding, which cannot be accessed by the experimental methods. In this article, the methodology of SMD is described, and the applications of SMD simulations for obtaining dynamic insights into protein-ligand interactions are illustrated through two of our own examples. One is associated with the simulations of binding and unbinding processes between huperzine A and acetylcholinesterase, and the other is concerned with the unbinding process of α-APA from HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.

  7. Quantum steering: a short review with focus on semidefinite programming

    OpenAIRE

    D. Cavalcanti; Skrzypczyk, P.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum steering refers to a situation where two parties share a bipartite system onto which one of the parties applies measurements that changes the state of the other party in a way that can not be explained by classical means. Quantum steering has been interpreted as the task of entanglement detection in a one-sided device independent way and has received a lot of attention since then. Here we address the characterisation of quantum steering through semidefinite programming, including stee...

  8. Steering in computational science: mesoscale modelling and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Chin, J; Jha, S; Coveney, P V; Porter, A R; Pickles, S M

    2003-01-01

    This paper outlines the benefits of computational steering for high performance computing applications. Lattice-Boltzmann mesoscale fluid simulations of binary and ternary amphiphilic fluids in two and three dimensions are used to illustrate the substantial improvements which computational steering offers in terms of resource efficiency and time to discover new physics. We discuss details of our current steering implementations and describe their future outlook with the advent of computational grids.

  9. Multi-axle dynamic steering system of truck-howitzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanliang LI; Xiuhua GAO; Chunqiu ZHANG; Yubo SUN

    2008-01-01

    A two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) steering model of multi-axle vehicle was established. The steering center position, the relationship between the steering angle and the vehicle velocity, and the minimum turn radius were deduced on the basis of the proportional control with a zero sideslip angle. Results indicate that the system stability is decided by the vehicle barycenter position and the lateral stiffness of a tire. Under this control, the steady value of the lateral acceleration is obviously diminished and the yaw angular velocity changes little under any vehicle velocity. The system rapidly responds, the vehicle smoothly steers, and its handling stability is prominently improved.

  10. Adjusting inequalities for detection-loophole-free steering experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Sainz, Ana Belén; Guryanova, Yelena; McCutcheon, Will; Skrzypczyk, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We study the problem of certifying quantum steering in a detection-loophole-free manner in experimental situations that require post-selection. We present a method to find the modified local-hidden-state bound of steering inequalities in such a post-selected scenario. We then present a construction of linear steering inequalities in arbitrary finite dimension and show that they certify steering in a loophole-free manner as long as the detection efficiencies are above the known bound below whi...

  11. Fault-tolerant Actuator System for Electrical Steering of Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Sandberg; Blanke, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    Being critical to the safety of vehicles, the steering system is required to maintain the vehicles ability to steer until it is brought to halt, should a fault occur. With electrical steering becoming a cost-effective candidate for electrical powered vehicles, a fault-tolerant architecture...... is needed that meets this requirement. This paper studies the fault-tolerance properties of an electrical steering system. It presents a fault-tolerant architecture where a dedicated AC motor design used in conjunction with cheap voltage measurements can ensure detection of all relevant faults...

  12. Automated Budget System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  13. An automated dynamic fracture procedure and a continuum damage mechanics based model for finite element simulations of delamination failure in laminated composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminjikarai Vedagiri, Srinivasa Babu

    An active field of research that has developed due to the increasing use of computational techniques like finite element simulations for analysis of highly complex structural mechanics problems and the increasing use of composite laminates in varied industries such as aerospace, automotive, bio-medical, etc. is the development of numerical models to capture the behavior of composite materials. One of the big challenges not yet overcome convincingly in this field is the modeling of delamination failure which is one of the primary modes of damage in composite laminates. Hence, the primary aim of this work is to develop two numerical models for finite element simulations of delamination failure in composite laminates and implement them in the explicit finite element software DYNA3D/LS-DYNA. Dynamic fracture mechanics is an example of a complex structural analysis problem for which finite element simulations seem to be the only possible way to extract detailed information on sophisticated physical quantities of the crack-tip at any instant of time along a highly transient history of fracture. However, general purpose, commercial finite element software which have capabilities to do fracture analyses are still limited in their use to stationary cracks and crack propagation along trajectories known a priori. Therefore, an automated dynamic fracture procedure capable of simulating dynamic propagation of through-thickness cracks in arbitrary directions in linear, isotropic materials without user-intervention is first developed and implemented in DYNA3D for its default 8-node solid (brick) element. Dynamic energy release rate and stress intensity factors are computed in the model using integral expressions particularly well-suited for the finite element method. Energy approach is used to check for crack propagation and the maximum circumferential stress criterion is used to determine the direction of crack growth. Since the re-meshing strategy used to model crack growth

  14. Stress indicators in steers at slaughtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zarrilli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to assess the blood modifications of some slaughtering-linked stress hormones in cattle subject to butcher standardized procedures. The blood samples of 20 Limousine 12-13 months old steers have been collected before slaughtering, during lairage, and after stunning by captive bolt gun, during exsanguination. The plasma level of epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol and beta-endorphin have been assayed by EIA. The data indicate that catecholamines, cortisol and beta-endorphin did not significantly increase after stunning in these animals.

  15. Efficiency of lysine utilization by growing steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, E D; Hussein, A H; Detmann, E; Miesner, M D; Titgemeyer, E C

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the efficiency of Lys utilization by growing steers. Five ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (165 ± 8 kg) housed in metabolism crates were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design; data from a sixth steer was excluded due to erratic feed intake. All steers were limit fed (2.46 kg DM/d), twice daily, diets low in RUP (81% soybean hulls, 8% wheat straw, 6% cane molasses, and 5% vitamins and minerals). Treatments were 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 g/d of Lys continuously abomasally infused. To prevent AA other than Lys from limiting performance, a mixture providing all essential AA to excess was continuously abomasally infused. Additional continuous infusions included 10 g urea/d, 200 g acetic acid/d, 200 g propionic acid/d, and 50 g butyric acid/d to the rumen and 300 g glucose/d to the abomasum. These infusions provided adequate ruminal ammonia and increased energy supply without increasing microbial protein supply. Each 6-d period included 2 d for adaptation and 4 d for total fecal and urinary collections for measuring N balance. Blood was collected on d 6 (10 h after feeding). Diet OM digestibility was not altered ( ≥ 0.66) by treatment and averaged 73.7%. Urinary N excretion was decreased from 32.3 to 24.3 g/d by increasing Lys supplementation to 9 g/d, with no further reduction when more than 9 g/d of Lys was supplied (linear and quadratic, < 0.01). Changes in total urinary N excretion predominantly were due to changes in urinary urea N. Increasing Lys supply from 0 to 9 g/d increased N retention from 21.4 to 30.7 g/d, with no further increase beyond 9 g/d of Lys (linear and quadratic, < 0.01). Break-point analysis estimated maximal N retention at 9 g/d supplemental Lys. Over the linear response surface of 0 to 9 g/d Lys, the efficiency of Lys utilization for protein deposition was 40%. Plasma urea N tended to be linearly decreased ( = 0.06) by Lys supplementation in agreement with the reduction in urinary urea N excretion. Plasma concentrations

  16. Omni rotational driving and steering wheel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Abstract of WO 2008138346  (A1) There is disclosed a driving and steering wheel (112) module (102) with an omni rotational part (106), the module comprising a flange part (104) fixable on a robot, and the omni rotational part (106) comprises an upper omni rotational part (105) and a driving...... omni rotational part (105) with a suspension (116) such that wheel part (108) can move relatively to the upper omni rotational part (105) in a suspension direction (118), and a reduction gear (120) for gearing the drive torque is provided in the wheel part (108) in order e.g. to assure traction...

  17. The Outstanding Talent Appointed to Steer FICMES ——Interview with Professor LI Rong-de,President of Shangyang University of Technology,President of Foundry Institution of Chinese Mechanical Engineering Society(FICMES)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Eleventh National Foundry Congress, an event given every four years by Foundry Institution of Chinese Mechanical Engineering Society (FICMES), was held from September 18 to 24, 2006 in xi'an, Shaanxi province. On September 18,2006, the Eighth Council and the 21st Meeting of SecretaryGeneral of FICMES were also conducted. At the meeting,Professor LI Rong-de, President of Shenyang University of Technology, was appointed to the position of the President of the Eighth Council of FICMES.

  18. Loophole-free Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiment via quantum steering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tests of the predictions of quantum mechanics for entangled systems have provided increasing evidence against local realistic theories. However, there remains the crucial challenge of simultaneously closing all major loopholes—the locality, freedom-of-choice and detection loopholes—in a single experiment. An important sub-class of local realistic theories can be tested with the concept of ‘steering’. The term ‘steering’ was introduced by Schrödinger in 1935 for the fact that entanglement would seem to allow an experimenter to remotely steer the state of a distant system as in the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) argument. Einstein called this ‘spooky action at a distance’. EPR-steering has recently been rigorously formulated as a quantum information task opening it up to new experimental tests. Here, we present the first loophole-free demonstration of EPR-steering by violating three-setting quadratic steering inequality, tested with polarization-entangled photons shared between two distant laboratories. Our experiment demonstrates this effect while simultaneously closing all loopholes: both the locality loophole and a specific form of the freedom-of-choice loophole are closed by having a large separation of the parties and using fast quantum random number generators, and the fair-sampling loophole is closed by having high overall detection efficiency. Thereby, we exclude—for the first time loophole-free—an important class of local realistic theories considered by EPR. Besides its foundational importance, loophole-free steering also allows the distribution of quantum entanglement secure event in the presence of an untrusted party. (paper)

  19. Mechatronic Design Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun

    This book proposes a novel design method that combines both genetic programming (GP) to automatically explore the open-ended design space and bond graphs (BG) to unify design representations of multi-domain Mechatronic systems. Results show that the method, formally called GPBG method, can...... successfully design analogue filters, vibration absorbers, micro-electro-mechanical systems, and vehicle suspension systems, all in an automatic or semi-automatic way. It also investigates the very important issue of co-designing plant-structures and dynamic controllers in automated design of Mechatronic...

  20. Beam Steering of Electrically Segmented Piezo-Ceramic Ultrasonic Transducers Using Normal Mode Coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Eslambolchi, Hossein

    1984-01-01

    It is well known that normal mode coupling in large diameter piezoelectric plates causes serious difficulties when attempting to operate over wide frequency bands. As a consequence transducers are commonly constructed as a mosaic of elemental resonators, each of which has a predominant single mode of mechanical oscillation at the frequency of interest. Such transducer arrays may be electrically steered to angles other than normal by applying different phases of driving voltages to different e...

  1. The impact of force feedback level on steering performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anand, S.; Terken, J.; Hogema, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Steer-by-wire systems provide designers the ability to customize and personalize force feedback on the steering wheel, based on individual preferences. Earlier studies using subjective responses have shown that there are individual differences in preferences for force feedback. It has also been foun

  2. Gaussian quantum steering and its asymmetry in curved spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jieci; Cao, Haixin; Jing, Jiliang; Fan, Heng

    2016-06-01

    We study Gaussian quantum steering and its asymmetry in the background of a Schwarzschild black hole. We present a Gaussian channel description of quantum state evolution under the influence of Hawking radiation. We find that thermal noise introduced by the Hawking effect will destroy the steerability between an inertial observer Alice and an accelerated observer Bob who hovers outside the event horizon, while it generates steerability between Bob and a hypothetical observer anti-Bob inside the event horizon. Unlike entanglement behaviors in curved spacetime, here the steering from Alice to Bob suffers from a "sudden death" and the steering from anti-Bob to Bob experiences a "sudden birth" with increasing Hawking temperature. We also find that the Gaussian steering is always asymmetric and the maximum steering asymmetry cannot exceed ln 2 , which means the state never evolves to an extremal asymmetry state. Furthermore, we obtain the parameter settings that maximize steering asymmetry and find that (i) s =arccosh cosh/2r 1 -sinh2r is the critical point of steering asymmetry and (ii) the attainment of maximal steering asymmetry indicates the transition between one-way steerability and both-way steerability for the two-mode Gaussian state under the influence of Hawking radiation.

  3. Revisiting path steering for 3D manipulation tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.; Martens, J.-B.; Liere, R. van

    2010-01-01

    The law of path steering, as proposed by Accot and Zhai, describes a quantitative relationship between human temporal performance and the path spatial characteristics. The steering law is formulated as a continuous goal crossing task, in which a large number of goals are crossed along the path. The

  4. Revisiting path steering for 3D manipulation tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.; Martens, J.-B.; Liere, R. van

    2011-01-01

    The law of path steering, as proposed by Accot and Zhai, describes a quantitative relationship between human temporal performance and the path spatial characteristics. The steering law is formulated as a continuous goal crossing task, in which a large number of goals are crossed along the path. The

  5. 33 CFR 164.39 - Steering gear: Foreign tankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steering gear: Foreign tankers... (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY NAVIGATION SAFETY REGULATIONS § 164.39 Steering gear: Foreign tankers. (a) This section applies to each foreign tanker of 10,000 gross tons or more, except a public...

  6. The effect of varying path properties in path steering tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.; Liere, R. van

    2010-01-01

    Path steering is a primitive 3D interaction task that requires the user to navigate through a path of a given length and width. In a previous paper, we have conducted controlled experiments in which users operated a pen input device to steer a cursor through a 3D path subject to fixed path propertie

  7. Soil inoculation steers restoration of terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubs, E R Jasper; van der Putten, Wim H; Bosch, Machiel; Bezemer, T Martijn

    2016-01-01

    Many natural ecosystems have been degraded because of human activities(1,2) and need to be restored so that biodiversity is protected. However, restoration can take decades and restoration activities are often unsuccessful(3) because of abiotic constraints (for example, eutrophication, acidification) and unfavourable biotic conditions (for example, competition or adverse soil community composition). A key question is what manageable factors prevent transition from degraded to restored ecosystems and what interventions are required for successful restoration(2,4). Experiments have shown that the soil community is an important driver of plant community development(5-8), suggesting that manipulation of the soil community is key to successful restoration of terrestrial ecosystems(3,9). Here we examine a large-scale, six-year-old field experiment on ex-arable land and show that application of soil inocula not only promotes ecosystem restoration, but that different origins of soil inocula can steer the plant community development towards different target communities, varying from grassland to heathland vegetation. The impact of soil inoculation on plant and soil community composition was most pronounced when the topsoil layer was removed, whereas effects were less strong, but still significant, when the soil inocula were introduced into intact topsoil. Therefore, soil inoculation is a powerful tool to both restore disturbed terrestrial ecosystems and steer plant community development. PMID:27398907

  8. Failure study of a cracked speed boat steering wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vukelic

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Failure of a cracked steering wheel is studied in this paper. Steering wheel, mounted on a speed boat, had cracks emanating from one of the fastener holes until final fracture occurred. Failure analysis, combining experimental and numerical techniques, was performed. Experimentally, fasteners torque moments were measured, visual inspection performed and material type determined (aluminum alloy AA 6061. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy examination was employed to characterize the microstructure of the fractured surface. Using finite element analysis, stress analysis of a cracked steering wheel was conducted. Stress intensities of uncracked and cracked steering wheel were compared to find out about stress concentration points. Possible causes of crack occurrence include excessive fastener torque moment, fretting between fastener and hole combined with poor machining that left marks that serve as potential crack initiation points. Obtained results are valuable for predicting fracture behavior of the cracked steering wheel and can be taken as a reference for design and exploitation process of such component.

  9. Sidelobe Suppression with Null Steering by Independent Weight Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar-Ullah Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A uniform linear array of n antenna elements can steer up to n-1 nulls. In situations where less than n-1 nulls are required to be steered, the existing algorithms have no criterion to utilize the remaining weights for sidelobe suppression. This work combines sidelobe suppression capability with null steering by independent weight control. For this purpose, the array factor is transformed as the product of two polynomials. One of the polynomials is used for null steering by independent weight control, while the second one is for sidelobe suppression whose coefficients or weights are determined by using convex optimization. Finally, a new structure is proposed to incorporate the product of two polynomials such that sidelobe suppression weights are decoupled from those of null steering weights. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  10. Conclusive quantum steering with superconducting transition edge sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Devin H; de Almeida, Marcelo; Branciard, Cyril; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Weinhold, Till J; Lita, Adriana; Calkins, Brice; Gerrits, Thomas; Nam, Sae Woo; White, Andrew G

    2011-01-01

    Quantum steering allows two parties to verify shared entanglement even if one measurement device is untrusted. A conclusive demonstration of steering through the violation of a steering inequality is of considerable fundamental interest and opens up applications in quantum communication. To date all experimental tests with single photon states have relied on post-selection, allowing untrusted devices to cheat by hiding unfavorable events in losses. Here we close this "detection loophole" by combining a highly efficient source of entangled photon pairs with superconducting transition edge sensors. We achieve an unprecedented $\\sim$62% conditional detection efficiency of entangled photons and violate a steering inequality with the minimal number of measurement settings by 48 standard deviations. Our results provide a clear path to practical applications of steering and to a photonic loophole-free Bell test.

  11. Experimental Study on Antivibration Control of Electrical Power Steering Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaojian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the antivibration controller design problem for electrical power steering (EPS systems. The EPS system has significant advantages over the traditional hydraulic steering system. However, the improper motor controller design would lead to the steering wheel vibration. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the antivibration control strategy. For the implementation study, we also present the motor driver design and the software design which is used to monitor the sensors and the control signal. Based on the investigation on the regular assistant algorithm, we summarize the difficulties and problems encountered by the regular algorithm. After that, in order to improve the performance of antivibration and the human-like steering feeling, we propose a new assistant strategy for the EPS. The experiment results of the bench test illustrate the effectiveness and flexibility of the proposed control strategy. Compared with the regular controller, the proposed antivibration control reduces the vibration of the steering wheel a lot.

  12. Delphi Automotive Systems present electric power steering system E-STEER{sup TM}; Delphi Automotive Systems stellt elektrisch unterstuetzte Servolenkung E-STEER{sup TM} vor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goroncy, J.

    1997-09-01

    Just before the IAA, Delphi Saginaw Automotive Systems presented an electric power steering system which works without power steering pumps, hydraulic fluids, tubes, store tanks, belts and pulleys. Further advantages are easy adjustment, higher flexiblility of installation and better steering even when the engine has been shut off. With these features, electric power steering systems are well able to compete with hydraulic systems. (orig) [Deutsch] Die Ingenieure von Delphi Saginaw Lenksysteme praesentierten der internationalen Fachpresse kurz vor der IAA eine elektrisch unterstuetzte Servolenkung. Lenkhilfspumpe, Hydraulikfluessigkeit, Schlaeuche, Vorratsbehaelter sowie Keilriemen und die am Motor installierte Riemenscheibe sind fuer die elektrisch unterstuetzte Hilfskraftlenkung nicht mehr notwendig. Die einfachere Abstimmung, mehr Einbauflexibilitaet und Lenkunterstuetzung, selbst bei abgestelltem Motor, sind weitere Vorzuege. Diese Leistungsmerkmale machen die elektrisch unterstuetzte Servolenkung zum unmittelbaren Konkurrenten des Hydraulikprinzips. Dieser Beitrag ist die Kurzfassung eines Technologiepapiers von Delphi. (orig.)

  13. Steering of H- ion beamlet by aperture displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focussing of multibeamlets produced from a large accelerator grid is a key issue of ion beam application to the neutral beam injector (NBI) of fusion devices. Another issue is highlighted in a case of negative ion based NBI to compensate beamlet deflection inside the extractor, where magnetic field is applied for suppression of electron extraction. Steering of H- beamlet was carried out by displacing apertures in an electrostatic extractor/accelerator composed of four grids, where the beam energy was in the range of ∼50 keV. Out of a few combination of grid displacement, displacement of ESG (3rd grid) and/or GRG (4th grid) was found to be successful: 1) The beamlet steering angle of 50 mrad was obtained by displacing the apertures of 9 mm dia. up to 3 mm. It was confirmed that the steering angle was proportional fairly well to the displacement. The characteristic of the steering, i.e., the steering angle as a function of displacement, agrees well with the analysis based on the linear optics theory. 2) Neither significant divergence growth nor the beam interception were observed in the steered beams over a wide range of operation. The H- beams, of which divergent angle was 5 mrad, was obtained even under the beamlet steering. Thus the steering by displacement is suitable for the focusing of negative ion beam generated from multi-aperture grids. 3) It was found that the steering angle was independent of the magnetic field direction in the present extractor structure. This is an advantage of the steering technique for compensation of the beam deflection inside the extractor by magnetic field. (author)

  14. The influence of different steering systems on a wheel slip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Stajnko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Modern and advanced mountain tractor allows four different modes of steering wheels: front wheels, back wheels, four wheels and crab steering. The current paper presents the impact of different ways of steering to control the slip in the work transverse on the steep hill slope (39.08%. Design/methodology/approach: For each mode of steering eight measurements were made; four measurements at a forecasted speed of 0.69 m/s and four measurements at a speed of 1.39 m/s. During the two of four measurements the travelling direction was from the left to the right, and vice versa.Findings: The measured slip depended significantly on the steering system, while the driving direction did not cause any differences in the slip.Research limitations/implications: The experiment results presented herein can be applied only with the similar mountain tractors, which allows four different modes of steering wheels. Additional limitation represents the working polygon and the growing conditions of grass.Practical implications: The crab - steering resulted in the smallest slip (5.96% at the average driving speed of 1.08 m/s. When steering with all four wheels, the slip at the average speed of 1.03 m/s increased to 7.27%. The biggest slip was measured when steering with only front wheels was applied. In this case the slip was 8.07% at the average speed of 1.01 m/s.Originality/value: The findings from our experiments indicated that it is very useful to have all wheels steering tractor when working on step slope, because it is grass friendly, offers bigger agility of tractor and improve the safety of the operator.

  15. Beam steering via peak power decay in nonlinear waveguide arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the experimental observation and theoretical analysis of a novel beam-steering effect in periodic waveguide arrays that arises from the interplay between discrete diffraction, Kerr nonlinearity and any mechanism that effectively weakens the nonlinear part of the beam. In this regime the propagation direction shows increased sensitivity to the input angle and for a certain angular range around normal incidence a nonlinear beam may be guided to a direction opposite to that initially inserted. For continuous wave beams the role of this mechanism is played by absorption of any kind, such as three photon absorption, two photon absorption or even linear absorption. For pulsed beams we show that the same dynamics can arise due to strong normal temporal dispersion, while absorption is not necessary and can be a further enhancing or alternative factor. This observation falls under a more general dissipation-assisted beam velocity control mechanism in nonlinear optical lattices, which is also theoretically predicted by the effective particle approach. (paper)

  16. Home automation as an example of construction innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlies, R.D. van der; Bronswijk, J.E.M.H. van

    2009-01-01

    Home automation can contribute to the health of (older) adults. Home automation covers a broad field of ‘intelligent’ electronic or mechanical devices in the home (domestic) environment. Realizing home automation is technically possible, though still not common. In this paper main influential factor

  17. 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’13, held in Yangzhou, China. The topics include e.g. adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, and reconfigurable control. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry, and government can gain an inside view of new solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent automation.   Zengqi Sun and Zhidong Deng are professors at the Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, China.

  18. 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’13, held in Yangzhou, China. The topics include e.g. adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, and reconfigurable control. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry, and government can gain an inside view of new solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent automation. Zengqi Sun and Zhidong Deng are professors at the Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, China.

  19. Armature Guide Ring Automation Assembly Equipment Feeding Mechanism Design Based on TRIZ%基于 TRIZ 的导向环自动装配设备上料机构设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周为; 王剑彬; 向友

    2016-01-01

    针对雨刮器电机自动化生产线配套设备,电枢导向环自动装配设备结构设计中如何高效、稳定供料的问题,提出运用T RIZ创新设计方法中的冲突解决原理进行电枢导向环自动装配设备的上料机构设计。通过分析上料机构功能设计需求与T RIZ中39个工程参数的关系,建立上料机构的矛盾矩阵,用冲突解决原理进行分析,找到相应的原理解,结合传统设计经验提出设计方案并评估,最终确定了电枢导向环自动装配设备上料机构的设计方案。%To design an efficient and stable armature guide ring automation assembly equipment in wiper motor automation production line ,the paper put forward using the conflict resolution principle of TRIZ to design the feeding mechanism .Through the analysis on the relationship of the functional design requirements and 39 engineering parameters in TRIZ ,the contradictions matrix of feeding mechanism was set up ,and analyzed by the conflict resolution principle ,the corresponding original solution was found .Combined with traditional design experience ,the design scheme was put forward and evaluated ,eventually the armature guide ring automation assembly equipment feeding mechanism was designed .

  20. Frequency Invariant Beam Steering for Short-Pulse Systems with a Rotman Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lambrecht

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A promising approach for beam steering of high-voltage transient signals for HPEM-systems (High Power Electro Magnetic is presented. The inherent capability of the Rotman lens to provide true time delays is used to develop a prototype beam steering device for an antielectronics HPEM system in the frequency range from 350 MHz to 5 GHz. Results of analytical calculations, simulations, and measurements from a hardware prototype are presented. The detailed mechanical setup of the Rotman lens is presented. Additionally the output pulses are investigated when inputting a Gaussian-like transient signal. Then time domain measures of quality (full width at half maximum, ringing, delay spread, maximum of transfer function are investigated for these output transients, and the simulation and measurement results are compared. A concluding analysis of the realizable time domain array pattern shows the radiated pulse form.

  1. Fast-steering Mirror with Self-aligning ball bearing Supporting Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinhang; Wang, Bing; Han, Xudong

    2012-10-01

    A fast-steering mirror (FSM) with self-aligning ball bearing supporting structure was designed to accurately control the transmission direction of high-octane laser. First, linear voice coil actuators were selected and SiC mirror, rigid supporting structure, precise grating sensors for measuring mirror position were designed respectively on the basis of the fast-steering mirror working conditions and performing requirements. After finishing accurately manufacturing and assembling of mechanism parts, the servo control system was constituted, and then the designed FSM system was tested by experiments. The results showed that the FSM with self-aligning ball bearing supporting structure has not only great carrying capacity and resonance frequency, but it also has excellent angle stability (the stable precision of mirror is more than 2″). Furthermore, the FSM system has great adaptability to vibrancy, impact and rotation. Therefore, the designed FSM can satisfy application requirements of precise beam control system.

  2. Steering, Splitting and Cloning of Optical Beam in a Coherently Driven Raman Gain System

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Onkar N

    2014-01-01

    We propose an all-optical anti-waveguide mechanism for steering, splitting, and cloning of an optical beam beyond the diffraction-limit. We use a spatially inhomogeneous pump beam to create an anti-waveguide structure in a Doppler broadened N -type four-level Raman gain medium for a co-propagating weak probe beam. We show that a transverse modulated index of refraction and gain due to the spatially dependent pump beam hold the keys to steering, splitting and cloning of an optical beam. We have also shown that an additional control field permits the propagation of an optical beam through an otherwise gain medium without diffraction and instability. We further discuss how finesse of the cloned images can be increased by changing the detuning and intensity of the control field.

  3. Structural Characterization of Advanced Composite Tow-Steered Shells with Large Cutouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Turpin, Jason D.; Gardner, Nathaniel W.; Stanford, Bret K.; Martin, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    The structural performance of two advanced composite tow-steered shells with large cutouts, manufactured using an automated fiber placement system, is assessed using both experimental and analytical methods. The fiber orientation angles of the shells vary continuously around their circumference from +/- 10 degrees on the crown and keel, to +/- 45 degrees on the sides. The raised surface features on one shell result from application of all 24 tows during each fiber placement system pass, while the second shell uses the tow drop/add capability of the system to achieve a more uniform wall thickness. These unstiffened shells, both without and with small cutouts, were previously tested in axial compression and buckled elastically. In this study, a single unreinforced cutout, scaled to represent a cargo door on a commercial aircraft, is machined into one side of each shell. The prebuckling axial stiffnesses and bifurcation buckling loads of these shells with large cutouts are also computed using linear finite element structural analyses for preliminary comparisons with test data. During testing, large displacements are observed around the large cutouts, but the shells maintain an average of 91 percent of the axial stiffness, and also carry 85 percent of the buckling loads, when compared to the pristine shells without cutouts. These relatively small reductions indicate that there is great potential for using tow steering to mitigate the adverse effects of large cutouts on the overall structural performance.

  4. Structural Performance of Advanced Composite Tow-Steered Shells With Cutouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Turpin, Jason D.; Stanford, Bret K.; Martin, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The structural performance of two advanced composite tow-steered shells with cutouts, manufactured using an automated fiber placement system, is assessed using both experimental and analytical methods. The shells' fiber orientation angles vary continuously around their circumference from +/-10 degrees on the crown and keel, to +/-45 degrees on the sides. The raised surface features on one shell result from application of all 24 tows during each fiber placement system pass, while the second shell uses the system's tow drop/add capability to achieve a more uniform wall thickness. These unstiffened shells were previously tested in axial compression and buckled elastically. A single cutout, scaled to represent a passenger door on a commercial aircraft, is then machined into one side of each shell. The prebuckling axial stiffnesses and bifurcation buckling loads of the shells with cutouts are also computed using linear finite element structural analyses for initial comparisons with test data. When retested, large deflections were observed around the cutouts, but the shells carried an average of 92 percent of the axial stiffness, and 86 percent of the buckling loads, of the shells without cutouts. These relatively small reductions in performance demonstrate the potential for using tow steering to mitigate the adverse effects of typical design features on the overall structural performance.

  5. The need for speed: global optic flow speed influences steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kountouriotis, Georgios K; Mole, Callum D; Merat, Natasha; Wilkie, Richard M

    2016-05-01

    How do animals follow demarcated paths? Different species are sensitive to optic flow and one control solution is to maintain the balance of flow symmetry across visual fields; however, it is unclear whether animals are sensitive to changes in asymmetries when steering along curved paths. Flow asymmetries can alter the global properties of flow (i.e. flow speed) which may also influence steering control. We tested humans steering curved paths in a virtual environment. The scene was manipulated so that the ground plane to either side of the demarcated path produced larger or smaller asymmetries in optic flow. Independent of asymmetries and the locomotor speed, the scene properties were altered to produce either faster or slower globally averaged flow speeds. Results showed that rather than being influenced by changes in flow asymmetry, steering responded to global flow speed. We conclude that the human brain performs global averaging of flow speed from across the scene and uses this signal as an input for steering control. This finding is surprising since the demarcated path provided sufficient information to steer, whereas global flow speed (by itself) did not. To explain these findings, existing models of steering must be modified to include a new perceptual variable: namely global optic flow speed. PMID:27293789

  6. On fractional control method for four-wheel-steering vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ning; CHEN Nan; CHEN YanDong

    2009-01-01

    Four-wheel-steering (4WS) system can enhance vehicle cornering ability by steering the rear wheels in accordance with the front wheels steering and vehicle status. With such steering control system, it becomes possible to improve the lateral stability and handling performance, in this paper, a new control method for 4WS vehicle is proposed, its rear wheels steering angle is in accordance with the angle of front wheels steering and vehicle yaw rate, and the effects of front wheels steering angle velocity are considered by adopting the fractional derivative theory. Some design specifications for control law are also given. The effects of the control method are verified by a kind of numerical scheme presented in this paper. The dynamic characteristics such as the side-slip angle and the yaw angle velocity of the vehicle gravity center are compared among three kinds of vehicles with different control methods. And the kinematics characteristics such as turning radius between 4WS and 2WS are also discussed. Nu-merical simulation shows that the control method presented can improve the transient response and reduce the turning radius of 4WS vehicle.

  7. On fractional control method for four-wheel-steering vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Four-wheel-steering (4WS) system can enhance vehicle cornering ability by steering the rear wheels in accordance with the front wheels steering and vehicle status. With such steering control system, it becomes possible to improve the lateral stability and handling performance. In this paper, a new control method for 4WS vehicle is proposed, its rear wheels steering angle is in accordance with the angle of front wheels steering and vehicle yaw rate, and the effects of front wheels steering angle velocity are considered by adopting the fractional derivative theory. Some design specifications for control law are also given. The effects of the control method are verified by a kind of numerical scheme presented in this paper. The dynamic characteristics such as the side-slip angle and the yaw angle velocity of the vehicle gravity center are compared among three kinds of vehicles with different control methods. And the kinematics characteristics such as turning radius between 4WS and 2WS are also discussed. Nu- merical simulation shows that the control method presented can improve the transient response and reduce the turning radius of 4WS vehicle.

  8. Manufacturing and automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Córdoba Nieto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents concepts and definitions from different sources concerning automation. The work approaches automation by virtue of the author’s experience in manufacturing production; why and how automation prolects are embarked upon is considered. Technological reflection regarding the progressive advances or stages of automation in the production area is stressed. Coriat and Freyssenet’s thoughts about and approaches to the problem of automation and its current state are taken and examined, especially that referring to the problem’s relationship with reconciling the level of automation with the flexibility and productivity demanded by competitive, worldwide manufacturing.

  9. Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) can steer by the stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauck, Björn; Gläser, Nele; Schlosser, Wolfhard; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2008-10-01

    Offshore orientation in marine mammals is still a mystery. For visual orientation during night-time foraging and travelling in the open seas, seals cannot rely on distant terrestrial landmarks, and thus might use celestial cues as repeatedly shown for nocturnally migrating birds. Although seals detect enough stars to probably allow for astronavigation, it was unclear whether they can orient by the night sky. The widely accepted cognitive mechanism for bird night-time orientation by celestial cues is a time-independent star compass with learned geometrical star configurations used to pinpoint north as the rotational centre of the starry sky while there is no conclusive evidence for a time-compensated star compass or true star navigation. Here, we present results for two harbour seals orienting in a custom made swimming planetarium. Both seals learned to highly accurately identify a lodestar out of a pseudo-randomly oriented, realistic projection of the northern hemisphere night sky. Providing the first evidence for star orientation capability in a marine mammal, our seals' outstanding directional precision would allow them to steer by following lodestars of learned star courses, a celestial orientation mechanism that has been known to be used by Polynesian navigators but has not been considered for animals yet.

  10. Laser Beam Steering/shaping for Free Space Optical Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinghua; Wang, Bin; Bos, Philip J.; Anderson, James E.; Pouch, John; Miranda, Felix; McManamon, Paul F.

    2004-01-01

    The 2-D Optical Phased Array (OPA) antenna based on a Liquid Crystal On Silicon (LCoS) device can be considered for use in free space optical communication as an active beam controlling device. Several examples of the functionality of the device include: beam steering in the horizontal and elevation direction; high resolution wavefront compensation in a large telescope; and beam shaping with the computer generated kinoform. Various issues related to the diffraction efficiency, steering range, steering accuracy as well as the magnitude of wavefront compensation are discussed.

  11. Selection and Simulation of Electric Steering Gear Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For the electric steering gear control systems, the principle of the system is introduced. Specific model and parameters are selected to deduce the optimal combination of control system and choices method of the steering system model is determined. The transfer function of motor according to the parameters is achieved and simulation results are gained based on MATLAB. Simulation results show that this method can meet the performance requirements of electric steering gear, the control method is simple and easy to work to achieve.

  12. Steering Control of Wheeled Armored Vehicle with Brushless DC Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Considering the steering characters of one type of wheeled armored vehicle, a brushless direct current (DC) motor is adapted as the actuator for steering control. After investigating the known algorithms, one kind of algorithm, which combines the fuzzy logic control with the self-adapting PID control and the startup and pre-brake control, is put forward. Then a test-bed is constructed, and an experiment is conducted. The result of experiment confirms the validity of this algorithm in steering control of wheeled armored vehicle with brushless DC motor.

  13. Simultaneous demultiplexing and steering of multiple orbital angular momentum modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuhui; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple scheme to perform simultaneous demultiplexing and steering of multiple orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes using a single complex phase mask. By designing the phase mask, the propagation directions of demultiplexed beams can be arbitrarily steered. System experiments using orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing 32-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (OFDM-32QAM) signals over two OAM modes are carried out by using a two-mode complex phase mask. Moreover, demultiplexing of sixteen OAM modes and arbitrary demultiplexed beam steering are also demonstrated in the experiment. PMID:26503167

  14. Steering vaccinomics innovations with anticipatory governance and participatory foresight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Vural; Faraj, Samer A; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2011-09-01

    Vaccinomics is the convergence of vaccinology and population-based omics sciences. The success of knowledge-based innovations such as vaccinomics is not only contingent on access to new biotechnologies. It also requires new ways of governance of science, knowledge production, and management. This article presents a conceptual analysis of the anticipatory and adaptive approaches that are crucial for the responsible design and sustainable transition of vaccinomics to public health practice. Anticipatory governance is a new approach to manage the uncertainties embedded on an innovation trajectory with participatory foresight, in order to devise governance instruments for collective "steering" of science and technology. As a contrast to hitherto narrowly framed "downstream impact assessments" for emerging technologies, anticipatory governance adopts a broader and interventionist approach that recognizes the social construction of technology design and innovation. It includes in its process explicit mechanisms to understand the factors upstream to the innovation trajectory such as deliberation and cocultivation of the aims, motives, funding, design, and direction of science and technology, both by experts and publics. This upstream shift from a consumer "product uptake" focus to "participatory technology design" on the innovation trajectory is an appropriately radical and necessary departure in the field of technology assessment, especially given that considerable public funds are dedicated to innovations. Recent examples of demands by research funding agencies to anticipate the broad impacts of proposed research--at a very upstream stage at the time of research funding application--suggest that anticipatory governance with foresight may be one way how postgenomics scientific practice might transform in the future toward responsible innovation. Moreover, the present context of knowledge production in vaccinomics is such that policy making for vaccines of the 21st

  15. Effect of feeding system on performance and carcass characteristics of yearling steers, steer calves and heifer calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, M L; Fox, D G; Black, J R

    1980-03-01

    Three types of cattle (Angus x Hereford yearling steers, Charolais x British breed steer calves and Hereford heifer calves) were evaluated for their response to different feeding systems utilizing high moisture corn, corn silage and soybean meal as major feed ingredients. Feeding ing systems for steers included: A = 85% concentrate; B = 40% concentrate; C = two phase, with switch from all corn silage to 85% concentrate in the middle of the feeding period; D = same as C except switch occurred late in the feeding period; E = all corn silage continuously. Heifer diets consisted of the following ratios of corn silage to concentrate: low energy = 89:11; medium energy = 67:33; and high energy = 100 fed at a moderate (10.9% for low energy and medium energy, and 11.7% for high energy) and high (13.8%) crude protein level. Treatments within each experiment were terminated at approximately the same final weight. Increasing percentage corn added to the total diet increased ADG in most comparisons. Adjusted to a constant carcass weight, increasing dietary energy increased fat thickness and reduced percentage retail product with no effect on quality grade in yearling steers and heifer calves. In Charolais cross-steer calves, increasing energy level increased quality grade with no effect on yield grade or percentage retail product. Energetic efficiency slightly favored system C in yearling steers while steer calves maximized efficiency on A. Hereford heifers were the most energetically efficient on medium energy diets. PMID:7364676

  16. Configuration Management Automation (CMA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Configuration Management Automation (CMA) will provide an automated, integrated enterprise solution to support CM of FAA NAS and Non-NAS assets and investments. CMA...

  17. FLEXIBLE 2-DOF STEERING MODEL OF MULTI-AXLE HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Bo; Wang Xuelin; Hu Yujin; Li Chenggang

    2004-01-01

    A flexible two degrees of freedom (2-DOF) steering model of multi-axle vehicle (MAV) is presented with considering the effect of frame flexibility based on the classic 2-DOF model. A method to calculate the frame flexibility is derived by using three moments equation. The steering stability of MAV is analyzed. The steering performance of MAV is also researched in frequency domain. Simulation results show that the dynamic effects of flexible model are more severe than rigid model and the flexible effect of frame will weaken the steering stability of MAV. Different disposals of steering axles lead to different steering characteristics of MAV. The in-phase steering mode improves the steering characteristics and stability at high speed. The anti-phase steering mode increases the steering mobility at low vehicle speed.

  18. Evaluation of Potential Usage of Incremental-Type Rotary Encoder Application for Angle Sensing in Steering System

    OpenAIRE

    Sunarto Kaleg; Aam Muharam; M. Redho Kurnia; Abdul Hapid

    2014-01-01

    The main target of a steering system is that the driver can change vehicle trajectory in accordance with the desired direction.  Power steering has become a standard feature in automobile.  It provides assisting power when the driver turns the steering wheel. The well-known power steering types include; Hydraulic Power Steering (HPS), Electro - Hydraulic Power Steering (EHPS), and Electric Power Steering (EPS). EHPS or EPS uses an Electronic Control Unit (ECU) which is specific for each vehic...

  19. The Impact of Analog and Bang-Bang Steering Gear Control on Ship's Fuel Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft Thomsen, J. C.; Blanke, Mogens; Reid, R. E.;

    1982-01-01

    The latest years have shown considerable efforts towards improving steering generated propulsion losses of ships by the introduction of various sophisticated control algorithms in the autopilots. However, little previous attention has been given to the steering gear control loop, although it is...... found to be at least equally important regarding steering performance and fuel economy. The paper presents a comprehensive survey of steering gear principles commonly used, including relevant details of three analog steering gear servo principles, which have outperformed conventional designs. Control...

  20. Workflow automation architecture standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshofsky, R.P.; Rohen, W.T. [Boeing Computer Services Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-11-14

    This document presents an architectural standard for application of workflow automation technology. The standard includes a functional architecture, process for developing an automated workflow system for a work group, functional and collateral specifications for workflow automation, and results of a proof of concept prototype.

  1. Design and performance test of a two-axis fast steering mirror driven by piezoelectric actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chu; Guo, Jin; Yang, Guo-qing; Jiang, Zhen-hua; Xu, Xin-hang; Wang, Ting-feng

    2016-09-01

    A novel design of a two-axis fast steering mirror (FSM) with piezoelectric actuators is proposed for incoherent laser beam combination. The mechanical performance of the FSM is tested. The results show that the tilting range of the mirror is about 4 mrad, and the 1st-order resonance frequency is about 250 Hz. A self-designed grating encoder is taken as the sensor, which ensures the optimal precision of 10 μrad. The novel mechanical design can meet the requirement of engineering in incoherent laser beam combination.

  2. Steering of Solar Sails Using Optical Lift Force Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study seeks to look beyond the use of radiation pressure for thrust, and to explore a means of solar navigation whereby a solar craft would be steered by use...

  3. An improved constrained steering law for SGCMGs with DPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Jin; Shijie Xu

    2009-01-01

    An improved constrained (IC) steering law for single girnbal control moment gyros (SGCMGs) with deformed pyramid configuration (DPC) is proposed. First of all, the original system with five pyramid configuration (FPC) whose two adjacent gyros are in failure state is reconfigured as a degraded system with DPC. Then, the singular angular momentum hypersurfaces of the original and the degraded systems are plotted via the singular angular momentum equation of SGCMGs. Based on singular surfaces, the differences between FPC and DPC in singularity and momentum envelope are obtained directly, which provide an important reference for steering law design of DPC. Finally, an IC steering law is designed and applied to DPC. The simulation results demonstrate that the IC steering law has advantages in simplicity of calculation, avoidance of singularity and exactness of output torque, which endow the degraded system with fine controllability in a restricted workspace.

  4. Improvement for the steering performance of liquid crystal phased array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yan; KONG Ling-jiang; CHEN Jun; ZHU Ying; YANG Jian-yu

    2009-01-01

    Optical phased array technology is introduced and the steering performances of liquid crystal phased array are discussed, several factors affecting the beam steering performances arc analyzed completely, also simple models for some typical factors are developed. Then, a new method based on iterating and modifying the output phase pattern of liquid crystal phase shifters is proposed. Using this method, the modified voltages applied on electrodes of liquid crystal phase shifters can be obtained, after applying the voltages, the influence of factors can be compensated to some extent; the steering angle accu-racy and efficiency with liquid crystal phased array can be improved. Through the simulation for the angle range from 0° to -1°, the error of steering angle can be reduced three orders of magnitude, and the efficiency can be increased almost 30% after several iterations.

  5. Simulation Training in Early Emergency Response (STEER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generoso, Jose Roberto; Latoures, Renee Elizabeth; Acar, Yahya; Miller, Dean Scott; Ciano, Mark; Sandrei, Renan; Vieira, Marlon; Luong, Sean; Hirsch, Jan; Fidler, Richard Lee

    2016-06-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ISSUE Instructions: 1.3 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded after you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. In order to obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Simulation Training in Early Emergency Response (STEER)," found on pages 255-263, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name, contact information, and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until May 31, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. OBJECTIVES Define the purpose of the Simulation Training in Early Emergency Response (STEER) study. Review the outcome of the STEER study. DISCLOSURE

  6. Steering and collimating ballistic electrons with amphoteric refraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that amphoteric refraction of ballistic electrons, i.e., positive or negative refraction depending on the incidence angle, occurs at an interface between an isotropic and an anisotropic medium and can be employed to steer and collimate electron beams. The steering angle is determined by the materials’ parameters, but the degree of collimation can be tuned in a significant range by changing the energy of ballistic electrons.

  7. Shoe-String Automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, M.L.

    2001-07-30

    Faced with a downsizing organization, serious budget reductions and retirement of key metrology personnel, maintaining capabilities to provide necessary services to our customers was becoming increasingly difficult. It appeared that the only solution was to automate some of our more personnel-intensive processes; however, it was crucial that the most personnel-intensive candidate process be automated, at the lowest price possible and with the lowest risk of failure. This discussion relates factors in the selection of the Standard Leak Calibration System for automation, the methods of automation used to provide the lowest-cost solution and the benefits realized as a result of the automation.

  8. Modeling of miner track system during steering motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少军; 韩庆珏

    2015-01-01

    Equipment for deep sea mining has risen from a position of virtual non-existence to a major industrial significance and in deep sea bed mining, the miner is the key equipment of the whole system that charges with the most complex and dangerous task. Evaluation of trafficability for tracked vehicles for deep sea mining is essential. Rare earth elements (REEs) are used in a wide range of modern applications. These applications are highly specific and substitutes are inferior or unknown. One possible source of the REE could be the poly-metallic nodule, at present explored in the tropical part of the Pacific Ocean. In developing miners of high performance, dynamic behaviour should be investigated under various traveling conditions. The mechanics of tracked vehicles is of continuing interest to organizations and agencies that specify design and operate tracked vehicles. Most works done are on the complete track vehicle system but in this work the research activity is aimed only at the track system with the basic aim of optimizing the track system design so that it can be manufactured by using the minimum resources. Equations and models are developed for the track system of a miner during steering motion. These equations and models could further be used for design optimization of the track system.

  9. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Steering

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, N; Eifert, T; Fischer, G; George, S; Haller, J; Höcker, A; Masik, J; Zur Nedden, M; Pérez-Réale, V; Risler, C; Schiavi, C; Stelzer, J; Wu, X; International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics

    2008-01-01

    The High Level Trigger (HLT) of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider receives events which pass the LVL1 trigger at ~75 kHz and has to reduce the rate to ~200 Hz while retaining the most interesting physics. It is a software trigger and performs the reduction in two stages: the LVL2 trigger and the Event Filter (EF). At the heart of the HLT is the Steering software. To minimise processing time and data transfers it implements the novel event selection strategies of seeded, step-wise reconstruction and early rejection. The HLT is seeded by regions of interest identified at LVL1. These and the static configuration determine which algorithms are run to reconstruct event data and test the validity of trigger signatures. The decision to reject the event or continue is based on the valid signatures, taking into account pre-scale and pass-through. After the EF, event classification tags are assigned for streaming purposes. Several powerful new features for commissioning and operation have been added: co...

  10. Adaptation: A Partially Automated Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Manjing, Tham; Bukhsh, F.A.; Weigand, H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper showcases the possibility of creating an adaptive auditing system. Adaptation in an audit environment need human intervention at some point. Based on a case study this paper focuses on automation of adaptation process. It is divided into solution design and validation parts. The artifact design is developed around import procedures of M-company. An overview of the artefact is discussed in detail to fully describes the adaptation mechanism with automatic adjustment for compliance re...

  11. Comparison of Curvilinear Stiffeners and Tow Steered Composites for Aeroelastic Tailoring of Transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Bret K.; Jutte, Christine V.

    2016-01-01

    A series of aeroelastic optimization problems are solved on a high aspect ratio wingbox of the Common Research Model, in an effort to minimize structural mass under coupled stress, buckling, and flutter constraints. Two technologies are of particular interest: tow steered composite laminate skins and curvilinear stiffeners. Both methods are found to afford feasible reductions in mass over their non-curvilinear structural counterparts, through both distinct and shared mechanisms for passively controlling aeroelastic performance. Some degree of diminishing returns are seen when curvilinear stiffeners and curvilinear fiber tow paths are used simultaneously.

  12. Fault-Tolerant Control of the Road Wheel Subsystem in a Steer-By-Wire System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a fault-tolerant steer-by-wire road wheel control system. With dual motor and dual microcontroller architecture, this system has the capability to tolerate single-point failures without degrading the control system performance. The arbitration bus, mechanical arrangement of motors, and the developed control algorithm allow the system to reconfigure itself automatically in the event of a single-point fault, and assure a smooth reconfiguration process. Both simulation and experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed fault-tolerant control system.

  13. Steering proton migration in hydrocarbons using intense few-cycle laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kübel, M; Burger, C; Kling, Nora G; Li, H; Alnaser, A S; Bergues, B; Zherebtsov, S; Azzeer, A M; Ben-Itzhak, I; Moshammer, R; de Vivie-Riedle, R; Kling, M F

    2015-01-01

    Proton migration is a ubiquitous process in chemical reactions related to biology, combustion, and catalysis. Thus, the ability to control the movement of nuclei with tailored light, within a hydrocarbon molecule holds promise for far-reaching applications. Here, we demonstrate the steering of hydrogen migration in simple hydrocarbons, namely acetylene and allene, using waveform-controlled, few-cycle laser pulses. The rearrangement dynamics are monitored using coincident 3D momentum imaging spectroscopy, and described with a quantum-dynamical model. Our observations reveal that the underlying control mechanism is due to the manipulation of the phases in a vibrational wavepacket by the intense off-resonant laser field.

  14. Quantum steering of Gaussian states via non-Gaussian measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Se-Wan; Lee, Jaehak; Park, Jiyong; Nha, Hyunchul

    2016-01-01

    Quantum steering—a strong correlation to be verified even when one party or its measuring device is fully untrusted—not only provides a profound insight into quantum physics but also offers a crucial basis for practical applications. For continuous-variable (CV) systems, Gaussian states among others have been extensively studied, however, mostly confined to Gaussian measurements. While the fulfilment of Gaussian criterion is sufficient to detect CV steering, whether it is also necessary for Gaussian states is a question of fundamental importance in many contexts. This critically questions the validity of characterizations established only under Gaussian measurements like the quantification of steering and the monogamy relations. Here, we introduce a formalism based on local uncertainty relations of non-Gaussian measurements, which is shown to manifest quantum steering of some Gaussian states that Gaussian criterion fails to detect. To this aim, we look into Gaussian states of practical relevance, i.e. two-mode squeezed states under a lossy and an amplifying Gaussian channel. Our finding significantly modifies the characteristics of Gaussian-state steering so far established such as monogamy relations and one-way steering under Gaussian measurements, thus opening a new direction for critical studies beyond Gaussian regime. PMID:27411853

  15. Automation tools for flexible aircraft maintenance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prentice, William J.; Drotning, William D.; Watterberg, Peter A.; Loucks, Clifford S.; Kozlowski, David M.

    2003-11-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project 26546 at Sandia, during the period FY01 through FY03. The project team visited four DoD depots that support extensive aircraft maintenance in order to understand critical needs for automation, and to identify maintenance processes for potential automation or integration opportunities. From the visits, the team identified technology needs and application issues, as well as non-technical drivers that influence the application of automation in depot maintenance of aircraft. Software tools for automation facility design analysis were developed, improved, extended, and integrated to encompass greater breadth for eventual application as a generalized design tool. The design tools for automated path planning and path generation have been enhanced to incorporate those complex robot systems with redundant joint configurations, which are likely candidate designs for a complex aircraft maintenance facility. A prototype force-controlled actively compliant end-effector was designed and developed based on a parallel kinematic mechanism design. This device was developed for demonstration of surface finishing, one of many in-contact operations performed during aircraft maintenance. This end-effector tool was positioned along the workpiece by a robot manipulator, programmed for operation by the automated planning tools integrated for this project. Together, the hardware and software tools demonstrate many of the technologies required for flexible automation in a maintenance facility.

  16. Steer wrestling : Hemisphere GPS hopes to bring its auto-steering technology to the oilsands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentein, J.

    2009-01-15

    Hemisphere GPS has developed a technology to guide giant dump trucks used in oilsand mining operations. The technology offers the possibility to haul oilsands from northern Alberta mines using driverless, remotely-guided trucks. The GPS system would ensure more accuracy than a human operator. The technology has the potential to be commercialized within the next year, and may be adapted for the mining industry. The unmanned technology would help oilsands mine operators lower their labour costs. Hemisphere GPS gained access to the steer-by-wire technology when it purchased the Australian software company Beeline Technologies Pty Ltd. Hemisphere GPS has also developed prototype unmanned drilling rig technology which has considerable potential in the energy industry. The company has won numerous awards in recognition of its commercial achievements in science and technology. 1 fig.

  17. A Parallel and Distributed Surrogate Model Implementation for Computational Steering

    KAUST Repository

    Butnaru, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Understanding the influence of multiple parameters in a complex simulation setting is a difficult task. In the ideal case, the scientist can freely steer such a simulation and is immediately presented with the results for a certain configuration of the input parameters. Such an exploration process is however not possible if the simulation is computationally too expensive. For these cases we present in this paper a scalable computational steering approach utilizing a fast surrogate model as substitute for the time-consuming simulation. The surrogate model we propose is based on the sparse grid technique, and we identify the main computational tasks associated with its evaluation and its extension. We further show how distributed data management combined with the specific use of accelerators allows us to approximate and deliver simulation results to a high-resolution visualization system in real-time. This significantly enhances the steering workflow and facilitates the interactive exploration of large datasets. © 2012 IEEE.

  18. Signal Processing Strategies for Cochlear Implants Using Current Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldo Nogueira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary cochlear implant systems, the audio signal is decomposed into different frequency bands, each assigned to one electrode. Thus, pitch perception is limited by the number of physical electrodes implanted into the cochlea and by the wide bandwidth assigned to each electrode. The Harmony HiResolution bionic ear (Advanced Bionics LLC, Valencia, CA, USA has the capability of creating virtual spectral channels through simultaneous delivery of current to pairs of adjacent electrodes. By steering the locus of stimulation to sites between the electrodes, additional pitch percepts can be generated. Two new sound processing strategies based on current steering have been designed, SpecRes and SineEx. In a chronic trial, speech intelligibility, pitch perception, and subjective appreciation of sound were compared between the two current steering strategies and standard HiRes strategy in 9 adult Harmony users. There was considerable variability in benefit, and the mean results show similar performance with all three strategies.

  19. Application of H infinite control to ship steering system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Because the general object of ship steering control system is singular, the state of rudder force and the state of disturbance are separated, and the generalized yaw output disturbance is obtained. Furthermore, singular system control problem of ship yaw and sway coupled system is transferred into nonsingular standard control problem. Then according to the linear fractional denoting algorithm of the rational function parameter perturbation system, the Linear Fractional Transform (LFT) model of yaw and sway coupled motion is solved, which is used to design the ship steering robust control system. For the ship steering system with the uncertain parameters, the robust control law is designed based on H∞μ-synthesis. And the robust performance of the system is analyzed and the simulation validation is made. Simulation results show that the designed control system has excellent control effect and robustness.

  20. Research on Friction Compensation Control for Electric Power Steering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaosong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel friction compensation control method is proposed to compensate both the dynamic and static friction torque of steering system. The change of EPS assist torque under fixed amplitude friction compensation torque can cause the diver’s steering feeling fuzzy. That is due to the fact that the friction torque felt by driver varies with EPS assist gain. Therefore, a further modified friction compensation control method is proposed based on EPS assist gain to make the driver have similar friction feeling. Finally, computer simulation and vehicle test are performed to verify the effectiveness of adaptation method in the proposed controller. Test results indicate that the proposed controller improved the driver’s steering performance.

  1. Ship automation technology. Instrumentation and navigation; Senpaku ni okeru jidoka gijutsu no genjo. Keiso to kokai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-02-01

    This paper summarizes facilities in automated vessels and automation technologies. The purpose of automation is to save energies, achieve navigation safety and high-efficiency navigation, and preserve the environment. Control theories required for automation include the PID control as a feedback control, and the feedforward control as a modern control theory. Actual installation of the automated systems may be enumerated as follows: remotely controlled wing operating and steering devices as power saving devices in ore transport vessels, hutch cover and ore removing device, totally remotely controlled ship mooring machine and one-man tug line device, and a sludge solidification treatment system; a merchant ship was installed with a controlling and monitoring system of marine devices consisting of a controlling and monitoring network for two systems, and a safety system network for two systems. The future marine vessel automating technology would advance in the areas of increasing speed and capacity and reducing size of computers and LANs as well as standardizing hardwares and softwares. As the automation trend in the futuristic vessels, proposals have been given on automating the centralized control and monitoring at an adequate level, improving the safety devices, considering more on energy conservation and environments, and improving the reliability. 5 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Dynamic Curvature Steering Control for Autonomous Vehicle: Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizzat Zakaria, Muhammad; Zamzuri, Hairi; Amri Mazlan, Saiful

    2016-02-01

    This paper discusses the design of dynamic curvature steering control for autonomous vehicle. The lateral control and longitudinal control are discussed in this paper. The controller is designed based on the dynamic curvature calculation to estimate the path condition and modify the vehicle speed and steering wheel angle accordingly. In this paper, the simulation results are presented to show the capability of the controller to track the reference path. The controller is able to predict the path and modify the vehicle speed to suit the path condition. The effectiveness of the controller is shown in this paper whereby identical performance is achieved with the benchmark but with extra curvature adaptation capabilites.

  3. Study on Characteristic of Electric Power Assist Steering System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许镇琳; 王豪; 尚喆; 张海华; 王家军

    2003-01-01

    A pinion-type electric power steering (EPS) equipped on a sedan is reached in this paper. A three-freedom dynamic model of this system is created. The variables affecting assist character is analyzed. The formulas of simpled steering resistance force and the relationship between assist gain and vehicle speed are presented for the first time. Assist character is found based on the parameters of a sedan at last. This assist character is fit for the control rule of the EPS system through analyzing this character. The assist character figure offers reference for system design and control. Furthermore, this research method has generality for assist character of different kinds of vehicles.

  4. Automate functional testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kalindri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, software engineers are increasingly turning to the option of automating functional tests, but not always have successful in this endeavor. Reasons range from low planning until over cost in the process. Some principles that can guide teams in automating these tests are described in this article.

  5. Automation in Warehouse Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg, R.; Verriet, J.

    2012-01-01

    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and support

  6. Work and Programmable Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Paul W.

    A new industrial era based on electronics and the microprocessor has arrived, an era that is being called intelligent automation. Intelligent automation, in the form of robots, replaces workers, and the new products, using microelectronic devices, require significantly less labor to produce than the goods they replace. The microprocessor thus…

  7. Library Automation Style Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord Bros., Liverpool, NY.

    This library automation style guide lists specific terms and names often used in the library automation industry. The terms and/or acronyms are listed alphabetically and each is followed by a brief definition. The guide refers to the "Chicago Manual of Style" for general rules, and a notes section is included for the convenience of individual…

  8. Magnetic measurement and analysis of independent and combined function steering magnets for Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indus-2 is a 2.5 GeV synchrotron light source under construction at CAT, Indore. Storage ring consists of a total 16 dipole, 72 quadrupole, 32 sextupole and 56 steering magnets. Out of these 56 steering magnets, 32 are combined function magnets, 16 horizontal and 8 vertical steering magnets. Results of magnetic measurements of steering magnets are discussed in this paper. (author)

  9. Effects of slow-release urea on ruminal digesta characteristics and growth performance in beef steers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor-Edwards, C C; Hibbard, G; Kitts, S E;

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of slow urea (SRU) versus feed-grade urea on ruminal metabolite characteristics in steers and DMI, gain, and G:F in growing beef steers.......Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of slow urea (SRU) versus feed-grade urea on ruminal metabolite characteristics in steers and DMI, gain, and G:F in growing beef steers....

  10. Development of a Prototype Automated Sorting System for Plastic Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    D. A. Wahab; Hussain, A.; Scavino, E.; Mustafa, M.M.; Basri, H.

    2006-01-01

    Automated sorting for plastic recyclables has been seen as the way forward in the plastic recycling industry. Automated sorting provides significant improvements in terms of efficiency and consistency in the sorting process. In the case of macro sorting, which is the most common type of automated sorting, efficiency is determined by the mechanical details of the material handling system as well as the detection system. This paper provides a review on the state of-the-art technologies that hav...

  11. Automation in immunohematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Meenu; Kaur, Ravneet; Gupta, Ekta

    2012-07-01

    There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process.

  12. Automation in Immunohematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Bajpai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process.

  13. Automation in immunohematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Meenu; Kaur, Ravneet; Gupta, Ekta

    2012-07-01

    There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process. PMID:22988378

  14. Automation in Warehouse Development

    CERN Document Server

    Verriet, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and supports the quality of picking processes. Secondly, the development of models to simulate and analyse warehouse designs and their components facilitates the challenging task of developing warehouses that take into account each customer’s individual requirements and logistic processes. Automation in Warehouse Development addresses both types of automation from the innovative perspective of applied science. In particular, it describes the outcomes of the Falcon project, a joint endeavour by a consortium of industrial and academic partners. The results include a model-based approach to automate warehouse control design, analysis models for warehouse design, concepts for robotic item handling and computer vision, and auton...

  15. Advances in inspection automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Walter H.; Mair, H. Douglas; Jansen, Dion; Lombardi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    This new session at QNDE reflects the growing interest in inspection automation. Our paper describes a newly developed platform that makes the complex NDE automation possible without the need for software programmers. Inspection tasks that are tedious, error-prone or impossible for humans to perform can now be automated using a form of drag and drop visual scripting. Our work attempts to rectify the problem that NDE is not keeping pace with the rest of factory automation. Outside of NDE, robots routinely and autonomously machine parts, assemble components, weld structures and report progress to corporate databases. By contrast, components arriving in the NDT department typically require manual part handling, calibrations and analysis. The automation examples in this paper cover the development of robotic thickness gauging and the use of adaptive contour following on the NRU reactor inspection at Chalk River.

  16. Automated model building

    CERN Document Server

    Caferra, Ricardo; Peltier, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    This is the first book on automated model building, a discipline of automated deduction that is of growing importance Although models and their construction are important per se, automated model building has appeared as a natural enrichment of automated deduction, especially in the attempt to capture the human way of reasoning The book provides an historical overview of the field of automated deduction, and presents the foundations of different existing approaches to model construction, in particular those developed by the authors Finite and infinite model building techniques are presented The main emphasis is on calculi-based methods, and relevant practical results are provided The book is of interest to researchers and graduate students in computer science, computational logic and artificial intelligence It can also be used as a textbook in advanced undergraduate courses

  17. 49 CFR 571.204 - Standard No. 204; Steering control rearward displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... displacement. S1. Purpose and scope. This standard specifies requirements limiting the rearward displacement of..., trucks, and buses. However, it does not apply to walk-in vans. S3. Definitions. Steering column means a... torque from the steering wheel to the steering gear. S4Requirements. S4.1Vehicles manufactured...

  18. Low Cost Beam-Steering Approach for a Series-Fed Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host, Nicholas K.; Chen, Chi-Chih; Volakis, John L.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2013-01-01

    Phased array antennas showcase many advantages over mechanically steered systems. However, they are also more complex and costly. This paper presents a concept which overcomes these detrimental attributes by eliminating all of the phased array backend (including phase shifters). Instead, a propagation constant reconfigurable transmission line in a series fed array arrangement is used to allow phase shifting with one small (less than or equal to 100mil) linear mechanical motion. A novel slotted coplanar stripline design improves on previous transmission lines by demonstrating a greater control of propagation constant, thus allowing practical prototypes to be built. Also, beam steering pattern control is explored. We show that with correct choice of line impedance, pattern control is possible for all scan angles. A 20 element array scanning from -25 deg less than or equal to theta less than or equal to 21 deg. with mostly uniform gain at 13GHz is presented. Measured patterns show a reduced scan range of 12 deg. less than or equal to theta less than or equal to 25 deg. due to a correctable manufacturing error as verified by simulation. Beam squint is measured to be plus or minus 2.5 deg for a 600MHz bandwidth and cross-pol is measured to be at least -15dB.

  19. Slow-release urea in supplement fed to beef steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Gonçalves

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Replacing regular urea (RU by slow-release urea (SRU at two levels of non-protein nitrogen (NPN in concentrate, offered with low-quality roughage, was evaluated in beef steers on dry matter intake (DMI, ruminal fermentation parameters, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN, total tract apparent digestibility of diets and in situ degradability of nitrogen sources. Eight ruminally cannulated steers were allocated into two 4x4 Latin squares, totalizing four treatments: 40 NPN/0 SRU: 40% of concentrate crude protein (CP as NPN, resulting from 0% of SRU and 100% of RU; 40 NPN/50 SRU: 40% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 50% of SRU and 50% of RU; 40 NPN/100 SRU: 40% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 100% of SRU and 0% of RU; 80 NPN/100 SRU: 80% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 100% of SRU and 0% of RU. Results showed that partial substitution of regular urea by slow-release urea did not alter dry matter intake, pattern of ruminal fermentation or plasma urea nitrogen concentrations and increased the total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein in steers diets. The increase in non-protein nitrogen content in crude protein of the concentrate could compromise feed intake and the efficiency of nutrient utilization in the steers fed complete diets based on low quality forage.

  20. Image Processing In Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesh, James R.; Ansari, Homayoon; Chen, Chien-Chung; Russell, Donald W.

    1996-01-01

    Conceptual design of image-processing circuitry developed for proposed tracking apparatus described in "Beam-Steering Subsystem For Laser Communication" (NPO-19069). In proposed system, desired frame rate achieved by "windowed" readout scheme in which only pixels containing and surrounding two spots read out and others skipped without being read. Image data processed rapidly and efficiently to achieve high frequency response.

  1. Threats and protection for electronically-steered array radars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.P.B.; Monni, S.; Maas, A.P.M.; Vliet, F.E. van

    2008-01-01

    Front-end power overload protection is a vital issue in any electro-magnetic sensor. The issues around active electronically-steered arrays are more recent and pose new threats. Different categories of threats can damage the sensitive electronics in the phased-array radar, like hostile high power el

  2. Minutes: ANSI Steering Committee on Solar Energy Standards Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-29

    Minutes of the April 29, 1980, meeting of the American National Standards Institute steering committee on solar energy standards development are given. Attachments include correspondence from individuals and organizations which primarily describe the Solar Public Interest Coordination Committee (SPICC) and its recent activities. Also a report on the meeting of the ANSI subcommittee on international activity is attached. (WHK)

  3. Proportional directional valve based automatic steering system for tractors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-yi LIU; Jing-quan TAN; En-rong MAO; Zheng-he SONG; Zhong-xiang ZHU‡

    2016-01-01

    Most automatic steering systems for large tractors are designed with hydraulic systems that run on either constant flow or constant pressure. Such designs are limited in adaptability and applicability. Moreover, their control valves can unload in the neutral position and eventually lead to serious hydraulic leakage over long operation periods. In response to the problems noted above, a multifunctional automatic hydraulic steering circuit is presented. The system design is composed of a 5-way-3-position proportional directional valve, two pilot-controlled check valves, a pressure-compensated directional valve, a pressure-compensated flow regulator valve, a load shuttle valve, and a check valve, among other components. It is adaptable to most open-center systems with constant flow supply and closed-center systems with load feedback. The design maintains the lowest pressure under load feedback and stays at the neutral position during unloading, thus meeting the requirements for steering. The steering controller is based on proportional-integral-derivative (PID) running on a 51-microcontroller-unit master control chip. An experimental platform is developed to establish the basic characteristics of the system subject to stepwise inputs and sinusoi-dal tracking. Test results show that the system design demonstrates excellent control accuracy, fast response, and negligible leak during long operation periods.

  4. The Analysis of The Fault of Electrical Power Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Li Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysis the common fault types of primary Electrical Power Steering system, meanwhile classify every fault. It provides the basis for further troubleshooting and maintenance. At the same time this paper propose a practical working principle of fault-tolerant, in order to make the EPS system more security and durability.

  5. Electrical Steering of Vehicles - Fault-tolerant Analysis and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Thomsen, Jesper Sandberg

    2006-01-01

    solutions and still meet strict requirements to functional safety. The paper applies graph-based analysis of functional system structure to find a novel fault-tolerant architecture for an electrical steering where a dedicated AC-motor design and cheap voltage measurements ensure ability to detect all...

  6. The value of theoretical multiplicity for steering transitions towards sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewulf, A.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Pot, W.D.; Werkman, R.A.; Breeman, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    Transition management, as a theory of directing structural societal changes towards sustainable system innovations, has become a major topic in scientific research over the last years. In this paper we focus on the question how transitions towards sustainability can be steered, governed or managed,

  7. MODELING OF VEHICULAR STEERING EFFICIENCY IN TRAFFIC DIRECTION MOTION CHANNEL

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Ganai; S. A. O. Diab Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    The paper formulates and solves an actual problem pertaining to vehicular steering efficiency in traffic direction motion channel. Models of operator-drivers with low, medium and high rates in motivational perception of road conditions and also a model for controlling a traffic direction motion have been taken into ccount in the paper.  Modeling has been done by using MATLAB.

  8. DSPIC BASED POWER ASSISTED STEERING USING BRUSHLESS DIRECT CURRENT MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R.P. Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study illustrates the Electrically Assisted power Steering (EAS using BLDC motor for a vehicle. Earlier the Electrically Assisted power Steering (EAS was implemented with DSP. This study shows the usage of a dsPIC to control the BLDC motor with an encoder. The BLDC motor here is driven by dsPIC through a three phase inverter system. IRAMS type of inverter is used which is cost efficient and space efficient. The dsPIC supplied with the input of the steering. In its higher capacity the vehicles speed controller acts as the assistance level controller for steering effort. At the lower capacity, the torque controller gives the effort level control. In reality this can be realized as torque sensor and vehicle sensor interfaced in the dsPIC. For actual implementation in the system, a dsPIC-based BLDC motor controller with three-phase inverter module is used with Hall-effect sensor feedback. It is designed in such a way that the driver assistance can be varied at any time without any difficulty.

  9. Chef infrastructure automation cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Marschall, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Chef Infrastructure Automation Cookbook contains practical recipes on everything you will need to automate your infrastructure using Chef. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to automate your server and cloud infrastructure.The book first shows you the simplest way to achieve a certain task. Then it explains every step in detail, so that you can build your knowledge about how things work. Eventually, the book shows you additional things to consider for each approach. That way, you can learn step-by-step and build profound knowledge on how to go about your configuration management

  10. Key Technology and Development Prospects of Automotive By-wire Steering System%汽车线控转向系统的关键技术及发展前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一斐

    2014-01-01

    线控转向( Steer-By-Wire,SBW)系统,指通过通讯网络连接各部件的控制系统,取消了传统的机械式转向装置,转向器与转向柱间无机械连接。该系统转动效率高,响应时间快,降低车辆底盘开发成本,改善车辆驾驶特性,并且利于环境的保护,在一定程度上提高了车辆的操纵稳定性、汽车碰撞安全性和整车主动安全性等。主要研究了汽车线控转向系统的关键技术,对线控转向技术的发展进行了前景的展望。%SBW ( Steer-By-Wire, SBW) system, connected by a communication network refers to the various components of the control system , the abolition of the traditional mechanical steering , steering column between the steering and no mechanical connection .The system is a high rotation efficiency , fast response time , reduce vehicle chassis development costs , improve vehicle driving characteristics , and help protect the environment , to a certain extent, improve the handling and stability of the vehicle , the car crash safety and vehicle active safety , etc..This paper studies the automotive by-wire steering system key technologies , the development of technology for wire steer-ing prospected prospects .

  11. Principles of double entry bookkeeping in an automated control environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiaanse, R.M.J.; Hulstijn, J.

    2013-01-01

    Developments in auditing, such as continuous auditing or compliance by design, presuppose detailed models of economic transactions, often modelled as value cycles using a money measure. Automated control environments require an automated mechanism to ensure data integrity. Data integrity is not a gi

  12. Development of a Prototype Automated Sorting System for Plastic Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Wahab

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated sorting for plastic recyclables has been seen as the way forward in the plastic recycling industry. Automated sorting provides significant improvements in terms of efficiency and consistency in the sorting process. In the case of macro sorting, which is the most common type of automated sorting, efficiency is determined by the mechanical details of the material handling system as well as the detection system. This paper provides a review on the state of-the-art technologies that have been deployed by some of the recycling facilities abroad. The design and development of a cost effective prototype automated system for sorting plastic recyclables is proposed and discussed.

  13. A system-level approach to automation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, F. W.; Orlando, N. E.

    1984-01-01

    Automation is the application of self-regulating mechanical and electronic devices to processes that can be accomplished with the human organs of perception, decision, and actuation. The successful application of automation to a system process should reduce man/system interaction and the perceived complexity of the system, or should increase affordability, productivity, quality control, and safety. The expense, time constraints, and risk factors associated with extravehicular activities have led the Automation Technology Branch (ATB), as part of the NASA Automation Research and Technology Program, to investigate the use of robots and teleoperators as automation aids in the context of space operations. The ATB program addresses three major areas: (1) basic research in autonomous operations, (2) human factors research on man-machine interfaces with remote systems, and (3) the integration and analysis of automated systems. This paper reviews the current ATB research in the area of robotics and teleoperators.

  14. I-94 Automation FAQs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — In order to increase efficiency, reduce operating costs and streamline the admissions process, U.S. Customs and Border Protection has automated Form I-94 at air and...

  15. Hydrometeorological Automated Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of Hydrologic Development of the National Weather Service operates HADS, the Hydrometeorological Automated Data System. This data set contains the last...

  16. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven

    2016-01-01

    This edited book comprises papers about the impacts, benefits and challenges of connected and automated cars. It is the third volume of the LNMOB series dealing with Road Vehicle Automation. The book comprises contributions from researchers, industry practitioners and policy makers, covering perspectives from the U.S., Europe and Japan. It is based on the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015 which was jointly organized by the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in July 2015. The topical spectrum includes, but is not limited to, public sector activities, human factors, ethical and business aspects, energy and technological perspectives, vehicle systems and transportation infrastructure. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  17. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation 2

    2015-01-01

    This paper collection is the second volume of the LNMOB series on Road Vehicle Automation. The book contains a comprehensive review of current technical, socio-economic, and legal perspectives written by experts coming from public authorities, companies and universities in the U.S., Europe and Japan. It originates from the Automated Vehicle Symposium 2014, which was jointly organized by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Burlingame, CA, in July 2014. The contributions discuss the challenges arising from the integration of highly automated and self-driving vehicles into the transportation system, with a focus on human factors and different deployment scenarios. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  18. Control and path prediction of an Automate Guided Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Butdee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this paper a new architecture and control strategy of an AGV is proposed. It is organized as follows.The system architecture is explained in section 2. Section 3 deals with the kinematics model of the AGV path,prediction and control. Section 4 describes the experiments. The conclusion and recommendation are given insection 5.Design/methodology/approach: It is a three wheels vehicle. The front wheel is used for driving and steering theAGV and the two rear wheels are free. The steering and driving are DC motor. Two encoders are individuallyattached on the two rear wheels in order to measure the vehicle displacement and then calculate its real timeposition and orientation. The choice of positioning the encoders on the free wheels provides to the vehicle anaccurate measurement of its progression. A programmable logic control (PLC is used for motion control.Findings: In this paper, An Automate Guided Vehicle (AGV is presented. The developed algorithm is basedon memorised path and kinematics determination of the movement. The vehicle position and deviation arecalculated from rear wheels rotation measurement. The steering and driving command are determined fromthis deviation. Localization of AGV by Kaman filtering algorithm is presented. Control of AGV motion isimplemented by using PID control scheme. Displacement axis and steering axis are separated to implementthe motion control. We proposed the localization system for estimation of AGV. Position and orientation areestimated by Kalman filtering in state-space model. Position and orientation of AGV are measured and used forsimulation for localization system. We conclude that the vehicle can reach from the initial position moved alongwith generated path with accurate location. A Schneider PLC is used to implement this control. The tests reveala smooth movement and convenient deviation.Practical implications: The first prototype working, the next research steps will be development of a

  19. An automated inverse analysis system using neural networks and computational mechanics with its application to identification of 3-D crack shape hidden in solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a new inverse analysis system using the hierarchical (multilayer) neural networks and the computational mechanics. The present inverse analysis basically consists of the following three subprocesses: by parametrically varying system parameters, their corresponding responses of the system are calculated through computational mechanics simulations, each of which is an ordinary direct analysis. Each data pair of system parameters system responses is called training pattern; the back-propagation neural network is iteratively trained using a number of training patterns. The system responses are given to the input units of the network, while the system parameters to be identified are given to its output units as teacher signal; some system responses measured are given to the well trained network, which immediately outputs appropriate system parameters even for untrained patterns. This is an inverse analysis. To demonstrate its practical performances, the present system is applied to identify locations and shapes of two adjacent dissimilar surface cracks hidden in a pipe with the electric potential drop method. The results clearly show that the present system is very efficient and accurate. (author). 7 refs., 10 figs

  20. Instant Sikuli test automation

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to follow style using the Starter guide approach.This book is aimed at automation and testing professionals who want to use Sikuli to automate GUI. Some Python programming experience is assumed.

  1. Automated security management

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Shaer, Ehab; Xie, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    In this contributed volume, leading international researchers explore configuration modeling and checking, vulnerability and risk assessment, configuration analysis, and diagnostics and discovery. The authors equip readers to understand automated security management systems and techniques that increase overall network assurability and usability. These constantly changing networks defend against cyber attacks by integrating hundreds of security devices such as firewalls, IPSec gateways, IDS/IPS, authentication servers, authorization/RBAC servers, and crypto systems. Automated Security Managemen

  2. Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.

  3. Development of active rear steer actuator. Development of four wheel steer actuator for active safety; Active rear steer actuator no kaihatsu. Yobo anzen ni muketa 4WS actuator no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, T. [Aisin Seiki Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Recently, ecology, energy saving and safety have become important issues. And Active Safety is spotlighted in vehicle control area. Many researches and developments on four wheel steer system have been done to improve vehicle stability. We have developed the Active Rear Steer system with electromechanical Actuator, which is mass-productive, compact, and high response and durable. 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. [The machine more than a machine or the automation transfigured. Julien Offray de la Mettrie's anthropology and the reinvention of the medical mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I take into account an image, or concept, that of 'machine', and more precisely one of its most problematic and controversial derivations, that of 'man-machine', which are at the basis of all the representations, and in particular medical representations, of the human action as a result of an 'automatism' as well as of man as an 'automaton'. More in detail, I try to analyse the theoretical framework, the rhetorical structure and the medical derivation of Julien Offray de la Mettrie's concept of the 'man-machine', and to cast light on a double phenomenon of semantic distortion and of individuation of new shades of meaning that the semantic field of the 'mechanical' underwent in La Mettrie's thought.

  5. Application of MEMS Accelerometers and Gyroscopes in Fast Steering Mirror Control Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Yang, Wenshu; Peng, Zhenming; Tang, Tao; Li, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    In a charge-coupled device (CCD)-based fast steering mirror (FSM) tracking control system, high control bandwidth is the most effective way to enhance the closed-loop performance. However, the control system usually suffers a great deal from mechanical resonances and time delays induced by the low sampling rate of CCDs. To meet the requirements of high precision and load restriction, fiber-optic gyroscopes (FOGs) are usually used in traditional FSM tracking control systems. In recent years, the MEMS accelerometer and gyroscope are becoming smaller and lighter and their performance have improved gradually, so that they can be used in a fast steering mirror (FSM) to realize the stabilization of the line-of-sight (LOS) of the control system. Therefore, a tentative approach to implement a CCD-based FSM tracking control system, which uses MEMS accelerometers and gyroscopes as feedback components and contains an acceleration loop, a velocity loop and a position loop, is proposed. The disturbance suppression of the proposed method is the product of the error attenuation of the acceleration loop, the velocity loop and the position loop. Extensive experimental results show that the MEMS accelerometers and gyroscopes can act the similar role as the FOG with lower cost for stabilizing the LOS of the FSM tracking control system.

  6. Exploring the free-energy landscapes of biological systems with steered molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L Y

    2011-04-01

    We perform steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations and use the Brownian dynamics fluctuation-dissipation-theorem (BD-FDT) to accurately compute the free-energy profiles for several biophysical processes of fundamental importance: hydration of methane and cations, binding of benzene to T4-lysozyme L99A mutant, and permeation of water through aquaglyceroporin. For each system, the center-of-mass of the small molecule (methane, ion, benzene, and water, respectively) is steered (pulled) at a given speed over a period of time, during which the system transitions from one macroscopic state/conformation (State A) to another one (State B). The mechanical work of pulling the system is measured during the process, sampling a forward pulling path. Then the reverse pulling is conducted to sample a reverse path from B back to A. Sampling a small number of forward and reverse paths, we are able to accurately compute the free-energy profiles for all the afore-listed systems that represent various important aspects of biological physics. The numerical results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data and/or other computational studies available in the literature.

  7. Application of MEMS Accelerometers and Gyroscopes in Fast Steering Mirror Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Tian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In a charge-coupled device (CCD-based fast steering mirror (FSM tracking control system, high control bandwidth is the most effective way to enhance the closed-loop performance. However, the control system usually suffers a great deal from mechanical resonances and time delays induced by the low sampling rate of CCDs. To meet the requirements of high precision and load restriction, fiber-optic gyroscopes (FOGs are usually used in traditional FSM tracking control systems. In recent years, the MEMS accelerometer and gyroscope are becoming smaller and lighter and their performance have improved gradually, so that they can be used in a fast steering mirror (FSM to realize the stabilization of the line-of-sight (LOS of the control system. Therefore, a tentative approach to implement a CCD-based FSM tracking control system, which uses MEMS accelerometers and gyroscopes as feedback components and contains an acceleration loop, a velocity loop and a position loop, is proposed. The disturbance suppression of the proposed method is the product of the error attenuation of the acceleration loop, the velocity loop and the position loop. Extensive experimental results show that the MEMS accelerometers and gyroscopes can act the similar role as the FOG with lower cost for stabilizing the LOS of the FSM tracking control system.

  8. Application of MEMS Accelerometers and Gyroscopes in Fast Steering Mirror Control Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Yang, Wenshu; Peng, Zhenming; Tang, Tao; Li, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    In a charge-coupled device (CCD)-based fast steering mirror (FSM) tracking control system, high control bandwidth is the most effective way to enhance the closed-loop performance. However, the control system usually suffers a great deal from mechanical resonances and time delays induced by the low sampling rate of CCDs. To meet the requirements of high precision and load restriction, fiber-optic gyroscopes (FOGs) are usually used in traditional FSM tracking control systems. In recent years, the MEMS accelerometer and gyroscope are becoming smaller and lighter and their performance have improved gradually, so that they can be used in a fast steering mirror (FSM) to realize the stabilization of the line-of-sight (LOS) of the control system. Therefore, a tentative approach to implement a CCD-based FSM tracking control system, which uses MEMS accelerometers and gyroscopes as feedback components and contains an acceleration loop, a velocity loop and a position loop, is proposed. The disturbance suppression of the proposed method is the product of the error attenuation of the acceleration loop, the velocity loop and the position loop. Extensive experimental results show that the MEMS accelerometers and gyroscopes can act the similar role as the FOG with lower cost for stabilizing the LOS of the FSM tracking control system. PMID:27023557

  9. Modeling the Energy Use of a Connected and Automated Transportation System (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Brown, A.

    2014-07-01

    Early research points to large potential impacts of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) on transportation energy use - dramatic savings, increased use, or anything in between. Due to a lack of suitable data and integrated modeling tools to explore these complex future systems, analyses to date have relied on simple combinations of isolated effects. This poster proposes a framework for modeling the potential energy implications from increasing penetration of CAV technologies and for assessing technology and policy options to steer them toward favorable energy outcomes. Current CAV modeling challenges include estimating behavior change, understanding potential vehicle-to-vehicle interactions, and assessing traffic flow and vehicle use under different automation scenarios. To bridge these gaps and develop a picture of potential future automated systems, NREL is integrating existing modeling capabilities with additional tools and data inputs to create a more fully integrated CAV assessment toolkit.

  10. Part-task training in the context of automation: current and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, Robert S; Clegg, Benjamin A; Blitch, John G

    2013-01-01

    Automation often elicits a divide-and-conquer outlook. By definition, automation has been suggested to assume control over a part or whole task that was previously performed by a human (Parasuraman & Riley, 1997). When such notions of automation are taken as grounds for training, they readily invoke a part-task training (PTT) approach. This article outlines broad functions of automation as a source of PTT and reviews the PTT literature, focusing on the potential benefits and costs related to using automation as a mechanism for PTT. The article reviews some past work in this area and suggests a path to move beyond the type of work captured by the "automation as PTT" framework. An illustrative experiment shows how automation in training and PTT are actually separable issues. PTT with automation has some utility but ultimately remains an unsatisfactory framework for the future broad potential of automation during training, and we suggest that a new conceptualization is needed.

  11. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe; Campoy, Pascual; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Voos, Holger

    2016-03-11

    Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption.

  12. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe; Campoy, Pascual; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Voos, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption. PMID:26978365

  13. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Olivares-Mendez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption.

  14. Vision-Based Steering Control, Speed Assistance and Localization for Inner-City Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Mendez, Miguel Angel; Sanchez-Lopez, Jose Luis; Jimenez, Felipe; Campoy, Pascual; Sajadi-Alamdari, Seyed Amin; Voos, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous route following with road vehicles has gained popularity in the last few decades. In order to provide highly automated driver assistance systems, different types and combinations of sensors have been presented in the literature. However, most of these approaches apply quite sophisticated and expensive sensors, and hence, the development of a cost-efficient solution still remains a challenging problem. This work proposes the use of a single monocular camera sensor for an automatic steering control, speed assistance for the driver and localization of the vehicle on a road. Herein, we assume that the vehicle is mainly traveling along a predefined path, such as in public transport. A computer vision approach is presented to detect a line painted on the road, which defines the path to follow. Visual markers with a special design painted on the road provide information to localize the vehicle and to assist in its speed control. Furthermore, a vision-based control system, which keeps the vehicle on the predefined path under inner-city speed constraints, is also presented. Real driving tests with a commercial car on a closed circuit finally prove the applicability of the derived approach. In these tests, the car reached a maximum speed of 48 km/h and successfully traveled a distance of 7 km without the intervention of a human driver and any interruption. PMID:26978365

  15. A sensor-based automation system for handling nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated system is being developed for handling large payloads of radioactive nuclear materials in an analytical laboratory. The automation system performs unpacking and repacking of payloads from shipping and storage containers, and delivery of the payloads to the stations in the laboratory. The system uses machine vision and force/torque sensing to provide sensor-based control of the automation system in order to enhance system safety, flexibility, and robustness, and achieve easy remote operation. The automation system also controls the operation of the laboratory measurement systems and the coordination of them with the robotic system. Particular attention has been given to system design features and analytical methods that provide an enhanced level of operational safety. Independent mechanical gripper interlock and tool release mechanisms were designed to prevent payload mishandling. An extensive Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the automation system was developed as a safety design analysis tool

  16. Eficácia do sistema de contenção (automatizado e mecânico no atordoamento de bovinos Effectiveness of the restraining system (automated and mechanical in the cattle stunning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Bertoloni

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Um total de 800 bovinos machos (nelore/anelorados, com idade entre 28 e 36 meses, foi atordoado com pistola pneumática, com pressão de operação de 11 a 12bar e haste de penetração de 15.9mm de diâmetro, em sistemas de contenção diferentes (mecânico e atomatizado. O box de contenção mecânico tradicional (2,53x0,88x2,20m não permitiu a contenção da cabeça do animal; no segundo tratamento utilizou-se box de contenção automatizado (2,60x0,85x2,30m, com parede lateral e piso móveis, guilhotina e elevador de cabeça. O box automatizado proporcionou menor número de disparos necessários para o atordoamento (1,0625±0,013 em comparação ao mecânico(1,2025±0,026, (P≤0,0001, reduziu a distância em relação ao ponto ideal no primeiro disparo (1,246±0,918 e 2,357±1,246 e no segundo (3,042±0,141 e 4,016±0,101, (P 0,0001, assim como proporcionou ausência de reflexo respiratório comparativamente ao sistema mecânico (0,0275±0,008, (P≤0,001. O box automatizado apresentou maior bem-estar e maior eficácia na contenção e insensibilização dos bovinosA total of 800 male cattle (Nelore, aged 28-36 months, stunned by pneumatic captive bolt pistol (operating pressure 160-175psi 11-12bar , air consumption (per cycle 1.45ft³ 41L , penetrating shaft diameter 0.625 in 15.9mm in different restrainer systems (mechanical and automated. The traditional mechanical restraint (2.53x0.88x2.20m did not allow the containment of the animal's head, the automated restrainer (2.60x0.85x2.30m allowed adjustable sidewall and restraint and elevating the head. The automatic restrainer provided smaller number of shots required for stunning (1.0625±0.013 compared to mechanical (1.2025±0.026 (P≤0.0001, reduced the distance from the ideal point in the first shot (1.246±0.918 and (2.357±1.246 and second (3.042±0.141 and (4.016±0.101 (P 0.0001, and provided no respiratory reflex compared to the mechanical system (0.0275±0.008, (P≤0.001. The

  17. Automation Framework for Flight Dynamics Products Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Robert E.; Esposito, Timothy C.; Watson, John S.; Jun, Linda; Shoan, Wendy; Matusow, Carla

    2010-01-01

    XFDS provides an easily adaptable automation platform. To date it has been used to support flight dynamics operations. It coordinates the execution of other applications such as Satellite TookKit, FreeFlyer, MATLAB, and Perl code. It provides a mechanism for passing messages among a collection of XFDS processes, and allows sending and receiving of GMSEC messages. A unified and consistent graphical user interface (GUI) is used for the various tools. Its automation configuration is stored in text files, and can be edited either directly or using the GUI.

  18. Robust autopilot with wave filter for ship steering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xian-zhou; XU Han-zhen

    2006-01-01

    Research was done to overcome traditional problems associated with automatic steering systems of a ship in a seaway. A ship's dynamic model with wave disturbances was built and a wave filter was designed by means of an extended states observer (ESO). The model estimated the low frequency motion component from a heading measurement corrupted by colorednoise, so back-and-forth steering caused by high frequency wave disturbances was avoided. At the same time, a robust autopilot system,designed by variable structure control theory, was presented. Simulation results achieved in dangerous sea status show that the wave filter works very well and the autopilot has strong robustness to environmental disturbances and model perturbation, and more importantly, the frequency of rudder adjustments is reduced noticeably.

  19. Terrestrial Steering Group. 2014. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Peter; Aronsson, Mora; Barry, Tom;

    The Terrestrial Steering Group (TSG), has initiated the implementation phase of the CBMP Terrestrial Plan. The CBMP Terrestrial Steering Group, along with a set of invited experts (see Appendix A for a participants list), met in Iceland from February 25-27th to develop a three year work plan...... to guide implementation of the CBMP-Terrestrial Plan. This report describes the outcome of that workshop. The aim of the workshop was to develop a three year work plan to guide implementation of the CBMP-Terrestrial Plan. The participants were tasked with devising an approach to both (a) determine what...... capacity and information may be currently available and (b) to outline near-term required steps to begin implementing the plan and reporting on an initial set of Arctic terrestrial biodiversity focal ecosystem component attributes. The specific objectives of the workshop were to: Identify key products...

  20. Steering of Educational Processes in a Digital Medium Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael Eric

    2016-01-01

    This paper is about challenges to steering and leadership of educational interaction in classrooms provided by the new medium environment that comes with digital media. In the new medium environment, the old way of steering what is going on in the classroom appears not to work since...... it was developed in the image of the industrial society and based on a closed classroom. Now with the digital media and wireless networks the classroom is opened and the old way of organizing teaching has become inadequate: The students are disturbed by the new media, instead of learning through them. Inspired...... by systems theory we outline a more adequate way of teaching in the new medium environment – a teaching that can manage the new situation and use the new possibilities provided by the digital media. The argumentation builds on empirical findings from the action research project Socio Media Education (SME...

  1. Analysis and Experimental Kinematics of a Skid-Steering Wheeled Robot Based on a Laser Scanner Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianmiao Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Skid-steering mobile robots are widely used because of their simple mechanism and robustness. However, due to the complex wheel-ground interactions and the kinematic constraints, it is a challenge to understand the kinematics and dynamics of such a robotic platform. In this paper, we develop an analysis and experimental kinematic scheme for a skid-steering wheeled vehicle based-on a laser scanner sensor. The kinematics model is established based on the boundedness of the instantaneous centers of rotation (ICR of treads on the 2D motion plane. The kinematic parameters (the ICR coefficient , the path curvature variable  and robot speed , including the effect of vehicle dynamics, are introduced to describe the kinematics model. Then, an exact but costly dynamic model is used and the simulation of this model’s stationary response for the vehicle shows a qualitative relationship for the specified parameters  and . Moreover, the parameters of the kinematic model are determined based-on a laser scanner localization experimental analysis method with a skid-steering robotic platform, Pioneer P3-AT. The relationship between the ICR coefficient  and two physical factors is studied, i.e., the radius of the path curvature  and the robot speed . An empirical function-based relationship between the ICR coefficient of the robot and the path parameters is derived. To validate the obtained results, it is empirically demonstrated that the proposed kinematics model significantly improves the dead-reckoning performance of this skid–steering robot.

  2. Noise-resilient quantum evolution steered by dynamical decoupling

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Gang-Qin; Po, Hoi Chun; Du, Jiangfeng; Liu, Ren-Bao; Pan, Xin-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Realistic quantum computing is subject to noise. Therefore, an important frontier in quantum computing is to implement noise-resilient quantum control over qubits. At the same time, dynamical decoupling can protect the coherence of qubits. Here we demonstrate non-trivial quantum evolution steered by dynamical decoupling control, which simultaneously suppresses noise effects. We design and implement a self-protected controlled-NOT gate on the electron spin of a nitrogen-vacancy centre and a ne...

  3. Self-Steering Antenna Arrays for Distributed Picosatellite Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami, Blaine; Ohta, Aaron; Tamamoto, Michael; Shiroma, Grant; Miyamoto, Ryan; Shiroma, Wayne

    2003-01-01

    The potential for using self-steering arrays for secure crosslinks in picosatellite networks is investigated. The principle of operation and methods of characterization of these so-called retrodirective arrays is reviewed, and examples developed by our group are presented. New challenges for the space environment are identified, specifically the development of two-dimensional, circularly polarized retrodirective arrays optimized for size and power consumption.

  4. Quadrupole Law and Steering Options in the Linac4 DTL

    CERN Document Server

    Stovall, J

    2009-01-01

    The Linac4 drift-tube linac (DTL) reference design has been modified to reduce the power consumption in tank 1 by adjusting the accelerating field and phase laws. In this note we investigate three options for the transverse focusing lattice, quadrupole law, and two options for beam steering. We use acceptance, sensitivity to alignment errors and the probabiity of beam loss as figures of merit for evaluating each option.

  5. Imperfection insensitivity analyses of advanced composite tow-steered shells

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Kin C; Farrokh, Babak; Stanford, Bret K.; Weaver, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    Two advanced composite tow-steered shells, one with tow overlaps and another without overlaps, were previously designed, fabricated and tested in end compression, both without cutouts, and with small and large cutouts. In each case, good agreement was observed between experimental buckling loads and supporting linear bifurcation buckling analyses. However, previous buckling tests and analyses have shown historically poor correlation, perhaps due to the presence of geometric imperfections that...

  6. MODELING OF VEHICULAR STEERING EFFICIENCY IN TRAFFIC DIRECTION MOTION CHANNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Ganai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper formulates and solves an actual problem pertaining to vehicular steering efficiency in traffic direction motion channel. Models of operator-drivers with low, medium and high rates in motivational perception of road conditions and also a model for controlling a traffic direction motion have been taken into ccount in the paper.  Modeling has been done by using MATLAB.

  7. Architectures and design patterns for functional design of logic control and diagnostics in industrial automation

    OpenAIRE

    Sartini, Matteo

    2010-01-01

    Recently in most of the industrial automation process an ever increasing degree of automation has been observed. This increasing is motivated by the higher requirement of systems with great performance in terms of quality of products/services generated, productivity, efficiency and low costs in the design, realization and maintenance. This trend in the growth of complex automation systems is rapidly spreading over automated manufacturing systems (AMS), where the integration of the mechanic...

  8. Analysis of steering performance of differential coupling wheelset

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingwen Wu; Maoru Chi; Jing Zeng; Weihua Zhang; Minhao Zhu

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the curving performance of the conventional wheelset in sharp curves and resolve the steering ability problem of the independently rotating wheel in large radius curves and tangent lines, a differential cou-pling wheelset (DCW) was developed in this work. The DCW was composed of two independently rotating wheels (IRWs) coupled by a clutch-type limited slip differential. The differential contains a static pre-stress clutch, which could lock both sides of IRWs of the DCW to ensure a good steering performance in curves with large radius and tangent track. In contrast, the clutch could unlock the two IRWs of the DCW in a sharp curve to endue it with the characteristic of an IRW, so that the vehicles can go through the tight curve smoothly. To study the dynamic performance of the DCW, a multi-body dynamic model of single bogie with DCWs was established. The self-centering capability, hunting stability, and self-steering performance on a curved track were ana-lyzed and then compared with those of the conventional wheelset and IRW. Finally, the effect of coupling parameters of the DCW on the dynamic performance was investigated.

  9. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF AZIMUTH ELECTRONIC BEAM STEERING MODE SPACEBORNE SAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Xiaodong; Xu Wei; Han Xiaolei

    2013-01-01

    Pointing angle and pattern of the antenna can be changed swiftly to actualize the azimuth beam scanning by using electronic beam steering,which makes the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)system more flexible and achieve a high resolution or cover a long strip within short time span.When the pointing angle is steered away from boresight,some aberrations may appear on the antenna pattern,e.g.,the grating lobe appears,the main lobe gain decrease,and antenna pattern broadens,e.g.,the aberrations result in the worsening of system performance,and complicate the corresponding performance analysis method.Conventional computation methods of performance parameters do not account for the rapid change of the antenna pattern.It introduces remarkable errors when the scanning angle is large.In this paper,a method of calculating performance parameters is proposed for the beam steering mode,which achieves the parameters by the energy accumulation in time domain.Actually,the proposed method simulates the working process of SAR and obtains accurate performance parameters.Furthermore,we analyze the effects of the grating lobe on the Azimuth Ambiguity to Signal Ratio (AASR),and present the generic Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) choosing principle which can also prevent the ambiguous area from weighting by the grating lobe.Finally,the effect of the antenna configuration on the performance parameters is analyzed by a system example.

  10. Cecum microbial communities from steers differing in feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, P R; Wells, J E; Smith, T P L; Kuehn, L A; Freetly, H C

    2015-11-01

    Apart from the rumen, limited knowledge exists regarding the structure and function of bacterial communities within the gastrointestinal tract and their association with beef cattle feed efficiency. The objective of this study was to characterize the microbial communities of the cecum among steers differing in feed efficiency. Within 2 contemporary groups of steers, individual feed intake and BW gain were determined from animals fed the same diet. Within both of 2 contemporary groups, BW was regressed on feed intake and 4 steers within each Cartesian quadrant were sampled ( = 16/group). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were sequenced from the cecal content using next-generation sequencing technology. No significant changes in diversity or richness were detected among quadrants, and UniFrac principal coordinate analysis did not show any differences among quadrants for microbial communities within the cecum. The relative abundances of microbial populations and operational taxonomic units revealed significant differences among feed efficiency groups ( Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Clostridiaceae, with significant shifts in the relative abundance of taxa among feed efficiency groups, including families Ruminococcaceae ( = 0.040), Lachnospiraceae ( = 0.020), Erysipelotrichaceae ( = 0.046), and Clostridiaceae ( = 0.043) and genera ( = 0.049), ( = 0.044), ( = 0.042), ( = 0.040), ( = 0.042), and ( = 0.042). The study identified cecal microbial associations with feed efficiency, ADG, and ADFI. This study suggests an association of the cecum microbial community with bovine feed efficiency at the 16S level. PMID:26641052

  11. Imperfection Insensitivity Analyses of Advanced Composite Tow-Steered Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Farrokh, Babak; Stanford, Bret K.; Weaver, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Two advanced composite tow-steered shells, one with tow overlaps and another without overlaps, were previously designed, fabricated and tested in end compression, both without cutouts, and with small and large cutouts. In each case, good agreement was observed between experimental buckling loads and supporting linear bifurcation buckling analyses. However, previous buckling tests and analyses have shown historically poor correlation, perhaps due to the presence of geometric imperfections that serve as failure initiators. For the tow-steered shells, their circumferential variation in axial stiffness may have suppressed this sensitivity to imperfections, leading to the agreement noted between tests and analyses. To investigate this further, a numerical investigation was performed in this study using geometric imperfections measured from both shells. Finite element models of both shells were analyzed first without, and then, with measured imperfections that were then, superposed in different orientations around the shell longitudinal axis. Small variations in both the axial prebuckling stiffness and global buckling load were observed for the range of imperfections studied here, which suggests that the tow steering, and resulting circumferentially varying axial stiffness, may result in the test-analysis correlation observed for these shells.

  12. The newest trends in marshalling yards automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří ŽILKA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Marshalling yards are one of the most important parts of every railway infrastructure. Means of mechanization and automation are being built to achieve as efficient forming of freight trains as possible. Modern, fully automatic systems based on extensive utilization of computers are being implemented. Their main function is to make freight trains into unit trains and divided according to their destinations. One part of these systems is responsible for automatic routing of coupled or isolated cars through the ladder. The other part automatically regulates by retarders the speed of the cars on their way into the destination tracks in the classification bowl. The state-of-the-art marshalling systems provide not only these basic automation functions. They offer also setting interlocked routes with a level of safety integrity SIL3. This article is focused on both above mentioned parts of marshalling systems – automation and safety one.

  13. Postweaning performance and carcass merit of F1 steers sired by Brahman and alternative subtropically adapted breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, D E

    1997-10-01

    Comparisons were made among F1 steers sired by Brahman and alternative subtropically adapted breeds of bulls for feedlot and carcass traits when steers were produced from Angus- and Hereford-type dams. Brahman-derivative breeds included Brangus, Beefmaster, and Santa Gertrudis. Brangus- and Beefmaster-sired steers weighed less at slaughter, whereas carcasses of Brangus- and Santa Gertrudis-sired steers had more marbling than those of Brahman-sired steers. Brahman-sired steer carcasses had greater longissimus muscle area than carcasses of Santa Gertrudis-sired steers. Other Zebu breeds compared to Brahman were Boran, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, Red Brahman, and Sahiwal. Steers by Brahman sires had higher slaughter weights than steers by Boran, Gir, Nellore, or Sahiwal sires. Hot carcass weights of Brahman-sired steers were also higher than those of Boran- and Sahiwal-sired steers. Steer carcasses by Brahman sires had greater longissimus muscle area than those of steers by Sahiwal sires. Non-Zebu breeds included Tuli and Senepol. Steers by Tuli sires grew slower, had lower slaughter weights, and their carcasses weighed less than those of Brahman-sired steers. Brahman-sired steer carcasses had greater longissimus muscle area but less marbling than carcasses of Tuli-sired steers. These data suggest that steers by Brahman sires have an advantage for slaughter weight over steers by Brangus, Beefmaster, Boran, Gir, Nellore, Sahiwal, and Tuli sires, but their carcasses are at a disadvantage for marbling score compared with those by Brangus, Boran, Nellore, and Tuli sires. PMID:9331861

  14. Postweaning performance and carcass merit of F1 steers sired by Brahman and alternative subtropically adapted breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, D E

    1997-10-01

    Comparisons were made among F1 steers sired by Brahman and alternative subtropically adapted breeds of bulls for feedlot and carcass traits when steers were produced from Angus- and Hereford-type dams. Brahman-derivative breeds included Brangus, Beefmaster, and Santa Gertrudis. Brangus- and Beefmaster-sired steers weighed less at slaughter, whereas carcasses of Brangus- and Santa Gertrudis-sired steers had more marbling than those of Brahman-sired steers. Brahman-sired steer carcasses had greater longissimus muscle area than carcasses of Santa Gertrudis-sired steers. Other Zebu breeds compared to Brahman were Boran, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, Red Brahman, and Sahiwal. Steers by Brahman sires had higher slaughter weights than steers by Boran, Gir, Nellore, or Sahiwal sires. Hot carcass weights of Brahman-sired steers were also higher than those of Boran- and Sahiwal-sired steers. Steer carcasses by Brahman sires had greater longissimus muscle area than those of steers by Sahiwal sires. Non-Zebu breeds included Tuli and Senepol. Steers by Tuli sires grew slower, had lower slaughter weights, and their carcasses weighed less than those of Brahman-sired steers. Brahman-sired steer carcasses had greater longissimus muscle area but less marbling than carcasses of Tuli-sired steers. These data suggest that steers by Brahman sires have an advantage for slaughter weight over steers by Brangus, Beefmaster, Boran, Gir, Nellore, Sahiwal, and Tuli sires, but their carcasses are at a disadvantage for marbling score compared with those by Brangus, Boran, Nellore, and Tuli sires.

  15. Materials Testing and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Wayne D.; Zweigoron, Ronald B.

    1980-07-01

    The advent of automation in materials testing has been in large part responsible for recent radical changes in the materials testing field: Tests virtually impossible to perform without a computer have become more straightforward to conduct. In addition, standardized tests may be performed with enhanced efficiency and repeatability. A typical automated system is described in terms of its primary subsystems — an analog station, a digital computer, and a processor interface. The processor interface links the analog functions with the digital computer; it includes data acquisition, command function generation, and test control functions. Features of automated testing are described with emphasis on calculated variable control, control of a variable that is computed by the processor and cannot be read directly from a transducer. Three calculated variable tests are described: a yield surface probe test, a thermomechanical fatigue test, and a constant-stress-intensity range crack-growth test. Future developments are discussed.

  16. Impact of Automation on Drivers' Performance in Agricultural Semi-Autonomous Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashiri, B; Mann, D D

    2015-04-01

    Drivers' inadequate mental workload has been reported as one of the negative effects of driving assistant systems and in-vehicle automation. The increasing trend of automation in agricultural vehicles raises some concerns about drivers' mental workload in such vehicles. Thus, a human factors perspective is needed to identify the consequences of such automated systems. In this simulator study, the effects of vehicle steering task automation (VSTA) and implement control and monitoring task automation (ICMTA) were investigated using a tractor-air seeder system as a case study. Two performance parameters (reaction time and accuracy of actions) were measured to assess drivers' perceived mental workload. Experiments were conducted using the tractor driving simulator (TDS) located in the Agricultural Ergonomics Laboratory at the University of Manitoba. Study participants were university students with tractor driving experience. According to the results, reaction time and number of errors made by drivers both decreased as the automation level increased. Correlations were found among performance parameters and subjective mental workload reported by the drivers. PMID:26204788

  17. Research on Present Situation and Development Prospect of Automotive Wire Control Steering System%汽车线控转向系统的现状与发展前景研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文兴; 杨俊智; 周强; 刘建民

    2013-01-01

    Wire control steering (Steer-By-Wire,SBW)system refers to the cancellation of the traditional mechanical steering device,which completely got rid of the limitations of previous steering system,without any mechanical connections between steering gear and steering column but through communicating network to connect control system of all parts.The system has good driving motion and quick response time,so it is good for environmental protection and lowing developing costs of chassis.It also can well improve the vehicle's handling stability and the safety of the car.This paper studied the de-velopment of automotive wire control steering system at home and abroad,and introduced the basic structure and working principle of wire control steering and its advantages and the wire control steering technology development prospects.%线控转向(steer-by-wire,简称 SBW)系统指取消了传统的机械式转向装置,摆脱了传统转向系统的诸多限制,转向器与转向柱间没有任何的机械连接,而是通过通信网络连接各部件的控制系统。线控转向系统的转动效率高,响应时间快,利于环境的保护,可降低车辆底盘的开发成本,改善车辆的驾驶特性,可以很大程度上改善车辆的操纵稳定性,提高汽车碰撞安全性和整车主动安全性。本文研究了汽车线控转向系统的国内外发展现状,介绍了该系统的基本结构、工作原理及其特点,展望了线控转向技术的发展前景。

  18. An investigation on motor-driven power steering-based crosswind disturbance compensation for the reduction of driver steering effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyuwon; Kim, Boemjun; Go, Youngil; Park, Jaeyong; Park, Joonhong; Suh, Insoo; Yi, Kyongsu

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes a lateral disturbance compensation algorithm for an application to a motor-driven power steering (MDPS)-based driver assistant system. The lateral disturbance including wind force and lateral load transfer by bank angle reduces the driver's steering refinement and at the same time increases the possibility of an accident. A lateral disturbance compensation algorithm is designed to determine the motor overlay torque of an MDPS system for reducing the manoeuvreing effort of a human driver under lateral disturbance. Motor overlay torque for the compensation of driver's steering torque induced by the lateral disturbance consists of human torque feedback and feedforward torque. Vehicle-driver system dynamics have been investigated using a combined dynamic model which consists of a vehicle dynamic model, driver steering dynamic model and lateral disturbance model. The human torque feedback input has been designed via the investigation of the vehicle-driver system dynamics. Feedforward input torque is calculated to compensate additional tyre self-aligning torque from an estimated lateral disturbance. The proposed compensation algorithm has been implemented on a developed driver model which represents the driver's manoeuvreing characteristics under the lateral disturbance. The developed driver model has been validated with test data via a driving simulator in a crosswind condition. Human-in-the-loop simulations with a full-scale driving simulator on a virtual test track have been conducted to investigate the real-time performance of the proposed lateral disturbance compensation algorithm. It has been shown from simulation studies and human-in-the-loop simulation results that the driver's manoeuvreing effort and a lateral deviation of the vehicle under the lateral disturbance can be significantly reduced via the lateral disturbance compensation algorithm.

  19. Data transfer through beam steering using agile lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Muhammad Assad; Reza, Syed Azer; Muhammad, Ahsan

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a data transfer scheme using multi-focus tunable lenses. The design involves the use of a standard laser source and a variable focus agile lens to steer to the laser beam that passes through the lens. In our proposed system, the beam steer angle depends on an input electrical signal which drives the tunable lens. Therefore the beam steer angle is made to follow the variations in the input electrical drive signal. This is extremely interesting for data transfer applications as the data signal can be used as the input drive signal to the lens. The laser beam is steered according to the input data voltage levels and when the beam is incident on a photo-detector of a finite size, only a fraction of its total incident optical power is received by the photo-detector. This power contribution is proportional to the fraction of the total number of photons per unit area which are incident on the active area of the detector. The remaining photons which are not incident on the photo-detector do not contribute to the received power at the photo-detector. We present the theory of beam steering through a tunable lens and present a theoretical framework which governs data transfer through the proposed method. We also present the transfer function of the proposed system which helps us to calculate its essential theoretical performance parameters such as modulation depth and bit error rates. We also present experimental results to demonstrate efficient data transfer through the proposed method. As tunable lenses are primarily deployed in motion-free multi-focus cameras hence most of the modern portable devices such as cellphones and tablets use these lenses to operate the in-built variable focus cameras that are part of these devices. Because tunable lenses are commonly present in several different portable devices, the proposed method of data transfer between two devices is highly promising as it expands the use of the already deployed tunable lenses with

  20. Automated phantom assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an automated phantom assay system developed for assaying phantoms spiked with minute quantities of radionuclides. The system includes a computer-controlled linear-translation table that positions the phantom at exact distances from a spectrometer. A multichannel analyzer (MCA) interfaces with a computer to collect gamma spectral data. Signals transmitted between the controller and MCA synchronize data collection and phantom positioning. Measured data are then stored on disk for subsequent analysis. The automated system allows continuous unattended operation and ensures reproducible results

  1. Automated gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowry, Curtis D.; Blair, Dianna S.; Rodacy, Philip J.; Reber, Stephen D.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and process for the continuous, near real-time monitoring of low-level concentrations of organic compounds in a liquid, and, more particularly, a water stream. A small liquid volume of flow from a liquid process stream containing organic compounds is diverted by an automated process to a heated vaporization capillary where the liquid volume is vaporized to a gas that flows to an automated gas chromatograph separation column to chromatographically separate the organic compounds. Organic compounds are detected and the information transmitted to a control system for use in process control. Concentrations of organic compounds less than one part per million are detected in less than one minute.

  2. Objectification of steering feel around straight-line driving for vehicle/tyre design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsik; Yoon, Yong-San

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the objectification techniques for the assessment of steering feel including {on-centre} feel and steering response by measurement data. Here, new objective parameters are developed by considering not only the process by which the steering feel is evaluated subjectively but also by the ergonomic perceptive sensitivity of the driver. In order to validate such objective parameters, subjective tests are carried out by professional drivers. Objective measurements are also performed for several cars at a proving ground. The linear correlation coefficients between the subjective ratings and the objective parameters are calculated. As one of new objective parameters, steering wheel angle defined by ergonomic perception sensitivity shows high correlation with the subjective questionnaires of on-center responses. Newly defined steering torque curvature also shows high correlation with the subjective questionnaires of on-center effort. These correlation results conclude that the subjective assessment of steering feel can be successfully explained and objectified by means of the suggested objective parameters.

  3. Control techniques for an automated mixed traffic vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenholder, G. W.; Johnston, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes an automated mixed traffic vehicle (AMTV), a driverless low-speed tram designed to operate in mixed pedestrian and vehicular traffic. The vehicle is a six-passenger electric tram equipped with sensing and control which permit it to function on existing streets in an automatic mode. The design includes established wire-following techniques for steering and near-IR headway sensors. A 7-mph cruise speed is reduced to 2 mph or a complete stop in response to sensor (or passenger) inputs. The AMTV performance is evaluated by operation on a loop route and by simulation. Some necessary improvements involving sensors, sensor pattern, use of an audible signal, and control lag are discussed. It is suggested that appropriate modifications will eliminate collision incidents.

  4. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartog, J P Den

    1961-01-01

    First published over 40 years ago, this work has achieved the status of a classic among introductory texts on mechanics. Den Hartog is known for his lively, discursive and often witty presentations of all the fundamental material of both statics and dynamics (and considerable more advanced material) in new, original ways that provide students with insights into mechanical relationships that other books do not always succeed in conveying. On the other hand, the work is so replete with engineering applications and actual design problems that it is as valuable as a reference to the practicing e

  5. Performance prediction of the fast steering secondary mirror for the Giant Magellan Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Myung; Corredor, Andrew; Dribusch, Christoph; Park, Won-Hyun; Sheehan, Michael; Johns, Matt; Shectman, Stephen; Kern, Jonathan; Hull, Charlie; Kim, Young-Soo; Bagnasco, John

    2012-09-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) Fast-steering secondary mirror (FSM) is one of the GMT two Gregorian secondary mirrors. The FSM is 3.2 m in diameter and built as seven 1.1 m diameter circular segments conjugated 1:1 to the seven 8.4m segments of the primary. A parametric study and optimization of the FSM mirror blank and central lateral flexure design were performed. For the optimized FSM configuration, the optical image qualities and structure functions for the axial and lateral gravity print-through cases, thermal gradient effects, and dynamic performances will be discussed. This paper reports performance predictions of the optimized FSM. To validate our lateral flexure design concept, mechanical and optical tests were conducted on test mirrors installed with two different lateral flexures.

  6. Steering of hydrogen migration in hydrocarbons using intense few-cycle laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Kuebel, Matthias; Burger, Christian; Kling, Nora; Foerg, Benjamin; Zherebtsov, Sergey; Kling, Matthias; Kaziannis, Spyros; Siemering, Robert; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina; Stierle, Johannes; Kessel, Alexander; Betsch, Kelsie; Bergues, Boris; Trushin, Sergei; Alnaser, Ali; Azzeer, Abdallah; Ben-Itzhak, Itzik; Moshammer, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Structural rearrangements in hydrocarbons, namely acetylene, allene and toluene, are initiated by phase- and intensity-controlled few-cycle laser pulses. The momentum distributions of several ionic fragments are monitored using single-shot VMI and COLTRIMS. The results show that the hydrogen migration in these hydrocarbons can be steered by changing the CEP and the intensity of the few-cycle pulses. Quantum dynamical calculations performed on acetylene and allene show that a superposition of vibrational modes can be created by wave-form controlled few-cycle laser fields, which will result in a directionality of the hydrogen migration. This mechanism, which appears to be of general importance for such complex molecules, should also be able to explain the molecular dynamics observed in toluene.

  7. A Steered Molecular Dynamics Study of Binding and Translocation Processes in the GABA Transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovstrup, Soren; David, Laurent; Taboureau, Olivier;

    2012-01-01

    The entire substrate translocation pathway in the human GABA transporter (GAT-1) was explored for the endogenous substrate GABA and the anti-convulsive drug tiagabine. Following a steered molecular dynamics (SMD) approach, in which a harmonic restraining potential is applied to the ligand......, dissociation and re-association of ligands were simulated revealing events leading to substrate (GABA) translocation and inhibitor (tiagabine) mechanism of action. We succeeded in turning the transporter from the outward facing occluded to the open-to-out conformation, and also to reorient the transporter...... in the extracellular vestibule including two lysines (K76 (TM1) and K448 (TM10)) and a TM6-triad (D281, E283, and D287) in attracting and relocating substrates towards the secondary/interim substrate-binding site (S2). Likewise, E101 is highlighted as essential for the relocation of the substrate from the primary...

  8. Shifting Control Strategy of Deceleration Braking for Automated Mechanical Transmission Vehicle%减速制动时机械式自动变速器车辆换档控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱敏; 刘海鸥; 王尔烈; 陈慧岩

    2015-01-01

    Braking conditions are divided into three categories: ordinary braking, emergency braking and inertia braking, then a research about the characteristics of manual transmission(MT) vehicle excellent drivers’ manipulation in different braking conditions is made. The conditions of ordinary braking and emergency braking are classified as deceleration braking, and then begin the study of the automated mechanical transmission(AMT) vehicle. Combined with a heavy off-road vehicle’s parameters and test data, a detailed analysis of the characteristics of Position-type electronically controlled diesel engine is carried out. Then the concept of the natural descending rate of engine speed when throttle is closed is put forward, to slow down or speed up the rate due to external reasons, the engine will produce torque to hinder this movement trends. On the basis of a detailed analysis of the drive system dynamics model of the braking process, the role of engine in different braking conditions is discussed. According to the engine speed and the rate of its decline, the transmission output shaft speed and the rate of its decline, the current gear, clutch state and brake signal, ordinary braking and emergency braking is distinguished, and a shifting control strategy for AMT vehicle in deceleration braking conditions is established. It’s verified by road test in finally.%将制动工况分为普通制动、紧急制动和惯性制动三种,研究不同制动工况下手动变速器(Manual transmission, MT)车辆优秀驾驶员的操控特点。将普通制动工况和紧急制动工况归为减速制动这一类情况对机械式自动变速器(Automated mechanical transmission, AMT)车辆进行研究。结合某重型越野车辆的车辆参数和试验数据,分析位置式电控柴油机的特性,提出油门关闭时其发动机转速存在一个固有转速下降率的概念,指出由于外界的原因来延缓或加快这一变化率时,发动机都将产生阻

  9. 减速制动时机械式自动变速器车辆换档控制策略%Shifting Control Strategy of Deceleration Braking for Automated Mechanical Transmission Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱敏; 刘海鸥; 王尔烈; 陈慧岩

    2015-01-01

    将制动工况分为普通制动、紧急制动和惯性制动三种,研究不同制动工况下手动变速器(Manual transmission, MT)车辆优秀驾驶员的操控特点。将普通制动工况和紧急制动工况归为减速制动这一类情况对机械式自动变速器(Automated mechanical transmission, AMT)车辆进行研究。结合某重型越野车辆的车辆参数和试验数据,分析位置式电控柴油机的特性,提出油门关闭时其发动机转速存在一个固有转速下降率的概念,指出由于外界的原因来延缓或加快这一变化率时,发动机都将产生阻碍这一运动趋势的转矩。在对制动过程中传动系统动力学模型进行详细分析的基础上,讨论不同制动工况下发动机的作用。根据发动机转速及其下降率、变速器输出轴转速及其下降率,结合当前档位、离合器状态以及制动信号来识别普通制动和紧急制动,制定减速制动时AMT车辆换档控制策略,通过实车道路试验进行验证。%Braking conditions are divided into three categories: ordinary braking, emergency braking and inertia braking, then a research about the characteristics of manual transmission(MT) vehicle excellent drivers’ manipulation in different braking conditions is made. The conditions of ordinary braking and emergency braking are classified as deceleration braking, and then begin the study of the automated mechanical transmission(AMT) vehicle. Combined with a heavy off-road vehicle’s parameters and test data, a detailed analysis of the characteristics of Position-type electronically controlled diesel engine is carried out. Then the concept of the natural descending rate of engine speed when throttle is closed is put forward, to slow down or speed up the rate due to external reasons, the engine will produce torque to hinder this movement trends. On the basis of a detailed analysis of the drive system dynamics model of the braking process, the role

  10. A Vehicle Haptic Steering by Wire System Based on High Gain GPI Observers

    OpenAIRE

    A. Rodriguez-Angeles; H. Sira-Ramirez; J. A. Garcia-Antonio

    2014-01-01

    A vehicle steering by wire (SBW) haptic system based on high gain generalized proportional integral (GPI) observers is introduced. The observers are considered for the estimation of dynamic perturbations that are present at the tire and steering wheel. To ensure efficient tracking between the commanded steering wheel angle and the tire orientation angle, the estimated perturbations are on line canceled. As to provide a haptic interface with the driver, the estimated dynamic effects at the st...

  11. Ball Bearing Stacking Automation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafeequerrahman S . Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This document is an effort to introduce the concept of automation in small scale industries and or small workshops that are involved in the manufacturing of small objects such as nuts, bolts and ball bearing in this case. This an electromechanical system which includes certain mechanical parts that involves one base stand on which one vertical metallic frame is mounted and hinged to this vertical stand is an in humanized effort seems inadequate in this era making necessary the use of Electronics, Computer in the manufacturing processes leading to the concept of Automated Manufacturing System (AMS.The ball bearing stack automation is an effort in this regard. In our project we go for stack automation for any object for example a ball bearing, be that is still a manual system there. It will be microcontroller based project control system equipped with microcontroller 89C51 from any manufacturer like Atmel or Philips. This could have been easily implemented if a PLC could be used for manufacturing the staking unit but I adopted the microcontroller based system so that some more modification in the system can be effected at will as to use the same hardware .Although a very small object i.e. ball bearig or small nut and fixture will be tried to be stacked, the system with more precision and more power handling capacity could be built for various requirements of the industry. For increasing more control capacity, we can use another module of this series. When the bearing is ready, it will be sent for packing. This is sensed by an inductive sensor. The output will be proceeds by PLC and microcontroller card which will be driving the assembly in order to put it into pads or flaps. This project will also count the total number of bearings to be packed and will display it on a LCD for real time reference and a provision is made using a higher level language using hyper terminal of the computer

  12. Automated solvent concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J. S.; Stuart, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    Designed for automated drug identification system (AUDRI), device increases concentration by 100. Sample is first filtered, removing particulate contaminants and reducing water content of sample. Sample is extracted from filtered residue by specific solvent. Concentrator provides input material to analysis subsystem.

  13. Protokoller til Home Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kristian Ellebæk

    2008-01-01

    computer, der kan skifte mellem foruddefinerede indstillinger. Nogle gange kan computeren fjernstyres over internettet, så man kan se hjemmets status fra en computer eller måske endda fra en mobiltelefon. Mens nævnte anvendelser er klassiske indenfor home automation, er yderligere funktionalitet dukket op...

  14. ELECTROPNEUMATIC AUTOMATION EDUCATIONAL LABORATORY

    OpenAIRE

    Dolgorukov, S. O.; National Aviation University; Roman, B. V.; National Aviation University

    2013-01-01

    The article reflects current situation in education regarding mechatronics learning difficulties. Com-plex of laboratory test benches on electropneumatic automation are considered as a tool in advancing through technical science. Course of laboratory works developed to meet the requirement of efficient and reliable way of practical skills acquisition is regarded the simplest way for students to learn the ba-sics of mechatronics.

  15. Building Automation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    A number of different automation systems for use in monitoring and controlling building equipment are described in this brochure. The system functions include--(1) collection of information, (2) processing and display of data at a central panel, and (3) taking corrective action by sounding alarms, making adjustments, or automatically starting and…

  16. Test Construction: Automated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2014-01-01

    Optimal test construction deals with automated assembly of tests for educational and psychological measurement. Items are selected from an item bank to meet a predefined set of test specifications. Several models for optimal test construction are presented, and two algorithms for optimal test assemb

  17. Test Construction: Automated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2016-01-01

    Optimal test construction deals with automated assembly of tests for educational and psychological measurement. Items are selected from an item bank to meet a predefined set of test specifications. Several models for optimal test construction are presented, and two algorithms for optimal test assemb

  18. Automated Web Applications Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan CĂPRIŢĂ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Unit tests are a vital part of several software development practicesand processes such as Test-First Programming, Extreme Programming andTest-Driven Development. This article shortly presents the software quality andtesting concepts as well as an introduction to an automated unit testingframework for PHP web based applications.

  19. Automated Student Model Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedinger, Kenneth R.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth A.; Stamper, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Student modeling plays a critical role in developing and improving instruction and instructional technologies. We present a technique for automated improvement of student models that leverages the DataShop repository, crowd sourcing, and a version of the Learning Factors Analysis algorithm. We demonstrate this method on eleven educational…

  20. Myths in test automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmine Francis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myths in automation of software testing is an issue of discussion that echoes about the areas of service in validation of software industry. Probably, the first though that appears in knowledgeable reader would be Why this old topic again? What's New to discuss the matter? But, for the first time everyone agrees that undoubtedly automation testing today is not today what it used to be ten or fifteen years ago, because it has evolved in scope and magnitude. What began as a simple linear scripts for web applications today has a complex architecture and a hybrid framework to facilitate the implementation of testing applications developed with various platforms and technologies. Undoubtedly automation has advanced, but so did the myths associated with it. The change in perspective and knowledge of people on automation has altered the terrain. This article reflects the points of views and experience of the author in what has to do with the transformation of the original myths in new versions, and how they are derived; also provides his thoughts on the new generation of myths.

  1. Cycling around a curve: the effect of cycling speed on steering and gaze behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Vansteenkiste

    Full Text Available Although it is generally accepted that visual information guides steering, it is still unclear whether a curvature matching strategy or a 'look where you are going' strategy is used while steering through a curved road. The current experiment investigated to what extent the existing models for curve driving also apply to cycling around a curve, and tested the influence of cycling speed on steering and gaze behavior. Twenty-five participants were asked to cycle through a semicircular lane three consecutive times at three different speeds while staying in the center of the lane. The observed steering behavior suggests that an anticipatory steering strategy was used at curve entrance and a compensatory strategy was used to steer through the actual bend of the curve. A shift of gaze from the center to the inside edge of the lane indicates that at low cycling speed, the 'look where you are going' strategy was preferred, while at higher cycling speeds participants seemed to prefer the curvature matching strategy. Authors suggest that visual information from both steering strategies contributes to the steering system and can be used in a flexible way. Based on a familiarization effect, it can be assumed that steering is not only guided by vision but that a short-term learning component should also be taken into account.

  2. Cycling around a curve: the effect of cycling speed on steering and gaze behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenkiste, Pieter; Van Hamme, David; Veelaert, Peter; Philippaerts, Renaat; Cardon, Greet; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that visual information guides steering, it is still unclear whether a curvature matching strategy or a 'look where you are going' strategy is used while steering through a curved road. The current experiment investigated to what extent the existing models for curve driving also apply to cycling around a curve, and tested the influence of cycling speed on steering and gaze behavior. Twenty-five participants were asked to cycle through a semicircular lane three consecutive times at three different speeds while staying in the center of the lane. The observed steering behavior suggests that an anticipatory steering strategy was used at curve entrance and a compensatory strategy was used to steer through the actual bend of the curve. A shift of gaze from the center to the inside edge of the lane indicates that at low cycling speed, the 'look where you are going' strategy was preferred, while at higher cycling speeds participants seemed to prefer the curvature matching strategy. Authors suggest that visual information from both steering strategies contributes to the steering system and can be used in a flexible way. Based on a familiarization effect, it can be assumed that steering is not only guided by vision but that a short-term learning component should also be taken into account.

  3. Automating spectral measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Fred T.

    2008-09-01

    This paper discusses the architecture of software utilized in spectroscopic measurements. As optical coatings become more sophisticated, there is mounting need to automate data acquisition (DAQ) from spectrophotometers. Such need is exacerbated when 100% inspection is required, ancillary devices are utilized, cost reduction is crucial, or security is vital. While instrument manufacturers normally provide point-and-click DAQ software, an application programming interface (API) may be missing. In such cases automation is impossible or expensive. An API is typically provided in libraries (*.dll, *.ocx) which may be embedded in user-developed applications. Users can thereby implement DAQ automation in several Windows languages. Another possibility, developed by FTG as an alternative to instrument manufacturers' software, is the ActiveX application (*.exe). ActiveX, a component of many Windows applications, provides means for programming and interoperability. This architecture permits a point-and-click program to act as automation client and server. Excel, for example, can control and be controlled by DAQ applications. Most importantly, ActiveX permits ancillary devices such as barcode readers and XY-stages to be easily and economically integrated into scanning procedures. Since an ActiveX application has its own user-interface, it can be independently tested. The ActiveX application then runs (visibly or invisibly) under DAQ software control. Automation capabilities are accessed via a built-in spectro-BASIC language with industry-standard (VBA-compatible) syntax. Supplementing ActiveX, spectro-BASIC also includes auxiliary serial port commands for interfacing programmable logic controllers (PLC). A typical application is automatic filter handling.

  4. UN PROTOTIPO MECÁNICO PARA LA AUTOMATIZACIÓN DEL PROCESO DE SELECCIÓN DEL MANGO TIPO EXPORTACIÓN A MECHANICAL PROTOTYPE FOR EXPORT-TYPE MANGO SELECTION PROCESS AUTOMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Moreno Bermúdez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia la industria de la exportación de frutas tropicales, en particular la del mango de azúcar, se caracteriza por el tratamiento manual en cada una de las etapas previas a su comercialización, particularmente, la aplicación de los procedimientos de clasificación acordes con los criterios estandarizados nacionales de calidad (NTC-5139. En este artículo de investigación se presenta el diseño de un prototipo mecánico para automatizar el proceso de clasificación del mango de azúcar (Mangifera Indica L tipo exportación. Este prototipo está constituido por un sistema de bandas que permite transportar y rotar el fruto para que un sistema de adquisición capture diferente caras de este. Las imágenes obtenidas se analizaron mediante técnicas computacionales que permiten obtener una aproximación tridimensional, lo que posibilita la estimación del volumen de cada fruto. Los resultados de la operación del mecanismo, y la aplicación de los métodos mostraron una precisión superior al 90%.In Colombia, tropical fruit export industry, specifically ''mango de azúcar'' (sweet mango, is characterized for the manual treatment in each stage prior to commercialization, specially application of classification procedures according to local quality standardized criteria (NTC-5139. This research article describes the design of a mechanical prototype for automating the export-type ''mango de azúcar'' (Mangifera Indica L classification process. This prototype consists of a band system which allows conveying and rotating the fruit so that an acquisition system captures several faces of the fruit. Images obtained were analyzed through computational techniques which allow obtaining a 3-D approach, and this makes estimation of each fruit volume possible. Results of the operation of this mechanisms and the application of methods showed an accuracy over 90%.

  5. 汽车液压动力转向器性能试验系统的加载方式探究%Research on the Loading Modes for Performance Testing System of the Automotive Hydraulic Power Steering Gear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白雪峰

    2015-01-01

    本文先后减少了两种汽车液压动力转向器性能试验系统的加载方式,液压加载方式与机械加载方式。首先对液压加载原理进行了分析,确定了液压加载的结构,同时探讨了一系列液压加载方式的辅助设计,然后分析了机械加载方式的加载原理,并通过计算确定了加载板簧的尺寸。最后,笔者通过分析不同的两种加载方式的优势与劣势,在实践应用中通过应用不同的加载方式可以提高实验的自动化程度,提高试验系统的准确度。%This article reduced the loading modes for two kinds of automotive hydraulic power steering motor performance test system,hydraulic loading and mechanical loading.First of all,the hydraulic loading principle was analyzed to determine the structure of hydraulic loading,and discussed aided design a series of hydraulic loading mode,analyzed the loading principle of mechanical loading mode,determined the loading spring size through calculation.Finally,through the analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of two kinds of loading methods,improved the degree of automation by different loading modes of the experiment to improve the accuracy of test system.

  6. Fatty acid profiles, meat quality, and sensory attributes of organic versus conventional dairy beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, E A; Heins, B J; Dicostanzo, A; Chester-Jones, H

    2014-03-01

    Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic and conventional dairy steers were evaluated and compared for fatty acid profiles, meat quality, sensory attributes, and consumer acceptance. Bull calves (n=49) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 replicated groups: conventional (CONV), organic (ORG, pasture + concentrate), or grass-fed organic (GRS) and were born at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN) between March and May 2011. The CONV steers (n=16) were fed a diet that contained 80% concentrate and 20% forage, and ORG steers (n=16) were fed a diet of organic corn, organic corn silage, and organic protein supplement. Furthermore, ORG steers consumed at least 30% of diet dry matter of high-quality organic pasture during the grazing season. The GRS steers (n=17) consumed 100% forage from pasture during the grazing season and high-quality hay or hay silage during the nongrazing season. The ORG steers had fat that was greater in oleic acid (C18:1) than the GRS and CONV steers (47.1, 36.1, and 39.9%, respectively). The GRS steers (21.9%) were lower for monounsaturated fat than the ORG (42.1%) and CONV (40.4%) steers. Furthermore, the GRS steers tended to have greater n-3 fat and had lower n-6 fat than the ORG and CONV steers. Consequently, the GRS (1.4%) steers had a lower n-6-to-n-3 fat ratio than the ORG (12.9%) and CONV (10.0%) steers. The GRS (2.6 kg) steers had steaks that were not different for Warner-Bratzler shear force than ORG (2.3 kg) steaks; however, the GRS steaks tended to have greater shear force than the CONV (2.0 kg) steaks. The 3 steer group had steaks that were not different for color brightness (L*; 0 = black and 100 = white) and yellowness/blueness (b*; positive values = yellow and negative values = blue) values; however, the GRS (10.5) steaks had lower redness/greenness (a*; positive values = red and negative values = green) values than CONV (14.5) steaks. For sensory attributes (0- to 120-point scale), no

  7. Automation of finite element methods

    CERN Document Server

    Korelc, Jože

    2016-01-01

    New finite elements are needed as well in research as in industry environments for the development of virtual prediction techniques. The design and implementation of novel finite elements for specific purposes is a tedious and time consuming task, especially for nonlinear formulations. The automation of this process can help to speed up this process considerably since the generation of the final computer code can be accelerated by order of several magnitudes. This book provides the reader with the required knowledge needed to employ modern automatic tools like AceGen within solid mechanics in a successful way. It covers the range from the theoretical background, algorithmic treatments to many different applications. The book is written for advanced students in the engineering field and for researchers in educational and industrial environments.

  8. Rumen microbiome from steers differing in feed efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip R Myer

    Full Text Available The cattle rumen has a diverse microbial ecosystem that is essential for the host to digest plant material. Extremes in body weight (BW gain in mice and humans have been associated with different intestinal microbial populations. The objective of this study was to characterize the microbiome of the cattle rumen among steers differing in feed efficiency. Two contemporary groups of steers (n=148 and n=197 were fed a ration (dry matter basis of 57.35% dry-rolled corn, 30% wet distillers grain with solubles, 8% alfalfa hay, 4.25% supplement, and 0.4% urea for 63 days. Individual feed intake (FI and BW gain were determined. Within contemporary group, the four steers within each Cartesian quadrant were sampled (n=16/group from the bivariate distribution of average daily BW gain and average daily FI. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were sequenced from the harvested bovine rumen fluid samples using next-generation sequencing technology. No significant changes in diversity or richness were indicated, and UniFrac principal coordinate analysis did not show any separation of microbial communities within the rumen. However, the abundances of relative microbial populations and operational taxonomic units did reveal significant differences with reference to feed efficiency groups. Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the dominant phyla in all ruminal groups, with significant population shifts in relevant ruminal taxa, including phyla Firmicutes and Lentisphaerae, as well as genera Succiniclasticum, Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, and Prevotella. This study suggests the involvement of the rumen microbiome as a component influencing the efficiency of weight gain at the 16S level, which can be utilized to better understand variations in microbial ecology as well as host factors that will improve feed efficiency.

  9. Electrostatic Steering Accelerates C3d:CR2 Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Rohith R; Huber, Gary A; Morikis, Dimitrios

    2016-08-25

    Electrostatic effects are ubiquitous in protein interactions and are found to be pervasive in the complement system as well. The interaction between complement fragment C3d and complement receptor 2 (CR2) has evolved to become a link between innate and adaptive immunity. Electrostatic interactions have been suggested to be the driving factor for the association of the C3d:CR2 complex. In this study, we investigate the effects of ionic strength and mutagenesis on the association of C3d:CR2 through Brownian dynamics simulations. We demonstrate that the formation of the C3d:CR2 complex is ionic strength-dependent, suggesting the presence of long-range electrostatic steering that accelerates the complex formation. Electrostatic steering occurs through the interaction of an acidic surface patch in C3d and the positively charged CR2 and is supported by the effects of mutations within the acidic patch of C3d that slow or diminish association. Our data are in agreement with previous experimental mutagenesis and binding studies and computational studies. Although the C3d acidic patch may be locally destabilizing because of unfavorable Coulombic interactions of like charges, it contributes to the acceleration of association. Therefore, acceleration of function through electrostatic steering takes precedence to stability. The site of interaction between C3d and CR2 has been the target for delivery of CR2-bound nanoparticle, antibody, and small molecule biomarkers, as well as potential therapeutics. A detailed knowledge of the physicochemical basis of C3d:CR2 association may be necessary to accelerate biomarker and drug discovery efforts. PMID:27092816

  10. Secure Continuous Variable Teleportation and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiongyi; Rosales-Zárate, Laura; Adesso, Gerardo; Reid, Margaret D

    2015-10-30

    We investigate the resources needed for secure teleportation of coherent states. We extend continuous variable teleportation to include quantum teleamplification protocols that allow nonunity classical gains and a preamplification or postattenuation of the coherent state. We show that, for arbitrary Gaussian protocols and a significant class of Gaussian resources, two-way steering is required to achieve a teleportation fidelity beyond the no-cloning threshold. This provides an operational connection between Gaussian steerability and secure teleportation. We present practical recipes suggesting that heralded noiseless preamplification may enable high-fidelity heralded teleportation, using minimally entangled yet steerable resources. PMID:26565449

  11. High power transcranial beam steering for ultrasonic brain therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    PERNOT, mathieu; Aubry, Jean-François; Tanter, Mickaël; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Fink, Mathias

    2003-01-01

    International audience A sparse phased array is specially designed for non-invasive ultrasound transskull brain therapy. The array is made of 200 single elements corresponding to a new generation of high power transducers developed in collaboration with Imasonic (Besançon, France). Each element has a surface of 0.5 cm2 and works at 0.9 MHz central frequency with a maximum 20 W cm(-2) intensity on the transducer surface. In order to optimize the steering capabilities of the array, several t...

  12. Filter for Car Tracking Based on Acceleration and Steering Angle

    OpenAIRE

    Maybank, S.J.; Worrall, A.D; Sullivan, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    The motion of a car is described using a stochastic model in which the driving processes are the steering angle and the tangential acceleration. The model incorporates exactly the kinematic constraint that the wheels do not slip sideways. Two filters based on this model have been implemented, namely the standard EKF, and a new filter (the CUF) in which the expectation and the covariance of the system state are propagated accurately. Experiments show that i) the CUF is better than the EKF at p...

  13. Orbit Steering and Central Frequency for LEP2 Energy Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Wenninger, J

    2000-01-01

    "The central frequency is an important parameter of the LEP beam energy model. It is a direct measurementof the LEP circumference and is used to evaluate the contribution of the quadrupoles to field integral relevant forthe LEP beam ebergy. Its evolution over a run is tracked using direct frequency measurementscombined with radial beam position measurements in the LEP arcs.The influence of orbit corrections on the central frequency measurement techniques was evaluatedand a model allowing to correct for changes of corrector settings was developped.The central frequency data for the LEP2 runs between 1996 and 1999 was re-analysed to includecorrections due to the closed orbit steering."

  14. Hierarchical Visual Analysis and Steering Framework for Astrophysical Simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖健; 张加万; 原野; 周鑫; 纪丽; 孙济洲

    2015-01-01

    A framework for accelerating modern long-running astrophysical simulations is presented, which is based on a hierarchical architecture where computational steering in the high-resolution run is performed under the guide of knowledge obtained in the gradually refined ensemble analyses. Several visualization schemes for facilitating ensem-ble management, error analysis, parameter grouping and tuning are also integrated owing to the pluggable modular design. The proposed approach is prototyped based on the Flash code, and it can be extended by introducing user-defined visualization for specific requirements. Two real-world simulations, i.e., stellar wind and supernova remnant, are carried out to verify the proposed approach.

  15. Growth, carcass characteristics, and profitability of organic versus conventional dairy beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, E A; Heins, B J; Dicostanzo, A; Chester-Jones, H

    2014-03-01

    Bull calves (n=49), born at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris) between March and May 2011, were used to compare growth measurements and profitability of conventional and organic dairy steers. Calves were assigned to 1 of 3 replicated groups at birth: conventional (CONV; n=16), organic (pasture and concentrate; ORG; n=16), or organic grass only (GRS; n=17), and analysis of variables was on a pen basis. Breed groups of calves were Holstein (HO; n=9); Holsteins (n=11) maintained at 1964 breed average level; crossbreds (n=19) including combinations of HO, Montbéliarde, and Swedish Red; and crossbreds (n=10) including combinations of HO, Jersey, Swedish Red, and Normande. The CONV steers were fed a diet of 80% concentrate and 20% forage. The ORG steers were fed a diet of organic corn, organic corn silage, and at least 30% of their diet consisted of organic pasture during the grazing season. The GRS steers grazed pasture during the grazing season and were fed high-quality hay or hay silage during the nongrazing season. Intakes of a total mixed ration were recorded daily with herd management software. A profit function was defined to include revenues and expenses for beef value, feed intake, pasture intake, health cost, and yardage. The GRS (358.6 kg) steers had lesser total gains from birth to slaughter than ORG (429.6 kg) and CONV (534.5 kg) steers. Furthermore, the GRS (0.61 kg/d) steers had lesser average daily gain from birth compared with ORG (0.81 kg/d) and CONV (1.1 kg/d) steers. The GRS and ORG steers had smaller rib eye area (49.5 and 65.8 cm(2), respectively) compared with CONV (75.4 cm(2)) steers. For profitability, GRS steers had 43% greater profit than CONV steers due to organic beef price premiums and lower feed costs. On the other hand, ORG steers had substantially less profit than CONV steers. The higher cost of production for the ORG steers is due to the extreme high value of organic corn. The results of the

  16. Evaluation of Potential Usage of Incremental-Type Rotary Encoder Application for Angle Sensing in Steering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarto Kaleg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main target of a steering system is that the driver can change vehicle trajectory in accordance with the desired direction.  Power steering has become a standard feature in automobile.  It provides assisting power when the driver turns the steering wheel. The well-known power steering types include; Hydraulic Power Steering (HPS, Electro - Hydraulic Power Steering (EHPS, and Electric Power Steering (EPS. EHPS or EPS uses an Electronic Control Unit (ECU which is specific for each vehicle. The ECU should be able to regulate power of electric motor to provide corresponding assisting power for the steering wheel. Therefore ECU requires input signals, one of which is vehicle wheel angle that can be indicated from the vehicle steering wheel angle. Incremental type of Rotary Encoder (RE is used in steering angle sensor on a minibus. RE specification used was 60 pulses per rotation and the minibus steering transmission specification is 3.5 round of right wheel off angle to the left wheel off angle. So we get the RE angular resolution 6ºper pulse and 105 number of pulses to half of the steering transmission ratio. Repeatability then tested against to a steering angle counter module. Testing is done with a test cycle consisting of 3 repetitions: condition center of the steering wheel, the steering wheel is turned to full right, then to the full left, then back to the right up to the steering wheel center. The results obtained 2 pulses deviation, or equivalent to 12º of steering angle.

  17. Steering Engine Control System of Underwater Vehicle Based on DSP Technology%基于DSP的水下航行器舵机控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张礴; 吕赟

    2011-01-01

    Steering engine control system is the key institution of underwater vehicle , it controls the attitude of AUV navigation by driving the rotation of rudder, and its performance directly affects the aircraft' s performance.The steering engine is mainly constituted by controller, engine, steering mechanical structure、sensors and rudder ,the controller is the most important part in steering engine system.The theory of the steering engine control system of certain underwater vehicle by designing a control system is introduced which based on the DSP technology.In order to control the steering engine, this system uses the TMS320 F2812 as the core control chip, the hardware and software design of this system and the control algorithms are also analyzed.At last a system simulation model is builted, and proved that this system has good control performance and can satisfy the requirement of steering control of underwater vahicle.%舵机是水下航行器控制系统的关键机构,它通过带动舵面的转动来控制水下航行器的航行姿态,其性能的好坏直接决定了水下航行器的性能.舵机主要由控制器、电机、减速机构、反馈电位计、舵面五部分组成,其中控制器是舵机的核心部分.介绍了某型水下航行器的舵机基本控制原理,并采用TMS320F2812芯片为核心控制器,设计一套基于DSP的舵机控制系统;同时还分析了该系统的软硬件设计方案以及相关的控制算法;最后建立了系统仿真模型.通过实验表明,此系统的控制性能好,并且体积小,可满足水下航行器舵机的控制要求.

  18. Steering System Optimization Design of Formula SAE Car%FSAE方程式赛车转向系统的仿真与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚汉波; 唐应时; 王焕美; 林建涛

    2011-01-01

    In car races, because of car's speed and the special characteristics of the track, the problems of car's steering stability and unilateral side tire wearing have puzzled designers.To solve the problems, this paper puts forward a steering trapezoid body design which accords with the specially designed track.Calculated by MATLAB software, the steering trapezoid space kinematic model is established to optimize the design, control the error between the trapezoid Ackerman and ideal Ackerman, and improve the car's steering stability.The dynamics models of the car steering system and suspension system are established and simulated.When the wheel is jumping up and down, controlling the front wheel can reduce the extent of unilateral partial tire wear.Simulation results show that the optimal design of steering trapezoid mechanism has a good steering stability, and is a good solution to the partial side tire wear problems.%研究赛车比赛转向系统动特性优化问题,由于赛车高速和赛道特殊的特点,赛车的转向稳定性问题和轮胎的单侧偏磨问题一直困扰着赛车设计者.针对上述问题,提出了一种符合赛车赛道特殊设计的断开式转向梯形机构设计方案.利用MATLAB计算软件,建立了空间转向梯形运动学模型,进行优化设计,控制梯形的Ackerman与理想Ackeman的误差,来提高赛车的转向稳定性.又建立了赛车转向系统和悬架系统动力学模型并进行了仿真分析,在车轮上下跳动时,控制车轮前进变化量的大小,可减弱轮胎的单侧偏磨程度.结果表明设计出的转向梯形机构方案具有良好的转向稳定性,很好地缓解了轮胎的单侧偏磨现象.

  19. 轮毂电机驱动车辆转向控制策略%Research on Steering Control Strategy for In-Wheel Motor Drive Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春光; 阳贵兵; 廖自力; 李嘉麒

    2016-01-01

    为提高轮毂电机驱动车辆转向机动灵活性以及安全稳定性,提出了一种基于直接横摆力矩控制的转向控制策略。以带有双桥转向机构的8轮轮毂电机驱动车辆为研究对象,研究其双重转向控制问题,建立基于车辆二自由度单轨模型的车辆参考模型,并以横摆角速度作为控制变量,建立基于横摆力矩PID控制器和横摆力矩分配控制器的转向分层控制模型。利用硬件在环实时仿真实验对所提出的转向控制策略的可行性和有效性进行分析验证。%In order to improve the steering flexibility,security and stability of the in-wheel motor drive vehicle,a steering control strategy based on DYC (Direct Yaw Moment Control)is established. The double-axle steering mechanism is taken as an object of study for its dual steering control. A vehicle model is established based on a monorail model with 2 degree of freedom. And a hierarchical control model based on PID controller and yaw moment distribution controller,in which the yaw angular velocity is chosen to be a controlling variable. The steering control strategy established in this paper is proven to be feasible and effective through the HIL(Hardware-in-Loop)real time simulation.

  20. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4: Automated array assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerty, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    Progress in the development of automated solar cell and module production is reported. The unimate robot is programmed for the final 35 cell pattern to be used in the fabrication of the deliverable modules. The mechanical construction of the automated lamination station and final assembly station phases are completed and the first operational testing is underway. The final controlling program is written and optimized. The glass reinforced concrete (GRC) panels to be used for testing and deliverables are in production. Test routines are grouped together and defined to produce the final control program.

  1. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-05-31

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC.

  2. Automated theorem proving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisted, David A

    2014-03-01

    Automated theorem proving is the use of computers to prove or disprove mathematical or logical statements. Such statements can express properties of hardware or software systems, or facts about the world that are relevant for applications such as natural language processing and planning. A brief introduction to propositional and first-order logic is given, along with some of the main methods of automated theorem proving in these logics. These methods of theorem proving include resolution, Davis and Putnam-style approaches, and others. Methods for handling the equality axioms are also presented. Methods of theorem proving in propositional logic are presented first, and then methods for first-order logic. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:115-128. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1269 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The authors has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26304304

  3. ATLAS Distributed Computing Automation

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Borrego, C; Campana, S; Di Girolamo, A; Elmsheuser, J; Hejbal, J; Kouba, T; Legger, F; Magradze, E; Medrano Llamas, R; Negri, G; Rinaldi, L; Sciacca, G; Serfon, C; Van Der Ster, D C

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment benefits from computing resources distributed worldwide at more than 100 WLCG sites. The ATLAS Grid sites provide over 100k CPU job slots, over 100 PB of storage space on disk or tape. Monitoring of status of such a complex infrastructure is essential. The ATLAS Grid infrastructure is monitored 24/7 by two teams of shifters distributed world-wide, by the ATLAS Distributed Computing experts, and by site administrators. In this paper we summarize automation efforts performed within the ATLAS Distributed Computing team in order to reduce manpower costs and improve the reliability of the system. Different aspects of the automation process are described: from the ATLAS Grid site topology provided by the ATLAS Grid Information System, via automatic site testing by the HammerCloud, to automatic exclusion from production or analysis activities.

  4. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC

  5. Effect of feed protein on carcass composition and meat quality in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, P; Culioli, J; Renerre, M; Touraille, C; Micol, D; Geay, Y

    1993-01-01

    Forty-five Charolais steers were fed one of four experimental regimes containing maize silage and maize grain supplemented with either protected soyabean-rapessed meal or linseed meal. The first three regimes were formulated to supply the same energy and different protein levels with soyabean-rapessed meal: low (L-SRM), medium (M-SRM) and high (H-SRM). The fourth regime consisted in feeding the same amount (kg/day) of linseed meal as that of soyabean-rapessed meal in the H-SRM regime (LSM). As the protein level increased from L-SRM to H-SRM, the daily weight gain of steers increased and the carcass composition was changed towards higher muscle and lower fat proportions. Though the actual supply of feed protein by regime LSM was close to that achieved with M-SRM, the effect of linseed meal supplementation on weight gain and carcass composition was comparable to that obtained by feeding the high protein level (H-SRM). The dry matter content increased and the heme pigments and lipids contents decreased in longissimus thoracis muscle as the protein supply increased from the low to the high level. Again the amplitude of the differences in meat quality with L-SRM were similar in H-SRM and LSM. Muscle colour, connective tissue and mechanical strength remained practically unaffected by the protein treatments. However, meat was scored less tender in H-SRM and less juicy in treatment LSM than in treatment L-SRM. The results obtained with linseed meal suggest a specific effect of type of feed protein on beef carcass composition and meat quality. PMID:22060838

  6. A Novel Approach to Beam Steering Using Arrays Composed of Multiple Unique Radiating Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labadie, Nathan Richard

    Phased array antennas have found wide application in both radar and wireless communications systems particularly as implementation costs continue to decrease. The primary advantages of electronically scanned arrays are speed of beam scan and versatility of beamforming compared to mechanically scanned fixed beam antennas. These benefits come at the cost of a few well known design issues including element pattern rolloff and mutual coupling between elements. Our primary contribution to the field of research is the demonstration of significant improvement in phased array scan performance using multiple unique radiating modes. In short, orthogonal radiating modes have minimal coupling by definition and can also be generated with reduced rolloff at wide scan angles. In this dissertation, we present a combination of analysis, full-wave electromagnetic simulation and measured data to support our claims. The novel folded ring resonator (FRR) antenna is introduced as a wideband and multi-band element embedded in a grounded dielectric substrate. Multiple radiating modes of a small ground plane excited by a four element FRR array were also investigated. A novel hemispherical null steering antenna composed of two collocated radiating elements, each supporting a unique radiating mode, is presented in the context of an anti-jam GPS receiver application. Both the antenna aperture and active feed network were fabricated and measured showing excellent agreement with analytical and simulated data. The concept of using an antenna supporting multiple radiating modes for beam steering is also explored. A 16 element hybrid linear phased array was fabricated and measured demonstrating significantly improved scan range and scanned gain compared to a conventional phased array. This idea is expanded to 2 dimensional scanning arrays by analysis and simulation of a hybrid phased array composed of novel multiple mode monopole on patch antenna sub-arrays. Finally, we fabricated and

  7. The Automated Medical Office

    OpenAIRE

    Petreman, Mel

    1990-01-01

    With shock and surprise many physicians learned in the 1980s that they must change the way they do business. Competition for patients, increasing government regulation, and the rapidly escalating risk of litigation forces physicians to seek modern remedies in office management. The author describes a medical clinic that strives to be paperless using electronic innovation to solve the problems of medical practice management. A computer software program to automate information management in a c...

  8. Automation in biological crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patrick Shaw; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-06-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given.

  9. Carcass characteristics and composition of Brahman, angus and Brahman x Angus steers fed for different times-on-feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, D K; Smith, G C; Murphey, C E; Savell, J W; Carpenter, Z L; Petersen, H D

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-five steers of each of three breedtypes (Angus, Brahman and F(1) Brahman x Angus) were sorted by frame size and muscle thickness, assigned to groups (five steers of each breedtype) to be fed for 0, 56, 112, 168 or 224 days, slaughtered and compared for various carcass traits. Steers of each breedtype had similar dressing percentages. Carcasses from all three breedtypes merited similar USDA quality and yield grades; breedtypes differences in quality grade were slight. Differences were found in the fat deposition patterns exhibited by the three breedtypes. Brahman steers tended to deposit more of their total fat as subcutaneous fat early in the feeding period. Angus steers had more (P Brahman steers. Brahman steers had a higher percentage of their separable lean in the muscles of the round than did steers of the other breedtypes.

  10. Carcass characteristics and composition of Brahman, angus and Brahman x Angus steers fed for different times-on-feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, D K; Smith, G C; Murphey, C E; Savell, J W; Carpenter, Z L; Petersen, H D

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-five steers of each of three breedtypes (Angus, Brahman and F(1) Brahman x Angus) were sorted by frame size and muscle thickness, assigned to groups (five steers of each breedtype) to be fed for 0, 56, 112, 168 or 224 days, slaughtered and compared for various carcass traits. Steers of each breedtype had similar dressing percentages. Carcasses from all three breedtypes merited similar USDA quality and yield grades; breedtypes differences in quality grade were slight. Differences were found in the fat deposition patterns exhibited by the three breedtypes. Brahman steers tended to deposit more of their total fat as subcutaneous fat early in the feeding period. Angus steers had more (P carcass weight at all five feeding periods and more (P Brahman steers. Brahman steers had a higher percentage of their separable lean in the muscles of the round than did steers of the other breedtypes.

  11. 7 CFR 59.103 - Mandatory weekly reporting for steers and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory weekly reporting for steers and heifers. 59... heifers. (a) In general. The corporate officers or officially designated representatives of each steer and heifer packer processing plant shall report to the Secretary on the first reporting day of each week,...

  12. 46 CFR 130.130 - Steering on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... instantaneous protection against short circuit for electrical-power circuits and control circuits, the... (parallel but cross-connected) power systems for the main steering gear by way of compliance with paragraph... subordinate parallel system is located at the steering-control station in the pilothouse; (2) Full power...

  13. 46 CFR 97.15-3 - Steering gear, whistle, and means of communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-3 Steering gear, whistle, and means of communication. (a) On all vessels making a voyage of more than 48 hours' duration, the entire steering gear, the whistle, and the means of communication between the bridge or pilothouse and the engineroom shall...

  14. 46 CFR 35.40-30 - Instructions for changing steering gear-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 35.40-30 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS OPERATIONS Posting and... least 1/2 inch letters and figures shall be posted in the steering engineroom, relating in order, the... shifting to any means of steering for which the vessel is equipped. Instructions shall be included to...

  15. 46 CFR 196.15-3 - Steering gear, whistle, and means of communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-3 Steering gear, whistle, and means of communication. (a) On all vessels making a voyage of more than 48 hours duration, the entire steering gear, the whistle, and the means of communication between the bridge or pilothouse and engineroom shall be...

  16. 46 CFR 196.37-33 - Instructions for changing steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-33 Instructions for changing... engineroom, relating in order, the different steps to be taken in changing to the emergency steering gear... which is to be “opened” or “closed” in shifting to any means of steering for which the vessel...

  17. Seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) Improves Growth, Immunity, Fatty Acid Profile and Reduces Cholesterol in Hanwoo Steers

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, J. A.; Islam, M. M.; Ahmed, S. T.; Mun, H. S.; G. M. Kim; Kim, Y. J.; Yang, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effect of 2% seamustard (Undaria pinnatifida) by-product (SW) on growth performance, immunity, carcass characteristics, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile in Hanwoo steers. A total of 20 Hanwoo steers (ave. 22 months old; 619 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to control (basal diet) and 2% SW supplemented diet. Dietary SW supplementation significantly (p

  18. On Using Current Steering Logic in Mixed Analogue-digital Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Torsten

    1998-01-01

    The authors investigate power supply noise in mixed analogue-digital circuits, arising from communication between the analogue and digital parts of the circuit. Current steering techniques and proper buffering are used to show which noise currents can be reduced and which cannot. In addition, a...... high-swing current steering buffer for driving analogue switches or external digital signals is proposed....

  19. Does pedalling on a recumbent bicycle influence the cyclist’s steering behaviour?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, K.M.; Klap, P.; Van Lanen, J.A.; Letsoin, G.J.; Jansen, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the answer to the question how pedalling on a specific recumbent bicycle, such as the VeloX3, influences a cyclist’s ability to steer the bicycle. The research aims to find the correlation between pedalling and the undesired steering movements it creates. To test this assumption a

  20. Finalization of the conceptual design of the remote steering ECH launcher for ITER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronden, D.; de M. Baar,; van den Berg, M.; Bongers, W.; Chavan, R.; Graswinckel, M.; Hannink, M.; Houkema, M.; de Vreede, F.

    2009-01-01

    The design of a remote steering (RS) variant of the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) upper port launcher (UPL) for neo-classical tearing mode (NTM) stabilization in ITER is being finalised. The RS variant is the fall-back option for the reference design, which is a front steering (FS) UPL. This pape

  1. Ministerial Steering and Institutional Responses: Recent Developments of the Finnish Higher Education System in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtta, Sepp; Rekila, Eila

    2003-01-01

    Studied recent changes in the higher education system of Finland through two studies, one on the change in governmental steering instruments from the mid-1980s to the present and one on the institutional reaction to the new steering-by-results model. Data from various sources provide details of the reformulation of higher education policy. (SLD)

  2. Ultrasound-guided robot for flexible needle steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubach, Zipi; Shoham, Moshe

    2010-04-01

    The success rate of medical procedures involving needle insertion is often directly related to needle placement accuracy. Due to inherent limitations of commonly used freehand needle placement techniques, there is a need for a system providing for controlled needle steering for procedures that demand high positional accuracy. This paper describes a robotic system developed for flexible needle steering inside soft tissues under real-time ultrasound imaging. An inverse kinematics algorithm based on a virtual spring model is applied to calculate needle base manipulations required for the tip to follow a curved trajectory while avoiding physiological obstacles. The needle tip position is derived from ultrasound images and is used in calculations to minimize the tracking error, enabling a closed-loop needle insertion. In addition, as tissue stiffness is a necessary input to the control algorithm, a novel method to classify tissue stiffness from localized tissue displacements is proposed and shown to successfully distinguish between soft and stiff tissue. The system performance was experimentally verified by robotic manipulation of the needle base inside a phantom with layers of varying stiffnesses. The closed-loop experiment with updated tissue stiffness parameters demonstrated a needle-tip tracking error of approximately 1 mm and proved to be significantly more accurate than the freehand method. PMID:19709957

  3. Reducing supplementation frequency for Nellore beef steers grazing tropical pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Carrilho Canesin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reduced supplementation frequency is a broadly applied management practice. Ruminants consuming low quality forages/pastures, supplemented less than once daily are able to maintain body weight gain (BWG, efficiency of use of dry matter, nitrogen and other nutrients, as compared with animals supplemented once daily. We evaluated the feeding behavior, dry matter intake (DMI, dry matter and organic matter digestibility (DMD and OMD, BWG, Longissimus muscle area and backfat depth of Nellore steers raised on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures during the dry season, with different supplementation patterns. Thirty six animals (338 ± 40.7 kg were distributed over nine paddocks according to a completely randomized design. Treatments were based on supplementation frequency: once daily (OD, once daily except Saturdays and Sundays (SS, or on alternate days (AD, at 1.0 %, 1.4 % and 2.0 % BW, respectively. Average total DMI accounted for 1.6 % BW day-1, with no effect of supplementation frequency. Supplementation frequency had no effect on BWG or grazing time during the day. There was no difference in Longissimus muscle area animals supplemented daily, SS and AD. The backfat depth was thinner in animals supplemented AD, but even in this case, it was within the standards considered satisfactory for a finishing steer. Reducing supplementation frequency seems a good option to lower labor costs without affecting feed efficiency or carcass quality in beef cattle grazing tropical pastures.

  4. Adiabatic photo-steering theory in topological insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feasible external control of material properties is a crucial issue in condensed matter physics. A new approach to achieving this aim, named adiabatic photo-steering, is reviewed. The core principle of this scheme is that several material constants are effectively turned into externally tunable variables by irradiation of monochromatic laser light. Two-dimensional topological insulators are selected as the optimal systems that exhibit a prominent change in their properties following the application of this method. Two specific examples of photo-steered quantum phenomena, which reflect topological aspects of the electronic systems at hand, are presented. One is the integer quantum Hall effect described by the Haldane model, and the other is the quantum spin Hall effect described by the Kane–Mele model. The topological quantities associated with these phenomena are the conventional Chern number and spin Chern number, respectively. A recent interesting idea, time-reversal symmetry breaking via a temporary periodic external stimulation, is also discussed. (focus issue review)

  5. The steering committee for the marketing of radurised foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the very successful results obtained during the initial research stage of food irradiation, a need was felt for the commercial application of the process. Although few, if any, other food processing methods have been so thoroughly investigated prior to acceptance, several factors influenced the spontaneous implementation thereof. A definite need for co-ordination of commercial trials and proper commercial introduction of the process which invited so many discussions world-wide, led to the introduction of the Steering Committee for Radurised Foodstuffs in South Africa by the Minister of Agriculture during 1981. The Steering Committee was established to advise the Minister of Agriculture regarding the acceptability of the process and the progress made in this regard. The Minister of Agriculture (now Agricultural Economics and Water Affairs) fulfills an important role in the marketing of agricultural products in South Africa. Many decisions and recommendations of Organised Agriculture and of the different Marketing Boards are subject to the final approval or acceptance by the Minister. It is therefore important that he will be informed and advised regarding radurisation of foodstuffs and related aspects

  6. Stability Simulation of a Vehicle with Wheel Active Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brabec Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the possibility of increasing the vehicle driving stability at a higher speed. One of the ways how to achieve higher stability is using the 4WS system. Mathematical description of vehicle general movement is a very complex task. For simulation, models which are aptly simplified are used. For the first approach, so-called single-truck vehicle model (often linear is usually used. For the simulation, we have chosen to extend the model into a two-truck one, which includes the possibility to input more vehicle parameters. Considering the 4WS system, it is possible to use a number of potential regulations. In our simulation model, the regulation system with compound coupling was used. This type of regulation turns the rear wheels depending on the input parameters of the system (steering angle of the front wheels and depending on the output moving quantities of the vehicle, most frequently the yaw rate. Criterion for compensation of lateral deflection centre of gravity angle is its zero value, or more precisely the zero value of its first-order derivative. Parameters and set-up of the simulation model were done in conjunction with the dSAPACE software. Reference performances of the vehicle simulation model were made through the defined manoeuvres. But the simulation results indicate that the rear-wheels steering can have a positive effect on the vehicle movement stability, especially when changing the driving direction at high speed.

  7. High power transcranial beam steering for ultrasonic brain therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sparse phased array is specially designed for non-invasive ultrasound transskull brain therapy. The array is made of 200 single elements corresponding to a new generation of high power transducers developed in collaboration with Imasonic (Besancon, France). Each element has a surface of 0.5 cm2 and works at 0.9 MHz central frequency with a maximum 20 W cm-2 intensity on the transducer surface. In order to optimize the steering capabilities of the array, several transducer distributions on a spherical surface are simulated: hexagonal, annular and quasi-random distributions. Using a quasi-random distribution significantly reduces the grating lobes. Furthermore, the simulations show the capability of the quasi-random array to electronically move the focal spot in the vicinity of the geometrical focus (up to ±15 mm). Based on the simulation study, the array is constructed and tested. The skull aberrations are corrected by using a time reversal mirror with amplitude correction achieved thanks to an implantable hydrophone, and a sharp focus is obtained through a human skull. Several lesions are induced in fresh liver and brain samples through human skulls, demonstrating the accuracy and the steering capabilities of the system

  8. Muscle Growth and Distribution in Fattening Steer of Different Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Priyanto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The breed patterns in growth and distribution of muscle were studied using three breeds of beef cattle entering fattening phase. This study involved 23 grass-fed steer Brahman, 24 Hereford and 22 Brahman x Hereford crosses with a live weight range of 300 to 600 kgs. An allometric Huxley model was used to study the growth and distribution patterns of muscle tissue within wholesale cut. There were several cuts in which the muscle growth coefficients were significantly different among breeds. Comparisons of muscle weight distribution at log natural of 75 kg side muscle + bone weight (4.313 kg generally showed significant between-breed differences. Herefords tended to have more muscles in their wholesale cuts than Brahmans and/or Brahman x Hereford crosses, except the muscles in Tenderloin, Rib Set and Chuck. Brahmans had heavier Topside and Silverside than Herefords and Brahman x Hereford crosses and the differences were maintained at log natural of 114 kg side muscle + bone weight (4.733 kg. At this heavier weight, there was a general tendency for Brahmans to have more muscle in their wholesale cuts than the Brahman x Hereford steers, except the muscle in Loin and Neck + Sticking.

  9. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Chester, W

    1979-01-01

    When I began to write this book, I originally had in mind the needs of university students in their first year. May aim was to keep the mathematics simple. No advanced techniques are used and there are no complicated applications. The emphasis is on an understanding of the basic ideas and problems which require expertise but do not contribute to this understanding are not discussed. How­ ever, the presentation is more sophisticated than might be considered appropri­ ate for someone with no previous knowledge of the subject so that, although it is developed from the beginning, some previous acquaintance with the elements of the subject would be an advantage. In addition, some familiarity with element­ ary calculus is assumed but not with the elementary theory of differential equations, although knowledge of the latter would again be an advantage. It is my opinion that mechanics is best introduced through the motion of a particle, with rigid body problems left until the subject is more fully developed. Howev...

  10. High speed, high power one-dimensional beam steering from a 6-element optical phased array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W Ronny; Montoya, Juan; Kansky, Jan E; Redmond, Shawn M; Turner, George W; Sanchez-Rubio, Antonio

    2012-07-30

    Beam steering at high speed and high power is demonstrated from a 6-element optical phased array using coherent beam combining (CBC) techniques. The steering speed, defined as the inverse of the time to required to sweep the beam across the steering range, is 40 MHz and the total power is 396 mW. The measured central lobe FWHM width is 565 μrad. High on-axis intensity is maintained periodically by phase-locking the array via a stochastic-parallel-gradient-descent (SPGD) algorithm. A master-oscillator-power-amplifier (MOPA) configuration is used where the amplifier array elements are semiconductor slab-coupled-optical-waveguide-amplifiers (SCOWAs). The beam steering is achieved by LiNbO(3) phase modulators; the phase-locking occurs by current adjustment of the SCOWAs. The system can be readily scaled to GHz steering speed and multiwatt-class output.

  11. Automated navigation of a glass micropipette on a high-density microelectrode array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing Lin; Obien, Marie Engelene J; Hierlemann, Andreas; Frey, Urs

    2015-08-01

    High-density microelectrode arrays (HDMEAs) provide the capability to monitor the extracellular electric potential of multiple neurons at subcellular resolution over extended periods of time. In contrast, patch clamp allows for intracellular, sub-threshold recordings from a single patched neuron for very limited time on the order of an hour. Therefore, it will be beneficial to combine HDMEA and patch clamp for simultaneous intra- and extracellular recording of neuronal activity. Previously, it has been shown that the HDMEA can be used to localize and steer a glass micropipette towards a target location without using an optical microscope [1]. Here, we present an automated system, implemented in LabVIEW, which automatically locates and moves the glass micropipette towards a user-defined target. The presented system constitutes a first step towards developing an automated system to navigate a pipette to patch a neuron in vitro. PMID:26736403

  12. Optomechanical analysis and testing of a fast steering secondary mirror prototype for the Giant Magellan Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredor, Andrew; Park, Won Hyun; Cho, Myung; Kim, Young-Soo

    2013-09-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) will be one of the next class of extremely large segmented mirror telescopes. The GMT will utilize two Gregorian secondary mirrors, and Adaptive Secondary Mirror (ASM) and a Fast-steering Secondary Mirror (FSM). The FSM consists of six off-axis mirrors surrounding a central on-axis circular segment. The segments are 1.1 m in diameter and conjugated 1:1 to the seven 8.4 m segments of the primary. A prototype of the FSM mirror (FSMP) has been developed, analyzed and tested in order to demonstrate the mechanical and optical responses of the mirror assembly when subjected to structural and thermal loadings. In this paper, the mechanical and thermal performances of the FSMP were evaluated by performing finite element analyses (FEA) in NX Nastran. The deformation of the mirror's lateral flexure was measured when the FSMP was axially loaded and the temperature response of the mirror assembly was measured when exposed to a sample thermal environment. In order to validate the mirror/lateral flexure design concept, the mechanical, optical and thermal measurements obtained from the tests conducted on mirrors having two different lateral flexures were compared to the responses calculated by FEA.

  13. Automation in organizations: Eternal conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterly, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    Some ideas on and insights into the problems associated with automation in organizations are presented with emphasis on the concept of automation, its relationship to the individual, and its impact on system performance. An analogy is drawn, based on an American folk hero, to emphasize the extent of the problems encountered when dealing with automation within an organization. A model is proposed to focus attention on a set of appropriate dimensions. The function allocation process becomes a prominent aspect of the model. The current state of automation research is mentioned in relation to the ideas introduced. Proposed directions for an improved understanding of automation's effect on the individual's efficiency are discussed. The importance of understanding the individual's perception of the system in terms of the degree of automation is highlighted.

  14. Design of a Three-wheel Steering Gear%一种三轮转向机构的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何宇廷; 林文章

    2001-01-01

    针对常用的三轮运动机构,应用两组平行四边形机构协调工作的原理,设计了一套新型三轮转向机构控制其运动方向,使得该三轮运动机构可在平面内任意方向上方便自如地运动。%For the common three-wheel moving mechanism, a new three-wheel steering gear was designed to control its moving direction with two sets of parallel veins mechanisms working coordinatedly. And then the three-wheel moving mechanism can move conveniently in every direction in the plane.

  15. Automated Assessment, Face to Face

    OpenAIRE

    Rizik M. H. Al-Sayyed; Amjad Hudaib; Muhannad AL-Shboul; Yousef Majdalawi; Mohammed Bataineh

    2010-01-01

    This research paper evaluates the usability of automated exams and compares them with the paper-and-pencil traditional ones. It presents the results of a detailed study conducted at The University of Jordan (UoJ) that comprised students from 15 faculties. A set of 613 students were asked about their opinions concerning automated exams; and their opinions were deeply analyzed. The results indicate that most students reported that they are satisfied with using automated exams but they have sugg...

  16. Automation System Products and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rintala, Mikko; Sormunen, Jussi; Kuisma, Petri; Rahkala, Matti

    2014-01-01

    Automation systems are used in most buildings nowadays. In the past they were mainly used in industry to control and monitor critical systems. During the past few decades the automation systems have become more common and are used today from big industrial solutions to homes of private customers. With the growing need for ecologic and cost-efficient management systems, home and building automation systems are becoming a standard way of controlling lighting, ventilation, heating etc. Auto...

  17. Test Automation of Online Games

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenfeldt, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    State of the art browser games are increasingly complex pieces of software with extensive code basis. With increasing complexity, a software becomes harder to maintain. Automated regression testing can simplify these maintenance processes and thereby enable developers as well as testers to spend their workforce more efficiently. This thesis addresses the utilization of automated tests in web applications. As a use case test automation is applied to an online-based strategy game for the bro...

  18. The automated medical office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petreman, M

    1990-08-01

    With shock and surprise many physicians learned in the 1980s that they must change the way they do business. Competition for patients, increasing government regulation, and the rapidly escalating risk of litigation forces physicians to seek modern remedies in office management. The author describes a medical clinic that strives to be paperless using electronic innovation to solve the problems of medical practice management. A computer software program to automate information management in a clinic shows that practical thinking linked to advanced technology can greatly improve office efficiency.

  19. AUTOMATED API TESTING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNIL L. BANGARE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test. With the help of software testing we can verify or validate the software product. Normally testing will be done after development of software but we can perform the software testing at the time of development process also. This paper will give you a brief introduction about Automated API Testing Tool. This tool of testing will reduce lots of headache after the whole development of software. It saves time as well as money. Such type of testing is helpful in the Industries & Colleges also.

  20. World-wide distribution automation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaney, T.M.

    1994-12-31

    A worldwide power distribution automation system is outlined. Distribution automation is defined and the status of utility automation is discussed. Other topics discussed include a distribution management system, substation feeder, and customer functions, potential benefits, automation costs, planning and engineering considerations, automation trends, databases, system operation, computer modeling of system, and distribution management systems.

  1. Internal Control, Auditing, and the Automated Acquisitions System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, Carol Pitts

    1990-01-01

    Discusses issues and procedures involved in auditing the automated acquisitions system at Ohio State University Libraries. The audit process is explained, internal controls within the system are identified, general control mechanisms such as limited electronic access are discussed, and application control mechanisms that relate to specific…

  2. Designing Negotiating Agent for Automated Negotiations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Traditional research in automated negotiation is focused on negotiation protocol and strategy.This paper studies automated negotiation from a new point of view, proposes a novel concept, namely negotiating agent, and discusses its significance in construction of automated negotiation system, with an abstract model formally described and the architecture designed, which supports both goal-directed reasoning and reactive response. A communication model was proposed to construct interaction mechanism used by negotiating agents, in which the negotiation language used by agents is defined.The communication model and the language are defined in a way general enough to support a wide variety of market mechanisms, thus being particularly suitable for flexible applications such as electronic business. The design and expression of the negotiation ontology is also discussed. On the base of the theoretical model of negotiating agent, negotiating agent architecture and negotiating agent communication model (NACM) are explicit and formal specifications for the agents negotiating in an E-business environment; especially, NACM defines the negotiation language template shared among all agents formally and explicitly. The novelty of the communication model is twofold.

  3. Lightweight computational steering of very large scale molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a computational steering approach for controlling, analyzing, and visualizing very large scale molecular dynamics simulations involving tens to hundreds of millions of atoms. Our approach relies on extensible scripting languages and an easy to use tool for building extensions and modules. The system is extremely easy to modify, works with existing C code, is memory efficient, and can be used from inexpensive workstations and networks. We demonstrate how we have used this system to manipulate data from production MD simulations involving as many as 104 million atoms running on the CM-5 and Cray T3D. We also show how this approach can be used to build systems that integrate common scripting languages (including Tcl/Tk, Perl, and Python), simulation code, user extensions, and commercial data analysis packages

  4. Beam steering and impedance matching of plasmonic horn nanoantennas

    CERN Document Server

    Afridi, Adeel

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study a plasmonic horn nanoantenna on a metal-backed substrate. The horn nanoantenna structure consists of a two-wire transmission line (TWTL) flared at the end. We analyze the effect of the substrate thickness on the nanoantenna's radiation pattern, and demonstrate beam steering in a broad range of elevation angles. Furthermore, we analyze the effect of the ground plane on the impedance matching between the antenna and the TWTL, and observe that the ground plane increases the back reflection into the waveguide. To reduce the reflection, we develop a transmission line model to design an impedance matching section which leads to 99.75% power transmission to the nanoantenna.

  5. Steering optical comb frequency by rotating polarization state

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Y; Zhang, X F; Zhang, L; Han, W; Guo, W; Jiang, H; Zhang, S

    2016-01-01

    Optical frequency combs, with precise control of repetition rate and carrier-envelope-offset frequency, have revolutionized many fields, such as fine optical spectroscopy, optical frequency standards, ultra-fast science research, ultra-stable microwave generation and precise ranging measurement. However, existing high bandwidth frequency control methods have small dynamic range, requiring complex hybrid control techniques. To overcome this limitation, we develop a new approach, where a home-made intra-cavity electro-optic modulator tunes polarization state of laser signal rather than only optical length of the cavity, to steer frequencies of a nonlinear-polarization-rotation mode-locked laser. By taking advantage of birefringence of the whole cavity, this approach results in not only broadband but also relative large-dynamic frequency control. Experimental results show that frequency control dynamic range increase at least one order in comparison with the traditional intra-cavity electro-optic modulator techn...

  6. Null-steering techniques for application to large array antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockham, G. A.; Cho, C.; Parr, J. C.; Wolfson, R. I.

    A multimode waveguide can be employed to design an antenna which produces a beam for each propagating mode. A dual-beam waveguide slot array is particularly attractive. The antenna is compact, highly efficient, and has lower sidelobe-level performance than can be achieved with conventional monopulse techniques. Adaptive phase steering for jammer nulling is considered, taking into account a large phased array using a series feed system. The considered configuration was selected for computer simulation. A description is presented of a multiple beam antenna with independent steerable nulls. The multiple beam low-sidelobe antenna configuration has the ability to provide a radiation pattern with multiple and independently-located nulls, with minimal effect on the sidelobes of the unperturbed pattern.

  7. Planning analysis and political steering with New Public Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sager, Tore Øivin; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2011-01-01

    Interviews with members of the Norwegian national assembly’s Standing Committee for Transport and Communications were conducted in 1995, 1997, 2001, and 2004. The politicians were asked about the usefulness of analytic input that planners contribute to national plans, first the Norwegian Road...... and Road Traffic Plan and later the National Transport Plan. Questions related to steering, coordination, delegation, and the inclusiveness of the planning process were also posed. Changes in the politicians’ attitudes to types of analytic planning input are outlined. Furthermore, the last round...... of interviews sheds light on the apparent paradox that parliamentarians accept delegation of highway investment decisions despite their profound scepticism to the cost-benefit analyses and impact calculations that are essential to management by objectives and results, which was to give them continued political...

  8. A self-steering close-talking microphone array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Ke; YANG Xinfeng; XU Boling

    2005-01-01

    For communication in extremely noisy environments, close-talking microphone arrays are useful. Differential microphone array systems possessing excellent nearfield directivity and strong farfield-noise reduction capability are very suitable for close-talking situations. In order to improve the focusing effect at the desired bearing in the nearfield, we propose a novel self-steering system of closetalking arrays with the first-order differential sub-arrays in this paper. Calculations of directivity patterns and directivity factors show that when a kind of optimized beamforming technique is adopted even small arrays with a focusing configuration will exhibit a satisfactory nearfield directivity which is electronically steerable within a specific range. The superiority of the proposed array system is verified by experiments with real acoustic data.

  9. Application of Support Vector Machine to Ship Steering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Wei-lin; ZOU Zao-jian; LI Tie-shan

    2009-01-01

    System identification is an effective way for modeling ship manoeuvring motion and ship manoeuvrability prediction. Support vector machine is proposed to identify the manoeuvring indices in four different response models of ship steering motion, including the first order linear, the first order nonlinear, the second order linear and the second order nonlinear models. Predictions of manoeuvres including trained samples by using the identified parameters are compared with the results of free-running model tests. It is discussed that the different four categories are consistent with each other both analytically and numerically. The generalization of the identified model is verified by predicting different untrained manoeuvres. The simulations and comparisons demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  10. Steering Law Controlling the Constant Speeds of Control Moment Gyros

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOYASAKO, Y.; TAKAHASHI, M.

    2016-09-01

    To enable the agile control of satellites, using control moment gyros (CMGs) has become increasingly necessary because of their ability to generate large amounts of torque. However, CMGs have a singularity problem whereby the torque by the CMGs degenerates from three dimensions to two dimensions, affecting spacecraft attitude control performance. This study proposes a new steering control law for CMGs by controlling the constant speed of a CMG. The proposed method enables agile attitude changes, according to the required task, by managing the total angular momentum of the CMGs by considering the distance to external singularities. In the proposed method, the total angular momentum is biased in a specific direction and the angular momentum envelope is extended. The design method can increase the net angular momentum of CMGs which can be exchanged with the satellite. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by numerical simulations.

  11. Dynamic Terahertz Beam Steering Based on Graphene Metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Liming; Hattori, Haroldo T

    2016-01-01

    A full (2$\\pi$) phase modulation is critical for efficient wavefront manipulation. In this article, we propose a metasurface based on graphene long/short-strip resonators which are capable of implementing a dynamic 2$\\pi$ phase modulation by applying different voltages to different graphene resonators. The configuration is found to have high reflection efficiency (minimum 56%) and has a full phase modulation in a wide frequency range. Terahertz (THz) beam steering as large as 120 degrees ($\\pm60^\\circ$) is demonstrated in a broad frequency range (1.2 to 1.9 THz) by changing the Fermi levels of different graphene resonators accordingly. This metasurface can provide a new platform for effectively manipulating THz waves.

  12. Structural Assessment of Advanced Composite Tow-Steered Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Stanford, Bret K.; Hrinda, Glenn A.; Wang, Zhuosong; Martin, Robert a.; Kim, H. Alicia

    2013-01-01

    The structural performance of two advanced composite tow-steered shells, manufactured using a fiber placement system, is assessed using both experimental and analytical methods. The fiber orientation angles vary continuously around the shell circumference from 10 degrees on the shell crown and keel, to 45 degrees on the shell sides. The two shells differ in that one shell has the full 24-tow course applied during each pass of the fiber placement system, while the second shell uses the fiber placement system s tow drop/add capability to achieve a more uniform shell wall thickness. The shells are tested in axial compression, and estimates of their prebuckling axial stiffnesses and bifurcation buckling loads are predicted using linear finite element analyses. These preliminary predictions compare well with the test results, with an average agreement of approximately 10 percent.

  13. Steering continuum electron dynamics by low-energy attosecond streaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Ji-Wei; Xiong, Wei-Hao; Xiao, Xiang-Ru; Gong, Qihuang; Peng, Liang-You

    2016-08-01

    A semiclassical model is developed to understand the electronic dynamics in the low-energy attosecond streaking. Under a relatively strong infrared (IR) pulse, the low-energy part of photoelectrons initialized by a single attosecond pulse (SAP) can either rescatter with the ionic core and induce interferences structures in the momentum spectra of the ionized electrons or be recaptured into the Rydberg states. The Coulomb potential plays essential roles in both the electron rescattering and recapturing processes. We find that by changing the time delay between the SAP and the IR pulse, the photoelectrons yield or the population of the Rydberg states can be effectively controlled. The present study demonstrates a fascinating way to steer the electron motion in the continuum.

  14. Energetic and climatic consequences of promotional levies and steering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made in connection with a proposed levy on non-renewable energy sources that was to be used to promote the use of renewable forms of energy and energy-efficiency. A further steering-tax on non-renewable forms of energy is also the subject of the study. The report examines the framework, as defined by energy legislation, for the implementation of such taxes and their possible impact on energy prices. The usage and substitution potentials of the various renewable forms of energy and of efficiency technologies are estimated. Suggestions for the distribution of the promotional funds on the basis of non-amortisable costs incurred by the use of the renewable technologies are discussed. The effect of the two levies on energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions are discussed and illustrated with graphical representations of various development scenarios

  15. Sugar transport across lactose permease probed by steered molecular dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Yin, Ying; Tajkhorshid, Emad;

    2007-01-01

    Escherichia coli lactose permease (LacY) transports sugar across the inner membrane of the bacterium using the proton motive force to accumulate sugar in the cytosol. We have probed lactose conduction across LacY using steered molecular dynamics, permitting us to follow molecular and energetic......, forcing it to interact with channel lining residues. Lactose forms a multitude of direct sugar-channel hydrogen bonds, predominantly with residues of the flexible N-domain, which is known to contribute a major part of LacY's affinity for lactose. In the periplasmic half-channel lactose predominantly...... interacts with hydrophobic channel lining residues, whereas in the cytoplasmic half-channel key protein-substrate interactions are mediated by ionic residues. A major energy barrier against transport is found within a tight segment of the periplasmic half-channel where sugar hydration is minimal and protein-sugar...

  16. Effects of programmed gain strategies on performance and carcass characteristics of steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblich, H V; Fluharty, F L; Loerch, S C

    1997-12-01

    In Trial 1, 161 Angus x Simmental crossbred steers (initial BW 305 +/- 1.0 kg) were used in a completely randomized design experiment to determine the effects of intake restriction and programmed gain on cattle performance and carcass composition and characteristics. Five feeding systems were tested using step-wise increases in programmed intake level. Initially steers were fed to gain 1.13 kg/d. Intake was then increased to achieve a gain of 1.36 kg/d. At the end of the feeding period, steers had ad libitum access to feed. Duration of intake restriction and the period of unrestricted intake was varied. Feeding steers at restricted intakes and then increasing daily gain by increasing feed intake using four different schedules all reduced (P .10) quality grade of the carcasses. In Trial 2, 77 individually penned Angus x Simmental crossbred steers (initial BW 273 +/- 1.2 kg) were used to determine the effects of various feed intake restriction systems. For systems 1 through 4, multiple periods of restriction and realimentation were investigated; the duration and magnitude of restriction were varied. Feed intake was not restricted for steers in system 5. The feed restriction systems used in this experiment did not result in decreased total feed intake or changes in carcass composition as compared with offering ad libitum access to feed. Reducing total energy intake seems to be a prerequisite to altering feed efficiency of steers in limit-feeding systems. PMID:9419981

  17. Test of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering based on the all-versus-nothing proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunfeng; Chen, Jing-Ling; Ye, Xiang-Jun; Su, Hong-Yi; Deng, Dong-Ling; Wang, Zhenghan; Oh, C H

    2014-01-01

    In comparison with entanglement and Bell nonlocality, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering is a newly emerged research topic and in its incipient stage. Although Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering has been explored via violations of steering inequalities both theoretically and experimentally, the known inequalities in the literatures are far from well-developed. As a result, it is not yet possible to observe Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering for some steerable mixed states. Recently, a simple approach was presented to identify Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering based on all-versus-nothing argument, offering a strong condition to witness the steerability of a family of two-qubit (pure or mixed) entangled states. In this work, we show that the all-versus-nothing proof of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering can be tested by measuring the projective probabilities. Through the bound of probabilities imposed by local-hidden-state model, the proposed test shows that steering can be detected by the all-versus-nothing argument experimentally even in the presence of imprecision and errors. Our test can be implemented in many physical systems and we discuss the possible realizations of our scheme with non-Abelian anyons and trapped ions.

  18. DSP-based electric power assisted steering using BLDC motor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Murugan; S Nandakumar; M S Mohiyadeen

    2008-10-01

    This paper introduces a design and implementation of electrically assisted power steering (EAS) using BLDC motor for a vehicle. The control architecture consists of two layers of control, namely the vehicle speed associated control and the torque assist control. In the higher level of control architecture, the vehicle speed controller works as an assistance level controller for the steering effort. In the lower level, the torque controller gives the effort level control. This has been realized by torque sensor and vehicle sensor interfaced in the DSP. For implementing in the system, a DSP-based BLDC motor controller with three-phase inverter module is specially designed using Hall-effect sensor feedback and a single dc-link current sensor. This work is implemented in a Light Commercial Vehicle having a recirculating ball type gear. This is for the first time (EAS) being implemented for this type of vehicle any where in the world. Generally, EAS having clutch to disconnect the motor in high speed or abnormal conditions from the gear box. In this implementation the motor is directly coupled to gearbox without clutch and all abnormalities are handled by the processor. This is implemented without modifying the vehicle supply system like changing the existing alternator or rating of the battery and using the existing sensors. The design is such a way that the feel of the driver assistance can be varied easily at any time. The performance of the control system is experimentally verified and it is tested in one of the Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV).

  19. Generalized Internal Model Robust Control for Active Front Steering Intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jian; ZHAO Youqun; JI Xuewu; LIU Yahui; ZHANG Lipeng

    2015-01-01

    Because of the tire nonlinearity and vehicle’s parameters’ uncertainties, robust control methods based on the worst cases, such as H∞, μsynthesis, have been widely used in active front steering control, however, in order to guarantee the stability of active front steering system (AFS) controller, the robust control is at the cost of performance so that the robust controller is a little conservative and has low performance for AFS control. In this paper, a generalized internal model robust control (GIMC) that can overcome the contradiction between performance and stability is used in the AFS control. In GIMC, the Youla parameterization is used in an improved way. And GIMC controller includes two sections:a high performance controller designed for the nominal vehicle model and a robust controller compensating the vehicle parameters’ uncertainties and some external disturbances. Simulations of double lane change (DLC) maneuver and that of braking on split-μroad are conducted to compare the performance and stability of the GIMC control, the nominal performance PID controller and the H∞ controller. Simulation results show that the high nominal performance PID controller will be unstable under some extreme situations because of large vehicle’s parameters variations, H∞ controller is conservative so that the performance is a little low, and only the GIMC controller overcomes the contradiction between performance and robustness, which can both ensure the stability of the AFS controller and guarantee the high performance of the AFS controller. Therefore, the GIMC method proposed for AFS can overcome some disadvantages of control methods used by current AFS system, that is, can solve the instability of PID or LQP control methods and the low performance of the standard H∞controller.

  20. Dynamic steering beams for efficient force measurement in optical manipulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaocong Yuan; Yuquan Zhang; Rui Cao; Xing Zhao; Jing Bu; Siwei Zhu

    2011-01-01

    @@ An efficient and inexpensive method that uses a glass plate mounted onto a motorized rotating stage as a beam-steering device for the generation of dynamic optical traps is reported.Force analysis reveals that there are drag and trapping forces imposed on the bead in the opposite directions, respectively, in a viscous medium.The trapped bead will be rotated following the beam's motion before it reaches the critical escape velocity when the drag force is equal to the optical trapping force.The equilibrium condition facilitates the experimental measurement of the drag force with potential extensions to the determination of the viscosity of the medium or the refractive index of the bead.The proposed technique can easily be integrated into conventional optical microscopic systems with minimum modifications.%An efficient and inexpensive method that uses a glass plate mounted onto a motorized rotating stage as a beam-steering device for the generation of dynamic optical traps is reported. Force analysis reveals that there are drag and trapping forces imposed on the bead in the opposite directions, respectively, in a viscous medium. The trapped bead will be rotated following the beam's motion before it reaches the critical escape velocity when the drag force is equal to the optical trapping force. The equilibrium condition facilitates the experimental measurement of the drag force with potential extensions to the determination of the viscosity of the medium or the refractive index of the bead. The proposed technique can easily be integrated into conventional optical microscopic systems with minimum modifications.

  1. Advances in Automation and Robotics, Vol 2

    CERN Document Server

    International conference on Automation and Robotics-ICAR2011

    2012-01-01

    The international conference on Automation and Robotics-ICAR2011 is held during December 12-13, 2011 in Dubai, UAE. The conference is intended to bring together the researchers and engineers/technologists working in different aspects of intelligent control systems and optimization, robotics and automation, signal processing, sensors, systems modeling and control, industrial engineering, production and management. This part of proceedings includes 82 papers contributed by many researchers in relevant topic areas covered at ICAR2011 from various countries such as France, Japan, USA, Korea and China etc.  The session topics of this proceedings are signal processing and industrial engineering, production and management, which includes papers about signal reconstruction, mechanical sensors, real-time systems control system identification, change detection problems, business process modeling, production planning, scheduling and control, computer-based manufacturing technologies, systems modeling and simulation, fa...

  2. Automation of nuclear material handling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automated systems are more and more used in nuclear material handling operations for increasing safety and operation speed and decreasing the personnel exposure to radiations. Some applications of automation to waste or fuel storage overhead cranes are described, showing the evolution of the control philosophy and of the technology used in this field. The computing capabilities and the flexibility of microprocessors make them particularly powerful for applications. The use of multiple microprocessors in a master-slave configuration, mounted on the crane, leads to a rather simple and efficient system. Those systems are described, showing the use of the ''teach-in'' method for data input, bypassing the effects of possibly large tolerances on civil and mechanical works

  3. Automation from pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state transition diagram (STD) model has been helpful in the design of real time software, especially with the emergence of graphical computer aided software engineering (CASE) tools. Nevertheless, the translation of the STD to real time code has in the past been primarily a manual task. At Los Alamos we have automated this process. The designer constructs the STD using a CASE tool (Cadre Teamwork) using a special notation for events and actions. A translator converts the STD into an intermediate state notation language (SNL), and this SNL is compiled directly into C code (a state program). Execution of the state program is driven by external events, allowing multiple state programs to effectively share the resources of the host processor. Since the design and the code are tightly integrated through the CASE tool, the design and code never diverge, and we avoid design obsolescence. Furthermore, the CASE tool automates the production of formal technical documents from the graphic description encapsulated by the CASE tool. (author)

  4. Automated Test Case Generation

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I would like to present the concept of automated test case generation. I work on it as part of my PhD and I think it would be interesting also for other people. It is also the topic of a workshop paper that I am introducing in Paris. (abstract below) Please note that the talk itself would be more general and not about the specifics of my PhD, but about the broad field of Automated Test Case Generation. I would introduce the main approaches (combinatorial testing, symbolic execution, adaptive random testing) and their advantages and problems. (oracle problem, combinatorial explosion, ...) Abstract of the paper: Over the last decade code-based test case generation techniques such as combinatorial testing or dynamic symbolic execution have seen growing research popularity. Most algorithms and tool implementations are based on finding assignments for input parameter values in order to maximise the execution branch coverage. Only few of them consider dependencies from outside the Code Under Test’s scope such...

  5. Automated Postediting of Documents

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, K; Knight, Kevin; Chander, Ishwar

    1994-01-01

    Large amounts of low- to medium-quality English texts are now being produced by machine translation (MT) systems, optical character readers (OCR), and non-native speakers of English. Most of this text must be postedited by hand before it sees the light of day. Improving text quality is tedious work, but its automation has not received much research attention. Anyone who has postedited a technical report or thesis written by a non-native speaker of English knows the potential of an automated postediting system. For the case of MT-generated text, we argue for the construction of postediting modules that are portable across MT systems, as an alternative to hardcoding improvements inside any one system. As an example, we have built a complete self-contained postediting module for the task of article selection (a, an, the) for English noun phrases. This is a notoriously difficult problem for Japanese-English MT. Our system contains over 200,000 rules derived automatically from online text resources. We report on l...

  6. Maneuver Automation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uffelman, Hal; Goodson, Troy; Pellegrin, Michael; Stavert, Lynn; Burk, Thomas; Beach, David; Signorelli, Joel; Jones, Jeremy; Hahn, Yungsun; Attiyah, Ahlam; Illsley, Jeannette

    2009-01-01

    The Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) automates the process of generating commands for maneuvers to keep the spacecraft of the Cassini-Huygens mission on a predetermined prime mission trajectory. Before MAS became available, a team of approximately 10 members had to work about two weeks to design, test, and implement each maneuver in a process that involved running many maneuver-related application programs and then serially handing off data products to other parts of the team. MAS enables a three-member team to design, test, and implement a maneuver in about one-half hour after Navigation has process-tracking data. MAS accepts more than 60 parameters and 22 files as input directly from users. MAS consists of Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) scripts that link, sequence, and execute the maneuver- related application programs: "Pushing a single button" on a graphical user interface causes MAS to run navigation programs that design a maneuver; programs that create sequences of commands to execute the maneuver on the spacecraft; and a program that generates predictions about maneuver performance and generates reports and other files that enable users to quickly review and verify the maneuver design. MAS can also generate presentation materials, initiate electronic command request forms, and archive all data products for future reference.

  7. Effect of weaning status and implant regimen on growth, performance, and carcass characteristics of steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonmaker, J P; Fluharty, F L; Loerch, S C; Turner, T B; Moeller, S J; Wulf, D M

    2001-05-01

    One hundred forty-three Angus x Simmental crossbred steers (initial BW = 155.1 +/- 4.5 kg) were used in a 2-yr study (yr 1, n = 67; yr 2, n = 76) to determine the effects of weaning age, implant regimen, and the weaning age x implant regimen interaction on steer growth and performance, organ mass, carcass characteristics, and cooked beef palatability. Steers were early-weaned at an average age of 108 d (EW) or normally weaned at an average age of 202 d (NW) and allotted by weight to an aggressive or nonaggressive implant regimen. On their respective weaning dates, EW and NW steers were penned individually and fed a grain-based diet until they were slaughtered at a final BW of 546 kg. A subsample of steers (n = 2 per treatment) were slaughtered at 254 kg. At 254 kg, EW steers implanted with the aggressive implant regimen had 64% greater backfat depth than those implanted with the nonaggressive implant regimen; conversely, NW steers implanted with the aggressive implant regimen had 52% lower backfat depth than those implanted with the nonaggressive implant regimen (weaning status x implant regimen interaction; P 0.37) or feed efficiency (P > 0.15). Weaning status did not affect carcass characteristics (P > 0.14), final empty body composition (P > 0.25), or final longissimus muscle composition (P > 0.18); however, steaks from EW steers had higher (P 0.86) compared to the nonaggressive implant regimen. Placing early-weaned steers on an aggressive implant regimen is a viable management option. PMID:11374527

  8. Feedlot performance of Brahman x Angus versus Angus steers during cold weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyles, S L; Riley, J G

    1991-07-01

    Ten Angus and 10 Brahman x Angus F1 steers were used in a 184-d trial to compare feedlot performance during cold weather (-9 to 26 degrees C). Both groups of steers were exposed to the same environment for the same amount of time. All steers were fed for the same number of days regardless of frame score to avoid frame score x environment interactions. Brahman x Angus steers were 30.7 kg heavier (P less than .05) than Angus steers at the start of the trial. Differences in age (Brahman x Angus 40 d younger) for the two breed groups did not affect final live weight or carcass weight. Brahman x Angus steers consumed .2% less feed (P less than .05) as a percentage of BW than Angus steers; however, there was no difference in overall feed efficiency. Angus steers had a higher yield grade, more fat at the 12th rib (P less than .05), and graded 90% Choice; only 10% of the Brahman x Angus were graded Choice. Brahman x Angus steers were taller at the hip (P less than .05) and longer from first rib to aitch bone (P less than .05) and from thoracic vertebrae (T12/T13) to point of hock (P less than .05). Hide thickness determined at the neck, belly, and rump was found to be similar (7.7 mm) between the two groups. Sample hair weight and diameter did not differ between groups. Fiber, fat, protein, and DM digestibility coefficients were similar between groups but Brahman x Angus feces had a higher DM content.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1885380

  9. Feedlot performance, carcass traits, and palatability traits of Hereford and Hereford x Brahman steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbeck, J A; Tatum, J D; Field, T G; Morgan, J B; Smith, G C

    1995-12-01

    Short-yearling steer of known genotypes-straightbred Hereford (100H, n = 80) 75% Hereford x 25% Brahman (75H:25B, n = 80), and 50% Hereford x 50% Brahman (50H:50B, n = 80) were sampled serially at four time-on-feed endpoints (84, 98, 112, 126 d) to compare feedlot performance and carcass and palatability traits of Hereford and Hereford x Brahman steers. After slaughter, USDA yield grade and quality grade factors were recorded, and a portion of the longissimus muscle was removed from the left side of each carcass and fabricated into four 2.54-cm steaks for palatability analyses. Paired steaks from each carcass were aged (6 and 18 d after death), and sensory panel and shear force evaluations were performed. At a constant live weight, 100H steers had higher ADG and produced less mature carcasses with smaller longissimus muscle areas and higher marbling scores than did 75H:25B and 50H:50B steers. The 50H:50B steers had the highest (P Brahman breeding increased. EXtending the postmortem aging period from 6 to 18 d improved shear force values by 20% and panel tenderness ratings by approximately 14%. Beef from steers of the three breeds responded similarly to aging. When Certified Hereford Beef (CHB) specifications were applied, steaks from 100H steers and 75H:25B steers had similar shear force values, suggesting that beef from quarter-blood Brahman crossbred steers could be included in the CHB Program without detrimental effects on product tenderness. PMID:8655435

  10. Feedlot performance of Brahman x Angus versus Angus steers during cold weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyles, S L; Riley, J G

    1991-07-01

    Ten Angus and 10 Brahman x Angus F1 steers were used in a 184-d trial to compare feedlot performance during cold weather (-9 to 26 degrees C). Both groups of steers were exposed to the same environment for the same amount of time. All steers were fed for the same number of days regardless of frame score to avoid frame score x environment interactions. Brahman x Angus steers were 30.7 kg heavier (P less than .05) than Angus steers at the start of the trial. Differences in age (Brahman x Angus 40 d younger) for the two breed groups did not affect final live weight or carcass weight. Brahman x Angus steers consumed .2% less feed (P less than .05) as a percentage of BW than Angus steers; however, there was no difference in overall feed efficiency. Angus steers had a higher yield grade, more fat at the 12th rib (P less than .05), and graded 90% Choice; only 10% of the Brahman x Angus were graded Choice. Brahman x Angus steers were taller at the hip (P less than .05) and longer from first rib to aitch bone (P less than .05) and from thoracic vertebrae (T12/T13) to point of hock (P less than .05). Hide thickness determined at the neck, belly, and rump was found to be similar (7.7 mm) between the two groups. Sample hair weight and diameter did not differ between groups. Fiber, fat, protein, and DM digestibility coefficients were similar between groups but Brahman x Angus feces had a higher DM content.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Feedlot performance, carcass traits, and palatability traits of Hereford and Hereford x Brahman steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbeck, J A; Tatum, J D; Field, T G; Morgan, J B; Smith, G C

    1995-12-01

    Short-yearling steer of known genotypes-straightbred Hereford (100H, n = 80) 75% Hereford x 25% Brahman (75H:25B, n = 80), and 50% Hereford x 50% Brahman (50H:50B, n = 80) were sampled serially at four time-on-feed endpoints (84, 98, 112, 126 d) to compare feedlot performance and carcass and palatability traits of Hereford and Hereford x Brahman steers. After slaughter, USDA yield grade and quality grade factors were recorded, and a portion of the longissimus muscle was removed from the left side of each carcass and fabricated into four 2.54-cm steaks for palatability analyses. Paired steaks from each carcass were aged (6 and 18 d after death), and sensory panel and shear force evaluations were performed. At a constant live weight, 100H steers had higher ADG and produced less mature carcasses with smaller longissimus muscle areas and higher marbling scores than did 75H:25B and 50H:50B steers. The 50H:50B steers had the highest (P Brahman breeding increased. EXtending the postmortem aging period from 6 to 18 d improved shear force values by 20% and panel tenderness ratings by approximately 14%. Beef from steers of the three breeds responded similarly to aging. When Certified Hereford Beef (CHB) specifications were applied, steaks from 100H steers and 75H:25B steers had similar shear force values, suggesting that beef from quarter-blood Brahman crossbred steers could be included in the CHB Program without detrimental effects on product tenderness.

  12. Recent advances in agent-based complex automated negotiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Takayuki; Zhang, Minjie; Fujita, Katsuhide; Robu, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    This book covers recent advances in Complex Automated Negotiations as a widely studied emerging area in the field of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems. The book includes selected revised and extended papers from the 7th International Workshop on Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiation (ACAN2014), which was held in Paris, France, in May 2014. The book also includes brief introductions about Agent-based Complex Automated Negotiation which are based on tutorials provided in the workshop, and brief summaries and descriptions about the ANAC'14 (Automated Negotiating Agents Competition) competition, where authors of selected finalist agents explain the strategies and the ideas used by them. The book is targeted to academic and industrial researchers in various communities of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems, such as agreement technology, mechanism design, electronic commerce, related areas, as well as graduate, undergraduate, and PhD students working in those areas or having interest in them.

  13. Post-Lamination Manufacturing Process Automation for Photovoltaic Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowlan, M. J.; Murach, J. M.; McCormick, T. W.; Lewis, E. R.; Hogan, S. J. (Spire Corporation)

    1999-08-31

    This report describes work performed by Spire Corporation during Phase 1 of this three-phase PVMaT subcontract to develop new automated post-lamination processes for PV module manufacturing. These processes are applicable to a very broad range of module types, including those made with wafer-based and thin-film solar cells. No off-the-shelf automation was available for these processes prior to this program. Spire conducted a survey of PV module manufacturers to identify current industry practices and to determine the requirements for the automated systems being developed in this program. Spire also completed detailed mechanical and electrical designs and developed software for two prototype automation systems: a module buffer storage system, designated the SPI-BUFFER 350, and an integrated module testing system, designated the SPI-MODULE QA 350. Researchers fabricated, tested, and evaluated both systems with module components from several module manufacturers. A new size simulator , th e SPI-SUN SIMULATOR 350i, was designed with a test area that can handle most production modules without consuming excessive floor space. Spire's subcontractor, the Automation and Robotics Research Institute (ARRI) at the University of Texas, developed and demonstrated module edge trimming, edge sealing, and framing processes that are suitable for automation. The automated processes under development throughout this program are being designed to be combined together to create automated production lines. ARRI completed a cost study to determine the level of investment that can be justified by implementing automation for post-lamination assembly and testing processes. The study concluded that a module production line operating two shifts per day and producing 10 MW of modules per year can justify $2.37 million in capital equipment, assuming a 5-year payback period.

  14. Throughput-Based Traffic Steering in LTE-Advanced HetNet Deployments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria; Kovacs, Istvan Z.; Wigard, Jeroen;

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose traffic steering solutions that aim at optimizing the end-user throughput. Two different implementations of an active mode throughput-based traffic steering algorithm for Heterogeneous Networks (HetNet) are introduced. One that always forces handover...... slightly lower traffic steering gains at a considerably lower cost in terms of number of handovers. The gain in terms of increased average session throughput for the second option equals 32% at low-load, 18% at medium-load, and 7% at high-load conditions. The gain in the fifth percentile user session...

  15. Get smart! automate your house!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Amstel, P.; Gorter, N.; De Rouw, J.

    2016-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability This manual will help you in reducing both energy usage and costs by automating your home. It gives an introduction to a number of home automation systems that every homeowner can install.

  16. Automated Methods Of Corrosion Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Reeve, John Ch;

    1997-01-01

    The chapter describes the following automated measurements: Corrosion Measurements by Titration, Imaging Corrosion by Scanning Probe Microscopy, Critical Pitting Temperature and Application of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Permeation Cell.......The chapter describes the following automated measurements: Corrosion Measurements by Titration, Imaging Corrosion by Scanning Probe Microscopy, Critical Pitting Temperature and Application of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Permeation Cell....

  17. Automated separation for heterogeneous immunoassays

    OpenAIRE

    Truchaud, A.; Barclay, J; Yvert, J. P.; Capolaghi, B.

    1991-01-01

    Beside general requirements for modern automated systems, immunoassay automation involves specific requirements as a separation step for heterogeneous immunoassays. Systems are designed according to the solid phase selected: dedicated or open robots for coated tubes and wells, systems nearly similar to chemistry analysers in the case of magnetic particles, and a completely original design for those using porous and film materials.

  18. Automated Test-Form Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Diao, Qi

    2011-01-01

    In automated test assembly (ATA), the methodology of mixed-integer programming is used to select test items from an item bank to meet the specifications for a desired test form and optimize its measurement accuracy. The same methodology can be used to automate the formatting of the set of selected items into the actual test form. Three different…

  19. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyewsky, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  20. Opening up Library Automation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the history of library automation, the author has seen a steady advancement toward more open systems. In the early days of library automation, when proprietary systems dominated, the need for standards was paramount since other means of inter-operability and data exchange weren't possible. Today's focus on Application Programming…

  1. When Civil Structures Bump into Automation Technologies: An interview with Dr. Kuo-Chun Chang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ting Lin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Automation technologies are extensively adopted in the fields of mechanics and manufacture. Thanks to continuous progress in scientific development, automation has been used increasingly in civil structures and structural monitoring. Through the interview of the director of NCREE, Dr. Kuo-Chun Chang, we hope that readers can examine the future developments and limits of automation technology on application in the field of civil engineering.

  2. An Overview of Automated Highway Systems (AHS) and the Social and Institutional Challenges They Face

    OpenAIRE

    Cheon, Sanghyun

    2003-01-01

    The idea of automated driving dates back more than 50 years, when General Motors (GM) presented a vision of "driverless" vehicles moved under automated control at the 1939 World's Fairs in New York. In the late 1950's, research by industrial organizations conceptualized automated vehicles controlled by mechanical systems and radio controls. After the first appearance of computers in the 1960's, researchers began to consider potential uses of computers to provide lateral and longitudinal contr...

  3. Influence of breed and diet on growth, nutrient digestibility, body composition and plasma hormones of Brangus and Angus steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, E E; Williams, J E; Miller, S J; Hancock, D L; Hannah, S M; O'Connor, D L

    1989-09-01

    Two split-plot designed experiments were conducted to determine the effects of breed (Angus, A, or Brangus, B) and diet (fescue hay, FH; corn silage, CS; or concentrate) on composition and rate of growth, diet digestibility and plasma hormones of steers. In Exp. 1, 10 steers (five of each breed) were fed a CS-based diet followed by a FH-based diet for two consecutive 60-d periods. Both breeds had lower (P less than .01) DM intake and digestibility when fed FH than when fed CS diets. The B steers had higher (P less than .01) plasma insulin concentrations than A steers when fed the CS diet. In Exp. 2, during two consecutive years, 10 steers previously fed CS- and FH-based diets were finished with a corn silage-whole shelled corn-based diet. During yr 1, A steers had higher (P less than .01) DM intake and plasma triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) concentrations (P less than .05) than B steers did. Although final weights were similar (P greater than .10), A steers had heavier (P less than .05) carcass weights than B steers did. During yr 2, A steers had higher (P less than .07) DM and starch digestibilities and higher (P less than .01) plasma T4 concentrations than B steers did. The greater (P less than .01) energetic efficiency of A steers was attributed to the greater rates of fat deposition during yr 2. Regardless of type of diet fed, A steers were more efficient at depositing energy. Higher circulating T4 concentrations of A than B steers may explain some of the physiological differences between these breeds. PMID:2689419

  4. Automated Motivic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lartillot, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Motivic analysis provides very detailed understanding of musical composi- tions, but is also particularly difficult to formalize and systematize. A computational automation of the discovery of motivic patterns cannot be reduced to a mere extraction of all possible sequences of descriptions....... The systematic approach inexorably leads to a proliferation of redundant structures that needs to be addressed properly. Global filtering techniques cause a drastic elimination of interesting structures that damages the quality of the analysis. On the other hand, a selection of closed patterns allows...... for lossless compression. The structural complexity resulting from successive repetitions of patterns can be controlled through a simple modelling of cycles. Generally, motivic patterns cannot always be defined solely as sequences of descriptions in a fixed set of dimensions: throughout the descriptions...

  5. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  6. Automated Electrostatics Environmental Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos; Lewis, Dean C.; Buchanan, Randy K.; Buchanan, Aubri

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Electrostatics Chamber (MEC) is an environmental chamber designed primarily to create atmospheric conditions like those at the surface of Mars to support experiments on electrostatic effects in the Martian environment. The chamber is equipped with a vacuum system, a cryogenic cooling system, an atmospheric-gas replenishing and analysis system, and a computerized control system that can be programmed by the user and that provides both automation and options for manual control. The control system can be set to maintain steady Mars-like conditions or to impose temperature and pressure variations of a Mars diurnal cycle at any given season and latitude. In addition, the MEC can be used in other areas of research because it can create steady or varying atmospheric conditions anywhere within the wide temperature, pressure, and composition ranges between the extremes of Mars-like and Earth-like conditions.

  7. Automated Standard Hazard Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebler, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The current system used to generate standard hazard reports is considered cumbersome and iterative. This study defines a structure for this system's process in a clear, algorithmic way so that standard hazard reports and basic hazard analysis may be completed using a centralized, web-based computer application. To accomplish this task, a test server is used to host a prototype of the tool during development. The prototype is configured to easily integrate into NASA's current server systems with minimal alteration. Additionally, the tool is easily updated and provides NASA with a system that may grow to accommodate future requirements and possibly, different applications. Results of this project's success are outlined in positive, subjective reviews complete by payload providers and NASA Safety and Mission Assurance personnel. Ideally, this prototype will increase interest in the concept of standard hazard automation and lead to the full-scale production of a user-ready application.

  8. Automated synthetic scene generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Ryan N.

    Physics-based simulations generate synthetic imagery to help organizations anticipate system performance of proposed remote sensing systems. However, manually constructing synthetic scenes which are sophisticated enough to capture the complexity of real-world sites can take days to months depending on the size of the site and desired fidelity of the scene. This research, sponsored by the Air Force Research Laboratory's Sensors Directorate, successfully developed an automated approach to fuse high-resolution RGB imagery, lidar data, and hyperspectral imagery and then extract the necessary scene components. The method greatly reduces the time and money required to generate realistic synthetic scenes and developed new approaches to improve material identification using information from all three of the input datasets.

  9. Automated Essay Scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semire DIKLI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated Essay Scoring Semire DIKLI Florida State University Tallahassee, FL, USA ABSTRACT The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali, 2004. AES is defined as the computer technology that evaluates and scores the written prose (Shermis & Barrera, 2002; Shermis & Burstein, 2003; Shermis, Raymat, & Barrera, 2003. Revision and feedback are essential aspects of the writing process. Students need to receive feedback in order to increase their writing quality. However, responding to student papers can be a burden for teachers. Particularly if they have large number of students and if they assign frequent writing assignments, providing individual feedback to student essays might be quite time consuming. AES systems can be very useful because they can provide the student with a score as well as feedback within seconds (Page, 2003. Four types of AES systems, which are widely used by testing companies, universities, and public schools: Project Essay Grader (PEG, Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA, E-rater, and IntelliMetric. AES is a developing technology. Many AES systems are used to overcome time, cost, and generalizability issues in writing assessment. The accuracy and reliability of these systems have been proven to be high. The search for excellence in machine scoring of essays is continuing and numerous studies are being conducted to improve the effectiveness of the AES systems.

  10. Automated satellite telemetry processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parunakian, David; Kalegaev, Vladimir; Barinova, Vera

    In this paper we describe the design and important implementation details of the new automated system for processing satellite telemetry developedat Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Moscow State University (SINP MSU) . We discuss the most common tasks and pitfall for such systems built around data stream from a single spacecraft or a single instrument, and suggest a solution that allows to quickly develop telemetry processing modules and to integrate them with an existing polling mechanism, support infrastructure and data storage in Oracle or MySQL database systems. We also demonstrate the benefits of this approach using modules for processing three different spacecraft data streams: Coronas-Photon (2009-003A), Tatiana-2 (2009-049D) and Meteor-M no.1 (2009-049A). The data format and protocols used by each of these spacecraft have distinct peculiarities, which nevertheless did not pose a problem for integrating their modules into the main system. Remote access via web interface to Oracle databases and sophisticated visualization tools create a possibility of efficient scientific exploitation of satellite data. Such a system is already deployed at the web portal of the Space Monitoring Data Center (SMDC) of SINP MSU (http://smdc.sinp.msu.ru).

  11. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - St. Thomas East End Reserves (STEER) Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this effort was to characterize the extent and magnitude of chemical contamination in the St. Thomas East End Reserves or STEER, as part of a larger...

  12. Modelling driver behaviour in the case of failures in a steer-by-wire system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogema, J.; Wewerinke, P.H.

    2010-01-01

    In dit artikel wordt een bestuurdersmodel gepresenteerd dat weergeeft hoe een bestuurder reagerrtt op systeemfouten in een steer-by-wire tuursysteem. Calibratie en validatie vond plaats aan de hand van data van een rijsimulator experiment

  13. Temporal steering and security of quantum key distribution with mutually unbiased bases against individual attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiewicz, Karol; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, Karel; Miranowicz, Adam; Nori, Franco

    2016-06-01

    Temporal steering, which is a temporal analog of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering, refers to temporal quantum correlations between the initial and final state of a quantum system. Our analysis of temporal steering inequalities in relation to the average quantum bit error rates reveals the interplay between temporal steering and quantum cloning, which guarantees the security of quantum key distribution based on mutually unbiased bases against individual attacks. The key distributions analyzed here include the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol and the six-state 1998 protocol by Bruss. Moreover, we define a temporal steerable weight, which enables us to identify a kind of monogamy of temporal correlation that is essential to quantum cryptography and useful for analyzing various scenarios of quantum causality.

  14. Practicability study on the suitability of artificial, neural networks for the approximation of unknown steering torques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ende, K. T. R.; Schaare, D.; Kaste, J.; Küçükay, F.; Henze, R.; Kallmeyer, F. K.

    2016-10-01

    For steer-by-wire systems, the steering feedback must be generated artificially due to the system characteristics. Classical control concepts require operating-point driven optimisations as well as increased calibration efforts in order to adequately simulate the steering torque in all driving states. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are an innovative control concept; they are capable of learning arbitrary non-linear correlations without complex knowledge of physical dependencies. The present study investigates the suitability of neural networks for approximating unknown steering torques. To ensure robust processing of arbitrary data, network training with a sufficient volume of training data is required, that represents the relation between the input and target values in a wide range. The data were recorded in the course of various test drives. In this research, a variety of network topologies were trained, analysed and evaluated. Though the fundamental suitability of ANNs for the present control task was demonstrated.

  15. Home Automation System Using Capacitive Touchscreen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Inaniya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Technology has been constantly evolving and with the advent of touchscreen in human life , devices are much easier and simple to operate. This work is mainly focused on building home automation system which is more user friendly and thus can be operated by anyone. Earlier home automation systems were completely mechanically operated and thus required a lot of maintenance and were costly also. Now that human and computer interaction has been developed into a more wide and sophisticated field , designing and operating of intelligence system has been more user friendly than ever. Home automation is a system that helps a user to operate switching various appliances and lighting devices from a single input. The touchscreen used as input is much simpler to operate. Touchscreen has been widely accepted as the most comfortable input to be provided to the user. Not only they are easy to operate but they also give a sense of personal involvement which the user always appreciate. The materials used in this system are easily available in the local market so that the touch screen sytem is cost effective .

  16. Performance and carcass traits of early-weaned steers receiving either a pasture growing period or a finishing diet at weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, S E; Faulkner, D B; Nash, T G; Berger, L L; Parrett, D F; McKeith, F K

    1999-02-01

    A 2-yr study was conducted to evaluate 1) steers fed ad libitum high concentrate after weaning (CONC), or 2) steers grown on pasture for 82 d, followed by high-concentrate finishing (PAST), on the performance and carcass traits of 74 early-weaned (117 d of age) steers. Potential breed differences were evaluated using crossbred steers of three types: 1) 3/4 Angus x 1/4 Simmental (BRI), 2) 3/4 Simmental x 1/4 Angus (CON), and 3) 1/2 Wagyu x 1/4 Angus x 1/4 Simmental (WAG). Steers were randomly assigned within breed to the two treatments. There was no interactions (P > .10), so the data were pooled over years. The CONC steers had an ADG that was .17 kg/d higher (P = .0001), intake 1.09 kg/d lower (P = .0001), and gain:feed ratio .013 unit better (.190 vs .177, P = .008) than PAST steers overall. Growing treatment did not affect total concentrate consumed (P = .97). The BRI steers required 31 d less than did CON steers (P = .008), and 23 d less than WAG steers (P = .05) when fed to a constant fat end point (1.1 cm). The BRI steers exhibited an ADG .16 kg/d higher (P = .0003), tended (P = .07) to have an ADG intake .49 kg/d higher, and exhibited gain:feed .01 unit better (.189 vs 180) than WAG steers. When compared with CON steers, BRI steers consumed 310 kg less total concentrate (P = .0003). No differences (P > .38) were observed between growing treatments for carcass characteristics or sensory attributes except that CONC steers tended (P = .11) to improve percentage of steers grading Average Choice or higher by 47% over PAST steers. The WAG steers had a 76-unit higher marbling score (1,000 = Small00, 1,100 = Modest00) (P = .006) than BRI steers, resulting in 19% more (P = .09) steers grading > or = Choice and 82% more (P = .03) grading > or = Average Choice. Liver (P = .15) and rumen (P = .01) weights as a percentage of hot carcass weight were reduced for CONC steers. The CONC steers had higher gain, lower intake, better efficiency, reduced liver and rumen weights

  17. Dynamic Steering for Improved Sensor Autonomy and Catalogue Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, T.; Gordon, N.; Clarkson, I.; Rutten, M.; Bessell, T.

    A number of international agencies endeavour to maintain catalogues of the man-made resident space objects (RSOs) currently orbiting the Earth. Such catalogues are primarily created to anticipate and avoid destructive collisions involving important space assets such as manned missions and active satellites. An agencys ability to achieve this objective is dependent on the accuracy, reliability and timeliness of the information used to update its catalogue. A primary means for gathering this information is by regularly making direct observations of the tens-of-thousands of currently detectable RSOs via networks of space surveillance sensors. But operational constraints sometimes prevent accurate and timely reacquisition of all known RSOs, which can cause them to become lost to the tracking system. Furthermore, when comprehensive acquisition of new objects does not occur, these objects, in addition to the lost RSOs, result in uncorrelated detections when next observed. Due to the rising number of space-missions and the introduction of newer, more capable space-sensors, the number of uncorrelated targets is at an all-time high. The process of differentiating uncorrelated detections caused by once-acquired now-lost RSOs from newly detected RSOs is a difficult and often labour intensive task. Current methods for overcoming this challenge focus on advancements in orbit propagation and object characterisation to improve prediction accuracy and target identification. In this paper, we describe a complementary approach that incorporates increased awareness of error and failed observations into the RSO tracking solution. Our methodology employs a technique called dynamic steering to improve the autonomy and capability of a space surveillance networks steerable sensors. By co-situating each sensor with a low-cost high-performance computer, the steerable sensor can quickly and intelligently decide how to steer itself. The sensor-system uses a dedicated parallel

  18. Cattle temperament influences metabolism: metabolic response to glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests in beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick Sanchez, N C; Carroll, J A; Broadway, P R; Hughes, H D; Roberts, S L; Richeson, J T; Schmidt, T B; Vann, R C

    2016-07-01

    Cattle temperament, defined as the reactivity of cattle to humans or novel environments, can greatly influence several physiological systems in the body, including immunity, stress, and most recently discovered, metabolism. Greater circulating concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) found in temperamental cattle suggest that temperamental cattle are metabolically different than calm cattle. Further, elevated NEFA concentrations have been reported to influence insulin sensitivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether cattle temperament would influence the metabolic response to a glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin sensitivity test (IST). Angus-cross steers (16 calm and 15 temperamental; 216 ± 6 kg BW) were selected based on temperament score measured at weaning. On day 1, steers were moved into indoor stanchions to allow measurement of individual ad libitum feed intake. On day 6, steers were fitted with indwelling rectal temperature probes and jugular catheters. At 9 AM on day 7, steers received the GTT (0.5-mL/kg BW of a 50% dextrose solution), and at 2 PM on day 7, steers received the IST (2.5 IU bovine insulin/kg BW). Blood samples were collected and serum isolated at -60, -45, -30, -15, 0, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min relative to each challenge. Serum was stored at -80°C until analyzed for cortisol, glucose, NEFA, and blood urea nitrogen concentrations. All variables changed over time (P < 0.01). For the duration of the study, temperamental steers maintained greater (P < 0.01) serum NEFA and less (P ≤ 0.01) serum blood urea nitrogen and insulin sensitivity (calculated using Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index) compared with calm steers. During the GTT, temperamental steers had greater (P < 0.01) serum glucose, yet decreased (P = 0.03) serum insulin and (P < 0.01) serum insulin: serum glucose compared to calm cattle. During the IST, temperamental steers had greater (P < 0.01) serum

  19. Effects of calf weaning age and subsequent management systems on growth performance and carcass characteristics of beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Johnson, S E; Vendramini, J M B; McCann, M A; Gerrard, D E; Mercadante, V R G; Hersom, M J; Arthington, J D

    2014-08-01

    Brahman × British crossbred steers (n = 40 and 38 in yr 1 and 2, respectively) were used to evaluate the effects of calf management systems following early weaning (EW) on growth performance, muscle gene expression, and carcass characteristics. On the day of EW (d 0), steers were stratified by BW and age (95 ± 14 kg; 74 ± 14 d) and randomly assigned to a control treatment that was normally weaned (NW) on d 180 (n = 10 steers/yr) or to 1 of 3 EW treatments: 1) EW and limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as-fed basis) in drylot until d 180 (EW180; n = 10 steers/yr), 2) EW and limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as-fed basis) in drylot until d 90 and then grazed on bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EW90; n = 10 steers/yr), or 3) EW and grazed on annual ryegrass pastures until d 60 (yr 1; n = 10 steers) or 90 (yr 2; n = 8 steers) and then on bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EWRG). Early-weaned steers on ryegrass and bahiagrass pastures were supplemented with high-concentrate diet at 1.0% of BW (as-fed basis) until d 180. From d 180 to 270 (yr 1), all EW steers remained in their respective treatments, whereas NW steers were provided high-concentrate diet at 1.0% of BW (as-fed basis) on bahiagrass pastures. In yr 1, feedlot finishing period began on d 270. In yr 2, the study was terminated on d 180. In both years, EW180 steers were heaviest (P < 0.0001) on d 180. On d 180 of yr 1, EWRG steers were lightest (P < 0.0001) and EW90 steers were heavier (P = 0.05) than NW steers, whereas EW90, EWRG, and NW steers had similar BW on d 180 of yr 2 (P ≥ 0.14). On d 90, muscle PPARγ mRNA expression tended (P = 0.07) to be greater for EW180 steers and was greater (P = 0.008) for EW90 vs. EWRG steers but similar (P = 0.25) between EW180 and NW steers. On d 180, PPARγ mRNA was greater (P ≤ 0.06) for EW180 vs. NW, EW90, and EWRG steers. From d 274 to 302, EW180 steers had the least ADG (P ≤ 0.09), whereas EW90 steers had similar (P = 0.19) ADG

  20. Automating the radiographic NDT process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automation, the removal of the human element in inspection, has not been generally applied to film radiographic NDT. The justication for automating is not only productivity but also reliability of results. Film remains in the automated system of the future because of its extremely high image content, approximately 8 x 109 bits per 14 x 17. The equivalent to 2200 computer floppy discs. Parts handling systems and robotics applied for manufacturing and some NDT modalities, should now be applied to film radiographic NDT systems. Automatic film handling can be achieved with the daylight NDT film handling system. Automatic film processing is becoming the standard in industry and can be coupled to the daylight system. Robots offer the opportunity to automate fully the exposure step. Finally, computer aided interpretation appears on the horizon. A unit which laser scans a 14 x 17 (inch) film in 6 - 8 seconds can digitize film information for further manipulation and possible automatic interrogations (computer aided interpretation). The system called FDRS (for Film Digital Radiography System) is moving toward 50 micron (*approx* 16 lines/mm) resolution. This is believed to meet the need of the majority of image content needs. We expect the automated system to appear first in parts (modules) as certain operations are automated. The future will see it all come together in an automated film radiographic NDT system (author)