WorldWideScience

Sample records for automated procalcitonin assay

  1. Overview of procalcitonin assays and procalcitonin-guided protocols for the management of patients with infections and sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Philipp; Bretscher, Celine; Bernasconi, Luca; Mueller, Beat

    2017-06-01

    Procalcitonin is a surrogate infection blood marker whose levels help estimate the likelihood of bacterial infections and correlate with their resolution. Recent trials have revealed the benefits of inclusion of procalcitonin in antibiotic stewardship protocols for initiation and discontinuation of antimicrobial therapy. Areas covered: Procalcitonin-guided antibiotic stewardship protocols have shown appreciable reductions in antibiotic use and duration of therapy in respiratory infections, sepsis, and other infections, with positive effects on clinical outcomes. Multiple fully automated and sensitive procalcitonin assays are routinely used in clinical practice. Utilization of these assays requires consideration of the clinical setting and knowledge of assay characteristics, particularly assay sensitivities, reproducibility, and performance across routinely used cut-off ranges. The authors provide an overview of the strengths and limitations of currently available procalcitonin assays and antibiotic therapy algorithms incorporating procalcitonin currently used in different clinical settings and in patients with different underlying infections. Expert commentary: Use of sensitive procalcitonin measurements in clinical algorithms can reduce antimicrobial overuse, decreasing the risk of side effects and controlling emerging bacterial multi-resistance. Before use in clinical practice, it is important to carefully assess the quality of novel PCT assays and rigorously evaluate them in target patient populations across clinically relevant cut-off ranges.

  2. Effect of the Procalcitonin Assay on Antibiotic Use in Critically Ill Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Rachael K; Keele, Luke; Kubis, Sherri; Lautz, Andrew J; Dziorny, Adam C; Denson, Adam R; O'Connor, Kathleen A; Chilutti, Marianne R; Weiss, Scott L; Gerber, Jeffrey S

    2018-05-15

    We retrospectively studied the effect of introducing procalcitonin into clinical practice on antibiotic use within a large academic pediatric intensive care unit. In the absence of a standardized algorithm, availability of the procalcitonin assay did not reduce the frequency of antibiotic initiations or the continuation of antibiotics for greater than 72 hours.

  3. New automated pellet/powder assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.N.

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses an automated, high precision, pellet/ powder assay system. The system is an active assay system using a small isotopic neutron source and a coincidence detection system. The handling of the pellet powder samples has been automated and a programmable calculator has been integrated into the system to provide control and data analysis. The versatile system can assay uranium or plutonium in either active or passive modes

  4. Automation of the dicentric chromosome assay and related assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balajee, Adayabalam S.; Dainiak, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Dicentric Chromosome Assay (DCA) is considered to be the 'gold standard' for personalized dose assessment in humans after accidental or incidental radiation exposure. Although this technique is superior to other cytogenetic assays in terms of specificity and sensitivity, its potential application to radiation mass casualty scenarios is highly restricted because DCA is time consuming and labor intensive when performed manually. Therefore, it is imperative to develop high throughput automation techniques to make DCA suitable for radiological triage scenarios. At the Cytogenetic Biodosimetry Laboratory in Oak Ridge, efforts are underway to develop high throughput automation of DCA. Current status on development of various automated cytogenetic techniques in meeting the biodosimetry needs of radiological/nuclear incident(s) will be discussed

  5. Automated amperometric plutonium assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    The amperometric titration for plutonium assay has been used in the nuclear industry for over twenty years and has been in routine use at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory since 1976 for the analysis of plutonium oxide and mixed oxide fuel material for the Fast Flux Test Facility. It has proven itself to be an accurate and reliable method. The method may be used as a direct end point titration or an excess of titrant may be added and a back titration performed to aid in determination of the end point. Due to the slowness of the PuVI-FeII reaction it is difficult to recognize when the end point is being approached and is very time consuming if the current is allowed to decay to the residual value after each titrant addition. For this reason the back titration in which the rapid FeII-CrVI reaction occurs is used by most laboratories. The back titration is performed by the addition of excess ferrous solution followed by two measured aliquots of standard dichromate with measurement of cell current after each addition

  6. Preparation of K+-Doped Core-Shell NaYF4:Yb, Er Upconversion Nanoparticles and its Application for Fluorescence Immunochromatographic Assay of Human Procalcitonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jie; Lei, Lijiang; Feng, Hui; Zhang, Hongman; Han, Yuwang

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, we reported a convenient route to prepare well dispersed and functionalized K + -doped core-shell upconversion nanoparticles (UCP) by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of polyelectrolytes. UCP was firstly transferred to aqueous phase using cationic surfactant cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) via hydrophobic interaction without removing the existing oleic acid (OA). Then the positively charged hydrophilic UCP@CTAB was further alternately deposited with negatively charged [poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)] (PSS), positively charged [poly (allylamine hydrochloride)] (PAH) and negatively charged [poly (acrylic acid)] (PAA). The final carboxyl functionalized UCP@CTAB@PSS@PAH@PAA was then conjugated with monoclonal antibody1 (AB1) of procalcitonin (PCT), resulting in successful detection of PCT antigens based on the immunochromatographic assay (ICA). Linear response was achieved from 0 to 10 ng/mL, and the lowest limit of detection (LLD) was 0.18 ng/mL.

  7. Assay-specific decision limits for two new automated parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Fayol, Véronique; Sault, Corinne; Lawson-Body, Ethel; Kahan, André; Cormier, Catherine

    2005-02-01

    The recent development of nonradioactive automated assays for serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) has made measurement of these two hormones possible in many laboratories. In this study, we compared two new assays for PTH and 25OHD adapted on an automated analyzer, the LIAISON, with two manual immunoassays used worldwide. We studied 228 osteoporotic patients, 927 healthy individuals, 38 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, and 167 hemodialyzed patients. Serum PTH was measured with the Allegro and the LIAISON assays, and 25OHD was measured with DiaSorin RIA and the LIAISON assay. Regression analysis was used to calculate decision thresholds for the LIAISON assays that were equivalent to those of the Allegro PTH and DiaSorin 25OHD assays. The 25OHD concentrations obtained with the LIAISON assay and the RIA in osteoporotic patients were well correlated (r = 0.83; P 50 nmol/L as eligible for the reference population for the LIAISON PTH assay. In this group, the 3rd-97th percentile interval for LIAISON PTH was 3-51 ng/L. Considering upper reference limits of 46 and 51 ng/L for the Allegro and LIAISON assays, respectively, the frequency of above-normal PTH concentrations in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism was similar in both assays. Regression analysis between serum PTH measured by the Allegro and LIAISON assays in 167 hemodialyzed patients and the corresponding Bland-Altman analysis of these data suggest that the LIAISON PTH assay tends to read higher than the Allegro assay at low concentrations but lower at high concentrations (>300 ng/L). Because clinical decision limits for both PTH and 25OHD should be assay specific, we propose equivalences between these assays and two manual assays used worldwide. These assay-specific decision limits should help potential users of the LIAISON PTH and 25OHD assays.

  8. A Fully Automated High-Throughput Zebrafish Behavioral Ototoxicity Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Douglas W; Philip, Rohit C; Niihori, Maki; Ringle, Ryan A; Coyle, Kelsey R; Zehri, Sobia F; Zabala, Leanne; Mudery, Jordan A; Francis, Ross H; Rodriguez, Jeffrey J; Jacob, Abraham

    2017-08-01

    Zebrafish animal models lend themselves to behavioral assays that can facilitate rapid screening of ototoxic, otoprotective, and otoregenerative drugs. Structurally similar to human inner ear hair cells, the mechanosensory hair cells on their lateral line allow the zebrafish to sense water flow and orient head-to-current in a behavior called rheotaxis. This rheotaxis behavior deteriorates in a dose-dependent manner with increased exposure to the ototoxin cisplatin, thereby establishing itself as an excellent biomarker for anatomic damage to lateral line hair cells. Building on work by our group and others, we have built a new, fully automated high-throughput behavioral assay system that uses automated image analysis techniques to quantify rheotaxis behavior. This novel system consists of a custom-designed swimming apparatus and imaging system consisting of network-controlled Raspberry Pi microcomputers capturing infrared video. Automated analysis techniques detect individual zebrafish, compute their orientation, and quantify the rheotaxis behavior of a zebrafish test population, producing a powerful, high-throughput behavioral assay. Using our fully automated biological assay to test a standardized ototoxic dose of cisplatin against varying doses of compounds that protect or regenerate hair cells may facilitate rapid translation of candidate drugs into preclinical mammalian models of hearing loss.

  9. Automated chromatographic laccase-mediator-system activity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Nico; Schelden, Maximilian; Roth, Simon; Spiess, Antje C

    2017-08-01

    To study the interaction of laccases, mediators, and substrates in laccase-mediator systems (LMS), an on-line measurement was developed using high performance anion exchange chromatography equipped with a CarboPac™ PA 100 column coupled to pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). The developed method was optimized for overall chromatographic run time (45 to 120 min) and automated sample drawing. As an example, the Trametes versicolor laccase induced oxidation of 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-1,3-dihydroxypropane (adlerol) using 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT) as mediator was measured and analyzed on-line. Since the Au electrode of the PAD detects only hydroxyl group containing substances with a limit of detection being in the milligram/liter range, not all products are measureable. Therefore, this method was applied for the quantification of adlerol, and-based on adlerol conversion-for the quantification of the LMS activity at a specific T. versicolor laccase/HBT ratio. The automated chromatographic activity assay allowed for a defined reaction start of all laccase-mediator-system reactions mixtures, and the LMS reaction progress was automatically monitored for 48 h. The automatization enabled an integrated monitoring overnight and over-weekend and minimized all manual errors such as pipetting of solutions accordingly. The activity of the LMS based on adlerol consumption was determined to 0.47 U/mg protein for a laccase/mediator ratio of 1.75 U laccase/g HBT. In the future, the automated method will allow for a fast screening of combinations of laccases, mediators, and substrates which are efficient for lignin modification. In particular, it allows for a fast and easy quantification of the oxidizing activity of an LMS on a lignin-related substrate which is not covered by typical colorimetric laccase assays. ᅟ.

  10. Accuracy of three automated 25-hydroxyvitamin D assays in hemodialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Depreter, B.; Heijboer, A.C.; Langlois, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluated the accuracy of three automated assays for 25(OH)D measurement in comparison to ID-XLC-MS/MS in hemodialysis patients, considering the importance of their vitamin D status and reported discrepant results obtained with automated assays. Methods: All three assays were

  11. Automation of the anthrone assay for carbohydrate concentration determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turula, Vincent E; Gore, Thomas; Singh, Suddham; Arumugham, Rasappa G

    2010-03-01

    Reported is the adaptation of a manual polysaccharide assay applicable for glycoconjugate vaccines such as Prevenar to an automated liquid handling system (LHS) for improved performance. The anthrone assay is used for carbohydrate concentration determinations and was scaled to the microtiter plate format with appropriate mixing, dispensing, and measuring operations. Adaptation and development of the LHS platform was performed with both dextran polysaccharides of various sizes and pneumococcal serotype 6A polysaccharide (PnPs 6A). A standard plate configuration was programmed such that the LHS diluted both calibration standards and a test sample multiple times with six replicate preparations per dilution. This extent of replication minimized the effect of any single deviation or delivery error that might have occurred. Analysis of the dextran polymers ranging in size from 214 kDa to 3.755 MDa showed that regardless of polymer chain length the hydrolysis was complete, as evident by uniform concentration measurements. No plate positional absorbance bias was observed; of 12 plates analyzed to examine positional bias the largest deviation observed was 0.02% percent relative standard deviation (%RSD). The high purity dextran also afforded the opportunity to assess LHS accuracy; nine replicate analyses of dextran yielded a mean accuracy of 101% recovery. As for precision, a total of 22 unique analyses were performed on a single lot of PnPs 6A, and the resulting variability was 2.5% RSD. This work demonstrated the capability of a LHS to perform the anthrone assay consistently and a reduced assay cycle time for greater laboratory capacity.

  12. Automated dual-wavelength spectrophotometer optimized for phytochrome assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, L.H.; Wampler, J.E.; Rich, E.S. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A microcomputer-controlled dual-wavelength spectrophotometer suitable for automated phytochrome assay is described. The optomechanical unit provides for sequential irradiation of the sample by the two measuring wavelengths with intervening dark intervals and for actinic irradiation to interconvert phytochrome between its two forms. Photomultiplier current is amplified, converted to a digital value and transferred into the computer using a custom-designed IEEE-488 bus interface. The microcomputer calculates mathematically both absorbance and absorbance difference values with dynamic correction for photomultiplier dark current. In addition, the computer controls the operating parameters of the spectrophotometer via a separate interface. These parameters include control of the durations of measuring and actinic irradiation intervals and their sequence. 14 references, 4 figures

  13. Procalcitonin Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/procalcitonintest.html Procalcitonin Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Procalcitonin Test? A procalcitonin test measures the level of procalcitonin ...

  14. Procalcitonin: A Reliable Marker for the Diagnosis of Neonatal Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Minoo; Bakhshiani, Zahra; Navaei, Fakhri; Saheb Fosoul, Fereshteh; Fouladi, Salomeh; Kazemzadeh, Hamidreza

    2012-01-01

    Objective(s) In the last few years, serum procalcitonin has been proposed as an early marker of infections in neonates, with varying results. In this study, we aimed to investigate the value of procalcitonin, and C- reactive protein in establishing the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. Materials and Methods Blood samples were collected at admission from 69 neonates with suspected infection (admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Units at Alzahra and Dr Beheshti Hospital in and Fatema-Zahra in Najafabad from May 2005 to April 2006). Patients were categorized in different groups according to clinical symptoms of sepsis, bacteriological and laboratory results. Group I consisted of 20 newborns with positive blood cultures and other biological tests which suggested infection. Group II consisted of 49 neonates with negative blood cultures but had two or three of clinical signs of sepsis. The control group included 18 healthy neonates with physiological hyperbilirubinemia and no clinical and biological data of infection, referred to the hospital for bilirubin determination. Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined by immunoluminometric assay and nephlometry method respectively. Results Mean levels of procalcitonin and CRP in septic neonates (group I) were significantly higher than the other two groups (P< 0.005). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were determined for all markers and compared with each other. Conclusion We conclude that procalcitonin is a better marker than CRP in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. PMID:23493845

  15. Automated assay of uranium solution concentration and enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horley, E.C.; Gainer, K.; Hansen, W.J.; Kelley, T.A.; Parker, J.L.; Sampson, T.E.; Walton, G.; Jones, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    For the first time, the concentration and enrichment of uranium solutions can be measured in one step. We have developed a new instrument to automatically measure the concentration and enrichment of uranium solutions through the adaptation of a commercial robot. Two identical solution enrichment systems are being installed in the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. These automated systems will reduce radiation exposure to personnel and increase the reliability and repeatability of the measurements. Each robotic system can process up to 40 batch and 8 priority samples in an unattended mode. Both passive gamma-ray and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses are performed to determine total uranium concentration and 235 U enrichment. Coded samples are read by a bar-code reader to determine measurement requirements, then assayed by either or both of the gamma-ray and XRF instruments. The robot moves the sample containers and operates all shield doors and shutters, reducing hardware complexity. If the robots is out of service, an operator can manually perform all operations

  16. PROCALCITONIN TESTING IN RHEUMATOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Bukhanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, differential diagnosis of systemic bacterial infection and active rheumatic process remains a challenging problem in rheumatology. In the review, current data on the role of procalcitonin biomarker in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of rheumatic diseases (RD and infectious pathology are presented. In particular, some authors recommend procalcitonin (PCT test as a marker of bacterial infection in bones and joints at levels above 0.5 ng/ml; at PCT level below 0.3 ng/ml, infection can be ruled out. In patients with microcrystalline arthritis, data on the significance of PCT for differential diagnosis are contradictory. PCT level doesn’t correlate with systemic lupus erythematosus activity and is elevated only during bacterial infection proportionally to its systematicity. In some studies, elevated PCT level was observed in ANCA-associated vasculitis with high activity without bacterial infection. It was shown that in 80 % of adults with Still’s disease, PCT level was higher than the threshold value even without infection. For patients with RD hospitalized in intensive care units, PCT clearance is a more informative predictive characteristic than its level, regardless of the cause of PCT elevation (infection, injury, severe organ damage, etc.; slowdown of its decrease is a factor of poor prognosis and is associated with higher mortality. At the same time, PCT level positively correlates with the SOFA score in presence of bacterial infection. For some rheumatic diseases, the threshold PCT value at which the test has optimal sensitivity and specificity is yet to be established. Nonetheless, PCT should be evaluated in relation to the clinical picture and data of additional examinations. The effect of various therapy methods used in rheumatology on PCT level requires further research.

  17. The relationship between procalcitonin and thyroid autoantibodies in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncul, Ali; Ates, Ihsan; Arikan, Mehmet Fettah; Yilmaz, Nisbet; Topcuoglu, Canan; Yilmaz, Fatma Meric; Altay, Mustafa

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the serum levels of procalcitonin and its association with autoantibodies in patients with euthyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A total of 80 participants were included in the study; 40 of which were newly diagnosed with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, aged over 18, and 40 of which were healthy volunteers. The serum levels of procalcitonin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Thyroid function tests were analyzed in hormone laboratory with Electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay. Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients had higher median procalcitonin levels than those of the control group (34.3 pg/mL vs 27.8 pg/mL respectively; P=.037). Also, male patients had higher median procalcitonin levels as compared to female patients (37 pg/mL vs 27 pg/mL respectively; P=.013). In the Hashimoto's thyroiditis group, procalcitonin level was positively correlated with anti-thyroglobulin and anti-thyroid peroxidase levels (r=.559, Pthyroid peroxidase levels were identified to be an independent predictor in diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The fact that procalcitonin was found to be correlated with thyroid autoantibodies and found to be an independent risk factor for Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the regression analysis in the framework of this study urges us to think that procalcitonin may be associated with the autoimmunity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. ICECAP: an integrated, general-purpose, automation-assisted IC50/EC50 assay platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Chou, Judy; King, Kristopher W; Jing, Jing; Wei, Dong; Yang, Liyu

    2015-02-01

    IC50 and EC50 values are commonly used to evaluate drug potency. Mass spectrometry (MS)-centric bioanalytical and biomarker labs are now conducting IC50/EC50 assays, which, if done manually, are tedious and error-prone. Existing bioanalytical sample preparation automation systems cannot meet IC50/EC50 assay throughput demand. A general-purpose, automation-assisted IC50/EC50 assay platform was developed to automate the calculations of spiking solutions and the matrix solutions preparation scheme, the actual spiking and matrix solutions preparations, as well as the flexible sample extraction procedures after incubation. In addition, the platform also automates the data extraction, nonlinear regression curve fitting, computation of IC50/EC50 values, graphing, and reporting. The automation-assisted IC50/EC50 assay platform can process the whole class of assays of varying assay conditions. In each run, the system can handle up to 32 compounds and up to 10 concentration levels per compound, and it greatly improves IC50/EC50 assay experimental productivity and data processing efficiency. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  19. Feasibility evaluation of 3 automated cellular drug screening assays on a robotic workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soikkeli, Anne; Sempio, Cristina; Kaukonen, Ann Marie; Urtti, Arto; Hirvonen, Jouni; Yliperttula, Marjo

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the implementation and optimization of 3 cell-based assays on a TECAN Genesis workstation-the Caspase-Glo 3/7 and sulforhodamine B (SRB) screening assays and the mechanistic Caco-2 permeability protocol-and evaluates their feasibility for automation. During implementation, the dispensing speed to add drug solutions and fixative trichloroacetic acid and the aspiration speed to remove the supernatant immediately after fixation were optimized. Decontamination steps for cleaning the tips and pipetting tubing were also added. The automated Caspase-Glo 3/7 screen was successfully optimized with Caco-2 cells (Z' 0.7, signal-to-base ratio [S/B] 1.7) but not with DU-145 cells. In contrast, the automated SRB screen was successfully optimized with the DU-145 cells (Z' 0.8, S/B 2.4) but not with the Caco-2 cells (Z' -0.8, S/B 1.4). The automated bidirectional Caco-2 permeability experiments separated successfully low- and high-permeability compounds (Z' 0.8, S/B 84.2) and passive drug permeation from efflux-mediated transport (Z' 0.5, S/B 8.6). Of the assays, the homogeneous Caspase-Glo 3/7 assay benefits the most from automation, but also the heterogeneous SRB assay and Caco-2 permeability experiments gain advantages from automation.

  20. Laboratory automation of high-quality and efficient ligand-binding assays for biotherapeutic drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Patel, Vimal; Burns, Daniel; Laycock, John; Pandya, Kinnari; Tsoi, Jennifer; DeSilva, Binodh; Ma, Mark; Lee, Jean

    2013-07-01

    Regulated bioanalytical laboratories that run ligand-binding assays in support of biotherapeutics development face ever-increasing demand to support more projects with increased efficiency. Laboratory automation is a tool that has the potential to improve both quality and efficiency in a bioanalytical laboratory. The success of laboratory automation requires thoughtful evaluation of program needs and fit-for-purpose strategies, followed by pragmatic implementation plans and continuous user support. In this article, we present the development of fit-for-purpose automation of total walk-away and flexible modular modes. We shared the sustaining experience of vendor collaboration and team work to educate, promote and track the use of automation. The implementation of laboratory automation improves assay performance, data quality, process efficiency and method transfer to CRO in a regulated bioanalytical laboratory environment.

  1. Fully automated laboratory for the assay of plutonium in wastes and recoverable scraps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiberteau, P.; Michaut, F.; Bergey, C.; Debruyne, T.

    1990-01-01

    To determine the plutonium content of wastes and recoverable scraps in intermediate size containers (ten liters) an automated laboratory has been carried out. Two passive methods of measurement are used. Gamma ray spectrometry allows plutonium isotopic analysis, americium determination and plutonium assay in wastes and poor scraps. Calorimetry is used for accurate (± 3%) plutonium determination in rich scraps. A full automation was realized with a barcode management and a supply robot to feed the eight assay set-ups. The laboratory works on a 24 hours per day and 365 days per year basis and has a capacity of 8,000 assays per year

  2. Automated 5 ' nuclease PCR assay for identification of Salmonella enterica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Ahrens, Peter; Rådström, P.

    2000-01-01

    -point fluorescence (FAM) signals for the samples and positive control (TET) signals (relative sensitivity [Delta Rn], >0.6). The diagnostic specificity of the method was assessed using 120 non-Salmonella strains, which all resulted in negative FAM signals (Delta Rn, less than or equal to 0.5). All 100 rough...... Salmonella strains tested resulted in positive FAM and TET signals. In addition, it was found that the complete PCR mixture, predispensed in microwell plates, could be stored for up to 3 months at -20 degrees C, Thus, the diagnostic TaqMan assay developed can be a useful and simple alternative method......A simple and ready-to-go test based on a 5' nuclease (TaqMan) PCR technique was developed for identification of presumptive Salmonella enterica isolates. The results were compared with those of conventional methods. The TaqMan assay was evaluated for its ability to accurately detect 210 S. enterica...

  3. Nondestructive assay technology and automated ''real-time'' materials control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keepin, G.R.

    1977-01-01

    Significant advances in nondestructive assay techniques and instrumentation now enable rapid, accurate and direct in-plant measurement of nuclear material on a continuous or ''real-time'' basis as it progresses through a nuclear facility. A variety of passive and active assay instruments are required for the broad range of materials measurement problems encountered by safeguards inspectors and facility operators in various types of nuclear plants. Representative NDA techniques and instruments are presented and reviewed with special attention to their assay capabilities and areas of applicability in the nuclear fuel cycle. An advanced system of materials control - called ''DYMAC'', for Dynamic Materials Control - is presently under development by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration; the DYMAC program integrates new nondestructive assay instrumentation and modern data-processing methods, with the overall objective of demonstrating a workable, cost-effective system of stringent safeguards and materials control in various generic types of facilities found in the nuclear fuel cycle. Throughout the program, emphasis will be placed on devloping practical solutions to generic measurement problems so that resulting techniques and instrumentation will have widespread utility. Projected levels of safeguards assurance, together with other vital - and cost-sensitive - plant operational factors such as process and quality control, criticality safety and waste management are examined in an evaluation of the impact of future advanced materials control systems on overall plant operations, efficiency and productivity. The task of implementing effective and stringent safeguards includes the transfer of new safeguards technology to the nuclear industry. Clearly the training of inspectors (both IAEA and national), plant people, etc., in the effective use of new NDA equipment is of paramount importance; thus in the United States, the Energy Research and Development

  4. Two new automated, compared with two enzyme-linked immunosorbent, antimüllerian hormone assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Scott M; Pastuszek, Ewa; Kloss, Grzegorz; Malinowska, Iwona; Liss, Joanna; Lukaszuk, Aron; Plociennik, Lukasz; Lukaszuk, Krzysztof

    2015-10-01

    To compare new automated antimüllerian hormone (AMH) assay performance characteristics from the new automated Elecsys AMH (Roche; Elecsys) and Access AMH (Beckman Coulter; Access) assays with the existing AMH Gen II ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; Gen II; Beckman Coulter) and AMH ELISA (Ansh Labs) assays. Prospective assay evaluation. University-affiliated clinical chemistry laboratory. Patients referred for serum AMH measurement (n = 83) before start of in vitro fertilization cycle between September 2014 and October 2014. None. Serum AMH concentration. Intra-assay coefficients of variation were low; Ansh ≤ 9.0%; Gen II ≤ 5.8%; Access ≤ 10.7%; and Elecsys ≤ 2.8%. The Passing-Bablok regression equations (pmol/L) were y (Access) = 0.128 + (0.781 × Gen II); and y (Access) = 0.302 + (0.742 x Ansh). For y (Elecys) = 0.087 + (0.729 x Gen II) and y (Elecys) = 0.253 + (0.688 x Ansh Labs). For y (Elecys) = 0.943 - (0.037 × Access). For all the assays, AMH exhibited a moderate positive correlation with AFC (r = 0.62-0.64); number of cumulus oocyte complexes (r = 0.60-0.64); and metaphase II oocytes (r = 0.48-0.50). Accuracy of pregnancy prediction, as determined by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, was uniformly low for all assays (0.62-0.63). The novel automated assays exhibit strong concordance in calibration, but derived values are substantially lower than those obtained from pre-existing assays, with assay-specific interpretation required for routine clinical use. These results highlight the need for an international standard of measurement of AMH. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of Six Automated Treponema-Specific Antibody Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Borae G; Yoon, Jihoon G; Rim, John Hoon; Lee, Anna; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Six different Treponema (TP)-specific immunoassays were compared to the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) test. A total of 615 samples were tested. The overall percent agreement, analytical sensitivity, and analytical specificity of each assay compared to the FTA-ABS test were as follows: Architect Syphilis TP, 99.2%, 96.8%, and 100%; Cobas Syphilis, 99.8%, 99.4%, and 100%; ADVIA Centaur Syphilis, 99.8%, 99.4%, and 100%; HISCL Anti-TP assay kit, 99.7%, 98.7%, and 100%; Immunoticles Auto3 TP, 99.0%, 97.5%, and 99.6%; Mediace TPLA, 98.0%, 98.1%, and 98.0%. All results that were discrepant between the TP-specific assays were associated with samples from noninfectious cases (11 immunoassay false positives and 7 from previous syphilis cases). Our study demonstrated that TP-specific immunoassays generally showed high sensitivities, specificities, and percentages of agreement compared to FTA-ABS, with rare cases of false-positive or false-negative results. Therefore, most TP-specific immunoassays are acceptable for use in screening for syphilis. However, it is important to perform a thorough review of a patient's clinical and treatment history for interpreting the results of syphilis serology. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. An automated immunoradiometric assay of thyrotrophin (TSH) in dried blood filter paper spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, R.; Woodhead, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    An immunoradiometric two-site assay for thyrotrophin (TSH) in dried blood filter paper spots is described. The assay is automated by means of the Kemtek 3000 automated immunoassay system. The technique uses a 6.0 mm disc punched from the dried blood samples collected as part of the screening programme for phenylketonuria. The method is sensitive and precise, and results correlate well with those obtained in TSH assays of serum samples. The procedure is rapid, results being available within 24 h of receipt of samples. Of 25204 specimens so far screened by this assay, 99.9% have TSH levels less than 15 mU/l. One false positive result has been obtained and six confirmed cases of neonatal hypothyroidism detected, giving a prevalence of 1 in 4200. (Auth.)

  7. Automated immunoradiometric assay of thyrotrophin (TSH) in dried blood filter paper spots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, R.; Woodhead, J.S. (Welsh National School of Medicine, Cardiff (UK))

    1982-11-10

    An immunoradiometric two-site assay for thyrotrophin (TSH) in dried blood filter paper spots is described. The assay is automated by means of the Kemtek 3000 automated immunoassay system. The technique uses a 6.0 mm disc punched from the dried blood samples collected as part of the screening programme for phenylketonuria. The method is sensitive and precise, and results correlate well with those obtained in TSH assays of serum samples. The procedure is rapid, results being available within 24 h of receipt of samples. Of 25204 specimens so far screened by this assay, 99.9% have TSH levels less than 15 mU/l. One false positive result has been obtained and six confirmed cases of neonatal hypothyroidism detected, giving a prevalence of 1 in 4200.

  8. Nanoparticle-based assays in automated flow systems: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passos, Marieta L.C. [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Pinto, Paula C.A.G., E-mail: ppinto@ff.up.pt [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Santos, João L.M., E-mail: joaolms@ff.up.pt [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Saraiva, M. Lúcia M.F.S., E-mail: lsaraiva@ff.up.pt [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Araujo, André R.T.S. [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Unidade de Investigação para o Desenvolvimento do Interior, Instituto Politécnico da Guarda, Av. Dr. Francisco de Sá Carneiro, n° 50, 6300-559 Guarda (Portugal)

    2015-08-19

    Nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit a number of distinctive and entrancing properties that explain their ever increasing application in analytical chemistry, mainly as chemosensors, signaling tags, catalysts, analytical signal enhancers, reactive species generators, analyte recognition and scavenging/separation entities. The prospect of associating NPs with automated flow-based analytical is undoubtedly a challenging perspective as it would permit confined, cost-effective and reliable analysis, within a shorter timeframe, while exploiting the features of NPs. This article aims at examining state-of-the-art on continuous flow analysis and microfluidic approaches involving NPs such as noble metals (gold and silver), magnetic materials, carbon, silica or quantum dots. Emphasis is devoted to NP format, main practical achievements and fields of application. In this context, the functionalization of NPs with distinct chemical species and ligands is debated in what concerns the motivations and strengths of developed approaches. The utilization of NPs to improve detector's performance in electrochemical application is out of the scope of this review. The works discussed in this review were published in the period of time comprised between the years 2000 and 2013. - Highlights: • The state of the art of flowing stream systems comprising NPs was reviewed. • The use of different types of nanoparticles in each flow technique is discussed. • The most expressive and profitable applications are summarized. • The main conclusions and future perspectives were compiled in the final section.

  9. Nanoparticle-based assays in automated flow systems: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos, Marieta L.C.; Pinto, Paula C.A.G.; Santos, João L.M.; Saraiva, M. Lúcia M.F.S.; Araujo, André R.T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit a number of distinctive and entrancing properties that explain their ever increasing application in analytical chemistry, mainly as chemosensors, signaling tags, catalysts, analytical signal enhancers, reactive species generators, analyte recognition and scavenging/separation entities. The prospect of associating NPs with automated flow-based analytical is undoubtedly a challenging perspective as it would permit confined, cost-effective and reliable analysis, within a shorter timeframe, while exploiting the features of NPs. This article aims at examining state-of-the-art on continuous flow analysis and microfluidic approaches involving NPs such as noble metals (gold and silver), magnetic materials, carbon, silica or quantum dots. Emphasis is devoted to NP format, main practical achievements and fields of application. In this context, the functionalization of NPs with distinct chemical species and ligands is debated in what concerns the motivations and strengths of developed approaches. The utilization of NPs to improve detector's performance in electrochemical application is out of the scope of this review. The works discussed in this review were published in the period of time comprised between the years 2000 and 2013. - Highlights: • The state of the art of flowing stream systems comprising NPs was reviewed. • The use of different types of nanoparticles in each flow technique is discussed. • The most expressive and profitable applications are summarized. • The main conclusions and future perspectives were compiled in the final section

  10. Automation of complex assays: pharmacogenetics of warfarin dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Whei-Kuo; Hujsak, Paul G; Kureshy, Fareed

    2007-10-01

    AutoGenomics, Inc. (Carlsbad, CA, USA) have developed a multiplex microarray assay for genotyping both VKORC1 and CYP2C9 using the INFINITI(™) Analyzer. Multiple alleles in each DNA sample are analyzed by polymerase chain reaction amplification, followed by detection primer extension using the INFINITI Analyzer. The INFINITI Analyzer performs single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis using universal oligonucleotides immobilized on the biochip. To genotype broader ethnic groups, genomic DNA from whole blood was tested for nine SNPs for VKORC1 and six for CYP2C9 genotypes. Information related to all 15 SNPs is needed to determine dosing of population of diverse ethnic origin. The INFINITI system provides genotyping information for same day dosing of warfarin.

  11. Analytical evaluation of the novel Lumipulse G BRAHMS procalcitonin immunoassay

    OpenAIRE

    Ruzzenente, Orazio; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Gelati, Matteo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the analytical performance of the novel Lumipulse G1200 BRAHMS procalcitonin (PCT) immunoassay. Design and methods: This analytical evaluation encompassed the calculation of the limit of blank (LOB), limit of detection (LOD), functional sensitivity, intra- and inter-assay imprecision, confirmation of linearity and a comparison with the Vidas BRAHMS PCT assay. Results: The LOB, LOD and functional sensitivity were 0.0010 ng/mL, 0.0016 ng/mL and ...

  12. Clinical utility of an automated immunochemiluminometric thyroglobulin assay in differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persoon, ACM; Van den Ouweland, JMW; Wilde, J; Kema, IP; Wolffenbuttel, BHR; Links, TP

    Background: Thyroglobulin (Tg) measurements are important in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). We evaluated the analytical and clinical performance of a new automated immunochemiluminometric assay for Tg (Tg-ICMA; Nichols Advantage Tg; Nichols Institute

  13. Procalcitonin as an indicator of urosepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugimoto K

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Koichi Sugimoto, Shogo Adomi, Hiroyuki Koike, Atsunobu Esa Department of Urology, NTT West Osaka Hospital, Osaka, Japan Background: Procalcitonin has been advocated as a marker of bacterial infection, so this study was carried out to determine the usefulness of serum procalcitonin in the early diagnosis of urosepsis. Methods: The subjects were 37 febrile patients with urinary tract infection in whom we examined the serum procalcitonin concentration at the start of treatment. Results: Thirty patients had acute pyelonephritis (16 simple, 14 complex, one had emphysematous pyelonephritis, five had acute prostatitis, and one had acute epididymitis. The procalcitonin level was <0.5 ng/mL in 18 patients, ≥0.5 ng/mL in one patient, ≥2 ng/mL in seven patients, and ≥10 ng/mL in 11 patients. Five of the 11 patients with procalcitonin levels ≥ 10 ng/mL had disseminated intravascular coagulation. All patients with urinary tract obstruction and disseminated intravascular coagulation had procalcitonin levels ≥ 10 ng/mL. Conclusion: Although this retrospective study comprised a small number of patients, we found that procalcitonin was a useful marker for urinary tract infection. Keywords: procalcitonin, urosepsis, urinary tract infection, urology

  14. Enzyme activity assays within microstructured optical fibers enabled by automated alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Smith, Stephen C; Nie, Guiying; Schartner, Erik P; Salamonsen, Lois A; Monro, Tanya M

    2012-12-01

    A fluorescence-based enzyme activity assay has been demonstrated within a small-core microstructured optical fiber (MOF) for the first time. To achieve this, a reflection-based automated alignment system has been developed, which uses feedback and piezoelectric actuators to maintain optical alignment. The auto-alignment system provides optical stability for the time required to perform an activity assay. The chosen assay is based on the enzyme proprotein convertase 5/6 (PC6) and has important applications in women's health.

  15. Procalcitonin as an adjunctive biomarker in sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahua Sinha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis can sometimes be difficult to substantiate, and its distinction from non-infectious conditions in critically ill patients is often a challenge. Serum procalcitonin (PCT assay is one of the biomarkers of sepsis. The present study was aimed to assess the usefulness of PCT assay in critically ill patients with suspected sepsis. The study included 40 patients from the intensive care unit with suspected sepsis. Sepsis was confirmed clinically and/or by positive blood culture. Serum PCT was assayed semi-quantitatively by rapid immunochromatographic technique (within 2 hours of sample receipt. Among 40 critically ill patients, 21 had clinically confirmed sepsis. There were 12 patients with serum PCT ≥10 ng/ml (8, blood culture positive; 1, rickettsia; 2, post-antibiotic blood culture sterile; and 1, non-sepsis; 7 patients with PCT 2-10 ng/ml (4, blood culture positive; 1, falciparum malaria; 2, post-antibiotic blood culture sterile; 3 patients with PCT of 0.5 to 2 ng/ml (sepsis in 1 patient; and 18 patients with PCT < 0.5 ng/ml (sepsis in 2 patients. Patients with PCT ≥ 2 ng/ml had statistically significant correlation with the presence of sepsis (P<0.0001. The PCT assay revealed moderate sensitivity (86% and high specificity (95% at a cut-off ≥ 2 ng/ml. The PCT assay was found to be a useful biomarker of sepsis in this study. The assay could be performed and reported rapidly and provided valuable information before availability of culture results. This might assist in avoiding unwarranted antibiotic usage.

  16. An automated high throughput screening-compatible assay to identify regulators of stem cell neural differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalino, Laura; Magnani, Dario; De Falco, Sandro; Filosa, Stefania; Minchiotti, Gabriella; Patriarca, Eduardo J; De Cesare, Dario

    2012-03-01

    The use of Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs) holds considerable promise both for drug discovery programs and the treatment of degenerative disorders in regenerative medicine approaches. Nevertheless, the successful use of ESCs is still limited by the lack of efficient control of ESC self-renewal and differentiation capabilities. In this context, the possibility to modulate ESC biological properties and to obtain homogenous populations of correctly specified cells will help developing physiologically relevant screens, designed for the identification of stem cell modulators. Here, we developed a high throughput screening-suitable ESC neural differentiation assay by exploiting the Cell(maker) robotic platform and demonstrated that neural progenies can be generated from ESCs in complete automation, with high standards of accuracy and reliability. Moreover, we performed a pilot screening providing proof of concept that this assay allows the identification of regulators of ESC neural differentiation in full automation.

  17. Generation of orientation tools for automated zebrafish screening assays using desktop 3D printing

    OpenAIRE

    Wittbrodt, Jonas N.; Liebel, Urban; Gehrig, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Background The zebrafish has been established as the main vertebrate model system for whole organism screening applications. However, the lack of consistent positioning of zebrafish embryos within wells of microtiter plates remains an obstacle for the comparative analysis of images acquired in automated screening assays. While technical solutions to the orientation problem exist, dissemination is often hindered by the lack of simple and inexpensive ways of distributing and duplicating tools. ...

  18. An automated cell-counting algorithm for fluorescently-stained cells in migration assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novielli Nicole M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A cell-counting algorithm, developed in Matlab®, was created to efficiently count migrated fluorescently-stained cells on membranes from migration assays. At each concentration of cells used (10,000, and 100,000 cells, images were acquired at 2.5 ×, 5 ×, and 10 × objective magnifications. Automated cell counts strongly correlated to manual counts (r2 = 0.99, P

  19. Standardization of automated 25-hydroxyvitamin D assays: How successful is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenberg, E H A M; Ten Boekel, E; Huijgen, H; Heijboer, A C

    2017-12-01

    Multiple 25(OH)D assays have recently been aligned to improve comparibility. In this study we investigated the performance of these assays using both native single-donor sera with target values certified by a reference method as well as single donor sera from a heterogeneous patient population. 25(OH)D levels were measured in twenty reference samples (Ref!25OHD; Labquality, Finland) using five automated methods (Lumipulse, Liaison, Cobas, iSYS and Access) and one aligned ID-XLC-MS/MS method (slope: 1,00; intercept: 0,00; R=0,996). Furthermore, 25(OH)D concentrations measured in 50 pregnant women and 52 random patients using the 5 automated assays were compared to the ID-XLC-MS/MS. In addition, Vitamin D binding protein (DBP) was measured. Most automated assays showed significant differences in 25(OH)D levels measured in reference samples. Slopes varied from 1,00 to 1,33, intercepts from -5.48 to -15,81nmol/L and the R from 0,971 to 0,997. This inaccuracy was even more prominent in a heterogeneous patient population. Slopes varied from 0,75 to 1,35, intercepts from -9.02 to 11,51nmol/L and the R from 0,840 to 0,949. For most assays the deviation in 25(OH)D concentration increased with elevating DBP concentrations suggesting that DBP might be one of the factors contributing to the inaccuracy in currently used automated 25(OH)D methods. Despite the use of standardized assays, we observed significant differences in 25(OH)D concentrations in some automated methods using reference material obtained from healthy single donor sera. In sera of a patient population this inaccuracy was even worse which is highly concerning as patient samples are being investigated in clinical laboratories. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Automation of cell-based drug absorption assays in 96-well format using permeable support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Brad; Banks, Peter; Sherman, Hilary; Rothenberg, Mark

    2012-06-01

    Cell-based drug absorption assays, such as Caco-2 and MDCK-MDR1, are an essential component of lead compound ADME/Tox testing. The permeability and transport data they provide can determine whether a compound continues in the drug discovery process. Current methods typically incorporate 24-well microplates and are performed manually. Yet the need to generate absorption data earlier in the drug discovery process, on an increasing number of compounds, is driving the use of higher density plates. A simple, more efficient process that incorporates 96-well permeable supports and proper instrumentation in an automated process provides more reproducible data compared to manual methods. Here we demonstrate the ability to perform drug permeability and transport assays using Caco-2 or MDCKII-MDR1 cells. The assay procedure was automated in a 96-well format, including cell seeding, media and buffer exchanges, compound dispense, and sample removal using simple robotic instrumentation. Cell monolayer integrity was confirmed via transepithelial electrical resistance and Lucifer yellow measurements. Proper cell function was validated by analyzing apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical movement of rhodamine 123, a known P-glycoprotein substrate. Apparent permeability and efflux data demonstrate how the automated procedure provides a less variable method than manual processing, and delivers a more accurate assessment of a compound's absorption characteristics.

  1. Automated two-site immunofluorescent assay for the measurement of serum chromogranin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovici, Théodora; Moreira, Baptiste; Schlageter, Marie-Hélène; Bories, Phuong-Nhi

    2014-01-01

    Chromogranin A (CgA) is the best-characterized biological marker common to neuroendocrine tumours and is therefore recommended for their diagnosis. The measurement of serum CgA is of great importance for reaching an early diagnosis and thus reducing the delay before treatment is instigated. The Kryptor CgA assay is the first fully automated assay available. The aim of this study was to evaluate its analytical performance. The imprecision and linearity of the Kryptor CgA assay were evaluated. This assay was compared with the Cis Bio CgA RIA assay in 78 serum samples. Its clinical utility was assessed in serum from 229 patients. The study performed on imprecision of Kryptor measurements showed intra- and inter-run CVs ≤ 5%. The study of linearity showed a satisfactory recovery rate for CgA concentrations up to 1200 μg/L. The Kryptor and RIA assays agreed well on the basis of the cut-off values provided by the two manufacturers. The Bland and Altman plot of the values obtained (range: 20-5560 μg/L) provided a mean difference of -10.1 μg/L (SD: 116). The clinical sensitivities of Kryptor CgA for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (n 20) and gastroenteropancreatic NETs (n 17) were respectively 100 and 94%. The Kryptor assay for CgA shows reliable analytical and clinical characteristics and allows a fast delivery of results. © 2013.

  2. Procalcitonin Impairs Liver Cell Viability and Function In Vitro: A Potential New Mechanism of Liver Dysfunction and Failure during Sepsis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sauer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Liver dysfunction and failure are severe complications of sepsis and result in poor outcome and increased mortality. The underlying pathologic mechanisms of hepatocyte dysfunction and necrosis during sepsis are only incompletely understood. Here, we investigated whether procalcitonin, a biomarker of sepsis, modulates liver cell function and viability. Materials and Methods. Employing a previously characterized and patented biosensor system evaluating hepatocyte toxicity in vitro, human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2/C3A were exposed to 0.01–50 ng/mL procalcitonin for 2×72 h and evaluated for proliferation, necrosis, metabolic activity, cellular integrity, microalbumin synthesis, and detoxification capacity. Acetaminophen served as positive control. For further standardization, procalcitonin effects were confirmed in a cellular toxicology assay panel employing L929 fibroblasts. Data were analyzed using ANOVA/Tukey’s test. Results. Already at concentrations as low as 0.25 ng/mL, procalcitonin induced HepG2/C3A necrosis (P<0.05 and reduced metabolic activity, cellular integrity, synthesis, and detoxification capacity (all P<0.001. Comparable effects were obtained employing L929 fibroblasts. Conclusion. We provide evidence for procalcitonin to directly impair function and viability of human hepatocytes and exert general cytotoxicity in vitro. Therapeutical targeting of procalcitonin could thus display a novel approach to reduce incidence of liver dysfunction and failure during sepsis and lower morbidity and mortality of septic patients.

  3. OpenComet: An automated tool for comet assay image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M. Gyori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive species such as free radicals are constantly generated in vivo and DNA is the most important target of oxidative stress. Oxidative DNA damage is used as a predictive biomarker to monitor the risk of development of many diseases. The comet assay is widely used for measuring oxidative DNA damage at a single cell level. The analysis of comet assay output images, however, poses considerable challenges. Commercial software is costly and restrictive, while free software generally requires laborious manual tagging of cells. This paper presents OpenComet, an open-source software tool providing automated analysis of comet assay images. It uses a novel and robust method for finding comets based on geometric shape attributes and segmenting the comet heads through image intensity profile analysis. Due to automation, OpenComet is more accurate, less prone to human bias, and faster than manual analysis. A live analysis functionality also allows users to analyze images captured directly from a microscope. We have validated OpenComet on both alkaline and neutral comet assay images as well as sample images from existing software packages. Our results show that OpenComet achieves high accuracy with significantly reduced analysis time.

  4. A generic template for automated bioanalytical ligand-binding assays using modular robotic scripts in support of discovery biotherapeutic programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duo, Jia; Dong, Huijin; DeSilva, Binodh; Zhang, Yan J

    2013-07-01

    Sample dilution and reagent pipetting are time-consuming steps in ligand-binding assays (LBAs). Traditional automation-assisted LBAs use assay-specific scripts that require labor-intensive script writing and user training. Five major script modules were developed on Tecan Freedom EVO liquid handling software to facilitate the automated sample preparation and LBA procedure: sample dilution, sample minimum required dilution, standard/QC minimum required dilution, standard/QC/sample addition, and reagent addition. The modular design of automation scripts allowed the users to assemble an automated assay with minimal script modification. The application of the template was demonstrated in three LBAs to support discovery biotherapeutic programs. The results demonstrated that the modular scripts provided the flexibility in adapting to various LBA formats and the significant time saving in script writing and scientist training. Data generated by the automated process were comparable to those by manual process while the bioanalytical productivity was significantly improved using the modular robotic scripts.

  5. Evaluation of automated serum des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin (DCP) assays for detecting hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jonghyeon; Park, Yongjung; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2011-12-01

    We evaluated two new autoanalyzers, μTAS and Lumipulse for des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (DCP) assay. Analytical performance was evaluated, and the upper reference limit of the 97.5th percentile for DCP was re-established using sera from 140 healthy individuals. DCP levels were determined by the two autoanalyzers and EIA in a total of 239 sera from HCC patients (n=120) and those without HCC (n=119). Total imprecision of the two automated assays was Lumipulse. There were proportional and constant biases between the results from the autoanalyzers and those from EIA. The two newly developed DCP assays showed high analytical performance, but re-establishment of reference limits would be necessary. The new analyzers could be useful for clinical laboratories because of convenience of operation and wide AMRs. Copyright © 2011 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of automated assays for immunoglobulin G, M, and A measurements in dog and cat serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Martínez-Subiela, Silvia; Caldin, Marco; Tecles, Fernando; Ceron, Jose J

    2013-09-01

    Measurements of immunoglobulins (Igs) in companion animals can be useful to detect deficiencies of the humoral immune system, that can be associated with opportunistic or chronic infections, or other immune-mediated disorders including B-cell neoplasms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate commercially available automated immunoturbidimetric assays designed for human IgG, M, and A measurements in canine and feline serum using species-specific calibrators. Canine and feline serum samples with different IgG, M, and A concentrations were used for the analytical validation of the assays. Intra- and inter-assay precision, linearity under dilution, spiking recovery, and limit of detection were determined. In addition, effects of lipemia, hemolysis, and bilirubinemia were evaluated. Finally, Ig concentrations were determined in small groups of diseased dogs and cats, and compared with healthy groups. Spiking recovery and linearity under dilution tests showed that the assays measured Igs in canine and feline serum samples precisely and accurately. Intra- and inter-assay imprecisions were lower than 15% in all cases. Significantly higher IgG, IgM, and IgA levels were observed in dogs with leishmaniasis, while dogs with pyometra showed a statistically significant increase in IgM and IgA concentrations in comparison with healthy dogs. Significantly higher IgG and IgM levels were observed in FIV-infected cats compared with healthy ones. The automated human Ig assays showed adequate precision and accuracy with serum samples from dogs and cats. Also, they were able to discriminate different concentrations of Igs in healthy and diseased animals. © 2013 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  7. A cell-based high-throughput screening assay for radiation susceptibility using automated cell counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodzic, Jasmina; Dingjan, Ilse; Maas, Mariëlle JP; Meulen-Muileman, Ida H van der; Menezes, Renee X de; Heukelom, Stan; Verheij, Marcel; Gerritsen, Winald R; Geldof, Albert A; Triest, Baukelien van; Beusechem, Victor W van

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the mainstays in the treatment for cancer, but its success can be limited due to inherent or acquired resistance. Mechanisms underlying radioresistance in various cancers are poorly understood and available radiosensitizers have shown only modest clinical benefit. There is thus a need to identify new targets and drugs for more effective sensitization of cancer cells to irradiation. Compound and RNA interference high-throughput screening technologies allow comprehensive enterprises to identify new agents and targets for radiosensitization. However, the gold standard assay to investigate radiosensitivity of cancer cells in vitro, the colony formation assay (CFA), is unsuitable for high-throughput screening. We developed a new high-throughput screening method for determining radiation susceptibility. Fast and uniform irradiation of batches up to 30 microplates was achieved using a Perspex container and a clinically employed linear accelerator. The readout was done by automated counting of fluorescently stained nuclei using the Acumen eX3 laser scanning cytometer. Assay performance was compared to that of the CFA and the CellTiter-Blue homogeneous uniform-well cell viability assay. The assay was validated in a whole-genome siRNA library screening setting using PC-3 prostate cancer cells. On 4 different cancer cell lines, the automated cell counting assay produced radiation dose response curves that followed a linear-quadratic equation and that exhibited a better correlation to the results of the CFA than did the cell viability assay. Moreover, the cell counting assay could be used to detect radiosensitization by silencing DNA-PKcs or by adding caffeine. In a high-throughput screening setting, using 4 Gy irradiated and control PC-3 cells, the effects of DNA-PKcs siRNA and non-targeting control siRNA could be clearly discriminated. We developed a simple assay for radiation susceptibility that can be used for high-throughput screening. This will aid

  8. Evaluation of an automated assay system to measure soil radionuclides by L x-ray and gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Drennon, B.J.; Crowell, J.M.

    1982-08-01

    An automated radionuclide assay system for conducting soil radioassays using L x-ray and gamma-ray spectrometry was evaluated. Wet chemistry assay procedures were shown to be considerably more time consuming than similar analyses of soil on this radionuclide assay system. The detection limits of 241 Am and plutonium were determined, as well as the reproducibility of radionuclide assay results. The L x-ray spectrometric measurements were compared with radiochemical analyses on several tuff samples. The assay system's intrinsic germanium detector was found to respond linearly to varying low concentrations of 241 Am and plutonium, both of which were easily detected in the presence of elevated concentrations of 137 Cs

  9. A high sensitivity, high throughput, automated single-cell gel electrophoresis ('Comet') DNA damage assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojnovic, B.; Barber, P.R.; Johnston, P.J.; Gregory, H.C.; Locke, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    A fully automated microscopy machine vision image capture and analysis system for the collection of data from slides of 'comets' has been developed. The novel image processing algorithms employed in delineating the 'comet head' from the 'comet tail' allow us to determine accurately very low levels of damage. In conjunction with calibrated and automated image capture methods, we are able to eliminate operator subjectivity and analyse large numbers of cells (>2500) in a short time (<1 hour). The image processing algorithm is designed to handle particularly difficult nuclei containing a high degree of structure, due to DNA clumping. We also present techniques used to extend the assay's dynamic range by removing interfering background fluorescence and to define a region of interest. If subtle biological variations are to be quantified (e.g. cell cycle dependant damage), then the use of large cell populations is dictated. Under those circumstances, the use of a fully automated system is particularly advantageous providing that the manner in which data is extracted does not introduce any inadvertent bias. In practice, it is essential that the image processing steps are geared towards the correct recognition of an acceptable cell nucleus, i.e. comet 'head'. We acknowledge the financial support of CRUK, Programme Grant C133/A1812 - SP 2195-01/02 and the US Department of Energy Low Dose Radiation Research Program grant DE-FG07-99ER62878

  10. Automated assay for screening the enzymatic release of reducing sugars from micronized biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asther Marcel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce the production cost of bioethanol obtained from fermentation of the sugars provided by degradation of lignocellulosic biomass (i.e., second generation bioethanol, it is necessary to screen for new enzymes endowed with more efficient biomass degrading properties. This demands the set-up of high-throughput screening methods. Several methods have been devised all using microplates in the industrial SBS format. Although this size reduction and standardization has greatly improved the screening process, the published methods comprise one or more manual steps that seriously decrease throughput. Therefore, we worked to devise a screening method devoid of any manual steps. Results We describe a fully automated assay for measuring the amount of reducing sugars released by biomass-degrading enzymes from wheat-straw and spruce. The method comprises two independent and automated steps. The first step is the making of "substrate plates". It consists of filling 96-well microplates with slurry suspensions of micronized substrate which are then stored frozen until use. The second step is an enzymatic activity assay. After thawing, the substrate plates are supplemented by the robot with cell-wall degrading enzymes where necessary, and the whole process from addition of enzymes to quantification of released sugars is autonomously performed by the robot. We describe how critical parameters (amount of substrate, amount of enzyme, incubation duration and temperature were selected to fit with our specific use. The ability of this automated small-scale assay to discriminate among different enzymatic activities was validated using a set of commercial enzymes. Conclusions Using an automatic microplate sealer solved three main problems generally encountered during the set-up of methods for measuring the sugar-releasing activity of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes: throughput, automation, and evaporation losses. In its present set-up, the

  11. The role of procalcitonin in neonatal intensive care unit patients with candidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Maria Teresa; Coretti, Caterina; Rella, Antonella; Barbuti, Giovanna; Manca, Fabio; Montagna, Osvaldo; Laforgia, Nicola; Caggiano, Giuseppina

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is a major infectious complication in neonatal patients. The isolation of yeasts from blood is still the "gold standard" for its diagnosis, but other laboratory markers (i.e., circulating antigens) have been studied with varying specificities and sensitivities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of procalcitonin for the diagnosis of candidemia in neonatal patients at high risk. To verify if the use of different commercial methods can highlight dissimilar results of sensitivity and/or specificity, the determination of procalcitonin serum levels was estimated by two systems. Overall, 90 patients from a Neonatal Intensive Care Units were enrolled, of whom six developed Candida bloodstream infection. Four of six infants with candidemia had slight increase of procalcitonin values (0.5-1 ng/mL). Only one baby showed very high levels but he had fungal and bacterial sepsis at the same time, while no elevation was observed in the sixth patient. No statistically significant difference was observed between two different methods at the time of monitoring (p>0.643). Both methods showed a sensitivity of 83.3 % at diagnosis, while the specificity was 73.8 and 63.1 % by methods A and B, respectively. In the light of the low sensibility and specificity of this assay, we can assume that the determination of procalcitonin would not seem to play a significant role in the diagnosis of fungal infection in neonatal patients.

  12. Automation of a Nile red staining assay enables high throughput quantification of microalgal lipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morschett, Holger; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Oldiges, Marco

    2016-02-09

    Within the context of microalgal lipid production for biofuels and bulk chemical applications, specialized higher throughput devices for small scale parallelized cultivation are expected to boost the time efficiency of phototrophic bioprocess development. However, the increasing number of possible experiments is directly coupled to the demand for lipid quantification protocols that enable reliably measuring large sets of samples within short time and that can deal with the reduced sample volume typically generated at screening scale. To meet these demands, a dye based assay was established using a liquid handling robot to provide reproducible high throughput quantification of lipids with minimized hands-on-time. Lipid production was monitored using the fluorescent dye Nile red with dimethyl sulfoxide as solvent facilitating dye permeation. The staining kinetics of cells at different concentrations and physiological states were investigated to successfully down-scale the assay to 96 well microtiter plates. Gravimetric calibration against a well-established extractive protocol enabled absolute quantification of intracellular lipids improving precision from ±8 to ±2 % on average. Implementation into an automated liquid handling platform allows for measuring up to 48 samples within 6.5 h, reducing hands-on-time to a third compared to manual operation. Moreover, it was shown that automation enhances accuracy and precision compared to manual preparation. It was revealed that established protocols relying on optical density or cell number for biomass adjustion prior to staining may suffer from errors due to significant changes of the cells' optical and physiological properties during cultivation. Alternatively, the biovolume was used as a measure for biomass concentration so that errors from morphological changes can be excluded. The newly established assay proved to be applicable for absolute quantification of algal lipids avoiding limitations of currently established

  13. An automated multiplex specific IgE assay system using a photoimmobilized microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoshihiro; Moritsugu, Nozomi; Matsue, Takahisa; Mitsukoshi, Kiyomi; Ayame, Hirohito; Okochi, Norihiko; Hattori, Hideshi; Tashiro, Hideo; Sato, Sakura; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2012-11-15

    An automated microarray diagnostic system for specific IgE using photoimmobilized allergen has been developed. Photoimmobilization is useful for preparing microarrays, where various types of biological components are covalently immobilized on a plate. Because the immobilization is based on a photo-induced radical cross-linking reaction, it does not require specific functional groups on the immobilized components. Here, an aqueous solution of a photoreactive poly(ethylene glycol)-based polymer was spin-coated on a plate, and an aqueous solution of each allergen was microspotted on the coated plate and allowed to dry in air. Finally, the plate was irradiated with an ultraviolet lamp for covalent immobilization. An automated machine using these plates was developed for the assay of antigen-specific IgE. Initially, the patient serum was added to the microarray plate, and after reaction of the microspotted allergen with IgE, the adsorbed IgE was detected by a peroxidase-conjugated anti-IgE-antibody. The chemical luminescence intensity of the substrate decomposed by the peroxidase was automatically detected using a sensitive charge-coupled device camera. All the allergens were immobilized stably using this method, which was used to screen for allergen-specific IgE. The results were comparable with those using conventional specific IgE. Using this system, six different allergen-specific IgE were assayed using 10 μL of serum within a period of 20 min. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Automated box/drum waste assay (252Cf shuffler) through the material access and accountability boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horley, E.C.; Bjork, C.W.; Bourret, S.C.; Polk, P.J.; Schneider, C.J.; Studley, R.V.

    1992-01-01

    For the first time, a shuffler waste-assay system has been made a part of material access and accountability boundary (MAAB). A 252 Cf Pass-Thru shuffler integrated with a conveyor handling system, will process box or drum waste across the MAAB. This automated system will significantly reduce personnel operating costs because security forces will not be required at the MAAB during waste transfer. Further, the system eliminates the chance of a mix-up between measured and nonmeasured waste. This Pass-Thru shuffler is to be installed in the Westinghouse Savannah River Company 321M facility to screen waste boxes and drums for 235 U. An automated conveyor will load waste containers into the shuffler, and upon verification, will transfer the containers across the MAAB. Verification will consist of a weight measurement followed by active neutron interrogation. Containers that pass low-level waste criteria will be conveyed to an accumulator section outside the MAAB. If a container fails to meet the waste criteria, it will be rejected and sent back to the load station for manual inspection and repackaging

  15. Evaluation of an automated connective tissue disease screening assay in Korean patients with systemic rheumatic diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seri Jeong

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utilities of the automated connective tissues disease screening assay, CTD screen, in patients with systemic rheumatic diseases. A total of 1093 serum samples were assayed using CTD screen and indirect immunofluorescent (IIF methods. Among them, 162 were diagnosed with systemic rheumatic disease, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, and mixed connective tissue disease (MCT. The remaining 931 with non-systemic rheumatic disease were assigned to the control group. The median ratios of CTD screen tests were significantly higher in the systemic rheumatic disease group than in the control group. The positive likelihood ratios of the CTD screen were higher than those of IIF in patients with total rheumatic diseases (4.1 vs. 1.6, including SLE (24.3 vs. 10.7. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC-AUCs of the CTD screen for discriminating total rheumatic diseases, RA, SLE, and MCT from controls were 0.68, 0.56, 0.92 and 0.80, respectively. The ROC-AUCs of the combinations with IIF were significantly higher in patients with total rheumatic diseases (0.72 and MCT (0.85 than in those of the CTD screen alone. Multivariate analysis indicated that both the CTD screen and IIF were independent variables for predicting systemic rheumatic disease. CTD screen alone and in combination with IIF were a valuable diagnostic tool for predicting systemic rheumatic diseases, particularly for SLE.

  16. Evaluation of an automated connective tissue disease screening assay in Korean patients with systemic rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seri; Yang, Heeyoung; Hwang, Hyunyong

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utilities of the automated connective tissues disease screening assay, CTD screen, in patients with systemic rheumatic diseases. A total of 1093 serum samples were assayed using CTD screen and indirect immunofluorescent (IIF) methods. Among them, 162 were diagnosed with systemic rheumatic disease, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and mixed connective tissue disease (MCT). The remaining 931 with non-systemic rheumatic disease were assigned to the control group. The median ratios of CTD screen tests were significantly higher in the systemic rheumatic disease group than in the control group. The positive likelihood ratios of the CTD screen were higher than those of IIF in patients with total rheumatic diseases (4.1 vs. 1.6), including SLE (24.3 vs. 10.7). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC-AUCs) of the CTD screen for discriminating total rheumatic diseases, RA, SLE, and MCT from controls were 0.68, 0.56, 0.92 and 0.80, respectively. The ROC-AUCs of the combinations with IIF were significantly higher in patients with total rheumatic diseases (0.72) and MCT (0.85) than in those of the CTD screen alone. Multivariate analysis indicated that both the CTD screen and IIF were independent variables for predicting systemic rheumatic disease. CTD screen alone and in combination with IIF were a valuable diagnostic tool for predicting systemic rheumatic diseases, particularly for SLE.

  17. Evaluation of a CLEIA automated assay system for the detection of a panel of tumor markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzarano, Renato; Viggiani, Valentina; Michienzi, Simona; Longo, Flavia; Tudini, Silvestra; Frati, Luigi; Anastasi, Emanuela

    2013-10-01

    Tumor markers are commonly used to detect a relapse of disease in oncologic patients during follow-up. It is important to evaluate new assay systems for a better and more precise assessment, as a standardized method is currently lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the concordance between an automated chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay system (LUMIPULSE® G1200) and our reference methods using seven tumor markers. Serum samples from 787 subjects representing a variety of diagnoses, including oncologic, were analyzed using LUMIPULSE® G1200 and our reference methods. Serum values were measured for the following analytes: prostate-specific antigen (PSA), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen 125 (CA125), carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA15-3), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), and cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA 21-1). For the determination of CEA, AFP, and PSA, an automatic analyzer based on chemiluminescence was applied as reference method. To assess CYFRA 21-1, CA125, CA19-9, and CA15-3, an immunoradiometric manual system was employed. Method comparison by Passing-Bablok analysis resulted in slopes ranging from 0.9728 to 1.9089 and correlation coefficients from 0.9977 to 0.9335. The precision of each assay was assessed by testing six serum samples. Each sample was analyzed for all tumor biomarkers in duplicate and in three different runs. The coefficients of variation were less than 6.3 and 6.2 % for within-run and between-run variation, respectively. Our data suggest an overall good interassay agreement for all markers. The comparison with our reference methods showed good precision and reliability, highlighting its usefulness in clinical laboratory's routine.

  18. An automated smartphone-based diagnostic assay for point-of-care semen analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakasabapathy, Manoj Kumar; Sadasivam, Magesh; Singh, Anupriya; Preston, Collin; Thirumalaraju, Prudhvi; Venkataraman, Maanasa; Bormann, Charles L.; Draz, Mohamed Shehata; Petrozza, John C.; Shafiee, Hadi

    2017-01-01

    Male infertility affects up to 12% of the world’s male population and is linked to various environmental and medical conditions. Manual microscope-based testing and computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) are the current standard methods to diagnose male infertility; however, these methods are labor-intensive, expensive, and laboratory-based. Cultural and socially dominated stigma against male infertility testing hinders a large number of men from getting tested for infertility, especially in resource-limited African countries. We describe the development and clinical testing of an automated smartphone-based semen analyzer designed for quantitative measurement of sperm concentration and motility for point-of-care male infertility screening. Using a total of 350 clinical semen specimens at a fertility clinic, we have shown that our assay can analyze an unwashed, unprocessed liquefied semen sample with smartphone capabilities, can make remote semen quality testing accessible to people in both developed and developing countries who have access to smartphones. PMID:28330865

  19. Automated microfluidic assay system for autoantibodies found in autoimmune diseases using a photoimmobilized autoantigen microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Takahiro; Tsuzuki, Saki; Wada, Akira; Suwa, Akira; Kohsaka, Hitoshi; Tomida, Maiko; Ito, Yoshihiro

    2008-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and autoimmune diabetes are characterized by the production of autoantibodies that serve as useful diagnostic markers, surrogate markers, and prognostic factors. We devised an in vitro system to detect these clinically pivotal autoantibodies using a photoimmobilized autoantigen microarray. Photoimmobilization was useful for preparing the autoantigen microarray, where autoantigens are covalently immobilized on a plate, because it does not require specific functional groups of the autoantigens and any organic material can be immobilized by a radical reaction induced by photoirradiation. Here, we prepared the microarray using a very convenient method. Aqueous solutions of each autoantigen were mixed with a polymer of poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate and a photoreactive crosslinker, and the mixtures were microspotted on a plate and dried in air. Finally, the plate was irradiated with an ultraviolet lamp to obtain immobilization. In the assay, patient serum was added to the microarray plate. Antigen-specific IgG adsorbed on the microspotted autoantigen was detected by peroxidase-conjugated anti-IgG antibody. The chemical luminescence intensities of the substrate decomposed by the peroxidase were detected with a sensitive CCD camera. All autoantigens were immobilized stably by this method and used to screen antigen-specific IgG. In addition, the plate was covered with a polydimethylsiloxane sheet containing microchannels and automated measurement was carried out.

  20. An automated smartphone-based diagnostic assay for point-of-care semen analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakasabapathy, Manoj Kumar; Sadasivam, Magesh; Singh, Anupriya; Preston, Collin; Thirumalaraju, Prudhvi; Venkataraman, Maanasa; Bormann, Charles L; Draz, Mohamed Shehata; Petrozza, John C; Shafiee, Hadi

    2017-03-22

    Male infertility affects up to 12% of the world's male population and is linked to various environmental and medical conditions. Manual microscope-based testing and computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) are the current standard methods to diagnose male infertility; however, these methods are labor-intensive, expensive, and laboratory-based. Cultural and socially dominated stigma against male infertility testing hinders a large number of men from getting tested for infertility, especially in resource-limited African countries. We describe the development and clinical testing of an automated smartphone-based semen analyzer designed for quantitative measurement of sperm concentration and motility for point-of-care male infertility screening. Using a total of 350 clinical semen specimens at a fertility clinic, we have shown that our assay can analyze an unwashed, unprocessed liquefied semen sample with time and provide the user a semen quality evaluation based on the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines with ~98% accuracy. The work suggests that the integration of microfluidics, optical sensing accessories, and advances in consumer electronics, particularly smartphone capabilities, can make remote semen quality testing accessible to people in both developed and developing countries who have access to smartphones. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Automation of the ELISpot assay for high-throughput detection of antigen-specific T-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Coral-Ann M; Roberts, Steven G; Laird, Rebecca; McKinnon, Elizabeth; Ahmed, Imran; Pfafferott, Katja; Turley, Joanne; Keane, Niamh M; Lucas, Andrew; Rushton, Ben; Chopra, Abha; Mallal, Simon; John, Mina

    2009-05-15

    The enzyme linked immunospot (ELISpot) assay is a fundamental tool in cellular immunology, providing both quantitative and qualitative information on cellular cytokine responses to defined antigens. It enables the comprehensive screening of patient derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells to reveal the antigenic restriction of T-cell responses and is an emerging technique in clinical laboratory investigation of certain infectious diseases. As with all cellular-based assays, the final results of the assay are dependent on a number of technical variables that may impact precision if not highly standardised between operators. When studies that are large scale or using multiple antigens are set up manually, these assays may be labour intensive, have many manual handling steps, are subject to data and sample integrity failure and may show large inter-operator variability. Here we describe the successful automated performance of the interferon (IFN)-gamma ELISpot assay from cell counting through to electronic capture of cytokine quantitation and present the results of a comparison between automated and manual performance of the ELISpot assay. The mean number of spot forming units enumerated by both methods for limiting dilutions of CMV, EBV and influenza (CEF)-derived peptides in six healthy individuals were highly correlated (r>0.83, pautomated system compared favourably with the manual ELISpot and further ensured electronic tracking, increased through-put and reduced turnaround time.

  2. Comparison of two automated assays of BTM (CTX and P1NP) and reference intervals in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N R; Møllehave, L T; Hansen, Y B L

    2017-01-01

    the agreement on the two platforms. METHODS: Fasting sera from 2308 individuals (1250 males and 1058 females, age range 24-76 years) participating in the Health2006 study were analyzed for CTX and P1NP using the automated IDS-iSYS analyzer and the automated Cobas e411 analyzer. Participants in anti......-osteoporotic treatment were excluded, while subjects on hormonal contraceptives were included. RESULTS: There was significant disagreement between both the two P1NP assays with a mean difference of -3 μg/L (LoA -19 to 14) (p

  3. Automated image-based assay for evaluation of HIV neutralization and cell-to-cell fusion inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheik-Khalil, Enas; Bray, Mark-Anthony; Özkaya Şahin, Gülsen; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Jansson, Marianne; Carpenter, Anne E; Fenyö, Eva Maria

    2014-08-30

    Standardized techniques to detect HIV-neutralizing antibody responses are of great importance in the search for an HIV vaccine. Here, we present a high-throughput, high-content automated plaque reduction (APR) assay based on automated microscopy and image analysis that allows evaluation of neutralization and inhibition of cell-cell fusion within the same assay. Neutralization of virus particles is measured as a reduction in the number of fluorescent plaques, and inhibition of cell-cell fusion as a reduction in plaque area. We found neutralization strength to be a significant factor in the ability of virus to form syncytia. Further, we introduce the inhibitory concentration of plaque area reduction (ICpar) as an additional measure of antiviral activity, i.e. fusion inhibition. We present an automated image based high-throughput, high-content HIV plaque reduction assay. This allows, for the first time, simultaneous evaluation of neutralization and inhibition of cell-cell fusion within the same assay, by quantifying the reduction in number of plaques and mean plaque area, respectively. Inhibition of cell-to-cell fusion requires higher quantities of inhibitory reagent than inhibition of virus neutralization.

  4. Automating quantum dot barcode assays using microfluidics and magnetism for the development of a point-of-care device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yali; Lam, Albert W Y; Chan, Warren C W

    2013-04-24

    The impact of detecting multiple infectious diseases simultaneously at point-of-care with good sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility would be enormous for containing the spread of diseases in both resource-limited and rich countries. Many barcoding technologies have been introduced for addressing this need as barcodes can be applied to detecting thousands of genetic and protein biomarkers simultaneously. However, the assay process is not automated and is tedious and requires skilled technicians. Barcoding technology is currently limited to use in resource-rich settings. Here we used magnetism and microfluidics technology to automate the multiple steps in a quantum dot barcode assay. The quantum dot-barcoded microbeads are sequentially (a) introduced into the chip, (b) magnetically moved to a stream containing target molecules, (c) moved back to the original stream containing secondary probes, (d) washed, and (e) finally aligned for detection. The assay requires 20 min, has a limit of detection of 1.2 nM, and can detect genetic targets for HIV, hepatitis B, and syphilis. This study provides a simple strategy to automate the entire barcode assay process and moves barcoding technologies one step closer to point-of-care applications.

  5. The clinical usefulness of initial serum procalcitonin as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The serum levels of WBC counts and C‑reactive protein in the aggravation group were elevated. However, the median value (interquartile range) of procalcitonin was relatively increased at 2.28 (0.41–7.84 ng/ml), demonstrating a significant difference. Conclusions: In conclusion, initial serum levels of procalcitonin might be ...

  6. Association of procalcitonin with acute pyelonephritis and renal scars in pediatric UTI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Sandrine; Fernandez-Lopez, Anna; Nikfar, Roya; Romanello, Carla; Bouissou, François; Gervaix, Alain; Gurgoze, Metin K; Bressan, Silvia; Smolkin, Vladislav; Tuerlinckx, David; Stefanidis, Constantinos J; Vaos, Georgos; Leblond, Pierre; Gungor, Firat; Gendrel, Dominique; Chalumeau, Martin

    2013-05-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common childhood bacterial infections that may involve renal parenchymal infection (acute pyelonephritis [APN]) followed by late scarring. Prompt, high-quality diagnosis of APN and later identification of children with scarring are important for preventing future complications. Examination via dimercaptosuccinic acid scanning is the current clinical gold standard but is not routinely performed. A more accessible assay could therefore prove useful. Our goal was to study procalcitonin as a predictor for both APN and scarring in children with UTI. A systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data were performed; all data were gathered from children with UTIs who had undergone both procalcitonin measurement and dimercaptosuccinic acid scanning. A total of 1011 patients (APN in 60.6%, late scarring in 25.7%) were included from 18 studies. Procalcitonin as a continuous, class, and binary variable was associated with APN and scarring (P children who had APN during the early stages of UTI, as well as those with late scarring.

  7. Assay of mouse-cell clones for retrovirus p30 protein by use of an automated solid-state radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, S.J.; Tnnant, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A solid-state radioimmunoassay system has been developed that is useful for automated analysis of samples in microtiter plates. Assays for interspecies and type-specific antigenic determinants of the C-type retrovirus protein, p30, have been used to identify clones of cells producing this protein. This method allows testing of at least 1000 clones a day, making it useful for studies of frequencies of virus protein induction, defective virus production, and formation of recombinant viruses

  8. Comparative study of a novel application of automated HR HPV assay and stability in a previously untested Preservative media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike E. Morel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The suitability and stability of cervical cells in Novaprep media (NHQ for certain HPV assays is unknown. Methods: We evaluated the accuracy of an automated HPV assay (Abbott RealTime HR HPV for cervical cells prepared in NHQ and NHQ with a pre-treatment to mimic a worst case clinical use, compared to the assay manufacturers media; repeatability and reproducibility of HPV results and the stability of detectable HPV in NHQ over time compared to CE marked liquid based cytology preservatives. Cell lines were used to simulate patient samples. Results: Cells stored in NHQ produced accurate, repeatable and reproducible results. Stability in NHQ was comparable to the best performing LBC, with at least 7 months’ stability at 18–25 °C, 2–8 °C, −20 °C and −80 °C; and at least 3 months’ stability at 40 °C. Similar results were obtained for pre-treated NHQ except only 3.5 months’ stability at 18–25 °C. Cell line samples in all media and concentrations tested were detected appropriately by the assay. Conclusions: Based on this first stage validation analytical study, cervical cells stored in NHQ are suitable for the Realtime HPV assay. There should be no reservations for inclusion of NHQ in any further validation and clinical performance evaluation of this assay. Keywords: HPV, Preservative, Sample stability, Automated HR HPV assay

  9. Clinical Evaluation of Fully Automated Elecsys® Syphilis Assay for the Detection of Antibodies of Treponema pallidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; An, Jingna; Wang, Tingting; Tao, Chuanmin; Wang, Lanlan

    2016-11-01

    The resurgence of syphilis in recent years has become a serious threat to the public health worldwide, and the serological detection of specific antibodies against Treponema pallidum (TP) remains the most reliable method for laboratory diagnosis of syphilis. The performance of the Elecsys ® Syphilis assay, a brand new electrochemiluminescene immunoassay (ECLIA), was assessed by large amounts of samples in this study. In comparison with InTec assay, the Elecsys ® Syphilis assay was evaluated in 146 preselected samples from patients with syphilis, 1803 clinical routine samples, and 175 preselected samples from specific populations with reportedly increased rates of false-positive syphilis test results. Discrepancy samples must be investigated by Mikrogen Syphilis recomline assay. There was an overall agreement of 99.58% between two assays (Kappa = 0.975). The sensitivity and specificity of the Elecsys ® Syphilis assay were 100.0% (95% CI, 96.8-100.0%) and 99.8% (95% CI, 99.5-100.0%), respectively. The Elecsys syphilis assay displays better sensitivity (100%), specificity (99.8%), PPV (98.7%), and NPV (100%) in 2124 samples enrolled, compared with the InTec assay. Considering the excellent ease of use and automation, high throughput, and its superior sensitivity, especially in primary syphilis, the Elecsys ® Syphilis assay could represent an outstanding choice for screening of syphilis in high-volume laboratories. However, more attention was still needed, or the results must be confirmed by other treponemal immunoassays. The new Elecsys ® Syphilis assay is applied to patients with malignant neoplasm or HIV infection. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Streamlining antibiotic therapy with procalcitonin protocols: consensus and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubitz, Sebastian; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2013-04-01

    Accumulating evidence supports procalcitonin (PCT) as an accurate surrogate biomarker for likelihood and severity of bacterial infections. In community-acquired pneumonia and other respiratory infections, PCT-guided antibiotic therapy algorithms resulted in reduced antibiotic exposure while maintaining a similar or even better level of safety compared with standard care. Reductions in antibiotic use translate into lower treatment costs, decreased risk of side effects and decreased bacterial multiresistance. This is especially important, as acute respiratory infections represent the most frequent reason for antibiotic prescriptions worldwide. Still, there is some controversy about the benefits of PCT measurement in sepsis patients in the intensive care unit and for nonrespiratory infections. Highly sensitive PCT assays are readily available in many hospitals today, and point-of-care assays with high enough sensitivity for antibiotic guidance are expected to be available soon. Herein, the authors provide an overview of recent studies evaluating PCT in different clinical situations and an outlook of currently enrolling or upcoming interventional trials.

  11. Comparative study of a novel application of automated HR HPV assay and stability in a previously untested Preservative media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Mike E; McBride, Simon E; Gomez, Maria P

    2017-12-01

    The suitability and stability of cervical cells in Novaprep media (NHQ) for certain HPV assays is unknown. We evaluated the accuracy of an automated HPV assay (Abbott RealTime HR HPV) for cervical cells prepared in NHQ and NHQ with a pre-treatment to mimic a worst case clinical use, compared to the assay manufacturers media; repeatability and reproducibility of HPV results and the stability of detectable HPV in NHQ over time compared to CE marked liquid based cytology preservatives. Cell lines were used to simulate patient samples. Cells stored in NHQ produced accurate, repeatable and reproducible results. Stability in NHQ was comparable to the best performing LBC, with at least 7 months' stability at 18-25°C, 2-8°C, -20°C and -80°C; and at least 3 months' stability at 40°C. Similar results were obtained for pre-treated NHQ except only 3.5 months' stability at 18-25°C. Cell line samples in all media and concentrations tested were detected appropriately by the assay. Based on this first stage validation analytical study, cervical cells stored in NHQ are suitable for the Realtime HPV assay. There should be no reservations for inclusion of NHQ in any further validation and clinical performance evaluation of this assay. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Analytical evaluation of the novel Lumipulse G BRAHMS procalcitonin immunoassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orazio Ruzzenente

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the analytical performance of the novel Lumipulse G1200 BRAHMS procalcitonin (PCT immunoassay. Design and methods: This analytical evaluation encompassed the calculation of the limit of blank (LOB, limit of detection (LOD, functional sensitivity, intra- and inter-assay imprecision, confirmation of linearity and a comparison with the Vidas BRAHMS PCT assay. Results: The LOB, LOD and functional sensitivity were 0.0010 ng/mL, 0.0016 ng/mL and 0.008 ng/mL, respectively. The total analytical imprecision was found to be 2.1% and the linearity was excellent (r=1.00 in the range of concentrations between 0.006–75.5 ng/mL. The correlation coefficient with Vidas BRAHMS PCT was 0.995 and the equation of the Passing and Bablok regression analysis was [Lumipulse G BRAHMS PCT]=0.76×[Vidas BRAHMS PCT]+0.04. The mean overall bias of Lumipulse G BRAHMS PCT versus Vidas BRAHMS PCT was −3.03 ng/mL (95% confidence interval [CI]: −4.32 to −1.74 ng/mL, whereas the mean bias in samples with PCT concentration between 0–10 ng/mL was −0.49 ng/mL (95% CI: −0.77 to −0.24 ng/mL. The diagnostic agreement was 100% at 0.5 ng/mL, 97% at 2.0 ng/mL and 95% at 10 ng/mL, respectively. Conclusions: These results attest that Lumipulse G BRAHMS PCT exhibits excellent analytical performance, among the best of the methods currently available on the diagnostic market. However, the significant bias compared to the Vidas BRAHMS PCT suggests that the methods cannot be used interchangeably. Keywords: Sepsis, Infection, Procalcitonin, Immunoassay

  13. Can the Roche hemolysis index be used for automated determination of cell-free hemoglobin? A comparison to photometric assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Darinka Todorova; Cocisiu, Gabriela Ariadna; Eberle, Christoph; Rhode, Karl-Heinz; Brandhorst, Gunnar; Walson, Philip D; Oellerich, Michael

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel method for automated quantification of cell-free hemoglobin (fHb) based on the HI (Roche Diagnostics). The novel fHb method based on the HI was correlated with fHb measured using the triple wavelength methods of both Harboe [fHb, g/L = (0.915 * HI + 2.634)/100] and Fairbanks et al. [fHb, g/L = (0.917 * HI + 2.131)/100]. fHb concentrations were estimated from the HI using the Roche Modular automated platform in self-made and commercially available quality controls, as well as samples from a proficiency testing scheme (INSTAND). The fHb using Roche automated HI results were then compared to results obtained using the traditional spectrophotometric assays for one hundred plasma samples with varying degrees of hemolysis, lipemia and/or bilirubinemia. The novel method using automated HI quantification on the Roche Modular clinical chemistry platform correlated well with results using the classical methods in the 100 patient samples (Harboe: r = 0.9284; Fairbanks et al.: r = 0.9689) and recovery was good for self-made controls. However, commercially available quality controls showed poor recovery due to an unidentified matrix problem. The novel method produced reliable determination of fHb in samples without interferences. However, poor recovery using commercially available fHb quality control samples currently greatly limits its usefulness. © 2013.

  14. Intra-abdominal pressure and procalcitonin are valid prognostic markers of acute pancreatitis severity (intra-abdominal pressure and procalcitonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Maja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Early assessment of the severity and etiology of acute pancreatitis is very important for further treatment procedures. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between intra-abdominal pressure (IAP and procalcitonin as an indicator of severity of acute pancreatitis. Method. The IAP is measured every 12 hours through the urinary catheter placed in the bladder, in 65 patients with acute pancreatitis. Procalcitonin is measured within 24 hours of receipt of the patient, after 48 hours and after 78 hours. These values of procalcitonin and IAP were compared to each other and in relation to the Acute Physiology, Age and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II scoring system. Patients with APACHE II score > 8 are defined with moderate and severe acute pancreatitis. Results. The values of IAP (18,1 ± 4,5 mmHg vs 8,9 ± 2,67 mmHg; p = 0,01 , procalcitonin (15,43 + 2,25 ng/ml vs 3,14 + 1,12 ng/ml; p =0,031 and APACHE II scoring system (17,3 ± 6,24 vs 6,5 ± 1,0; p = 0,013 were significantly higher in patients with moderate and severe acute pancreatitis. The increase in the value of IAP was accompanied by an increase in the value of procalcitonin (r = 0,581, p = 0,01. The sensitivity in the prediction of severe acute pancreatitis after 24 hours of receiving the patient is 91,7% for the IAP, 87,8% for procalcitonin and 84,9% for APACHE II scoring system. Conclusion. The increase in the value of the IAP is accompanied by an increase in the values of procalcitonin, also patients with higher values of APACHE II scoring sys­tem have higher values of IAP and procalcitonin. The values of IAP and procalcitonin can be used as markers of acute pancreatitis severity.

  15. Plasma procalcitonin concentrations are increased in dogs with sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggs, Robert; Milloway, Matthew; Troia, Roberta; Giunti, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    Sepsis, the life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection, is difficult to identify and to prognosticate for. In people with sepsis, procalcitonin (PCT) measurement aids diagnosis, enables therapeutic monitoring and improves prognostic accuracy. This study used a commercial canine PCT assay to measure plasma PCT concentrations in dogs with gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV) syndrome and in dogs with sepsis. It was hypothesised that dogs with GDV syndrome and with sepsis have greater plasma PCT concentrations than healthy dogs and that dogs with sepsis have greater PCT concentrations than dogs with GDV syndrome. Before analysing canine plasma samples, the ability of the assay to identify canine PCT, in addition to assay imprecision and the lower limit of detection were established. The assay had low imprecision with coefficients of variation ≤4.5 per cent. The lower limit of detection was 3.4 pg/ml. Plasma PCT concentrations were measured in 20 dogs with sepsis, in 32 dogs with GDV syndrome and in 52 healthy dogs. Median (IQR) PCT concentration in dogs with sepsis 78.7 pg/ml (39.1–164.7) was significantly greater than in healthy dogs 49.8 pg/ml (36.2–63.7) (P=0.019), but there were no significant differences between PCT concentrations in dogs with GDV syndrome and controls (P=0.072) or between dogs with sepsis and GDV syndrome (P=1.000). Dogs with sepsis have significantly increased plasma PCT concentrations compared with healthy dogs, although considerable overlap between these populations was identified. Future investigations should confirm this finding in other populations and evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of PCT in dogs with sepsis. PMID:29682292

  16. A simple viability analysis for unicellular cyanobacteria using a new autofluorescence assay, automated microscopy, and ImageJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulze Katja

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently established methods to identify viable and non-viable cells of cyanobacteria are either time-consuming (eg. plating or preparation-intensive (eg. fluorescent staining. In this paper we present a new and fast viability assay for unicellular cyanobacteria, which uses red chlorophyll fluorescence and an unspecific green autofluorescence for the differentiation of viable and non-viable cells without the need of sample preparation. Results The viability assay for unicellular cyanobacteria using red and green autofluorescence was established and validated for the model organism Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Both autofluorescence signals could be observed simultaneously allowing a direct classification of viable and non-viable cells. The results were confirmed by plating/colony count, absorption spectra and chlorophyll measurements. The use of an automated fluorescence microscope and a novel ImageJ based image analysis plugin allow a semi-automated analysis. Conclusions The new method simplifies the process of viability analysis and allows a quick and accurate analysis. Furthermore results indicate that a combination of the new assay with absorption spectra or chlorophyll concentration measurements allows the estimation of the vitality of cells.

  17. A High Throughput, 384-Well, Semi-Automated, Hepatocyte Intrinsic Clearance Assay for Screening New Molecular Entities in Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinle, Lance; Peterkin, Vincent; de Morais, Sonia M; Jenkins, Gary J; Badagnani, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    A high throughput, semi-automated clearance screening assay in hepatocytes was developed allowing a scientist to generate data for 96 compounds in one week. The 384-well format assay utilizes a Thermo Multidrop Combi and an optimized LC-MS/MS method. The previously reported LCMS/ MS method reduced the analytical run time by 3-fold, down to 1.2 min injection-to-injection. The Multidrop was able to deliver hepatocytes to 384-well plates with minimal viability loss. Comparison of results from the new 384-well and historical 24-well assays yielded a correlation of 0.95. In addition, results obtained for 25 marketed drugs with various metabolism pathways had a correlation of 0.75 when compared with literature values. Precision was maintained in the new format as 8 compounds tested in ≥39 independent experiments had coefficients of variation ≤21%. The ability to predict in vivo clearances using the new stability assay format was also investigated using 22 marketed drugs and 26 AbbVie compounds. Correction of intrinsic clearance values with binding to hepatocytes (in vitro data) and plasma (in vivo data) resulted in a higher in vitro to in vivo correlation when comparing 22 marketed compounds in human (0.80 vs 0.35) and 26 AbbVie Discovery compounds in rat (0.56 vs 0.17), demonstrating the importance of correcting for binding in clearance studies. This newly developed high throughput, semi-automated clearance assay allows for rapid screening of Discovery compounds to enable Structure Activity Relationship (SAR) analysis based on high quality hepatocyte stability data in sufficient quantity and quality to drive the next round of compound synthesis.

  18. Analysis of HIV using a high resolution melting (HRM) diversity assay: automation of HRM data analysis enhances the utility of the assay for analysis of HIV incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Matthew M; Swan, David; Magaret, Craig A; Hoover, Donald R; Eshleman, Susan H

    2012-01-01

    HIV diversity may be a useful biomarker for discriminating between recent and non-recent HIV infection. The high resolution melting (HRM) diversity assay was developed to quantify HIV diversity in viral populations without sequencing. In this assay, HIV diversity is expressed as a single numeric HRM score that represents the width of a melting peak. HRM scores are highly associated with diversity measures obtained with next generation sequencing. In this report, a software package, the HRM Diversity Assay Analysis Tool (DivMelt), was developed to automate calculation of HRM scores from melting curve data. DivMelt uses computational algorithms to calculate HRM scores by identifying the start (T1) and end (T2) melting temperatures for a DNA sample and subtracting them (T2 - T1 =  HRM score). DivMelt contains many user-supplied analysis parameters to allow analyses to be tailored to different contexts. DivMelt analysis options were optimized to discriminate between recent and non-recent HIV infection and to maximize HRM score reproducibility. HRM scores calculated using DivMelt were compared to HRM scores obtained using a manual method that is based on visual inspection of DNA melting curves. HRM scores generated with DivMelt agreed with manually generated HRM scores obtained from the same DNA melting data. Optimal parameters for discriminating between recent and non-recent HIV infection were identified. DivMelt provided greater discrimination between recent and non-recent HIV infection than the manual method. DivMelt provides a rapid, accurate method of determining HRM scores from melting curve data, facilitating use of the HRM diversity assay for large-scale studies.

  19. Management of Respiratory Infections with Use of Procalcitonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirz, Yannick; Branche, Angela; Wolff, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Due to overlap of clinical findings and low sensitivity of bacterial diagnostic tests, differentiation between bacterial and viral respiratory tract infections remains challenging, ultimately leading to antibiotic overuse in this population of patients. Addition of procalcitonin, a blood biomarke...

  20. Fast and automated DNA assays on a compact disc (CD)-based microfluidic platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Guangyao

    Nucleic acid-based molecular diagnostics offers enormous potential for the rapid and accurate diagnosis of infectious diseases. However, most of the existing commercial tests are time-consuming and technically complicated, and are thus incompatible with the need for rapid identification of infectious agents. We have successfully developed a CD-based microfluidic platform for fast and automated DNA array hybridization and a low cost, disposable plastic microfluidic platform for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These platforms have proved to be a promising approach to meet the requirements in terms of detection speed and operational convenience in diagnosis of infectious diseases. In the CD-based microfluidic platform for DNA hybridization, convection is introduced to the system to enhance mass transport so as to accelerate the hybridization rate since DNA hybridization is a diffusion limited reaction. Centrifugal force is utilized for sample propulsion and surface force is used for liquid gating. Standard microscope glass slides are used as the substrates for capture probes owing to their compatibility with commercially available instrumentation (e.g. laser scanners) for detection. Microfabricated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) structures are used to accomplish the fluidic functions required by the protocols for DNA hybridization. The assembly of the PDMS structure and the glass slide forms a flow-through hybridization unit that can be accommodated onto the CD platform for reagent manipulation. The above scheme has been validated with oligonucleotides as the targets using commercially available enzyme-labeled fluorescence (ELF 97) for detection of the hybridization events, and tested with amplicons of genomic staphylococcus DNA labeled with Cy dye. In both experiments, significantly higher fluorescence intensities were observed in the flow-through hybridization unit compared to the passive assays. The CD fluidic scheme was also adapted to the immobilization of

  1. A Comparison of Anti-Nuclear Antibody Quantification Using Automated Enzyme Immunoassays and Immunofluorescence Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baronaite, Renata; Engelhart, Merete; Mørk Hansen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    using IFA and automated EIA techniques. The IFA results generated by two independent laboratories were compared with the EIA results from antibodies against double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), from ANA screening, and from tests of the seven included subantigens. The final IFA and EIA results for 386 unique......, with Cohen's kappa value of 0.30 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.14-0.46), which decreased to 0.23 (95% CI = 0.06-0.40) when the results for dsDNA were omitted. The EIA method was less reliable for assessing nuclear and speckled reactivity patterns, whereas the IFA method presented difficulties detecting...... dsDNA and Ro activity. The automated EIA method was performed in a similar way to the conventional IFA method using HEp-2 cells; thus, automated EIA may be used as a screening test....

  2. Automated 5 ' nuclease assay for detection of virulence factors in porcine Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendahl, K.; Imberechts, H.; Lehmann, S.

    2001-01-01

    (STa, STb, EAST1) and heat labile LT) enterotoxins and the verocytotoxin variant 2e (VT2e). To correctly identify false negative results, an endogenous internal control targeting the E. coil 16S rRNA gene was incorporated in each test tube. The assay was evaluated using a collection of E. coil...... reference strains which have previously been examined with phenotypical assays or DNA hybridization. Furthermore, the assay was evaluated by testing porcine E. coil field strains, previously characterized. The 5' nuclease assay correctly detected the presence of virulence genes in all reference strains....... When testing field strains there was generally excellent agreement with results obtained by laboratories in Belgium and Germany. In conclusion, the 5' nuclease assay developed is a fast and specific tool for detection of E. coli virulence genes in the veterinary diagnostic laboratory....

  3. A multiplex reverse transcription PCR and automated electronic microarray assay for detection and differentiation of seven viruses affecting swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, A; Fisher, M; Furukawa-Stoffer, T; Ambagala, A; Hodko, D; Pasick, J; King, D P; Nfon, C; Ortega Polo, R; Lung, O

    2018-04-01

    Microarray technology can be useful for pathogen detection as it allows simultaneous interrogation of the presence or absence of a large number of genetic signatures. However, most microarray assays are labour-intensive and time-consuming to perform. This study describes the development and initial evaluation of a multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and novel accompanying automated electronic microarray assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of seven important viruses that affect swine (foot-and-mouth disease virus [FMDV], swine vesicular disease virus [SVDV], vesicular exanthema of swine virus [VESV], African swine fever virus [ASFV], classical swine fever virus [CSFV], porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus [PRRSV] and porcine circovirus type 2 [PCV2]). The novel electronic microarray assay utilizes a single, user-friendly instrument that integrates and automates capture probe printing, hybridization, washing and reporting on a disposable electronic microarray cartridge with 400 features. This assay accurately detected and identified a total of 68 isolates of the seven targeted virus species including 23 samples of FMDV, representing all seven serotypes, and 10 CSFV strains, representing all three genotypes. The assay successfully detected viruses in clinical samples from the field, experimentally infected animals (as early as 1 day post-infection (dpi) for FMDV and SVDV, 4 dpi for ASFV, 5 dpi for CSFV), as well as in biological material that were spiked with target viruses. The limit of detection was 10 copies/μl for ASFV, PCV2 and PRRSV, 100 copies/μl for SVDV, CSFV, VESV and 1,000 copies/μl for FMDV. The electronic microarray component had reduced analytical sensitivity for several of the target viruses when compared with the multiplex RT-PCR. The integration of capture probe printing allows custom onsite array printing as needed, while electrophoretically driven hybridization generates results faster than conventional

  4. CometQ: An automated tool for the detection and quantification of DNA damage using comet assay image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Sreelatha; Muraleedharan, Aparna; Sathidevi, Puthumangalathu Savithri; Chand, Parkash; Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2016-09-01

    DNA damage analysis plays an important role in determining the approaches for treatment and prevention of various diseases like cancer, schizophrenia and other heritable diseases. Comet assay is a sensitive and versatile method for DNA damage analysis. The main objective of this work is to implement a fully automated tool for the detection and quantification of DNA damage by analysing comet assay images. The comet assay image analysis consists of four stages: (1) classifier (2) comet segmentation (3) comet partitioning and (4) comet quantification. Main features of the proposed software are the design and development of four comet segmentation methods, and the automatic routing of the input comet assay image to the most suitable one among these methods depending on the type of the image (silver stained or fluorescent stained) as well as the level of DNA damage (heavily damaged or lightly/moderately damaged). A classifier stage, based on support vector machine (SVM) is designed and implemented at the front end, to categorise the input image into one of the above four groups to ensure proper routing. Comet segmentation is followed by comet partitioning which is implemented using a novel technique coined as modified fuzzy clustering. Comet parameters are calculated in the comet quantification stage and are saved in an excel file. Our dataset consists of 600 silver stained images obtained from 40 Schizophrenia patients with different levels of severity, admitted to a tertiary hospital in South India and 56 fluorescent stained images obtained from different internet sources. The performance of "CometQ", the proposed standalone application for automated analysis of comet assay images, is evaluated by a clinical expert and is also compared with that of a most recent and related software-OpenComet. CometQ gave 90.26% positive predictive value (PPV) and 93.34% sensitivity which are much higher than those of OpenComet, especially in the case of silver stained images. The

  5. Increased serum procalcitonin levels in pregnant patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir, Filiz; Akdemir, Nermin; Ozden, Selcuk; Cevrioglu, A Serhan; Bilir, Cemil

    2013-09-05

    Among the pregnancy urinary tract infections, asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is the most common one. Untreated ASB can progress to pyelonephritis in 30-50% of the patients and can also result in prematurity in 27% of the pregnancy so it needs immediate diagnosis and treatment. In this study, we wanted to evaluate procalcitonin levels, compared to other inflammatory in pregnant women with ASB. The study was designed between the period of January 2012 and February 2013 at Sakarya University School of Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics. The study population included 30 pregnant patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria and 39 healthy pregnant controls. Mean age was 28 (SD, 5.5) of the study population; mean maternal weight was 70 (SD, 8) kilogram. There were no statically significant differences between the groups according to the routine biochemical parameters, but gestational age was significantly lower in the ASB group compared to the controls (20.4 vs 28.6, respectively; p 0.05 ng/ml and 21(70%) patients had negative procalcitonin levels (Chi-squrae, p treatment of the first ASB diagnosis. Procalcitonin levels were significantly higher in ASB group than the control group and serum procalcitonin levels were higher in pregnant women with recurrent ASB. This finding is an important result revealed that high procalcitonin level can predict the further urinary tract infection risk. Finally, serum procalcitonin levels were normal in healthy pregnant women while other inflammatory markers such as WBC, ESR and CRP levels were higher.

  6. Fluorescence-PCR Assays and Isolation of Luminescent Bacterial Clones Using an Automated Plate Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    The genes responsible for luminescence in various species of the marine microorganism "Photobacterium", have been used for many years as a tool by researchers and instructors. In particular, the "lux" operon of "Photobacterium fischeri" has been used by many instructors to teach recombinant DNA techniques. Two methods using an automated plate…

  7. Diagnostic performance of automated liquid culture and molecular line probe assay in smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwal, Aarti; Biswas, Debasis; Raghuvanshi, Shailendra; Sindhwani, Girish; Kakati, Barnali; Sharma, Shweta

    2017-04-01

    The diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is particularly challenging, and automated liquid culture and molecular line probe assays (LPA) may prove particularly useful. The objective of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of automated liquid culture (ALC) technology and commercial LPA in sputum smear-negative PTB suspects. Spot sputum samples were collected from 145 chest-symptomatic smear-negative patients and subjected to ALC, direct drug susceptibility test (DST) testing and LPA, as per manufacturers' instructions. A diagnostic yield of 26.2% was observed among sputum smear-negative TB suspects with 47.4% of the culture isolates being either INH- and/or rifampicin-resistant. Complete agreement was observed between the results of ALC assay and LPA except for two isolates which demonstrated sensitivity to INH and rifampicin at direct DST but were rifampicin-resistant in LPA. Two novel mutations were also detected among the multidrug isolates by LPA. In view of the diagnostic challenges associated with the diagnosis of TB in sputum smear-negative patients, our study demonstrates the applicability of ALC and LPA in establishing diagnostic evidence of TB.

  8. OpenComet: An automated tool for comet assay image analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gyori, Benjamin M.; Venkatachalam, Gireedhar; Thiagarajan, P.S.; Hsu, David; Clement, Marie-Veronique

    2014-01-01

    Reactive species such as free radicals are constantly generated in vivo and DNA is the most important target of oxidative stress. Oxidative DNA damage is used as a predictive biomarker to monitor the risk of development of many diseases. The comet assay is widely used for measuring oxidative DNA damage at a single cell level. The analysis of comet assay output images, however, poses considerable challenges. Commercial software is costly and restrictive, while free software generally requires ...

  9. Analytical evaluation of the automated galectin-3 assay on the Abbott ARCHITECT immunoassay instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaze, David C; Prante, Christian; Dreier, Jens; Knabbe, Cornelius; Collet, Corinne; Launay, Jean-Marie; Franekova, Janka; Jabor, Antonin; Lennartz, Lieselotte; Shih, Jessie; del Rey, Jose Manuel; Zaninotto, Martina; Plebani, Mario; Collinson, Paul O

    2014-06-01

    Galectin-3 is secreted from macrophages and binds and activates fibroblasts forming collagen. Tissue fibrosis is central to the progression of chronic heart failure (CHF). We performed a European multicentered evaluation of the analytical performance of the two-step routine and Short Turn-Around-Time (STAT) galectin-3 immunoassay on the ARCHITECT i1000SR, i2000SR, and i4000SR (Abbott Laboratories). We evaluated the assay precision and dilution linearity for both routine and STAT assays and compared serum and plasma, and fresh vs. frozen samples. The reference interval and biological variability were also assessed. Measurable samples were compared between ARCHITECT instruments and between the routine and STAT assays and also to a galectin-3 ELISA (BG Medicine). The total assay coefficient of variation (CV%) was 2.3%-6.2% and 1.7%-7.4% for the routine and STAT assays, respectively. Both assays demonstrated linearity up to 120 ng/mL. Galectin-3 concentrations were higher in plasma samples than in serum samples and correlated well between fresh and frozen samples (R=0.997), between the routine and STAT assays, between the ARCHITECT i1000 and i2000 instruments and with the galectin-3 ELISA. The reference interval on 627 apparently healthy individuals (53% male) yielded upper 95th and 97.5th percentiles of 25.2 and 28.4 ng/mL, respectively. Values were significantly lower in subjects younger than 50 years. The galectin-3 routine and STAT assays on the Abbott ARCHITECT instruments demonstrated good analytical performance. Further clinical studies are required to demonstrate the diagnostic and prognostic potential of this novel marker in patients with CHF.

  10. Serum bactericidal assay for the evaluation of typhoid vaccine using a semi-automated colony-counting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mi Seon; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun; Yang, Jae Seung

    2016-08-01

    Typhoid fever, mainly caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), is a life-threatening disease, mostly in developing countries. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is widely used to quantify antibodies against S. Typhi in serum but does not provide information about functional antibody titers. Although the serum bactericidal assay (SBA) using an agar plate is often used to measure functional antibody titers against various bacterial pathogens in clinical specimens, it has rarely been used for typhoid vaccines because it is time-consuming and labor-intensive. In the present study, we established an improved SBA against S. Typhi using a semi-automated colony-counting system with a square agar plate harboring 24 samples. The semi-automated SBA efficiently measured bactericidal titers of sera from individuals immunized with S. Typhi Vi polysaccharide vaccines. The assay specifically responded to S. Typhi Ty2 but not to other irrelevant enteric bacteria including Vibrio cholerae and Shigella flexneri. Baby rabbit complement was more appropriate source for the SBA against S. Typhi than complements from adult rabbit, guinea pig, and human. We also examined the correlation between SBA and ELISA for measuring antibody responses against S. Typhi using pre- and post-vaccination sera from 18 human volunteers. The SBA titer showed a good correlation with anti-Vi IgG quantity in the serum as determined by Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.737 (P measure functional antibody titers against S. Typhi in sera from human subjects immunized with typhoid vaccines. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Automated high-content assay for compounds selectively toxic to Trypanosoma cruzi in a myoblastic cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alonso-Padilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, represents a very important public health problem in Latin America where it is endemic. Although mostly asymptomatic at its initial stage, after the disease becomes chronic, about a third of the infected patients progress to a potentially fatal outcome due to severe damage of heart and gut tissues. There is an urgent need for new drugs against Chagas disease since there are only two drugs available, benznidazole and nifurtimox, and both show toxic side effects and variable efficacy against the chronic stage of the disease.Genetically engineered parasitic strains are used for high throughput screening (HTS of large chemical collections in the search for new anti-parasitic compounds. These assays, although successful, are limited to reporter transgenic parasites and do not cover the wide T. cruzi genetic background. With the aim to contribute to the early drug discovery process against Chagas disease we have developed an automated image-based 384-well plate HTS assay for T. cruzi amastigote replication in a rat myoblast host cell line. An image analysis script was designed to inform on three outputs: total number of host cells, ratio of T. cruzi amastigotes per cell and percentage of infected cells, which respectively provides one host cell toxicity and two T. cruzi toxicity readouts. The assay was statistically robust (Z´ values >0.6 and was validated against a series of known anti-trypanosomatid drugs.We have established a highly reproducible, high content HTS assay for screening of chemical compounds against T. cruzi infection of myoblasts that is amenable for use with any T. cruzi strain capable of in vitro infection. Our visual assay informs on both anti-parasitic and host cell toxicity readouts in a single experiment, allowing the direct identification of compounds selectively targeted to the parasite.

  12. Analytical evaluation of the novel Lumipulse G BRAHMS procalcitonin immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzzenente, Orazio; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Gelati, Matteo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the analytical performance of the novel Lumipulse G1200 BRAHMS procalcitonin (PCT) immunoassay. This analytical evaluation encompassed the calculation of the limit of blank (LOB), limit of detection (LOD), functional sensitivity, intra- and inter-assay imprecision, confirmation of linearity and a comparison with the Vidas BRAHMS PCT assay. The LOB, LOD and functional sensitivity were 0.0010 ng/mL, 0.0016 ng/mL and 0.008 ng/mL, respectively. The total analytical imprecision was found to be 2.1% and the linearity was excellent (r=1.00) in the range of concentrations between 0.006-75.5 ng/mL. The correlation coefficient with Vidas BRAHMS PCT was 0.995 and the equation of the Passing and Bablok regression analysis was [Lumipulse G BRAHMS PCT]=0.76×[Vidas BRAHMS PCT]+0.04. The mean overall bias of Lumipulse G BRAHMS PCT versus Vidas BRAHMS PCT was -3.03 ng/mL (95% confidence interval [CI]: -4.32 to -1.74 ng/mL), whereas the mean bias in samples with PCT concentration between 0-10 ng/mL was -0.49 ng/mL (95% CI: -0.77 to -0.24 ng/mL). The diagnostic agreement was 100% at 0.5 ng/mL, 97% at 2.0 ng/mL and 95% at 10 ng/mL, respectively. These results attest that Lumipulse G BRAHMS PCT exhibits excellent analytical performance, among the best of the methods currently available on the diagnostic market. However, the significant bias compared to the Vidas BRAHMS PCT suggests that the methods cannot be used interchangeably.

  13. Automated nondestructive assay system for the measurement of irradiated Rover fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustson, R.H.; Menlove, H.O.; Smith, D.B.; Bond, A.L.; Durrill, D.C.; Hollowell, W.P.; Bromley, C.P.

    1975-01-01

    With the termination of the Nuclear Rocket Propulsion (Rover) Program, and associated reactor testing at the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS), Nevada, plans are progressing to recover the 93 percent enriched uranium contained in irradiated fuel from twenty various test reactors. This fuel is being packaged into 7-cm-dia by 137-cm-long cardboard tubes, using the remote handling facilities (E-MAD Bldg) of NRDS. After packaging, the fuel is shipped to Allied Chemical Corporation, Idaho Falls, Idaho, for uranium recovery. About 4000 tubes will be needed to package and ship the inventory of fuel elements presently at NRDS. This represents a total of approximately 2500 kg of enriched uranium. To complete the accounting records each tube is being nondestructively assayed and records kept on a reactor-by-reactor basis where possible. The assayed values for a reactor are then compared with original input inventory values and discrepancies resolved. The tubes are being assayed by an active neutron interrogation system designed and fabricated by Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) and operated by Westinghouse Astronuclear Laboratory (WANL)-Nevada Operations personnel. WANL is the operating contractor in charge of loading and shipping this fuel. (U.S.)

  14. Analytical and clinical performance of the new Fujirebio 25-OH vitamin D assay, a comparison with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and three other automated assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Lanja; Mueller, Daniel; von Eckardstein, Arnold

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated the analytical and clinical performance of the new Lumipulse® G 25-OH vitamin D assay from Fujirebio, and compared it to a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method and three other commercial automated assays. Total 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were measured in 100 selected serum samples from our routine analysis with Fujirebio 25(OH)D assay. The results were compared with those obtained with LC-MS/MS and three other automated 25(OH)D assays (Abbott, Beckman, and Roche). The accuracy of each assay tested was evaluated against a Labquality reference serum panel for 25(OH)D (Ref!25OHD; University of Ghent). Intra- and inter-day imprecision of the Fujirebio 25(OH)D assay was Lumipulse G 25-OH vitamin D assay from Fujirebio demonstrated a good correlation with LC-MS/MS and some immunoassays. The performance of the assay is well-suited for routine 25(OH)D measurement in clinical serum samples. A correction for the observed negative bias vs. LC-MS/MS could be considered.

  15. Performance of the new automated Abbott RealTime MTB assay for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J H K; She, K K K; Kwong, T-C; Wong, O-Y; Siu, G K H; Leung, C-C; Chang, K-C; Tam, C-M; Ho, P-L; Cheng, V C C; Yuen, K-Y; Yam, W-C

    2015-09-01

    The automated high-throughput Abbott RealTime MTB real-time PCR assay has been recently launched for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) clinical diagnosis. This study would like to evaluate its performance. We first compared its diagnostic performance with the Roche Cobas TaqMan MTB assay on 214 clinical respiratory specimens. Prospective analysis of a total 520 specimens was then performed to further evaluate the Abbott assay. The Abbott assay showed a lower limit of detection at 22.5 AFB/ml, which was more sensitive than the Cobas assay (167.5 AFB/ml). The two assays demonstrated a significant difference in diagnostic performance (McNemar's test; P = 0.0034), in which the Abbott assay presented significantly higher area under curve (AUC) than the Cobas assay (1.000 vs 0.880; P = 0.0002). The Abbott assay demonstrated extremely low PCR inhibition on clinical respiratory specimens. The automated Abbott assay required only very short manual handling time (0.5 h), which could help to improve the laboratory management. In the prospective analysis, the overall estimates for sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott assay were both 100 % among smear-positive specimens, whereas the smear-negative specimens were 96.7 and 96.1 %, respectively. No cross-reactivity with non-tuberculosis mycobacterial species was observed. The superiority in sensitivity of the Abbott assay for detecting MTBC in smear-negative specimens could further minimize the risk in MTBC false-negative detection. The new Abbott RealTime MTB assay has good diagnostic performance which can be a useful diagnostic tool for rapid MTBC detection in clinical laboratories.

  16. Paradoxical results of two automated real-time PCR assays in the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya E. Morales-López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a major cause of worldwide mortality. We report the case of a non-HIV-infected woman with clinical suspicion of pleural tuberculosis and contradictory results between Xpert® MTB/RIF and Abbott RealTime MTB assays from pleural fluid specimen. Liquid and solid cultures for tuberculosis were performed with negative results. The patient received treatment, and clinical improvement was observed. Both techniques detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, but they have different targets and limits of detection. Abbott RealTime MTB results correlated well with the clinical findings of the patient.

  17. Paradoxical results of two automated real-time PCR assays in the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-López, Soraya E; Yepes, Jayr A; Anzola, Irina; Aponte, Hernán; Llerena-Polo, Claudia R

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of worldwide mortality. We report the case of a non-HIV-infected woman with clinical suspicion of pleural tuberculosis and contradictory results between Xpert ® MTB/RIF and Abbott RealTime MTB assays from pleural fluid specimen. Liquid and solid cultures for tuberculosis were performed with negative results. The patient received treatment, and clinical improvement was observed. Both techniques detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, but they have different targets and limits of detection. Abbott RealTime MTB results correlated well with the clinical findings of the patient. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Early changes of procalcitonin may advise about prognosis and appropriateness of antimicrobial therapy in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulou, Antonia-Panagiota; Savva, Athina; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J; Georgitsi, Marianna; Raftogiannis, Maria; Antonakos, Nicolaos; Apostolidou, Efterpi; Carrer, Dionyssia-Pinelopi; Dimopoulos, George; Economou, Aggelos; Efthymiou, George; Galanakis, Nearchos; Galani, Labrini; Gargalianos, Panagiotis; Karaiskos, Ilias; Katsenos, Chrisostomos; Kavatha, Dimitra; Koratzanis, Evangelos; Labropoulos, Panagiotis; Lada, Malvina; Nakos, George; Paggalou, Evgenia; Panoutsopoulos, George; Paraschos, Michael; Pavleas, Ioannis; Pontikis, Konstantinos; Poulakou, Garyfallia; Prekates, Athanassios; Sybardi, Styliani; Theodorakopoulou, Maria; Trakatelli, Christina; Tsiaoussis, Panagiotis; Gogos, Charalambos; Giamarellou, Helen; Armaganidis, Apostolos; Meisner, Michael

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study is to define if early changes of procalcitonin (PCT) may inform about prognosis and appropriateness of administered therapy in sepsis. A prospective multicenter observational study was conducted in 289 patients. Blood samples were drawn on day 1, that is, within less than 24 hours from advent of signs of sepsis, and on days 3, 7, and 10. Procalcitonin was estimated in serum by the ultrasensitive Kryptor assay (BRAHMS GmbH, Hennigsdorf, Germany). Patients were divided into the following 2 groups according to the type of change of PCT: group 1, where PCT on day 3 was decreased by more than 30% or was below 0.25 ng/mL, and group 2, where PCT on day 3 was either increased above 0.25 ng/mL or decreased less than 30%. Death occurred in 12.3% of patients of group 1 and in 29.9% of those of group 2 (P < .0001). Odds ratio for death of patients of group 1 was 0.328. Odds ratio for the administration of inappropriate antimicrobials of patients of group 2 was 2.519 (P = .003). Changes of serum PCT within the first 48 hours reflect the benefit or not of the administered antimicrobial therapy. Serial PCT measurements should be used in clinical practice to guide administration of appropriate antimicrobials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Procalcitonin - Assisted Antibiotic Strategy in Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trásy, Domonkos; Molnár, Zsolt

    2017-05-01

    Sepsis is one of the biggest challenges in critical care nowadays. Defining sepsis is a difficult task on its own and its diagnosis and treatment requires well trained, devoted personnel with interdisciplinary collaboration in order to provide the patients the best chance for survival. Immediate resuscitation, early adequate antimicrobial therapy, source control and highly sophisticated organ support on the intensive care units are all inevitable necessities for successful recovery. To help fast and accurate diagnosis biomarkers have been measured for decades. Procalcitonin (PCT) is one of the most studied, but the results are conflicting. Sepsis means a very loose cohort of a large heterogeneous patient population, hence defining certain cut off values for PCT to differentiate between different severities of the disease is almost impossible. Clinicians first have to understand the pathophysiological background of sepsis to be able to interpret correctly the PCT results. Nevertheless, PCT has been shown to have the best sensitivity and specificity to indicate infection, antibiotic appropriateness and stopping therapy. In this article we will focus on some important aspects of pathophysiology and advice on how to implement that in the everyday clinical practice. We believe that this multimodal evaluation of the clinical picture together with PCT results can be a useful tool to make the most out of the PCT results, and do the best for patients on the ICU.

  20. Analytical and clinical performance of the new Fujirebio 25-OH vitamin D assay, a comparison with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and three other automated assays

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh, Lanja; Mueller, Daniel; von Eckardstein, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We evaluated the analytical and clinical performance of the new Lumipulse® G 25-OH vitamin D assay from Fujirebio, and compared it to a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method and three other commercial automated assays. METHODS: Total 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were measured in 100 selected serum samples from our routine analysis with Fujirebio 25(OH)D assay. The results were compared with those obtained with LC-MS/MS and three other automat...

  1. Screening for primary aldosteronism using the newly developed IDS-iSYS® automated assay system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. O’Shea

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The recommended approach to screening for primary aldosteronism (PA in at-risk populations is to determine the ratio of aldosterone concentration (serum (SAC/plasma (PAC to renin measured in plasma as activity (PRA or concentration (DRC. However, lack of assay standardisation mandates the need for method-specific decision thresholds and clinical validation in the local population. Aim: The study objective was to establish method-specific aldosterone: renin ratio (ARR cut-offs for PA in men and women using the IDS-iSYS® assay system (IDS plc. Methods: A prospective cohort study design was used. PAC and DRC were measured immunochemically in ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA plasma on the IDS-iSYS® instrument. Results: A total of 437 subjects (218 men, 219 women were recruited including: healthy normotensive volunteers (n=266 and women taking the oral contraceptive pill (OCP; n=15; patients with essential hypertension (EH; n=128; confirmed PA (n=16; adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC; n=3; Addison's disease (AD; n=4 and phaeochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PPGL; n=5. In this population, an ARR cut-off at >37.4 pmol/mIU provided 100% diagnostic sensitivity, 96% specificity and positive likelihood ratio for PA of 23:1. When the ARR decision threshold was stratified according to gender, a cut-off of >26.1 pmol/mIU in men and >113.6 pmol/mIU in women resulted in diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that decision thresholds for PA should not only be method-specific but also gender-specific. However, given the small number of PA patients (n=16, particularly women (n=4, further validation through a prospective study with a larger PA cohort is required before the thresholds presented here could be recommended for routine clinical use. Keywords: Primary aldosteronism, Renin, Aldosterone, Aldosterone: renin ratio (ARR, Sensitivity, Specificity

  2. A simple micro-extraction plate assay for automated LC-MS/MS analysis of human serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geib, Timon; Meier, Florian; Schorr, Pascal; Lammert, Frank; Stokes, Caroline S; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2015-01-01

    This short application note describes a simple and automated assay for determination of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in very small volumes of human serum. It utilizes commercial 96-well micro-extraction plates with commercial 25(OH)D isotope calibration and quality control kits. Separation was achieved using a pentafluorophenyl liquid chromatography column followed by multiple reaction monitoring-based quantification on an electrospray triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Emphasis was placed on providing a simple assay that can be rapidly established in non-specialized laboratories within days, without the need for laborious and time consuming sample preparation steps, advanced calibration or data acquisition routines. The analytical figures of merit obtained from this assay compared well to established assays. To demonstrate the applicability, the assay was applied to analysis of serum samples from patients with chronic liver diseases and compared to results from a routine clinical immunoassay. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Procalcitonin in cerebrospinal fluid in meningitis : a prospective diagnostic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alons, Imanda M E; Verheul, Rolf J; Kuipers, Irma; Jellema, Korné; Wermer, Marieke J H; Algra, Ale; Ponjee, Gabriëlle

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Bacterial meningitis is a severe but treatable condition. Clinical symptoms may be ambiguous and current diagnostics lack sensitivity and specificity, complicating diagnosis. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a protein that is elevated in serum in bacterial infection. We aimed to assess the value

  4. Diagnostic value of procalcitonin in neonatal sepsis | Arowosegbe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of mortality in developing countries. Accurate and quick diagnosis are difficult because clinical presentation are non-specific, bacterial cultures are time-consuming and other laboratory tests lack sensitivity and specificity. Serum procalcitonin (PCT) has been proposed as an ...

  5. Serum procalcitonin as an early marker of neonatal sepsis | Ballot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. It has recently been suggested that procalcitonin (PCT) is of value in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, with varying results. This study was to evaluate the role of PCT as a single early marker of neonatal sepsis. Setting. Neonatal Unit, Johannesburg Hospital, and Microbiology Laboratory, National Health ...

  6. Evaluation of amotosalem treated platelets over 7 days of storage with an automated cytometry assay panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diquattro, M; De Francisci, G; Bonaccorso, R; Tagliavia, A M; Marcatti, M; Palma, B; Agliastro, R

    2013-12-01

    Pathogen Inactivation allows to overcome microbial contamination and growth related to storage of platelets concentrates (PC) at room temperature. The aim of our study was to evaluate the platelet storage lesion extending the storage period of pathogen inactivated platelet concentrates over 7 days using an automated cytometry assay panel. We analyzed 43 concentrates subjected to pathogen inactivation (CPPI) at 3, 5 and 7 days evaluating: platelet count, mean platelet volume, platelets at low optical density, platelets at high density, GPIIb-IIIa glycoprotein, platelet microparticles, lactate dehydrogenase. The collection bags (Fenwal) and the IBS kit made in PL2410/PL2411 are approved for the conservation of PC up to 7 days. Data analysis was performed with anova test. All the parameters except small platelets and PMP were statistically different among day 7 vs. 3 and day 7 vs. 5. Our study showed a progressive modification of pathogen inactivated platelet concentrates observed up to 7 days. The persistence of the secretory pool and the presence of the platelet membrane fibrinogen receptor suggest the persistence of a potential hemostatic efficacy. Clinical studies are necessary to directly correlate this type of analysis to 24 h recovery or survival of transfused platelets in humans. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Implementation and development of an automated, ultra-high-capacity, acoustic, flexible dispensing platform for assay-ready plate delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Dylan; Northwood, Roger; Owen, Paul; Simkiss, Ellen; Brierley, Andrew; Cross, Kevin; Slaney, Andrew; Davis, Miranda; Bath, Colin

    2012-10-01

    Compound management faces the daily challenge of providing high-quality samples to drug discovery. The advent of new screening technologies has seen demand for liquid samples move toward nanoliter ranges, dispensed by contactless acoustic droplet ejection. Within AstraZeneca, a totally integrated assay-ready plate production platform has been created to fully exploit the advantages of this technology. This enables compound management to efficiently deliver large throughputs demanded by high-throughput screening while maintaining regular delivery of smaller numbers of compounds in varying plate formats for cellular or biochemical concentration-response curves in support of hit and lead optimization (structure-activity relationship screening). The automation solution, CODA, has the capability to deliver compounds on demand for single- and multiple-concentration ranges, in batch sizes ranging from 1 sample to 2 million samples, integrating seamlessly into local compound and test management systems. The software handles compound orders intelligently, grouping test requests together dependent on output plate type and serial dilution ranges so that source compound vessels are shared among numerous tests, ensuring conservation of sample, reduced labware and costs, and efficiency of work cell logistics. We describe the development of CODA to address the customer demand, challenges experienced, learning made, and subsequent enhancements.

  8. Procalcitonin Levels in Patients with Complete and Incomplete Kawasaki Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa Jin Cho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete Kawasaki disease (iKD is considered to be a less complete form of Kawasaki disease (cKD, and several differences in the laboratory presentations of iKD and cKD have been noted. We investigated serum procalcitonin levels in patients with iKD, cKD, and other febrile diseases (a control group. Seventy-seven patients with cKD, 24 with iKD, and 41 controls admitted to our hospital from November 2009 to November 2011 were enrolled in the present study. We obtained four measurements of serum procalcitonin levels and those of other inflammatory markers from each patient. Samples were taken for analysis on the day of diagnosis (thus before treatment commenced; D0 and 2 (D2, 14 (D14, and 56 days (D56 after intravenous immunoglobulin infusion. We obtained control group data at D0. The mean D0 serum procalcitonin levels of cKD patients (0.71±1.36 ng/mL and controls (0.67±1.06 ng/mL were significantly higher than those of iKD patients (0.26±0.26 ng/mL (P=0.014 and P=0.041, resp.. No significant difference in mean procalcitonin level was evident among groups at any subsequent time. In conclusion, the serum procalcitonin level of patients with acute-stage cKD was significantly higher than that of iKD patients.

  9. Novel heparan sulfate assay by using automated high-throughput mass spectrometry: Application to monitoring and screening for mucopolysaccharidoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Kelly, Joan; LaMarr, William A; van Vlies, Naomi; Yasuda, Eriko; Mason, Robert W; Mackenzie, William; Kubaski, Francyne; Giugliani, Roberto; Chinen, Yasutsugu; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Orii, Kenji E; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Orii, Tadao; Tomatsu, Shunji

    2014-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are caused by deficiency of one of a group of specific lysosomal enzymes, resulting in excessive accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). We previously developed GAG assay methods using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS); however, it takes 4-5 min per sample for analysis. For the large numbers of samples in a screening program, a more rapid process is desirable. The automated high-throughput mass spectrometry (HT-MS/MS) system (RapidFire) integrates a solid phase extraction robot to concentrate and desalt samples prior to direction into the MS/MS without chromatographic separation; thereby allowing each sample to be processed within 10s (enabling screening of more than one million samples per year). The aim of this study was to develop a higher throughput system to assay heparan sulfate (HS) using HT-MS/MS, and to compare its reproducibility, sensitivity and specificity with conventional LC-MS/MS. HS levels were measured in the blood (plasma and serum) from control subjects and patients with MPS II, III, or IV and in dried blood spots (DBS) from newborn controls and patients with MPS I, II, or III. Results obtained from HT-MS/MS showed 1) that there was a strong correlation of levels of disaccharides derived from HS in the blood, between those calculated using conventional LC-MS/MS and HT-MS/MS, 2) that levels of HS in the blood were significantly elevated in patients with MPS II and III, but not in MPS IVA, 3) that the level of HS in patients with a severe form of MPS II was higher than that in an attenuated form, 4) that reduction of blood HS level was observed in MPS II patients treated with enzyme replacement therapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and 5) that levels of HS in newborn DBS were elevated in patients with MPS I, II or III, compared to those of control newborns. In conclusion, HT-MS/MS provides much higher throughput than LC-MS/MS-based methods with similar sensitivity and specificity

  10. Changes of serum procalcitonin (PCT) and IL-6 levels in patients with sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinjiang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the importance of determination of changes of serum procalcitonin (PCT) and IL-6 levels in patients with sepsis. Methods: Serum PCT (with double-sandwich immunofluorescence assay) and IL-6 (with ELISA) levels were measured repeatedly in 130 patients with sepsis on d1, d3, d5, d7 after admission. Values in 130 healthy individuals were also measured as control. Results: The serum levels of PCT and IL-6 in the patients with sepsis of admission were significantly higher than those in controls. The levels dropped markedly in the survivors by d7. Among the septic patients, the levels in the succumbed patients were significantly higher those in the survivors (P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum PCT and IL-6 values appeared to be of prognostic value in patients with sepsis. (authors)

  11. Procalcitonin levels in sepsis and its association with clinical outcome in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Alex; Thabah, Molly Mary; Dutta, Tarun Kumar; Bobby, Zachariah; Harish, B N; Mehalingam, Vadivelan

    2017-10-01

    Procalcitonin has been found to be a good marker for the diagnosis of sepsis. However, data on procalcitonin levels to predict the clinical outcome in patients with sepsis are limited. The aim of our study was to estimate serum procalcitonin levels in patients with sepsis and to identify its relationship with the clinical outcome. This was a prospective observational study conducted on 112 patients with sepsis admitted to the medical wards and medical intensive care unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Serum procalcitonin was measured at baseline before antibiotic administration and on day 5. The clinical outcome studied was death or survival on day 28. Baseline mean serum procalcitonin was highest in patients with septic shock and lowest in patients having sepsis without organ dysfunction. Mean values of procalcitonin at baseline and on day 5 were significantly higher in non-survivors when compared with survivors. There was a significant difference in the change in procalcitonin levels from baseline to day 5 between survivors and non-survivors, with survivors having declining values on day 5 while non-survivors had increasing values from baseline. The baseline APACHE II and SOFA scores also showed a significant correlation with the baseline procalcitonin level. Declining values of procalcitonin therefore indicate a favourable clinical outcome in patients with sepsis.

  12. Performance evaluation of new automated hepatitis B viral markers in the clinical laboratory: two quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen assays and an HBV core-related antigen assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongjung; Hong, Duck Jin; Shin, Saeam; Cho, Yonggeun; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2012-05-01

    We evaluated quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen (qHBsAg) assays and a hepatitis B virus (HBV) core-related antigen (HBcrAg) assay. A total of 529 serum samples from patients with hepatitis B were tested. HBsAg levels were determined by using the Elecsys (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN) and Architect (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL) qHBsAg assays. HBcrAg was measured by using Lumipulse HBcrAg assay (Fujirebio, Tokyo, Japan). Serum aminotransferases and HBV DNA were respectively quantified by using the Hitachi 7600 analyzer (Hitachi High-Technologies, Tokyo, Japan) and the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan test (Roche). Precision of the qHBsAg and HBcrAg assays was assessed, and linearity of the qHBsAg assays was verified. All assays showed good precision performance with coefficients of variation between 4.5% and 5.3% except for some levels. Both qHBsAg assays showed linearity from 0.1 to 12,000.0 IU/mL and correlated well (r = 0.9934). HBsAg levels correlated with HBV DNA (r = 0.3373) and with HBcrAg (r = 0.5164), and HBcrAg also correlated with HBV DNA (r = 0.5198; P < .0001). This observation could provide impetus for further research to elucidate the clinical usefulness of the qHBsAg and HBcrAg assays.

  13. Rapid and Sensitive Lateral Flow Immunoassay Method for Procalcitonin (PCT Based on Time-Resolved Immunochromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Yang Shao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Procalcitonin (PCT is a current, frequently-used marker for severe bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to develop a cost-effective detection kit for rapid quantitative and on-site detection of PCT. To develop the new PCT quantitative detecting kit, a double-antibody sandwich immunofluorescent assay was employed based on time-resolved immunofluorescent assay (TRFIA combined with lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA. The performance of the new developed kit was evaluated in the aspects of linearity, precision, accuracy, and specificity. Two-hundred thirty-four serum samples were enrolled to carry out the comparison test. The new PCT quantitative detecting kit exhibited a higher sensitivity (0.08 ng/mL. The inter-assay coefficient of variation (CV and the intra-assay CV were 5.4%–7.7% and 5.7%–13.4%, respectively. The recovery rates ranged from 93% to 105%. Furthermore, a high correlation (n = 234, r = 0.977, p < 0.0001 and consistency (Kappa = 0.875 were obtained when compared with the PCT kit from Roche Elecsys BRAHMS. Thus, the new quantitative method for detecting PCT has been successfully established. The results indicated that the newly-developed system based on TRFIA combined with LFIA was suitable for rapid and on-site detection for PCT, which might be a useful platform for other biomarkers in point-of-care tests.

  14. Procalcitonin Identifies Cell Injury, Not Bacterial Infection, in Acute Liver Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody A Rule

    Full Text Available Because acute liver failure (ALF patients share many clinical features with severe sepsis and septic shock, identifying bacterial infection clinically in ALF patients is challenging. Procalcitonin (PCT has proven to be a useful marker in detecting bacterial infection. We sought to determine whether PCT discriminated between presence and absence of infection in patients with ALF.Retrospective analysis of data and samples of 115 ALF patients from the United States Acute Liver Failure Study Group randomly selected from 1863 patients were classified for disease severity and ALF etiology. Twenty uninfected chronic liver disease (CLD subjects served as controls.Procalcitonin concentrations in most samples were elevated, with median values for all ALF groups near or above a 2.0 ng/mL cut-off that generally indicates severe sepsis. While PCT concentrations increased somewhat with apparent liver injury severity, there were no differences in PCT levels between the pre-defined severity groups-non-SIRS and SIRS groups with no documented infections and Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock groups with documented infections, (p = 0.169. PCT values from CLD patients differed from all ALF groups (median CLD PCT value 0.104 ng/mL, (p ≤0.001. Subjects with acetaminophen (APAP toxicity, many without evidence of infection, demonstrated median PCT >2.0 ng/mL, regardless of SIRS features, while some culture positive subjects had PCT values <2.0 ng/mL.While PCT appears to be a robust assay for detecting bacterial infection in the general population, there was poor discrimination between ALF patients with or without bacterial infection presumably because of the massive inflammation observed. Severe hepatocyte necrosis with inflammation results in elevated PCT levels, rendering this biomarker unreliable in the ALF setting.

  15. Procalcitonin increase in early identification of critically ill patients at high risk of mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Ulrik; Heslet, Lars; Jensen, Tom Hartvig

    2006-01-01

    To investigate day-by-day changes in procalcitonin and maximum obtained levels as predictors of mortality in critically ill patients.......To investigate day-by-day changes in procalcitonin and maximum obtained levels as predictors of mortality in critically ill patients....

  16. Procalcitonin Testing to Guide Antibiotic Therapy in Acute Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Philipp; Wirz, Yannick; Mueller, Beat

    2018-03-06

    Is the use of procalcitonin for guiding antibiotic decisions in patients with acute upper and lower respiratory tract infections associated with improved clinical outcomes compared with usual care? Among patients with varying types and severity of acute respiratory infection, using procalcitonin to guide decisions about antibiotics is associated with lower rates of antibiotic exposure, antibiotic-related adverse effects, and mortality.

  17. Procalcitonin increase in early identification of critically ill patients at high risk of mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Ulrik; Heslet, L; Jensen, TH

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate day-by-day changes in procalcitonin and maximum obtained levels as predictors of mortality in critically ill patients. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. SETTING:: Multidisciplinary intensive care unit at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital......, a tertiary reference hospital in Denmark. PATIENTS: Four hundred seventy-two patients with diverse comorbidity and age admitted to this intensive care unit. INTERVENTIONS: Equal in all patient groups: antimicrobial treatment adjusted according to the procalcitonin level. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Daily...... in the intensive care unit and in a 30-day follow-up period. A total of 3,642 procalcitonin measurements were evaluated in 472 critically ill patients. We found that a high maximum procalcitonin level and a procalcitonin increase for 1 day were independent predictors of 90-day all-cause mortality...

  18. The Manchester Acute Coronary Syndromes (MACS) decision rule: validation with a new automated assay for heart-type fatty acid binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body, Richard; Burrows, Gillian; Carley, Simon; Lewis, Philip S

    2015-10-01

    The Manchester Acute Coronary Syndromes (MACS) decision rule may enable acute coronary syndromes to be immediately 'ruled in' or 'ruled out' in the emergency department. The rule incorporates heart-type fatty acid binding protein (h-FABP) and high sensitivity troponin T levels. The rule was previously validated using a semiautomated h-FABP assay that was not practical for clinical implementation. We aimed to validate the rule with an automated h-FABP assay that could be used clinically. In this prospective diagnostic cohort study we included patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected cardiac chest pain. Serum drawn on arrival was tested for h-FABP using an automated immunoturbidimetric assay (Randox) and high sensitivity troponin T (Roche). The primary outcome, a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), was adjudicated based on 12 h troponin testing. A secondary outcome, major adverse cardiac events (MACE; death, AMI, revascularisation or new coronary stenosis), was determined at 30 days. Of the 456 patients included, 78 (17.1%) had AMI and 97 (21.3%) developed MACE. Using the automated h-FABP assay, the MACS rule had the same C-statistic for MACE as the original rule (0.91; 95% CI 0.88 to 0.92). 18.9% of patients were identified as 'very low risk' and thus eligible for immediate discharge with no missed AMIs and a 2.3% incidence of MACE (n=2, both coronary stenoses). 11.1% of patients were classed as 'high-risk' and had a 92.0% incidence of MACE. Our findings validate the performance of a refined MACS rule incorporating an automated h-FABP assay, facilitating use in clinical settings. The effectiveness of this refined rule should be verified in an interventional trial prior to implementation. UK CRN 8376. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Design and rationale of the Procalcitonin Antibiotic Consensus Trial (ProACT), a multicenter randomized trial of procalcitonin antibiotic guidance in lower respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David T; Angus, Derek C; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Doi, Yohei; Fine, Michael J; Kellum, John A; Peck-Palmer, Octavia M; Pike, Francis; Weissfeld, Lisa A; Yabes, Jonathan; Yealy, Donald M

    2017-08-29

    Overuse of antibiotics is a major public health problem, contributing to growing antibiotic resistance. Procalcitonin has been reported to be commonly elevated in bacterial, but not viral infection. Multiple European trials found procalcitonin-guided care reduced antibiotic use in lower respiratory tract infection, with no apparent harm. However, applicability to US practice is limited due to trial design features impractical in the US, between-country differences, and residual safety concerns. The Procalcitonin Antibiotic Consensus Trial (ProACT) is a multicenter randomized trial to determine the impact of a procalcitonin antibiotic prescribing guideline, implemented with basic reproducible strategies, in US patients with lower respiratory tract infection. We describe the trial methods using the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) framework, and the rationale for key design decisions, including choice of eligibility criteria, choice of control arm, and approach to guideline implementation. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02130986 . Registered May 1, 2014.

  20. Prospective validation of an automated chemiluminescence-based assay of renin and aldosterone for the work-up of arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Gian Paolo; Ceolotto, Giulio; Rossitto, Giacomo; Seccia, Teresa Maria; Maiolino, Giuseppe; Berton, Chiara; Basso, Daniela; Plebani, Mario

    2016-09-01

    The availability of simple and accurate assays of plasma active renin (DRC) and aldosterone concentration (PAC) can improve the detection of secondary forms of arterial hypertension. Thus, we investigated the performance of an automated chemiluminescent assay for DRC and PAC in referred hypertensive patients. We prospectively recruited 260 consecutive hypertensive patients referred to an ESH Center for Hypertension. After exclusion of six protocol violations, 254 patients were analyzed: 67.3% had primary hypertension, 17.3% an aldosterone producing adenoma (APA), 11.4% idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA), 2.4% renovascular hypertension (RVH), 0.8% familial hyperaldosteronism type 1 (FH-1), 0.4% apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME), 0.4% a renin-producing tumor, and 3.9% were adrenalectomized APA patients. Bland-Altman plots and Deming regression were used to analyze results. The diagnostic accuracy (area under the curve, AUC of the ROC) of the DRC-based aldosterone-renin ratio (ARRCL) was compared with that of the PRA-based ARR (ARRRIA) using as reference the conclusive diagnosis of APA. At Bland-Altman plot, the DRC and PAC assay showed no bias as compared to the PRA and PAC assay. A tight relation was found between the DRC and the PRA values (concordance correlation coefficient=0.92, pAPA identification the AUC of the ARRCL was higher than that of the ARRRIA [0.974 (95% CI 0.940-0.991) vs. 0.894 (95% CI 0.841-0.933), p=0.02]. This rapid automated chemiluminescent DRC/PAC assay performed better than validated PRA/PAC radioimmunoassays for the identification of APA in referred hypertensive patients.

  1. High-throughput screening of cellulase F mutants from multiplexed plasmid sets using an automated plate assay on a functional proteomic robotic workcell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Nasib

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The field of plasmid-based functional proteomics requires the rapid assay of proteins expressed from plasmid libraries. Automation is essential since large sets of mutant open reading frames are being cloned for evaluation. To date no integrated automated platform is available to carry out the entire process including production of plasmid libraries, expression of cloned genes, and functional testing of expressed proteins. Results We used a functional proteomic assay in a multiplexed setting on an integrated plasmid-based robotic workcell for high-throughput screening of mutants of cellulase F, an endoglucanase from the anaerobic fungus Orpinomyces PC-2. This allowed us to identify plasmids containing optimized clones expressing mutants with improved activity at lower pH. A plasmid library of mutagenized clones of the celF gene with targeted variations in the last four codons was constructed by site-directed PCR mutagenesis and transformed into Escherichia coli. A robotic picker integrated into the workcell was used to inoculate medium in a 96-well deep well plate, combining the transformants into a multiplexed set in each well, and the plate was incubated on the workcell. Plasmids were prepared from the multiplexed culture on the liquid handler component of the workcell and used for in vitro transcription/translation. The multiplexed expressed recombinant proteins were screened for improved activity and stability in an azo-carboxymethylcellulose plate assay. The multiplexed wells containing mutants with improved activity were identified and linked back to the corresponding multiplexed cultures stored in glycerol. Spread plates were prepared from the glycerol stocks and the workcell was used to pick single colonies from the spread plates, prepare plasmid, produce recombinant protein, and assay for activity. The screening assay and subsequent deconvolution of the multiplexed wells resulted in identification of improved Cel

  2. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Paraffin-Embedded Tissues by the New Automated Abbott RealTime MTB Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yung-Chieh; Liao, I-Chuang; Chen, Hung-Mo; Yan, Jing-Jou

    2016-07-01

    The Abbott RealTime MTB assay, launched in June 2014, has been shown to have a competitive performance in the detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex in respiratory specimens. The present study was conducted to investigate the usefulness of the Abbott MTB Realtime assay in the detection of MTB in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. A total of 96 FFPE specimens obtained from microbiologically proven MTB cases (N=60) and nontuberculous Mycobacterium cases (N=36) were analyzed. The performance of the Abbott MTB Realtime assay was compared with that of the Roche Cobas TaqMan MTB assay. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott assay were 63.3% and 97.2%, respectively, compared with 11.7% and 100% for the Cobas assay. The detection rate of the Abbott assay was much higher among 37 acid-fast-positive specimens than among 23 acid-fast-negative specimens (89.3% versus 21.7%, respectively). The detection rate of the assay was higher among 29 resection specimens than among 31 small biopsy specimens (86.2% versus 41.9%, respectively). Our results suggest that the Abbott RealTime MTB assay can be used to differentiate MTB from nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in acid-fast-positive FFPE tissues. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  3. A robotics platform for automated batch fabrication of high density, microfluidics-based DNA microarrays, with applications to single cell, multiplex assays of secreted proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Habib; Sutherland, Alex; Shin, Young Shik; Hwang, Kiwook; Qin, Lidong; Krom, Russell-John; Heath, James R.

    2011-09-01

    Microfluidics flow-patterning has been utilized for the construction of chip-scale miniaturized DNA and protein barcode arrays. Such arrays have been used for specific clinical and fundamental investigations in which many proteins are assayed from single cells or other small sample sizes. However, flow-patterned arrays are hand-prepared, and so are impractical for broad applications. We describe an integrated robotics/microfluidics platform for the automated preparation of such arrays, and we apply it to the batch fabrication of up to eighteen chips of flow-patterned DNA barcodes. The resulting substrates are comparable in quality with hand-made arrays and exhibit excellent substrate-to-substrate consistency. We demonstrate the utility and reproducibility of robotics-patterned barcodes by utilizing two flow-patterned chips for highly parallel assays of a panel of secreted proteins from single macrophage cells.

  4. A robotics platform for automated batch fabrication of high density, microfluidics-based DNA microarrays, with applications to single cell, multiplex assays of secreted proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Habib; Sutherland, Alex; Shin, Young Shik; Hwang, Kiwook; Qin, Lidong; Krom, Russell-John; Heath, James R

    2011-09-01

    Microfluidics flow-patterning has been utilized for the construction of chip-scale miniaturized DNA and protein barcode arrays. Such arrays have been used for specific clinical and fundamental investigations in which many proteins are assayed from single cells or other small sample sizes. However, flow-patterned arrays are hand-prepared, and so are impractical for broad applications. We describe an integrated robotics/microfluidics platform for the automated preparation of such arrays, and we apply it to the batch fabrication of up to eighteen chips of flow-patterned DNA barcodes. The resulting substrates are comparable in quality with hand-made arrays and exhibit excellent substrate-to-substrate consistency. We demonstrate the utility and reproducibility of robotics-patterned barcodes by utilizing two flow-patterned chips for highly parallel assays of a panel of secreted proteins from single macrophage cells. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  5. THE STUDY OF SERUM PROCALCITONIN LEVEL IN CORRELATION WITH SEPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish M

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Sepsis refers to the systemic response to serious infection. It can be response to the infection caused by any class of microorganism. The presence of bacteraemia is an indicator of disseminated infection and generally indicates a poorer prognosis when associated with localised disease. This study was undertaken to study the diagnostic and prognostic value of Procalcitonin (PCT in patients with sepsis. AIM To study the diagnostic and prognostic value of Procalcitonin (PCT in patients with sepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty patients of age more than 18 years with sepsis admitted in KMC Hospitals, Mangalore, from August 2008 to June 2010 were subjects in the study after due permission from institution and informed consent from the patients. Diagnosis of sepsis was made according to criteria by ACCP/SCCM definition for sepsis. Definitive aetiological diagnosis requires isolation of microorganism from the blood and local site of infection, Gram stain and culture of the material from the primary site of infection for the microbial aetiology was taken. Other appropriate laboratory investigations depending upon requirement were done as mentioned in the investigations. RESULTS Out of total 50 patients, 23 patients were in group of sepsis, 14 were in group of severe sepsis while 13 had septic shock. Maximum number of the study patients were in the age group of 51-60 years. 52% of the study patients were male and 48% were female. Most common symptom in patients with sepsis was fever. Most common sign in the patient with sepsis is tachycardia followed by high temperature and then tachypnoea. Most common source of sepsis was respiratory infection followed by UTI. CONCLUSION Our data suggest the possibility that the addition of Procalcitonin into the standard workup of critically ill patients with suspected sepsis could increase diagnostic certainty and improve patient management.

  6. Evaluation of diagnostic value of procalcitonin in pediatric acute pyelonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Sadeghi-bojd

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Urinary tract infection (UTI in children is among the prevalent infections of childhood, which occurs due to growth of bacteria in the urinary tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of procalcitonin (PCT as a reliable marker for distinguishing urinary tract infection (UTI with or without renal parenchyma (cystitis. Materials and Methods: Eighty children, who were suspicious of having UTI and had been referred to Ali Ibne Abitaleb hospital (in Zahedan or pediatric clinics (June 2007- Oct 2009 were included in the study after their urine culture revealed their infection. Besides, their clinical and lab symptoms including erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C– reactive protein (CRP, serum WBC, and serum procalcitonin (PCT were recorded. The patients were divided into two groups based on their lab clinical symptoms and radio-isotope scans, namely acute pyelonephritis and acute cystitis (lower UTI. Serum procalcitonin was measured in these cases in a semi-quantitative manner. Results: Fifty children with mean age of 4.89±3.50 years were compared with 30 children with mean age of 5.20±3.07 years. ESR, WBC, and PCT were significantly higher in patients with upper UTI (P<0.001 , but CRP was not significantly different in the two groups. PCT, which was semi-quantitatively measured, when lower than 0.5 had a relationship with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative value of 72%, 83.3%, 87.8%, and 64.1% respectively. When PCT was more than 2, the relationship with the mentioned features was 50%, 96.6%, 96.2%, and 53.7%, respectively. The relationships in these two domains can both be assistant in differentiating pyelonephritis from cystitis. Conclusion: PCT was more sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of upper versus lower UTI compared with CRP, and it can be a better marker than CRP for early prediction of febrile pyelonephritis in children.

  7. Dual-Quantum-Dots-Labeled Lateral Flow Strip Rapidly Quantifies Procalcitonin and C-reactive Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, XiaoPing; Huang, YunYe; Lin, ZhongShi; Xu, Liang; Yu, Hao

    2016-03-01

    In the article, a dual-quantum-dots-labeled (dual-QDs-labeled) lateral flow strip (LFS) method was developed for the simultaneous and rapid quantitative detection of procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the blood. Two QD-antibody conjugates with different fluorescence emission spectra were produced and sprayed on the LFS to capture PCT and CRP in the blood. Furthermore, a double antibody sandwich method for PCT and, meanwhile, a competitive inhibition method for CRP were employed in the LFS. For PCT and CRP in serum assayed by the dual-QDs-labeled LFS, their detection sensitivities reached 0.1 and 1 ng/mL, respectively, and their linear quantitative detection ranges were from 0.3 to 200 ng/mL and from 50 to 250 μg/mL, respectively. There was little evidence that the PCT and CRP assays would be interfered with each other. The correlations for testing CRP and PCT in clinical samples were 99.75 and 97.02 %, respectively, between the dual-QDs-labeled LFS we developed and commercial methods. The rapid quantification of PCT and CRP on dual-QDs-labeled LFS is of great clinical value to distinguish inflammation, bacterial infection, or viral infection and to provide guidance for the use of antibiotics or other medicines.

  8. A new automated method for the determination of the Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC of human plasma, based on the crocin bleaching assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Notas George

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antioxidant molecules, which scavenge free radical species to prevent or delay oxidative damage of important macromolecules, membrane lipids and lipoproteins, are prevalent in plasma and other biological fluids. Among them, bilirubin, uric acid and protein thiols are the major endogenous antioxidants, while vitamins C and E, as well as a number of food-derived (polyaromatic substances, belonging to stilbens, flavonoids and phenolic acids, are the main classes of nutritional antioxidants. Assays for total antioxidant capacity in plasma differ in their type of oxidation source, target and measurement used to detect the oxidized product. Methods In the present work we present an automated assay for the estimation of blood total antioxidant capacity (TAC assay, based on the crocin bleaching (oxidation method. This method was adapted on a modern autoanalyzer, was linear over a wide range of values (0–3 mmol/L, and performed using an end point measurement. Results The TAC method presented a linear correlation with another automated commercial Total Antioxidant Status (TAS test. Detection of the interference of different metabolites revealed a significant participation of TAC from uric acid, bilirubin, albumin, a minor interference from ascorbic acid, and no interference from hemoglobin. TAC was not modified by two freeze/thawing cycles, and was stable in samples stored at room temperature for 4 hours. K-EDTA and heparin were the best anticoagulants, while citrate decreased TAC by 20%. Reference values derived from samples of normal blood donors was 1.175 ± 0.007 mmol/L (mean ± SEM, while a diet rich in antioxidants more than doubled this value. Conclusions The proposed TAC assay, is fully automated, stable and reliable, and could be of value in the estimation of the AC of plasma. It is further proposed to calculate the antioxidant capacity of plasma after a subtraction of all interference deriving from endogenous and

  9. A new assay for cytotoxic lymphocytes, based on a radioautographic readout of 111In release, suitable for rapid, semi-automated assessment of limit-dilution cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shortman, K.; Wilson, A.

    1981-01-01

    A new assay for cytotoxic T lymphocytes is described, of general application, but particularly suitable for rapid, semi-automated assessment of multiple microculture tests. Target cells are labelled with high efficiency and to high specific activity with the oxine chelate of 111 indium. After a 3-4 h incubation of test cells with 5 X 10 3 labelled target cells in V wells of microtitre trays, samples of the supernatant are spotted on paper (5 μl) or transferred to soft-plastic U wells (25-50 μl) and the 111 In release assessed by radioautography. Overnight exposure of X-ray film with intensifying screens at -70 0 C gives an image which is an intense dark spot for maximum release, a barely visible darkening with the low spontaneous release, and a definite positive with 10% specific lysis. The degree of film darkening, which can be quantitated by microdensitometry, shows a linear relationship with cytotoxic T lymphocyte dose up to the 40% lysis level. The labelling intensity and sensitivity can be adjusted over a wide range, allowing a single batch of the short half-life isotope to serve for 2 weeks. The 96 assays from a single tray are developed simultaneously on a single small sheet of film. Many trays can be processed together, and handling is rapid if 96-channel automatic pipettors are used. The method allows rapid visual scanning for positive and negative limit dilution cultures in cytotoxic T cell precursor frequency and specificity studies. In addition, in conjunction with an automated densitometer designed to scan microtitre trays, the method provides an efficient alternative to isotope counting in routine cytotoxic assays. (Auth.)

  10. Oligonucleotide PIK3CA/Chromosome 3 Dual in Situ Hybridization Automated Assay with Improved Signals, One-Hour Hybridization, and No Use of Blocking DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjun; Hubbard, Antony; Baca-Parkinson, Leslie; Stanislaw, Stacey; Vladich, Frank; Robida, Mark D; Grille, James G; Maxwell, Daniel; Tsao, Tsu-Shuen; Carroll, William; Gardner, Tracie; Clements, June; Singh, Shalini; Tang, Lei

    2015-09-01

    The PIK3CA gene at chromosome 3q26.32 was found to be amplified in up to 45% of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. The strong correlation between PIK3CA amplification and increased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway activities suggested that PIK3CA gene copy number is a potential predictive biomarker for PI3K inhibitors. Currently, all microscopic assessments of PIK3CA and chromosome 3 (CHR3) copy numbers use fluorescence in situ hybridization. PIK3CA probes are derived from bacterial artificial chromosomes whereas CHR3 probes are derived mainly from the plasmid pHS05. These manual fluorescence in situ hybridization assays mandate 12- to 18-hour hybridization and use of blocking DNA from human sources. Moreover, fluorescence in situ hybridization studies provide limited morphologic assessment and suffer from signal decay. We developed an oligonucleotide-based bright-field in situ hybridization assay that overcomes these shortcomings. This assay requires only a 1-hour hybridization with no need for blocking DNA followed by indirect chromogenic detection. Oligonucleotide probes produced discrete and uniform CHR3 stains superior to those from the pHS05 plasmid. This assay achieved successful staining in 100% of the 195 lung squamous cell carcinoma resections and in 94% of the 33 fine-needle aspirates. This robust automated bright-field dual in situ hybridization assay for the simultaneous detection of PIK3CA and CHR3 centromere provides a potential clinical diagnostic method to assess PIK3CA gene abnormality in lung tumors. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Plasma procalcitonin is an independent predictor of graft failure late after renal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, Rutger M.; de Vries, Aiko P. J.; Oterdoom, Leendert H.; Seelen, Marc A.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Schouten, Jan P.; Struck, Joachim; Navis, Gerjan; Gans, Reinold O. B.; Homan van der Heide, Jaap J.; van Son, Willem J.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation is involved in chronic transplant dysfunction after renal transplantation. Procalcitonin (PCT), known to reflect microbial inflammation, may also reflect ongoing noninfectious chronic low-grade inflammation in organ parenchyma, including transplanted kidneys. We aimed

  12. Plasma Procalcitonin Is an Independent Predictor of Graft Failure Late After Renal Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, Rutger M.; de Vries, Aiko P. J.; Oterdoom, Leendert H.; Seelen, Marc A.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Schouten, Jan P.; Struck, Joachim; Navis, Gerjan; Gans, Reinold O. B.; van der Heide, Jaap J. Homan; van Son, Willem J.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Chronic low-grade inflammation is involved in chronic transplant dysfunction after renal transplantation. Procalcitonin (PCT), known to reflect microbial inflammation, may also reflect ongoing noninfectious chronic low-grade inflammation in organ parenchyma, including transplanted

  13. Adapting the γ-H2AX assay for automated processing in human lymphocytes. 1. Technological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Helen C; Brenner, David J; Chen, Youhua; Bertucci, Antonella; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Hongliang; Lyulko, Oleksandra V; Xu, Yanping; Shuryak, Igor; Schaefer, Julia; Simaan, Nabil; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Yao, Y Lawrence; Amundson, Sally A; Garty, Guy

    2011-03-01

    The immunofluorescence-based detection of γ-H2AX is a reliable and sensitive method for quantitatively measuring DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in irradiated samples. Since H2AX phosphorylation is highly linear with radiation dose, this well-established biomarker is in current use in radiation biodosimetry. At the Center for High-Throughput Minimally Invasive Radiation Biodosimetry, we have developed a fully automated high-throughput system, the RABIT (Rapid Automated Biodosimetry Tool), that can be used to measure γ-H2AX yields from fingerstick-derived samples of blood. The RABIT workstation has been designed to fully automate the γ-H2AX immunocytochemical protocol, from the isolation of human blood lymphocytes in heparin-coated PVC capillaries to the immunolabeling of γ-H2AX protein and image acquisition to determine fluorescence yield. High throughput is achieved through the use of purpose-built robotics, lymphocyte handling in 96-well filter-bottomed plates, and high-speed imaging. The goal of the present study was to optimize and validate the performance of the RABIT system for the reproducible and quantitative detection of γ-H2AX total fluorescence in lymphocytes in a multiwell format. Validation of our biodosimetry platform was achieved by the linear detection of a dose-dependent increase in γ-H2AX fluorescence in peripheral blood samples irradiated ex vivo with γ rays over the range 0 to 8 Gy. This study demonstrates for the first time the optimization and use of our robotically based biodosimetry workstation to successfully quantify γ-H2AX total fluorescence in irradiated peripheral lymphocytes.

  14. Ability of procalcitonin to discriminate infection from non-infective inflammation using two pleural disease settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona J McCann

    Full Text Available Procalcitonin has been shown to be useful in separating infection from non-infective disorders. However, infection is often paralleled by tissue inflammation. Most studies supporting the use of procalcitonin were confounded by more significant inflammation in the infection group. Few studies have examined the usefulness of procalcitonin when adjusted for inflammation.Pleural inflammation underlies the development of most exudative effusions including pleural infection and malignancy. Pleurodesis, often used to treat effusions, involves provocation of intense aseptic pleural inflammation. We conducted a two-part proof-of-concept study to test the specificity of procalcitonin in differentiating infection using cohorts of patients with pleural effusions of infective and non-infective etiologies, as well as subjects undergoing pleurodesis.We measured the blood procalcitonin level (i in 248 patients with pleural infection or with non-infective pleural inflammation, matched for severity of systemic inflammation by C-reactive protein (CRP, age and gender; and (ii in patients before and 24-48 hours after induction of non-infective pleural inflammation (from talc pleurodesis.1 Procalcitonin was significantly higher in patients with pleural infection compared with controls with non-infective effusions (n = 32 each group that were case-matched for systemic inflammation as measured by CRP [median (25-75%IQR: 0.58 (0.35-1.50 vs 0.34 (0.31-0.42 µg/L respectively, p = 0.003]. 2 Talc pleurodesis provoked intense systemic inflammation, and raised serum CRP by 360% over baseline. However procalcitonin remained relatively unaffected (21% rise. 3 Procalcitonin and CRP levels did not correlate. In 214 patients with pleural infection, procalcitonin levels did not predict the survival or need for surgical intervention.Using a pleural model, this proof-of-principle study confirmed that procalcitonin is a biomarker specific for infection and is not affected by non

  15. Multicenter analytical performance evaluation of a fully automated anti-Müllerian hormone assay and reference interval determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anckaert, E.; Öktem, M.; Thies, A.; Cohen-Bacrie, M.; Daan, N. M P; Schiettecatte, J.; Müller, C.; Topcu, D.; Gröning, A.; Ternaux, F.; Engel, C.; Engelmann, S.; Milczynski, C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is an established biomarker for assessing ovarian reserve and predicting response to controlled ovarian stimulation. Its routine clinical use is hampered by the variability and low-throughput of available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The

  16. Elevated plasma procalcitonin level predicts poor prognosis of ST elevation myocardial infarction in Asian elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Junru; Xia, Bangbo; Wu, Xiaomiao

    Previous studies have focused on relationship between plasma procalcitonin level and myocardial infarction risk, but this relationship in Asian elderly has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to reveal the association of peripheral procalcitonin concentration (both immediate and average levels) with myocardial infarction prognosis in Asian elderly. A total of 400 ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients, 400 unstable angina patients and 400 controls were included. Plasma levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and procalcitonin were measured using commercially available kits. Each myocardial infarction patient received a standard therapy and a 12-month follow-up unless major adverse cardiac events occurred. On admission, plasma procalcitonin level was higher in myocardial infarction patients than in unstable angina patients and controls (p < .001). In the follow-up period, 142 myocardial infarction patients suffered from major adverse cardiac events, and other 258 myocardial infarction patients did not. Higher admission, peak and average plasma levels of procalcitonin in the first week after chest pain onset were associated with elevated risk of major adverse cardiac events (HR: 1.46, 95%CI: 1.18-1.99; HR: 2.57, 95%CI: 1.99-3.52; HR: 2.36, 95%CI: 1.81-3.00). Plasma procalcitonin level had a positive linear correlation with plasma level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein on admission (r = 0.650, p < .001). In conclusion, peripheral concentration of procalcitonin (both immediate and average levels) might be an independent predictor for prognosis in myocardial infarction patients. Prognostic significance of procalcitonin might be implicated in inflammation.

  17. Performance of the fully automated progesterone assays on the Abbott AxSYM and the Technicon Immuno 1 Analyser compared with the radioimmunoassay progesterone MAIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsberg, J.; Jost, E.; Van der Ven, H.

    1997-01-01

    Test performance of two automated progesterone assays available on the immunoassay analysers Abbott AxSYM and Technicon Immuno 1, respectively, was evaluated in comparison with the radioimmunoassay Progesterone MAIA. For assessment of test performance imprecision, functional sensitivity and linearity of dilution was examined. Correlation with the manual radioimmunoassay was assessed using 122 serum samples over the range 0-110 nmol/L. Imprecision studies revealed for the AxSYM Progesterone within-run CV's of 1.8-6.4% and day-to-day CV's of 3.5-9.7% (concentration range 2.3-75 nmol/L); Immuno 1 Progesterone: within-run CV's 1.0-7.3%, day-to-day CV's 2.3-7.7% (concentration range 1.2-60 nmol/L). The functional sensitivity was <1.7 nmol/L for the AxSYM Progesterone and <1.1 nmol/L for the Immuno 1 Progesterone. With the AxSYM Progesterone the mean recovery after dilution from five samples was 102% (89-107%), from one sample only 69-80% was recovered; with the Immuno 1 Progesterone the mean recovery was 95% (80-105%). Despite of a quite good overall correlation (coefficients 0.972 and 0.981) the relationship of both assays to the Progesterone MAIA significantly deviate from linearity with a considerably higher slope within the lower concentration range. The relationship between the automated assays was linear over the entire concentration range (Immuno = 1.207 * AxSYM + 1; r = 0.986). The time to first result was 20 min for the AxSYM Progesterone, 45 min for the Immuno 1 Progesterone and 90 min for the Progesterone MAIA. The evaluated progesterone assays both exhibit an excellent precision and a high degree of sensitivity. They offer a rapid and flexible method for progesterone determination which may be especially useful for the monitoring of ovarian stimulation during in-vitro fertilization. (author)

  18. Improving the measurement of longitudinal change in renal function: automated detection of changes in laboratory creatinine assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Poh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRenal function is reported using the estimates of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. However, eGFR values are recorded without reference to the particular serum creatinine (SCr assays used to derive them, and newer assays were introduced at different time points across the laboratories in the United Kingdom. These changes may cause systematic bias in eGFR reported in routinely collected data, even though laboratory-reported eGFR values have a correction factor applied.DesignAn algorithm to detect changes in SCr that in turn affect eGFR calculation method was developed. It compares the mapping of SCr values on to eGFR values across a time series of paired eGFR and SCr measurements.SettingRoutinely collected primary care data from 20,000 people with the richest renal function data from the quality improvement in chronic kidney disease trial.ResultsThe algorithm identified a change in eGFR calculation method in 114 (90% of the 127 included practices. This change was identified in 4736 (23.7% patient time series analysed. This change in calibration method was found to cause a significant step change in the reported eGFR values, producing a systematic bias. The eGFR values could not be recalibrated by applying the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation to the laboratory reported SCr values.ConclusionsThis algorithm can identify laboratory changes in eGFR calculation methods and changes in SCr assay. Failure to account for these changes may misconstrue renal function changes over time. Researchers using routine eGFR data should account for these effects.  

  19. Semi-automated limit-dilution assay and clonal expansion of all T-cell precursors of cytotoxic lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, A.; Chen, W.-F.; Scollay, R.; Shortman, K.

    1982-01-01

    A limit-dilution microculture system is described, where almost all precursor T cells of the cytotoxic lineage (CTL-p) develop into extended clones of cytotoxic T cells (CTL), which are then detected with a new radio-autographic 111 In-release assay. The principle is to polyclonally activate all T cells with concanavalin A, to expand the resultant clones over an 8-9 day period in cultures saturated with growth factors, then to detect all clones with cytotoxic function by phytohaemagglutinin mediated lysis of P815 tumour cells. The key variables for obtaining high cloning efficiency are the use of flat-bottomed 96-well culture trays, the use of appropriately irradiated spleen filler cells, and the inclusion of a T-cell growth factor supplement. Cultures are set up at input levels of around one T cell per well. Forty percent of T cells then form CTL clones readily detected by the cytotoxic assay. The lytic activity of the average clone is equivalent to 3000 CTL, but clone size appears to be much larger. The precursor cells are predominantly if not entirely from the Lyt 2 + T-cell subclass and almost all cells of this subclass form cytolytic clones. Analysis of the frequency of positive cultures shows a good fit to the expected Poisson distribution, with no evidence of the CTL-p frequency estimates being distorted by helper or suppressor effects. (Auth.)

  20. Semi-automated limit-dilution assay and clonal expansion of all T-cell precursors of cytotoxic lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A.; Chen, W.F.; Scollay, R.; Shortman, K. (Walter and Eliza Hall Inst. of Medical Research, Parkville (Australia))

    1982-08-13

    A limit-dilution microculture system is described, where almost all precursor T cells of the cytotoxic lineage (CTL-p) develop into extended clones of cytotoxic T cells (CTL), which are then detected with a new radio-autographic /sup 111/In-release assay. The principle is to polyclonally activate all T cells with concanavalin A, to expand the resultant clones over an 8-9 day period in cultures saturated with growth factors, then to detect all clones with cytotoxic function by phytohaemagglutinin mediated lysis of P815 tumour cells. The key variables for obtaining high cloning efficiency are the use of flat-bottomed 96-well culture trays, the use of appropriately irradiated spleen filler cells, and the inclusion of a T-cell growth factor supplement. Cultures are set up at input levels of around one T cell per well. Forty percent of T cells then form CTL clones readily detected by the cytotoxic assay. The lytic activity of the average clone is equivalent to 3000 CTL, but clone size appears to be much larger. The precursor cells are predominantly if not entirely from the Lyt 2/sup +/ T-cell subclass and almost all cells of this subclass form cytolytic clones. Analysis of the frequency of positive cultures shows a good fit to the expected Poisson distribution, with no evidence of the CTL-p frequency estimates being distorted by helper or suppressor effects.

  1. Differential diagnostic value of procalcitonin in surgical and medical patients with septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clec'h, Christophe; Fosse, Jean-Philippe; Karoubi, Philippe; Vincent, Francois; Chouahi, Imad; Hamza, Lilia; Cupa, Michel; Cohen, Yves

    2006-01-01

    To assess whether different diagnostic and prognostic cutoff values of procalcitonin should be considered in surgical and in medical patients with septic shock. Prospective observational study. Intensive care unit of the Avicenne teaching hospital, France. All patients with septic shock or noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome within 48 hrs after admission. None. Patients were allocated to one of the following groups: group 1 (surgical patients with septic shock), group 2 (surgical patients with noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome), group 3 (medical patients with septic shock), and group 4 (medical patients with noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome). Procalcitonin at study entry was compared between group 1 and group 2 and between group 3 and group 4 to determine the diagnostic cutoff value in surgical and in medical patients, respectively. Procalcitonin was compared between survivors and nonsurvivors from group 1 and group 3 to determine its prognostic cutoff value. One hundred forty-three patients were included: 31 in group 1, 36 in group 2, 36 in group 3, and 40 in group 4. Median procalcitonin levels (ng/mL [interquartile range]) were higher in group 1 than in group 3 (34.00 [7.10-76.00] vs. 8.40 [3.63-24.70], p = .01). In surgical patients, the best diagnostic cutoff value was 9.70 ng/mL, with 91.7% sensitivity and 74.2% specificity. In medical patients, the best diagnostic cutoff value was 1.00 ng/mL, with 80% sensitivity and 94% specificity. Procalcitonin was a reliable early prognostic marker in medical but not in surgical patients with septic shock. A cutoff value of 6.00 ng/mL had 76% sensitivity and 72.7% specificity for separating survivors from nonsurvivors. The diagnostic cutoff value of procalcitonin was higher in surgical than in medical patients. Early procalcitonin was of prognostic interest in medical patients.

  2. Rapid detection of enterovirus in cerebrospinal fluid by a fully-automated PCR assay is associated with improved management of aseptic meningitis in adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulieri, Stefano G; Chapuis-Taillard, Caroline; Manuel, Oriol; Hugli, Olivier; Pinget, Christophe; Wasserfallen, Jean-Blaise; Sahli, Roland; Jaton, Katia; Marchetti, Oscar; Meylan, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus (EV) is the most frequent cause of aseptic meningitis (AM). Lack of microbiological documentation results in unnecessary antimicrobial therapy and hospitalization. To assess the impact of rapid EV detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by a fully-automated PCR (GeneXpert EV assay, GXEA) on the management of AM. Observational study in adult patients with AM. Three groups were analyzed according to EV documentation in CSF: group A = no PCR or negative PCR (n=17), group B = positive real-time PCR (n = 20), and group C = positive GXEA (n = 22). Clinical, laboratory and health-care costs data were compared. Clinical characteristics were similar in the 3 groups. Median turn-around time of EV PCR decreased from 60 h (IQR (interquartile range) 44-87) in group B to 5h (IQR 4-11) in group C (p<0.0001). Median duration of antibiotics was 1 (IQR 0-6), 1 (0-1.9), and 0.5 days (single dose) in groups A, B, and C, respectively (p < 0.001). Median length of hospitalization was 4 days (2.5-7.5), 2 (1-3.7), and 0.5 (0.3-0.7), respectively (p < 0.001). Median hospitalization costs were $5458 (2676-6274) in group A, $2796 (2062-5726) in group B, and $921 (765-1230) in group C (p < 0.0001). Rapid EV detection in CSF by a fully-automated PCR improves management of AM by significantly reducing antibiotic use, hospitalization length and costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of a semiquantitative procalcitonin kit for evaluating severity and predicting mortality in patients with sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenzaka T

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tsuneaki Kenzaka,1 Masanobu Okayama,2 Shigehiro Kuroki,1 Miho Fukui,3 Shinsuke Yahata,3 Hiroki Hayashi,3 Akihito Kitao,3 Eiji Kajii,2 Masayoshi Hashimoto41Division of General Medicine, 2Division of Community and Family Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Shimotsuke; 3Department of General Medicine, Toyooka Public Hospital, Toyooka; 4Department of Family and Community Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, JapanBackground: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of a semiquantitative procalcitonin kit for assessing severity of sepsis and early determination of mortality in affected patients.Methods: This was a prospective, observational study including 206 septic patients enrolled between June 2008 and August 2009. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II scores were measured, along with semiquantitative procalcitonin concentrations. Patients were divided into three groups based on their semiquantitative procalcitonin concentrations (group A, <2 ng/mL; group B ≥ 2 ng/mL < 10 ng/mL; group C ≥ 10 ng/mL.Results: A significant difference in DIC, SOFA, and APACHE II scores was found between group A and group C and between group B and group C (P < 0.01. Patients with severe sepsis and septic shock had significantly higher procalcitonin concentrations than did patients with less severe disease. The rate of patients with septic shock with high procalcitonin concentrations showed an upward trend. There was a significant (P < 0.01 difference between the three groups with regard to numbers of patients and rates of severe sepsis, septic shock, DIC, and mortality.Conclusion: Semiquantitative procalcitonin concentration testing can be helpful for early assessment of disease severity in patients with sepsis. Furthermore, it may also help in predicting early

  4. Unattended Monitoring of HEU Production in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants using Automated Aerosol Collection and Laser-based Enrichment Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bushaw, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power is enjoying rapid growth as government energy policies and public demand shift toward low carbon energy production. Pivotal to the global nuclear power renaissance is the development and deployment of robust safeguards instrumentation that allows the limited resources of the IAEA to keep pace with the expansion of the nuclear fuel cycle. Undeclared production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) remains a primary proliferation concern for modern gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs), due to their massive separative work unit (SWU) processing power and comparably short cascade equilibrium timescale. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing an unattended safeguards instrument, combining continuous aerosol particulate collection with uranium isotope assay, to provide timely detection of HEU production within a GCEP. This approach is based on laser vaporization of aerosol particulates, followed by laser spectroscopy to characterize the uranium enrichment level. Our prior investigation demonstrated single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range and relative isotope ratio uncertainty better than 10% using gadolinium as a surrogate for uranium. In this paper we present measurement results on standard samples containing traces of depleted, natural, and low enriched uranium, as well as measurements on aerodynamic size uranium particles mixed in background materials (e.g., dust, minerals, soils). Improvements and optimizations in the detection electronics, signal timing, calibration, and laser alignment have lead to significant improvements in detection sensitivity and enrichment accuracy, contributing to an overall reduction in the false alarm probability. The sample substrate media was also found to play a significant role in facilitating laser-induced vaporization and the production of energetic plasma conditions, resulting in ablation optimization and further improvements in the isotope abundance sensitivity.

  5. Influence of renal dysfunction on the accuracy of procalcitonin for the diagnosis of postoperative infection after vascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amour, Julien; Birenbaum, Aurélie; Langeron, Olivier; Le Manach, Yannick; Bertrand, Michèle; Coriat, Pierre; Riou, Bruno; Bernard, Maguy; Hausfater, Pierre

    2008-04-01

    Procalcitonin has been advocated as a specific biomarker for bacterial infection. We performed this study to determine whether accuracy of procalcitonin for diagnosis of postoperative bacterial infection is affected by renal function after aortic surgery. Single-center prospective study. University hospital. Two hundred seventy-six patients scheduled for elective major aortic surgery. Blood samples were taken before surgery and each day over the 5-day postoperative period, and measurement of serum procalcitonin was performed. Diagnosis of infection was performed by a blinded expert panel. Renal function was assessed using an estimate of creatinine clearance with the Cockcroft formulas. Renal dysfunction was defined as a creatinine clearance <50 mL x min(-1). Infection was diagnosed in 67 patients. Seventy five patients (27%) had postoperative renal dysfunction. Procalcitonin was significantly higher in infected patients, with a peak reached at the fourth postoperative day, but it was significantly higher in patients with impaired renal function in both control and infected patients. The optimal threshold of procalcitonin markedly differed in patients with renal dysfunction compared with patients without renal dysfunction (2.57 vs. 0.80 ng x mL(-1), p < .05). The diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin significantly increased (0.74 vs. 0.70, p < .05) when the threshold of procalcitonin was adapted to the renal function. The elevation of procalcitonin occurred 2 days before the medical team was able to diagnose infection. Procalcitonin is a valuable marker of bacterial infections after major aortic surgery, but renal function is a major determinant of procalcitonin levels and thus different thresholds should be applied according to renal function impairment.

  6. High-throughput, 384-well, LC-MS/MS CYP inhibition assay using automation, cassette-analysis technique, and streamlined data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halladay, Jason S; Delarosa, Erlie Marie; Tran, Daniel; Wang, Leslie; Wong, Susan; Khojasteh, S Cyrus

    2011-08-01

    Here we describe a high capacity and high-throughput, automated, 384-well CYP inhibition assay using well-known HLM-based MS probes. We provide consistently robust IC(50) values at the lead optimization stage of the drug discovery process. Our method uses the Agilent Technologies/Velocity11 BioCel 1200 system, timesaving techniques for sample analysis, and streamlined data processing steps. For each experiment, we generate IC(50) values for up to 344 compounds and positive controls for five major CYP isoforms (probe substrate): CYP1A2 (phenacetin), CYP2C9 ((S)-warfarin), CYP2C19 ((S)-mephenytoin), CYP2D6 (dextromethorphan), and CYP3A4/5 (testosterone and midazolam). Each compound is incubated separately at four concentrations with each CYP probe substrate under the optimized incubation condition. Each incubation is quenched with acetonitrile containing the deuterated internal standard of the respective metabolite for each probe substrate. To minimize the number of samples to be analyzed by LC-MS/MS and reduce the amount of valuable MS runtime, we utilize timesaving techniques of cassette analysis (pooling the incubation samples at the end of each CYP probe incubation into one) and column switching (reducing the amount of MS runtime). Here we also report on the comparison of IC(50) results for five major CYP isoforms using our method compared to values reported in the literature.

  7. Design and implementation of software for automated quality control and data analysis for a complex LC/MS/MS assay for urine opiates and metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Jane A; Schmeling, Michael; Hoofnagle, Andrew N; Hoffman, Noah G

    2013-01-16

    Mass spectrometry provides a powerful platform for performing quantitative, multiplexed assays in the clinical laboratory, but at the cost of increased complexity of analysis and quality assurance calculations compared to other methodologies. Here we describe the design and implementation of a software application that performs quality control calculations for a complex, multiplexed, mass spectrometric analysis of opioids and opioid metabolites. The development and implementation of this application improved our data analysis and quality assurance processes in several ways. First, use of the software significantly improved the procedural consistency for performing quality control calculations. Second, it reduced the amount of time technologists spent preparing and reviewing the data, saving on average over four hours per run, and in some cases improving turnaround time by a day. Third, it provides a mechanism for coupling procedural and software changes with the results of each analysis. We describe several key details of the implementation including the use of version control software and automated unit tests. These generally useful software engineering principles should be considered for any software development project in the clinical lab. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mathematical modelling of the automated FADU assay for the quantification of DNA strand breaks and their repair in human peripheral mononuclear blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junk, Michael; Salzwedel, Judy; Sindlinger, Thilo; Bürkle, Alexander; Moreno-Villanueva, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Cells continuously undergo DNA damage from exogenous agents like irradiation or genotoxic chemicals or from endogenous radicals produced by normal cellular metabolic activities. DNA strand breaks are one of the most common genotoxic lesions and they can also arise as intermediates of DNA repair activity. Unrepaired DNA damage can lead to genomic instability, which can massively compromise the health status of organisms. Therefore it is important to measure and quantify DNA damage and its repair. We have previously published an automated method for measuring DNA strand breaks based on fluorimetric detection of alkaline DNA unwinding [1], and here we present a mathematical model of the FADU assay, which enables to an analytic expression for the relation between measured fluorescence and the number of strand breaks. Assessment of the formation and also the repair of DNA strand breaks is a crucial functional parameter to investigate genotoxicity in living cells. A reliable and convenient method to quantify DNA strand breakage is therefore of significant importance for a wide variety of scientific fields, e.g. toxicology, pharmacology, epidemiology and medical sciences

  9. PROCALCITONIN AND INTERLEUKIN-6 AS MARKERS OF SEVERE INFECTION IN CHILDREN WITH FEBRILE NEUTROPENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Kitanovski

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The results of the study conducted to determine whether procalcitonin (PCT and interleukin-6 (IL-6 are more sensitive and specific markers of severe infection in children with febrile neutropenia (FN than routinelly used C-reactive protein (CRP are presented in the article. 68 episodes of FN experienced by 32 patients were divided into three groups according to the site of infection. Group 1: episodes of bacteraemia and/or clinical sepsis (n = 16, group 2: episodes of focal infection (n = 16 and group 3: episodes of fever of unknown origin (FUO (n = 36. Blood samples for further PCT and IL-6 determination were collected on three consecutive days. CRP concentrations were measured daily in each patient until the resolution of fever. PCT, IL-6 and CRP concentrations were measured on one occassion in each of the 18 afebrile patients with malignant disase forming the reference group. Serum PCT and IL-6 concentrations were measured by immunochemiluminometric and immunoenzymatic assay. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves were used to determine optimum sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and diagnostic accuracy of the studied parameters.Conclusions. PCT and IL-6 were found to be earlier and more sensitive markers of severe infection in neutropenic patients than CRP. The erliest one was IL-6, followed by PCT and CRP. Sequential determination of PCT up to 72 hours improved its diagnostic value, which was not the case for IL-6.In patients with gramnegative bacteraemias PCT concentracions were 3–5 times higher comparing to grampositive, whereas IL-6 concentrations were comparable in both groups.

  10. Role of procalcitonin in infected diabetic foot ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Ho; Suh, Dong Hun; Kim, Hak Jun; Lee, Yong In; Kwak, Il Hoon; Choi, Gi Won

    2017-06-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) has been recently accepted as a marker for diagnosing infection. The aim of the present study was to determine whether PCT levels are associated with infection severity of diabetic foot ulcers and whether PCT levels would be helpful to differentiate infected diabetic foot ulcer (IDFU) from IDFU associated with other infectious diseases (IDFU+O). We prospectively included 123 diabetic patients hospitalized for IDFU. Infection severity of diabetic foot ulcers was graded according to the Infectious Diseases Society of America-International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot clinical classification of diabetic foot infection. Chest radiograph, urinalysis, urine microscopy, urine culture, and blood cultures (if fever was present) were performed for all patients to diagnose other infectious diseases. Laboratory parameters were measured from blood venous samples. PCT (Spearman's ρ=0.338, Pdiabetic foot ulcers. However, only PCT levels could differentiate patients with associated infectious diseases from patients with no concomitant infection (area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve 0.869, Pdiabetic foot ulcers and PCT levels>0.59ng/mL in patients with IDFU may be associated with other systemic bacterial infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Procalcitonin-guided antibiotic treatment in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohn, Andreas; Heising, Bernhard; Schütte, Jan-Karl; Schroeder, Olaf; Schröder, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    In critically ill patients, length of antibiotic treatment can be effectively guided by procalcitonin (PCT) protocols. International sepsis guidelines and guidelines on antibiotic stewardship strategies recommend PCT as helpful laboratory marker for a rational use of antibiotics. A number of studies and meta-analyses have confirmed the effectiveness of PCT-protocols for shortening antibiotic treatment without compromising clinical outcome in critically ill patients. But in clinical practice, there is still uncertainty how to interpret PCT levels and how to adjust antibiotic treatment in various infectious situations, especially in the perioperative period. This narrative review gives an overview on the application of PCT-protocols in critically ill patients with severe bacterial infections on the basis of 5 case reports and the available literature. Beside strengths and limitations of this biomarker, also varying kinetics and different maximum values with regard to the infectious focus and pathogens are discussed. PCT-guided antibiotic treatment appears to be safe and effective. Most of the studies revealed a shorter antibiotic treatment without negative clinical outcomes. Cost effectiveness is still a matter of debate and effects on bacterial resistance due to shorter treatments, possible lower rates of drug-related adverse events, or decreased rates of Clostridium difficile infections are not yet evaluated. Guidance of antibiotic treatment can effectively be supported by PCT-protocols. However, it is important to consider the limitations of this biomarker and to use PCT protocols along with antibiotic stewardship programmes and regular clinical rounds together with infectious diseases specialists.

  12. Microbiogical data, but not procalcitonin improve the accuracy of the clinical pulmonary infection score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Boris; Embriaco, Nathalie; Roux, François; Forel, Jean-Marie; Demory, Didier; Allardet-Servent, Jérôme; Jaber, Samir; La Scola, Bernard; Papazian, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    Early and adequate treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is mandatory to improve the outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in medical ICU patients, the respective and combined impact of the Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS), broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) gram staining, endotracheal aspirate and a biomarker (procalcitonin) for the early diagnosis of VAP. Prospective, observational study A medical intensive care unit in a teaching hospital. Over an 8-month period, we prospectively included 57 patients suspected of having 86 episodes of VAP. The day of suspicion, a BAL as well as alveolar and serum procalcitonin determinations and evaluation of CPIS were performed. Of 86 BAL performed, 48 were considered positive (cutoff of 10(4) cfu ml(-1)). We found no differences in alveolar or serum procalcitonin between VAP and non-VAP patients. Including procalcitonin in the CPIS score did not increase its accuracy (55%) for the diagnosis of VAP. The best tests to predict VAP were modified CPIS (threshold at 6) combined with microbiological data. Indeed, both routinely twice weekly performed endotracheal aspiration at a threshold of 10(5) cfu ml(-1) and BAL gram staining improved pre-test diagnostic accuracy of VAP (77 and 66%, respectively). This study showed that alveolar procalcitonin performed by BAL does not help the clinician to identify VAP. It confirmed that serum procalcitonin is not an accurate marker of VAP. In contrast, microbiological resources available at the time of VAP suspicion (BAL gram staining, last available endotracheal aspirate) combined or not with CPIS are helpful in distinguishing VAP diagnosed by BAL from patients with a negative BAL.

  13. Value of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, and neopterin in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Lacoma

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Alicia Lacoma1,4, Cristina Prat1,4, Felipe Andreo2,4, Luis Lores3, Juan Ruiz-Manzano2,4, Vicente Ausina1,4, Jose Domínguez1,41Servei de Microbiologia, 2Servei de Pneumologia, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Fundació Institut d'Investigació en Ciències de la Salut Germans Trias i Pujol, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Badalona, Spain; 3Servei de Pneumologia, Hospital de Sant Boi, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Spain; 4CIBER Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, SpainObjective: The identification of biological markers in order to assess different aspects of COPD is an area of growing interest. The objective of this study was to investigate whether levels of procalcitonin (PCT, C-reactive protein (CRP, and neopterin in COPD patients could be useful in identifying the etiological origin of the exacerbation and assessing its prognosis.Methods: We included 318 consecutive COPD patients: 46 in a stable phase, 217 undergoing an exacerbation, and 55 with pneumonia. A serum sample was collected from each patient at the time of being included in the study. A second sample was also collected 1 month later from 23 patients in the exacerbation group. We compared the characteristics, biomarker levels, microbiological findings, and prognosis in each patient group. PCT and CRP were measured using an immunofluorescence assay. Neopterin levels were measured using a competitive immunoassay.Results: PCT and CRP showed significant differences among the three patient groups, being higher in patients with pneumonia, followed by patients with exacerbation (P < 0.0001. For the 23 patients with paired samples, PCT and CRP levels decreased 1 month after the exacerbation episode, while neopterin increased. Neopterin showed significantly lower levels in exacerbations with isolation of pathogenic bacteria, but no differences were found for PCT and CRP. No significant differences were found when comparing biomarker levels

  14. Diagnostic Value of Procalcitonin Levels in Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Karaca

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI is a potentially fatal disease. Difficulties in diagnosis make it essential to find early biomarkers. Aims: This study investigated the diagnostic value of procalcitonin (PCT levels in AMI. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Rats were divided into six groups of six animals each. In the experimental group, an experimental ischemia model was established by clamping the superior mesenteric artery from the aortic outflow tract. Blood and tissue specimens were collected from rats in the experimental mesenteric ischemia model at 30 min and 2 and 6 h, and these were compared with specimens from the respective control groups. PCT levels were compared at 30 min and 2 and 6 h. Results: PCT levels were 185.3 pg/mL in the control group and 219.3 pg/mL in the study group, 199.6 pg/mL in the control group and 243.9 pg/mL in the study group, and 201.9 pg/mL in the control group and 286.9 pg/mL in the study group, respectively, at 30 minute, 2 and 6 hours. Significant differences were determined between 6-h control group and ischemia group PCT levels (p=0.005. Conclusion: The absence of a significant increase in PCT levels in the early period, while a significant difference was detected in the later period (6 h, shows that PCT levels rise late in mesenteric ischemia and can be a marker in the late period.

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin in critically ill immunocompromised patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legriel Stéphane

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognizing infection is crucial in immunocompromised patients with organ dysfunction. Our objective was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin (PCT in critically ill immunocompromised patients. Methods This prospective, observational study included patients with suspected sepsis. Patients were classified into one of three diagnostic groups: no infection, bacterial sepsis, and nonbacterial sepsis. Results We included 119 patients with a median age of 54 years (interquartile range [IQR], 42-68 years. The general severity (SAPSII and organ dysfunction (LOD scores on day 1 were 45 (35-62.7 and 4 (2-6, respectively, and overall hospital mortality was 32.8%. Causes of immunodepression were hematological disorders (64 patients, 53.8%, HIV infection (31 patients, 26%, and solid cancers (26 patients, 21.8%. Bacterial sepsis was diagnosed in 58 patients and nonbacterial infections in nine patients (7.6%; 52 patients (43.7% had no infection. PCT concentrations on the first ICU day were higher in the group with bacterial sepsis (4.42 [1.60-22.14] vs. 0.26 [0.09-1.26] ng/ml in patients without bacterial infection, P 0.5 ng/ml had 100% sensitivity but only 63% specificity for diagnosing bacterial sepsis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was 0.851 (0.78-0.92. In multivariate analyses, PCT concentrations > 0.5 ng/ml on day 1 independently predicted bacterial sepsis (odds ratio, 8.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.53-29.3; P = 0.0006. PCT concentrations were not significantly correlated with hospital mortality. Conclusion Despite limited specificity in critically ill immunocompromised patients, PCT concentrations may help to rule out bacterial infection.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin in critically ill immunocompromised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Nicolas; Darmon, Michael; Coquet, Isaline; Feugeas, Jean-Paul; Legriel, Stéphane; Adaoui, Nadir; Schlemmer, Benoît; Azoulay, Elie

    2011-08-24

    Recognizing infection is crucial in immunocompromised patients with organ dysfunction. Our objective was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin (PCT) in critically ill immunocompromised patients. This prospective, observational study included patients with suspected sepsis. Patients were classified into one of three diagnostic groups: no infection, bacterial sepsis, and nonbacterial sepsis. We included 119 patients with a median age of 54 years (interquartile range [IQR], 42-68 years). The general severity (SAPSII) and organ dysfunction (LOD) scores on day 1 were 45 (35-62.7) and 4 (2-6), respectively, and overall hospital mortality was 32.8%. Causes of immunodepression were hematological disorders (64 patients, 53.8%), HIV infection (31 patients, 26%), and solid cancers (26 patients, 21.8%). Bacterial sepsis was diagnosed in 58 patients and nonbacterial infections in nine patients (7.6%); 52 patients (43.7%) had no infection. PCT concentrations on the first ICU day were higher in the group with bacterial sepsis (4.42 [1.60-22.14] vs. 0.26 [0.09-1.26] ng/ml in patients without bacterial infection, P 0.5 ng/ml had 100% sensitivity but only 63% specificity for diagnosing bacterial sepsis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.851 (0.78-0.92). In multivariate analyses, PCT concentrations > 0.5 ng/ml on day 1 independently predicted bacterial sepsis (odds ratio, 8.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.53-29.3; P = 0.0006). PCT concentrations were not significantly correlated with hospital mortality. Despite limited specificity in critically ill immunocompromised patients, PCT concentrations may help to rule out bacterial infection.

  17. Procalcitonin to initiate or discontinue antibiotics in acute respiratory tract infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuetz, Philipp; Wirz, Yannick; Sager, Ramon; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Stolz, Daiana; Tamm, Michael; Bouadma, Lila; Luyt, Charles E; Wolff, Michel; Chastre, Jean; Tubach, Florence; Kristoffersen, Kristina B; Burkhardt, Olaf; Welte, Tobias; Schroeder, Stefan; Nobre, Vandack; Wei, Long; Bucher, Heiner C; Bhatnagar, Neera; Annane, Djillali; Reinhart, Konrad; Branche, Angela; Damas, Pierre; Nijsten, Maarten W N; de Lange, Dylan W; Deliberato, Rodrigo O; Lima, Stella Ss; Maravić-Stojković, Vera; Verduri, Alessia; Cao, Bin; Shehabi, Yahya; Beishuizen, Albertus; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik S; Corti, Caspar; van Oers, Jos A; Falsey, Ann R; de Jong, Evelien; Oliveira, Carolina F; Beghe, Bianca; Briel, Matthias; Mueller, Beat

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) comprise of a large and heterogeneous group of infections including bacterial, viral, and other aetiologies. In recent years, procalcitonin (PCT), a blood marker for bacterial infections, has emerged as a promising tool to improve decisions about

  18. Procalcitonin til tidlig diagnostik af bakteriaemi hos børn med cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo Lund; Rechnitzer, Catherine; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Fever and infections are common complications in children with cancer during chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of procalcitonin (PCT) in the identification of children with bacteraemia at time of admission with febrile episodes. Furthermore, w...

  19. Effect of procalcitonin-guided antibiotic treatment on mortality in acute respiratory infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuetz, Philipp; Wirz, Yannick; Sager, Ramon

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In February, 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the blood infection marker procalcitonin for guiding antibiotic therapy in patients with acute respiratory infections. This meta-analysis of patient data from 26 randomised controlled trials was designed to assess safety ...

  20. Procalcitonin to guide antibiotic administration in COPD exacerbations: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Mathioudakis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Challenges in the differentiation of the aetiology of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD have led to significant overuse of antibiotics. Serum procalcitonin, released in response to bacterial infections, but not viral infections, could possibly identify AECOPD requiring antibiotics. In this meta-analysis we assessed the clinical effectiveness of procalcitonin-based protocols to initiate or discontinue antibiotics in patients presenting with AECOPD. Based on a prospectively registered protocol, we reviewed the literature and selected randomised or quasi-randomised trials comparing procalcitonin-based protocols to initiate or discontinue antibiotics versus standard care in AECOPD. We followed Cochrane and GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation guidance to assess risk of bias, quality of evidence and to perform meta-analyses. We included eight trials evaluating 1062 patients with AECOPD. Procalcitonin-based protocols decreased antibiotic prescription (relative risk (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.43–0.73 and total antibiotic exposure (mean difference (MD −3.83, 95% CI (−4.32–−3.35, without affecting clinical outcomes such as rate of treatment failure (RR 0.81, 0.62–1.06, length of hospitalisation (MD −0.76, −1.95–0.43, exacerbation recurrence rate (RR 0.96, 0.69–1.35 or mortality (RR 0.99, 0.58–1.69. However, the quality of the available evidence is low to moderate, because of methodological limitations and small overall study population. Procalcitonin-based protocols appear to be clinically effective; however, confirmatory trials with rigorous methodology are required.

  1. Diagnostic and prognostic value of procalcitonin in patients with septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clec'h, Christophe; Ferriere, Françoise; Karoubi, Philippe; Fosse, Jean P; Cupa, Michel; Hoang, Philippe; Cohen, Yves

    2004-05-01

    To determine whether procalcitonin is a reliable diagnostic and prognostic marker in septic shock compared with nonseptic shock. Prospective controlled trial. Intensive care unit of the Avicenne Teaching Hospital, Bobigny, France. All patients admitted to our intensive care unit over a 12-month period with clinical evidence of shock. None. Echocardiography or pulmonary artery flotation catheter measurements were used to assess hemodynamics, and multiple specimens were obtained for microbiological studies. Standard criteria were used to diagnose septic shock. Serum concentrations of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, and lactate were determined on the day of shock onset (day 1) and on days 3, 7, and 10. Seventy-five patients were included, 62 in the septic shock group and 13 in the cardiogenic shock group. Serum procalcitonin on day 1 was significantly higher in patients with than without septic shock (median, 14 [0.3-767] ng/mL vs. 1 [0.5-36] ng/mL, p < .01). A cutoff value of 1 ng/mL had 95% sensitivity and 54% specificity for separating patients with and without sepsis. C-reactive protein failed to discriminate between these two groups. Among patients with sepsis, procalcitonin concentrations were significantly higher in those who died than in the survivors, at all four measurement time points (median, 16 [0.15-767] ng/mL vs. 6 [0.2-123] ng/mL, p = .045 on day 1; 6.5 [0.3-135] ng/mL vs. 1.05 [0.11-53] ng/mL, p = .02 on day 10). A cutoff value of 6 ng/mL on day 1 separated patients who died from those who survived with 87.5% sensitivity and 45% specificity. C-reactive protein was not helpful for predicting mortality. Serum lactate was a nonspecific prognostic marker. These data indicate that procalcitonin may be a valuable early diagnostic and prognostic marker in patients with septic shock.

  2. Procalcitonin is not sufficiently reliable to be the sole marker of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moro Serrano Manuel

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has recently been suggested that serum procalcitonin (PCT is of value in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, with varying results. The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to assess the usefulness of PCT as a marker of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin. Methods One hundred infants aged between 4 and 28 days of life admitted to the Neonatology Services of 13 acute-care teaching hospitals in Spain over 1-year with clinical suspicion of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin were included in the study. Serum PCT concentrations were determined by a specific immunoluminometric assay. The reliability of PCT for the diagnosis of nosocomial neonatal sepsis at the time of suspicion of infection and at 12–24 h and 36–48 h after the onset of symptoms was calculated by receiver-operating characteristics (ROC curves. The Youden's index (sensitivity + specificity - 1 was used for determination of optimal cutoff values of the diagnostic tests in the different postnatal periods. Sensitivity, specificity, and the likelihood ratio of a positive and negative result with the 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated. Results The diagnosis of nosocomial sepsis was confirmed in 61 neonates. Serum PCT concentrations were significantly higher at initial suspicion and at 12–24 h and 36–48 h after the onset of symptoms in neonates with confirmed sepsis than in neonates with clinically suspected but not confirmed sepsis. Optimal PCT thresholds according to ROC curves were 0.59 ng/mL at the time of suspicion of sepsis (sensitivity 81.4%, specificity 80.6%; 1.34 ng/mL within 12–24 h of birth (sensitivity 73.7%, specificity 80.6%, and 0.69 ng/mL within 36–48 h of birth (sensitivity 86.5%, specificity 72.7%. Conclusion Serum PCT concentrations showed a moderate diagnostic reliability for the detection of nosocomial neonatal sepsis from the time of suspicion of infection. PCT is not sufficiently reliable to be the sole marker of

  3. The value of serum procalcitonin content for assessing the inflammation and organ injury in neonatal septicemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Fang Li1

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the value of serum procalcitonin content for assessing the inflammation and organ injury in neonatal septicemia. Methods: 48 children with neonatal septicemia who were treated in our hospital between April 2014 and May 2016 were selected as the observation group, 50 healthy newborns who were delivered in our hospital during the same period were selected as the normal control group, and the observation group were further divided into high PCT group and low PCT group (n=24 according to the median of serum PCT content. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to detect the serum contents of inflammatory mediators, and color Doppler diasonograph was used to measure heart injury index levels. Results: Peripheral blood PCT content of observation group was significantly higher than that of control group (P<0.05; serum inflammatory mediators IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α contents of high PCT group and low PCT group were significantly higher than those of normal control group, and as the PCT content increased, serum inflammatory mediators interleukin-1β (IL-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-8 (IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α contents increased (P<0.05; routine ultrasound parameters cardiac output (CO and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF levels as well as the absolute value of twodimensional speckle tracking imaging parameters left ventricular global longitudinal strain rate (GLSr and left ventricular global circumferential strain rate (GCSr of high PCT group and low PCT group were lower than those of normal control group while serum myocardial injury indexes cardiac troponin I (cTnI, heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP and α-hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase (HBDH contents were higher than those of normal control group, and as the PCT content increased, CO and LVEF levels as well as the absolute value of GLSr and GCSr decreased while the indexes cTnI, H-FABP and HBDH contents increased (P<0

  4. THE ROLE OF PROCALCITONIN IN BACTERIAL INFECTION RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucija Gabršek

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Early recognition of bacterial infection and antibiotic treatment are very important in critically ill patients. Procalcitonin (PCT is a marker of bacterial infections accompanied by systemic inflammatory response. Higher values were also noticed with parasitical and fungal infections, but PCT is normal in viral and systemic diseases. The aim of this study was to assess whether PCT is better marker for bacterial infections than C-reactive protein (CRP and if they have a prognostic value.Methods. 34 patients were included into our retrospective study. All of them had clinical or laboratory signs of infection at the first PCT determination. We measured PCT, CRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (SR and leukocyte count. On the base of microbiological results we divided patients into three groups. Group A had patients with sterile cultures, group B included the ones with negative blood cultures, but from other cultures causative agents were identified. The patients in group C had positive blood cultures. Retrospectively we studied PCT and CRP values among groups and among survivors and non survivors.Results. An average median value of PCT in group A was 8.9 ± 13.3 ng/ml, in group B 5.3 ± 9.3 ng/ml and in group C 21.0 ± 25.0 ng/ml. In group B, the average median value of PCT was significantly higher than in group C (p = 0.019, but that was not the case in group A (p = 0.23. The average median values of CRP were 129.9 ± 67.4 mg/l in group A, 104.3 ± 60.1 mg/l in group B and 117.4 ± 46.1 mg/l in group C. Between groups, differences of CRP values were not statistically significant. The average initial value of PCT in group of non survivors (8.9 ± 49 was not significantly higher then in group of survivors (3.14 ± 55.4 (p = 0.48. The average final value was significantly higher (p = 0.0013 in group of non survivors (13.1 ± 23.9 ng/l than in group of survivors (0.55 ± 7.3 ng/ml. In both groups the average initial values of CRP did not

  5. Diagnostic value of procalcitonin, CRP, leukocytes and BAL neutrophils for pulmonary complications in the immunocompromised host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiana Stolz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of laboratory biomarkers and BAL differential cell count for the diagnosis of bacterial infection in severe immunosuppressed patients. One-hundred and seven consecutive patients undergoing bronchoscopy for suspected pulmonary infection were included in this study. Assessment included history, clinical examination, chest image studies, CRP, procalcitonin (ProCT, leukocyte counts, and BAL results. Patients were classified as having proven, possible, and non-bacterial infection.

  6. Sensitivity and Specificity of Procalcitonin to Determine Etiology of Diarrhea in Children Younger Than 5 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Shala, Mujë; Azemi, Mehmedali; Spahiu, Shqipe; Hoxha, Teuta; Avdiu, Muharrem; Spahiu, Lidvana

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the sensitivity and specificity of procalcitonin to determine bacterial etiology of diarrhea. The examinees and methods: For this purpose we conducted the study comprising 115 children aged 1 to 60 months admitted at the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Pediatric Clinic, divided in three groups based on etiology of the diarrhea that has been confirmed with respective tests during the hospitalization. Each group has equal number of patients – 35...

  7. Sensitivity and Specificity of Procalcitonin to Determine Etiology of Diarrhea in Children Younger Than 5 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Shala, Mujë; Azemi, Mehmedali; Spahiu, Shqipe; Hoxha, Teuta; Avdiu, Muharrem; Spahiu, Lidvana

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the sensitivity and specificity of procalcitonin to determine bacterial etiology of diarrhea. The examinees and methods: For this purpose we conducted the study comprising 115 children aged 1 to 60 months admitted at the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Pediatric Clinic, divided in three groups based on etiology of the diarrhea that has been confirmed with respective tests during the hospitalization. Each group has equal number of patients – 35. The first group was confirmed to have bacterial diarrhea, the second viral diarrhea and the third extra intestinal diarrhea. The determination of procalcitonin has been established with the ELFA methods of producer B.R.A.H.M.S Diagnostica GmbH, Berlin, (Germany). Results: From the total number of 1130 patient with acute diarrhea procalcitonin was assessed in 105. 67 (63.8%) of these patient were male. More than one third (38.14%) of the children in our study were younger then 12 months. Approximately the same was the number of children 13-24 months (33 patients or 31.43%) and 25-60 months (32 patients or 30.43%). The mean value of PRC in children with viral diarrhea was 0.13±0.5 ng/mL in children with bacterial diarrhea was 5.3±4.9 ng/m Land in children with extra intestinal diarrhea was 1.7±2.8 ng/mL. When measured using ANOVA and Turkey HSD tests, results have shown the statistical significance when comparing viral with bacterial and extra intestinal diarrhea but were statistically insignificant when comparing bacterial and extra intestinal diarrhea. Conclusion: Procalcitonin is an important but not conclusive marker of bacterial etiology of acute diarrhea in children younger than 5 years. PMID:24944526

  8. Sensitivity and specificity of procalcitonin to determine etiology of diarrhea in children younger than 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Shala, Mujë; Azemi, Mehmedali; Spahiu, Shqipe; Hoxha, Teuta; Avdiu, Muharrem; Spahiu, Lidvana

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the sensitivity and specificity of procalcitonin to determine bacterial etiology of diarrhea. For this purpose we conducted the study comprising 115 children aged 1 to 60 months admitted at the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Pediatric Clinic, divided in three groups based on etiology of the diarrhea that has been confirmed with respective tests during the hospitalization. Each group has equal number of patients - 35. The first group was confirmed to have bacterial diarrhea, the second viral diarrhea and the third extra intestinal diarrhea. The determination of procalcitonin has been established with the ELFA methods of producer B.R.A.H.M.S Diagnostica GmbH, Berlin, (Germany). From the total number of 1130 patient with acute diarrhea procalcitonin was assessed in 105. 67 (63.8%) of these patient were male. More than one third (38.14%) of the children in our study were younger then 12 months. Approximately the same was the number of children 13-24 months (33 patients or 31.43%) and 25-60 months (32 patients or 30.43%). The mean value of PRC in children with viral diarrhea was 0.13±0.5 ng/mL in children with bacterial diarrhea was 5.3±4.9 ng/m Land in children with extra intestinal diarrhea was 1.7±2.8 ng/mL. When measured using ANOVA and Turkey HSD tests, results have shown the statistical significance when comparing viral with bacterial and extra intestinal diarrhea but were statistically insignificant when comparing bacterial and extra intestinal diarrhea. Procalcitonin is an important but not conclusive marker of bacterial etiology of acute diarrhea in children younger than 5 years.

  9. Differences of serum procalcitonin levels between bacterial infection and flare in systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, J.; Marpaung, B.; Ginting, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Differentiate bacterial infections from flare in SLE patients is difficult to do because clinical symptoms of infection is similar to flare. SLE patients with infection require antibiotic therapy with decreased doses of immunosuppressant while in flare diseases require increased immunosuppressant. Procalcitonin (PCT), a biological marker, increased in serum patients with bacterial infections and expected to be a solution of problem. The aim of this study was to examine the function of PCT serum as marker to differentiate bacterial infection and flare in SLE patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Adam Malik Hospital from January-July 2017. We examined 80 patients SLE flare (MEX-SLEDAI>5), screen PCT and culture according to focal infection. Data were statistically analyzed. 80 SLE patients divided into 2 groups: bacterial infection group (31 patients) and non-infection/flare group (49 patients). Median PCT levels of bacterial infection group was 1.66 (0.04-8.45)ng/ml while flare group was 0.12 (0.02-0.81)ng/ml. There was significant difference of serum Procalcitonin level between bacterial infection and flare group in SLE patients (p=0.001). Procalcitonin serum levels can be used as a biomarker to differentiate bacterial infections and flare in SLE patients.

  10. Predictive values of semi-quantitative procalcitonin test and common biomarkers for the clinical outcomes of community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugajin, Motoi; Yamaki, Kenichi; Hirasawa, Natsuko; Yagi, Takeo

    2014-04-01

    The semi-quantitative serum procalcitonin test (Brahms PCT-Q) is available conveniently in clinical practice. However, there are few data on the relationship between results for this semi-quantitative procalcitonin test and clinical outcomes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We investigated the usefulness of this procalcitonin test for predicting the clinical outcomes of CAP in comparison with severity scoring systems and the blood urea nitrogen/serum albumin (B/A) ratio, which has been reported to be a simple but reliable prognostic indicator in our prior CAP study. This retrospective study included data from subjects who were hospitalized for CAP from August 2010 through October 2012 and who were administered the semi-quantitative serum procalcitonin test on admission. The demographic characteristics; laboratory biomarkers; microbiological test results; Pneumonia Severity Index scores; confusion, urea nitrogen, breathing frequency, blood pressure, ≥ 65 years of age (CURB-65) scale scores; and age, dehydration, respiratory failure, orientation disturbance, pressure (A-DROP) scale scores on hospital admission were retrieved from their medical charts. The outcomes were mortality within 28 days of hospital admission and the need for intensive care. Of the 213 subjects with CAP who were enrolled in the study, 20 died within 28 days of hospital admission, and 32 required intensive care. Mortality did not differ significantly among subjects with different semi-quantitative serum procalcitonin levels; however, subjects with serum procalcitonin levels ≥ 10.0 ng/mL were more likely to require intensive care than those with lower levels (P pneumonia. Using the receiver operating characteristic curves for mortality, the area under the curve was 0.86 for Pneumonia Severity Index class, 0.81 for B/A ratio, 0.81 for A-DROP, 0.80 for CURB-65, and 0.57 for semi-quantitative procalcitonin test. The semi-quantitative serum procalcitonin level on hospital admission was less

  11. HUMN project initiative and review of validation, quality control and prospects for further development of automated micronucleus assays using image cytometry systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fenech, M.; Kirsch-Volders, M.; Rössnerová, Andrea; Šrám, Radim; Romm, H.; Bolognesi, C.; Ramakumar, A.; Soussaline, F.; Schunck, CH.; Elhajouji, A.; Anwar, W.; Bonassi, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 216, č. 5 (2013), s. 541-552 ISSN 1438-4639 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/11/0084 Grant - others:Project NewGenesis(XE) FOOD -CT-2005-016320 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : Micronucleus * Cytokinesis-block * Automation Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.276, year: 2013

  12. Comparative evaluation of three automated systems for DNA extraction in conjunction with three commercially available real-time PCR assays for quantitation of plasma Cytomegalovirus DNAemia in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Dayana; Clari, María Ángeles; Costa, Elisa; Muñoz-Cobo, Beatriz; Solano, Carlos; José Remigia, María; Navarro, David

    2011-08-01

    Limited data are available on the performance of different automated extraction platforms and commercially available quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) methods for the quantitation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in plasma. We compared the performance characteristics of the Abbott mSample preparation system DNA kit on the m24 SP instrument (Abbott), the High Pure viral nucleic acid kit on the COBAS AmpliPrep system (Roche), and the EZ1 Virus 2.0 kit on the BioRobot EZ1 extraction platform (Qiagen) coupled with the Abbott CMV PCR kit, the LightCycler CMV Quant kit (Roche), and the Q-CMV complete kit (Nanogen), for both plasma specimens from allogeneic stem cell transplant (Allo-SCT) recipients (n = 42) and the OptiQuant CMV DNA panel (AcroMetrix). The EZ1 system displayed the highest extraction efficiency over a wide range of CMV plasma DNA loads, followed by the m24 and the AmpliPrep methods. The Nanogen PCR assay yielded higher mean CMV plasma DNA values than the Abbott and the Roche PCR assays, regardless of the platform used for DNA extraction. Overall, the effects of the extraction method and the QRT-PCR used on CMV plasma DNA load measurements were less pronounced for specimens with high CMV DNA content (>10,000 copies/ml). The performance characteristics of the extraction methods and QRT-PCR assays evaluated herein for clinical samples were extensible at cell-based standards from AcroMetrix. In conclusion, different automated systems are not equally efficient for CMV DNA extraction from plasma specimens, and the plasma CMV DNA loads measured by commercially available QRT-PCRs can differ significantly. The above findings should be taken into consideration for the establishment of cutoff values for the initiation or cessation of preemptive antiviral therapies and for the interpretation of data from clinical studies in the Allo-SCT setting.

  13. Procalcitonin-guided antibiotic treatment of respiratory tract infections in a primary care setting: are we there yet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, R.; Jensen, J.U.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical signs of infection do not allow for correct identification of bacterial and viral aetiology in acute respiratory infections. A valid tool to assist the clinician in identifying patients who will benefit from antibiotic therapy, as well as patients with a potentially serious infection, co...... are likely to benefit from antibiotic treatment and to rule out serious infections, and comments on further research to determine a future role for procalcitonin in primary care......Clinical signs of infection do not allow for correct identification of bacterial and viral aetiology in acute respiratory infections. A valid tool to assist the clinician in identifying patients who will benefit from antibiotic therapy, as well as patients with a potentially serious infection......, could greatly improve patient care and limit excessive antibiotic prescriptions. Procalcitonin is a new marker of suspected bacterial infection that has shown promise in guiding antibiotic therapy in acute respiratory tract infections in hospitals without compromising patient safety. Procalcitonin...

  14. The Procalcitonin And Survival Study (PASS) - a randomised multi-center investigator-initiated trial to investigate whether daily measurements biomarker Procalcitonin and pro-active diagnostic and therapeutic responses to abnormal Procalcitonin levels, can improve survival in intensive care unit patients. Calculated sample size (target population): 1000 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ulrik; Lundgren, Bettina; Hein, Lars

    2008-01-01

    . Complies with, "Good Clinical Practice" (ICH-GCP Guideline (CPMP/ICH/135/95, Directive 2001/20/EC)). Inclusion: 1) Age > or = 18 years of age, 2) Admitted to the participating intensive care units, 3) Signed written informed consent.Exclusion: 1) Known hyper-bilirubinaemia. or hypertriglyceridaemia, 2...... daily Procalcitonin measurements and immediate diagnostic and therapeutic response on day-to-day changes in procalcitonin can reduce the mortality of critically ill patients. DISCUSSION: For the first time ever, a mortality-endpoint, large scale randomized controlled trial with a biomarker......-guided strategy compared to the best standard of care, is conducted in an Intensive care setting. Results will, with a high statistical power answer the question: Can the survival of critically ill patients be improved by actively using biomarker procalcitonin in the treatment of infections? 700 critically ill...

  15. Effect of procalcitonin-guided antibiotic treatment on mortality in acute respiratory infections: a patient level meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Philipp; Wirz, Yannick; Sager, Ramon; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Stolz, Daiana; Tamm, Michael; Bouadma, Lila; Luyt, Charles E; Wolff, Michel; Chastre, Jean; Tubach, Florence; Kristoffersen, Kristina B; Burkhardt, Olaf; Welte, Tobias; Schroeder, Stefan; Nobre, Vandack; Wei, Long; Bucher, Heiner C; Annane, Djillali; Reinhart, Konrad; Falsey, Ann R; Branche, Angela; Damas, Pierre; Nijsten, Maarten; de Lange, Dylan W; Deliberato, Rodrigo O; Oliveira, Carolina F; Maravić-Stojković, Vera; Verduri, Alessia; Beghé, Bianca; Cao, Bin; Shehabi, Yahya; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik S; Corti, Caspar; van Oers, Jos A H; Beishuizen, Albertus; Girbes, Armand R J; de Jong, Evelien; Briel, Matthias; Mueller, Beat

    2018-01-01

    In February, 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the blood infection marker procalcitonin for guiding antibiotic therapy in patients with acute respiratory infections. This meta-analysis of patient data from 26 randomised controlled trials was designed to assess safety of procalcitonin-guided treatment in patients with acute respiratory infections from different clinical settings. Based on a prespecified Cochrane protocol, we did a systematic literature search on the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and Embase, and pooled individual patient data from trials in which patients with respiratory infections were randomly assigned to receive antibiotics based on procalcitonin concentrations (procalcitonin-guided group) or control. The coprimary endpoints were 30-day mortality and setting-specific treatment failure. Secondary endpoints were antibiotic use, length of stay, and antibiotic side-effects. We identified 990 records from the literature search, of which 71 articles were assessed for eligibility after exclusion of 919 records. We collected data on 6708 patients from 26 eligible trials in 12 countries. Mortality at 30 days was significantly lower in procalcitonin-guided patients than in control patients (286 [9%] deaths in 3336 procalcitonin-guided patients vs 336 [10%] in 3372 controls; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0·83 [95% CI 0·70 to 0·99], p=0·037). This mortality benefit was similar across subgroups by setting and type of infection (p interactions >0·05), although mortality was very low in primary care and in patients with acute bronchitis. Procalcitonin guidance was also associated with a 2·4-day reduction in antibiotic exposure (5·7 vs 8·1 days [95% CI -2·71 to -2·15], pacute respiratory infections reduces antibiotic exposure and side-effects, and improves survival. Widespread implementation of procalcitonin protocols in patients with acute respiratory infections thus has the potential to improve antibiotic

  16. Procalcitonin and proinflammatory parameters in diabetic foot infection as new predictive factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheem, Shler Gh.; Al-Barzinji, Ruqaya M.; Mansoor, Husham Y.; Al-Dabbagh, Ali A.

    2017-09-01

    Diabetic foot is a common complication of diabetes due to changes in blood vessels and nerves, often leads to ulceration and subsequent limb amputation if not treated early. A new diagnostic marker of bacterial infections is procalcitonin. C-reactive protein, Interleukin1β, Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α as proinflammatory parameters increased in Diabetic foot infection. We evaluated above parameters in patients with diabetic foot infections in different grades. A total of 130 diabetic patients were enrolled in this case control study between June 2011 and March 2012 in Rizgary, Emergency and Hawler Teaching Hospitals, 90 of them with diabetic foot lesion as a patient group. 40 without foot lesion, as a patient control and 20 individuals as healthy control. Assessment of above parameters in sera of study groups and also bacteriological tests (bacterial isolation and identification) were done. Serum procalcitonin levels significantly increased in patients with diabetic foot with higher Wagner grades (III, IV and V) (0.28 ± 0.04, 0.30 ± 0.07 and 0.60 ± 0.11) respectively (Pfoot ulcer based on Wagner classification system was also associated with circulating levels of C-reactive protein, Interleukin1β, Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (G III, IV and V) (5.36 ± 0.70, 6.38 ± 0.65, and 9.13 ± 0.88), (1.21 ± 0.08, 1.56 ± 0.16 and 2.02 ± 0.07), (23.02 ± 2.98, 36.32 ± 5.75 and 43.36 ± 6.16), and (215.39 ± 16.8, 259.21 ± 40.7 and 398.45 ± 33.4) respectively (Pdiabetic foot patients may be a procalcitonin especially in those with higher Wagner grades and with polymicrobial infection.

  17. Cryptogenic organising pneumonia presenting with spontaneous pneumothorax and the value of procalcitonin: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptogenic Organising Pneumonia (COP is a relatively rare condition and can be difficult to differentiate from Community acquired pneumonia (CAP. We report two cases which demonstrate the importance of considering this differential diagnosis in patients with spontaneous pneumothorax who have raised inflammatory markers or lung infiltrates. Our report highlights the value of serum procalcitonin as a biomarker in differentiating between community acquired pneumonia and cryptogenic organising pneumonia especially in the context of a high serum C-reactive protein. Furthermore, the cases show early diagnosis and prompt treatment with corticosteroids may impact the clinical outcome.

  18. Cryptogenic organising pneumonia presenting with spontaneous pneumothorax and the value of procalcitonin: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chong; Vali, Yusuf; Naeem, Muhammad; Reddy, Raja

    2017-01-01

    Cryptogenic Organising Pneumonia (COP) is a relatively rare condition and can be difficult to differentiate from Community acquired pneumonia (CAP). We report two cases which demonstrate the importance of considering this differential diagnosis in patients with spontaneous pneumothorax who have raised inflammatory markers or lung infiltrates. Our report highlights the value of serum procalcitonin as a biomarker in differentiating between community acquired pneumonia and cryptogenic organising pneumonia especially in the context of a high serum C-reactive protein. Furthermore, the cases show early diagnosis and prompt treatment with corticosteroids may impact the clinical outcome.

  19. Automation of an interferon-γ release assay and comparison to the tuberculin skin test for screening basic military trainees for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Donald J; Mazurek, Gerald H; Campbell, Brandon H; Bohanon, Jamaria; West, Kevin B; Bell, James J; Powell, Richard; Toney, Sean; Morris, John A; Yamane, Grover K; Sjoberg, Paul A

    2014-03-01

    We automated portions of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-GIT) and assessed its quality when performed concurrently with the tuberculin skin test (TST) among U.S. Air Force basic military trainees (BMTs). The volume of blood collected for QFT-GIT was monitored. At least one of the three tubes required for QFT-GIT had blood volume outside the recommended 0.8- to 1.2-mL range for 688 (29.0%) of 2,373 subjects who had their blood collected. Of the 2,124 subjects who had TST and QFT-GIT completed, TST was positive for 0.6%; QFT-GIT was positive for 0.3% and indeterminate for 2.0%. Among 2,081 subjects with completed TST and determinate QFT-GIT results, overall agreement was 99.5% but positive agreement was 5.6%. Specificity among the 1,546 low-risk BMTs was identical (99.7%). Indeterminate QFT-GIT results were 2.7 times more likely when mitogen tubes contained >1.2 mL blood than when containing 0.8- to 1.2-mL blood. Automation can facilitate QFT-GIT completion, especially if the recommended volume of blood is collected. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection prevalence among BMTs based on TST and QFT-GIT is similar and low. Selectively testing those with significant risk may be more appropriate than universal testing of all recruits. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  20. Comparison of automated microarray detection with real-time PCR assays for detection of respiratory viruses in specimens obtained from children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Frédéric; Carbonneau, Julie; Boucher, Nancy; Robitaille, Lynda; Boisvert, Sébastien; Wu, Whei-Kuo; De Serres, Gaston; Boivin, Guy; Corbeil, Jacques

    2009-03-01

    Respiratory virus infections are a major health concern and represent the primary cause of testing consultation and hospitalization for young children. We developed and compared two assays that allow the detection of up to 23 different respiratory viruses that frequently infect children. The first method consisted of single TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR assays in a 96-well-plate format. The second consisted of a multiplex PCR followed by primer extension and microarray hybridization in an integrated molecular diagnostic device, the Infiniti analyzer. Both of our assays can detect adenoviruses of groups A, B, C, and E; coronaviruses HKU1, 229E, NL63, and OC43; enteroviruses A, B, C, and D; rhinoviruses of genotypes A and B; influenza viruses A and B; human metapneumoviruses (HMPV) A and B, human respiratory syncytial viruses (HRSV) A and B; and parainfluenza viruses of types 1, 2, and 3. These tests were used to identify viruses in 221 nasopharyngeal aspirates obtained from children hospitalized for respiratory tract infections. Respiratory viruses were detected with at least one of the two methods in 81.4% of the 221 specimens: 10.0% were positive for HRSV A, 38.0% for HRSV B, 13.1% for influenzavirus A, 8.6% for any coronaviruses, 13.1% for rhinoviruses or enteroviruses, 7.2% for adenoviruses, 4.1% for HMPV, and 1.5% for parainfluenzaviruses. Multiple viral infections were found in 13.1% of the specimens. The two methods yielded concordant results for 94.1% of specimens. These tests allowed a thorough etiological assessment of respiratory viruses infecting children in hospital settings and would assist public health interventions.

  1. Comparison of Automated Microarray Detection with Real-Time PCR Assays for Detection of Respiratory Viruses in Specimens Obtained from Children▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Frédéric; Carbonneau, Julie; Boucher, Nancy; Robitaille, Lynda; Boisvert, Sébastien; Wu, Whei-Kuo; De Serres, Gaston; Boivin, Guy; Corbeil, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory virus infections are a major health concern and represent the primary cause of testing consultation and hospitalization for young children. We developed and compared two assays that allow the detection of up to 23 different respiratory viruses that frequently infect children. The first method consisted of single TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR assays in a 96-well-plate format. The second consisted of a multiplex PCR followed by primer extension and microarray hybridization in an integrated molecular diagnostic device, the Infiniti analyzer. Both of our assays can detect adenoviruses of groups A, B, C, and E; coronaviruses HKU1, 229E, NL63, and OC43; enteroviruses A, B, C, and D; rhinoviruses of genotypes A and B; influenza viruses A and B; human metapneumoviruses (HMPV) A and B, human respiratory syncytial viruses (HRSV) A and B; and parainfluenza viruses of types 1, 2, and 3. These tests were used to identify viruses in 221 nasopharyngeal aspirates obtained from children hospitalized for respiratory tract infections. Respiratory viruses were detected with at least one of the two methods in 81.4% of the 221 specimens: 10.0% were positive for HRSV A, 38.0% for HRSV B, 13.1% for influenzavirus A, 8.6% for any coronaviruses, 13.1% for rhinoviruses or enteroviruses, 7.2% for adenoviruses, 4.1% for HMPV, and 1.5% for parainfluenzaviruses. Multiple viral infections were found in 13.1% of the specimens. The two methods yielded concordant results for 94.1% of specimens. These tests allowed a thorough etiological assessment of respiratory viruses infecting children in hospital settings and would assist public health interventions. PMID:19158263

  2. Comparison of the Vidas System and Two Recent Fully Automated Assays for Diagnosis and Follow-Up of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women and Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dard, Céline; Fricker Hidalgo, Hélène; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Pelloux, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Serological testing to detect toxoplasmosis is of major importance to avoid the possible effects of the disease in newborns. This study assessed anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM with the Vidas (bioMérieux), Architect (Abbott), and Liaison (DiaSorin) systems in 631 sera from pregnant women and newborns as well as anti-Toxoplasma IgG avidity with these three systems on 54 sera from pregnant women with positive IgG and IgM. The IgG and IgM results were in agreement in, respectively, 95.2% and 98.3% (Vidas versus Architect) and 96.9% and 95.3% (Vidas versus Liaison) of the samples. Specificities were excellent for all the assays, while Vidas sensitivities ranged (depending on the classification of gray zone results) from 93.8 to 98.4% for IgG (Architect, 84.4 to 93.8%; Liaison, 93.8%) and from 81.8 to 90.9% for IgM (Architect, 63.6%; Liaison, 81.8 to 90.9%). In seroconversion sequences, IgMs were generally detected simultaneously by the three assays, while Architect was the earliest assay to detect IgG. In noninfected children, maternally transmitted IgGs were detected for a longer time with Architect than with the other systems. IgMs were positive in only one infected child with the Vidas and Liaison systems. Significantly more sera were classified in the high-avidity category with Vidas than with Architect. This evaluation shows similar performances for Vidas and more recent systems. The Vidas system adequately detects toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and newborns. This system fits the needs of laboratories working on small routine series for first-line testing as well as expert laboratories, due to a high specificity and a powerful avidity test. PMID:23740928

  3. Effect of procalcitonin-guided antibiotic treatment on mortality in acute respiratory infections : A patient level meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuetz, Philipp; Wirz, Yannick; Sager, Ramon; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Stolz, Daiana; Tamm, Michael; Bouadma, Lila; Luyt, Charles E; Wolff, Michel; Chastre, Jean; Tubach, Florence; Kristoffersen, Kristina B; Burkhardt, Olaf; Welte, Tobias; Schroeder, Stefan; Nobre, Vandack; Wei, Long; Bucher, Heiner C; Annane, Djillali; Reinhart, Konrad; Falsey, Ann R; Branche, Angela; Damas, Pierre; Nijsten, Maarten W N; de Lange, Dylan W.; Deliberato, Rodrigo O; Oliveira, Carolina F; Maravić-Stojković, Vera; Verduri, Alessia; Beghé, Bianca; Cao, Bin; Shehabi, Yahya; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik S; Corti, Caspar; van Oers, Jos A H; Beishuizen, Albertus; Girbes, Armand R.J.; de Jong, Evelien; Briel, Matthias; Mueller, Beat

    Background: In February, 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the blood infection marker procalcitonin for guiding antibiotic therapy in patients with acute respiratory infections. This meta-analysis of patient data from 26 randomised controlled trials was designed to assess safety of

  4. Relationship of apelin, procalcitonin, and fetuin-A concentrations with carotid intima-media thickness in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topsakal, S; Akin, F; Turgut, S; Yaylali, G F; Herek, D; Ayada, C

    2015-07-01

    Acromegaly is characterized by excess growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations. There is conflicting evidence as to whether acromegaly is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis. Apelin is an adipose tissue-derived peptide that may be associated with hyperinsulinemia. Fetuin-A is a hepatocyte produced plasma glycoprotein that has an important role as a calcification inhibitor. The aim of this study was to examine apelin, fetuin-A, and procalcitonin concentrations and to assess their relationship with carotid intima medial thickness (cIMT) in subjects with acromegaly. Apelin, fetuin-A, and procalcitonin serum concentrations were measured in 37 (20 inactive and 17 active) subjects with acromegaly and 30 control subjects, along with carotid intima medial thickness. The concentrations of apelin, fetuin-A, and procalcitonin were increased in subjects with acromegaly. There were significant correlations between apelin, fetuin-A, and procalcitonin in subjects with acromegaly. Carotid intima medial thickness values were similar between control subjects and subjects with acromegaly. Carotid intima medial thickness was not increased in subjects with acromegaly. It is possible that the increased apelin and fetuin-A concentrations observed play a protective role against the development of atherosclerosis in subjects with acromegaly. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. CAN THE DETERMINATION OF PROCALCITONIN IN PREHOSPITAL (EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT BE A USEFUL AND PRECOCIOUS MARKER IN SEPSIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda Maria Neagoe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND The management of sepsis requires a hasty identification of infection, through the application of different dynamic strategies in prehospital and hospital conditions, through the implementation of a number of changes and by measuring the outcome of these changes thus ensuring a decrease in the mortality rate and allowing a rapid identification of the infection MATERIALS AND METHODS Procalcitonin (PCT was used as a marker of sepsis in emergency departments. Due to its sensitivity and molecular peculiarities, procalcitonin allows a rapid diagnosis of severe bacterial infections, and is able to differentiate viral infections from bacterial ones. It is also able to differentiate an infectious process from an inflammation, thus sketching a clinically applicable protocol that can be implemented and continuously improved. RESULTS The identification of the infectious process in the emergency department within 24 hours leads to a decreased in the mortality rate. Speedy diagnostic methods of infection based on the determination of specific, rapidly measurable, markers – procalcitonin in our case - can confirm the presence of sepsis and its’ outcome. CONCLUSIONS Prehospital determination of procalcitonin (PCT is recommended in the early diagnosis of sepsis and is also an indicator of its severity, starting from a solid theoretical database that is justified by the efficiency and effectiveness of its usage. Graphical abstract: Laboratory changes of inflammatory response REFERENCES 1. Uchil S, Ravi KV, Thimmaiah AK, Medha YR, Punith K. Significance of serum procalcitonin in sepsis. Indian J Crit Care Med. 2011;15:1–5. 2. Todi S, Chatterjee S, Bhattacharyya M. Epidemiology of severe sepsis in India. Crit Care Med. 2007;11:65. 3. Chan YL, Tseng CP, Tsay PK, Chang SS, Chiu TF, Chen JC. Procalcitonin as a marker of bacterial infection in the emergency department: an observational study. Crit Care Med. 2004;8:12-20. 4. Schuetz P

  6. Clinical and Cost-Effectiveness of Procalcitonin Test for Prodromal Meningococcal Disease-A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Bell

    Full Text Available Despite vaccines and improved medical intensive care, clinicians must continue to be vigilant of possible Meningococcal Disease in children. The objective was to establish if the procalcitonin test was a cost-effective adjunct for prodromal Meningococcal Disease in children presenting at emergency department with fever without source.Data to evaluate procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and white cell count tests as indicators of Meningococcal Disease were collected from six independent studies identified through a systematic literature search, applying PRISMA guidelines. The data included 881 children with fever without source in developed countries.The optimal cut-off value for the procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and white cell count tests, each as an indicator of Meningococcal Disease, was determined. Summary Receiver Operator Curve analysis determined the overall diagnostic performance of each test with 95% confidence intervals. A decision analytic model was designed to reflect realistic clinical pathways for a child presenting with fever without source by comparing two diagnostic strategies: standard testing using combined C-reactive protein and white cell count tests compared to standard testing plus procalcitonin test. The costs of each of the four diagnosis groups (true positive, false negative, true negative and false positive were assessed from a National Health Service payer perspective. The procalcitonin test was more accurate (sensitivity=0.89, 95%CI=0.76-0.96; specificity=0.74, 95%CI=0.4-0.92 for early Meningococcal Disease compared to standard testing alone (sensitivity=0.47, 95%CI=0.32-0.62; specificity=0.8, 95% CI=0.64-0.9. Decision analytic model outcomes indicated that the incremental cost effectiveness ratio for the base case was £-8,137.25 (US $ -13,371.94 per correctly treated patient.Procalcitonin plus standard recommended tests, improved the discriminatory ability for fatal Meningococcal Disease and was more cost

  7. Automation in Immunohematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Bajpai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process.

  8. Procalcitonin as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in diabetic foot infection. A current literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velissaris, Dimitrios; Pantzaris, Nikolaos-Dimitrios; Platanaki, Christina; Antonopoulou, Nikolina; Gogos, Charalampos

    2018-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are a very common cause of mortality and morbidity. The distinction between infected and non-infected DFU remains a very challenging task for clinicians in everyday practice. Even when infection is documented, the spectrum of diabetic foot infection is wide, ranging from cellulitis and soft tissue infection to osteomyelitis. Procalcitonin (PCT), a well-established sepsis biomarker, has been used in the diagnosis of several infections including osteomyelitis in patients with diabetes mellitus. This review gathers and presents all the relevant data, up until now, regarding the use of PCT as an assessment tool in diabetic patients with foot infection. Current evidence suggests that PCT levels could aid clinicians in distinguishing infected from non-infected DFUs as well as in the distinction between soft tissue infection and bone involvement, but further and larger studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  9. The role of elevated serum procalcitonin in neuroendocrine neoplasms of digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luohai; Zhang, Yu; Lin, Yuan; Deng, Langhui; Feng, Shiting; Chen, Minhu; Chen, Jie

    2017-12-01

    Elevated serum procalcitonin (PCT) was reported in patients with certain type of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs). The aim of this study was to assess the role of elevated serum PCT in NENs from digestive system. Serum PCT and serum CgA level were measured in 155 patients with NENs from digestive system. Elevated serum PCT was found in 63 patients (40.6%). Grade 3 disease was a significant factor associated with elevated serum PCT (OR, 9.24; 95%CI, 3.04-28.08; Pdigestive system, especially in patients with grade 3 disease. Serum PCT level can help evaluate treatment response and its elevation indicates poor prognosis. Combination of serum PCT and CgA can improve outcome prediction. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Procalcitonin and albumin as prognostic biomarkers in elderly patients with a risk of bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashikawa, Toshihiro; Okuro, Masashi; Ishigami, Keiichirou; Mae, Kunihiro; Sangen, Ryusho; Mizuno, Takurou; Usuda, Daisuke; Saito, Atushi; Kasamaki, Yuji; Fukuda, Akihiro; Saito, Hitoshi; Morimoto, Shigeto; Kanda, Tsugiyasu

    2018-01-01

    Aim This study was performed to investigate serum procalcitonin (PCT) and albumin (Alb) as prognostic biomarkers in elderly patients at risk of bacterial infection. Methods Serum PCT was measured in 270 hospitalized patients (mean age, 77.4 years) with suspected bacterial infection. The PCT-negative (2.5 g/dL), no significant difference in survival was observed between the PCT-positive and -negative groups. However, within the Alb-negative group (≤2.5 g/dL), the survival rate was significantly lower in the PCT-positive than -negative group. PCT was strongly associated with CRP and Alb, and having both PCT positivity and Alb negativity was a prognostic factor for elderly people at risk of bacterial infection. Conclusions Combined measurement of PCT with Alb is expected to be a valuable tool to assess prognosis in elderly people at risk of bacterial infection.

  11. Interleukin-6 and procalcitonin as biomarkers in mortality prediction of hospitalized patients with community acquired pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Andrijevic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Community acquired pneumonia (CAP may present as life-threatening infection with uncertain progression and outcome of treatment. Primary aim of the trial was determination of the cut-off value of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6 and procalcitonin (PCT above which, 30-day mortality in hospitalized patients with CAP, could be predicted with high sensitivity and specificity. We investigated correlation between serum levels of IL-6 and PCT at admission and available scoring systems of CAP (pneumonia severity index-PSI, modified early warning score-MEWS and (Confusion, Urea nitrogen, respiratory rate, Blood pressure, ≥65 years of age-CURB65. Methods: This was prospective, non-randomized trial which included 101 patients with diagnosed CAP. PSI, MEWS and CURB65 were assessed on first day of hospitalization. IL-6 and PCT were also sampled on the first day of hospitalization. Results: Based on ROC curve analysis (AUC ± SE = 0.934 ± 0.035; 95%CI(0.864-1.0; P = 0.000 hospitalized CAP patients with elevated IL-6 level have 93.4% higher risk level for lethal outcome. Cut-off value of 20.2 pg/ml IL-6 shows sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 87% in mortality prediction. ROC curve analysis confirmed significant role of procalcitonin as a mortality predictor in CAP patients (AUC ± SE = 0.667 ± 0.062; 95%CI(0.546-0.789; P = 0.012. Patients with elevated PCT level have 66.7% higher risk level for lethal outcome. As a predictor of mortality at the cut-off value of 2.56 ng/ml PCT shows sensitivity of 76% and specificity of 61.8%. Conclusions: Both IL-6 and PCI are significant for prediction of 30-day mortality in hospitalized patients with CAP. Serum levels of IL6 correlate with major CAP scoring systems.

  12. An Evaluation of Serum Procalcitonin and C-Reactive Protein Levels as Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers of Severe Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szederjesi Janos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recommendations have been made, following the multicenter Surviving Sepsis Campaign study, to standardize the definition of severe sepsis with reference to several parameters such as haemodynamic stability, acid-base balance, bilirubin, creatinine, International Normalized Ratio (INR, urine output and pulmonary functional value of the ratio between arterial oxigen partial pressure and inspiratory oxigen concentration. Procalcitonin (PCT is considered to be a gold standard biomarker for the inflammatory response, and recent studies have shown that it may help to discover whether a seriously ill person is developing sepsis. C-reactive protein (CRP is also used as a marker of inflammation in the body, as its blood levels increase if there is any inflammation in the body. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum procalcitonin and C-reactive protein levels as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of severe sepsis.

  13. C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, clinical pulmonary infection score, and pneumonia severity scores in nursing home acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfyridis, Ilias; Georgiadis, Georgios; Vogazianos, Paris; Mitis, Georgios; Georgiou, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    Patients with nursing home acquired pneumonia (NHAP) present a distinct group of lower respiratory track infections with different risk factors, clinical presentation, and mortality rates. To evaluate the diagnostic value of clinical pulmonary infection score (CPIS), C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin and to compare the accuracy of pneumonia severity scores (confusion, urea nitrogen, breathing frequency, blood pressure, ≥ 65 y of age [CURB-65]; pneumonia severity index; NHAP index; systolic blood pressure, multilobar involvement, albumin, breathing frequency, tachycardia, confusion, oxygen, arterial pH [SMART-COP]; and systolic blood pressure, oxygen, age > 65 y, breathing frequency [SOAR]) in predicting in-patient mortality from NHAP. Nursing home residents admitted to the hospital with acute respiratory illness were enrolled in the study. Subjects were classified as having NHAP (Group A) or other pulmonary disorders (Group B). Clinical, imaging, and laboratory data were assessed to compute CPIS and severity scores. C-reactive protein and procalcitonin were measured by immunonephelometry and immunoassay, respectively. Fifty-eight subjects were diagnosed with NHAP (Group A) and 29 with other pulmonary disorders (Group B). The mean C-reactive protein ± SD was 16.38 ± 8.6 mg/dL in Group A and 5.2 ± 5.6 mg/dL in Group B (P 1.1 ng/mL was an independent predictor of in-patient mortality. Of the pneumonia severity scores, CURB-65 showed greater accuracy in predicting in-patient mortality (area under the curve of 0.68, 95% CI 0.53-0.84, P = .06). CPIS, procalcitonin, and C-reactive protein are reliable for the diagnosis of NHAP. Procalcitonin and CURB-65 are accurate in predicting in-patient mortality in NHAP.

  14. Evaluation of a polymerase chain reaction assay for pathogen detection in septic patients under routine condition: an observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Bloos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Treatment of septic shock relies on appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Current culture based methods deliver final results after days, which may delay potentially lifesaving adjustments in antimicrobial therapy. This study was undertaken to compare PCR with blood culture results under routine conditions regarding 1. impact on antimicrobial therapy, and 2. time to result, in patients with presumed sepsis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This was an observational study in a 50 beds ICU of a university hospital. In 245 patients with suspected sepsis, 311 concomitant blood cultures and blood for multiplex PCR (VYOO(® were obtained. 45 of 311 blood cultures (14.5% and 94 of 311 PCRs (30.1% were positive. However, blood culture or microbiological sampling from the presumed site of infection rarely confirmed PCR results and vice versa. Median time to positivity and interquartile range were 24.2 (18.0, 27.5 hours for the PCR and 68 (52.2, 88.5 hours for BC (p<0.01. PCR median time to result was dependent on technician availability (53.5 hours on Saturdays, 7.2 hours under optimal logistic conditions. PCR results showed good correlation with procalcitonin (p<0.001. In 34% of patients with positive PCRs antimicrobial therapy was considered inadequate according to assessment of clinical arbitrators including 5 patients with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE, 3 cases with multiresistant staphylococci, and 4 patients with fungi. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this observational study support the hypothesis that PCR results are available faster, are more frequently positive, and may result in earlier adjustment of antimicrobial therapy. However, shorter time to result can only be fully exploited when the laboratory is adequately staffed for a 24 hour/7 day service, or when point of care/automated assay systems become available.

  15. Procalcitonin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal" values. By comparing your test results with reference values, you and your healthcare provider can see if ... g., blood culture , urine culture ), lactate , blood gases , complete blood count (CBC) , and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis . When is ...

  16. Rover waste assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Rover waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched 235 U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for 137 Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Effects of procalcitonin-guided treatment on antibiotic use and need for mechanical ventilation in patients with acute asthma exacerbation: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanis H. Ibrahim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary outcome was to determine whether serum procalcitonin-guided antibiotic therapy can reduce antibiotic exposure in patients with an acute exacerbation of asthma presenting to the primary care facility or emergency department, or during hospital admission. The secondary outcome was the need for mechanical ventilation. Methods: An extensive literature search was performed to identify randomized controlled clinical trials (published in English that compared serum procalcitonin-guided antibiotic therapy versus antibiotic use according to physician’s discretion for adult participants with mild, moderate, or severe acute asthma exacerbations. Results: Four randomized controlled trials evaluating 457 patients were included in this meta-analysis, with significant homogeneity observed among these studies. Procalcitonin-based protocols decreased antibiotic prescriptions (relative risk 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.50–0.67. The conclusion regarding the difference between the two groups in the need for mechanical ventilation (relative risk 1.10, 95% confidence interval 0.62–1.94 was guarded due to inadequate power and the potential for type II error. The overall quality of evidence was also limited by the lack of double-blinding. Conclusions: These data suggest a potential benefit for the use of serum procalcitonin in guiding antibiotic therapy in patients with an acute asthma exacerbation and advocates the need for more randomized controlled trials. Keywords: Procalcitonin, Asthma, Antibiotic, Exacerbation, Guided

  19. Home Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I briefly discuss the importance of home automation system. Going in to the details I briefly present a real time designed and implemented software and hardware oriented house automation research project, capable of automating house's electricity and providing a security system to detect the presence of unexpected behavior.

  20. Procalcitonin levels in patients with positive blood culture, positive body fluid culture, sepsis, and severe sepsis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Li, Xia-Xi; Jiang, Ling-Xiao; Du, Meng; Liu, Zhan-Guo; Cen, Zhong-Ran; Wang, Hua; Guo, Zhen-Hui; Chang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Numerous investigations on procalcitonin (PCT) have been carried out, although few with large sample size. To deal with the complexity of sepsis, an understanding of PCT in heterogeneous clinical conditions is required. Hospitalized patients aged 10-79 years were included in this retrospective and cross-sectional study. PCT tests were assayed within 2 days of blood culture. A total of 2952 cases (from 2538 patients) were enrolled in this study, including 440 cases in the 'positive BC' group, 123 cases in the 'positive body fluid culture' group, and 2389 cases in the 'negative all culture' group. Median PCT values were 4.53 ng/ml, 2.95 ng/ml, and 0.49 ng/ml, respectively. Median PCT values in the gram-negative BC group and gram-positive BC group, respectively, were 6.99 ng/ml and 2.96 ng/ml. Median PCT values in the 'positive hydrothorax culture' group, 'positive ascites culture' group, 'positive bile culture' group, and 'positive cerebrospinal fluid culture' group, respectively, were 1.39 ng/ml, 8.32 ng/ml, 5.98 ng/ml, and 0.46 ng/ml. In all, 357 cases were classified into the 'sepsis' group, 150 of them were classified into the 'severe sepsis' group. Median PCT values were 5.63 ng/ml and 11.06 ng/ml, respectively. PCT could be used in clinical algorithms to diagnose positive infections and sepsis. Different PCT levels could be related to different kinds of microbemia, different infection sites, and differing severity of sepsis.

  1. The diagnostic value of procalcitonin, adenosine deaminase for tuberculous pleural effusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jia; Jing Xiufeng; Hui Fuxin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore differential diagnostic value of procalcitonin (PCT), adenosine deaminase (ADA) in pleural fluid and serum for tuberculous pleural effusions. Methods: The concentrations of PCT and ADA both in serum and pleural fluid in one hundred and twenty-eight patients with pleural effusion were detected. These patients were divided into three groups. Fifty-two patients with tuberculous plueral effusion were composed of the tuberculous group. Twenty-two patients with parapneumonic effusion composed the pneumonic group and forty patients with malignant pleural effusion and fourteen patients with heart faliure composed of the control group. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in serum PCT among the three groups (P > 0.05). PCT of pleural fluid was significantly increased in tuberculous and parapneumonic groups compared to the control group (P < 0.05). ADA activities in tuberculous serum and pleural fluid were both higher than those in the parapneumonic and the control groups (P < 0.01). The ratio of ADA in pleural fluid and serum (P /S) was calculated. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of P /S (cut-off value 1.27) were 92.3% and 100% respectively for tuberculous pleural effusions calcuted by receiver operating curve. Conclusion: Combined measurements of PCT and ADA in pleural fluid are useful in diagnosing tuberculous pleural effusions. (authors)

  2. Procalcitonin, MR-Proadrenomedullin, and Cytokines Measurement in Sepsis Diagnosis: Advantages from Test Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Angeletti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Elevated cytokines levels correlate with sepsis severity and mortality but their role in the diagnosis is controversial, whereas Procalcitonin (PCT has been largely used. Recently, the mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM has been combined with PCT for diagnosis optimization. In this study the combined measurement of PCT, MR-proADM, and cytokines in patients with sepsis was evaluated. Methods. One hundred and four septic patients and 101 controls were enrolled. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis and multiple logistic regression were used to evaluate applicant markers for sepsis diagnosis. Markers with best Odds Ratio (OR were combined, and the posttest probability and a composite score were computed. Results. Based upon ROC curves analysis, PCT, MR-proADM, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and MCP-1 were considered applicant for sepsis diagnosis. Among these PCT, MR-proADM , IL-6, and TNF-α showed the best OR. A better posttest probability was found with the combination of PCT with MR-proADM and PCT with IL-6 or TNF-α compared to the single marker. A composite score of PCT, MR-proADM, and TNF-α showed the best ROC curve in the early diagnosis of sepsis. Conclusion. The combination of PCT with other markers should expedite diagnosis and treatment of sepsis optimizing clinical management.

  3. Procalcitonin for the early prediction of renal parenchymal involvement in children with UTI: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotoula, Aggeliki; Gardikis, Stefanos; Tsalkidis, Aggelos; Mantadakis, Elpis; Zissimopoulos, Athanassios; Kambouri, Katerina; Deftereos, Savvas; Tripsianis, Gregorios; Manolas, Konstantinos; Chatzimichael, Athanassios; Vaos, George

    2009-01-01

    In order to establish the most reliable marker for distinguishing urinary tract infections (UTI) with and without renal parenchymal involvement (RPI), we recorded the clinical features and admission leukocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and serum procalcitonin (PCT) in 57 children (including 43 girls) aged 2-108 months admitted with a first episode of UTI. RPI was evaluated by Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy within 7 days of admission. To establish cut-off points for ESR, CRP, and PCT, we used receiver operating characteristics curves and compared the area under the curve for ESR, CRP, and PCT. Twenty-seven children were diagnosed as having RPI based on positive renal scintigraphy. A body temperature of >38 degrees C, a history of diarrhea, and poor oral intake were more common in patients with RPI. ESR, CRP, and PCT, but not leukocyte count, were significantly higher in patients with RPI (P UTI than ESR and CRP. Using a cut-off value of 0.85 ng/ml, PCT had the best performance, with sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 89%, 97%, 96%, and 91% respectively. Serum PCT is a better marker than ESR, CRP, and leukocyte count for the early prediction of RPI in children with a first episode of UTI.

  4. Procalcitonin levels in bloodstream infections caused by different sources and species of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Sheng Tao; Sun, Li Chao; Jia, Hong Bing; Gao, Wen; Yang, Jian Ping; Zhang, Guo Qiang

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate procalcitonin (PCT) diagnostic accuracy in discriminating gram-negative (GN) from gram-positive (GP) bloodstream infections and determining the relationship between PCT levels, infection sites, and pathogen types. Clinical and laboratory data were collected from patients with blood culture (BC)-positive sepsis between January 2014 and December 2015. PCT levels at different infection sites were compared, as was the presence of GN and GP bloodstream infection. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was generated to assess diagnostic accuracy. Of the 486 monomicrobial BCs, 254 (52.26%) were positive for GN bacteria (GNB), and 202 (42.18%) for GP bacteria (GPB). Median PCT levels were higher in BCs positive for GN (2.42ng/ml, IQR: 0.38-15.52) than in those positive for GPB (0.49ng/ml, IQR: 0.13-5.89) (PAcinetobacter baumanni/Burkholderia cepacia, Klebsiella pneumonia and Acinetobacter baumanni. PCT levels caused by GPB differed between Staphylococcus epidermidis/Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus hominis/Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis/S.hominis/S. haemolyticus. Among patients with known infection sites, there were statistical differences in PCT levels between abdominal infection and pneumonia/infective endocarditis, urinary tract infection and pneumonia/catheter-related infection/infective endocarditis. PCT can distinguish between GNB and GPB infection, as well as between different bacterial species and infection sites. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Procalcitonin levels in gram-positive, gram-negative, and fungal bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leli, Christian; Ferranti, Marta; Moretti, Amedeo; Al Dhahab, Zainab Salim; Cenci, Elio; Mencacci, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) can discriminate bacterial from viral systemic infections and true bacteremia from contaminated blood cultures. The aim of this study was to evaluate PCT diagnostic accuracy in discriminating Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and fungal bloodstream infections. A total of 1,949 samples from patients with suspected bloodstream infections were included in the study. Median PCT value in Gram-negative (13.8 ng/mL, interquartile range (IQR) 3.4-44.1) bacteremias was significantly higher than in Gram-positive (2.1 ng/mL, IQR 0.6-7.6) or fungal (0.5 ng/mL, IQR 0.4-1) infections (P Gram-negatives from Gram-positives at the best cut-off value of 10.8 ng/mL and an AUC of 0.944 (95% CI 0.919-0.969, P Gram-negatives from fungi at the best cut-off of 1.6 ng/mL. Additional results showed a significant difference in median PCT values between Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermentative Gram-negative bacteria (17.1 ng/mL, IQR 5.9-48.5 versus 3.5 ng/mL, IQR 0.8-21.5; P Gram-negative from Gram-positive and fungal bloodstream infections. Nevertheless, its utility to predict different microorganisms needs to be assessed in further studies.

  6. Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein in urinary tract infection diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui-Ying; Liu, Hua-Wei; Liu, Ji-Ling; Dong, Jun-Hua

    2014-05-30

    Urinary infections are a common type of pediatric disease, and their treatment and prognosis are closely correlated with infection location. Common clinical manifestations and laboratory tests are insufficient to differentiate between acute pyelonephritis and lower urinary tract infection. This study was conducted to explore a diagnostic method for upper and lower urinary tract infection differentiation. The diagnostic values of procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were analyzed using the receiver operating characteristic curve method for upper and lower urinary tract infection differentiation. PCT was determined using chemiluminescent immunoassay. The PCT and CRP values in children with acute pyelonephritis were significantly higher than those in children with lower urinary tract infection (3.90 ± 3.51 ng/ml and 68.17 ± 39.42 mg/l vs. 0.48 ± 0.39 ng/ml and 21.39 ± 14.92 mg/l). The PCT values were correlated with the degree of renal involvement, whereas the CRP values failed to show such a significant correlation. PCT had a sensitivity of 90.47% and a specificity of 88% in predicting nephropathia, whereas CRP had sensitivity of 85.71% and a specificity of 48%. Both PCT and CRP can be used for upper and lower urinary tract infection differentiation, but PCT has higher sensitivity and specificity in predicting pyelonephritis than CRP. PCT showed better results than CRP. PCT values were also correlated with the degree of renal involvement.

  7. Procalcitonin for prediction of chorioamnionitis in preterm premature rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornburg, Loralei L; Queenan, Ruthanne; Brandt-Griffith, Brianne; Pressman, Eva K

    2016-01-01

    To assess serum procalcitonin (PCT), a marker of monocyte activity, in predicting chorioamnionitis in preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). Prospective cohort study in singleton gestation patients with PPROM between 2 2 + 0 to 3 3 + 6 weeks gestation. Two blood samples were taken - admission and delivery or diagnosis of clinical chorioamnionitis. Maternal serum PCT > 0.1 ng/mL was considered positive. Patients were divided into four groups: clinical evidence of chorioamnionitis confirmed by placental pathology (group C + P); pathological evidence of chorioamnionitis without clinical signs (group P); clinical signs only (group C); and patients without clinical or pathological findings (group N). Groups were compared to gestational age matched controls. Forty eight patients recruited, with 28 eligible for analysis: 10 in C + P group, 10 P group, 3 C group, and 5 N group. None of the control or PPROM patients had positive PCT on admission. At delivery, 3 of 10 group C + P and 4 of 10 group P had positive PCT. Maternal serum PCT sensitivity was 50% and specificity 55.6% for diagnosis of pathological chorioamnionitis. Maternal serum PCT is not detectable in PPROM patients at admission or in uncomplicated pregnant controls and is a poor predictor for clinical or pathological chorioamnionitis.

  8. Monitoring procalcitonin in febrile neutropenia: what is its utility for initial diagnosis of infection and reassessment in persistent fever?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Owen Robinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Management of febrile neutropenic episodes (FE is challenged by lacking microbiological and clinical documentation of infection. We aimed at evaluating the utility of monitoring blood procalcitonin (PCT in FE for initial diagnosis of infection and reassessment in persistent fever. METHODS: PCT kinetics was prospectively monitored in 194 consecutive FE (1771 blood samples: 65 microbiologically documented infections (MDI, 33.5%; 49 due to non-coagulase-negative staphylococci, non-CNS, 68 clinically documented infections (CDI, 35%; 39 deep-seated, and 61 fever of unexplained origin (FUO, 31.5%. RESULTS: At fever onset median PCT was 190 pg/mL (range 30-26'800, without significant difference among MDI, CDI and FUO. PCT peak occurred on day 2 after onset of fever: non-CNS-MDI/deep-seated-CDI (656, 80-86350 vs. FUO (205, 33-771; p500 pg/mL distinguished non-CNS-MDI/deep-seated-CDI from FUO with 56% sensitivity and 90% specificity. PCT was >500 pg/ml in only 10% of FUO (688, 570-771. A PCT peak >500 pg/mL (1196, 524-11950 occurred beyond 3 days of persistent fever in 17/21 (81% invasive fungal diseases (IFD. This late PCT peak identified IFD with 81% sensitivity and 57% specificity and preceded diagnosis according to EORTC-MSG criteria in 41% of cases. In IFD responding to therapy, median days to PCT <500 pg/mL and defervescence were 5 (1-23 vs. 10 (3-22; p = 0.026, respectively. CONCLUSION: While procalcitonin is not useful for diagnosis of infection at onset of neutropenic fever, it may help to distinguish a minority of potentially severe infections among FUOs on day 2 after onset of fever. In persistent fever monitoring procalcitonin contributes to early diagnosis and follow-up of invasive mycoses.

  9. The Procalcitonin And Survival Study (PASS) – A Randomised multi-center investigator-initiated trial to investigate whether daily measurements biomarker Procalcitonin and pro-active diagnostic and therapeutic responses to abnormal Procalcitonin levels, can improve survival in intensive care unit patients. Calculated sample size (target population): 1000 patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jens-Ulrik; Lundgren, Bettina; Hein, Lars; Mohr, Thomas; Petersen, Pernille L; Andersen, Lasse H; Lauritsen, Anne Ø; Hougaard, Sine; Mantoni, Teit; Bømler, Bonnie; Thornberg, Klaus J; Thormar, Katrin; Løken, Jesper; Steensen, Morten; Carl, Peder; Petersen, J Asger; Tousi, Hamid; Søe-Jensen, Peter; Bestle, Morten; Hestad, Søren; Andersen, Mads H; Fjeldborg, Paul; Larsen, Kim M; Rossau, Charlotte; Thomsen, Carsten B; Østergaard, Christian; Kjær, Jesper; Grarup, Jesper; Lundgren, Jens D

    2008-01-01

    Background Sepsis and complications to sepsis are major causes of mortality in critically ill patients. Rapid treatment of sepsis is of crucial importance for survival of patients. The infectious status of the critically ill patient is often difficult to assess because symptoms cannot be expressed and signs may present atypically. The established biological markers of inflammation (leucocytes, C-reactive protein) may often be influenced by other parameters than infection, and may be unacceptably slowly released after progression of an infection. At the same time, lack of a relevant antimicrobial therapy in an early course of infection may be fatal for the patient. Specific and rapid markers of bacterial infection have been sought for use in these patients. Methods Multi-centre randomized controlled interventional trial. Powered for superiority and non-inferiority on all measured end points. Complies with, "Good Clinical Practice" (ICH-GCP Guideline (CPMP/ICH/135/95, Directive 2001/20/EC)). Inclusion: 1) Age ≥ 18 years of age, 2) Admitted to the participating intensive care units, 3) Signed written informed consent. Exclusion: 1) Known hyper-bilirubinaemia. or hypertriglyceridaemia, 2) Likely that safety is compromised by blood sampling, 3) Pregnant or breast feeding. Computerized Randomisation: Two arms (1:1), n = 500 per arm: Arm 1: standard of care. Arm 2: standard of care and Procalcitonin guided diagnostics and treatment of infection. Primary Trial Objective: To address whether daily Procalcitonin measurements and immediate diagnostic and therapeutic response on day-to-day changes in procalcitonin can reduce the mortality of critically ill patients. Discussion For the first time ever, a mortality-endpoint, large scale randomized controlled trial with a biomarker-guided strategy compared to the best standard of care, is conducted in an Intensive care setting. Results will, with a high statistical power answer the question: Can the survival of critically ill

  10. The Procalcitonin And Survival Study (PASS – A Randomised multi-center investigator-initiated trial to investigate whether daily measurements biomarker Procalcitonin and pro-active diagnostic and therapeutic responses to abnormal Procalcitonin levels, can improve survival in intensive care unit patients. Calculated sample size (target population: 1000 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fjeldborg Paul

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sepsis and complications to sepsis are major causes of mortality in critically ill patients. Rapid treatment of sepsis is of crucial importance for survival of patients. The infectious status of the critically ill patient is often difficult to assess because symptoms cannot be expressed and signs may present atypically. The established biological markers of inflammation (leucocytes, C-reactive protein may often be influenced by other parameters than infection, and may be unacceptably slowly released after progression of an infection. At the same time, lack of a relevant antimicrobial therapy in an early course of infection may be fatal for the patient. Specific and rapid markers of bacterial infection have been sought for use in these patients. Methods Multi-centre randomized controlled interventional trial. Powered for superiority and non-inferiority on all measured end points. Complies with, "Good Clinical Practice" (ICH-GCP Guideline (CPMP/ICH/135/95, Directive 2001/20/EC. Inclusion: 1 Age ≥ 18 years of age, 2 Admitted to the participating intensive care units, 3 Signed written informed consent. Exclusion: 1 Known hyper-bilirubinaemia. or hypertriglyceridaemia, 2 Likely that safety is compromised by blood sampling, 3 Pregnant or breast feeding. Computerized Randomisation: Two arms (1:1, n = 500 per arm: Arm 1: standard of care. Arm 2: standard of care and Procalcitonin guided diagnostics and treatment of infection. Primary Trial Objective: To address whether daily Procalcitonin measurements and immediate diagnostic and therapeutic response on day-to-day changes in procalcitonin can reduce the mortality of critically ill patients. Discussion For the first time ever, a mortality-endpoint, large scale randomized controlled trial with a biomarker-guided strategy compared to the best standard of care, is conducted in an Intensive care setting. Results will, with a high statistical power answer the question: Can the survival

  11. Diagnostic performance of procalcitonin for hospitalised children with acute pyelonephritis presenting to the paediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shan-Ming; Chang, Hung-Ming; Hung, Tung-Wei; Chao, Yu-Hua; Tsai, Jeng-Dau; Lue, Ko-Huang; Sheu, Ji-Nan

    2013-05-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial infection in children that can result in permanent renal damage. This study prospectively assessed the diagnostic performance of procalcitonin (PCT) for predicting acute pyelonephritis (APN) among children with febrile UTI presenting to the paediatric emergency department (ED). Children aged ≤10 years with febrile UTI admitted to hospital from the paediatric ED were prospectively studied. Blood PCT, C reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count were measured in the ED. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, multilevel likelihood ratios, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to assess quantitative variables for diagnosing APN. The 136 enrolled patients (56 boys and 80 girls; age range 1 month to 10 years) were divided into APN (n=87) and lower UTI (n=49) groups according to (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scan results. The cut-off value for maximum diagnostic performance of PCT was 1.3 ng/ml (sensitivity 86.2%, specificity 89.8%). By multivariate regression analysis, only PCT and CRP were retained as significant predictors of APN. Comparing ROC curves, PCT had a significantly greater area under the curve than CRP, WBC count and fever for differentiating between APN and lower UTI. PCT has better sensitivity and specificity than CRP and WBC count for distinguishing between APN and lower UTI. PCT is a valuable marker for predicting APN in children with febrile UTI. It may be considered in the initial investigation and therapeutic strategies for children presenting to the ED.

  12. Procalcitonin Levels in Gram-Positive, Gram-Negative, and Fungal Bloodstream Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Leli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Procalcitonin (PCT can discriminate bacterial from viral systemic infections and true bacteremia from contaminated blood cultures. The aim of this study was to evaluate PCT diagnostic accuracy in discriminating Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and fungal bloodstream infections. A total of 1,949 samples from patients with suspected bloodstream infections were included in the study. Median PCT value in Gram-negative (13.8 ng/mL, interquartile range (IQR 3.4–44.1 bacteremias was significantly higher than in Gram-positive (2.1 ng/mL, IQR 0.6–7.6 or fungal (0.5 ng/mL, IQR 0.4–1 infections (P<0.0001. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve (AUC for PCT of 0.765 (95% CI 0.725–0.805, P<0.0001 in discriminating Gram-negatives from Gram-positives at the best cut-off value of 10.8 ng/mL and an AUC of 0.944 (95% CI 0.919–0.969, P<0.0001 in discriminating Gram-negatives from fungi at the best cut-off of 1.6 ng/mL. Additional results showed a significant difference in median PCT values between Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermentative Gram-negative bacteria (17.1 ng/mL, IQR 5.9–48.5 versus 3.5 ng/mL, IQR 0.8–21.5; P<0.0001. This study suggests that PCT may be of value to distinguish Gram-negative from Gram-positive and fungal bloodstream infections. Nevertheless, its utility to predict different microorganisms needs to be assessed in further studies.

  13. Can procalcitonin reduce unnecessary voiding cystoureterography in children with first febrile urinary tract infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimi-Asl, Aliasghar; Hosseini, Amir Hossein; Nabavizadeh, Pooneh

    2014-08-01

    Recently, new predictors of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children with a first febrile UTI such as Procalcitonin (PCT) were introduced as selective approaches for cystography. This study wants to show the capability of PCT in predicting presence of VUR at the first febrile UTI in children. Patients between 1 month and 15 years of age with febrile UTI were included in this prospective study. PCT values were measured through a semi-quantitative method in four grades comprising values less than 0.5, 0.5-2.0, 2.0-10.0 and above 10.0 ng/ml. The independence of PCT levels in predicting VUR were assessed after adjustment for all potential confounders using a logistic-regression model. A total of 68 patients, 54 (79.4%) girls and 14 (20.6%) boys were evaluated. PCT level demonstrated a significant difference between patients with positive VUR and those with negative VUR (P=0.012). To calculate the independent factors that may predict the presence of VUR, all included variables were adjusted for age and sex. Results of logistic regression showed that a PCT level between 2.0 and 10.0 ng/mL could independently predict presence of VUR (Odds ratio=6.11, CI 95%= 1.22-30.77, P=0.03). Our finding in this study showed that readily available semi-quantitative measures for PCT are feasible for detecting patients with VUR. We suggest that in semi-quantitative measurements of PCT, levels between 2.0 and 10.0 ng/ml could be an independent predictor of positive VUR.

  14. Comparison of procalcitonin and different guidelines for first febrile urinary tract infection in children by imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pei-Fen; Ku, Min-Sho; Tsai, Jeng-Dau; Choa, Yu-Hua; Hung, Tung-Wei; Lue, Ko-Huang; Sheu, Ji-Nan

    2014-09-01

    We examined the ability of a procalcitonin (PCT) protocol to detect vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and renal scarring (RS), evaluated procedural costs and radiation burden, and compared four representative guidelines for children with their first febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). Children aged ≤2 years with their first febrile UTI who underwent renal ultrasonography (US), acute and late technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-dimercaptosuccinic acid scan, and voiding cystourethrography were prospectively studied. The representative guidelines applied in a retrospective simulation included the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), National Institute of Clinical Excellence, top-down approach (TDA), and Italian Society of Pediatric Nephrology (ISPN). These were compared in terms of ability to detect abnormalities, procedural costs and radiation. Of 278 children analyzed, 172 (61.9%) had acute pyelonephritis. There was VUR in 101 (36.3%) children, including 73 (26.3%) with grades III-V VUR. RS was identified in 75 (27.0%) children. To detect VUR, TDA and PCT had the highest sensitivity for grades I-V VUR (80.2%) and III-V VUR (94.5%), respectively, whereas AAP had the highest specificity for I-V VUR (77.4%) and III-V VUR (78.0%), respectively. TDA and PCT had the highest sensitivity (100%) for detecting RS. The highest cost and radiation dose was associated with TDA, whereas AAP had the least expenditure and radiation exposure. By multivariate analysis, PCT and VUR, especially grades III-V, were independent predictors of RS. There is no perfect guideline for first febrile UTI children. The PCT protocol has good ability for detecting high-grade VUR and RS. If based on available imaging modalities and reducing cost and radiation burden, clinical suggestions in the AAP guidelines represent a considerable protocol.

  15. Copeptin, procalcitonin and routine inflammatory markers-predictors of infection after stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Fluri

    Full Text Available Early predictors for the development of stroke-associated infection may identify patients at high risk and reduce post-stroke infection and mortality.In 383 prospectively enrolled acute stroke patients we assessed time point and type of post-stroke infections (i.e. pneumonia, urinary tract infection (UTI other infection (OI. Blood samples were collected on admission, and days 1, and 3 to assess white blood cells (WBC, monocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP, procalcitonin (PCT, and copeptin. To determine the magnitude of association with the development of infections, odds ratios (OR were calculated for each prognostic blood marker. The discriminatory ability of different predictors was assessed, by calculating area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC. Prognostic models including the three parameters with the best performance were identified.Of 383 patients, 66 (17.2% developed an infection after onset of stroke. WBC, CRP, copeptin and PCT were all independent predictors of any infection, pneumonia and UTI developed at least 24 hours after measurements. The combination of the biomarkers WBC, CRP and copeptin (AUC: 0.92 and WBC, CRP and PCT (AUC: 0.90 showed a better predictive accuracy concerning the development of pneumonia during hospitalization compared to each marker by itself (p-Wald <0.0001.Among ischemic stroke patients, copeptin, PCT, WBC and CRP measured on admission were predictors of infection in general, and specifically for pneumonia and UTI within 5 days after stroke. The combination of these biomarkers improved the prediction of patients who developed an infection.

  16. [Ability of procalcitonin to predict bacteremia in patients with community acquired pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián-Jiménez, Agustín; Timón Zapata, Jesús; Laserna Mendieta, Emilio José; Parejo Miguez, Raquel; Flores Chacartegui, Manuel; Gallardo Schall, Pablo

    2014-04-07

    To analyze the usefulness and ability of procalcitonin (PCT) to predict the presence of bacteremia in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) or other bacteria. This is an observational, prospective and descriptive study involving patients who were diagnosed with CAP in our Emergency Department. Data collected included socio-demographic and comorbidity variables, Charlson index, stage in the Pneumonia Severity Index and criteria of severe NAC, microbiologic studies and biomarker determinations (PCT and C reactive protein). The follow-up was carried out during 30 days to calculate the predictive power and the diagnostic performance for bacteremia caused or not by S. pneumoniae. Four hundred and seventy-four patients were finally included in the study. Blood cultures were positive in 85 individuals (17.9%) and S. pneumoniae was identified as the responsible pathogen in 75 of them (88.4%) (in 5 cases together with another agent). The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve for PCT to predict bacteremia (caused by S. pneumoniae or not) was 0.988 (95% confidence interval 0.908-0.995; P98% and>10, respectively. The most frequently isolated serotypes of S. pneumoniae were 19A, 7F, 1 and 3. The highest mean levels of PCT were found in serotypes 7F, 19A, 3 and 1, which showed statistically significant differences with regard to the others serotypes considered (P=.008). Serotypes associated with the highest percentage of severe sepsis-septic shock, 30-days mortality and multi-lobe or bilateral affection were 3, 1 and 19A; 1, 3 and 19A; and 3, 19A and 6A, respectively. PCT had a remarkable diagnostic ability to discard or suspect bacteremia and to guide the etiology of CAP caused by S. pneumoniae. Serotypes 1, 3, 19A and 7F showed greater frequency, systemic inflammatory response and clinical severity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy and safety of procalcitonin guidance in reducing the duration of antibiotic treatment in critically ill patients : a randomised, controlled, open-label trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Evelien; van Oers, Jos A; Beishuizen, Albertus; Vos, Piet; Vermeijden, Wytze J; Haas, Lenneke E; Loef, Bert G; Dormans, Tom; van Melsen, Gertrude C; Kluiters, Yvette C; Kemperman, Hans; van den Elsen, Maarten J; Schouten, Jeroen A; Streefkerk, Jörn O; Krabbe, Hans G; Kieft, Hans; Kluge, Georg H; van Dam, Veerle C; van Pelt, Joost; Bormans, Laura; Otten, Martine Bokelman; Reidinga, Auke C; Endeman, Henrik; Twisk, Jos W; van de Garde, Ewoudt M W; de Smet, Anne Marie G A; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Girbes, Armand R; Nijsten, Maarten W; de Lange, Dylan W

    BACKGROUND: In critically ill patients, antibiotic therapy is of great importance but long duration of treatment is associated with the development of antimicrobial resistance. Procalcitonin is a marker used to guide antibacterial therapy and reduce its duration, but data about safety of this

  18. Procalcitonin guided antibiotic therapy and hospitalization in patients with lower respiratory tract infections: a prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henzen Christoph

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Lower respiratory tract infections like acute bronchitis, exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and community-acquired pneumonia are often unnecessarily treated with antibiotics, mainly because of physicians' difficulties to distinguish viral from bacterial cause and to estimate disease-severity. The goal of this trial is to compare medical outcomes, use of antibiotics and hospital resources in a strategy based on enforced evidence-based guidelines versus procalcitonin guided antibiotic therapy in patients with lower respiratory tract infections. Methods and design: We describe a prospective randomized controlled non-inferiority trial with an open intervention. We aim to randomize over a fixed recruitment period of 18 months a minimal number of 1002 patients from 6 hospitals in Switzerland. Patients must be >18 years of age with a lower respiratory tract infections Discussion: Use of and prolonged exposure to antibiotics in lower respiratory tract infections is high. The proposed trial investigates whether procalcitonin-guidance may safely reduce antibiotic consumption along with reductions in hospitalization costs and antibiotic resistance. It will additionally generate insights for improved prognostic assessment of patients with lower respiratory tract infections. Trial registration: ISRCTN95122877

  19. Did antepartum hypoxic insult caused by fetal vessel thrombosis influence the procalcitonin level in umbilical blood? A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Masatoki; Yamauchi, Aya; Yamashita, Rie; Sato, Yuichiro; Kodama, Yuki; Sameshima, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    We report a case of marked elevation of the procalcitonin level in umbilical blood and neonatal blood at birth. The mother did not perceive fetal motion. Antepartum fetal heart rate monitoring showed a loss of variability and absence of acceleration. No fetal breathing movement, fetal movement, or fetal tone were observed by ultrasonography. The female neonate was delivered by cesarean section at 25 weeks of gestation, with birthweight 774 g. The umbilical arterial pH value at birth was 7.29. Mild elevation in interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in umbilical blood were observed. Cytochrome c showed a high level in umbilical and neonatal blood at birth. Placental histopathology revealed multiple fetal vessel thrombosis in the large stem villi and chorionic vessels. The neonate showed no infectious signs throughout the neonatal period. Computed tomography at 3 months of age revealed atrophy in the cerebrum and cerebellum. At 1 year after birth, the infant showed spastic quadriplegia. In this case, antepartum asphyxia due to fetal vessel thrombosis may have influenced the elevation of procalcitonin level in umbilical blood and neonatal blood at birth. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Excluding infection through procalcitonin testing improves outcomes of congestive heart failure patients presenting with acute respiratory symptoms: results from the randomized ProHOSP trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Philipp; Kutz, Alexander; Grolimund, Eva; Haubitz, Sebastian; Demann, Désirée; Vögeli, Alaadin; Hitz, Fabienne; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Thomann, Robert; Falconnier, Claudine; Hoess, Claus; Henzen, Christoph; Marlowe, Robert J; Zimmerli, Werner; Mueller, Beat

    2014-08-20

    We sought to determine whether exclusion of infection and antibiotic stewardship with the infection biomarker procalcitonin improves outcomes in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients presenting to emergency departments with respiratory symptoms and suspicion of respiratory infection. We performed a secondary analysis of patients with a past medical history of CHF formerly included in a Swiss multicenter randomized-controlled trial. The trial compared antibiotic stewardship according to a procalcitonin algorithm or state-of-the-art guidelines (controls). The primary endpoint was a 30-day adverse outcome (death, intensive care unit admission); the secondary endpoints included a 30-day antibiotic exposure. In the 110/233 analyzed patients (47.2%) with low initial procalcitonin (<0.25 μg/L), suggesting the absence of systemic bacterial infection, those randomized to procalcitonin guidance (n=50) had a significantly lower adverse outcome rate compared to controls (n=60): 4% vs. 20% (absolute difference -16.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI) -28.4% to -3.6%, P=0.01), and significantly reduced antibiotic exposure [days] (mean 3.7 ± 4.0 vs. 6.5 ± 4.4, difference -2.8 [95% CI, -4.4 to -1.2], P<0.01). When initial procalcitonin was ≥0.25 μg/L, procalcitonin-guided patients had significantly reduced antibiotic exposure due to early stop of therapy without any difference in adverse outcomes (25.8% vs. 24.6%, difference [95% CI] 1.2% [-14.5% to 16.9%, P=0.88]). CHF patients presenting to the emergency department with respiratory symptoms and suspicion for respiratory infection had decreased antibiotic exposure and improved outcomes when procalcitonin measurement was used to exclude bacterial infection and guide antibiotic treatment. These data provide further evidence for the potential harmful effects of antibiotic / fluid treatment when used instead of diuretics and heart failure medication in clinically symptomatic CHF patients without underlying infection. Copyright

  1. Process automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Process automation technology has been pursued in the chemical processing industries and to a very limited extent in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Its effective use has been restricted in the past by the lack of diverse and reliable process instrumentation and the unavailability of sophisticated software designed for process control. The Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility was developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in part to demonstrate new concepts for control of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A demonstration of fuel reprocessing equipment automation using advanced instrumentation and a modern, microprocessor-based control system is nearing completion in the facility. This facility provides for the synergistic testing of all chemical process features of a prototypical fuel reprocessing plant that can be attained with unirradiated uranium-bearing feed materials. The unique equipment and mission of the IET facility make it an ideal test bed for automation studies. This effort will provide for the demonstration of the plant automation concept and for the development of techniques for similar applications in a full-scale plant. A set of preliminary recommendations for implementing process automation has been compiled. Some of these concepts are not generally recognized or accepted. The automation work now under way in the IET facility should be useful to others in helping avoid costly mistakes because of the underutilization or misapplication of process automation. 6 figs

  2. Hormone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisentraut, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay is described for measuring total triiodothyronine or total thyroxine levels in a sample of serum containing free endogenous thyroid hormone and endogenous thyroid hormone bound to thyroid hormone binding protein. The thyroid hormone is released from the protein by adding hydrochloric acid to the serum. The pH of the separated thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone binding protein is raised in the absence of a blocking agent without interference from the endogenous protein. 125 I-labelled thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone antibodies are added to the mixture, allowing the labelled and unlabelled thyroid hormone and the thyroid hormone antibody to bind competitively. This results in free thyroid hormone being separated from antibody bound thyroid hormone and thus the unknown quantity of thyroid hormone may be determined. A thyroid hormone test assay kit is described for this radioimmunoassay. It provides a 'single tube' assay which does not require blocking agents for endogenous protein interference nor an external solid phase sorption step for the separation of bound and free hormone after the competitive binding step; it also requires a minimum number of manipulative steps. Examples of the assay are given to illustrate the reproducibility, linearity and specificity of the assay. (UK)

  3. Assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzke, J.B.; Rosenberg, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of assays for monitoring concentrations of basic drugs in biological fluids containing a 1 -acid glycoproteins, such as blood (serum or plasma), is improved by the addition of certain organic phosphate compounds to minimize the ''protein effect.'' Kits containing the elements of the invention are also disclosed

  4. Efficacy and Safety of Procalcitonin-Guided Antibiotic Therapy in Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner C. Albrich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 14 randomized controlled studies to date, a procalcitonin (PCT-based algorithm has been proven to markedly reduce the use of antibiotics along with an unimpaired high safety and low complication rates in patients with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs. However, compliance with the algorithm and safety out of controlled study conditions has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Methods: We performed a prospective international multicenter observational post-study surveillance of consecutive adults with community-acquired LRTI in 14 centers (Switzerland (n = 10, France (n = 3 and the United States (n = 1. Results: Between September 2009 and November 2010, 1,759 patients were enrolled (median age 71; female sex 44.4%. 1,520 (86.4% patients had a final diagnosis of LRTI (community-acquired pneumonia (CAP, 53.7%; acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD, 17.1%; and acute bronchitis, 14.4%. Compliance with the PCT-guided therapy (overall 68.2% was highest in patients with bronchitis (81.0% vs. AECOPD, 70.1%; CAP, 63.7%; p < 0.001, outpatients (86.1% vs. inpatients, 65.9%; p < 0.001 and algorithm-experienced centers (82.5% vs. algorithm-naive, 60.1%; p < 0.001 and showed significant geographical differences. The initial decision about the antibiotic therapy was based on PCT value in 72.4%. In another 8.6% of patients, antibiotics were administered despite low PCT values but according to predefined criteria. Thus, the algorithm was followed in 81.0% of patients. In a multivariable Cox hazard ratio model, longer antibiotic therapy duration was associated with algorithm-non-compliance, country, hospitalization, CAP vs. bronchitis, renal failure and algorithm-naïvety of the study center. In a multivariable logistic regression complications (death, empyema, ICU treatment, mechanical ventilation, relapse, and antibiotic-associated side effects were significantly associated with increasing CURB65-Score, CAP

  5. Role of Procalcitonin in Differentiating between Infectious and Noninfectious Fevers among Patients with Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Jun; Tan, Thuan Tong; Lim, Soon Thye; Farid, Mohamad; Tao, Miriam; Quek, Richard; Chan, Alexandre; Tang, Tiffany

    2017-08-01

    The primary objective of this study is to prospectively evaluate the role of procalcitonin (PCT) in distinguishing infectious fever from noninfectious fever (NIF) among febrile lymphoma patients. The secondary objective is to evaluate the usefulness of PCT in distinguishing among bloodstream infections (BSI), local infections and unidentified infections (LIUI), and NIF. Patients with lymphoma and fever were prospectively recruited between August 2014 and November 2015. PCT was measured within 24 hours of fever onset (PCT1) and 24-72 hours thereafter (PCT2). The higher PCT value between PCT1 and PCT2 was also documented (PCT max ). PCT levels (PCT1, PCT2, and PCT max ) were compared for BSI, LIUI, and NIF. In addition, the difference between PCT1 and PCT2 was evaluated in patients with complete data on both PCT1 and PCT2. Of 108 eligible patients, 12 were diagnosed with BSI, 83 with LIUI, and 13 with NIF. PCT max was statistically different between the infectious fever (BSI and LIUI combined) and NIF groups (median PCT max : 0.44 ng/ml vs 0.19 ng/ml; p=0.026). PCT1 was not statistically different for patients with BSI, LIUI, and NIF (p=0.217). However, PCT2 and PCT max were significantly higher in patients with BSI compared to those with NIF (p=0.026 and 0.002, respectively). Meanwhile, patients with BSI have significantly higher PCT max values than those with LIUI (p=0.034). Among 90 cases with complete data on both PCT1 and PCT2, PCT2 was significantly higher than PCT1 in patients with BSI (median PCT: 0.98 ng/ml vs 0.47 ng/ml; p=0.045) and patients with LIUI (median PCT: 0.43 ng/ml vs 0.24 ng/ml; p=0.004), while not significant in patients with NIF (p=0.374). Two separate PCT measurements can differentiate between infectious fever and NIF and predict for BSI in lymphoma patients with fever. © 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  6. Distribution automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenemeyer, D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a Distribution Automation (DA) System enhances the efficiency and productivity of a utility. It also provides intangible benefits such as improved public image and market advantages. A utility should evaluate the benefits and costs of such a system before committing funds. The expenditure for distribution automation is economical when justified by the deferral of a capacity increase, a decrease in peak power demand, or a reduction in O and M requirements

  7. Correlates of immune protection: Standardized and automated assays to interrogate correlates of immunity--Phacilitate Vaccine Forum Washington 2011. The Grand Hyatt, Washington, DC January 24–26, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Wade

    2011-06-01

    The utility of functional cell mediated immune assays in the assessment of immune response or immunogenicity is increasing significantly as we search for surrogates to determine vaccine efficacy or therapeutic response. No definitive reports to date have demonstrated that CMI assays in human clinical trials correlate with clinical outcome, although animal and non human primate studies have reported surrogacy in varying degrees. This report discusses the approaches identified, their advantages and disadvantages, and their justification for inclusion in the clinical trial setting.

  8. Point-of-care procalcitonin test to reduce antibiotic exposure in patients hospitalized with acute exacerbation of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corti, Caspar; Fally, Markus; Fabricius-Bjerre, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to investigate whether point-of-care (POC) procalcitonin (PCT) measurement can reduce redundant antibiotic treatment in patients hospitalized with acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). METHODS: One-hundred and twenty adult patients admitted with AECOPD were...... in the PCT-arm vs 8.5 (IQR 1-11) days in the control arm (P=0.0169, Wilcoxon) for the intention-to-treat population. The proportion of patients using antibiotics for ≥5 days within the 28-day follow-up was 41.9% (PCT-arm) vs 67.2% (P=0.006, Fisher's exact) in the intention-to-treat population. For the per...... no apparent difference. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that the implementation of a POC PCT-guided algorithm can be used to substantially reduce antibiotic exposure in patients hospitalized with AECOPD, with no apparent harm....

  9. Stop Antibiotics on guidance of Procalcitonin Study (SAPS) : a randomised prospective multicenter investigator-initiated trial to analyse whether daily measurements of procalcitonin versus a standard-of-care approach can safely shorten antibiotic duration in intensive care unit patients - calculated sample size: 1816 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assink-de Jong, Evelien; de lange, Dylan W.; van Oers, Jos A.; Nijsten, Maarten W.; Twisk, Jos W.; Beishuizen, Albertus

    2013-01-01

    Background: Unnecessary long-term use of broad-spectrum antibiotics is linked to the emergence and selection of resistant bacteria, prolonged hospitalisation and increased costs. Several clinical trials indicate that the biomarker procalcitonin (PCT) can guide antibiotic therapy. Some of these

  10. Stop Antibiotics on guidance of Procalcitonin Study (SAPS): a randomised prospective multicenter investigator-initiated trial to analyse whether daily measurements of procalcitonin versus a standard-of-care approach can safely shorten antibiotic duration in intensive care unit patients - calculated sample size: 1816 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assink-de Jong, E.; De Lange, D.W.; van Oers, J.A.; Nijsten, M.W.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Beishuizen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Unnecessary long-term use of broad-spectrum antibiotics is linked to the emergence and selection of resistant bacteria, prolonged hospitalisation and increased costs. Several clinical trials indicate that the biomarker procalcitonin (PCT) can guide antibiotic therapy. Some of these

  11. Virtual automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casis, E; Garrido, A; Uranga, B; Vives, A; Zufiaurre, C

    2001-01-01

    Total laboratory automation (TLA) can be substituted in mid-size laboratories by a computer sample workflow control (virtual automation). Such a solution has been implemented in our laboratory using PSM, software developed in cooperation with Roche Diagnostics (Barcelona, Spain), to this purpose. This software is connected to the online analyzers and to the laboratory information system and is able to control and direct the samples working as an intermediate station. The only difference with TLA is the replacement of transport belts by personnel of the laboratory. The implementation of this virtual automation system has allowed us the achievement of the main advantages of TLA: workload increase (64%) with reduction in the cost per test (43%), significant reduction in the number of biochemistry primary tubes (from 8 to 2), less aliquoting (from 600 to 100 samples/day), automation of functional testing, drastic reduction of preanalytical errors (from 11.7 to 0.4% of the tubes) and better total response time for both inpatients (from up to 48 hours to up to 4 hours) and outpatients (from up to 10 days to up to 48 hours). As an additional advantage, virtual automation could be implemented without hardware investment and significant headcount reduction (15% in our lab).

  12. Comparison of a newly developed automated and quantitative hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen test with the HCV RNA assay for clinical usefulness in confirming anti-HCV results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesli, Recep; Polat, Hakki; Terzi, Yuksel; Kurtoglu, Muhammet Guzel; Uyar, Yavuz

    2011-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global health care problem. Diagnosis of HCV infection is mainly based on the detection of anti-HCV antibodies as a screening test with serum samples. Recombinant immunoblot assays are used as supplemental tests and for the final detection and quantification of HCV RNA in confirmatory tests. In this study, we aimed to compare the HCV core antigen test with the HCV RNA assay for confirming anti-HCV results to determine whether the HCV core antigen test may be used as an alternative confirmatory test to the HCV RNA test and to assess the diagnostic values of the total HCV core antigen test by determining the diagnostic specificity and sensitivity rates compared with the HCV RNA test. Sera from a total of 212 treatment-naive patients were analyzed for anti-HCV and HCV core antigen both with the Abbott Architect test and with the molecular HCV RNA assay consisting of a reverse transcription-PCR method as a confirmatory test. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the HCV core antigen assay compared to the HCV RNA test were 96.3%, 100%, 100%, and 89.7%, respectively. The levels of HCV core antigen showed a good correlation with those from the HCV RNA quantification (r = 0.907). In conclusion, the Architect HCV antigen assay is highly specific, sensitive, reliable, easy to perform, reproducible, cost-effective, and applicable as a screening, supplemental, and preconfirmatory test for anti-HCV assays used in laboratory procedures for the diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection.

  13. Cell-Free DNA, High-Mobility Group Box-1, and Procalcitonin Concentrations in Dogs With Gastric Dilatation–Volvulus Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Roberta Troia; Massimo Giunti; Stefano Calipa; Robert Goggs

    2018-01-01

    Canine gastric dilatation–volvulus (GDV) is a life-threatening disease characterized by extensive tissue ischemia, tissue hypoperfusion, and systemic inflammation. Biomarkers that better reflect the severity of gastric necrosis and systemic inflammation would aid clinicians in the management of these patients. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of cell-free DNA (cfDNA), high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), and procalcitonin (PCT) in dogs with GDV. Concentrations of cfDN...

  14. Automating Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John

    2007-01-01

    In past years, higher education's financial management side has been riddled with manual processes and aging mainframe applications. This article discusses schools which had taken advantage of an array of technologies that automate billing, payment processing, and refund processing in the case of overpayment. The investments are well worth it:…

  15. Library Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husby, Ole

    1990-01-01

    The challenges and potential benefits of automating university libraries are reviewed, with special attention given to cooperative systems. Aspects discussed include database size, the role of the university computer center, storage modes, multi-institutional systems, resource sharing, cooperative system management, networking, and intelligent…

  16. A semi-automated multiplex high-throughput assay for measuring IgG antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) domains in small volumes of plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cham, Gerald K K; Kurtis, Jonathan; Lusingu, John

    2008-01-01

    -based assay was sensitive, accurate and reproducible. Four recombinant PfEMP1 proteins C17, D5, D9 and D12, selected on the basis that they showed a spread of median fluorescent intensity (MFI) values from low to high when analysed by the bead-based assay were analysed by ELISA and the results from both...... reactivity levels to twenty eight different recombinant PfEMP1 proteins were simultaneously measured using a single microliter of plasma. Thus, the assay reported here provides a useful tool for rapid and efficient quantification of antibody reactivity against PfEMP1 variants in human plasma....... of twenty nine PfEMP1 domains were PCR amplified from 3D7 genomic DNA, expressed in the Baculovirus system and purified by metal-affinity chromatography. The antibody reactivity level to the recombinant PfEMP1 proteins in human hyper-immune plasma was measured by ELISA. In parallel, these recombinant PfEMP1...

  17. Adaptation of the Nelson-Somogyi reducing-sugar assay to a microassay using microtiter plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, F; Clausen, C A; Highley, T L

    1989-11-01

    The Nelson-Somogyi assay for reducing sugars was adapted to microtiter plates. The primary advantages of this modified assay are (i) smaller sample and reagent volumes, (ii) elimination of boiling and filtration steps, (iii) automated measurement with a dual-wavelength scanning TLC densitometer, (iv) increased range and reproducibility, and (v) automated colorimetric readings by reflectance rather than absorbance.

  18. Procalcitonin Improves the Glasgow Prognostic Score for Outcome Prediction in Emergency Patients with Cancer: A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Christina Rast

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS is useful for predicting long-term mortality in cancer patients. Our aim was to validate the GPS in ED patients with different cancer-related urgency and investigate whether biomarkers would improve its accuracy. We followed consecutive medical patients presenting with a cancer-related medical urgency to a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland. Upon admission, we measured procalcitonin (PCT, white blood cell count, urea, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, corrected calcium, C-reactive protein, and albumin and calculated the GPS. Of 341 included patients (median age 68 years, 61% males, 81 (23.8% died within 30 days after admission. The GPS showed moderate prognostic accuracy (AUC 0.67 for mortality. Among the different biomarkers, PCT provided the highest prognostic accuracy (odds ratio 1.6 (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 1.9, P<0.001, AUC 0.69 and significantly improved the GPS to a combined AUC of 0.74 (P=0.007. Considering all investigated biomarkers, the AUC increased to 0.76 (P<0.001. The GPS performance was significantly improved by the addition of PCT and other biomarkers for risk stratification in ED cancer patients. The benefit of early risk stratification by the GPS in combination with biomarkers from different pathways should be investigated in further interventional trials.

  19. Relationship of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and procalcitonin levels with the presence and severity of the preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artunc-Ulkumen, Burcu; Guvenc, Yesim; Goker, Asli; Gozukara, Ceyhun

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in maternal serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and procalcitonin (PCT) concentrations in preeclampsia. This case-control study consisted of 40 preeclamptic and 40 healthy singleton pregnancies matched for age and body mass index. Serum NGAL and PCT levels were compared between the groups. Diagnostic performance and clinical association of these markers were evaluated. NGAL and PCT concentrations were significantly higher in preeclamptic group (p preeclampsia. There were significant positive correlation between these markers and mean arterial pressure (MAP) and spot urine protein excretion. There was negative correlation between NGAL and apgar scores and fetal birth weight. Pregnancies with higher NGAL (OR: 4.89; 95% CI: 1.81-13.21) and higher PCT (OR: 6.67; 95% CI: 2.44-18.21) concentrations had higher risk for preeclampsia. NGAL and PCT may be potential biomarkers for preeclampsia. Their levels increase significantly in preeclampsia and they are related to the severity of the disease. These results are in agreement with the generalized endothelial damage and persistant inflammatory status in preeclampsia. NGAL may also be an indicator for adverse neonatal outcomes with decreased placental hypoperfusion.

  20. A new ELISA for the quantification of equine procalcitonin in plasma as potential inflammation biomarker in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Martin; Kochleus, Christian; Teschner, Dana; Rascher, Daniela; Barton, Ann Kristin; Geerlof, Arie; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Schmid, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Gehlen, Heidrun

    2014-09-01

    In human medicine, procalcitonin (PCT) is a very common and well-established biomarker for sepsis. Even though sepsis is also a leading cause of death in foals and adult horses, up to now, no data about the role of equine PCT in septic horses has been available. Based on monoclonal antibodies targeted against human PCT, we report here the development of a sandwich ELISA for the quantification of equine PCT in equine plasma samples. The ELISA was characterized for intra- and interassay variance and a working range from 25 to 1,000 ng mL(-1) was defined as within this range; both intra- and interassay variances were below 15 %. The target recovery ranged between 73 and 106 %. The ELISA was used to determine the equine PCT concentration in 24 healthy and 5 septic horses to show the potential for clinical evaluation of equine PCT. Significantly different (P = 0.0006) mean equine PCT concentrations were found for the healthy control group and the sepsis group (47 and 8,450 ng mL(-1)).

  1. Procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and serum lactate dehydrogenase in the diagnosis of bacterial sepsis, SIRS and systemic candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglietta, Fabio; Faneschi, Maria Letizia; Lobreglio, Giambattista; Palumbo, Claudio; Rizzo, Adriana; Cucurachi, Marco; Portaccio, Gerolamo; Guerra, Francesco; Pizzolante, Maria

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), platelet count (PLT) and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as early markers for diagnosis of SIRS, bacterial sepsis and systemic candidiasis in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Based on blood culture results, the patients were divided into a sepsis group (70 patients), a SIRS group (42 patients) and a systemic candidiasis group (33 patients). PCT, CRP, LDH and PLT levels were measured on day 0 and on day 2 from the sepsis symptom onset. PCT levels were higher in Gram negative sepsis than those in Gram positive sepsis, although the P value between the two subgroups is not significant (P=0.095). Bacterial sepsis group had higher PCT and CRP levels compared with the systemic candidiasis group, whereas PLT and LDH levels showed similar levels in these two subgroups. The AUC for PCT (AUC: 0.892, P candidiasis groups (P=0.093 N.S.). In conclusion, PCT can be used as a preliminary marker in the event of clinical suspicion of systemic candidiasis; however, low PCT levels (candidiasis and SIRS groups.

  2. Role of procalcitonin in predicting dilating vesicoureteral reflux in young children hospitalized with a first febrile urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hai-Lun; Wu, Kang-Hsi; Chen, Shan-Ming; Chao, Yu-Hua; Ku, Min-Sho; Hung, Tong-Wei; Liao, Pen-Fen; Lue, Ko-Huang; Sheu, Ji-Nan

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this article was to assess the usefulness of procalcitonin (PCT) as a marker for predicting dilating (grades III-V) vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in young children with a first febrile urinary tract infection. Children ≤2 years of age with a first febrile urinary tract infection were prospectively evaluated. Serum samples were tested for PCT at the time of admission to a tertiary hospital. All children underwent renal ultrasonography (US), Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan, and voiding cystourethrography. The diagnostic characteristics of PCT test for acute pyelonephritis and dilating VUR were calculated. Of 272 children analyzed (168 boys and 104 girls; median age, 5 months), 169 (62.1%) had acute pyelonephritis. There was VUR demonstrated in 97 (35.7%), including 70 (25.7%) with dilating VUR. The median PCT value was significantly higher in children with VUR than in those without (P predictors of dilating VUR. PCT is useful for diagnosing acute pyelonephritis and predicting dilating VUR in young children with a first febrile urinary tract infection. A voiding cystourethrography is indicated only in children with high PCT values (≥1.0 ng/mL) and/or abnormalities found on a US.

  3. Usefulness of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein for predicting bacteremia in urinary tract infections in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julián-Jiménez, A; Gutiérrez-Martín, P; Lizcano-Lizcano, A; López-Guerrero, M A; Barroso-Manso, Á; Heredero-Gálvez, E

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the capacity of procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate and leukocytes to predict the presence of bacteremia in patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs). Observational, retro-prospective analytical study of adult patients (≥15 years) diagnosed with UTI in an emergency department from August 2012 to January 2013. The study included 328 patients diagnosed with UTI, with a mean age of 52±22 years, 74% of whom were women. Of these, 43 (13.1%) had bacteremia. For predicting bacteremia, PCT achieved the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) at .993 (95% CI .987-1; P<.001). A cutoff≥1.16ng/mL achieves a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 97%, a positive predictive value of 84% and a negative predictive value of 100%. Lactate achieved an ROC-AUC of .844, and CRP achieved only .534. The mean values when comparing PCT levels in patients with UTIs with and without bacteremia were 8.08±16.37 and .34±.37ng/mL, respectively (P<.001). For patients with UTIs in the emergency department, PCT achieves considerable diagnostic performance for suspecting bacteremia, a performance greater than that of lactate, CRP and leukocytes. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical evaluation of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin for the early detection of postoperative complications after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frask, Agata; Orłowski, Michał; Dowgiałło-Wnukiewicz, Natalia; Lech, Paweł; Gajewski, Krzysztof; Michalik, Maciej

    2017-06-01

    Among the most common early complications after bariatric surgery are anastomosis leak and bleeding. In order to react quickly and perform accurate treatment before the clinical signs appear, early predictors should be found. In the study C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels were investigated. Characterized by a relatively short half-life, they can predict surgical complications. To develop and implement certain standards for early detection of complications. The study involved 319 adults who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) as a surgical intervention for morbid obesity at the Department of General Surgery of Ceynowa Hospital in Wejherowo. Every patient had CRP and PCT levels measured before the surgery and on the 1 st and 2 nd postoperative day (POD). Early postoperative complications occurred in 19 (5.96%) patients. Septic and non-septic complications occurred in 3 and 16 patients respectively. Among the patients with septic postoperative complications CRP level increased significantly on the 2 nd POD compared to the remainder (p = 0.0221). Among the patients with non-septic postoperative complications CRP level increased significantly on the 1 st and 2 nd POD compared to the remainder. Among the patients with septic and non-septic postoperative complications PCT level increased significantly on the 2 nd POD compared to the remainder. The CRP and PCT level are supposed to be relevant diagnostic markers to predict non-septic and septic complications after LSG.

  5. Procalcitonin NH2-terminal cleavage peptide has no mitogenic effect on normal human osteoblast-like cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassager, C.; Bonde, S.K.; Anderson, M.A.; Rink, H.; Spelsberg, T.C.; Riggs, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    The NH2-terminal cleavage peptide of procalcitonin (N-proCT) recently was reported to be a bone cell mitogen. The authors have investigated the effect of N-proCT on the proliferation of normal human cells that have the phenotype of mature osteoblasts (hOB cells). N-proCT treatment for 24, 48, or 96 h in concentrations from 1 nM to 1 microM did not significantly increase [3H]thymidine uptake (means ranged from -19% to 38% of control, no significant differences) in hOB cells (6-10 cell strains per experiment) plated at four different densities. However, the hOB cells responded significantly to treatment with transforming growth factor β (3 ng/ml), bovine insulin (300 micrograms/ml), or 30% fetal calf serum, which were included in all experiments as positive controls. The [3H]thymidine uptake data were confirmed in a direct cell count experiment tested at 96 h. Thus they data do not support the hypothesis that N-proCT is a potent mitogen for normal human osteoblasts

  6. Plant automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, L.J.; Sackett, J.I.; Dayal, Y.; Wagner, W.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes work at EBR-II in the development and demonstration of new control equipment and methods and associated schemes for plant prognosis, diagnosis, and automation. The development work has attracted the interest of other national laboratories, universities, and commercial companies. New initiatives include use of new control strategies, expert systems, advanced diagnostics, and operator displays. The unique opportunity offered by EBR-II is as a test bed where a total integrated approach to automatic reactor control can be directly tested under real power plant conditions

  7. Automated, computer interpreted radioimmunoassay results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.C.; Nagle, C.E.; Dworkin, H.J.; Fink-Bennett, D.; Freitas, J.E.; Wetzel, R.; Sawyer, N.; Ferry, D.; Hershberger, D.

    1984-01-01

    90,000 Radioimmunoassay results have been interpreted and transcribed automatically using software developed for use on a Hewlett Packard Model 1000 mini-computer system with conventional dot matrix printers. The computer program correlates the results of a combination of assays, interprets them and prints a report ready for physician review and signature within minutes of completion of the assay. The authors designed and wrote a computer program to query their patient data base for radioassay laboratory results and to produce a computer generated interpretation of these results using an algorithm that produces normal and abnormal interpretives. Their laboratory assays 50,000 patient samples each year using 28 different radioassays. Of these 85% have been interpreted using our computer program. Allowances are made for drug and patient history and individualized reports are generated with regard to the patients age and sex. Finalization of reports is still subject to change by the nuclear physician at the time of final review. Automated, computerized interpretations have realized cost savings through reduced personnel and personnel time and provided uniformity of the interpretations among the five physicians. Prior to computerization of interpretations, all radioassay results had to be dictated and reviewed for signing by one of the resident or staff physicians. Turn around times for reports prior to the automated computer program generally were two to three days. Whereas, the computerized interpret system allows reports to generally be issued the day assays are completed

  8. WIDAFELS flexible automation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shende, P.S.; Chander, K.P.; Ramadas, P.

    1990-01-01

    After discussing the various aspects of automation, some typical examples of various levels of automation are given. One of the examples is of automated production line for ceramic fuel pellets. (M.G.B.)

  9. An Automation Planning Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Marion

    1988-01-01

    This brief planning guide for library automation incorporates needs assessment and evaluation of options to meet those needs. A bibliography of materials on automation planning and software reviews, library software directories, and library automation journals is included. (CLB)

  10. Automated data processing and radioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samols, E; Barrows, G H

    1978-04-01

    Radioassays include (1) radioimmunoassays, (2) competitive protein-binding assays based on competition for limited antibody or specific binding protein, (3) immunoradiometric assay, based on competition for excess labeled antibody, and (4) radioreceptor assays. Most mathematical models describing the relationship between labeled ligand binding and unlabeled ligand concentration have been based on the law of mass action or the isotope dilution principle. These models provide useful data reduction programs, but are theoretically unfactory because competitive radioassay usually is not based on classical dilution principles, labeled and unlabeled ligand do not have to be identical, antibodies (or receptors) are frequently heterogenous, equilibrium usually is not reached, and there is probably steric and cooperative influence on binding. An alternative, more flexible mathematical model based on the probability or binding collisions being restricted by the surface area of reactive divalent sites on antibody and on univalent antigen has been derived. Application of these models to automated data reduction allows standard curves to be fitted by a mathematical expression, and unknown values are calculated from binding data. The vitrues and pitfalls are presented of point-to-point data reduction, linear transformations, and curvilinear fitting approaches. A third-order polynomial using the square root of concentration closely approximates the mathematical model based on probability, and in our experience this method provides the most acceptable results with all varieties of radioassays. With this curvilinear system, linear point connection should be used between the zero standard and the beginning of significant dose response, and also towards saturation. The importance is stressed of limiting the range of reported automated assay results to that portion of the standard curve that delivers optimal sensitivity. Published methods for automated data reduction of Scatchard plots

  11. Low cost automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    This book indicates method of building of automation plan, design of automation facilities, automation and CHIP process like basics of cutting, NC processing machine and CHIP handling, automation unit, such as drilling unit, tapping unit, boring unit, milling unit and slide unit, application of oil pressure on characteristics and basic oil pressure circuit, application of pneumatic, automation kinds and application of process, assembly, transportation, automatic machine and factory automation.

  12. Diagnostic value of serum procalcitonin levels in children with meningitis: a comparison with blood leukocyte count and C-reactive protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, K.A.; Wahab, A.A.A.; Ibrahim, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the level of serum procalcitonin, blood leukocyte count (TLC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in children with bacterial and non bacterial meningitis and document their efficacy in differential diagnosis. Also described are procalcitonin levels variation during treatment. Methods: From March 2005 to February 2008, we evaluated 38 clinically suspected meningitis patients in the paediatric departments, Al-Jedaany Hospital, Jeddah, KSA, for Serum procalcitonin, CRP, TLC and Lumbar punctures and CSF analysis. Patients were classified into bacterial meningitis group I (18) and non bacterial meningitis group II (20). Results: Serum PCT levels were significantly higher in bacterial meningitis (BM) 9 mean 4.8 +- 3.85 ng/ml (2.9-11.6)) compared with non bacterial meningitis (NBM) (mean 0.38 +- 0.25 ng/ml(0.31-0.61)) P< 0.001). Mean of all CSF parameters, TLC (15,000 +- 2,900 cell/ml(BM) and 9,500 +-1,105 cell/ml(NBM))and CRP (20 +- 6.8 mg/l (BM) and 12.5 +-12.0 mg/l(NBM))showed a zone of overlapping between the two groups. There is a positive correlation between serum PCT, TLC and CRP in bacterial and non bacterial meningitis cases but this relation becomes highly significant with bacterial meningitis positive group. Day 3 and day 6 treatment serum PCT was less than on admission levels (P<0.001). Conclusion: PCT can be used in the early diagnosis of bacterial meningitis and may be a useful adjunct in differentiating bacterial and non bacterial meningitis than CRP or TLC and diminishing the value of lumbar puncture performed 48-72 hours after admission to assess treatment efficacy. (author)

  13. Usefulness of estimation of blood procalcitonin concentration versus C-reactive protein concentration and white blood cell count for therapeutic monitoring of sepsis in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kordek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was intended to assess the clinical usefulness of blood procalcitonin (PCT concentrations for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of nosocomial neonatal sepsis.Material/Methods: The enrolment criterion was sepsis clinically manifesting after three days of life. PCT concentrations were measured in venous blood from 52 infected and 88 uninfected neonates. The results were interpreted against C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations and white blood cell counts (WBC.Results: Differences between the two groups in PCT and CRP concentrations were highly significant. No significant differences between the groups were noted for WBC. The threshold value on the receiver operator characteristic curve was 2.06 ng/mL for PCT (SE 75%; SP 80.68%; PPV 62.22%; NPV 88.75%; AUC 0.805, 5.0 mg/L for CRP (SE 67.44%; SP 73.68%; PPV 42.02%; NPV 88.89%; AUC 0.801, and 11.9 x109/L for WBC (SE 51.16%; SP 50.68%; PPV 23.16%; NPV 78.13%; AUC 0.484. Procalcitonin concentrations decreased 24 hours after initiation of antibiotic therapy and reverted to the control level after 5-7 days. C-reactive protein concentrations began to decline after two days of antibiotic therapy but were still higher than in the control group after 5-7 days of treatment. No significant changes in WBC during the treatment were observed.Conclusions: Procalcitonin concentrations in blood appear to be of use for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of nosocomial infections in neonates as this parameter demonstrates greater sensitivity and specificity than C-reactive protein. White blood cell counts appear to be of little diagnostic value in the early phase of infection or for therapeutic monitoring.

  14. Evaluation of lactate, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, procalcitonin and immature granulocyte count as biomarkers for sepsis in emergency department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karon, Brad S; Tolan, Nicole V; Wockenfus, Amy M; Block, Darci R; Baumann, Nikola A; Bryant, Sandra C; Clements, Casey M

    2017-11-01

    Lactate, white blood cell (WBC) and neutrophil count, procalcitonin and immature granulocyte (IG) count were compared for the prediction of sepsis, and severe sepsis or septic shock, in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). We prospectively enrolled 501 ED patients with a sepsis panel ordered for suspicion of sepsis. WBC, neutrophil, and IG counts were measured on a Sysmex XT-2000i analyzer. Lactate was measured by i-STAT, and procalcitonin by Brahms Kryptor. We classified patients as having sepsis using a simplification of the 1992 consensus conference sepsis definitions. Patients with sepsis were further classified as having severe sepsis or septic shock using established criteria. Univariate receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine odds ratio (OR), area under the ROC curve (AUC), and sensitivity/specificity at optimal cut-off for prediction of sepsis (vs. no sepsis), and prediction of severe sepsis or septic shock (vs. no sepsis). There were 267 patients without sepsis; and 234 with sepsis, including 35 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Lactate had the highest OR (1.44, 95th% CI 1.20-1.73) for the prediction of sepsis; while WBC, neutrophil count and percent (neutrophil/WBC) had OR>1.00 (psepsis or septic shock, with an odds ratio (95th% CI) of 2.70 (2.02-3.61) and AUC 0.89 (0.82-0.96). Traditional biomarkers (lactate, WBC, neutrophil count, procalcitonin, IG) have limited utility in the prediction of sepsis. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Automated Budget System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  16. Automated DBS microsampling, microscale automation and microflow LC-MS for therapeutic protein PK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Tomazela, Daniela; Vasicek, Lisa A; Spellman, Daniel S; Beaumont, Maribel; Shyong, BaoJen; Kenny, Jacqueline; Fauty, Scott; Fillgrove, Kerry; Harrelson, Jane; Bateman, Kevin P

    2016-04-01

    Reduce animal usage for discovery-stage PK studies for biologics programs using microsampling-based approaches and microscale LC-MS. We report the development of an automated DBS-based serial microsampling approach for studying the PK of therapeutic proteins in mice. Automated sample preparation and microflow LC-MS were used to enable assay miniaturization and improve overall assay throughput. Serial sampling of mice was possible over the full 21-day study period with the first six time points over 24 h being collected using automated DBS sample collection. Overall, this approach demonstrated comparable data to a previous study using single mice per time point liquid samples while reducing animal and compound requirements by 14-fold. Reduction in animals and drug material is enabled by the use of automated serial DBS microsampling for mice studies in discovery-stage studies of protein therapeutics.

  17. Automation 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Zieliński, Cezary; Kaliczyńska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    This book consists of papers presented at Automation 2017, an international conference held in Warsaw from March 15 to 17, 2017. It discusses research findings associated with the concepts behind INDUSTRY 4.0, with a focus on offering a better understanding of and promoting participation in the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Each chapter presents a detailed analysis of a specific technical problem, in most cases followed by a numerical analysis, simulation and description of the results of implementing the solution in a real-world context. The theoretical results, practical solutions and guidelines presented are valuable for both researchers working in the area of engineering sciences and practitioners looking for solutions to industrial problems. .

  18. Marketing automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TODOR Raluca Dania

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The automation of the marketing process seems to be nowadays, the only solution to face the major changes brought by the fast evolution of technology and the continuous increase in supply and demand. In order to achieve the desired marketing results, businessis have to employ digital marketing and communication services. These services are efficient and measurable thanks to the marketing technology used to track, score and implement each campaign. Due to the technical progress, the marketing fragmentation, demand for customized products and services on one side and the need to achieve constructive dialogue with the customers, immediate and flexible response and the necessity to measure the investments and the results on the other side, the classical marketing approached had changed continue to improve substantially.

  19. Usefulness of analytical parameters in the management of paediatric patients with suspicion of acute pyelonephritis. Is procalcitonin reliable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos-Andrío, L; Espino-Hernández, M; Ruperez-Lucas, M; Villar-Del Campo, M C; Romero-Carrasco, C I; Rodríguez-Caravaca, G

    To investigate the usefulness of procalcitonin (PCT) and other analytical parameters (white blood cell count [WBC], C-reactive protein [CRP]) as markers of acute renal damage in children after a first febrile or afebrile urinary tract infection (UTI). A retrospective study was conducted on children with a first episode of UTI admitted between January 2009 to December 2011, and in whom serum PCT, CRP and white blood cell count were measured, as well as assessing the acute renal damage with renal scintigraphy with 99m Tc-DMSA (DMSA) within the first 72h after referral. A descriptive study was performed and ROC curves were plotted, with optimal cut-off points calculated for each parameter. The 101 enrolled patients were divided into two groups according to DMSA scintigraphy results, with 64 patients being classified with acute pyelonephritis (APN), and 37 with UTI. The mean WBC, CRP and PCT values were significantly higher in patients with APN with respect to normal acute DMSA. The area under the ROC curve was 0.862 for PCR, 0.774 for WBC, and 0.731 for PCT. The optimum statistical cut-off value for PCT was 0.285ng/ml (sensitivity 71.4% and specificity 75%). Although the mean levels of fever, WBC, CRP, and PCT were significantly increased in patients with APN than in those who had UTI, the sensitivity and specificity of these analytical parameters are unable to predict the existence of acute renal damage, making the contribution by renal DMSA scintigraphy essential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  20. Infection biomarkers in primary care patients with acute respiratory tract infections-comparison of Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meili, Marc; Kutz, Alexander; Briel, Matthias; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Bucher, Heiner C; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2016-03-24

    There is a lack of studies comparing the utility of C-reactive protein (CRP) with Procalcitonin (PCT) for the management of patients with acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) in primary care. Our aim was to study the correlation between these markers and to compare their predictive accuracy in regard to clinical outcome prediction. This is a secondary analysis using clinical and biomarker data of 458 primary care patients with pneumonic and non-pneumonic ARI. We used correlation statistics (spearman's rank test) and multivariable regression models to assess association of markers with adverse outcome, namely days with restricted activities and persistence of discomfort from infection at day 14. At baseline, CRP and PCT did not correlate well in the overall population (r(2) = 0.16) and particularly in the subgroup of patients with non-pneumonic ARI (r(2) = 0.08). Low correlation of biomarkers were also found when comparing cut-off ranges, day seven levels or changes from baseline to day seven. High baseline levels of CRP (>100 mg/dL, regression coefficient 1.6, 95 % CI 0.5 to 2.6, sociodemographic-adjusted model) as well as PCT (>0.5ug/L regression coefficient 2.0, 95 % CI 0.0 to 4.0, sociodemographic-adjusted model) were significantly associated with larger number of days with restricted activities. There were no associations of either biomarker with persistence of discomfort at day 14. CRP and PCT levels do not well correlate, but both have moderate prognostic accuracy in primary care patients with ARI to predict clinical outcomes. The low correlation between the two biomarkers calls for interventional research comparing these markers head to head in regard to their ability to guide antibiotic decisions. Current Controlled Trials, ISRCTN73182671.

  1. Relationship between acute kidney injury and serum procalcitonin (PCT) concentration in critically ill patients with influenza infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A; Reyes, L F; Monclou, J; Suberviola, B; Bodí, M; Sirgo, G; Solé-Violán, J; Guardiola, J; Barahona, D; Díaz, E; Martín-Loeches, I; Restrepo, M I

    2018-02-09

    Serum procalcitonin (PCT) concentration could be increased in patients with renal dysfunction in the absence of bacterial infection. To determine the interactions among serum renal biomarkers of acute kidney injury (AKI) and serum PCT concentration, in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) due to lung influenza infection. Secondary analysis of a prospective multicentre observational study. 148 Spanish ICUs. ICU patients admitted with influenza infection without bacterial co-infection. Clinical, laboratory and hemodynamic variables were recorded. AKI was classified as AKI I or II based on creatinine (Cr) concentrations (≥1.60-2.50mg/dL and Cr≥2.51-3.99mg/dL, respectively). Patients with chronic renal disease, receiving renal replacement treatment or with Cr>4mg/dL were excluded. Spearman's correlation, simple and multiple linear regression analysis were performed. None. Out of 663 patients included in the study, 52 (8.2%) and 10 (1.6%) developed AKI I and II, respectively. Patients with AKI were significantly older, had more comorbid conditions and were more severally ill. PCT concentrations were higher in patients with AKI (2.62 [0.60-10.0]ng/mL vs. 0.40 [0.13-1.20]ng/mL, p=0.002). Weak correlations between Cr/PCT (rho=0.18) and Urea (U)/PCT (rho=0.19) were identified. Simple linear regression showed poor interaction between Cr/U and PCT concentrations (Cr R 2 =0.03 and U R 2 =0.018). Similar results were observed during multiple linear regression analysis (Cr R 2 =0.046 and U R 2 =0.013). Although PCT concentrations were slightly higher in patients with AKI, high PCT concentrations are not explained by AKI and could be warning sign of a potential bacterial infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  2. Both Automation and Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Royal

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the concept of a paperless society and the current situation in library automation. Various applications of automation and telecommunications are addressed, and future library automation is considered. Automation at the Monroe County Public Library in Bloomington, Indiana, is described as an example. (MES)

  3. C-reactive protein and procalcitonin for the early detection of anastomotic leakage after elective colorectal surgery: pilot study in 100 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagoutte, N; Facy, O; Ravoire, A; Chalumeau, C; Jonval, L; Rat, P; Ortega-Deballon, P

    2012-10-01

    Anastomotic leakage is the most important complication after colorectal surgery. Its prognosis depends on its early diagnosis. C-reactive protein (CRP) has already shown its usefulness for the early detection of anastomotic leaks. Procalcitonin (PCT) is widely used in intensive care units and is more expensive, but its usefulness in the postoperative period of digestive surgery is not well established. Between May 2010 and June 2011, 100 patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery were prospectively included in a database. CRP and PCT were measured before surgery and daily until postoperative day 4. All intraabdominal infections were considered as anastomotic leaks, regardless of their clinical impact and their management. The kinetics of PCT and CRP were recorded, as well as their accuracy for the detection of anastomotic fistula. The incidence of fistula was 13% and the overall mortality rate was 2%. Both CRP and PCT were significantly higher in patients with leakage. Areas under the receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) for CRP were higher than those for PCT each day. The best accuracy was obtained for CRP on postoperative day 4 (areas under the ROC curve were 0.869 for CRP and 0.750 for PCT). Procalcitonin is neither earlier nor more accurate than CRP for the detection of anastomotic leakage after elective colorectal surgery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Automated diagnostic kiosk for diagnosing diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, John Frederick; Birch, James Michael

    2014-02-11

    An automated and autonomous diagnostic apparatus that is capable of dispensing collection vials and collections kits to users interesting in collecting a biological sample and submitting their collected sample contained within a collection vial into the apparatus for automated diagnostic services. The user communicates with the apparatus through a touch-screen monitor. A user is able to enter personnel information into the apparatus including medical history, insurance information, co-payment, and answer a series of questions regarding their illness, which is used to determine the assay most likely to yield a positive result. Remotely-located physicians can communicate with users of the apparatus using video tele-medicine and request specific assays to be performed. The apparatus archives submitted samples for additional testing. Users may receive their assay results electronically. Users may allow the uploading of their diagnoses into a central databank for disease surveillance purposes.

  5. A multiparametric assay for quantitative nerve regeneration evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Weyn, Barbara; Van Remoortere, M; Nuydens, R; Meert, Theo; Van de Wouwer, G

    2005-01-01

    We introduce an assay for the semi-automated quantification of nerve regeneration by image analysis. Digital images of histological sections of regenerated nerves are recorded using an automated inverted microscope and merged into high-resolution mosaic images representing the entire nerve. These are analysed by a dedicated image-processing package that computes nerve-specific features (e.g. nerve area, fibre count, myelinated area) and fibre-specific features (area, perimeter, myelin sheet t...

  6. Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein cannot differentiate bacterial or viral infection in COPD exacerbation requiring emergency department visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang CH

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chih-Hao Chang,1 Kuo-Chien Tsao,2,3 Han-Chung Hu,1,4 Chung-Chi Huang,1,4 Kuo-Chin Kao,1,4 Ning-Hung Chen,1,4 Cheng-Ta Yang,1,4 Ying-Huang Tsai,4,5 Meng-Jer Hsieh4,51Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Linkou Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang-Gung Medical Foundation, Chang-Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, Linkou Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang-Gung Medical Foundation; 3Department of Medical Biotechnology and Laboratory Science, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Department of Respiratory Therapy, Chang-Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 5Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Chiayi Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang-Gung Medical Foundation, Puzi City, TaiwanBackground: Viral and bacterial infections are the most common causes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbations. Whether serum inflammatory markers can differentiate bacterial from virus infection in patients with COPD exacerbation requiring emergency department (ED visits remains controversial.Methods: Viral culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were used to identify the viruses in the oropharynx of patients with COPD exacerbations. The bacteria were identified by the semiquantitative culture of the expectorated sputum. The peripheral blood white blood cell (WBC counts, serum C-reactive protein (CRP, procalcitonin (PCT, and clinical symptoms were compared among patients with different types of infections.Results: Viruses were isolated from 16 (22.2% of the 72 patients enrolled. The most commonly identified viruses were parainfluenza type 3, influenza A, and rhinovirus. A total of 30 (41.7% patients had positive bacterial cultures, with the most commonly found bacteria being Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. Five patients (6.9% had both positive sputum cultures and virus identification. The WBC, CRP, and PCT levels of the bacteria-positive and bacteria

  7. A Prospective Study to Compare the Diagnostic Value of Serum Procalcitonin and Crp in Early Onset Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar Verma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neonatal sepsis is the most common cause of death in newborns in developing countries. Prompt diagnosis is the critical determinant in its outcome. As manifestations are often vague, clinically it is difficult to differentiate sepsis from non-infective conditions. Timely diagnosis is important as delay in initiation of antimicrobials can prove fatal. On the other hand empirical use of antibiotics not only increases the risk of antibiotic resistance but also delays the diagnosis of true condition. Procalcitonin (PCT has been well evaluated in late onset sepsis but data pertaining to Early Onset Sepsis (EOS are still lacking. We compared the diagnostic value of PCT and CRP (C-Reactive Protein in EOS. Aim: To compare the diagnostic value of serum PCT and CRP in early onset sepsis. Materials and Methods: It was a prospective observational study conducted in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Department of Paediatrics, Dr.S.N. Medical College, Jodhpur, India. All neonates delivered in hospitals attached to this medical college or referred here within 7 days of life and having ≥2 perinatal risk factors for sepsis or displaying clinical sepsis were included in the study. All enrolled neonates were subjected to sepsis screen, PCT levels and blood culture at birth or admission which ever was the earliest. PCT levels ≥ 0.5 ng/ml and CRP levels above 8mg/l were considered positive for EOS. Results: Sensitivity and negative predictive value of PCT were higher than CRP (90.12% vs. 50.62% and 93.33% vs. 79.06% respectively. Also it had a higher positive predictive value of 40.56% than CRP where it was 37.61%. CRP was more specific (68.95% vs. 51.4% with overall higher diagnostic accuracy (0.64 vs. 0.61 in comparison to PCT. Conclusion: PCT is more sensitive and has a higher negative predictive value than CRP in early onset sepsis. Higher positive predictive value and specificity of CRP suggest that, PCT should not be used alone rather

  8. Serum Procalcitonin and Peripheral Venous Lactate for Predicting Dengue Shock and/or Organ Failure: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipa Thanachartwet

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there are no biomarkers that can predict the incidence of dengue shock and/or organ failure, although the early identification of risk factors is important in determining appropriate management to reduce mortality. Therefore, we sought to determine the factors associated with dengue shock and/or organ failure and to evaluate the prognostic value of serum procalcitonin (PCT and peripheral venous lactate (PVL levels as biomarkers of dengue shock and/or organ failure.A prospective observational study was conducted among adults hospitalized for confirmed viral dengue infection at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Bangkok, Thailand between October 2013 and July 2015. Data, including baseline characteristics, clinical parameters, laboratory findings, serum PCT and PVL levels, management, and outcomes, were recorded on pre-defined case report forms. Of 160 patients with dengue, 128 (80.0% patients had dengue without shock or organ failure, whereas 32 (20.0% patients developed dengue with shock and/or organ failure. Using a stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis, PCT ≥0.7 ng/mL (odds ratio [OR]: 4.80; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.60-14.45; p = 0.005 and PVL ≥2.5 mmol/L (OR: 27.99, 95% CI: 8.47-92.53; p <0.001 were independently associated with dengue shock and/or organ failure. A combination of PCT ≥0.7 ng/mL and PVL ≥2.5 mmol/L provided good prognostic value for predicting dengue shock and/or organ failure, with an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.83 (95% CI: 0.74-0.92, a sensitivity of 81.2% (95% CI: 63.6-92.8%, and a specificity of 84.4% (95% CI: 76.9-90.2%. Dengue shock patients with non-clearance of PCT and PVL expired during hospitalization.PCT ≥0.7 ng/mL and PVL ≥2.5 mmol/L were independently associated with dengue shock and/or organ failure. The combination of PCT and PVL levels could be used as prognostic biomarkers for the prediction of dengue shock and/or organ failure.

  9. An automated swimming respirometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    STEFFENSEN, JF; JOHANSEN, K; BUSHNELL, PG

    1984-01-01

    An automated respirometer is described that can be used for computerized respirometry of trout and sharks.......An automated respirometer is described that can be used for computerized respirometry of trout and sharks....

  10. Autonomy and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Jay

    2017-01-01

    A significant level of debate and confusion has surrounded the meaning of the terms autonomy and automation. Automation is a multi-dimensional concept, and we propose that Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) automation should be described with reference to the specific system and task that has been automated, the context in which the automation functions, and other relevant dimensions. In this paper, we present definitions of automation, pilot in the loop, pilot on the loop and pilot out of the loop. We further propose that in future, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) RPAS Panel avoids the use of the terms autonomy and autonomous when referring to automated systems on board RPA. Work Group 7 proposes to develop, in consultation with other workgroups, a taxonomy of Levels of Automation for RPAS.

  11. Configuration Management Automation (CMA) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Configuration Management Automation (CMA) will provide an automated, integrated enterprise solution to support CM of FAA NAS and Non-NAS assets and investments. CMA...

  12. Monitoring environmental exposures with semen assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Semen studies in humans and animals have yielded extensive and compelling evidence that sperm can be used to assess reproductive potential and diagnose pathology. More recent studies on mutagens and carcinogens both at this and other laboratories suggest that a combination of mouse and human assays can be an efficient, effective approach to monitoring for reproductive hazards in the environment. We are investigating the potential of using variability in sperm morphology and DNA content to quantify and monitor the effects of environmental agents on the human testes. Here we review the status of human and mouse assays for environmental surveillance, discuss the genetic and fertility implications of chemically induced semen changes, and describe the high-speed flow methods being developed to automate sperm assays

  13. The efficacy of procalcitonin as a biomarker in the management of sepsis: slaying dragons or tilting at windmills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Prasanna; Chamberlain, Ronald S

    2013-12-01

    Sepsis is defined as systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in the context of an underlying infectious process, and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, particularly when initial therapy is delayed. Numerous biomarkers, including but not limited to cytokines (interleukins-2 and -6 [IL-2, IL-6] and tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α]), leukotrienes, acute-phase proteins (C-reactive protein [CRP]), and adhesion molecules, have been evaluated and rejected as unsuitable for the diagnosis of sepsis, predicting its severity, and guiding its treatment. Most recently, procalcitonin (PCT) has been suggested as a novel biomarker that may be useful in guiding therapeutic decision making in the management of sepsis. This article assesses critically the published literature on the clinical utility of PCT concentrations for guiding the treatment of sepsis in adult patients. A comprehensive search of all published studies of the use of serum concentrations of PCT to guide the treatment of sepsis in adult patients (1996 to 2011) was conducted with PubMed and Google Scholar. The search focused on the value of PCT concentrations to guide the diagnosis, prognosis, monitoring, and escalation and de-escalation of antbiotic therapy in these patients. Keywords searched included "procalcitonin," "sepsis," "sepsis biomarker," "sepsis diagnosis," "sepsis prognosis," "sepsis mortality," "antibiotic escalation," "antibiotic de-escalation," "antibiotic duration," and "antimicrobial stewardship." Forty-six trials evaluating the efficacy of PCT concentrations in diagnosing sepsis have been published, with 39 of these trials yielding positive results and 7 yielding negative results. Wanner et al. published the largest study (n=405) demonstrating that peak PCT concentrations occur early after injury in both patients with sepsis and those with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Among 17 trials assessing the prognostic value of PCT concentrations with regard to

  14. Whole blood microculture assay of human lymphocyte function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, J L; Han, T

    1976-11-01

    A whole blood microculture assay is described for measuring lymphocyte reactivity to mitogenic and antigenic stimulants. This assay employs heparinized whole blood, serum-free culture medium, microtiter plates, and a Multiple Automated Sample Harvester (MASH). When this assay is compared to other leukocyte assays, its major advantages include (1) the utilization of fewer lymphocytes per microculture, thuus reducing the amount of blood required per test while increasing the number of test agents and replicate cultures which can be employed in any given experiment; (2) the conservation of mitogens, antigens, drugs, enzymes, hormones, lymphokines, and other test agents, some of which are either expensive of difficult to prepare in large quantities; (3) the elimination of lymphocyte isolation and purification procedures which may disrupt the relative proportion of T cells, B cells and antigen-processing cells; and (4) the application of an automated harvester which simplifies and expedites procedures required for processing cells for liquid scintillation counting.

  15. Have you stress tested your assay?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Cao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: When a clinical assay is stressed with extraordinarily high volume of specimens over a short period of time, extra caution may be needed to avoid systematic errors and biases. Here we report our experience with a HgbA1c assay used for high volume wellness screening purpose, to illustrate the importance of stress testing during assay validation. Design and Methods: Over 15,000 whole blood specimens were tested for HgbA1c in a period of 2 months. HgbA1c was tested by an immunoturbidimetric method on a high through-put automation line. The HgbA1c population distribution in our study was compared to that from the NHANES database. Daily distributions of HgbA1c values ≥6%, means and medians were plotted. Correlation studies were performed between the high through-put immunoturbidimetric assay and a medium through-put HPLC method. Results: We observed a shift of HgbA1c distribution to the higher values compared to the NHANES. A bias of 15–20% was noted from further stress testing where large number of samples were batched and tested using the immunoturbidimetric assay. A 5–7% higher bias remained after implementing a cuvette washing program after each HgbA1c sample. We hypothesized this bias was caused by build-up of blood cell fragments in the cuvettes when continuous whole blood samples are run through the system. Our experience suggests stress testing needs to be incorporated early in the test validation process for high volume batched screening applications. This seemingly extra validation step may save significant troubleshooting and retesting efforts down the road. Keywords: Hemoglobin A1c, Immunoturbidimetric assay, HPLC, Quality assurance, Systematic bias, High volume, Automation

  16. A procalcitonin-based algorithm to guide antibiotic therapy in secondary peritonitis following emergency surgery: a prospective study with propensity score matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Shuo; Huang, Shie-Shian; Shyu, Yu-Chiau; Lee, Chun-Hui; Jwo, Shyh-Chuan; Chen, Pei-Jer; Chen, Huang-Yang

    2014-01-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT)-based algorithms have been used to guide antibiotic therapy in several clinical settings. However, evidence supporting PCT-based algorithms for secondary peritonitis after emergency surgery is scanty. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether a PCT-based algorithm could safely reduce antibiotic exposure in this population. From April 2012 to March 2013, patients that had secondary peritonitis diagnosed at the emergency department and underwent emergency surgery were screened for eligibility. PCT levels were obtained pre-operatively, on post-operative days 1, 3, 5, and 7, and on subsequent days if needed. Antibiotics were discontinued if PCT was Advanced age, coexisting pulmonary diseases, and higher severity of illness were significantly associated with longer durations of antibiotic use. The PCT-based algorithm safely reduces antibiotic exposure in this study. Further randomized trials are needed to confirm our findings and incorporate cost-effectiveness analysis. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000601831.

  17. Multiplexing a high-throughput liability assay to leverage efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, John; Anthony, Monique; Stewart, Jeremy; Connors, David; Chen, Taosheng; Banks, Martyn; Petrillo, Edward W; Agler, Michele

    2009-06-01

    In order to identify potential cytochrome P-450 3A4 (drug-metabolizing enzyme) inducers at an early stage of the drug discovery process, a cell-based transactivation high-throughput luciferase reporter assay for the human pregnane X receptor (PXR) in HepG2 cells has been implemented and multiplexed with a viability end point for data interpretation, as part of a Lead Profiling portfolio of assays. As a routine part of Lead Profiling operations, assays are periodically evaluated for utility as well as for potential improvements in technology or process. We used a recent evaluation of our PXR-transactivation assay as a model for the application of Lean Thinking-based process analysis to lab-bench assay optimization and automation. This resulted in the development of a 384-well multiplexed homogeneous assay simultaneously detecting PXR transactivation and HepG2 cell cytotoxicity. In order to multiplex fluorescent and luminescent read-outs, modifications to each assay were necessary, which included optimization of multiple assay parameters such as cell density, plate type, and reagent concentrations. Subsequently, a set of compounds including known cytotoxic compounds and PXR inducers were used to validate the multiplexed assay. Results from the multiplexed assay correlate well with those from the singleplexed assay formats measuring PXR transactivation and viability separately. Implementation of the multiplexed assay for routine compound profiling provides improved data quality, sample conservation, cost savings, and resource efficiencies.

  18. Procalcitonin as a diagnostic biomarker for septic shock and bloodstream infection in burn patients from the Formosa Fun Coast dust explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Xin Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Infection is the most common cause of death following burn injury. The study was conducted to compare the diagnostic value of serum procalcitonin (PCT with the other current benchmarks as early predictors of septic shock and bloodstream infection in burn patients. Methods: We included 24 patients admitted to the Burn Unit of a medical center from June 2015 to December 2015 from the Formosa Fun Coast dust explosion. We categorized all patients at initial admission into either sepsis or septic shock groups. Laboratory tests including the worst PCT and C-reactive protein (CRP levels, platelet (PLT, and white blood cell (WBC count were performed at <48 h after admission. Patients were also classified in two groups with subsequent bacteremia and non-bacteremia groups during hospitalization. Results: Significantly higher PCT levels were observed among participants with septic shock compared to those with sepsis (47.19 vs. 1.18 ng/mL, respectively; p < 0.001. Patients with bacteremia had significantly elevated PCT levels compared to patients without bacteremia (29.54 versus 1.81 ng/mL, respectively, p < 0.05. No significant differences were found in CRP levels, PLT, and WBC count between the two groups. PCT levels showed reasonable discriminative power (cut-off: 5.12 ng/mL; p = 0.01 in predicting of bloodstream infection in burn patients and the area under receiver operating curves was 0.92. Conclusions: PCT levels can be helpful in determining the septic shock and bloodstream infection in burn patients but CRP levels, PLT, and WBC count were of little diagnostic value. Keywords: Procalcitonin, Septic shock, Bloodstream infection, Burn patient, Formosa fun coast dust explosion

  19. Prediction of high-grade vesicoureteral reflux after pediatric urinary tract infection: external validation study of procalcitonin-based decision rule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Leroy

    Full Text Available Predicting vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR ≥3 at the time of the first urinary tract infection (UTI would make it possible to restrict cystography to high-risk children. We previously derived the following clinical decision rule for that purpose: cystography should be performed in cases with ureteral dilation and a serum procalcitonin level ≥0.17 ng/mL, or without ureteral dilatation when the serum procalcitonin level ≥0.63 ng/mL. The rule yielded a 86% sensitivity with a 46% specificity. We aimed to test its reproducibility.A secondary analysis of prospective series of children with a first UTI. The rule was applied, and predictive ability was calculated.The study included 413 patients (157 boys, VUR ≥3 in 11% from eight centers in five countries. The rule offered a 46% specificity (95% CI, 41-52, not different from the one in the derivation study. However, the sensitivity significantly decreased to 64% (95%CI, 50-76, leading to a difference of 20% (95%CI, 17-36. In all, 16 (34% patients among the 47 with VUR ≥3 were misdiagnosed by the rule. This lack of reproducibility might result primarily from a difference between derivation and validation populations regarding inflammatory parameters (CRP, PCT; the validation set samples may have been collected earlier than for the derivation one.The rule built to predict VUR ≥3 had a stable specificity (ie. 46%, but a decreased sensitivity (ie. 64% because of the time variability of PCT measurement. Some refinement may be warranted.

  20. Automation in Clinical Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the trend toward automation in clinical pathology laboratories has largely bypassed the clinical microbiology laboratory. In this article, we review the historical impediments to automation in the microbiology laboratory and offer insight into the reasons why we believe that we are on the cusp of a dramatic change that will sweep a wave of automation into clinical microbiology laboratories. We review the currently available specimen-processing instruments as well as the total laboratory automation solutions. Lastly, we outline the types of studies that will need to be performed to fully assess the benefits of automation in microbiology laboratories. PMID:23515547

  1. Microbead agglutination based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-01-21

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling the macroscopic observation. Such tests are most often used to explore antibody-antigen reactions. Agglutination has been used for protein assays using a biotin/streptavidin system as well as a hybridization based assay. The agglutination systems are prone to selftermination of the linking analyte, prone to active site saturation and loss of agglomeration at high analyte concentrations. We investigated the molecular target/ligand interaction, explaining the common agglutination problems related to analyte self-termination, linkage of the analyte to the same bead instead of different microbeads. We classified the agglutination process into three kinds of assays: a two- component assay, a three-component assay and a stepped three- component assay. Although we compared these three kinds of assays for recognizing DNA and protein molecules, the assay can be used for virtually any molecule, including ions and metabolites. In total, the optimized assay permits detecting analytes with high sensitivity in a short time, 5 min, at room temperature. Such a system is appropriate for POC testing.

  2. Radioreceptor opioid assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.J.; Chang, K.-J.

    1981-01-01

    A radioreceptor assay is described for assaying opioid drugs in biological fluids. The method enables the assay of total opioid activity, being specific for opioids as a class but lacking specificity within the class. A radio-iodinated opioid and the liquid test sample are incubated with an opiate receptor material. The percentage inhibition of the binding of the radio-iodinated compound to the opiate receptor is calculated and the opioid activity of the test liquid determined from a standard curve. Examples of preparing radio-iodinated opioids and assaying opioid activity are given. A test kit for the assay is described. Compared to other methods, this assay is cheap, easy and rapid. (U.K.)

  3. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  4. C-Reactive Protein and Procalcitonin as Early Markers of Septic Complications after Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy in Morbidly Obese Patients Within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, José Luis; Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Miranda, Elena; Berrio, Diana Lorena; Moya, Pedro; Gutiérrez, Manuel; Flores, Raquel; Picó, Carlos; Pérez, Ana

    2016-05-01

    The performance of most bariatric procedures within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programs has resulted in considerable advantages, including a reduction in the length of hospital stay to 2 to 3 days. However, some postoperative complications can appear after the patient has been discharged. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of various acute-phase parameters determined 24 and 48 hours after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) as bariatric procedure, for predicting septic complications, such a surgical site infection (SSI), in the postoperative course. A prospective study of 115 morbidly obese patients who underwent LSG within an ERAS program between 2012 and 2015 was conducted. Blood analysis was performed 24 and 48 hours after surgery. Acute-phase parameters (C-reactive protein [CRP], procalcitonin, and fibrinogen) and WBC count were investigated. Septic complications were observed in 13 patients (11.3%). Using receiver operating characteristic analysis at 24 hours postoperatively, a cutoff level of CRP at 70 mg/L achieved 85% sensitivity and 90% specificity for predicting SSI, and a cutoff level of procalcitonin at 0.2 ng/mL achieved 70% sensitivity and 90% specificity. At 48 hours postoperatively, a cutoff level of CRP at 150 mg/L and procalcitonin at 0.95 ng/mL achieved 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for predicting SSI. The use of CRP and procalcitonin in the first day and especially in the second day postoperative can predict septic complications after LSG. This is most useful for patients within an ERAS program who will be discharged early. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of a Radioactive Waste Assay System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Duck Won; Song, Myung Jae; Shin, Sang Woon; Sung, Kee Bang; Ko, Dae Hach [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kil Jeong; Park, Jong Mook; Jee, Kwang Yoong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear Act of Korea requires the manifest of low and intermediate level radioactive waste generated at nuclear power plants prior to disposal sites.Individual history records of the radioactive waste should be contained the information about the activity of nuclides in the drum, total activity, weight, the type of waste. A fully automated nuclide analysis assay system, non-destructive analysis and evaluation system of the radioactive waste, was developed through this research project. For the nuclides that could not be analysis directly by MCA, the activities of the representative {gamma}-emitters(Cs-137, Co-60) contained in the drum were measured by using that system. Then scaling factors were used to calculate the activities of {alpha}, {beta}-emitters. Furthermore, this system can automatically mark the analysis results onto the drum surface. An automated drum handling system developed through this research project can reduce the radiation exposure to workers. (author). 41 refs., figs.

  6. Biomek Cell Workstation: A Variable System for Automated Cell Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, R; Severitt, J C; Roddelkopf, T; Junginger, S; Thurow, K

    2016-06-01

    Automated cell cultivation is an important tool for simplifying routine laboratory work. Automated methods are independent of skill levels and daily constitution of laboratory staff in combination with a constant quality and performance of the methods. The Biomek Cell Workstation was configured as a flexible and compatible system. The modified Biomek Cell Workstation enables the cultivation of adherent and suspension cells. Until now, no commercially available systems enabled the automated handling of both types of cells in one system. In particular, the automated cultivation of suspension cells in this form has not been published. The cell counts and viabilities were nonsignificantly decreased for cells cultivated in AutoFlasks in automated handling. The proliferation of manual and automated bioscreening by the WST-1 assay showed a nonsignificant lower proliferation of automatically disseminated cells associated with a mostly lower standard error. The disseminated suspension cell lines showed different pronounced proliferations in descending order, starting with Jurkat cells followed by SEM, Molt4, and RS4 cells having the lowest proliferation. In this respect, we successfully disseminated and screened suspension cells in an automated way. The automated cultivation and dissemination of a variety of suspension cells can replace the manual method. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  7. Automation systems for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Paul

    1974-01-01

    The application of automation systems for radioimmunoassay (RIA) was discussed. Automated systems could be useful in the second step, of the four basic processes in the course of RIA, i.e., preparation of sample for reaction. There were two types of instrumentation, a semi-automatic pipete, and a fully automated pipete station, both providing for fast and accurate dispensing of the reagent or for the diluting of sample with reagent. Illustrations of the instruments were shown. (Mukohata, S.)

  8. Endogenous Locus Reporter Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaping; Hermes, Jeffrey; Li, Jing; Tudor, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Reporter gene assays are widely used in high-throughput screening (HTS) to identify compounds that modulate gene expression. Traditionally a reporter gene assay is built by cloning an endogenous promoter sequence or synthetic response elements in the regulatory region of a reporter gene to monitor transcriptional activity of a specific biological process (exogenous reporter assay). In contrast, an endogenous locus reporter has a reporter gene inserted in the endogenous gene locus that allows the reporter gene to be expressed under the control of the same regulatory elements as the endogenous gene, thus more accurately reflecting the changes seen in the regulation of the actual gene. In this chapter, we introduce some of the considerations behind building a reporter gene assay for high-throughput compound screening and describe the methods we have utilized to establish 1536-well format endogenous locus reporter and exogenous reporter assays for the screening of compounds that modulate Myc pathway activity.

  9. Automatic titrator for high precision plutonium assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Highly precise assay of plutonium metal is required for accountability measurements. We have developed an automatic titrator for this determination which eliminates analyst bias and requires much less analyst time. The analyst is only required to enter sample data and start the titration. The automated instrument titrates the sample, locates the end point, and outputs the results as a paper tape printout. Precision of the titration is less than 0.03% relative standard deviation for a single determination at the 250-mg plutonium level. The titration time is less than 5 min

  10. Laboratory Automation and Middleware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riben, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The practice of surgical pathology is under constant pressure to deliver the highest quality of service, reduce errors, increase throughput, and decrease turnaround time while at the same time dealing with an aging workforce, increasing financial constraints, and economic uncertainty. Although not able to implement total laboratory automation, great progress continues to be made in workstation automation in all areas of the pathology laboratory. This report highlights the benefits and challenges of pathology automation, reviews middleware and its use to facilitate automation, and reviews the progress so far in the anatomic pathology laboratory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Automated cloning methods.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collart, F.

    2001-01-01

    Argonne has developed a series of automated protocols to generate bacterial expression clones by using a robotic system designed to be used in procedures associated with molecular biology. The system provides plate storage, temperature control from 4 to 37 C at various locations, and Biomek and Multimek pipetting stations. The automated system consists of a robot that transports sources from the active station on the automation system. Protocols for the automated generation of bacterial expression clones can be grouped into three categories (Figure 1). Fragment generation protocols are initiated on day one of the expression cloning procedure and encompass those protocols involved in generating purified coding region (PCR)

  12. Complacency and Automation Bias in the Use of Imperfect Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christopher D; Clegg, Benjamin A; Vieane, Alex Z; Sebok, Angelia L

    2015-08-01

    We examine the effects of two different kinds of decision-aiding automation errors on human-automation interaction (HAI), occurring at the first failure following repeated exposure to correctly functioning automation. The two errors are incorrect advice, triggering the automation bias, and missing advice, reflecting complacency. Contrasts between analogous automation errors in alerting systems, rather than decision aiding, have revealed that alerting false alarms are more problematic to HAI than alerting misses are. Prior research in decision aiding, although contrasting the two aiding errors (incorrect vs. missing), has confounded error expectancy. Participants performed an environmental process control simulation with and without decision aiding. For those with the aid, automation dependence was created through several trials of perfect aiding performance, and an unexpected automation error was then imposed in which automation was either gone (one group) or wrong (a second group). A control group received no automation support. The correct aid supported faster and more accurate diagnosis and lower workload. The aid failure degraded all three variables, but "automation wrong" had a much greater effect on accuracy, reflecting the automation bias, than did "automation gone," reflecting the impact of complacency. Some complacency was manifested for automation gone, by a longer latency and more modest reduction in accuracy. Automation wrong, creating the automation bias, appears to be a more problematic form of automation error than automation gone, reflecting complacency. Decision-aiding automation should indicate its lower degree of confidence in uncertain environments to avoid the automation bias. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  13. Development of robotic plasma radiochemical assays for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexoff, D.L.; Shea, C.; Fowler, J.S.; Gatley, S.J.; Schlyer, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    A commercial laboratory robot system (Zymate PyTechnology II Laboratory Automation System; Zymark Corporation, Hopkinton, MA) was interfaced to standard and custom laboratory equipment and programmed to perform rapid radiochemical analyses for quantitative PET studies. A Zymark XP robot arm was used to carry out the determination of unchanged (parent) radiotracer in plasma using only solid phase extraction methods. Robotic throughput for the assay of parent radiotracer in plasma is 4--6 samples/hour depending on the radiotracer. Robotic assays of parent compound in plasma were validated for the radiotracers [ 11 C]Benztropine, [ 11 C]cocaine, [ 11 C]clorgyline, [ 11 C]deprenyl, [ 11 C]methadone, [ 11 C]methylphenidate, [ 11 C]raclorpride, and [ 11 C]SR46349B. A simple robot-assisted methods development strategy has been implemented to facilitate the automation of plasma assays of new radiotracers

  14. Expert system technology for nondestructive waste assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.K.; Determan, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Nondestructive assay waste characterization data generated for use in the National TRU Program must be of known and demonstrable quality. Each measurement is required to receive an independent technical review by a qualified expert. An expert system prototype has been developed to automate waste NDA data review of a passive/active neutron drum counter system. The expert system is designed to yield a confidence rating regarding measurement validity. Expert system rules are derived from data in a process involving data clustering, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithms. Expert system performance is assessed against confidence assignments elicited from waste NDA domain experts. Performance levels varied for the active, passive shielded, and passive system assay modes of the drum counter system, ranging from 78% to 94% correct classifications

  15. Solid phase assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, M.G.; Johnson, L.R.; Ransom, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    In a solid phase assay for quantitative determination of biological and other analytes, a sample such as serum is contacted with a receptor for the analyte being assayed, the receptor being supported on a solid support. No tracer for the analyte is added to the sample before contacting with the receptor; instead the tracer is contacted with the receptor after unbound analyte has been removed from the receptor. The assay can be otherwise performed in a conventional manner but can give greater sensitivity. (author)

  16. LDLCHOLESTEROLEXAMINATION (LDL-C USINGHOMOGENEOUS ASSAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made DwiAmbara Putra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Homogeneous method describe as a method that does not require separation of free and bound label. This method has the ability tofully automate the determination of LDL-C directly small sample volume sand short examination time. In addition this method use automated pipette and control of time and temperature more accurate. There are 5 methods i.e. Solubilization homogeneous LDL-C assay (SOL from KyowaMedex, Surfactant LDL-C assay (SUR from Daiichi Pure Chemicals, Protecting LDL-assay reagent (PRO from Wako Chemicals, LDL-C assaycatalase (CAT Denka Seiken and Calixarene of LDL-C assay (CAL from International Reagents Corporation. All method is to use a variety of detergents and other chemicals that cause blocking or dissolution of specific lipoprotein classes to achieve specificity for LDL. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  17. Automated System Marketplace 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jose-Marie; Kertis, Kimberly

    1994-01-01

    Reports results of the 1994 Automated System Marketplace survey based on responses from 60 vendors. Highlights include changes in the library automation marketplace; estimated library systems revenues; minicomputer and microcomputer-based systems; marketplace trends; global markets and mergers; research needs; new purchase processes; and profiles…

  18. Automation in Warehouse Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg, R.; Verriet, J.

    2012-01-01

    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and

  19. Order Division Automated System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniemeyer, Justin M.; And Others

    This publication was prepared by the Order Division Automation Project staff to fulfill the Library of Congress' requirement to document all automation efforts. The report was originally intended for internal use only and not for distribution outside the Library. It is now felt that the library community at-large may have an interest in the…

  20. Automate functional testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kalindri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, software engineers are increasingly turning to the option of automating functional tests, but not always have successful in this endeavor. Reasons range from low planning until over cost in the process. Some principles that can guide teams in automating these tests are described in this article.

  1. Automation and robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemerlo, Melvin

    1988-01-01

    The Autonomous Systems focus on the automation of control systems for the Space Station and mission operations. Telerobotics focuses on automation for in-space servicing, assembly, and repair. The Autonomous Systems and Telerobotics each have a planned sequence of integrated demonstrations showing the evolutionary advance of the state-of-the-art. Progress is briefly described for each area of concern.

  2. Automating the Small Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapura, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of microcomputers for automating school libraries, both for entire systems and for specific library tasks. Highlights include available library management software, newsletters that evaluate software, constructing an evaluation matrix, steps to consider in library automation, and a brief discussion of computerized card catalogs.…

  3. Automated model building

    CERN Document Server

    Caferra, Ricardo; Peltier, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    This is the first book on automated model building, a discipline of automated deduction that is of growing importance Although models and their construction are important per se, automated model building has appeared as a natural enrichment of automated deduction, especially in the attempt to capture the human way of reasoning The book provides an historical overview of the field of automated deduction, and presents the foundations of different existing approaches to model construction, in particular those developed by the authors Finite and infinite model building techniques are presented The main emphasis is on calculi-based methods, and relevant practical results are provided The book is of interest to researchers and graduate students in computer science, computational logic and artificial intelligence It can also be used as a textbook in advanced undergraduate courses

  4. Automation in Warehouse Development

    CERN Document Server

    Verriet, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and supports the quality of picking processes. Secondly, the development of models to simulate and analyse warehouse designs and their components facilitates the challenging task of developing warehouses that take into account each customer’s individual requirements and logistic processes. Automation in Warehouse Development addresses both types of automation from the innovative perspective of applied science. In particular, it describes the outcomes of the Falcon project, a joint endeavour by a consortium of industrial and academic partners. The results include a model-based approach to automate warehouse control design, analysis models for warehouse design, concepts for robotic item handling and computer vision, and auton...

  5. Factor IX assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003679.htm Factor IX assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  6. Factor VIII assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003678.htm Factor VIII assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  7. Factor II assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003674.htm Factor II assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  8. Factor VII assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003676.htm Factor VII assay To use the sharing features on ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  9. Microbead agglutination based assays

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Castro, David; Foulds, Ian G.; Parameswaran, Ash M.; Sumanpreet, K. Chhina

    2013-01-01

    We report a simple and rapid room temperature assay for point-of-care (POC) testing that is based on specific agglutination. Agglutination tests are based on aggregation of microbeads in the presence of a specific analyte thus enabling

  10. The use of calorimetry for plutonium assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, J.A.

    1982-12-01

    Calorimetry is a technique for measuring the thermal power of heat-producing substances. The technique may be applied to the measurement of plutonium-bearing materials which evolve heat as a result of alpha and beta decay. A calorimetric measurement of the thermal power of a plutonium sample, combined with a knowledge or measurement of the plutonium isotopic mass ratios of the sample provides a convenient and accurate, non-destructive measure of the total plutonium mass of the sample. The present report provides a description, and an assessment of the calorimetry technique applied to the assay of plutonium-bearing materials. Types and characteristics of plutonium calorimeters are considered, as well as calibration and operating procedures. The instrumentation used with plutonium calorimeters is described and the use of computer control for calorimeter automation is discussed. A critical review and assessment of plutonium calorimetry literature since 1970 is presented. Both fuel element and plutonium-bearing material calorimeters are considered. The different types of plutonium calorimeters are evaluated and their relative merits are discussed. A combined calorimeter and gamma-ray measurement assay system is considered. The design principles of plutonium assay calorimeters are considered. An automatic, computer-based calorimeter control system is proposed in conjunction with a general plutonium assay calorimeter design. (author)

  11. Development of Fully Automated Low-Cost Immunoassay System for Research Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guochun; Das, Champak; Ledden, Bradley; Sun, Qian; Nguyen, Chien

    2017-10-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) automation for routine operation in a small research environment would be very attractive. A portable fully automated low-cost immunoassay system was designed, developed, and evaluated with several protein analytes. It features disposable capillary columns as the reaction sites and uses real-time calibration for improved accuracy. It reduces the overall assay time to less than 75 min with the ability of easy adaptation of new testing targets. The running cost is extremely low due to the nature of automation, as well as reduced material requirements. Details about system configuration, components selection, disposable fabrication, system assembly, and operation are reported. The performance of the system was initially established with a rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) assay, and an example of assay adaptation with an interleukin 6 (IL6) assay is shown. This system is ideal for research use, but could work for broader testing applications with further optimization.

  12. Evaluation of Elecsys Syphilis Assay for Routine and Blood Screening and Detection of Early Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Kremastinou, J.; Polymerou, V.; Lavranos, D.; Aranda Arrufat, A.; Harwood, J.; Mart?nez Lorenzo, M. J.; Ng, K. P.; Queiros, L.; Vereb, I.; Cusini, M.

    2016-01-01

    Treponema pallidum infections can have severe complications if not diagnosed and treated at an early stage. Screening and diagnosis of syphilis require assays with high specificity and sensitivity. The Elecsys Syphilis assay is an automated treponemal immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against T. pallidum. The performance of this assay was investigated previously in a multicenter study. The current study expands on that evaluation in a variety of diagnostic settings and patient popul...

  13. Systematic review automation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

  14. Enhanced detection levels in a semi-automated sandwich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A peptide nucleic acid (PNA) signal probe was tested as a replacement for a typical DNA oligonucleotidebased signal probe in a semi-automated sandwich hybridisation assay designed to detect the harmful phytoplankton species Alexandrium tamarense. The PNA probe yielded consistently higher fluorescent signal ...

  15. Operational proof of automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaerschky, R.; Reifenhaeuser, R.; Schlicht, K.

    1976-01-01

    Automation of the power plant process may imply quite a number of problems. The automation of dynamic operations requires complicated programmes often interfering in several branched areas. This reduces clarity for the operating and maintenance staff, whilst increasing the possibilities of errors. The synthesis and the organization of standardized equipment have proved very successful. The possibilities offered by this kind of automation for improving the operation of power plants will only sufficiently and correctly be turned to profit, however, if the application of these technics of equipment is further improved and if its volume is tallied with a definite etc. (orig.) [de

  16. Automation of radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Chisato; Yamada, Hideo; Iio, Masahiro

    1974-01-01

    Automation systems for measuring Australian antigen by radioimmunoassay under development were discussed. Samples were processed as follows: blood serum being dispensed by automated sampler to the test tube, and then incubated under controlled time and temperature; first counting being omitted; labelled antibody being dispensed to the serum after washing; samples being incubated and then centrifuged; radioactivities in the precipitate being counted by auto-well counter; measurements being tabulated by automated typewriter. Not only well-type counter but also position counter was studied. (Kanao, N.)

  17. Automated electron microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, K.A.; Walker, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Plant Laboratory at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has recently obtained a Cameca MBX electron microprobe with a Tracor Northern TN5500 automation system. This allows full stage and spectrometer automation and digital beam control. The capabilities of the system include qualitative and quantitative elemental microanalysis for all elements above and including boron in atomic number, high- and low-magnification imaging and processing, elemental mapping and enhancement, and particle size, shape, and composition analyses. Very low magnification, quantitative elemental mapping using stage control (which is of particular interest) has been accomplished along with automated size, shape, and composition analysis over a large relative area

  18. Chef infrastructure automation cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Marschall, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Chef Infrastructure Automation Cookbook contains practical recipes on everything you will need to automate your infrastructure using Chef. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to automate your server and cloud infrastructure.The book first shows you the simplest way to achieve a certain task. Then it explains every step in detail, so that you can build your knowledge about how things work. Eventually, the book shows you additional things to consider for each approach. That way, you can learn step-by-step and build profound knowledge on how to go about your configuration management

  19. Managing laboratory automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboe, T J

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the process of managing automated systems through their life cycles within the quality-control (QC) laboratory environment. The focus is on the process of directing and managing the evolving automation of a laboratory; system examples are given. The author shows how both task and data systems have evolved, and how they interrelate. A BIG picture, or continuum view, is presented and some of the reasons for success or failure of the various examples cited are explored. Finally, some comments on future automation need are discussed.

  20. Automated PCB Inspection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Usama BUKHARI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of an automated PCB inspection system as per the need of industry is a challenging task. In this paper a case study is presented, to exhibit, a proposed system for an immigration process of a manual PCB inspection system to an automated PCB inspection system, with a minimal intervention on the existing production flow, for a leading automotive manufacturing company. A detailed design of the system, based on computer vision followed by testing and analysis was proposed, in order to aid the manufacturer in the process of automation.

  1. Operational proof of automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaerschky, R.; Schlicht, K.

    1977-01-01

    Automation of the power plant process may imply quite a number of problems. The automation of dynamic operations requires complicated programmes often interfering in several branched areas. This reduces clarity for the operating and maintenance staff, whilst increasing the possibilities of errors. The synthesis and the organization of standardized equipment have proved very successful. The possibilities offered by this kind of automation for improving the operation of power plants will only sufficiently and correctly be turned to profit, however, if the application of these equipment techniques is further improved and if it stands in a certain ratio with a definite efficiency. (orig.) [de

  2. Antibiotic treatment interruption of suspected lower respiratory tract infections based on a single procalcitonin measurement at hospital admission--a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, K B; Søgaard, O S; Wejse, C

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that procalcitonin (PCT) is a safe marker for the discrimination between bacterial and viral infection, and that PCT-guided treatment may lead to substantial reductions in antibiotic use. The present objective was to evaluate the effect of a single PCT measurement...... to either PCT-guided treatment or standard treatment. Antibiotic treatment duration in the PCT group was based on the serum PCT value at admission. The cut-off point for recommending antibiotic treatment was PCT > or =0.25 microg/L. Physicians could overrule treatment guidelines. The mean duration...... of hospital stay was 5.9 days in the PCT group vs. 6.7 days in the control group (p 0.22). The mean duration of antibiotic treatment during hospitalization in the PCT group was 5.1 days on average, as compared to 6.8 days in the control group (p 0.007). In a subgroup analysis of chronic obstructive pulmonary...

  3. Circulating cytokines and procalcitonin in acute Q fever granulomatous hepatitis with poor response to antibiotic and short-course steroid therapy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Lin-Li

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Q fever is a zoonosis distributed worldwide that is caused by Coxiella burnetii infection and the defervescence usually occurs within few days of appropriate antibiotic therapy. Whether the changes of cytokine levels are associated with acute Q fever with persistent fever despite antibiotic therapy had not been investigated before. Case Presentation We report a rare case of acute Q fever granulomatous hepatitis remained pyrexia despite several antibiotic therapy and 6-day course of oral prednisolone. During the 18-month follow-up, the investigation of the serum cytokines profile and procalcitonin (PCT revealed that initially elevated levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2, IL-8, IL-10, and PCT decreased gradually, but the IL-6 remained in low titer. No evidence of chronic Q fever was identified by examinations of serum antibodies against C. burnetii and echocardiography. Conclusions The changes of cytokine levels may be associated with acute Q fever with poor response to treatment and PCT may be an indicator for monitoring the response to treatment.

  4. Comparison of Procalcitonin Guidance-Administered Antibiotics with Standard Guidelines on Antibiotic Therapy in Children with Lower Respiratory Tract Infections: A Retrospective Study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guo; Wu, Gao; Wu, Shuxie; Wu, Hanbin

    2017-01-01

    To establish the efficacy of an algorithm based on the biomarker procalcitonin (PCT) to reduce antibiotic exposure in pediatric patients with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). The clinical data of 357 patients (standard group (n = 174) using SAS 9.1.3 software. The overall adverse effect rates were similar in both the PCT and standard groups: 42 (22.95%) and 51 (29.31%), respectively. The length of hospital stay was not significantly different between the PCT (9.96 ± 5.81 days) and standard groups (10.58 ± 4.24 days) (difference: -0.62%; 95% CI: -1.68 to 0.43). Antibiotic prescribing rates were significantly different in the PCT group compared to the standard group: 54.64% versus 83.91% (difference: -29.26%; 95% CI: -38.31, -20.22; p = 0.23). Mean duration of antibiotic exposure in the PCT group (3.98 ± 2.17 days) was lower than the standard groups (6.66 ± 5.59 days) (difference: -2.68%; 95% CI: -3.21 to -2.16). This study showed that PCT guidance of antibiotic treatment in children and adolescents with LRTI reduced the duration of antibiotic exposure and antibiotic prescribing rates, but did not affect the adverse effect rate and length of hospital stay. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Usefulness of a semi-quantitative procalcitonin test and the A-DROP Japanese prognostic scale for predicting mortality among adults hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamatsu, Yu; Yamaguchi, Toshimasa; Kawaguchi, Takashi; Tanaka, Nagaaki; Oka, Hiroko; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Yamagami, Keiko; Yoshioka, Katsunobu; Imanishi, Masahito

    2012-02-01

    The solid-phase immunoassay, semi-quantitative procalcitonin (PCT) test (B R A H M S PCT-Q) can be used to rapidly categorize PCT levels into four grades. However, the usefulness of this kit for determining the prognosis of adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is unclear. A prospective study was conducted in two Japanese hospitals to evaluate the usefulness of this PCT test in determining the prognosis of adult patients with CAP. The accuracy of the age, dehydration, respiratory failure, orientation disturbance, pressure (A-DROP) scale proposed by the Japanese Respiratory Society for prediction of mortality due to CAP was also investigated. Hospitalized CAP patients (n = 226) were enrolled in the study. Comprehensive examinations were performed to determine PCT and CRP concentrations, disease severity based on the A-DROP, pneumonia severity index (PSI) and confusion, urea, respiratory rate, blood pressure, age ≥65 (CURB-65) scales and the causative pathogens. The usefulness of the biomarkers and prognostic scales for predicting each outcome were then examined. Twenty of the 170 eligible patients died. PCT levels were strongly positively correlated with PSI (ρ = 0.56, P scale were found to be useful for predicting mortality in adult patients with CAP. © 2011 The Authors. Respirology © 2011 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  6. Comparison of plasma/serum levels of procalcitonin between infection and febrile disease flare in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Na; Wang, Peng; Guan, Shi-Yang; Li, Xiao-Mei; Li, Bao-Zhu; Leng, Rui-Xue; Pan, Hai-Feng

    2017-12-01

    Currently published data regarding the potential role of procalcitonin (PCT) for the discrimination between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) flare and infection are contradictory. To derive a more precise evaluation, a meta-analysis was performed. Published literatures from PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were obtained. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess the study quality. Pooled standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated by random-effect model analysis. Heterogeneity test was performed by the Q statistic and quantified using I 2 . Eight studies including 205 SLE flare patients and 198 SLE patients with infection were finally incorporated in the meta-analysis after examining title, type, abstracts, and full text. No significant differences in plasma/serum PCT levels were found between SLE patients with flare and SLE patients with infection when all studies were pooled into the meta-analysis (pooled SMD = - 0.45, 95% CI = - 0.96 to 0.06). However, subgroup analysis showed that Asian SLE patients with infection had higher plasma/serum PCT levels when compared with SLE patients with flare (p infection. However, plasma/serum PCT levels are significantly higher in Asian SLE patients with infection.

  7. Performance characteristics of the ARCHITECT anti-HCV assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Gesa; Pelzer, Claudia; Beckert, Christian; Hausmann, Michael; Kapprell, Hans-Peter

    2005-10-01

    The ARCHITECT Anti-HCV assay is a fully automated high throughput chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) for the detection of antibodies to structural and nonstructural proteins of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). To further enhance the performance of this test, the assay was modified to improve the specificity for blood donor specimens. The specificity of the enhanced ARCHITECT Anti-HCV assay was evaluated by screening blood donor samples randomly collected from various German blood banks, as well as hospitalized patient samples derived from Germany and the US. Additionally, antibody sensitivity was determined on commercially available anti-HCV seroconversion panels and on a commercially available worldwide anti-HCV genotype performance panel. Apparent specificity of the modified ARCHITECT Anti-HCV assay in a blood donor population consisting of 3811 specimens was 99.92%, compared to 99.76% for the current on-market assay. Additionally, antibody sensitivity was determined on commercially available anti-HCV seroconversion panels. Seroconversion sensitivity equivalent to or better than the current on-market product was observed by testing 33 seroconversion panels. This study demonstrates that the modified version of the ARCHITECT Anti-HCV assay shows improved specificity for blood donor specimens compared to the current assay on market without compromising sensitivity. With the availability of the improved ARCHITECT Anti-HCV assay and the recent launch of the ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo assay, the ARCHITECT system now offers a full hepatitis/retrovirus menu with excellent performance on a high throughput, random access, automated analyzer, ideally suited for blood screening and diagnostic applications.

  8. Assay method and compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Methods are described for measuring catecholamine levels in human and animal body fluids and tissues using the catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) radioassay. The assay involves incubating the biological sample with COMT and the tritiated methyl donor, S-adenosyl-L-methionine( 3 H)-methyl. The O-methylated ( 3 H) epinephrine and/or norepinephrine are extracted and oxidised to vanillin- 3 H which in turn is extracted and its radioactivity counted. When analysing dopamine levels the assay is extended by vanillin- 3 H and raising the pH of the aqueous periodate phase from which O-methylated ( 3 H) dopamine is extracted and counted. The assay may be modified depending on whether measurements of undifferentiated total endogenous catecholamine levels or differential analyses of the catecholamine levels are being performed. The sensitivity of the assay can be as low as 5 picograms for norepinephrine and epinephrine and 12 picograms for dopamine. The assemblance of the essential components of the assay into a kit for use in laboratories is also described. (U.K.)

  9. Radioreceptor assay for insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Kazuo [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-04-01

    Radioreceptor assay of insulin was discussed from the aspects of the measuring method, its merits and problems to be solved, and its clinical application. Rat liver 10 x g pellet was used as receptor site, and enzymatic degradation of insulin by the system contained in this fraction was inhibited by adding 1 mM p-CMB. /sup 125/I-labelled porcine insulin was made by lactoperoxidase method under overnight incubation at 4/sup 0/C and later purification by Sephadex G-25 column and Whatman CF-11 cellulose powder. Dog pancreatic vein serum insulin during and after the glucose load was determined by radioreceptor assay and radioimmunoassay resulting that both measurements accorded considerably. Radioreceptor assay would clarify the pathology of disorders of glucose metabolism including diabetes.

  10. Clonogenic assay: adherent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafehi, Haloom; Orlowski, Christian; Georgiadis, George T; Ververis, Katherine; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-03-13

    The clonogenic (or colony forming) assay has been established for more than 50 years; the original paper describing the technique was published in 1956. Apart from documenting the method, the initial landmark study generated the first radiation-dose response curve for X-ray irradiated mammalian (HeLa) cells in culture. Basically, the clonogenic assay enables an assessment of the differences in reproductive viability (capacity of cells to produce progeny; i.e. a single cell to form a colony of 50 or more cells) between control untreated cells and cells that have undergone various treatments such as exposure to ionising radiation, various chemical compounds (e.g. cytotoxic agents) or in other cases genetic manipulation. The assay has become the most widely accepted technique in radiation biology and has been widely used for evaluating the radiation sensitivity of different cell lines. Further, the clonogenic assay is commonly used for monitoring the efficacy of radiation modifying compounds and for determining the effects of cytotoxic agents and other anti-cancer therapeutics on colony forming ability, in different cell lines. A typical clonogenic survival experiment using adherent cells lines involves three distinct components, 1) treatment of the cell monolayer in tissue culture flasks, 2) preparation of single cell suspensions and plating an appropriate number of cells in petri dishes and 3) fixing and staining colonies following a relevant incubation period, which could range from 1-3 weeks, depending on the cell line. Here we demonstrate the general procedure for performing the clonogenic assay with adherent cell lines with the use of an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line (FEP-1811). Also, our aims are to describe common features of clonogenic assays including calculation of the plating efficiency and survival fractions after exposure of cells to radiation, and to exemplify modification of radiation-response with the use of a natural antioxidant

  11. Early diagnostic value of plasma PCT and BG assay for CRBSI after OLT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Wang, Y; Shen, Z; Zhu, Z; Song, Y; Han, R

    2011-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate the role of procalcitonin (PCT) and (1-3)-β-D-glucan (BG) tests for early detection or exclusion of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) in patients after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Fifty-five patients with clinically suspected CRBSI were assessed after OLT in this prospective study. On the day of clinical suspicion of CRBSI, blood samples were obtained from central venous catheters and a peripheral vein for blood cultures and from a peripheral vein for PCT and BG tests. Plasma PCT and BG values were measured by using an immunoluminometric assay and Fungitell BG assay, respectively. No prisoners or organs from prisoners were used in this study. Twenty-five patients (45%) were diagnosed with CRBIS. Among them, 13 (52%) displayed gram-positive bacteriemia, 11 (44%) gram-negative bacteriemia, and 1 (4%) fungemia. The PCT values were higher in CRBSI than in non-CRBSI patients (P = .003). CRBSI patients did not show significant increases in plasma BG values compared with non-CRBSI subjects (P = .051). PCT and BG area under receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.840 and 0.486, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of a PCT of ≥ 3.1 ng/mL for the diagnosis of CRBSI were 0.72, 0.87, 0.82, and 0.79, respectively. The figures for a BG of ≥ 83 pg/mL were 0.32, 0.90, 0.73, and 0.61, respectively. Among the 24 patients with bacteria infections, PCT was higher in patients with gram-negative than those with gram-positive bacterial infections (P = .022). We concluded that the PCT assay may be a useful rapid diagnostic adjunct for the diagnosis of suspected CRBSI in OLT patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven

    2016-01-01

    This edited book comprises papers about the impacts, benefits and challenges of connected and automated cars. It is the third volume of the LNMOB series dealing with Road Vehicle Automation. The book comprises contributions from researchers, industry practitioners and policy makers, covering perspectives from the U.S., Europe and Japan. It is based on the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015 which was jointly organized by the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in July 2015. The topical spectrum includes, but is not limited to, public sector activities, human factors, ethical and business aspects, energy and technological perspectives, vehicle systems and transportation infrastructure. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  13. Hydrometeorological Automated Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of Hydrologic Development of the National Weather Service operates HADS, the Hydrometeorological Automated Data System. This data set contains the last 48...

  14. Automated External Defibrillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leads to a 10 percent reduction in survival. Training To Use an Automated External Defibrillator Learning how to use an AED and taking a CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) course are helpful. However, if trained ...

  15. Planning for Office Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mick, Colin K.

    1983-01-01

    Outlines a practical approach to planning for office automation termed the "Focused Process Approach" (the "what" phase, "how" phase, "doing" phase) which is a synthesis of the problem-solving and participatory planning approaches. Thirteen references are provided. (EJS)

  16. Fixed automated spray technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    This research project evaluated the construction and performance of Boschungs Fixed Automated : Spray Technology (FAST) system. The FAST system automatically sprays de-icing material on : the bridge when icing conditions are about to occur. The FA...

  17. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation 2

    2015-01-01

    This paper collection is the second volume of the LNMOB series on Road Vehicle Automation. The book contains a comprehensive review of current technical, socio-economic, and legal perspectives written by experts coming from public authorities, companies and universities in the U.S., Europe and Japan. It originates from the Automated Vehicle Symposium 2014, which was jointly organized by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Burlingame, CA, in July 2014. The contributions discuss the challenges arising from the integration of highly automated and self-driving vehicles into the transportation system, with a focus on human factors and different deployment scenarios. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  18. Automation Interface Design Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our research makes its contributions at two levels. At one level, we addressed the problems of interaction between humans and computers/automation in a particular...

  19. I-94 Automation FAQs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — In order to increase efficiency, reduce operating costs and streamline the admissions process, U.S. Customs and Border Protection has automated Form I-94 at air and...

  20. Automation synthesis modules review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschi, S.; Lodi, F.; Malizia, C.; Cicoria, G.; Marengo, M.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of 68 Ga labelled tracers has changed the diagnostic approach to neuroendocrine tumours and the availability of a reliable, long-lived 68 Ge/ 68 Ga generator has been at the bases of the development of 68 Ga radiopharmacy. The huge increase in clinical demand, the impact of regulatory issues and a careful radioprotection of the operators have boosted for extensive automation of the production process. The development of automated systems for 68 Ga radiochemistry, different engineering and software strategies and post-processing of the eluate were discussed along with impact of automation with regulations. - Highlights: ► Generators availability and robust chemistry boosted for the huge diffusion of 68Ga radiopharmaceuticals. ► Different technological approaches for 68Ga radiopharmaceuticals will be discussed. ► Generator eluate post processing and evolution to cassette based systems were the major issues in automation. ► Impact of regulations on the technological development will be also considered

  1. Scintillation proximity assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, H.

    1980-01-01

    In a method of immunological assay two different classes of particles which interact at short distances to produce characteristic detectable signals are employed in a modification of the usual latex fixation test. In one embodiment an aqueous suspension of antigen coated tritiated latex particles (LH) and antigen coated polystyrene scintillant particles (L*) is employed to assay antibody in the aqueous medium. The amount of (LH) (L*) dimer formation and higher order aggregation induced and therefore the concentration of antibody (or antigen) present which caused the aggregation can be determined by using standard liquid scintillation counting equipment. (author)

  2. Assays for calcitonin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teitelbaum, A.P.; Nissenson, R.A.; Arnaud, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The assays for calcitonin receptors described focus on their use in the study of the well-established target organs for calcitonin, bone and kidney. The radioligand used in virtually all calcitonin binding studies is 125 I-labelled salmon calcitonin. The lack of methionine residues in this peptide permits the use of chloramine-T for the iodination reaction. Binding assays are described for intact bone, skeletal plasma membranes, renal plasma membranes, and primary kidney cell cultures of rats. Studies on calcitonin metabolism in laboratory animals and regulation of calcitonin receptors are reviewed

  3. Disassembly automation automated systems with cognitive abilities

    CERN Document Server

    Vongbunyong, Supachai

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a number of aspects to be considered in the development of disassembly automation, including the mechanical system, vision system and intelligent planner. The implementation of cognitive robotics increases the flexibility and degree of autonomy of the disassembly system. Disassembly, as a step in the treatment of end-of-life products, can allow the recovery of embodied value left within disposed products, as well as the appropriate separation of potentially-hazardous components. In the end-of-life treatment industry, disassembly has largely been limited to manual labor, which is expensive in developed countries. Automation is one possible solution for economic feasibility. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  4. Highway Electrification And Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Shladover, Steven E.

    1992-01-01

    This report addresses how the California Department of Transportation and the California PATH Program have made efforts to evaluate the feasibility and applicability of highway electrification and automation technologies. In addition to describing how the work was conducted, the report also describes the findings on highway electrification and highway automation, with experimental results, design study results, and a region-wide application impacts study for Los Angeles.

  5. Automated lattice data generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyar Venkitesh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of generating ensembles of gauge configurations (and measuring various observables over them can be tedious and error-prone when done “by hand”. In practice, most of this procedure can be automated with the use of a workflow manager. We discuss how this automation can be accomplished using Taxi, a minimal Python-based workflow manager built for generating lattice data. We present a case study demonstrating this technology.

  6. Automated lattice data generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyar, Venkitesh; Hackett, Daniel C.; Jay, William I.; Neil, Ethan T.

    2018-03-01

    The process of generating ensembles of gauge configurations (and measuring various observables over them) can be tedious and error-prone when done "by hand". In practice, most of this procedure can be automated with the use of a workflow manager. We discuss how this automation can be accomplished using Taxi, a minimal Python-based workflow manager built for generating lattice data. We present a case study demonstrating this technology.

  7. Automated security management

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Shaer, Ehab; Xie, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    In this contributed volume, leading international researchers explore configuration modeling and checking, vulnerability and risk assessment, configuration analysis, and diagnostics and discovery. The authors equip readers to understand automated security management systems and techniques that increase overall network assurability and usability. These constantly changing networks defend against cyber attacks by integrating hundreds of security devices such as firewalls, IPSec gateways, IDS/IPS, authentication servers, authorization/RBAC servers, and crypto systems. Automated Security Managemen

  8. Marketing automation supporting sales

    OpenAIRE

    Sandell, Niko

    2016-01-01

    The past couple of decades has been a time of major changes in marketing. Digitalization has become a permanent part of marketing and at the same time enabled efficient collection of data. Personalization and customization of content are playing a crucial role in marketing when new customers are acquired. This has also created a need for automation to facilitate the distribution of targeted content. As a result of successful marketing automation more information of the customers is gathered ...

  9. Instant Sikuli test automation

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to follow style using the Starter guide approach.This book is aimed at automation and testing professionals who want to use Sikuli to automate GUI. Some Python programming experience is assumed.

  10. Managing laboratory automation

    OpenAIRE

    Saboe, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the process of managing automated systems through their life cycles within the quality-control (QC) laboratory environment. The focus is on the process of directing and managing the evolving automation of a laboratory; system examples are given. The author shows how both task and data systems have evolved, and how they interrelate. A BIG picture, or continuum view, is presented and some of the reasons for success or failure of the various examples cited are explored. Fina...

  11. Shielded cells transfer automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear waste from shielded cells is removed, packaged, and transferred manually in many nuclear facilities. Radiation exposure is absorbed by operators during these operations and limited only through procedural controls. Technological advances in automation using robotics have allowed a production waste removal operation to be automated to reduce radiation exposure. The robotic system bags waste containers out of glove box and transfers them to a shielded container. Operators control the system outside the system work area via television cameras. 9 figures

  12. Automated Status Notification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Automated Status Notification System (ASNS) was born out of need. To prevent "hacker attacks," Lewis' telephone system needed to monitor communications activities 24 hr a day, 7 days a week. With decreasing staff resources, this continuous monitoring had to be automated. By utilizing existing communications hardware, a UNIX workstation, and NAWK (a pattern scanning and processing language), we implemented a continuous monitoring system.

  13. Automated Groundwater Screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Glenn A.; Collard, Leonard B.

    2005-01-01

    The Automated Intruder Analysis has been extended to include an Automated Ground Water Screening option. This option screens 825 radionuclides while rigorously applying the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) methodology. An extension to that methodology is presented to give a more realistic screening factor for those radionuclides which have significant daughters. The extension has the promise of reducing the number of radionuclides which must be tracked by the customer. By combining the Automated Intruder Analysis with the Automated Groundwater Screening a consistent set of assumptions and databases is used. A method is proposed to eliminate trigger values by performing rigorous calculation of the screening factor thereby reducing the number of radionuclides sent to further analysis. Using the same problem definitions as in previous groundwater screenings, the automated groundwater screening found one additional nuclide, Ge-68, which failed the screening. It also found that 18 of the 57 radionuclides contained in NCRP Table 3.1 failed the screening. This report describes the automated groundwater screening computer application

  14. MS transport assays for γ-aminobutyric acid transporters--an efficient alternative for radiometric assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Sebastian; Höfner, Georg; Wanner, Klaus T

    2014-08-05

    Transport assays for neurotransmitters based on radiolabeled substrates are widely spread and often indispensable in basic research and the drug development process, although the use of radioisotopes is inherently coupled to issues concerning radioactive waste and safety precautions. To overcome these disadvantages, we developed mass spectrometry (MS)-based transport assays for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). These "MS Transport Assays" provide all capabilities of [(3)H]GABA transport assays and therefore represent the first substitute for the latter. The performance of our approach is demonstrated for GAT1, the most important GABA transporter (GAT) subtype. As GABA is endogenously present in COS-7 cells employed as hGAT1 expression system, ((2)H6)GABA was used as a substrate to differentiate transported from endogenous GABA. To record transported ((2)H6)GABA, a highly sensitive, short, robust, and reliable HILIC-ESI-MS/MS quantification method using ((2)H2)GABA as an internal standard was developed and validated according to the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) guidelines. Based on this LC-MS quantification, a setup to characterize hGAT1 mediated ((2)H6)GABA transport in a 96-well format was established, that enables automated processing and avoids any sample preparation. The K(m) value for ((2)H6)GABA determined for hGAT1 is in excellent agreement with results obtained from [(3)H]GABA uptake assays. In addition, the established assay format enables efficient determination of the inhibitory potency of GAT1 inhibitors, is capable of identifying those inhibitors transported as substrates, and furthermore allows characterization of efflux. The approach described here combines the strengths of LC-MS/MS with the high efficiency of transport assays based on radiolabeled substrates and is applicable to all GABA transporter subtypes.

  15. C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and procalcitonin levels as early markers of staple line leak after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in morbidly obese patients within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Muñoz, Jose Luis; Gonzalez, Juan; Garcia, Alejandro; Ferrigni, Carlos; Jimenez, Montiel; Duran, Manuel

    2017-12-01

    The performance of most bariatric procedures within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery program has resulted in significant advantages, including a reduction in the length of hospital stay to 2-3 days. However, some postoperative complications may appear after the patient has been discharged. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of various acute-phase parameters determined 24 h after a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for predicting staple line leak in the postoperative course. A prospective study of 208 morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy as bariatric procedure between 2012 and 2015 was performed. Blood analysis was performed 24 h after surgery. Acute-phase parameters (C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, fibrinogen, and White Blood Cell count) were investigated. Staple line leak appeared in eight patients (3.8%). Using receiver operating characteristic analysis at 24 h postoperatively, a cutoff level of CRP at 9 mg/dL achieved 85% sensitivity and 90% specificity for predicting staple line leak, a cutoff level of procalcitonin at 0.85 ng/mL achieved 70% sensitivity and 90% specificity, and a cutoff level of fibrinogen at 600 mg/dL achieved 80% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity. An elevation of CRP > 9 mg/dL, procalcitonin > 0.85 ng/mL and fibrinogen > 600 mg/dL should alert the surgeon the possibility of occurrence of postoperative staple line leak.

  16. Lateral flow assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Amerongen, van A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple version of immunochemical-based methods is the Lateral Flow Assay (LFA). It is a dry chemistry technique (reagents are included); the fluid from the sample runs through a porous membrane (often nitrocellulose) by capillary force. Typically the membrane is cut as a strip of 0.5*5 cm. In most

  17. Microchemiluminescent assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiel, J.L.

    1986-04-09

    The patent concerns a microchemiluminescent assay system, which can be used to detect ionizing radiation, heat or specific substances. The method involves the use of a complex formed from serum albumin and a luminescer which, in the presence of ionizing radiation (heat, or a specific analyte), will emit light in an amount proportional to the amount of radiation, etc. (U.K.).

  18. (MTT) dye reduction assay.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to inhibit proliferation of HeLa cells was determined using the 3443- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye reduction assay. Extracts from roots of Agathisanthemum bojeri, Synaptolepis kirkii and Zanha africana and the leaf extract of Physalis peruviana at a concentration of 10 pg/ml inhibited cell ...

  19. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis S; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  20. FLUIDICS DEVICE FOR ASSAY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device for use in performing assays on standard laboratory solid supports whereon chemical entities are attached. The invention furthermore relates to the use of such a device and a kit comprising such a device. The device according to the present invention is a...

  1. Automation of diagnostic genetic testing: mutation detection by cyclic minisequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagrund, Katariina; Orpana, Arto K

    2014-01-01

    The rising role of nucleic acid testing in clinical decision making is creating a need for efficient and automated diagnostic nucleic acid test platforms. Clinical use of nucleic acid testing sets demands for shorter turnaround times (TATs), lower production costs and robust, reliable methods that can easily adopt new test panels and is able to run rare tests in random access principle. Here we present a novel home-brew laboratory automation platform for diagnostic mutation testing. This platform is based on the cyclic minisequecing (cMS) and two color near-infrared (NIR) detection. Pipetting is automated using Tecan Freedom EVO pipetting robots and all assays are performed in 384-well micro plate format. The automation platform includes a data processing system, controlling all procedures, and automated patient result reporting to the hospital information system. We have found automated cMS a reliable, inexpensive and robust method for nucleic acid testing for a wide variety of diagnostic tests. The platform is currently in clinical use for over 80 mutations or polymorphisms. Additionally to tests performed from blood samples, the system performs also epigenetic test for the methylation of the MGMT gene promoter, and companion diagnostic tests for analysis of KRAS and BRAF gene mutations from formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tumor samples. Automation of genetic test reporting is found reliable and efficient decreasing the work load of academic personnel.

  2. A new automated colorimetric method for measuring total oxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erel, Ozcan

    2005-12-01

    To develop a new, colorimetric and automated method for measuring total oxidation status (TOS). The assay is based on the oxidation of ferrous ion to ferric ion in the presence of various oxidant species in acidic medium and the measurement of the ferric ion by xylenol orange. The oxidation reaction of the assay was enhanced and precipitation of proteins was prevented. In addition, autoxidation of ferrous ion present in the reagent was prevented during storage. The method was applied to an automated analyzer, which was calibrated with hydrogen peroxide and the analytical performance characteristics of the assay were determined. There were important correlations with hydrogen peroxide, tert-butyl hydroperoxide and cumene hydroperoxide solutions (r=0.99, Ptotal antioxidant capacity (TAC) (r=-0.66 Ptotal oxidant status.

  3. Automated microscopy for high-content RNAi screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is one of the most powerful tools to investigate complex cellular processes such as cell division, cell motility, or intracellular trafficking. The availability of RNA interference (RNAi) technology and automated microscopy has opened the possibility to perform cellular imaging in functional genomics and other large-scale applications. Although imaging often dramatically increases the content of a screening assay, it poses new challenges to achieve accurate quantitative annotation and therefore needs to be carefully adjusted to the specific needs of individual screening applications. In this review, we discuss principles of assay design, large-scale RNAi, microscope automation, and computational data analysis. We highlight strategies for imaging-based RNAi screening adapted to different library and assay designs. PMID:20176920

  4. Comparison of the Vidas C. difficile GDH Automated Enzyme-Linked Fluorescence Immunoassay (ELFA) with Another Commercial Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) (Quik Chek-60), Two Selective Media, and a PCR Assay for gluD for Detection of Clostridium difficile in Fecal Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, K A; Berry, C E; Morris, K A; Smith, R; Young, S; Davis, T E; Fuller, D D; Buckner, R J; Wilcox, M H

    2015-06-01

    Prevention and management of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) can be improved by rapid and reliable diagnostics. The Vidas C. difficile glutamate dehydrogenase assay had performance comparable to that of the Quik Chek-60 assay (overall agreement, 95%) and a sensitivity of >93%; thus, it is suitable as the first test in two-stage algorithms for a CDI diagnosis. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Radioreceptor assay for oxyphenonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensing, K.; Zeeuw, R.A. de

    1984-01-01

    The development of a radioreceptor assay for the quaternary anticholinergic drug, oxyphenonium, in plasma is reported. It is based on competition between this drug and 3 H-dexetimide for binding to muscarinic receptors. After ion pair extraction and reextraction, the drug can be determined in plasma at concentrations down to a value of 100 pg/ml. This permits pharmacokinetic studies to be made after inhalation of oxyphenonium. (author)

  6. Dual isotope assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.F.W.; Stevens, R.A.J.; Jacoby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Dual isotope assays for thyroid function are performed by carrying out a radio-immunoassay for two of thyroxine (T4), tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), by a method wherein a version of one of the thyroid components, preferably T4 or T3 is labelled with Selenium-75 and the version of the other thyroid component is labelled with a different radionuclide, preferably Iodine-125. (author)

  7. Soluble membrane receptors, interleukin 6, procalcitonin and C reactive protein as prognostic markers in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Jesús Ríos-Toro

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore the diagnostic and prognostic value of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell 1 (sTREM-1, soluble cluster of differentiation 14 (sCD14, soluble cluster of differentiation 163 (sCD163, interleukin-6 (IL-6, procalcitonin (PCT, and C-reactive protein (CRP serum levels for patients with severe sepsis and septic shock in an intensive care unit (ICU.Fifty patients admitted at the ICU with the diagnosis of severe sepsis or septic shock were studied. SOFA and APACHE II scores as well as serum biomarkers were measured at days 0, 2 and 5. The influence of these variables on 28-day mortality was analyzed. Twenty healthy individuals served as controls.Baseline serum concentrations of sTREM-1, sCD163, IL-6 and PCT correlated with SOFA score. Only sTREM-1 levels correlated with APACHE II score. The 28-day mortality rate for all patients was 42%. The absence of risk factors for infection, presence of septic shock, baseline values of sCD14 and decrease of PCT and IL-6 from baseline to day 5 were variables associated to mortality in the univariate analysis. The unique independent factor associated to mortality in the multivariate analysis was a decrease of PCT higher than 50% from days 0 to 5.Serum levels of sTREM-1 are correlated with the severity of sepsis. A 50% decrease of PCT was the unique variable associated with survival in the multivariate analysis.

  8. Procalcitonin as a diagnostic biomarker for septic shock and bloodstream infection in burn patients from the Formosa Fun Coast dust explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rui-Xin; Chiu, Chih-Chien; Lin, Tzu-Chao; Yang, Ya-Sung; Lee, Yi; Lin, Jung-Chung; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2017-12-01

    Infection is the most common cause of death following burn injury. The study was conducted to compare the diagnostic value of serum procalcitonin (PCT) with the other current benchmarks as early predictors of septic shock and bloodstream infection in burn patients. We included 24 patients admitted to the Burn Unit of a medical center from June 2015 to December 2015 from the Formosa Fun Coast dust explosion. We categorized all patients at initial admission into either sepsis or septic shock groups. Laboratory tests including the worst PCT and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, platelet (PLT), and white blood cell (WBC) count were performed at <48 h after admission. Patients were also classified in two groups with subsequent bacteremia and non-bacteremia groups during hospitalization. Significantly higher PCT levels were observed among participants with septic shock compared to those with sepsis (47.19 vs. 1.18 ng/mL, respectively; p < 0.001). Patients with bacteremia had significantly elevated PCT levels compared to patients without bacteremia (29.54 versus 1.81 ng/mL, respectively, p < 0.05). No significant differences were found in CRP levels, PLT, and WBC count between the two groups. PCT levels showed reasonable discriminative power (cut-off: 5.12 ng/mL; p = 0.01) in predicting of bloodstream infection in burn patients and the area under receiver operating curves was 0.92. PCT levels can be helpful in determining the septic shock and bloodstream infection in burn patients but CRP levels, PLT, and WBC count were of little diagnostic value. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Cell-Free DNA, High-Mobility Group Box-1, and Procalcitonin Concentrations in Dogs With Gastric Dilatation–Volvulus Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Troia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Canine gastric dilatation–volvulus (GDV is a life-threatening disease characterized by extensive tissue ischemia, tissue hypoperfusion, and systemic inflammation. Biomarkers that better reflect the severity of gastric necrosis and systemic inflammation would aid clinicians in the management of these patients. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of cell-free DNA (cfDNA, high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1, and procalcitonin (PCT in dogs with GDV. Concentrations of cfDNA, HMGB1, and PCT were measured in citrated plasma samples collected from 29 dogs with GDV at hospital admission. Additional data collected included baseline lactate concentrations, APPLEfast score, evidence of gastric necrosis, occurrence of postoperative complications, and outcome. Twenty-four healthy dogs were sampled as controls. Continuous variables between groups were compared with the Mann–Whitney U and correlations between continuous variables were assessed by calculation of Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Alpha was set at 0.05. Dogs with GDV had significantly greater concentrations of cfDNA, HMGB1, and PCT compared to controls (P = 0.0009, P = 0.004, and P = 0.009, respectively. PCT concentrations were significantly higher in non-survivors compared to survivors (P = 0.008. Dogs with gastric necrosis had significantly greater lactate concentrations compared to dogs without gastric necrosis (P = 0.0005. The APPLEfast score was not prognostic. Lactate and PCT concentrations were moderately, positively correlated (rs 0.51, P = 0.0005. Concentrations of the inflammatory biomarkers cfDNA, HMGB1, and PCT are increased in canine GDV. Only lactate and PCT concentrations were prognostic in this population of GDV dogs and were predictive of the presence of gastric necrosis and of non-survival to hospital discharge, respectively.

  10. Cell-Free DNA, High-Mobility Group Box-1, and Procalcitonin Concentrations in Dogs With Gastric Dilatation-Volvulus Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troia, Roberta; Giunti, Massimo; Calipa, Stefano; Goggs, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Canine gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) is a life-threatening disease characterized by extensive tissue ischemia, tissue hypoperfusion, and systemic inflammation. Biomarkers that better reflect the severity of gastric necrosis and systemic inflammation would aid clinicians in the management of these patients. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of cell-free DNA (cfDNA), high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), and procalcitonin (PCT) in dogs with GDV. Concentrations of cfDNA, HMGB1, and PCT were measured in citrated plasma samples collected from 29 dogs with GDV at hospital admission. Additional data collected included baseline lactate concentrations, APPLE fast score, evidence of gastric necrosis, occurrence of postoperative complications, and outcome. Twenty-four healthy dogs were sampled as controls. Continuous variables between groups were compared with the Mann-Whitney U and correlations between continuous variables were assessed by calculation of Spearman's correlation coefficient. Alpha was set at 0.05. Dogs with GDV had significantly greater concentrations of cfDNA, HMGB1, and PCT compared to controls ( P  = 0.0009, P  = 0.004, and P  = 0.009, respectively). PCT concentrations were significantly higher in non-survivors compared to survivors ( P  = 0.008). Dogs with gastric necrosis had significantly greater lactate concentrations compared to dogs without gastric necrosis ( P  = 0.0005). The APPLE fast score was not prognostic. Lactate and PCT concentrations were moderately, positively correlated ( r s 0.51, P  = 0.0005). Concentrations of the inflammatory biomarkers cfDNA, HMGB1, and PCT are increased in canine GDV. Only lactate and PCT concentrations were prognostic in this population of GDV dogs and were predictive of the presence of gastric necrosis and of non-survival to hospital discharge, respectively.

  11. Cell-Free DNA, High-Mobility Group Box-1, and Procalcitonin Concentrations in Dogs With Gastric Dilatation–Volvulus Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troia, Roberta; Giunti, Massimo; Calipa, Stefano; Goggs, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Canine gastric dilatation–volvulus (GDV) is a life-threatening disease characterized by extensive tissue ischemia, tissue hypoperfusion, and systemic inflammation. Biomarkers that better reflect the severity of gastric necrosis and systemic inflammation would aid clinicians in the management of these patients. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of cell-free DNA (cfDNA), high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), and procalcitonin (PCT) in dogs with GDV. Concentrations of cfDNA, HMGB1, and PCT were measured in citrated plasma samples collected from 29 dogs with GDV at hospital admission. Additional data collected included baseline lactate concentrations, APPLEfast score, evidence of gastric necrosis, occurrence of postoperative complications, and outcome. Twenty-four healthy dogs were sampled as controls. Continuous variables between groups were compared with the Mann–Whitney U and correlations between continuous variables were assessed by calculation of Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Alpha was set at 0.05. Dogs with GDV had significantly greater concentrations of cfDNA, HMGB1, and PCT compared to controls (P = 0.0009, P = 0.004, and P = 0.009, respectively). PCT concentrations were significantly higher in non-survivors compared to survivors (P = 0.008). Dogs with gastric necrosis had significantly greater lactate concentrations compared to dogs without gastric necrosis (P = 0.0005). The APPLEfast score was not prognostic. Lactate and PCT concentrations were moderately, positively correlated (rs 0.51, P = 0.0005). Concentrations of the inflammatory biomarkers cfDNA, HMGB1, and PCT are increased in canine GDV. Only lactate and PCT concentrations were prognostic in this population of GDV dogs and were predictive of the presence of gastric necrosis and of non-survival to hospital discharge, respectively. PMID:29686994

  12. Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein as early markers of anastomotic leak after laparoscopic colorectal surgery within an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, José Luis; Alvarez, María Oliva; Cuquerella, Vicent; Miranda, Elena; Picó, Carlos; Flores, Raquel; Resalt-Pereira, Marta; Moya, Pedro; Pérez, Ana; Arroyo, Antonio

    2018-03-08

    C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) have been described as good predictors of anastomotic leak after colorectal surgery, obtaining the highest diagnostic accuracy on the 5th postoperative day. However, if an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) program is performed, early predictors are needed in order to ensure a safe and early discharge. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of CRP, PCT, and white blood cell (WBC) count determined on first postoperative days, in predicting septic complications, especially anastomotic leak, after laparoscopic colorectal surgery performed within an ERAS program. We conducted a prospective study including 134 patients who underwent laparoscopic colorectal surgery within an ERAS program between 2015 and 2017. The primary endpoint investigated was anastomotic leak. CRP, PCT, and WBC count were determined in the blood sample extracted on postoperative day 1 (POD 1), POD 2 and POD 3. Anastomotic leak (AL) was detected in 6 patients (4.5%). Serum levels of CRP and PCT, but not WBC, determined on POD 1, POD 2, and POD 3 were significantly higher in patients who had AL in the postoperative course. Using ROC analysis, the best AUC of the CRP and PCT levels was on POD 3 (0.837 and 0.947, respectively). A CRP cutoff level at 163 mg/l yielded 85% sensitivity, 80% specificity, and 99% negative predictive value (NPV). A PCT cutoff level at 2.5 ng/ml achieved 85% sensitivity, 95% specificity, 44% positive predictive value, and 99% NPV. CRP and PCT are relevant markers for detecting postoperative AL after laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Furthermore, they can ensure an early discharge with a low probability of AL when an ERAS program is performed.

  13. Comparison of procalcitonin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein for the diagnosis of sepsis and septic shock in the oldest old patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmin; Wang, Xiaoting; Zhang, Qing; Xia, Ying; Liu, Dawei

    2017-08-01

    Although the role of serum procalcitonin (PCT) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in the diagnosis of sepsis and septic shock is well studied, it has not been investigated among oldest old patients. The aim of our study is to determine the role of PCT and hs-CRP in the assessment of sepsis and septic shock in this specific group of patients in the ICU. This is a prospective observational study. Patients >85 years of age admitted to the ICU from May 1st, 2016 to February 1st, 2017 were evaluated. Patients were divided into a sepsis and septic shock group(sepsis/SS) and a non-sepsis group. Serum levels of PCT, hs-CRP and the WBC were measured within 12 h of admission. A total of 70 patients aged 85 years and older were enrolled in this study. Fifty patients were labelled as sepsis/SS and the other 20 were labelled non-sepsis. A ROC analysis showed that the area under the curves (AUC) of hs-CRP and PCT for the discrimination of sepsis/SS patients were 0.825 (95% confidence interval[CI]: 0.73-0.92; P sepsis/SS group, 27 patients had sepsis, while the other 23 patients had septic shock. The ROC analysis showed that the AUCs of hs-CRP and PCT for the discrimination of septic shock patients from sepsis patients were 0.751 (95% CI: 0.62-0.88; P = 0.002) and 0.719 (95% CI:0.57-0.86; p = 0.007), respectively. For the oldest old patients, hs-CRP is not inferior to PCT in the diagnosis of sepsis and septic shock.

  14. Automation of Taxiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Bursík

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the possibility of automation of taxiing, which is the part of a flight, which, under adverse weather conditions, greatly reduces the operational usability of an airport, and is the only part of a flight that has not been affected by automation, yet. Taxiing is currently handled manually by the pilot, who controls the airplane based on information from visual perception. The article primarily deals with possible ways of obtaining navigational information, and its automatic transfer to the controls. Analyzed wand assessed were currently available technologies such as computer vision, Light Detection and Ranging and Global Navigation Satellite System, which are useful for navigation and their general implementation into an airplane was designed. Obstacles to the implementation were identified, too. The result is a proposed combination of systems along with their installation into airplane’s systems so that it is possible to use the automated taxiing.

  15. Integrated bioassays in microfluidic devices: botulinum toxin assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangru, Shakuntala; Bentz, Bryan L; Davis, Timothy J; Desai, Nitin; Stabile, Paul J; Schmidt, James J; Millard, Charles B; Bavari, Sina; Kodukula, Krishna

    2005-12-01

    A microfluidic assay was developed for screening botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT-A) by using a fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay. Molded silicone microdevices with integral valves, pumps, and reagent reservoirs were designed and fabricated. Electrical and pneumatic control hardware were constructed, and software was written to automate the assay protocol and data acquisition. Detection was accomplished by fluorescence microscopy. The system was validated with a peptide inhibitor, running 2 parallel assays, as a feasibility demonstration. The small footprint of each bioreactor cell (0.5 cm2) and scalable fluidic architecture enabled many parallel assays on a single chip. The chip is programmable to run a dilution series in each lane, generating concentration-response data for multiple inhibitors. The assay results showed good agreement with the corresponding experiments done at a macroscale level. Although the system has been developed for BoNT-A screening, a wide variety of assays can be performed on the microfluidic chip with little or no modification.

  16. Current advances and strategies towards fully automated sample preparation for regulated LC-MS/MS bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Naiyu; Jiang, Hao; Zeng, Jianing

    2014-09-01

    Robotic liquid handlers (RLHs) have been widely used in automated sample preparation for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) bioanalysis. Automated sample preparation for regulated bioanalysis offers significantly higher assay efficiency, better data quality and potential bioanalytical cost-savings. For RLHs that are used for regulated bioanalysis, there are additional requirements, including 21 CFR Part 11 compliance, software validation, system qualification, calibration verification and proper maintenance. This article reviews recent advances in automated sample preparation for regulated bioanalysis in the last 5 years. Specifically, it covers the following aspects: regulated bioanalysis requirements, recent advances in automation hardware and software development, sample extraction workflow simplification, strategies towards fully automated sample extraction, and best practices in automated sample preparation for regulated bioanalysis.

  17. A European multicientre study on the comparison of HIV-1 viral loads between VERIS HIV-1 Assay and Roche COBAS® TAQMAN® HIV-1 test, Abbott RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and Siemens VERSANT HIV-1 Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Patrick; Delgado, Rafael; Drago, Monica; Fanti, Diana; Fleury, Hervé; Hofmann, Jörg; Izopet, Jacques; Kühn, Sebastian; Lombardi, Alessandra; Mancon, Alessandro; Marcos, Mª Angeles; Mileto, Davide; Sauné, Karine; O'Shea, Siobhan; Pérez-Rivilla, Alfredo; Ramble, John; Trimoulet, Pascale; Vila, Jordi; Whittaker, Duncan; Artus, Alain; Rhodes, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    Viral load monitoring is essential for patients under treatment for HIV. Beckman Coulter has developed the VERIS HIV-1 Assay for use on the novel, automated DxN VERIS Molecular Diagnostics System. ¥ OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the clinical performance of the new quantitative VERIS HIV-1 Assay at multiple EU laboratories. Method comparison with the VERIS HIV-1 Assay was performed with 415 specimens at 5 sites tested with COBAS ® AmpliPrep/COBAS ® TaqMan ® HIV-1 Test, v2.0, 169 specimens at 3 sites tested with RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and 202 specimens from 2 sites tested with VERSANT HIV-1 Assay. Patient monitoring sample results from 4 sites were also compared. Bland-Altman analysis showed the average bias between VERIS HIV-1 Assay and COBAS HIV-1 Test, RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and VERSANT HIV-1 Assay to be 0.28, 0.39, and 0.61 log 10 cp/mL, respectively. Bias at low end levels below 1000cp/mL showed predicted bias to be <0.3 log 10 cp/mL for VERIS HIV-1 Assay versus COBAS HIV-1 Test and RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and <0.5 log 10 cp/mL versus VERSANT HIV-1 Assay. Analysis on 174 specimens tested with the 0.175mL volume VERIS HIV-1 Assay and COBAS HIV-1 Test showed average bias of 0.39 log 10 cp/mL. Patient monitoring results using VERIS HIV-1 Assay demonstrated similar viral load trends over time to all comparators. The VERIS HIV-1 Assay for use on the DxN VERIS System demonstrated comparable clinical performance to COBAS ® HIV-1 Test, RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and VERSANT HIV-1 Assay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Control and automation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Zillich, H.

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given of the development of control and automation systems for energy uses. General remarks about control and automation schemes are followed by a description of modern process control systems along with process control processes as such. After discussing the particular process control requirements of nuclear power plants the paper deals with the reliability and availability of process control systems and refers to computerized simulation processes. The subsequent paragraphs are dedicated to descriptions of the operating floor, ergonomic conditions, existing systems, flue gas desulfurization systems, the electromagnetic influences on digital circuits as well as of light wave uses. (HAG) [de

  19. Automated nuclear materials accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacak, P.; Moravec, J.

    1982-01-01

    An automated state system of accounting for nuclear materials data was established in Czechoslovakia in 1979. A file was compiled of 12 programs in the PL/1 language. The file is divided into four groups according to logical associations, namely programs for data input and checking, programs for handling the basic data file, programs for report outputs in the form of worksheets and magnetic tape records, and programs for book inventory listing, document inventory handling and materials balance listing. A similar automated system of nuclear fuel inventory for a light water reactor was introduced for internal purposes in the Institute of Nuclear Research (UJV). (H.S.)

  20. Automating the CMS DAQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, G; Darlea, G-L; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Bawej, T; Chaze, O; Coarasa, J A; Deldicque, C; Dobson, M; Dupont, A; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gomez-Reino, R; Hartl, C; Hegeman, J; Masetti, L; Behrens, U; Branson, J; Cittolin, S; Holzner, A; Erhan, S

    2014-01-01

    We present the automation mechanisms that have been added to the Data Acquisition and Run Control systems of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment during Run 1 of the LHC, ranging from the automation of routine tasks to automatic error recovery and context-sensitive guidance to the operator. These mechanisms helped CMS to maintain a data taking efficiency above 90% and to even improve it to 95% towards the end of Run 1, despite an increase in the occurrence of single-event upsets in sub-detector electronics at high LHC luminosity.

  1. Altering user' acceptance of automation through prior automation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekier, Marek; Molesworth, Brett R C

    2017-06-01

    Air navigation service providers worldwide see increased use of automation as one solution to overcome the capacity constraints imbedded in the present air traffic management (ATM) system. However, increased use of automation within any system is dependent on user acceptance. The present research sought to determine if the point at which an individual is no longer willing to accept or cooperate with automation can be manipulated. Forty participants underwent training on a computer-based air traffic control programme, followed by two ATM exercises (order counterbalanced), one with and one without the aid of automation. Results revealed after exposure to a task with automation assistance, user acceptance of high(er) levels of automation ('tipping point') decreased; suggesting it is indeed possible to alter automation acceptance. Practitioner Summary: This paper investigates whether the point at which a user of automation rejects automation (i.e. 'tipping point') is constant or can be manipulated. The results revealed after exposure to a task with automation assistance, user acceptance of high(er) levels of automation decreased; suggesting it is possible to alter automation acceptance.

  2. Flow injection analysis: Emerging tool for laboratory automation in radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, O.; Ruzicka, J.; Grate, J.W.; Janata, J.

    1996-01-01

    Automation of routine and serial assays is a common practice of modern analytical laboratory, while it is virtually nonexistent in the field of radiochemistry. Flow injection analysis (FIA) is a general solution handling methodology that has been extensively used for automation of routine assays in many areas of analytical chemistry. Reproducible automated solution handling and on-line separation capabilities are among several distinctive features that make FI a very promising, yet under utilized tool for automation in analytical radiochemistry. The potential of the technique is demonstrated through the development of an automated 90 Sr analyzer and its application in the analysis of tank waste samples from the Hanford site. Sequential injection (SI), the latest generation of FIA, is used to rapidly separate 90 Sr from interfering radionuclides and deliver separated Sr zone to a flow-through liquid scintillation detector. The separation is performed on a mini column containing Sr-specific sorbent extraction material, which selectively retains Sr under acidic conditions. The 90 Sr is eluted with water, mixed with scintillation cocktail, and sent through the flow cell of a flow through counter, where 90 Sr radioactivity is detected as a transient signal. Both peak area and peak height can be used for quantification of sample radioactivity. Alternatively, stopped flow detection can be performed to improve detection precision for low activity samples. The authors current research activities are focused on expansion of radiochemical applications of FIA methodology, with an ultimate goal of creating a set of automated methods that will cover the basic needs of radiochemical analysis at the Hanford site. The results of preliminary experiments indicate that FIA is a highly suitable technique for the automation of chemically more challenging separations, such as separation of actinide elements

  3. LIBRARY AUTOMATION IN NIGERAN UNIVERSITIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    facilitate services and access to information in libraries is widely acceptable. ... Moreover, Ugah (2001) reports that the automation process at the. Abubakar ... blueprint in 1987 and a turn-key system of automation was suggested for the library.

  4. High-throughput immunoturbidimetric assays for in-process determination of polyclonal antibody concentration and functionality in crude samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Hanne; Kyhse-Andersen, J.; Thomas, O.R.T.

    2007-01-01

    We present fast, simple immunoturbidimetric assays suitable for direct determination of antibody 'concentration' and 'functionality' in crude samples, such as in-process samples taken at various stages during antibody purification. Both assays display excellent linearity and analytical recovery. ...... antibodies, require only basic laboratory equipment, are robust, fast, cheap, easy to perform, and readily adapted to automation....

  5. Future Trends in Process Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Jämsä-Jounela, Sirkka-Liisa

    2007-01-01

    The importance of automation in the process industries has increased dramatically in recent years. In the highly industrialized countries, process automation serves to enhance product quality, master the whole range of products, improve process safety and plant availability, efficiently utilize resources and lower emissions. In the rapidly developing countries, mass production is the main motivation for applying process automation. The greatest demand for process automation is in the chemical...

  6. Adaptive Automation Design and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    with an automated system to a real-world adaptive au- tomation system implementation. There have been plenty of adaptive automation 17 Adaptive...of systems without increasing manpower requirements by allocating routine tasks to automated aids, improving safety through the use of au- tomated ...between intermediate levels of au- tomation , explicitly defining which human task a given level automates. Each model aids the creation and classification

  7. Radiorespirometic assay device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.V.; Straat, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    A radiorespirometic assay device is described in which the presence of microorganisms in a sample is determined by placing the sample in contact with a metabolisable radioactive labelled substrate, collecting any gas evolved, exposing a photosensitive material to the gas and determining if a spot is produced on the material. A spot indicates the presence of radioactivity showing that the substrate has been metabolized by a microorganism. Bacteria may be detected in body fluids, hospital operating rooms, water, food, cosmetics and drugs. (U.K.)

  8. Radon assay for SNO+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumleskie, Janet [Laurentian University, Greater Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-31

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  9. Method for assay of radioactivity in waste soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Willhoite, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Contaminated soil is a result of many nuclear operations. During facility decommissioning or site cleanup, it may be packaged for disposal. The waste soil must be assayed for contaminants to follow transport regulations and waste handling facility requirements. Methods used for assay include the following: (1) sampling the ground before excavation and assuming ground data apply to soil when packaged; (2) analyzing samples taken from the soil added to a package; (3) counting radiation at the exterior of the package; and (4) measuring neutron absorption by packaged waste soil. The Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) worked with Eberline Instruments Corporation (EIC) to develop an automated assay method for the waste stream in a plutonium-contaminated soil cleanup at Johnston Atoll in the North Pacific Ocean. The perfected method uses a personal computer, an electronic weighing scale, and a programmable radiation counter. Computer programs get weight and radiation counts at frequent intervals as packages fill, calculate activity in the waste, and produce reports. The automated assay method is an efficient one-person routine that steadfastly collects data and produces a comprehensive record on packaged waste

  10. Automated HAZOP revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    Hazard and operability analysis (HAZOP) has developed from a tentative approach to hazard identification for process plants in the early 1970s to an almost universally accepted approach today, and a central technique of safety engineering. Techniques for automated HAZOP analysis were developed...

  11. Automated Student Model Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedinger, Kenneth R.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth A.; Stamper, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Student modeling plays a critical role in developing and improving instruction and instructional technologies. We present a technique for automated improvement of student models that leverages the DataShop repository, crowd sourcing, and a version of the Learning Factors Analysis algorithm. We demonstrate this method on eleven educational…

  12. Automated Vehicle Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Agustinus Deddy Arief; Heriansyah, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    An automated vehicle monitoring system is proposed in this paper. The surveillance system is based on image processing techniques such as background subtraction, colour balancing, chain code based shape detection, and blob. The proposed system will detect any human's head as appeared at the side mirrors. The detected head will be tracked and recorded for further action.

  13. Mechatronic Design Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun

    successfully design analogue filters, vibration absorbers, micro-electro-mechanical systems, and vehicle suspension systems, all in an automatic or semi-automatic way. It also investigates the very important issue of co-designing plant-structures and dynamic controllers in automated design of Mechatronic...

  14. Automated Accounting. Instructor Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Duane R.

    This curriculum guide was developed to assist business instructors using Dac Easy Accounting College Edition Version 2.0 software in their accounting programs. The module consists of four units containing assignment sheets and job sheets designed to enable students to master competencies identified in the area of automated accounting. The first…

  15. Automated conflict resolution issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion is presented of how conflicts for Space Network resources should be resolved in the ATDRSS era. The following topics are presented: a description of how resource conflicts are currently resolved; a description of issues associated with automated conflict resolution; present conflict resolution strategies; and topics for further discussion.

  16. Automated gamma counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regener, M.

    1977-01-01

    This is a report on the most recent developments in the full automation of gamma counting in RIA, in particular by Messrs. Kontron. The development targets were flexibility in sample capacity and shape of test tubes, the possibility of using different radioisotopes for labelling due to an optimisation of the detector system and the use of microprocessers to substitute software for hardware. (ORU) [de

  17. Myths in test automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmine Francis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Myths in automation of software testing is an issue of discussion that echoes about the areas of service in validation of software industry. Probably, the first though that appears in knowledgeable reader would be Why this old topic again? What's New to discuss the matter? But, for the first time everyone agrees that undoubtedly automation testing today is not today what it used to be ten or fifteen years ago, because it has evolved in scope and magnitude. What began as a simple linear scripts for web applications today has a complex architecture and a hybrid framework to facilitate the implementation of testing applications developed with various platforms and technologies. Undoubtedly automation has advanced, but so did the myths associated with it. The change in perspective and knowledge of people on automation has altered the terrain. This article reflects the points of views and experience of the author in what has to do with the transformation of the original myths in new versions, and how they are derived; also provides his thoughts on the new generation of myths.

  18. Myths in test automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmine Francis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myths in automation of software testing is an issue of discussion that echoes about the areas of service in validation of software industry. Probably, the first though that appears in knowledgeable reader would be Why this old topic again? What's New to discuss the matter? But, for the first time everyone agrees that undoubtedly automation testing today is not today what it used to be ten or fifteen years ago, because it has evolved in scope and magnitude. What began as a simple linear scripts for web applications today has a complex architecture and a hybrid framework to facilitate the implementation of testing applications developed with various platforms and technologies. Undoubtedly automation has advanced, but so did the myths associated with it. The change in perspective and knowledge of people on automation has altered the terrain. This article reflects the points of views and experience of the author in what has to do with the transformation of the original myths in new versions, and how they are derived; also provides his thoughts on the new generation of myths.

  19. Building Automation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    A number of different automation systems for use in monitoring and controlling building equipment are described in this brochure. The system functions include--(1) collection of information, (2) processing and display of data at a central panel, and (3) taking corrective action by sounding alarms, making adjustments, or automatically starting and…

  20. Automation of activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, I.N.; Ivanets, V.N.; Filippov, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    The basic data on the methods and equipment of activation analysis are presented. Recommendations on the selection of activation analysis techniques, and especially the technique envisaging the use of short-lived isotopes, are given. The equipment possibilities to increase dataway carrying capacity, using modern computers for the automation of the analysis and data processing procedure, are shown

  1. Protokoller til Home Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kristian Ellebæk

    2008-01-01

    computer, der kan skifte mellem foruddefinerede indstillinger. Nogle gange kan computeren fjernstyres over internettet, så man kan se hjemmets status fra en computer eller måske endda fra en mobiltelefon. Mens nævnte anvendelser er klassiske indenfor home automation, er yderligere funktionalitet dukket op...

  2. Automation of radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldie, D.J.; West, P.M.; Ismail, A.A.A.

    1979-01-01

    A short account is given of recent developments in automation of the RIA technique. Difficulties encountered in the incubation, separation and quantitation steps are summarized. Published references are given to a number of systems, both discrete and continuous flow, and details are given of a system developed by the present authors. (U.K.)

  3. Microcontroller for automation application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    The description of a microcontroller currently being developed for automation application was given. It is basically an 8-bit microcomputer with a 40K byte random access memory/read only memory, and can control a maximum of 12 devices through standard 15-line interface ports.

  4. Driver Psychology during Automated Platooning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heikoop, D.D.

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid increase in vehicle automation technology, the call for understanding how humans behave while driving in an automated vehicle becomes more urgent. Vehicles that have automated systems such as Lane Keeping Assist (LKA) or Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) not only support drivers in their

  5. Automated Inadvertent Intruder Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koffman, Larry D.; Lee, Patricia L.; Cook, James R.; Wilhite, Elmer L.

    2008-01-01

    The Environmental Analysis and Performance Modeling group of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducts performance assessments of the Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level waste facilities to meet the requirements of DOE Order 435.1. These performance assessments, which result in limits on the amounts of radiological substances that can be placed in the waste disposal facilities, consider numerous potential exposure pathways that could occur in the future. One set of exposure scenarios, known as inadvertent intruder analysis, considers the impact on hypothetical individuals who are assumed to inadvertently intrude onto the waste disposal site. Inadvertent intruder analysis considers three distinct scenarios for exposure referred to as the agriculture scenario, the resident scenario, and the post-drilling scenario. Each of these scenarios has specific exposure pathways that contribute to the overall dose for the scenario. For the inadvertent intruder analysis, the calculation of dose for the exposure pathways is a relatively straightforward algebraic calculation that utilizes dose conversion factors. Prior to 2004, these calculations were performed using an Excel spreadsheet. However, design checks of the spreadsheet calculations revealed that errors could be introduced inadvertently when copying spreadsheet formulas cell by cell and finding these errors was tedious and time consuming. This weakness led to the specification of functional requirements to create a software application that would automate the calculations for inadvertent intruder analysis using a controlled source of input parameters. This software application, named the Automated Inadvertent Intruder Application, has undergone rigorous testing of the internal calculations and meets software QA requirements. The Automated Inadvertent Intruder Application was intended to replace the previous spreadsheet analyses with an automated application that was verified to produce the same calculations and

  6. RAS - Screens & Assays - Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The RAS Drug Discovery group aims to develop assays that will reveal aspects of RAS biology upon which cancer cells depend. Successful assay formats are made available for high-throughput screening programs to yield potentially effective drug compounds.

  7. Improving shuffler assay accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinard, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Drums of uranium waste should be disposed of in an economical and environmentally sound manner. The most accurate possible assays of the uranium masses in the drums are required for proper disposal. The accuracies of assays from a shuffler are affected by the type of matrix material in the drums. Non-hydrogenous matrices have little effect on neutron transport and accuracies are very good. If self-shielding is known to be a minor problem, good accuracies are also obtained with hydrogenous matrices when a polyethylene sleeve is placed around the drums. But for those cases where self-shielding may be a problem, matrices are hydrogenous, and uranium distributions are non-uniform throughout the drums, the accuracies are degraded. They can be greatly improved by determining the distributions of the uranium and then applying correction factors based on the distributions. This paper describes a technique for determining uranium distributions by using the neutron count rates in detector banks around the waste drum and solving a set of overdetermined linear equations. Other approaches were studied to determine the distributions and are described briefly. Implementation of this correction is anticipated on an existing shuffler next year

  8. Competitive protein binding assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Toshio; Oka, Hiroshi

    1975-01-01

    The measurement of cyclic GMP (cGMP) by competitive protein binding assay was described and discussed. The principle of binding assay was represented briefly. Procedures of our method by binding protein consisted of preparation of cGMP binding protein, selection of 3 H-cyclic GMP on market, and measurement procedures. In our method, binding protein was isolated from the chrysalis of silk worm. This method was discussed from the points of incubation medium, specificity of binding protein, the separation of bound cGMP from free cGMP, and treatment of tissue from which cGMP was extracted. cGMP existing in the tissue was only one tenth or one scores of cGMP, and in addition, cGMP competed with cGMP in binding with binding protein. Therefore, Murad's technique was applied to the isolation of cGMP. This method provided the measurement with sufficient accuracy; the contamination by cAMP was within several per cent. (Kanao, N.)

  9. Automating spectral measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Fred T.

    2008-09-01

    This paper discusses the architecture of software utilized in spectroscopic measurements. As optical coatings become more sophisticated, there is mounting need to automate data acquisition (DAQ) from spectrophotometers. Such need is exacerbated when 100% inspection is required, ancillary devices are utilized, cost reduction is crucial, or security is vital. While instrument manufacturers normally provide point-and-click DAQ software, an application programming interface (API) may be missing. In such cases automation is impossible or expensive. An API is typically provided in libraries (*.dll, *.ocx) which may be embedded in user-developed applications. Users can thereby implement DAQ automation in several Windows languages. Another possibility, developed by FTG as an alternative to instrument manufacturers' software, is the ActiveX application (*.exe). ActiveX, a component of many Windows applications, provides means for programming and interoperability. This architecture permits a point-and-click program to act as automation client and server. Excel, for example, can control and be controlled by DAQ applications. Most importantly, ActiveX permits ancillary devices such as barcode readers and XY-stages to be easily and economically integrated into scanning procedures. Since an ActiveX application has its own user-interface, it can be independently tested. The ActiveX application then runs (visibly or invisibly) under DAQ software control. Automation capabilities are accessed via a built-in spectro-BASIC language with industry-standard (VBA-compatible) syntax. Supplementing ActiveX, spectro-BASIC also includes auxiliary serial port commands for interfacing programmable logic controllers (PLC). A typical application is automatic filter handling.

  10. Automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeat markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The dinucleotide repeats (i.e., microsatellites) such as CA-repeats are a highly polymorphic, highly abundant class of PCR-amplifiable markers that have greatly streamlined genetic mapping experimentation. It is expected that over 30,000 such markers (including tri- and tetranucleotide repeats) will be characterized for routine use in the next few years. Since only size determination, and not sequencing, is required to determine alleles, in principle, dinucleotide repeat genotyping is easily performed on electrophoretic gels, and can be automated using DNA sequencers. Unfortunately, PCR stuttering with these markers generates not one band for each allele, but a pattern of bands. Since closely spaced alleles must be disambiguated by human scoring, this poses a key obstacle to full automation. We have developed methods that overcome this obstacle. Our model is that the observed data is generated by arithmetic superposition (i.e., convolution) of multiple allele patterns. By quantitatively measuring the size of each component band, and exploiting the unique stutter pattern associated with each marker, closely spaced alleles can be deconvolved; this unambiguously reconstructs the {open_quotes}true{close_quotes} allele bands, with stutter artifact removed. We used this approach in a system for automated diagnosis of (X-linked) Duchenne muscular dystrophy; four multiplexed CA-repeats within the dystrophin gene were assayed on a DNA sequencer. Our method accurately detected small variations in gel migration that shifted the allele size estimate. In 167 nonmutated alleles, 89% (149/167) showed no size variation, 9% (15/167) showed 1 bp variation, and 2% (3/167) showed 2 bp variation. We are currently developing a library of dinucleotide repeat patterns; together with our deconvolution methods, this library will enable fully automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeats from sizing data.

  11. Human semen assays for workplace monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyrobek, A.J.; Gledhill, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    Decades of human semen studies have yielded compelling evidence that sperm can be used to access reproductive potential and diagnose pathology. With these studies as background, the small number of detailed semen studies of men exposed to physical and chemical agents point with optimism to the application of human semen assays as efficient, effective means to monitor for reproductive hazards in the workplace. Sperm are the most accessible of human gonadal tissue and provide a means of monitoring exposure induced changes in the human testes, changes which may result in infertility and increased frequencies of genetically abnormal gametes. The focus on semen has precipitated the development of new sperm bioassays which use older conventional andrological methods (i.e., sperm counts, motility, and morphology) as well as recently developed high speed flow and scanning methods for automated cytological analyses. The status of these sperm assays for workplace surveillance is reviewed, procedures are suggested with examples of use, and their effectiveness is evaluated. The available mouse models of induced semen changes are briefly described and the importance of these models for evaluating the genetic implications of findings in human semen is discussed

  12. Advancing haemostasis automation--successful implementation of robotic centrifugation and sample processing in a tertiary service hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sédille-Mostafaie, Nazanin; Engler, Hanna; Lutz, Susanne; Korte, Wolfgang

    2013-06-01

    Laboratories today face increasing pressure to automate operations due to increasing workloads and the need to reduce expenditure. Few studies to date have focussed on the laboratory automation of preanalytical coagulation specimen processing. In the present study, we examined whether a clinical chemistry automation protocol meets the preanalytical requirements for the analyses of coagulation. During the implementation of laboratory automation, we began to operate a pre- and postanalytical automation system. The preanalytical unit processes blood specimens for chemistry, immunology and coagulation by automated specimen processing. As the production of platelet-poor plasma is highly dependent on optimal centrifugation, we examined specimen handling under different centrifugation conditions in order to produce optimal platelet deficient plasma specimens. To this end, manually processed models centrifuged at 1500 g for 5 and 20 min were compared to an automated centrifugation model at 3000 g for 7 min. For analytical assays that are performed frequently enough to be targets for full automation, Passing-Bablok regression analysis showed close agreement between different centrifugation methods, with a correlation coefficient between 0.98 and 0.99 and a bias between -5% and +6%. For seldom performed assays that do not mandate full automation, the Passing-Bablok regression analysis showed acceptable to poor agreement between different centrifugation methods. A full automation solution is suitable and can be recommended for frequent haemostasis testing.

  13. An acoustic prion assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Hayward

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic prion assay has been demonstrated for sheep brain samples. Only five false positives and no false negatives were observed in a test of 45 positive and 45 negative samples. The acoustic prion sensor was constructed using a thickness shear mode quartz resonator coated with a covalently bound recombinant prion protein. The characteristic indicator of a scrapie infected sheep brain sample was an observed shoulder in the frequency decrease in response to a sample.The response of the sensor aligns with a conformational shift in the surface protein and with the propagation mechanism of the disease. This alignment is evident in the response timing and shape, dependence on concentration, cross species behaviour and impact of blood plasma. This alignment is far from sufficient to prove the mechanism of the sensor but it does offer the possibility of a rapid and inexpensive additional tool to explore prion disease. Keywords: Prions, Thickness shear mode quartz sensor

  14. Assay of oestrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    A particular problem with the direct radioimmunoassay of unconjugated oestriol in pregnancy is caused by the increased amount of steroid-binding proteins present in pregnancy serum and plasma. The steroid-binding proteins react with oestriol and 125 I-labelled oestriol during the assay procedure and the steroid-protein bound 125 I-labelled oestriol is precipitated along with the antibody-bound 125 I-labelled oestriol by the ammonium sulphate solution separation system. A novel method is described whereby progesterone (1-20 μg/ml) is used to block the action of steroid-binding proteins in pregnancy serum and plasma samples, thus minimizing interference in a direct radioimmunoassay for unconjugated oestriol using a specific anti-oestriol serum. (U.K.)

  15. [Diagnostic value of serum procalcitonin in identifying the etiology of non-responding community-acquired pneumonia after initial antibiotic therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Xiaoju; Wu, Jizhen; Zhang, Wenping; Kuang, Hongyan; Li, Xiao; Xuan, Weixia; Wang, Kai; Ma, Lijun

    2014-11-01

    This study was to investigate the diagnostic value of serum procalcitonin(PCT) in identifying the etiology of non-responding community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) after initial antibiotic therapy. A retrospective analysis was performed for 232 hospitalized CAP patients admitted to the People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University during June 2013 and January 2014. Early treatment failure was defined as the presence of persistent fever (>38 °C) and/or clinical symptoms (malaise, cough, expectoration, dyspnea) or deterioration after at least 72 h of initial antimicrobial treatment, or development of respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, or septic shock. Bronchoscopy or transthoracic lung biopsy was performed in case of early treatment failure when indicated. Serum level of PCT was detected by double antibody sandwich method. The differences between 2 or more groups were compared using 2-independent student t test, one-way ANOVA; Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test, or χ(2) test. Risk factors and odds ratios for nonresponsiveness were analyzed by setting up a Logistic regression model. The diagnostic values of PCT were determined by receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC curves). Of the 232 CAP patients enrolled, 124 were male and 108 were female, with an average age of (46 ± 20) years. Thirty-six patients failed to respond to the initial antibiotic therapy. As shown by Logistic regression analysis, the risk factors for treatment failure included hypoalbuminemia, type 2 diabetes, previous history of splenectomy , PSI 4-5 grade, and lung infiltration ≥ 3 lobes. The most common causes of non-responsiveness were antimicrobial insufficiency (n = 23), and misdiagnosis of noninfectious mimics of pneumonia (n = 11), with 2 cases of unidentified etiology. The serum PCT level in admission was 0.19 (0.07-0.66) µg/L in the antimicrobial insufficiency subgroup, which was significantly higher than that in the misdiagnosis subgroup [0

  16. Procalcitonin, pyuria and proadrenomedullin in the management of urinary tract infections--'triple p in uti': study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdov, Daniel; Thomer, Anja; Meili, Marc; Schwarz, Stefanie; Kouegbe, Rita Bossart; Regez, Katharina; Guglielmetti, Merih; Schild, Ursula; Conca, Antoinette; Schäfer, Petra; Reutlinger, Barbara; Ottiger, Cornelia; Buchkremer, Florian; Litke, Alexander; Schuetz, Philipp; Huber, Andreas; Bürgi, Ulrich; Fux, Christoph A; Bock, Andreas; Müller, Beat; Albrich, Werner C

    2013-03-22

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infectious diseases and drivers of antibiotic use and in-hospital days. A reduction of antibiotic use potentially lowers the risk of antibiotic resistance. An early and adequate risk assessment combining medical, biopsychosocial and functional risk scores has the potential to optimize site-of-care decisions and thus allocation of limited health-care resources. The aim of this factorial design study is twofold: first, for Intervention A, it investigates antibiotic exposure of patients treated with a protocol based on the type of UTI, procalcitonin (PCT) and pyuria. Second, for Intervention B, it investigates the usefulness of the prognostic biomarker proadrenomedullin (ProADM) integrated into an interdisciplinary assessment bundle for site-of-care decisions. This randomized controlled open-label trial has a factorial design (2 × 2). Randomization of patients will be based on a pre-specified computer-generated randomization list and independent for the two interventions. Adults with UTI presenting to the emergency department (ED) will be screened and enrolled after providing informed consent. For our first Intervention (A), we developed a protocol based on previous observational research to recommend initiation and duration of antibiotic use based on the clinical presentation of UTI, pyuria and PCT levels. For our second intervention (B), an algorithm was developed to support site-of care decisions based on the prognostic marker ProADM and distinct nursing factors on days 1 and 3. Both interventions will be compared with a control group conforming to the guidelines. The primary endpoints for the two interventions will be: (A) overall exposure to antibiotics and (B) length of physician-led hospitalization within a follow-up of 30 days. Endpoints are assessed at discharge from hospital, and 30 and 90 days after admission. We plan to screen 300 patients and enroll 250 for an anticipated estimated loss of

  17. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC

  18. Automated optical assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, John L.

    1995-08-01

    Automation and polymer science represent fundamental new technologies which can be directed toward realizing the goal of establishing a domestic, world-class, commercial optics business. Use of innovative optical designs using precision polymer optics will enable the US to play a vital role in the next generation of commercial optical products. The increased cost savings inherent in the utilization of optical-grade polymers outweighs almost every advantage of using glass for high volume situations. Optical designers must gain experience with combined refractive/diffractive designs and broaden their knowledge base regarding polymer technology beyond a cursory intellectual exercise. Implementation of a fully automated assembly system, combined with utilization of polymer optics, constitutes the type of integrated manufacturing process which will enable the US to successfully compete with the low-cost labor employed in the Far East, as well as to produce an equivalent product.

  19. Automated breeder fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldmann, L.H.; Frederickson, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) Project is to develop remotely operated equipment for the processing and manufacturing of breeder reactor fuel pins. The SAF line will be installed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The FMEF is presently under construction at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site near Richland, Washington, and is operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The fabrication and support systems of the SAF line are designed for computer-controlled operation from a centralized control room. Remote and automated fuel fabriction operations will result in: reduced radiation exposure to workers; enhanced safeguards; improved product quality; near real-time accountability, and increased productivity. The present schedule calls for installation of SAF line equipment in the FMEF beginning in 1984, with qualifying runs starting in 1986 and production commencing in 1987. 5 figures

  20. Automated multiple failure FMEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, C.J.; Taylor, N.S.

    2002-01-01

    Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is typically performed by a team of engineers working together. In general, they will only consider single point failures in a system. Consideration of all possible combinations of failures is impractical for all but the simplest example systems. Even if the task of producing the FMEA report for the full multiple failure scenario were automated, it would still be impractical for the engineers to read, understand and act on all of the results. This paper shows how approximate failure rates for components can be used to select the most likely combinations of failures for automated investigation using simulation. The important information can be automatically identified from the resulting report, making it practical for engineers to study and act on the results. The strategy described in the paper has been applied to a range of electrical subsystems, and the results have confirmed that the strategy described here works well for realistically complex systems

  1. Automated drawing generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Toshiaki; Kawahata, Junichi; Yoshida, Naoto; Ono, Satoru

    1991-01-01

    Since automated CAD drawing generation systems still require human intervention, improvements were focussed on an interactive processing section (data input and correcting operation) which necessitates a vast amount of work. As a result, human intervention was eliminated, the original objective of a computerized system. This is the first step taken towards complete automation. The effects of development and commercialization of the system are as described below. (1) The interactive processing time required for generating drawings was improved. It was determined that introduction of the CAD system has reduced the time required for generating drawings. (2) The difference in skills between workers preparing drawings has been eliminated and the quality of drawings has been made uniform. (3) The extent of knowledge and experience demanded of workers has been reduced. (author)

  2. ATLAS Distributed Computing Automation

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Borrego, C; Campana, S; Di Girolamo, A; Elmsheuser, J; Hejbal, J; Kouba, T; Legger, F; Magradze, E; Medrano Llamas, R; Negri, G; Rinaldi, L; Sciacca, G; Serfon, C; Van Der Ster, D C

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment benefits from computing resources distributed worldwide at more than 100 WLCG sites. The ATLAS Grid sites provide over 100k CPU job slots, over 100 PB of storage space on disk or tape. Monitoring of status of such a complex infrastructure is essential. The ATLAS Grid infrastructure is monitored 24/7 by two teams of shifters distributed world-wide, by the ATLAS Distributed Computing experts, and by site administrators. In this paper we summarize automation efforts performed within the ATLAS Distributed Computing team in order to reduce manpower costs and improve the reliability of the system. Different aspects of the automation process are described: from the ATLAS Grid site topology provided by the ATLAS Grid Information System, via automatic site testing by the HammerCloud, to automatic exclusion from production or analysis activities.

  3. Automated Analysis of Accountability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Alessandro; Giustolisi, Rosario; Schürmann, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    that the system can detect the misbehaving parties who caused that failure. Accountability is an intuitively stronger property than verifiability as the latter only rests on the possibility of detecting the failure of a goal. A plethora of accountability and verifiability definitions have been proposed...... in the literature. Those definitions are either very specific to the protocols in question, hence not applicable in other scenarios, or too general and widely applicable but requiring complicated and hard to follow manual proofs. In this paper, we advance formal definitions of verifiability and accountability...... that are amenable to automated verification. Our definitions are general enough to be applied to different classes of protocols and different automated security verification tools. Furthermore, we point out formally the relation between verifiability and accountability. We validate our definitions...

  4. Automation and Mankind

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-08-07

    limited by the cap- abilities of the human organism in the matter of control of its processes. In our time, the speeds of technological processes are...in many cases limited by conditions of control. The speed of human reaction is limited and therefore, at pre- sent, only processes of a relatively...forwiard, It can e foreseer thast automIation will comp~letely free Mans -Pn work unler conlitions’ of high texpemratures pressures,, anid nollutA-: or

  5. Automated Cooperative Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt; Pahle, Joseph; Brown, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of the Automated Cooperative Trajectories project. An introduction to the phenomena of wake vortices is given, along with a summary of past research into the possibility of extracting energy from the wake by flying close parallel trajectories. Challenges and barriers to adoption of civilian automatic wake surfing technology are identified. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is described that will support future research. Finally, a roadmap for future research and technology transition is proposed.

  6. Automating ASW fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Pabelico, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis examines ASW eFusion, an anti-submarine warfare (ASW) tactical decision aid (TDA) that utilizes Kalman filtering to improve battlespace awareness by simplifying and automating the track management process involved in anti-submarine warfare (ASW) watchstanding operations. While this program can currently help the ASW commander manage uncertainty and make better tactical decisions, the program has several limitations. Comman...

  7. Autonomy, Automation, and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Philip R.

    1987-02-01

    Aerospace industry interest in autonomy and automation, given fresh impetus by the national goal of establishing a Space Station, is becoming a major item of research and technology development. The promise of new technology arising from research in Artificial Intelligence (AI) has focused much attention on its potential in autonomy and automation. These technologies can improve performance in autonomous control functions that involve planning, scheduling, and fault diagnosis of complex systems. There are, however, many aspects of system and subsystem design in an autonomous system that impact AI applications, but do not directly involve AI technology. Development of a system control architecture, establishment of an operating system within the design, providing command and sensory data collection features appropriate to automated operation, and the use of design analysis tools to support system engineering are specific examples of major design issues. Aspects such as these must also receive attention and technology development support if we are to implement complex autonomous systems within the realistic limitations of mass, power, cost, and available flight-qualified technology that are all-important to a flight project.

  8. Longwall automation 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Hainsworth; David Reid; Con Caris; J.C. Ralston; C.O. Hargrave; Ron McPhee; I.N. Hutchinson; A. Strange; C. Wesner [CSIRO (Australia)

    2008-05-15

    This report covers a nominal two-year extension to the Major Longwall Automation Project (C10100). Production standard implementation of Longwall Automation Steering Committee (LASC) automation systems has been achieved at Beltana and Broadmeadow mines. The systems are now used on a 24/7 basis and have provided production benefits to the mines. The LASC Information System (LIS) has been updated and has been implemented successfully in the IT environment of major coal mining houses. This enables 3D visualisation of the longwall environment and equipment to be accessed on line. A simulator has been specified and a prototype system is now ready for implementation. The Shearer Position Measurement System (SPMS) has been upgraded to a modular commercial production standard hardware solution.A compact hardware solution for visual face monitoring has been developed, an approved enclosure for a thermal infrared camera has been produced and software for providing horizon control through faulted conditions has been delivered. The incorporation of the LASC Cut Model information into OEM horizon control algorithms has been bench and underground tested. A prototype system for shield convergence monitoring has been produced and studies to identify techniques for coal flow optimisation and void monitoring have been carried out. Liaison with equipment manufacturers has been maintained and technology delivery mechanisms for LASC hardware and software have been established.

  9. Automation in biological crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patrick Shaw; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-06-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given.

  10. Automation of 3D cell culture using chemically defined hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimann, Markus; Angres, Brigitte; Patocchi-Tenzer, Isabel; Braum, Susanne; Graf-Hausner, Ursula

    2014-04-01

    Drug development relies on high-throughput screening involving cell-based assays. Most of the assays are still based on cells grown in monolayer rather than in three-dimensional (3D) formats, although cells behave more in vivo-like in 3D. To exemplify the adoption of 3D techniques in drug development, this project investigated the automation of a hydrogel-based 3D cell culture system using a liquid-handling robot. The hydrogel technology used offers high flexibility of gel design due to a modular composition of a polymer network and bioactive components. The cell inert degradation of the gel at the end of the culture period guaranteed the harmless isolation of live cells for further downstream processing. Human colon carcinoma cells HCT-116 were encapsulated and grown in these dextran-based hydrogels, thereby forming 3D multicellular spheroids. Viability and DNA content of the cells were shown to be similar in automated and manually produced hydrogels. Furthermore, cell treatment with toxic Taxol concentrations (100 nM) had the same effect on HCT-116 cell viability in manually and automated hydrogel preparations. Finally, a fully automated dose-response curve with the reference compound Taxol showed the potential of this hydrogel-based 3D cell culture system in advanced drug development.

  11. AUTOMATED INADVERTENT INTRUDER APPLICATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koffman, L; Patricia Lee, P; Jim Cook, J; Elmer Wilhite, E

    2007-01-01

    The Environmental Analysis and Performance Modeling group of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducts performance assessments of the Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level waste facilities to meet the requirements of DOE Order 435.1. These performance assessments, which result in limits on the amounts of radiological substances that can be placed in the waste disposal facilities, consider numerous potential exposure pathways that could occur in the future. One set of exposure scenarios, known as inadvertent intruder analysis, considers the impact on hypothetical individuals who are assumed to inadvertently intrude onto the waste disposal site. Inadvertent intruder analysis considers three distinct scenarios for exposure referred to as the agriculture scenario, the resident scenario, and the post-drilling scenario. Each of these scenarios has specific exposure pathways that contribute to the overall dose for the scenario. For the inadvertent intruder analysis, the calculation of dose for the exposure pathways is a relatively straightforward algebraic calculation that utilizes dose conversion factors. Prior to 2004, these calculations were performed using an Excel spreadsheet. However, design checks of the spreadsheet calculations revealed that errors could be introduced inadvertently when copying spreadsheet formulas cell by cell and finding these errors was tedious and time consuming. This weakness led to the specification of functional requirements to create a software application that would automate the calculations for inadvertent intruder analysis using a controlled source of input parameters. This software application, named the Automated Inadvertent Intruder Application, has undergone rigorous testing of the internal calculations and meets software QA requirements. The Automated Inadvertent Intruder Application was intended to replace the previous spreadsheet analyses with an automated application that was verified to produce the same calculations and

  12. Fluidic automation of nitrate and nitrite bioassays in whole blood by dissolvable-film based centrifugo-pneumatic actuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwankire, Charles E.; Chan, Di-Sien S.; Gaughran, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the full centrifugal microfluidic integration and automation of all liquid handling steps of a 7-step fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (FLISA) for quantifying nitrate and nitrite levels in whole blood within about 15 min. The assay protocol encompasses the extraction...

  13. A Fully Automated High-Throughput Flow Cytometry Screening System Enabling Phenotypic Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslin, John; Gilligan, James; Anderson, Paul; Garcia, Catherine; Sharif, Orzala; Hampton, Janice; Cohen, Steven; King, Miranda; Zhou, Bin; Jiang, Shumei; Trussell, Christopher; Dunn, Robert; Fathman, John W; Snead, Jennifer L; Boitano, Anthony E; Nguyen, Tommy; Conner, Michael; Cooke, Mike; Harris, Jennifer; Ainscow, Ed; Zhou, Yingyao; Shaw, Chris; Sipes, Dan; Mainquist, James; Lesley, Scott

    2018-05-01

    The goal of high-throughput screening is to enable screening of compound libraries in an automated manner to identify quality starting points for optimization. This often involves screening a large diversity of compounds in an assay that preserves a connection to the disease pathology. Phenotypic screening is a powerful tool for drug identification, in that assays can be run without prior understanding of the target and with primary cells that closely mimic the therapeutic setting. Advanced automation and high-content imaging have enabled many complex assays, but these are still relatively slow and low throughput. To address this limitation, we have developed an automated workflow that is dedicated to processing complex phenotypic assays for flow cytometry. The system can achieve a throughput of 50,000 wells per day, resulting in a fully automated platform that enables robust phenotypic drug discovery. Over the past 5 years, this screening system has been used for a variety of drug discovery programs, across many disease areas, with many molecules advancing quickly into preclinical development and into the clinic. This report will highlight a diversity of approaches that automated flow cytometry has enabled for phenotypic drug discovery.

  14. Automation of metabolic stability studies in microsomes, cytosol and plasma using a 215 Gilson liquid handler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linget, J M; du Vignaud, P

    1999-05-01

    A 215 Gilson liquid handler was used to automate enzymatic incubations using microsomes, cytosol and plasma. The design of automated protocols are described. They were based on the use of 96 deep well plates and on HPLC-based methods for assaying the substrate. The assessment of those protocols was made with comparison between manual and automated incubations, reliability and reproducibility of automated incubations in microsomes and cytosol. Examples of the use of those programs in metabolic studies in drug research, i.e. metabolic screening in microsomes and plasma were shown. Even rapid processes (with disappearance half lives as low as 1 min) can be analysed. This work demonstrates how stability studies can be automated to save time, render experiments involving human biological media less hazardous and may be improve inter-laboratory reproducibility.

  15. A multiparametric assay for quantitative nerve regeneration evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyn, B; van Remoortere, M; Nuydens, R; Meert, T; van de Wouwer, G

    2005-08-01

    We introduce an assay for the semi-automated quantification of nerve regeneration by image analysis. Digital images of histological sections of regenerated nerves are recorded using an automated inverted microscope and merged into high-resolution mosaic images representing the entire nerve. These are analysed by a dedicated image-processing package that computes nerve-specific features (e.g. nerve area, fibre count, myelinated area) and fibre-specific features (area, perimeter, myelin sheet thickness). The assay's performance and correlation of the automatically computed data with visually obtained data are determined on a set of 140 semithin sections from the distal part of a rat tibial nerve from four different experimental treatment groups (control, sham, sutured, cut) taken at seven different time points after surgery. Results show a high correlation between the manually and automatically derived data, and a high discriminative power towards treatment. Extra value is added by the large feature set. In conclusion, the assay is fast and offers data that currently can be obtained only by a combination of laborious and time-consuming tests.

  16. Accuracy of 6 routine 25-hydroxyvitamin D assays: influence of vitamin D binding protein concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Blankenstein, Marinus A.; Kema, Ido P.; Buijs, Madelon M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent recognition of its broad pathophysiological importance has triggered an increased interest in 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. By consequence, throughput in 25(OH)D testing has become an issue for clinical laboratories, and several automated assays for measurement of 25(OH)D are now available.

  17. Accuracy of 6 Routine 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Assays: Influence of Vitamin D Binding Protein Concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijboer, A.C.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Kema, I.P.; Buijs, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent recognition of its broad pathophysiological importance has triggered an increased interest in 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. By consequence, throughput in 25(OH)D testing has become an issue for clinical laboratories, and several automated assays for measurement of 25(OH)D are now

  18. Robotic implementation of assays: tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Thomas D Y

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory automation and robotics have "industrialized" the execution and completion of large-scale, enabling high-capacity and high-throughput (100 K-1 MM/day) screening (HTS) campaigns of large "libraries" of compounds (>200 K-2 MM) to complete in a few days or weeks. Critical to the success these HTS campaigns is the ability of a competent assay development team to convert a validated research-grade laboratory "benchtop" assay suitable for manual or semi-automated operations on a few hundreds of compounds into a robust miniaturized (384- or 1,536-well format), well-engineered, scalable, industrialized assay that can be seamlessly implemented on a fully automated, fully integrated robotic screening platform for cost-effective screening of hundreds of thousands of compounds. Here, we provide a review of the theoretical guiding principles and practical considerations necessary to reduce often complex research biology into a "lean manufacturing" engineering endeavor comprising adaption, automation, and implementation of HTS. Furthermore we provide a detailed example specifically for a cell-free in vitro biochemical, enzymatic phosphatase assay for tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase that illustrates these principles and considerations.

  19. Automation, Performance and International Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Lene; Sørensen, Anders

    This paper presents new evidence on trade‐induced automation in manufacturing firms using unique data combining a retrospective survey that we have assembled with register data for 2005‐2010. In particular, we establish a causal effect where firms that have specialized in product types for which...... the Chinese exports to the world market has risen sharply invest more in automated capital compared to firms that have specialized in other product types. We also study the relationship between automation and firm performance and find that firms with high increases in scale and scope of automation have faster...... productivity growth than other firms. Moreover, automation improves the efficiency of all stages of the production process by reducing setup time, run time, and inspection time and increasing uptime and quantity produced per worker. The efficiency improvement varies by type of automation....

  20. Automation in organizations: Eternal conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterly, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    Some ideas on and insights into the problems associated with automation in organizations are presented with emphasis on the concept of automation, its relationship to the individual, and its impact on system performance. An analogy is drawn, based on an American folk hero, to emphasize the extent of the problems encountered when dealing with automation within an organization. A model is proposed to focus attention on a set of appropriate dimensions. The function allocation process becomes a prominent aspect of the model. The current state of automation research is mentioned in relation to the ideas introduced. Proposed directions for an improved understanding of automation's effect on the individual's efficiency are discussed. The importance of understanding the individual's perception of the system in terms of the degree of automation is highlighted.

  1. Perspectives on bioanalytical mass spectrometry and automation in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewski, John S; Liston, Theodore E; Cole, Mark J

    2008-11-01

    The use of high speed synthesis technologies has resulted in a steady increase in the number of new chemical entities active in the drug discovery research stream. Large organizations can have thousands of chemical entities in various stages of testing and evaluation across numerous projects on a weekly basis. Qualitative and quantitative measurements made using LC/MS are integrated throughout this process from early stage lead generation through candidate nomination. Nearly all analytical processes and procedures in modern research organizations are automated to some degree. This includes both hardware and software automation. In this review we discuss bioanalytical mass spectrometry and automation as components of the analytical chemistry infrastructure in pharma. Analytical chemists are presented as members of distinct groups with similar skillsets that build automated systems, manage test compounds, assays and reagents, and deliver data to project teams. The ADME-screening process in drug discovery is used as a model to highlight the relationships between analytical tasks in drug discovery. Emerging software and process automation tools are described that can potentially address gaps and link analytical chemistry related tasks. The role of analytical chemists and groups in modern 'industrialized' drug discovery is also discussed.

  2. Predicting changes in cardiac myocyte contractility during early drug discovery with in vitro assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, M.J., E-mail: michael.morton@astrazeneca.com [Discovery Sciences, AstraZeneca, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TG (United Kingdom); Armstrong, D.; Abi Gerges, N. [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TG (United Kingdom); Bridgland-Taylor, M. [Discovery Sciences, AstraZeneca, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TG (United Kingdom); Pollard, C.E.; Bowes, J.; Valentin, J.-P. [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 4TG (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-01

    Cardiovascular-related adverse drug effects are a major concern for the pharmaceutical industry. Activity of an investigational drug at the L-type calcium channel could manifest in a number of ways, including changes in cardiac contractility. The aim of this study was to define which of the two assay technologies – radioligand-binding or automated electrophysiology – was most predictive of contractility effects in an in vitro myocyte contractility assay. The activity of reference and proprietary compounds at the L-type calcium channel was measured by radioligand-binding assays, conventional patch-clamp, automated electrophysiology, and by measurement of contractility in canine isolated cardiac myocytes. Activity in the radioligand-binding assay at the L-type Ca channel phenylalkylamine binding site was most predictive of an inotropic effect in the canine cardiac myocyte assay. The sensitivity was 73%, specificity 83% and predictivity 78%. The radioligand-binding assay may be run at a single test concentration and potency estimated. The least predictive assay was automated electrophysiology which showed a significant bias when compared with other assay formats. Given the importance of the L-type calcium channel, not just in cardiac function, but also in other organ systems, a screening strategy emerges whereby single concentration ligand-binding can be performed early in the discovery process with sufficient predictivity, throughput and turnaround time to influence chemical design and address a significant safety-related liability, at relatively low cost. - Highlights: • The L-type calcium channel is a significant safety liability during drug discovery. • Radioligand-binding to the L-type calcium channel can be measured in vitro. • The assay can be run at a single test concentration as part of a screening cascade. • This measurement is highly predictive of changes in cardiac myocyte contractility.

  3. Predicting changes in cardiac myocyte contractility during early drug discovery with in vitro assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, M.J.; Armstrong, D.; Abi Gerges, N.; Bridgland-Taylor, M.; Pollard, C.E.; Bowes, J.; Valentin, J.-P.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular-related adverse drug effects are a major concern for the pharmaceutical industry. Activity of an investigational drug at the L-type calcium channel could manifest in a number of ways, including changes in cardiac contractility. The aim of this study was to define which of the two assay technologies – radioligand-binding or automated electrophysiology – was most predictive of contractility effects in an in vitro myocyte contractility assay. The activity of reference and proprietary compounds at the L-type calcium channel was measured by radioligand-binding assays, conventional patch-clamp, automated electrophysiology, and by measurement of contractility in canine isolated cardiac myocytes. Activity in the radioligand-binding assay at the L-type Ca channel phenylalkylamine binding site was most predictive of an inotropic effect in the canine cardiac myocyte assay. The sensitivity was 73%, specificity 83% and predictivity 78%. The radioligand-binding assay may be run at a single test concentration and potency estimated. The least predictive assay was automated electrophysiology which showed a significant bias when compared with other assay formats. Given the importance of the L-type calcium channel, not just in cardiac function, but also in other organ systems, a screening strategy emerges whereby single concentration ligand-binding can be performed early in the discovery process with sufficient predictivity, throughput and turnaround time to influence chemical design and address a significant safety-related liability, at relatively low cost. - Highlights: • The L-type calcium channel is a significant safety liability during drug discovery. • Radioligand-binding to the L-type calcium channel can be measured in vitro. • The assay can be run at a single test concentration as part of a screening cascade. • This measurement is highly predictive of changes in cardiac myocyte contractility

  4. Automation System Products and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rintala, Mikko; Sormunen, Jussi; Kuisma, Petri; Rahkala, Matti

    2014-01-01

    Automation systems are used in most buildings nowadays. In the past they were mainly used in industry to control and monitor critical systems. During the past few decades the automation systems have become more common and are used today from big industrial solutions to homes of private customers. With the growing need for ecologic and cost-efficient management systems, home and building automation systems are becoming a standard way of controlling lighting, ventilation, heating etc. Auto...

  5. Guidelines for Automation Project Execution

    OpenAIRE

    Takkinen, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this Master’s thesis was to create instructions for executing an automation project. Sarlin Oy Ab needed directions on how to execute an automation project. Sarlin is starting up a new business area offering total project solutions for customers. Sarlin focuses on small and minor automation projects on domestic markets. The thesis represents issues related to project execution starting from the theory of the project to its kick-off and termination. Site work is one importan...

  6. 78 FR 53466 - Modification of Two National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Tests Concerning Automated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Tests Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) Document Image... National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) tests concerning document imaging, known as the Document Image... the National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) tests concerning document imaging, known as the...

  7. Use of plasma C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, neutrophils,macrophage migration inhibitory factor, soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 in combination to diagnose infections: a prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Andersen, Ove; Kronborg, Gitte

    2007-01-01

    the diagnostic characteristics of novel and routinely used biomarkers of sepsis alone and in combination. Methods: This prospective cohort study included patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome who were suspected of having community-acquired infections. It was conducted in a medical emergency...... department and department of infectious diseases at a university hospital. A multiplex immunoassay measuring soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator (suPAR) and soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (sTREM)-1 and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was used in parallel...... with standard measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and neutrophils. Two composite markers were constructed – one including a linear combination of the three best performing markers and another including all six – and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC...

  8. Clinical pulmonary infection score and a spot serum procalcitonin level to guide discontinuation of antibiotics in ventilator-associated pneumonia: a study in a single institution with high prevalence of nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsurakiat, Phunsup; Tulatamakit, Sirapat

    2018-01-01

    Background We wanted to determine the impact of combined Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS) and a spot serum procalcitonin (PCT)-guided protocol to shorten the duration of antibiotic treatment in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), mainly caused by nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli (NF-GNB). Methods Patients with VAP who received appropriate antibiotics for 7 days, temperature ⩽ 37.8°C, without shock, and CPIS ⩽ 6 were allocated to the PCT group or conventional group according to the treating physicians' decisions. In the PCT group, antibiotics were stopped if the PCT level on day 8 level appeared effective and safe to guide discontinuation of antibiotic treatment in patients with VAP caused by NF-GNB. TCTR20160726002.

  9. World-wide distribution automation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaney, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    A worldwide power distribution automation system is outlined. Distribution automation is defined and the status of utility automation is discussed. Other topics discussed include a distribution management system, substation feeder, and customer functions, potential benefits, automation costs, planning and engineering considerations, automation trends, databases, system operation, computer modeling of system, and distribution management systems

  10. Contaminant analysis automation, an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollen, R.; Ramos, O. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    To meet the environmental restoration and waste minimization goals of government and industry, several government laboratories, universities, and private companies have formed the Contaminant Analysis Automation (CAA) team. The goal of this consortium is to design and fabricate robotics systems that standardize and automate the hardware and software of the most common environmental chemical methods. In essence, the CAA team takes conventional, regulatory- approved (EPA Methods) chemical analysis processes and automates them. The automation consists of standard laboratory modules (SLMs) that perform the work in a much more efficient, accurate, and cost- effective manner

  11. Automating CPM-GOMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Bonnie; Vera, Alonso; Matessa, Michael; Freed, Michael; Remington, Roger

    2002-01-01

    CPM-GOMS is a modeling method that combines the task decomposition of a GOMS analysis with a model of human resource usage at the level of cognitive, perceptual, and motor operations. CPM-GOMS models have made accurate predictions about skilled user behavior in routine tasks, but developing such models is tedious and error-prone. We describe a process for automatically generating CPM-GOMS models from a hierarchical task decomposition expressed in a cognitive modeling tool called Apex. Resource scheduling in Apex automates the difficult task of interleaving the cognitive, perceptual, and motor resources underlying common task operators (e.g. mouse move-and-click). Apex's UI automatically generates PERT charts, which allow modelers to visualize a model's complex parallel behavior. Because interleaving and visualization is now automated, it is feasible to construct arbitrarily long sequences of behavior. To demonstrate the process, we present a model of automated teller interactions in Apex and discuss implications for user modeling. available to model human users, the Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection (GOMS) method [6, 21] has been the most widely used, providing accurate, often zero-parameter, predictions of the routine performance of skilled users in a wide range of procedural tasks [6, 13, 15, 27, 28]. GOMS is meant to model routine behavior. The user is assumed to have methods that apply sequences of operators and to achieve a goal. Selection rules are applied when there is more than one method to achieve a goal. Many routine tasks lend themselves well to such decomposition. Decomposition produces a representation of the task as a set of nested goal states that include an initial state and a final state. The iterative decomposition into goals and nested subgoals can terminate in primitives of any desired granularity, the choice of level of detail dependent on the predictions required. Although GOMS has proven useful in HCI, tools to support the

  12. Retrospective study on prognostic importance of serum procalcitonin and amino - terminal pro - brain natriuretic peptide levels as compared to Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV Score on Intensive Care Unit admission, in a mixed Intensive Care Unit population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Timely decision making in Intensive Care Unit (ICU is very essential to improve the outcome of critically sick patients. Conventional scores like Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE IV are quite cumbersome with calculations and take minimum 24 hours. Procalcitonin has shown to have prognostic value in ICU/Emergency department (ED in disease states like pneumonia, sepsis etc. NTproBNP has demonstrated excellent diagnostic and prognostic importance in cardiac diseases. It has also been found elevated in non-cardiac diseases. We chose to study the prognostic utility of these markers on ICU admission. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational study. Materials and Methods: A Retrospective analysis of 100 eligible patients was done who had undergone PCT and NTproBNP measurements on ICU admission. Their correlations with all cause mortality, length of hospital stay, need for ventilator support, need for vasopressors were performed. Results: Among 100 randomly selected ICU patients, 28 were non-survivors. NTproBNP values on admission significantly correlated with all cause mortality (P = 0.036, AUC = 0.643 and morbidity (P = 0.000, AUC = 0.763, comparable to that of APACHE-IV score. PCT values on admission did not show significant association with mortality, but correlated well with morbidity and prolonged hospital length of stay (AUC = 0.616, P = 0.045. Conclusion: The current study demonstrated a good predictive value of NTproBNP, in terms of mortality and morbidity comparable to that of APACHE-IV score. Procalcitonin, however, was found to have doubtful prognostic importance. These findings need to be confirmed in a prospective larger study.

  13. Premarket evaluations of the IMDx C. difficile for Abbott m2000 Assay and the BD Max Cdiff Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellrecht, K A; Espino, A A; Maceira, V P; Nattanmai, S M; Butt, S A; Wroblewski, D; Hannett, G E; Musser, K A

    2014-05-01

    Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea is a well-recognized complication of antibiotic use. Historically, diagnosing C. difficile has been difficult, as antigen assays are insensitive and culture-based methods require several days to yield results. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are quickly becoming the standard of care. We compared the performance of two automated investigational/research use only (IUO/RUO) NAATs for the detection of C. difficile toxin genes, the IMDx C. difficile for Abbott m2000 Assay (IMDx) and the BD Max Cdiff Assay (Max). A prospective analysis of 111 stool specimens received in the laboratory for C. difficile testing by the laboratory's test of record (TOR), the BD GeneOhm Cdiff Assay, and a retrospective analysis of 88 specimens previously determined to be positive for C. difficile were included in the study. One prospective specimen was excluded due to loss to follow-up discrepancy analysis. Of the remaining 198 specimens, 90 were positive by all three methods, 9 were positive by TOR and Max, and 3 were positive by TOR only. One negative specimen was initially inhibitory by Max. The remaining 95 specimens were negative by all methods. Toxigenic C. difficile culture was performed on the 12 discrepant samples. True C. difficile-positive status was defined as either positive by all three amplification assays or positive by toxigenic culture. Based on this definition, the sensitivity and specificity were 96.9% and 95% for Max and 92.8% and 100% for IMDx. In summary, both highly automated systems demonstrated excellent performance, and each has individual benefits, which will ensure that they will both have a niche in clinical laboratories.

  14. Automating dipole subtraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, K.; Moch, S.; Uwer, P.

    2008-07-01

    We report on automating the Catani-Seymour dipole subtraction which is a general procedure to treat infrared divergences in real emission processes at next-to-leading order in QCD. The automatization rests on three essential steps: the creation of the dipole terms, the calculation of the color linked squared Born matrix elements, and the evaluation of different helicity amplitudes. The routines have been tested for a number of complex processes, such as the real emission process gg→t anti tggg. (orig.)

  15. Automating dipole subtraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, K.; Moch, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Uwer, P. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik

    2008-07-15

    We report on automating the Catani-Seymour dipole subtraction which is a general procedure to treat infrared divergences in real emission processes at next-to-leading order in QCD. The automatization rests on three essential steps: the creation of the dipole terms, the calculation of the color linked squared Born matrix elements, and the evaluation of different helicity amplitudes. The routines have been tested for a number of complex processes, such as the real emission process gg{yields}t anti tggg. (orig.)

  16. Fossil power plant automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divakaruni, S.M.; Touchton, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper elaborates on issues facing the utilities industry and seeks to address how new computer-based control and automation technologies resulting from recent microprocessor evolution, can improve fossil plant operations and maintenance. This in turn can assist utilities to emerge stronger from the challenges ahead. Many presentations at the first ISA/EPRI co-sponsored conference are targeted towards improving the use of computer and control systems in the fossil and nuclear power plants and we believe this to be the right forum to share our ideas

  17. Improvements in the automated radioimmunoassay for cAMP or cGMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooker, G.

    1988-01-01

    The work others in developing antibodies and the original radioimmunoassay for cyclic nucleotides provides the basis for these sensitive assays. The acetylation radioimmunoassay for cyclic nucleotides has enabled the measurement of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in very small biological samples. This is because accurate determinations can be made in samples containing less than 1 fmol of cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP. The Gamma-Flo automated radioimmunoassay system has been adapted to these assays such that cyclic nucleotides can be automatically measured at a rate of about 60 samples/hr. The Gamma-Flo instrument provides high-precision assays and eliminates human intervention in all steps of the radioimmunoassay. The automated assay has been in continuous operation in our laboratory over the last 10 years and this chapter summarizes the methodology and delineates improvements which have occurred over that time frame. Details for the preparation of the radioligands apply also to the manual acetylated radioimmunoassay for cyclic nucleotides

  18. Automated Test Case Generation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I would like to present the concept of automated test case generation. I work on it as part of my PhD and I think it would be interesting also for other people. It is also the topic of a workshop paper that I am introducing in Paris. (abstract below) Please note that the talk itself would be more general and not about the specifics of my PhD, but about the broad field of Automated Test Case Generation. I would introduce the main approaches (combinatorial testing, symbolic execution, adaptive random testing) and their advantages and problems. (oracle problem, combinatorial explosion, ...) Abstract of the paper: Over the last decade code-based test case generation techniques such as combinatorial testing or dynamic symbolic execution have seen growing research popularity. Most algorithms and tool implementations are based on finding assignments for input parameter values in order to maximise the execution branch coverage. Only few of them consider dependencies from outside the Code Under Test’s scope such...

  19. Automating quantum experiment control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kelly E.; Amini, Jason M.; Doret, S. Charles; Mohler, Greg; Volin, Curtis; Harter, Alexa W.

    2017-03-01

    The field of quantum information processing is rapidly advancing. As the control of quantum systems approaches the level needed for useful computation, the physical hardware underlying the quantum systems is becoming increasingly complex. It is already becoming impractical to manually code control for the larger hardware implementations. In this chapter, we will employ an approach to the problem of system control that parallels compiler design for a classical computer. We will start with a candidate quantum computing technology, the surface electrode ion trap, and build a system instruction language which can be generated from a simple machine-independent programming language via compilation. We incorporate compile time generation of ion routing that separates the algorithm description from the physical geometry of the hardware. Extending this approach to automatic routing at run time allows for automated initialization of qubit number and placement and additionally allows for automated recovery after catastrophic events such as qubit loss. To show that these systems can handle real hardware, we present a simple demonstration system that routes two ions around a multi-zone ion trap and handles ion loss and ion placement. While we will mainly use examples from transport-based ion trap quantum computing, many of the issues and solutions are applicable to other architectures.

  20. AUTOMATED GEOSPATIAL WATERSHED ASSESSMENT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool (AGWA) is a GIS interface jointly developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Arizona, and the University of Wyoming to automate the parameterization and execution of the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and KINEmatic Runoff and EROSion (KINEROS2) hydrologic models. The application of these two models allows AGWA to conduct hydrologic modeling and watershed assessments at multiple temporal and spatial scales. AGWA’s current outputs are runoff (volumes and peaks) and sediment yield, plus nitrogen and phosphorus with the SWAT model. AGWA uses commonly available GIS data layers to fully parameterize, execute, and visualize results from both models. Through an intuitive interface the user selects an outlet from which AGWA delineates and discretizes the watershed using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) based on the individual model requirements. The watershed model elements are then intersected with soils and land cover data layers to derive the requisite model input parameters. The chosen model is then executed, and the results are imported back into AGWA for visualization. This allows managers to identify potential problem areas where additional monitoring can be undertaken or mitigation activities can be focused. AGWA also has tools to apply an array of best management practices. There are currently two versions of AGWA available; AGWA 1.5 for

  1. Maneuver Automation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uffelman, Hal; Goodson, Troy; Pellegrin, Michael; Stavert, Lynn; Burk, Thomas; Beach, David; Signorelli, Joel; Jones, Jeremy; Hahn, Yungsun; Attiyah, Ahlam; hide

    2009-01-01

    The Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) automates the process of generating commands for maneuvers to keep the spacecraft of the Cassini-Huygens mission on a predetermined prime mission trajectory. Before MAS became available, a team of approximately 10 members had to work about two weeks to design, test, and implement each maneuver in a process that involved running many maneuver-related application programs and then serially handing off data products to other parts of the team. MAS enables a three-member team to design, test, and implement a maneuver in about one-half hour after Navigation has process-tracking data. MAS accepts more than 60 parameters and 22 files as input directly from users. MAS consists of Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) scripts that link, sequence, and execute the maneuver- related application programs: "Pushing a single button" on a graphical user interface causes MAS to run navigation programs that design a maneuver; programs that create sequences of commands to execute the maneuver on the spacecraft; and a program that generates predictions about maneuver performance and generates reports and other files that enable users to quickly review and verify the maneuver design. MAS can also generate presentation materials, initiate electronic command request forms, and archive all data products for future reference.

  2. Automated screening for retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Rodin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Retinal pathology is a common cause of an irreversible decrease of central vision commonly found amongst senior population. Detection of the earliest signs of retinal diseases can be facilitated by viewing retinal images available from the telemedicine networks. To facilitate the process of retinal images, screening software applications based on image recognition technology are currently on the various stages of development.Purpose: To develop and implement computerized image recognition software that can be used as a decision support technologyfor retinal image screening for various types of retinopathies.Methods: The software application for the retina image recognition has been developed using C++ language. It was tested on dataset of 70 images with various types of pathological features (age related macular degeneration, chorioretinitis, central serous chorioretinopathy and diabetic retinopathy.Results: It was shown that the system can achieve a sensitivity of 73 % and specificity of 72 %.Conclusion: Automated detection of macular lesions using proposed software can significantly reduce manual grading workflow. In addition, automated detection of retinal lesions can be implemented as a clinical decision support system for telemedicine screening. It is anticipated that further development of this technology can become a part of diagnostic image analysis system for the electronic health records.

  3. Automation from pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubal, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    The state transition diagram (STD) model has been helpful in the design of real time software, especially with the emergence of graphical computer aided software engineering (CASE) tools. Nevertheless, the translation of the STD to real time code has in the past been primarily a manual task. At Los Alamos we have automated this process. The designer constructs the STD using a CASE tool (Cadre Teamwork) using a special notation for events and actions. A translator converts the STD into an intermediate state notation language (SNL), and this SNL is compiled directly into C code (a state program). Execution of the state program is driven by external events, allowing multiple state programs to effectively share the resources of the host processor. Since the design and the code are tightly integrated through the CASE tool, the design and code never diverge, and we avoid design obsolescence. Furthermore, the CASE tool automates the production of formal technical documents from the graphic description encapsulated by the CASE tool. (author)

  4. Automated digital magnetofluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, J; Garcia, A A; Marquez, M [Harrington Department of Bioengineering Arizona State University, Tempe AZ 85287-9709 (United States)], E-mail: tony.garcia@asu.edu

    2008-08-15

    Drops can be moved in complex patterns on superhydrophobic surfaces using a reconfigured computer-controlled x-y metrology stage with a high degree of accuracy, flexibility, and reconfigurability. The stage employs a DMC-4030 controller which has a RISC-based, clock multiplying processor with DSP functions, accepting encoder inputs up to 22 MHz, provides servo update rates as high as 32 kHz, and processes commands at rates as fast as 40 milliseconds. A 6.35 mm diameter cylindrical NdFeB magnet is translated by the stage causing water drops to move by the action of induced magnetization of coated iron microspheres that remain in the drop and are attracted to the rare earth magnet through digital magnetofluidics. Water drops are easily moved in complex patterns in automated digital magnetofluidics at an average speed of 2.8 cm/s over a superhydrophobic polyethylene surface created by solvent casting. With additional components, some potential uses for this automated microfluidic system include characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces, water quality analysis, and medical diagnostics.

  5. Automated digital magnetofluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, J.; Garcia, A. A.; Marquez, M.

    2008-08-01

    Drops can be moved in complex patterns on superhydrophobic surfaces using a reconfigured computer-controlled x-y metrology stage with a high degree of accuracy, flexibility, and reconfigurability. The stage employs a DMC-4030 controller which has a RISC-based, clock multiplying processor with DSP functions, accepting encoder inputs up to 22 MHz, provides servo update rates as high as 32 kHz, and processes commands at rates as fast as 40 milliseconds. A 6.35 mm diameter cylindrical NdFeB magnet is translated by the stage causing water drops to move by the action of induced magnetization of coated iron microspheres that remain in the drop and are attracted to the rare earth magnet through digital magnetofluidics. Water drops are easily moved in complex patterns in automated digital magnetofluidics at an average speed of 2.8 cm/s over a superhydrophobic polyethylene surface created by solvent casting. With additional components, some potential uses for this automated microfluidic system include characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces, water quality analysis, and medical diagnostics.

  6. Robotic liquid handling and automation in epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisford, Wendy

    2012-10-01

    Automated liquid-handling robots and high-throughput screening (HTS) are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry for the screening of large compound libraries, small molecules for activity against disease-relevant target pathways, or proteins. HTS robots capable of low-volume dispensing reduce assay setup times and provide highly accurate and reproducible dispensing, minimizing variation between sample replicates and eliminating the potential for manual error. Low-volume automated nanoliter dispensers ensure accuracy of pipetting within volume ranges that are difficult to achieve manually. In addition, they have the ability to potentially expand the range of screening conditions from often limited amounts of valuable sample, as well as reduce the usage of expensive reagents. The ability to accurately dispense lower volumes provides the potential to achieve a greater amount of information than could be otherwise achieved using manual dispensing technology. With the emergence of the field of epigenetics, an increasing number of drug discovery companies are beginning to screen compound libraries against a range of epigenetic targets. This review discusses the potential for the use of low-volume liquid handling robots, for molecular biological applications such as quantitative PCR and epigenetics.

  7. Work Planing Automation at Mechanical Subdivision

    OpenAIRE

    Dzindzelėta, Vytautas

    2005-01-01

    Work planing automation, installation possibilities and future outlook at mechanical subdivision. To study how the work planing has changed before and after automation process and to analyse automation process methodology.

  8. Automation for mineral resource development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norrie, A.W.; Turner, D.R. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    A total of 55 papers were presented at the symposium under the following headings: automation and the future of mining; modelling and control of mining processes; transportation for mining; automation and the future of metallurgical processes; modelling and control of metallurgical processes; and general aspects. Fifteen papers have been abstracted separately.

  9. Opening up Library Automation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the history of library automation, the author has seen a steady advancement toward more open systems. In the early days of library automation, when proprietary systems dominated, the need for standards was paramount since other means of inter-operability and data exchange weren't possible. Today's focus on Application Programming…

  10. Resins production: batch plant automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banti, M.; Mauri, G.

    1996-01-01

    Companies that look for automation in their plants without external resources, have at their disposal flexible, custom and easy to use DCS, open towards PLC. In this article it is explained why Hoechts has followed this way of new plants for resins production automation

  11. Automated Methods of Corrosion Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    1997-01-01

    . Mechanical control, recording, and data processing must therefore be automated to a high level of precision and reliability. These general techniques and the apparatus involved have been described extensively. The automated methods of such high-resolution microscopy coordinated with computerized...

  12. Migration monitoring with automated technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda L. Millikin

    2005-01-01

    Automated technology can supplement ground-based methods of migration monitoring by providing: (1) unbiased and automated sampling; (2) independent validation of current methods; (3) a larger sample area for landscape-level analysis of habitat selection for stopover, and (4) an opportunity to study flight behavior. In particular, radar-acoustic sensor fusion can...

  13. Automated methods of corrosion measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Reeve, John Ch

    1997-01-01

    to revise assumptions regarding the basis of the method, which sometimes leads to the discovery of as-yet unnoticed phenomena. The present selection of automated methods for corrosion measurements is not motivated simply by the fact that a certain measurement can be performed automatically. Automation...... is applied to nearly all types of measurements today....

  14. Classification of Automated Search Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehrer, Greg; Stokes, Jack W.; Chellapilla, Kumar; Platt, John C.

    As web search providers seek to improve both relevance and response times, they are challenged by the ever-increasing tax of automated search query traffic. Third party systems interact with search engines for a variety of reasons, such as monitoring a web site’s rank, augmenting online games, or possibly to maliciously alter click-through rates. In this paper, we investigate automated traffic (sometimes referred to as bot traffic) in the query stream of a large search engine provider. We define automated traffic as any search query not generated by a human in real time. We first provide examples of different categories of query logs generated by automated means. We then develop many different features that distinguish between queries generated by people searching for information, and those generated by automated processes. We categorize these features into two classes, either an interpretation of the physical model of human interactions, or as behavioral patterns of automated interactions. Using the these detection features, we next classify the query stream using multiple binary classifiers. In addition, a multiclass classifier is then developed to identify subclasses of both normal and automated traffic. An active learning algorithm is used to suggest which user sessions to label to improve the accuracy of the multiclass classifier, while also seeking to discover new classes of automated traffic. Performance analysis are then provided. Finally, the multiclass classifier is used to predict the subclass distribution for the search query stream.

  15. Automated Test-Form Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Diao, Qi

    2011-01-01

    In automated test assembly (ATA), the methodology of mixed-integer programming is used to select test items from an item bank to meet the specifications for a desired test form and optimize its measurement accuracy. The same methodology can be used to automate the formatting of the set of selected items into the actual test form. Three different…

  16. Automated evaluation of ultrasonic indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansch, M.K.T.; Stegemann, D.

    1994-01-01

    Future requirements of reliability and reproducibility in quality assurance demand computer evaluation of defect indications. The ultrasonic method with its large field of applications and a high potential for automation provides all preconditions for fully automated inspection. The survey proposes several desirable hardware improvements, data acquisition requirements and software configurations. (orig.) [de

  17. Automated Methods Of Corrosion Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Reeve, John Ch

    1997-01-01

    The chapter describes the following automated measurements: Corrosion Measurements by Titration, Imaging Corrosion by Scanning Probe Microscopy, Critical Pitting Temperature and Application of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Permeation Cell.......The chapter describes the following automated measurements: Corrosion Measurements by Titration, Imaging Corrosion by Scanning Probe Microscopy, Critical Pitting Temperature and Application of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Permeation Cell....

  18. Robotics/Automated Systems Technicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Charles R.

    Major resources exist that can be used to develop or upgrade programs in community colleges and technical institutes that educate robotics/automated systems technicians. The first category of resources is Economic, Social, and Education Issues. The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) report, "Automation and the Workplace," presents analyses of…

  19. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyewsky, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  20. Systematic random sampling of the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, Darragh G; Wasson, Gillian R; McKerr, George; Saetzler, Kurt; Reed, Matt; Howard, C Vyvyan

    2009-07-01

    The comet assay is a technique used to quantify DNA damage and repair at a cellular level. In the assay, cells are embedded in agarose and the cellular content is stripped away leaving only the DNA trapped in an agarose cavity which can then be electrophoresed. The damaged DNA can enter the agarose and migrate while the undamaged DNA cannot and is retained. DNA damage is measured as the proportion of the migratory 'tail' DNA compared to the total DNA in the cell. The fundamental basis of these arbitrary values is obtained in the comet acquisition phase using fluorescence microscopy with a stoichiometric stain in tandem with image analysis software. Current methods deployed in such an acquisition are expected to be both objectively and randomly obtained. In this paper we examine the 'randomness' of the acquisition phase and suggest an alternative method that offers both objective and unbiased comet selection. In order to achieve this, we have adopted a survey sampling approach widely used in stereology, which offers a method of systematic random sampling (SRS). This is desirable as it offers an impartial and reproducible method of comet analysis that can be used both manually or automated. By making use of an unbiased sampling frame and using microscope verniers, we are able to increase the precision of estimates of DNA damage. Results obtained from a multiple-user pooled variation experiment showed that the SRS technique attained a lower variability than that of the traditional approach. The analysis of a single user with repetition experiment showed greater individual variances while not being detrimental to overall averages. This would suggest that the SRS method offers a better reflection of DNA damage for a given slide and also offers better user reproducibility.

  1. PTH Assays: Understanding What We Have and Forecasting What We Will Have

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Gilberto H. Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parathyroid hormone (PTH assays have evolved continuously for the last 50 years. Since the first radioimmunoassay was described in 1963, several assays based on immunological identification have been published (first generation assays. The routine assays used nowadays are immunometric “sandwich-type”. They are based on two different monoclonal antibodies, one amino-terminal and the other carboxyl terminal specific. These second generation assays are widely available and adapted to most of the automation platforms. The specificity of the amino terminal antibody defines if the immunometric assay measures only the bioactive PTH circulating form (including the first amino terminal amino acids or the “intact” PTH, which includes, besides bioactive PTH, other “long” carboxyl-terminal forms, for example, 7–84-PTH. Assays for “intact” PTH are the most commonly available and the potential advantage of the bioactive PTH assays is still debatable. Next generation of assays will be based on different principles, mainly mass spectrometry in samples submitted to a prior purification and fragmentation steps. These assays will provide information about the whole spectra of PTH peptides in circulation, with a significant increase of the information regarding this biologically important peptide hormone.

  2. Evaluation of multiplex assay platforms for detection of influenza hemagglutinin subtype specific antibody responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhu-Nan; Weber, Kimberly M; Limmer, Rebecca A; Horne, Bobbi J; Stevens, James; Schwerzmann, Joy; Wrammert, Jens; McCausland, Megan; Phipps, Andrew J; Hancock, Kathy; Jernigan, Daniel B; Levine, Min; Katz, Jacqueline M; Miller, Joseph D

    2017-05-01

    Influenza hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and virus microneutralization assays (MN) are widely used for seroprevalence studies. However, these assays have limited field portability and are difficult to fully automate for high throughput laboratory testing. To address these issues, three multiplex influenza subtype-specific antibody detection assays were developed using recombinant hemagglutinin antigens in combination with Chembio, Luminex ® , and ForteBio ® platforms. Assay sensitivity, specificity, and subtype cross-reactivity were evaluated using a panel of well characterized human sera. Compared to the traditional HI, assay sensitivity ranged from 87% to 92% and assay specificity in sera collected from unexposed persons ranged from 65% to 100% across the platforms. High assay specificity (86-100%) for A(H5N1) rHA was achieved for sera from exposed or unexposed to hetorosubtype influenza HAs. In contrast, assay specificity for A(H1N1)pdm09 rHA using sera collected from A/Vietnam/1204/2004 (H5N1) vaccinees in 2008 was low (22-30%) in all platforms. Although cross-reactivity against rHA subtype proteins was observed in each assay platform, the correct subtype specific responses were identified 78%-94% of the time when paired samples were available for analysis. These results show that high throughput and portable multiplex assays that incorporate rHA can be used to identify influenza subtype specific infections. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Performance analysis of automated evaluation of Crithidia luciliae-based indirect immunofluorescence tests in a routine setting - strengths and weaknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormann, Wymke; Hahn, Melanie; Gerlach, Stefan; Hochstrate, Nicola; Affeldt, Kai; Giesen, Joyce; Fechner, Kai; Damoiseaux, Jan G M C

    2017-11-27

    Antibodies directed against dsDNA are a highly specific diagnostic marker for the presence of systemic lupus erythematosus and of particular importance in its diagnosis. To assess anti-dsDNA antibodies, the Crithidia luciliae-based indirect immunofluorescence test (CLIFT) is one of the assays considered to be the best choice. To overcome the drawback of subjective result interpretation that inheres indirect immunofluorescence assays in general, automated systems have been introduced into the market during the last years. Among these systems is the EUROPattern Suite, an advanced automated fluorescence microscope equipped with different software packages, capable of automated pattern interpretation and result suggestion for ANA, ANCA and CLIFT analysis. We analyzed the performance of the EUROPattern Suite with its automated fluorescence interpretation for CLIFT in a routine setting, reflecting the everyday life of a diagnostic laboratory. Three hundred and twelve consecutive samples were collected, sent to the Central Diagnostic Laboratory of the Maastricht University Medical Centre with a request for anti-dsDNA analysis over a period of 7 months. Agreement between EUROPattern assay analysis and the visual read was 93.3%. Sensitivity and specificity were 94.1% and 93.2%, respectively. The EUROPattern Suite performed reliably and greatly supported result interpretation. Automated image acquisition is readily performed and automated image classification gives a reliable recommendation for assay evaluation to the operator. The EUROPattern Suite optimizes workflow and contributes to standardization between different operators or laboratories.

  4. The Science of Home Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brian Louis

    Smart home technologies and the concept of home automation have become more popular in recent years. This popularity has been accompanied by social acceptance of passive sensors installed throughout the home. The subsequent increase in smart homes facilitates the creation of home automation strategies. We believe that home automation strategies can be generated intelligently by utilizing smart home sensors and activity learning. In this dissertation, we hypothesize that home automation can benefit from activity awareness. To test this, we develop our activity-aware smart automation system, CARL (CASAS Activity-aware Resource Learning). CARL learns the associations between activities and device usage from historical data and utilizes the activity-aware capabilities to control the devices. To help validate CARL we deploy and test three different versions of the automation system in a real-world smart environment. To provide a foundation of activity learning, we integrate existing activity recognition and activity forecasting into CARL home automation. We also explore two alternatives to using human-labeled data to train the activity learning models. The first unsupervised method is Activity Detection, and the second is a modified DBSCAN algorithm that utilizes Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) as a distance metric. We compare the performance of activity learning with human-defined labels and with automatically-discovered activity categories. To provide evidence in support of our hypothesis, we evaluate CARL automation in a smart home testbed. Our results indicate that home automation can be boosted through activity awareness. We also find that the resulting automation has a high degree of usability and comfort for the smart home resident.

  5. Assaying Cellular Viability Using the Neutral Red Uptake Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Gamze; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera; Rodrigues, Robim M

    2017-01-01

    The neutral red uptake assay is a cell viability assay that allows in vitro quantification of xenobiotic-induced cytotoxicity. The assay relies on the ability of living cells to incorporate and bind neutral red, a weak cationic dye, in lysosomes. As such, cytotoxicity is expressed as a concentration-dependent reduction of the uptake of neutral red after exposure to the xenobiotic under investigation. The neutral red uptake assay is mainly used for hazard assessment in in vitro toxicology applications. This method has also been introduced in regulatory recommendations as part of 3T3-NRU-phototoxicity-assay, which was regulatory accepted in all EU member states in 2000 and in the OECD member states in 2004 as a test guideline (TG 432). The present protocol describes the neutral red uptake assay using the human hepatoma cell line HepG2, which is often employed as an alternative in vitro model for human hepatocytes. As an example, the cytotoxicity of acetaminophen and acetyl salicylic acid is assessed.

  6. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  7. Printing quality control automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapeznikova, O. V.

    2018-04-01

    One of the most important problems in the concept of standardizing the process of offset printing is the control the quality rating of printing and its automation. To solve the problem, a software has been developed taking into account the specifics of printing system components and the behavior in printing process. In order to characterize the distribution of ink layer on the printed substrate the so-called deviation of the ink layer thickness on the sheet from nominal surface is suggested. The geometric data construction the surface projections of the color gamut bodies allows to visualize the color reproduction gamut of printing systems in brightness ranges and specific color sectors, that provides a qualitative comparison of the system by the reproduction of individual colors in a varying ranges of brightness.

  8. Automated electronic filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Amal

    2017-01-01

    This book describes a novel, efficient and powerful scheme for designing and evaluating the performance characteristics of any electronic filter designed with predefined specifications. The author explains techniques that enable readers to eliminate complicated manual, and thus error-prone and time-consuming, steps of traditional design techniques. The presentation includes demonstration of efficient automation, using an ANSI C language program, which accepts any filter design specification (e.g. Chebyschev low-pass filter, cut-off frequency, pass-band ripple etc.) as input and generates as output a SPICE(Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) format netlist. Readers then can use this netlist to run simulations with any version of the popular SPICE simulator, increasing accuracy of the final results, without violating any of the key principles of the traditional design scheme.

  9. Berkeley automated supernova search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kare, J.T.; Pennypacker, C.R.; Muller, R.A.; Mast, T.S.; Crawford, F.S.; Burns, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    The Berkeley automated supernova search employs a computer controlled 36-inch telescope and charge coupled device (CCD) detector to image 2500 galaxies per night. A dedicated minicomputer compares each galaxy image with stored reference data to identify supernovae in real time. The threshold for detection is m/sub v/ = 18.8. We plan to monitor roughly 500 galaxies in Virgo and closer every night, and an additional 6000 galaxies out to 70 Mpc on a three night cycle. This should yield very early detection of several supernovae per year for detailed study, and reliable premaximum detection of roughly 100 supernovae per year for statistical studies. The search should be operational in mid-1982.

  10. Automated asteroseismic peak detections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Montellano, Andres Garcia Saravia Ortiz; Hekker, S.; Themessl, N.

    2018-01-01

    Space observatories such as Kepler have provided data that can potentially revolutionize our understanding of stars. Through detailed asteroseismic analyses we are capable of determining fundamental stellar parameters and reveal the stellar internal structure with unprecedented accuracy. However......, such detailed analyses, known as peak bagging, have so far been obtained for only a small percentage of the observed stars while most of the scientific potential of the available data remains unexplored. One of the major challenges in peak bagging is identifying how many solar-like oscillation modes are visible...... of detected oscillation modes. The algorithm presented here opens the possibility for detailed and automated peak bagging of the thousands of solar-like oscillators observed by Kepler....

  11. Automated Motivic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lartillot, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Motivic analysis provides very detailed understanding of musical composi- tions, but is also particularly difficult to formalize and systematize. A computational automation of the discovery of motivic patterns cannot be reduced to a mere extraction of all possible sequences of descriptions...... for lossless compression. The structural complexity resulting from successive repetitions of patterns can be controlled through a simple modelling of cycles. Generally, motivic patterns cannot always be defined solely as sequences of descriptions in a fixed set of dimensions: throughout the descriptions...... of the successive notes and intervals, various sets of musical parameters may be invoked. In this chapter, a method is presented that allows for these heterogeneous patterns to be discovered. Motivic repetition with local ornamentation is detected by reconstructing, on top of “surface-level” monodic voices, longer...

  12. Berkeley automated supernova search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kare, J.T.; Pennypacker, C.R.; Muller, R.A.; Mast, T.S.

    1981-01-01

    The Berkeley automated supernova search employs a computer controlled 36-inch telescope and charge coupled device (CCD) detector to image 2500 galaxies per night. A dedicated minicomputer compares each galaxy image with stored reference data to identify supernovae in real time. The threshold for detection is m/sub v/ = 18.8. We plan to monitor roughly 500 galaxies in Virgo and closer every night, and an additional 6000 galaxies out to 70 Mpc on a three night cycle. This should yield very early detection of several supernovae per year for detailed study, and reliable premaximum detection of roughly 100 supernovae per year for statistical studies. The search should be operational in mid-1982

  13. (No) Security in Automation!?

    CERN Document Server

    Lüders, S

    2008-01-01

    Modern Information Technologies like Ethernet, TCP/IP, web server or FTP are nowadays increas-ingly used in distributed control and automation systems. Thus, information from the factory floor is now directly available at the management level (From Shop-Floor to Top-Floor) and can be ma-nipulated from there. Despite the benefits coming with this (r)evolution, new vulnerabilities are in-herited, too: worms and viruses spread within seconds via Ethernet and attackers are becoming interested in control systems. Unfortunately, control systems lack the standard security features that usual office PCs have. This contribution will elaborate on these problems, discuss the vulnerabilities of modern control systems and present international initiatives for mitigation.

  14. [Automated anesthesia record systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, W; Mönk, S; Eberle, B

    1997-07-01

    The introduction of electronic anaesthesia documentation systems was attempted as early as in 1979, although their efficient application has become reality only in the past few years. The advantages of the electronic protocol are apparent: Continuous high quality documentation, comparability of data due to the availability of a data bank, reduction in the workload of the anaesthetist and availability of additional data. Disadvantages of the electronic protocol have also been discussed in the literature. By going through the process of entering data on the course of the anaesthetic procedure on the protocol sheet, the information is mentally absorbed and evaluated by the anaesthetist. This information may, however, be lost when the data are recorded fully automatically-without active involvement on the part of the anaesthetist. Recent publications state that by using intelligent alarms and/or integrated displays manual record keeping is no longer necessary for anaesthesia vigilance. The technical design of automated anaesthesia records depends on an integration of network technology into the hospital. It will be appropriate to connect the systems to the internet, but safety requirements have to be followed strictly. Concerning the database, client server architecture as well as language standards like SQL should be used. Object oriented databases will be available in the near future. Another future goal of automated anaesthesia record systems will be using knowledge based technologies within these systems. Drug interactions, disease related anaesthetic techniques and other information sources can be integrated. At this time, almost none of the commercially available systems has matured to a point where their purchase can be recommended without reservation. There is still a lack of standards for the subsequent exchange of data and a solution to a number of ergonomic problems still remains to be found. Nevertheless, electronic anaesthesia protocols will be required in

  15. Early identification of hERG liability in drug discovery programs by automated patch clamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timm eDanker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Blockade of the cardiac ion channel coded by hERG can lead to cardiac arrhythmia, which has become a major concern in drug discovery and development. Automated electrophysiological patch clamp allows assessment of hERG channel effects early in drug development to aid medicinal chemistry programs and has become routine in pharmaceutical companies. However, a number of potential sources of errors in setting up hERG channel assays by automated patch clamp can lead to misinterpretation of data or false effects being reported. This article describes protocols for automated electrophysiology screening of compound effects on the hERG channel current. Protocol details and the translation of criteria known from manual patch clamp experiments to automated patch clamp experiments to achieve good quality data are emphasized. Typical pitfalls and artifacts that may lead to misinterpretation of data are discussed. While this article focuses on hERG channel recordings using the QPatch (Sophion A/S, Copenhagen, Denmark technology, many of the assay and protocol details given in this article can be transferred for setting up different ion channel assays by automated patch clamp and are similar on other planar patch clamp platforms.

  16. The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhagen, Elin; Nygren, Peter; Larsson, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    The fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) is a nonclonogenic microplate-based cell viability assay used for measurement of the cytotoxic and/or cytostatic effect of different compounds in vitro. The assay is based on hydrolysis of the probe, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) by esterases in cells with intact plasma membranes. The assay is available as both a semiautomated 96-well plate setup and a 384-well plate version fully adaptable to robotics. Experimental plates are prepared with a small amount of drug solution and can be stored frozen. Cells are seeded on the plates and cell viability is evaluated after 72 h. The protocol described here is applicable both for cell lines and freshly prepared tumor cells from patients and is suitable both for screening in drug development and as a basis for a predictive test for individualization of anticancer drug therapy.

  17. Solution assay instrument operations manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T.K.; Marks, T.; Parker, J.L.

    1983-09-01

    An at-line solution assay instrument (SAI) has been developed and installed in a plutonium purification and americium recovery process area in the Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility. The instrument was designed for accurate, timely, and simultaneous nondestructive analysis of plutonium and americium in process solutions that have a wide range of concentrations and americium/plutonium ratios and for routine operation by process technicians who lack instrumentation background. The SAI, based on transmission-corrected, high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, has two measurement stations attached to a single multichannel analyzer/computer system. To ensure the quality of assay results, the SAI has an internal measurement control program, which requires daily and weekly check runs and monitors key aspects of all assay runs. For a 25-ml sample, the assay precision is 5 g/l within a 2000-s count time

  18. Impacto de la automatización de los ensayos analíticos en los servicios oncológicos del Laboratorio Clínico Impact of the automation of the analytic assays in the oncological services of the Clinical Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Céspedes Quevedo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Se diseñó una investigación longitudinal y prospectiva para evaluar la efectividad de la tecnología Elimat en el Laboratorio Clínico del Hospital Oncológico Docente “Conrado Benítez” de Santiago de Cuba, durante el bienio 2010-2011, al comparar la precisión y los costos mediante el empleo de 8 determinaciones químicas con muestras Elitrol I y II como controladores de calidad, procesadas por métodos automatizado y manual. En la serie se consideraron los indicadores: prueba T para igualdad de medias, coeficientes de variación de rutina e ideal, e índice de varianza; los criterios: escala de evaluación y nivel de significación αA longitudinal and prospective investigation was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the technology Elimat in the Clinical Laboratory of "Conrado Benítez" Teaching Oncological Hospital from Santiago de Cuba, during the biennium 2010-2011, by comparing the precision and the costs through the use of 8 chemical determinations with Elitrol I and II samples as quality controllers, processed by automatic and manual methods. In the series, indicators such as: T test for equality of means, coefficients of routine and ideal variation, and variance index; the approaches: evaluation scale and significance level a <0.05; as well as the standards: coefficient of ideal variation of each determination and mean values of controllers were considered. An expense of $2 057 pesos more was obtained in the 100 samples manually processed, the global precision was evaluated as good in both methods, the accuracy of the manual technique was evaluated of excellent and that of the automated procedure, was good too, with significant differences between the resulting means of this last one and those of the used controllers. The autoanalizer Elimat produced a positive impact economically and socially; however, as for the quality it presented the same precision and lower accuracy than the manual procedure.

  19. High throughput sample processing and automated scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar eBrunborg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The comet assay is a sensitive and versatile method for assessing DNA damage in cells. In the traditional version of the assay, there are many manual steps involved and few samples can be treated in one experiment. High throughput modifications have been developed during recent years, and they are reviewed and discussed. These modifications include accelerated scoring of comets; other important elements that have been studied and adapted to high throughput are cultivation and manipulation of cells or tissues before and after exposure, and freezing of treated samples until comet analysis and scoring. High throughput methods save time and money but they are useful also for other reasons: large-scale experiments may be performed which are otherwise not practicable (e.g., analysis of many organs from exposed animals, and human biomonitoring studies, and automation gives more uniform sample treatment and less dependence on operator performance. The high throughput modifications now available vary largely in their versatility, capacity, complexity and costs. The bottleneck for further increase of throughput appears to be the scoring.

  20. Digital microfluidics for automated hanging drop cell spheroid culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijian, Andrew P; Garrell, Robin L

    2015-06-01

    Cell spheroids are multicellular aggregates, grown in vitro, that mimic the three-dimensional morphology of physiological tissues. Although there are numerous benefits to using spheroids in cell-based assays, the adoption of spheroids in routine biomedical research has been limited, in part, by the tedious workflow associated with spheroid formation and analysis. Here we describe a digital microfluidic platform that has been developed to automate liquid-handling protocols for the formation, maintenance, and analysis of multicellular spheroids in hanging drop culture. We show that droplets of liquid can be added to and extracted from through-holes, or "wells," and fabricated in the bottom plate of a digital microfluidic device, enabling the formation and assaying of hanging drops. Using this digital microfluidic platform, spheroids of mouse mesenchymal stem cells were formed and maintained in situ for 72 h, exhibiting good viability (>90%) and size uniformity (% coefficient of variation <10% intraexperiment, <20% interexperiment). A proof-of-principle drug screen was performed on human colorectal adenocarcinoma spheroids to demonstrate the ability to recapitulate physiologically relevant phenomena such as insulin-induced drug resistance. With automatable and flexible liquid handling, and a wide range of in situ sample preparation and analysis capabilities, the digital microfluidic platform provides a viable tool for automating cell spheroid culture and analysis. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.