WorldWideScience

Sample records for automated plant production

  1. THE LEVEL OF AUTOMATION OF “CARASAU” BREAD PRODUCTION PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Paschino; Flippo Gabella; Francesco Giubellino; Fernando Clemente

    2007-01-01

    Currently, the lowest productivity of workers involved in the production of the “carasau bread” is in those plants where automation has still not reached optimal levels in certain parts of the process, such as, for example, in the cutting and separating of the puff pastry. In the present work we analyse and compare the performance of three systems of cutting and separating in three different types of plant: by hand (traditional); by hand with a conveyor belt that supplies the workers with the...

  2. THE LEVEL OF AUTOMATION OF “CARASAU” BREAD PRODUCTION PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Paschino

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the lowest productivity of workers involved in the production of the “carasau bread” is in those plants where automation has still not reached optimal levels in certain parts of the process, such as, for example, in the cutting and separating of the puff pastry. In the present work we analyse and compare the performance of three systems of cutting and separating in three different types of plant: by hand (traditional; by hand with a conveyor belt that supplies the workers with the material (traditional with conveyor belt and completely mechanized (continuous. The experiment showed that the use of an automated system of cutting supplied from a conveyor belt reduced the time of the cutting phase for puff pastry by 87.1% with respect to hand cutting supplied by conveyor belt and by 87.9% with respect to the traditional system. If we consider the hourly productivity of the workers, we see that use of a conveyor belt increases productivity in a traditional bakery by 42.3%, while the use of the continuous system increases productivity by 87.8% compared to the traditional system and by 78.3% with respect to hand cutting supplied by conveyor belt.

  3. Automated information system for analysis and prediction of production situations in blast furnace plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, V. V.; Spirin, N. A.

    2016-09-01

    Advances in modern science and technology are inherently connected with the development, implementation, and widespread use of computer systems based on mathematical modeling. Algorithms and computer systems are gaining practical significance solving a range of process tasks in metallurgy of MES-level (Manufacturing Execution Systems - systems controlling industrial process) of modern automated information systems at the largest iron and steel enterprises in Russia. This fact determines the necessity to develop information-modeling systems based on mathematical models that will take into account the physics of the process, the basics of heat and mass exchange, the laws of energy conservation, and also the peculiarities of the impact of technological and standard characteristics of raw materials on the manufacturing process data. Special attention in this set of operations for metallurgic production is devoted to blast-furnace production, as it consumes the greatest amount of energy, up to 50% of the fuel used in ferrous metallurgy. The paper deals with the requirements, structure and architecture of BF Process Engineer's Automated Workstation (AWS), a computer decision support system of MES Level implemented in the ICS of the Blast Furnace Plant at Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works. It presents a brief description of main model subsystems as well as assumptions made in the process of mathematical modelling. Application of the developed system allows the engineering and process staff to analyze online production situations in the blast furnace plant, to solve a number of process tasks related to control of heat, gas dynamics and slag conditions of blast-furnace smelting as well as to calculate the optimal composition of blast-furnace slag, which eventually results in increasing technical and economic performance of blast-furnace production.

  4. Fossil power plant automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divakaruni, S.M.; Touchton, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper elaborates on issues facing the utilities industry and seeks to address how new computer-based control and automation technologies resulting from recent microprocessor evolution, can improve fossil plant operations and maintenance. This in turn can assist utilities to emerge stronger from the challenges ahead. Many presentations at the first ISA/EPRI co-sponsored conference are targeted towards improving the use of computer and control systems in the fossil and nuclear power plants and we believe this to be the right forum to share our ideas

  5. Remote operations on the furnace assembly and product canister in high-level waste vitrification plant at Tarapur and scope for automation in future such plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohandas, J.M.; Samuel, M.T.

    1990-01-01

    Vitrification of high level liquid waste produced in a fuel reprocessing plant is carried out inside a concrete cell with provisons for all operations on the main equipment, that is the induction heated furnace, to be carried out by remote handling gadgets. Since each canister of the vitrified waste product in a batch can contain upto 0.6 million curie of activity, these operations are required to be highly reliable. The present plant has provisions for these remote operations mainly by manual mode using remote handling gadgets like power manipulator, MSMs, incell crane etc. With the advent of advanced technology of automation and possible use of robotics, it is considered that a much more reliable, less time consuming and efficient operation can be carried out using such techniques. This paper describes the present mode of operation in the cell and points out the areas in which automation of these operations can be adopted. (author). 3 figs

  6. Use of automated controlled-potential coulometry system for plutonium product accountancy analysis at Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuno, Y.; Abe, K.; Hayashi, N.; Wachi, I.

    1988-01-01

    The controlled-potential coulometry has been adopted for plutonium product accountancy analysis at the Tokai reprocessing plant since 1985. The reliability of plutonium product analysis has been improved by introducing this method which is capable of better precision than the titration that was previously used. It has been found that the impurities such as neptunium, chromium and americium, which are thought to interfere with AgO-Fe(II)-Cr(VI) titration method, do not affect the controlled-potential coulometry. Iron, which is regarded as an impurity interfering with the coulometry, is corrected with simple measurement procedure using spectrophotometer. The fully automated coulometry system has been developed based on the experience of using manually operated system. The system consists of two symmetric parts. Each has one measurement position and one electrode washing position and is designed to load up to six cells. The system is calibrated with iron standard sample, because no significant difference between calibrations using metallic standard of plutonium and that of iron has been found. Precision of the automated system is within 0.1%

  7. Office Automation Boosts University's Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Business Affairs, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The University of Pittsburgh has a 2-year agreement designating the Xerox Corporation as the primary supplier of word processing and related office automation equipment in order to increase productivity and more efficient use of campus resources. (MLF)

  8. Automated analysis for large amount gaseous fission product gamma-scanning spectra from nuclear power plant and its data mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weihua Zhang; Kurt Ungar; Ian Hoffman; Ryan Lawrie; Jarmo Ala-Heikkila

    2010-01-01

    Based on the Linssi database and UniSampo/Shaman software, an automated analysis platform has been setup for the analysis of large amounts of gamma-spectra from the primary coolant monitoring systems of a CANDU reactor. Thus, a database inventory of gaseous and volatile fission products in the primary coolant of a CANDU reactor has been established. This database is comprised of 15,000 spectra of radioisotope analysis records. Records from the database inventory were retrieved by a specifically designed data-mining module and subjected to further analysis. Results from the analysis were subsequently used to identify the reactor coolant half-life of 135 Xe and 133 Xe, as well as the correlations of 135 Xe and 88 Kr activities. (author)

  9. An automation model of Effluent Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alberto Oliveira Lima Roque

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and intensification of industrial activities have increased the deterioration of natural resources. Industrial, hospital and residential wastes are dumped directly into landfills without processing, polluting soils. This action will have consequences later, because the liquid substance resulting from the putrefaction of organic material plows into the soil to reach water bodies. Cities arise without planning, industrial and household wastes are discharged into rivers, lakes and oceans without proper treatment, affecting water resources. It is well known that in the next century there will be fierce competition for fresh water on the planet, probably due to the scarcity of it. Demographic expansion has occurred without proper health planning, degrading oceans, lakes and rivers. Thus, a large percentage of world population suffers from diseases related to water pollution. Accordingly, it can be concluded that sewage treatment is essential to human survival, to preserve rivers, lakes and oceans. An Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP treats wastewater to reduce its pollution to acceptable levels before sending them to the oceans or rivers. To automate the operation of an ETP, motors, sensors and logic blocks, timers and counters are needed. These functions are achieved with programmable logic controllers (PLC and Supervisory Systems. The Ladder language is used to program controllers and is a pillar of the Automation and Control Engineering. The supervisory systems allow process information to be monitored, while the PLC are responsible for control and data acquisition. In the age we live in, process automation is used in an increasing scale in order to provide higher quality, raise productivity and improve the proposed activities. Therefore, an automatic ETP will improve performance and efficiency to handle large volumes of sewage. Considering the growing importance of environmental awareness with special emphasis

  10. Automation technology in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essen, E.R.

    1995-01-01

    In this article a summery of the current architecture of modern process control systems in power plants and future trends have been explained. The further development of process control systems for power plants is influenced both by the developments in component and software technologies as well as the increased requirements of the power plants. The convenient and low cost configuration facilities of new process control systems have now reached a significance which makes it easy for customers to decide to purchase. (A.B.)

  11. Approach to plant automation with evolving technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has provided support to Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to pursue research leading to advanced, automated control of new innovative liquid-metal-cooled nuclear power plants. The purpose of this effort is to conduct research that will help to ensure improved operability, reliability, and safety for advanced LMRs. The plan adopted to achieve these program goals in an efficient and timely manner consists of utilizing, and advancing where required, state-of-the-art controls technology through close interaction with other national laboratories, universities, industry and utilities. A broad range of applications for the control systems strategies and the design environment developed in the course of this program is likely. A natural evolution of automated control in nuclear power plants is envisioned by ORNL to be a phased transition from today's situation of some analog control at the subsystem level with significant operator interaction to the future capability for completely automated digital control with operator supervision. The technical accomplishments provided by this program will assist the industry to accelerate this transition and provide greater economy and safety. The development of this transition to advanced, automated control system designs is expected to have extensive benefits in reduced operating costs, fewer outages, enhanced safety, improved licensability, and improved public acceptance for commercial nuclear power plants. 24 refs

  12. Automated saccharification assay for determination of digestibility in plant materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halpin Claire

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell wall resistance represents the main barrier for the production of second generation biofuels. The deconstruction of lignocellulose can provide sugars for the production of fuels or other industrial products through fermentation. Understanding the biochemical basis of the recalcitrance of cell walls to digestion will allow development of more effective and cost efficient ways to produce sugars from biomass. One approach is to identify plant genes that play a role in biomass recalcitrance, using association genetics. Such an approach requires a robust and reliable high throughput (HT assay for biomass digestibility, which can be used to screen the large numbers of samples involved in such studies. Results We developed a HT saccharification assay based on a robotic platform that can carry out in a 96-well plate format the enzymatic digestion and quantification of the released sugars. The handling of the biomass powder for weighing and formatting into 96 wells is performed by a robotic station, where the plant material is ground, delivered to the desired well in the plates and weighed with a precision of 0.1 mg. Once the plates are loaded, an automated liquid handling platform delivers an optional mild pretreatment ( Conclusions The automated assay systems are sensitive, robust and reliable. The system can reliably detect differences in the saccharification of plant tissues, and is able to process large number of samples with a minimum amount of human intervention. The automated system uncovered significant increases in the digestibility of certain lignin modified lines in a manner compatible with known effects of lignin modification on cell wall properties. We conclude that this automated assay platform is of sufficient sensitivity and reliability to undertake the screening of the large populations of plants necessary for mutant identification and genetic association studies.

  13. Automation, Labor Productivity and Employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Lene; Rose Skaksen, Jan; Sørensen, Anders

    CEBR fremlægger nu den første rapport i AIM-projektet. Rapporten viser, at der er gode muligheder for yderligere automation i en stor del af de danske fremstillingsvirksomheder. For i dag er gennemsnitligt kun omkring 30 % af virksomhedernes produktionsprocesser automatiserede. Navnlig procesområ...

  14. Control and automation technology in United States nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to use computers for nuclear power plant design, engineering, operation and maintenance has been growing since the inception of commercial nuclear power electricity generation in the 1960s. The needs have intensified in recent years as the demands of safety and reliability, as well as economic competition, have become stronger. The rapid advance of computer hardware and software technology in the last two decades has greatly enlarged the potential of computer applications to plant instrumentation and control of future plants, as well as those needed for operation of existing plants. The traditional role of computers for mathematical calculations and data manipulation has been expanded to automate plant control functions and to enhance human performance and productivity. The major goals of using computers for instrumentation and control of nuclear power plants are (1) to improve safety; (2) to reduce challenges to the power plant; (3) to reduce the cost of operations and maintenance; (4) to enhance power production, and (5) to increase productivity of people. Many functions in nuclear power plants are achieved by a combination of human action and automation. Increasingly, computer-based systems are used to support operations and maintenance personnel in the performance of their tasks. There are many benefits which can accrue from the use of computers but it is important to ensure that the design and implementation of the support system and the human task places the human in the correct role in relation to the machine; that is, in a management position, with the computer serving the human. In addition, consideration must be given to computer system integrity, software validation and verification, consequences of error, etc., to ensure its reliability for nuclear power plant applications. (author). 31 refs

  15. Automated development, control, and maintenance of plant procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    Plants create and track thousands of documents and written procedures every year. Increasing regulations and document requirements demand more and more resources. Not only must the procedures that are written be detailed and technically accurate, they must be controlled and revised to keep pace with changing regulations, procedure requirements and equipment. The basis of this paper is the introduction of a network-based automated approach to developing, tracking, controlling, storing, and revising procedures. This network-based product, referred to herein as PRONET, combines the best of work processing, relational data base management, graphics, and project managements software to provide the capabilities needed to effectively and efficiently automate the development, control, and maintenance of plant procedures

  16. Mechanization and automation of production processes in turbine building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodyanyuk, V. P.

    1984-02-01

    Specialists at the All-Union Institute of Planning and Technology of Energy Machine Building are working on the problem of mechanization and automation of production processes. One of the major technological processes being worked on is the production of welded units. At the present time the Institute has designed a centralized cutting and manufacturing shop in use at several metallurgical plants, clamping devices for materials hoists based on permanent magnets, a program controlled installation for driving shaped apertures in welded diaphragm rims and an automated system for planning technological processes involved in manufacturing operations. Even in the manufacture of such individualized devices as turbines, mechanization and automation of production processes are economically justified. During the 11th Five Year Plan, the Institute will continue to develop progressive technological processes and equipment for precise shaping of turbine blade blanks, mechanical working of parts of steam, gas and hydraulic turbines, as well as nuclear powerplant turbines.

  17. A Projection of Automated Book Production Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Barisic

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper elaborates on the recommendation of systematic introducing of XML technologies as a standard and integral factor in publishing and graphic business activities and as a further improvement of the existing PostScript graphic production platform. Procedures are proposed for applying norm setting in respect to production processes through related connections organized databases under XML technology in a hierarchical way, as well as a book production norm setting system. The proposal for work processes automation in the domain of printing business control is elaborated under the CIP4-JDF automating system. Operation results are used as guidelines for setting the elements of automated business operations in the book production domain, with integrated elements of new technologies, compatible with global trends.

  18. Productivity goals drive office automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, A. P.; Kurzhals, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Office automation (OA) steps being taken by NASA to improve efficiency in communications between centers and personnel are outlined. NASA centers are currently linked by satellite for electronic mail and scheduling through dumb and intelligent terminals. The implementation of teleconferencing with interactive graphics transmitted between dial-up terminals is being examined in a pilot program, and interactive data bases are already in operation, with an on-line summary data base being planned for NASA headquarters. The NASA Recon on-line service is operating with citations of over 2,200,000 aeronautics and astronautics research documents and 300,000 scientific books accessed by over 250 terminals around the U.S. The emphasis for all the OA systems is on user-friendly design and minimizing the required input for entry and access.

  19. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature...... the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  20. Wet water glass production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for a wet hydrate dissolution plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects, a production plant of a capacity of 75,000 t/y was manufactured, at "Zeolite Mira", Mira (VE, Italy, in 1997. and 1998, increasing detergent zeolite production, from 50,000 to 100,000 t/y. Several goals were realized by designing a wet hydrate dissolution plant. The main goal was increasing the detergent zeolite production. The technological cycle of NaOH was closed, and no effluents emitted, and there is no pollution (except for the filter cake. The wet water glass production process is fully automatized, and the product has uniform quality. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start - up, and repairs. By installing additional process equipment (centrifugal pumps and heat exchangers technological bottlenecks were overcome, and by adjusting the operation of autoclaves, and water glass filters and also by optimizing the capacities of process equipment.

  1. Early Validation of Automation Plant Control Software using Simulation Based on Assumption Modeling and Validation Use Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Brandstetter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In automation plants, technical processes must be conducted in a way that products, substances, or services are produced reliably, with sufficient quality and with minimal strain on resources. A key driver in conducting these processes is the automation plant’s control software, which controls the technical plant components and thereby affects the physical, chemical, and mechanical processes that take place in automation plants. To this end, the control software of an automation plant must adhere to strict process requirements arising from the technical processes, and from the physical plant design. Currently, the validation of the control software often starts late in the engineering process in many cases – once the automation plant is almost completely constructed. However, as widely acknowledged, the later the control software of the automation plant is validated, the higher the effort for correcting revealed defects is, which can lead to serious budget overruns and project delays. In this article we propose an approach that allows the early validation of automation control software against the technical plant processes and assumptions about the physical plant design by means of simulation. We demonstrate the application of our approach on the example of an actual plant project from the automation industry and present it’s technical implementation

  2. Developing strategies for automated remote plant production systems: Environmental control and monitoring of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, M.; Berinstain, A.; Graham, T.; Neron, P.; Giroux, R.; Braham, S.; Ferl, R.; Paul, A.-L.; Dixon, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is a unique research facility dedicated to the study of greenhouse engineering and autonomous functionality under extreme operational conditions, in preparation for extraterrestrial biologically-based life support systems. The Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is located at the Haughton Mars Project Research Station on Devon Island in the Canadian High Arctic. The greenhouse has been operational since 2002. Over recent years the greenhouse has served as a controlled environment facility for conducting scientific and operationally relevant plant growth investigations in an extreme environment. Since 2005 the greenhouse has seen the deployment of a refined nutrient control system, an improved imaging system capable of remote assessment of basic plant health parameters, more robust communication and power systems as well as the implementation of a distributed data acquisition system. Though several other Arctic greenhouses exist, the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is distinct in that the focus is on autonomous operation as opposed to strictly plant production. Remote control and autonomous operational experience has applications both terrestrially in production greenhouses and extraterrestrially where future long duration Moon/Mars missions will utilize biological life support systems to close the air, food and water loops. Minimizing crew time is an important goal for any space-based system. The experience gained through the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is providing the experience necessary to optimize future plant production systems and minimize crew time requirements. Internal greenhouse environmental data shows that the fall growth season (July-September) provides an average photosynthetic photon flux of 161.09 μmol m -2 s -1 (August) and 76.76 μmol m -2 s -1 (September) with approximately a 24 h photoperiod. The spring growth season provides an average of 327.51 μmol m -2 s -1 (May) and 339.32 μmol m -2 s

  3. Operating procedure automation to enhance safety of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husseiny, A.A.; Sabri, Z.A.; Adams, S.K.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Packer, D.; Holmes, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Use of logic statements and computer assist are explored as means for automation and improvement on design of operating procedures including those employed in abnormal and emergency situations. Operating procedures for downpower and loss of forced circulation are used for demonstration. Human-factors analysis is performed on generic emergency operating procedures for three strategies of control; manual, semi-automatic and automatic, using standard emergency operating procedures. Such preliminary analysis shows that automation of procedures is feasible provided that fault-tolerant software and hardware become available for design of the controllers. Recommendations are provided for tests to substantiate the promise of enhancement of plant safety. Adequate design of operating procedures through automation may alleviate several major operational problems of nuclear power plants. Also, automation of procedures is necessary for partial or overall automatic control of plants. Fully automatic operations are needed for space applications while supervised automation of land-based and offshore plants may become the thrust of new generation of nulcear power plants. (orig.)

  4. Balance between automation and human actions in nuclear power plant operation. Results of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, B.; Olmstead, R.; Oudiz, A.; Jenkinson, J.; Kossilov, A.

    1990-01-01

    Automation has long been an established feature of power plants. In some applications, the use of automation has been the significant factor which has enabled plant technology to progress to its current state. Societal demands for increased levels of safety have led to greater use of redundancy and diversity and this, in turn, has increased levels of automation. However, possibly the greatest contributory factor in increased automation has resulted from improvements in information technology. Much recent attention has been focused on the concept of inherently safe reactors, which may simplify safety system requirements and information and control system complexity. The allocation of tasks between man and machine may be one of the most critical activity in the design of new nuclear plants and major retro-fits and it therefore warrants a design approach which is commensurate in quality with the high levels of safety and production performance sought from nuclear plants. Facing this climate, in 1989 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) formed an advisory group from member countries with extensive experience in nuclear power plant automation. The task of this group was to advise on the appropriate balance between manual and automatic actions in plant operation

  5. Balance between automation and human actions in nuclear power plant operation. Results of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, B.; Olmstead, R.; Oudiz, A.; Jenkinson, J.; Kossilov, A.

    1990-01-01

    Automation has long been an established feature of power plants. In some applications, the use of automation has been the significant factor which has enabled plant technology to progress to its current state. Societal demands for increased levels of safety have led to greater use of redundancy and diversity and this, in turn, has increased levels of automation. However, possibly the greatest contributory factor in increased automation has resulted from improvements in information technology. Much recent attention has been focused on the concept of inherently safe reactors, which may simplify safety system requirements and information and control system complexity. The allocation of tasks between man and machine may be one of the most critical activity in the design of new nuclear plants and major retro-fits and it therefore warrants a design approach which is commensurate in quality with the high levels of safety and production performance sought from nuclear plants. Facing this climate, in 1989 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) formed an advisory group from member countries with extensive experience in nuclear power plant automation. The task of this group was to advise on the appropriate balance between manual and automatic actions in plant operation. (author) [fr

  6. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4: automated array assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagerty, J.J.

    1980-06-30

    The scope of work under this contract involves specifying a process sequence which can be used in conjunction with automated equipment for the mass production of solar cell modules for terrestrial use. This process sequence is then critically analyzed from a technical and economic standpoint to determine the technological readiness of each process step for implementation. The process steps are ranked according to the degree of development effort required and according to their significance to the overall process. Under this contract the steps receiving analysis were: back contact metallization, automated cell array layup/interconnect, and module edge sealing. For automated layup/interconnect both hard automation and programmable automation (using an industrial robot) were studied. The programmable automation system was then selected for actual hardware development. Economic analysis using the SAMICS system has been performed during these studies to assure that development efforts have been directed towards the ultimate goal of price reduction. Details are given. (WHK)

  7. Development and Evaluation of a Model for Modular Automation in Plant Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Katzke

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The benefit of modular concepts in plant automation is seen ambivalent. On one hand it offers advantages, on the other hand it also sets requirements on the system structure as well as discipline of designer. The main reasons to use modularity in systems design for automation applications in industry are reusability and reduction of complexity, but up to now modular concepts are rare in plant automation. This paper analyses the reasons and proposes measures and solution concepts. An analysis of the work flow and the working results of some companies in several branches show different proposals of modularity. These different proposals in production and process engineering are integrated in one model and represent different perspectives of an integrated system.

  8. Adoption of automated livestock production systems in Northern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Lind, Kim Martin Hjorth

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades the development of automated systems in livestock production has gained increasing interest among farmers. A combined use of computers and sensor systems has lead the development into new research areas with automated milking systems, grain drying systems and automated feeding systems. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a farm survey and cluster analysis that have been made among 4 countries in Europe. This study is based on replies from 413 respondents in ...

  9. Development of nuclear power plant automated remote patrol system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, R.; Kubo, K.; Sato, K.; Taguchi, J.

    1984-01-01

    An Automated Remote Patrol System was developed for a remote inspection, observation and monitoring of nuclear power plant's components. This automated remote patrol system consists of; a vehicle moving along a monorail; three rails mounted in a monorail for data transmission and for power supply; an image fiber connected to a TV camera; an arm type mechanism (manipulator) for moving image fiber; a computer for control and data processing and operator's console. Special features of this Automated Remote Patrol System are as follows: The inspection vehicle runs along horizontal and vertical (up/down) monorails. The arm type mechanism (manipulator) on the vehicle is used to move image fiber. Slide type electric collectors are used for data transmission and power supply. Time-division multiplexing is adapted for data transmission. Voice communication is used for controlling mechanisms. Pattern recognition is used for data processing. The experience that has been obtained from a series of various tests is summarized. (author)

  10. The role of automation and humans in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The document is the result of a series of advisory and consultants meetings held within the framework of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation in 1989-1990. It provides a basis for assigning functions to men and machines and for achieving a desirable balance. It should be particularly useful to designers of of new systems, where a large number of assignment decisions will have to be identified, taken and documented. In addition, the methodology can be used by utilities for plant modifications and upgrades. The document may also be employed for examining existing assignments in a system since the principles on which the document is based are generally applicable. The document may be useful to those who develop requirement specifications for automation, to technology designers who design automated machines, and to researchers who intend to further refine the function assignment methodology. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Automated genome mining for natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zajkowski James

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discovery of new medicinal agents from natural sources has largely been an adventitious process based on screening of plant and microbial extracts combined with bioassay-guided identification and natural product structure elucidation. Increasingly rapid and more cost-effective genome sequencing technologies coupled with advanced computational power have converged to transform this trend toward a more rational and predictive pursuit. Results We have developed a rapid method of scanning genome sequences for multiple polyketide, nonribosomal peptide, and mixed combination natural products with output in a text format that can be readily converted to two and three dimensional structures using conventional software. Our open-source and web-based program can assemble various small molecules composed of twenty standard amino acids and twenty two other chain-elongation intermediates used in nonribosomal peptide systems, and four acyl-CoA extender units incorporated into polyketides by reading a hidden Markov model of DNA. This process evaluates and selects the substrate specificities along the assembly line of nonribosomal synthetases and modular polyketide synthases. Conclusion Using this approach we have predicted the structures of natural products from a diverse range of bacteria based on a limited number of signature sequences. In accelerating direct DNA to metabolomic analysis, this method bridges the interface between chemists and biologists and enables rapid scanning for compounds with potential therapeutic value.

  12. Automation Framework for Flight Dynamics Products Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Robert E.; Esposito, Timothy C.; Watson, John S.; Jun, Linda; Shoan, Wendy; Matusow, Carla

    2010-01-01

    XFDS provides an easily adaptable automation platform. To date it has been used to support flight dynamics operations. It coordinates the execution of other applications such as Satellite TookKit, FreeFlyer, MATLAB, and Perl code. It provides a mechanism for passing messages among a collection of XFDS processes, and allows sending and receiving of GMSEC messages. A unified and consistent graphical user interface (GUI) is used for the various tools. Its automation configuration is stored in text files, and can be edited either directly or using the GUI.

  13. Automations influence on nuclear power plants: a look at three accidents and how automation played a role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power is one of the ways that we can design an efficient sustainable future. Automation is the primary system used to assist operators in the task of monitoring and controlling nuclear power plants (NPP). Automation performs tasks such as assessing the status of the plant's operations as well as making real time life critical situational specific decisions. While the advantages and disadvantages of automation are well studied in variety of domains, accidents remind us that there is still vulnerability to unknown variables. This paper will look at the effects of automation within three NPP accidents and incidents and will consider why automation failed in preventing these accidents from occurring. It will also review the accidents at the Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima Daiichi NPP's in order to determine where better use of automation could have resulted in a more desirable outcome.

  14. Preparing for Automated Derivation of Products in a Software Product Line

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGregor, John D

    2005-01-01

    ... to bring a product to market, or through other production improvements. Business goals such as these make automated product derivation an appealing strategy to a software product line organization...

  15. Optimization of automation: I. Estimation method of cognitive automation rates reflecting the effects of automation on human operators in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Jong Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose an estimation method of the automation rate by taking the advantages of automation as the estimation measures. • We conduct the experiments to examine the validity of the suggested method. • The higher the cognitive automation rate is, the greater the decreased rate of the working time will be. • The usefulness of the suggested estimation method is proved by statistical analyses. - Abstract: Since automation was introduced in various industrial fields, the concept of the automation rate has been used to indicate the inclusion proportion of automation among all work processes or facilities. Expressions of the inclusion proportion of automation are predictable, as is the ability to express the degree of the enhancement of human performance. However, many researchers have found that a high automation rate does not guarantee high performance. Therefore, to reflect the effects of automation on human performance, this paper proposes a new estimation method of the automation rate that considers the effects of automation on human operators in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Automation in NPPs can be divided into two types: system automation and cognitive automation. Some general descriptions and characteristics of each type of automation are provided, and the advantages of automation are investigated. The advantages of each type of automation are used as measures of the estimation method of the automation rate. One advantage was found to be a reduction in the number of tasks, and another was a reduction in human cognitive task loads. The system and the cognitive automation rate were proposed as quantitative measures by taking advantage of the aforementioned benefits. To quantify the required human cognitive task loads and thus suggest the cognitive automation rate, Conant’s information-theory-based model was applied. The validity of the suggested method, especially as regards the cognitive automation rate, was proven by conducting

  16. Determination of the Optimized Automation Rate considering Effects of Automation on Human Operators in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Min; Seong, Poong Hyun; Kim, Jong Hyun; Kim, Man Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Automation refers to the use of a device or a system to perform a function previously performed by a human operator. It is introduced to reduce the human errors and to enhance the performance in various industrial fields, including the nuclear industry. However, these positive effects are not always achieved in complex systems such as nuclear power plants (NPPs). An excessive introduction of automation can generate new roles for human operators and change activities in unexpected ways. As more automation systems are accepted, the ability of human operators to detect automation failures and resume manual control is diminished. This disadvantage of automation is called the Out-of-the- Loop (OOTL) problem. We should consider the positive and negative effects of automation at the same time to determine the appropriate level of the introduction of automation. Thus, in this paper, we suggest an estimation method to consider the positive and negative effects of automation at the same time to determine the appropriate introduction of automation. This concept is limited in that it does not consider the effects of automation on human operators. Thus, a new estimation method for automation rate was suggested to overcome this problem

  17. Automation of (64)Cu production at Turku PET Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elomaa, Viki-Veikko; Jurttila, Jori; Rajander, Johan; Solin, Olof

    2014-07-01

    At Turku PET Centre automation for handling solid targets for the production of (64)Cu has been built. The system consists of a module for moving the target from the irradiation position into a lead transport shield and a robotic-arm assisted setup for moving the target within radiochemistry laboratory. The main motivation for designing automation arises from radiation hygiene. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Improving automated load flexibility of nuclear power plants with ALFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Andreas [AREVA GmbH, Karlstein (Germany). Section Manager Training; Klaus, Peter [Preussenelektra NPP, Essenbach (Germany). Production Engineering

    2017-03-15

    In several German and Swiss Nuclear Power Plants with Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) the control of the reactor power was and will be improved in order to be able to support the energy transition with increasing volatile renewable energy in the grid by flexible load operation according to the need of the load dispatcher (power system stability). Especially regarding the mentioned German NPPs with a nominal electric power of approx. 1500 MW, the general objectives are several automated grid relevant operation modes. The new possibilities of digital I and C (as TELEPERM {sup registered} XS) enable the automation of this operating modes provided that manual support is no longer necessary. These possibilities were and will be implemented by AREVA within the ALFC-projects. Manifold adaption algorithms to the reactor physical variations during the nuclear load cycle enable a precise control of the axial power density distribution and of the reactivity manage - ment in the reactor core. Finally this is the basis for a highly automated load flexibility with the parallel respect and surveillance of the operational limits of a PWR.

  19. Automation system for operation of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Mitsuo; Fukuzaki, Koji; Kato, Kanji

    1991-01-01

    The automation system comprises a general monitor control device incorporating a plurality of emergency operation plannings concerning an automatic processing, and judging whether the operation is to be conducted or not depending on the plannings based on the data planed by a plant, a control device for controlling the plant in accordance with the planning when monitor control device judges that the operation should be done due to the emergency operation plannings and an operation planning device aiding the formation of the operation plannings. When the state of the power plant exceeds a normal control region, the reactor power is lowered automatically by so much as a predetermined value or to a predetermined level, to automatically return the plant state to the normal control region. In this way, the plant operation efficiency can be improved. Further, after automatic operation, since operation plannings for recovering original operation plannings are prepared efficiently and recovered operation plannings are started in a short period of time, the operators' burden can be mitigated and power saving can be attained. (N.H.)

  20. Preliminary design of a production automation framework for a pyroprocessing facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonsoo Shin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pyroprocessing technology has been regarded as a promising solution for recycling spent fuel in nuclear power plants. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been studying the current status of equipment and facilities for pyroprocessing and found that existing facilities are manually operated; therefore, their applications have been limited to laboratory scale because of low productivity and safety concerns. To extend the pyroprocessing technology to a commercial scale, the facility, including all the processing equipment and the material-handling devices, should be enhanced in view of automation. In an automated pyroprocessing facility, a supervised control system is needed to handle and manage material flow and associated operations. This article provides a preliminary design of the supervising system for pyroprocessing. In particular, a manufacturing execution system intended for an automated pyroprocessing facility, named Pyroprocessing Execution System, is proposed, by which the overall production process is automated via systematic collaboration with a planning system and a control system. Moreover, a simulation-based prototype system is presented to illustrate the operability of the proposed Pyroprocessing Execution System, and a simulation study to demonstrate the interoperability of the material-handling equipment with processing equipment is also provided. Keywords: Manufacturing Execution System, Material-handling, Production Automation, Production Planning and Control, Pyroprocessing, Pyroprocessing Execution System

  1. About the automated instrumentation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia de los Rios, J. A.; Benitez R, J. S.; Garduno G, M P.

    2011-11-01

    The automation of the inspection processes and monitoring in nuclear facilities have as main objective the reduction of acquired radiation dose for the operators of the diverse work programs. For example, a typical maintenance task is the problems correction of leaks in the hydraulic facilities of the vapor circuits where is necessary the repair of pipes, measuring and control elements, as the valves. A program of effective maintenance should contemplate strategies of appropriate monitoring for the immediate detection of possible failures, with the purpose of the remedy them opportunely. For this function of failures detection is necessary to have instruments that allow the measuring of the parameters that facilitate their characterization. Given the prevailing conditions in the nuclear facilities, such instruments should possess special characteristics, reason why is necessary a study of them, as well as a careful selection of the susceptible apparatuses of being used. For this reason, this work presents a discussion about some of the existent conditions in the nuclear power plants, as well as the aspects to consider for the automated instrumentation of some places of a nuclear power plant. (Author)

  2. Software for Automated Production Line of Peat Briquettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedev Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the software development of peat briquette production. Integrated peat development is one of the important tasks of peat industry. The importance of peat as local raw material increases with the increase in demand for various products. The production efficiency can be improved with new automated peat processing technologies based on advanced engineering. In view of market and technology requirements the peat industry development is hampered by slow development of automated peat processing and utilization technologies. The acceleration of technological progress can be achieved by designing automated lines of advanced peat processing. In accordance with this mission the development of technological process monitoring parameters is of great importance thanks to the possibility of end product physicochemical properties being predicted and managed to make efficient use of peat products for energy needs. The software with an intuitive interface for automated production line of peat briquettes has been developed. This provides means for managing and controlling the peat briquette production process.

  3. AUTOMATION RESEARCHES IN FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Aydın

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood is a natural polymeric material which has a heterogenic nature. The natural growth process and environmental influence can lead to features in wood that are undesirable for certain applications and are known as defects. Defects in wood affect the visual appearance and structural properties of wood. The type of defect is based on whether growth, environmental conditions, handling or processing causes it. The definition and acceptability of defect types can vary between industries. Wood materials such as log, lumber and parquet are usually subject to a classification before selling and these materials are sold based on their quality grades. The ability to detect internal defects both in the log and lumber can save mills time and processing costs. In this study, information on the automation research conducted for detection the defects in wood materials were given. As a result, it is indicated that there are numerous scanning methods able to detect wood features, but no one method is adequate for all defect types

  4. Plant Products Research Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production and characterization of pectinases obtained from Aspergillus fumigatus in submerged fermentation system using pectin extracted from mango peels as carbon source · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. AL Ezugwu, SOO Eze, FC Chilaka, CU Anyanwu ...

  5. Operation experience of the automated pilot plant for the BOR-60 vibropac fuel element and subassembly fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunk, R.; Leske, U.; Krompass, R.; Steinkopff, H.; Rudolph, K.; Herbig, R.; Pietsch, H.; Tsykanov, V.A.; Skiba, O.V.; Makarov, V.A.; Bol'shakov, L.P.; Porodnov, P.T.; Maershin, A.A.; Keruchenko, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    Brief characteristics of the automated, remote pilot plant for vibropac uranium-plutonium oxide fuel element and fuel subassembly fabrication for the Soviet experimental fast reactor BOR-60 are presented. The plant was created under scientific and technical cooperation of the USSR and the GDR. The flow sheet of fuel element and fuel subassembly production process, their quality control, service, and maintenance of the equipment arranged in two shielded cells is described. About 10000 fuel elements (270 fuel subassemblies) have been fabricated at the plant which were further used for the BOR-60 transition to a new uranium-plutonium core since 1981. Design and 10 years' operating experience of the plant may be used to develop the automated lines for commercial production of high-level uranium-plutonium fast reactor fuel elements and fuel subassemblies. (orig.)

  6. Development and Evaluation of a Model for Modular Automation in Plant Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Uwe Katzke; Katja Fischer; Birgit Vogel-Heuser

    2005-01-01

    The benefit of modular concepts in plant automation is seen ambivalent. On one hand it offers advantages, on the other hand it also sets requirements on the system structure as well as discipline of designer. The main reasons to use modularity in systems design for automation applications in industry are reusability and reduction of complexity, but up to now modular concepts are rare in plant automation. This paper analyses the reasons and proposes measures and solution concepts. An analysis ...

  7. Device for Automated Cutting and Transfer of Plant Shoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipra, Raymond; Das, Hari; Ali, Khaled; Hong, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    A device that enables the automated cutting and transfer of plant shoots is undergoing development for use in the propagation of plants in a nursery or laboratory. At present, it is standard practice for a human technician to use a knife and forceps to cut, separate, and grasp a plant shoot. The great advantage offered by the present device is that its design and operation are simpler than would be those of a device based on the manual cutting/separation/grasping procedure. [The present device should not be confused with a prior device developed for partly the same purpose and described in Compliant Gripper for a Robotic Manipulator (NPO-21104), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 3 (March 2003), page 59.]. The device (see figure) includes a circular tube sharpened at its open (lower) end and mounted on a robotic manipulator at its closed (upper) end. The robotic manipulator simply pushes the sharpened open end of the tube down onto a bed of plants and rotates a few degrees clockwise then counterclockwise about the vertical axis, causing the tube to cut a cylindrical plug of plant material. Exploiting the natural friction between the tube and plug, the tube retains the plug, without need for a gripping mechanism and control. The robotic manipulator then retracts the tube, translates it to a new location over a plant-growth tray, and inserts the tube part way into the growth medium at this location in the tray. A short burst of compressed air is admitted to the upper end of the tube to eject the plug of plant material and drive it into the growth medium. A prototype has been tested and verified to function substantially as intended. It is projected that in the fully developed robotic plant-propagation system, the robot control system would include a machine- vision subsystem that would automatically guide the robotic manipulator in choosing the positions from which to cut plugs of plant material. Planned further development efforts also include more testing and

  8. Modular Engineering of Production Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1998-01-01

    Based on a case-study on design of pharmaceutical production plants, this paper suggests that modularity may support business efficiency for companies with one-of-a-kind production and without in-house manufacturing. Modularity may support efficient management of design knowledge and may facilitate...

  9. Automation of production of concrete mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popello Egor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer-aided design of concrete leads to a reduction in terms of production, the exclusion of product deficiencies, improve the quality of manufactured products. This approach allows to produce the concrete to exact physical and mechanical characteristics, which makes the design more reliable and economical. The software package will allow: to reduce the settlement time in the design of concrete mixture, to improve the efficiency of the staff of the laboratory building, to improve the quality of the concrete mix due to higher accuracy of calculations, to apply a flexible approach to the design of concrete mixture in question of introducing new chemical additives and their characteristics.

  10. Methodical Approaches to Creation of Dividing Automation at Industrial Enterprises with Generating Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kalentionok

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem pertaining to creation of dividing automation at industrial enterprises which have their own generating plants. Algorithms for action of dividing automation that permit to ensure minimum possible power non-balance while using generating plants for autonomous operation and possible parameters for its response are proposed in the paper.

  11. Grasping devices and methods in automated production processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantoni, Gualtiero; Santochi, Marco; Dini, Gino

    2014-01-01

    assembly to disassembly, from aerospace to food industry, from textile to logistics) are discussed. Finally, the most recent research is reviewed in order to introduce the new trends in grasping. They provide an outlook on the future of both grippers and robotic hands in automated production processes. (C...

  12. Validation of the process control system of an automated large scale manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, H; Kremers, H; Karrer, T; Traut, R H

    1998-02-01

    The validation procedure for the process control system of a plant for the large scale production of human albumin from plasma fractions is described. A validation master plan is developed, defining the system and elements to be validated, the interfaces with other systems with the validation limits, a general validation concept and supporting documentation. Based on this master plan, the validation protocols are developed. For the validation, the system is subdivided into a field level, which is the equipment part, and an automation level. The automation level is further subdivided into sections according to the different software modules. Based on a risk categorization of the modules, the qualification activities are defined. The test scripts for the different qualification levels (installation, operational and performance qualification) are developed according to a previously performed risk analysis.

  13. Optimization of automation: III. Development of optimization method for determining automation rate in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Jong Hyun; Kim, Man Cheol; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose an appropriate automation rate that enables the best human performance. • We analyze the shortest working time considering Situation Awareness Recovery (SAR). • The optimized automation rate is estimated by integrating the automation and ostracism rate estimation methods. • The process to derive the optimized automation rate is demonstrated through case studies. - Abstract: Automation has been introduced in various industries, including the nuclear field, because it is commonly believed that automation promises greater efficiency, lower workloads, and fewer operator errors through reducing operator errors and enhancing operator and system performance. However, the excessive introduction of automation has deteriorated operator performance due to the side effects of automation, which are referred to as Out-of-the-Loop (OOTL), and this is critical issue that must be resolved. Thus, in order to determine the optimal level of automation introduction that assures the best human operator performance, a quantitative method of optimizing the automation is proposed in this paper. In order to propose the optimization method for determining appropriate automation levels that enable the best human performance, the automation rate and ostracism rate, which are estimation methods that quantitatively analyze the positive and negative effects of automation, respectively, are integrated. The integration was conducted in order to derive the shortest working time through considering the concept of situation awareness recovery (SAR), which states that the automation rate with the shortest working time assures the best human performance. The process to derive the optimized automation rate is demonstrated through an emergency operation scenario-based case study. In this case study, four types of procedures are assumed through redesigning the original emergency operating procedure according to the introduced automation and ostracism levels. Using the

  14. Automation in Animal Housing and Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensive, controlled environment animal production began modestly in the mid-20th century as poultry were brought indoors. While mankind had utilized structures to provide shelter for their animals for centuries, the availability of relatively inexpensive energy and the electrification of rural are...

  15. Automated thermionic analyses of U and Pu standards and reprocessing plant solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunnee, C.; Rache, H.; Berg, R.; Damerow, H.

    At the reprocessing plant in Karlsruhe highly radioactive solutions from dissolved reactor fuel elements must be analyzed with high accuracy. The remote handling of these solutions and the impurity level, generated by fission products makes conventional analyses impossible. Therefore the isotope dilution technique is usually employed. As spikes, U-233 and Pu-242 are used. The isotope ratio measurements have been performed with an automated mass spectrometer, type MAT 260. All main functions of the instrument including change of the samples are controlled by a desk top calculator. (Auth.)

  16. Automated logic conversion method for plant controller systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Miyo, Tsunemasa; Okano, Masato.

    1990-01-01

    An automated method is proposed for logic conversion from functional description diagrams to detailed logic schematics by incorporating expertise knowledge in plant controller systems design. The method uses connection data of function elements in the functional description diagram as input, and synthesizes a detailed logic structure by adding elements to the given connection data incrementally, and to generate detailed logic schematics. In logic synthesis, for building up complex synthesis procedures by combining generally-described knowledge, knowledge is applied by groups. The search order of the groups is given by upper-level knowledge. Furthermore, the knowledge is expressed in terms of two classes of rules; one for generating a hypothesis of individual synthesis operations and the other for considering several hypotheses to determine the connection ordering of elements to be added. In the generation of detailed logic schematics, knowledge is used as rules for deriving various kinds of layout conditions on schematics, and rules for generating two-dimensional coordinates of layout objects. Rules in the latter class use layout conditions to predict intersections among layout objects without their coordinates being fixed. The effectiveness of the method with 150 rules was verified by its experimental application to some logic conversions in a real power plant design. Evaluation of the results showed them to be equivalent to those obtained by well qualified designers. (author)

  17. Human Communication Needs and Organizational Productivity: The Potential Impact of Office Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culnan, Mary J.; Bair, James H.

    1983-01-01

    This survey of potential impacts of office automation on organizational communication and productivity covers the following--(1) the relationship between office automation and organizational communication; (2) communication variables relevant to office automation; (3) benefits and caveats related to implementation of office automation. Thirty-four…

  18. Plant senescence and crop productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Per L.; Culetic, Andrea; Boschian, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Senescence is a developmental process which in annual crop plants overlaps with the reproductive phase. Senescence might reduce crop yield when it is induced prematurely under adverse environmental conditions. This review covers the role of senescence for the productivity of crop plants. With the......Senescence is a developmental process which in annual crop plants overlaps with the reproductive phase. Senescence might reduce crop yield when it is induced prematurely under adverse environmental conditions. This review covers the role of senescence for the productivity of crop plants....... With the aim to enhance productivity, a number of functional stay-green cultivars have been selected by conventional breeding, in particular of sorghum and maize. In many cases, a positive correlation between leaf area duration and yield has been observed, although in a number of other cases, stay......-green cultivars do not display significant effects with regards to productivity. In several crops, the stay-green phenotype is observed to be associated with a higher drought resistance and a better performance under low nitrogen conditions. Among the approaches used to achieve stay-green phenotypes in transgenic...

  19. Safety aspects of nuclear power plant automation and robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The question being considered in this report is the extent to which the following aims are promoted through the use of robotics and automatic plant systems: nuclear power is safe (nuclear power plants and related facilities will not be constructed or allowed to continue operating if they are not perceived as being safe); nuclear power is economic (in comparison to other forms of electricity production once the environmental costs have been fully considered and as part of a unified energy policy); nuclear power is conservative (using nuclear fuel does not waste natural resources, damage the atmosphere, or produce unmanageable waste). Refs, figs, tabs

  20. Plant level of automated control system at a NPP with RBMK reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, V.P.; Gorbunov, V.P.; Dmitriev, V.M.; Litvin, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    The functional structure of plant level automated control system (ACS) at NPP with RBMK-1000 reactors, its binding with the on-line control system of higher and lower levels, as well as engineering requirements to software and recommendations on composition of hardware components, are considered. NPP ACS is an organizational-engineering system consisting of computer facilities and binding aimed at solving management, economical, organizational and physical-engineering problems to control NPP more effectively. The system carries out data acquisition, preliminary processing, analysis, transmission and representation for users to accept solutions for NPP operation by operative and management personnel. The main aim of integrated NPP ACS is the control development and increase of NPP economical efficiency, the increase of electric and heat energy production, the optimization of the production distribution between units, the development of production and economic NPP control

  1. JWST Associations overview: automated generation of combined products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexov, Anastasia; Swade, Daryl; Bushouse, Howard; Diaz, Rosa; Eisenhamer, Jonathan; Hack, Warren; Kyprianou, Mark; Levay, Karen; Rahmani, Christopher; Swam, Mike; Valenti, Jeff

    2018-01-01

    We are presenting the design of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Data Management System (DMS) automated processing of Associations. An Association captures the relationship between exposures and higher level data products, such as combined mosaics created from dithered and tiled observations. The astronomer’s intent is captured within the Proposal Planning System (PPS) and provided to DMS as candidate associations. These candidates are converted into Association Pools and Association Generator Tables that serve as input to automated processing which create the combined data products. Association Pools are generated to capture a list of exposures that could potentially form associations and provide relevant information about those exposures. The Association Generator using definitions on groupings creates one or more Association Tables from a single input Association Pool. Each Association Table defines a set of exposures to be combined and the ruleset of the combination to be performed; the calibration software creates Associated data products based on these input tables. The initial design produces automated Associations within a proposal. Additionally this JWST overall design is conducive to eventually produce Associations for observations from multiple proposals, similar to the Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA).

  2. Extended teamwork: team performance in highly automated nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjerve, Ann Britt; Strand, Stine; Skraaning, Gyrd Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) operation is in essence a teamwork task. The central control-room (CCR) operators are required to co-operate to achieve the operational goals, and they further depend on the assistance of the field operators and, at least in modern plants, on the assistance of the high-level automatic system. Future NPPs (e.g., advanced reactors) are foreseen to contain substantially higher automation levels, reduced staffing, and redefined roles of the remaining staff, as compared to the present situation. This paper suggests that in future plants, in which the autonomy and authority of the automatic system and of the field operators are increased, the transactions between the CCR operators and automatic system/field operators might most efficiently be conceptualized within the framework of co-operation, and thus teamwork. This framework has typically been restricted to conceptualizations of the transactions between the CCR operators, but in future settings, co-ordination, communication and mutual support between the CCR operators and the field operators/automatic system may be of increased importance for sustaining plant safety, as compared to the present situation. The paper further argues that human-system interfaces in future NPPs should be designed to support the activities of the extended team consisting of the CCR operators, the field operators, and the automatic system. The paper outlines an exploratory study aimed at generating ideas on how extended teamwork quality may be promoted. The study is currently foreseen to comprise two exemplary design solutions: a state-of-the art screen-based control-room (baseline condition) and a possible future control-room in which the activities of the field operators and the automatic system are explicitly represented on the human-system interface, where the authority and autonomy of these are increased, and the staffing level reduced, as compared to the baseline condition. The study will explore extended

  3. Extended teamwork: team performance in highly automated nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjerve, Ann Britt; Strand, Stine; Skraaning, Gyrd Jr.

    2004-07-01

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) operation is in essence a teamwork task. The central control-room (CCR) operators are required to co-operate to achieve the operational goals, and they further depend on the assistance of the field operators and, at least in modern plants, on the assistance of the high-level automatic system. Future NPPs (e.g., advanced reactors) are foreseen to contain substantially higher automation levels, reduced staffing, and redefined roles of the remaining staff, as compared to the present situation. This paper suggests that in future plants, in which the autonomy and authority of the automatic system and of the field operators are increased, the transactions between the CCR operators and automatic system/field operators might most efficiently be conceptualized within the framework of co-operation, and thus teamwork. This framework has typically been restricted to conceptualizations of the transactions between the CCR operators, but in future settings, co-ordination, communication and mutual support between the CCR operators and the field operators/automatic system may be of increased importance for sustaining plant safety, as compared to the present situation. The paper further argues that human-system interfaces in future NPPs should be designed to support the activities of the extended team consisting of the CCR operators, the field operators, and the automatic system. The paper outlines an exploratory study aimed at generating ideas on how extended teamwork quality may be promoted. The study is currently foreseen to comprise two exemplary design solutions: a state-of-the art screen-based control-room (baseline condition) and a possible future control-room in which the activities of the field operators and the automatic system are explicitly represented on the human-system interface, where the authority and autonomy of these are increased, and the staffing level reduced, as compared to the baseline condition. The study will explore extended

  4. Integration of drinking water treatment plant process models and emulated process automation software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, G.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to limit the risks of fully automated operation of drinking water treatment plants and to improve their operation by using an integrated system of process models and emulated process automation software. This thesis contains the design of such an integrated system.

  5. Adoption of automated livestock production systems in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Lind, Kim Martin Hjorth

    2014-01-01

    systems. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a farm survey and cluster analysis that have been made among 4 countries in Europe. This study is based on replies from 413 respondents in Germany (eastern part), Greece, Finland and Denmark, respectively, and the study comments...... on the relationship and adoption patterns among these countries. The paper presents the results of the surveyed population, demography, farm structure with livestock production characteristics and farmers use of selected automated systems in livestock production....

  6. Aspects of Automation in a Lobster Farming Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinar Grimsen

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the automation aspects of rearing juvenile lobsters for sea ranching. It gives an outline of rearing techniques and presents specifications for a feeding system. A description is given of the equipment that has been developed. Other automation and instrumentation tasks are briefly discussed.

  7. ABOUT THE BUILDING SYSTEMS OF PLANT AUTOMATION WITH ADVANCED SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Khmarskyi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A structure and principle of construction of microprocessor circuit of local railway automation is examined on relay-and-contact principle, which realize the three-level filtration of errors providing the highest protection of the systems of station automation from errors.

  8. Localisation Of Plant Control And Automation System (A Transformation - My View)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Arif Hamzah; Azhar Shamsudin; Fadil Ismail; Muhamad Nor Atan; Anwar Abdul Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency has more than 5 main facilities in handling processes based on nuclear technology. All these facilities can operate on semi-continuous or fully continuous mode. The facilities discussed in this paper are Mintec-Sinagama, Raymintex, Electron Beam (Alurtron), Gamma Green House and Isotope Production Plant. These facilities have been in operation for 15 to 20 years with the control and automation system imported from overseas such as USA, UK, Canada and Japan. This dependency on the foreign products has resulted in high cost of maintenance and upgrading. Therefore, measures should be implemented to build our own capabilities by transforming the control system from one that is based on foreign technology to one that is based on local technology. (author)

  9. Radioisotope handling facilities and automation of radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    If a survey is made of the advances in radioisotope handling facilities, as well as the technical conditions and equipment used for radioisotope production, it can be observed that no fundamental changes in the design principles and technical conditions of conventional manufacture have happened over the last several years. Recent developments are mainly based on previous experience aimed at providing safer and more reliable operations, more sophisticated maintenance technology and radioactive waste disposal. In addition to the above observation, significant improvements have been made in the production conditions of radioisotopes intended for medical use, by establishing aseptic conditions with clean areas and isolators, as well as by introducing quality assurance as governing principle in the production of pharmaceutical grade radioactive products. Requirements of the good manufacturing practice (GMP) are increasingly complied with by improving the technical and organizational conditions, as well as data registration and documentation. Technical conditions required for the aseptic production of pharmaceuticals and those required for radioactive materials conflicting in some aspects are because of the contrasting contamination mechanisms and due consideration of the radiation safety. These can be resolved by combining protection methods developed for pharmaceuticals and radioactive materials, with the necessary compromise in some cases. Automation serves to decrease the radiation dose to the operator and environment as well as to ensure more reliable and precise radiochemical processing. Automation has mainly been introduced in the production of sealed sources and PET radiopharmaceuticals. PC controlled technologies ensure high reliability for the production and product quality, whilst providing automatic data acquisition and registration required by quality assurance. PC control is also useful in the operation of measuring instruments and in devices used for

  10. Uranium hexafluoride production plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    The Institute of Energetic and Nuclear Research - IPEN is a research and development institution, located in a densely populated area, in the city of Sao Paulo. The nuclear fuel cycle was developed from the Yellow Cake to the enrichment and reconversion at IPEN. After this phase, all the technology was transferred to private enterprises and to the Brazilian Navy (CTM/SP). Some plants of the fuel cycle were at semi-industrial level, with a production over 20 kg/h. As a research institute, IPEN accomplished its function of the fuel cycle, developing and transferring technology. With the necessity of space for the implementation of new projects, the uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) production plant was chosen, since it had been idle for many years and presented potential leaking risks, which could cause environmental aggression and serious accidents. This plant decommission required accurate planning, as this work had not been carried out in Brazil before, for this type of facility, and there were major risks involving gaseous hydrogen fluoride aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid (HF) both highly corrosive. Evaluations were performed and special equipment was developed, aiming to prevent leaking and avoid accidents. During the decommissioning work, the CNEN safety standards were obeyed for the whole operation. The environmental impact was calculated, showing to be not relevant.The radiation doses, after the work, were within the limits for the public and the area was released for new projects. (author)

  11. Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Marjorie Murphy

    1999-01-01

    The use of and search for drugs and dietary supplements derived from plants have accelerated in recent years. Ethnopharmacologists, botanists, microbiologists, and natural-products chemists are combing the Earth for phytochemicals and “leads” which could be developed for treatment of infectious diseases. While 25 to 50% of current pharmaceuticals are derived from plants, none are used as antimicrobials. Traditional healers have long used plants to prevent or cure infectious conditions; Western medicine is trying to duplicate their successes. Plants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites, such as tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, and flavonoids, which have been found in vitro to have antimicrobial properties. This review attempts to summarize the current status of botanical screening efforts, as well as in vivo studies of their effectiveness and toxicity. The structure and antimicrobial properties of phytochemicals are also addressed. Since many of these compounds are currently available as unregulated botanical preparations and their use by the public is increasing rapidly, clinicians need to consider the consequences of patients self-medicating with these preparations. PMID:10515903

  12. Some problems of software development for the plant-level automated control system of NPPs with the RBMK reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunov, V.P.; Egorov, A.K.; Isaev, N.V.; Saprykin, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    Problems on development and operation of automated control system (ACS) software of NPPs with the RBMK reactors are discussed. The ES computer with large on-line storage (not less than 1 Mbite) and fast response (not less than 300.000 of operations per a second) should enter the ACS composition. Several program complexes are used in the NPP ACS. The programs collected into the EhNERGIYa library are used to provide central control system operation. The information-retrival system called the Fuel file is used to automate NPP fuel motion account, as well as to estimate efficiency of fuel application, to carry out calculations of a fuel component of electric and heat energy production cost. The automated information system for unit operation efficiency analysis, which solves both plant and unit-level problems, including engineering and economical factors and complexing of operation parameter bank, is under trial operation

  13. Automated pH Control of Nutrient Solution in a Hydroponic Plant Growth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B.; Dogan, N.; Aglan, H.; Mortley, D.; Loretan, P.

    1998-01-01

    Over, the years, NASA has played an important role in providing to and the development of automated nutrient delivery and monitoring, systems for growing crops hydroponically for long term space missions. One example are the systems used in the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The current KSC monitoring system is based on an engineering workstation using standard analog/digital input/output hardware and custom written software. The monitoring system uses completely separate sensors to provide a check of control sensor accuracy and has the ability to graphically display and store data form past experiment so that they are available for data analysis [Fortson, 1992]. In many cases, growing systems have not been fitted with the kind of automated control systems as used at KSC. The Center for Food and Environmental Systems for Human Exploration of Space (CFESH) located on the campus of Tuskegee University, has effectively grown sweetpotatoes and peanuts hydroponically for the past five years. However they have adjusted the pH electrical conductivity and volume of the hydroponic nutrient solution only manually at times when the solution was to be replenished or changed out according to its protocol (e.g. one-week, two-week, or two-day cycle). But the pH of the nutrient solution flowing through the channel is neither known nor controlled between the update, change out, or replenishment period. Thus, the pH of the nutrient solution is not held at an optimum level over the span of the plant's growth cycle. To solve this dilemma, an automated system for the control and data logging of pH data relative to sweetpotato production using the nutrient film technique (NFT) has been developed, This paper discusses a microprocessor-based system, which was designed to monitor, control, and record the pH of a nutrient solution used for growing sweetpotatoes using NFT.

  14. Automated yield forecasting in a high product mix ASIC facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Duane; Giewont, Mark; Hanson, Jeff; Shen, Jun

    2005-05-01

    Yield forecasting is a key component in running a successful semiconductor fab. It is also a significant challenge for facilities such as ASIC houses, which fabricate a wide range of devices using multiple technologies. Yield forecasting takes on increased significance in these environments, with new products introduced frequently and many products running only in small numbers. An accurate yield prediction system can greatly accelerate the process of identifying design bugs, test program issues and process integration problems. To this end, we have constructed a forecasting model geared for our ASIC manufacturing line. The model will accommodate an arbitrary number of design and/or process elements, each with an associated defectivity term. In addition, we have automated the generation of the yield forecast through passively linking to the already existing EDA design tools and scripts used by LSI Logic. Once the model is constructed, an automated query engine can extract the design and process parameters for any requested device, insert the data into the forecasting model, and deliver the resulting yield prediction. The actual yield for any lot or group of lots may thus be compared to the forecast, greatly assisting yield enhancement activities. This is especially useful for prototype lots and low-volume devices, for which it eliminates a great deal of manual computation and searching of design files. Using the model in conjunction with the query engine, any deviations from expected yield performance are generated automatically, quickly and efficiently highlighting opportunities for improvement.

  15. Lutetium-177 DOTATATE Production with an Automated Radiopharmaceutical Synthesis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Aslani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy (PRRT with yttrium-90 (90Y and lutetium-177 (177Lu-labelled SST analogues are now therapy option for patients who have failed to respond to conventional medical therapy. In-house production with automated PRRT synthesis systems have clear advantages over manual methods resulting in increasing use in hospital-based radiopharmacies. We report on our one year experience with an automated radiopharmaceutical synthesis system.Methods: All syntheses were carried out using the Eckert & Ziegler Eurotope’s Modular-Lab Pharm Tracer® automated synthesis system. All materials and methods used were followed as instructed by the manufacturer of the system (Eckert & Ziegler Eurotope, Berlin, Germany. Sterile, GMP-certified, no-carrier added (NCA 177Lu was used with GMPcertifiedpeptide. An audit trail was also produced and saved by the system. The quality of the final product was assessed after each synthesis by ITLCSG and HPLC methods.Results: A total of 17 [177Lu]-DOTATATE syntheses were performed between August 2013 and December 2014. The amount of radioactive [177Lu]-DOTATATE produced by each synthesis varied between 10-40 GBq and was dependant on the number of patients being treated on a given day. Thirteen individuals received a total of 37 individual treatment administrations in this period. There were no issues and failures with the system or the synthesis cassettes. The average radiochemical purity as determined by ITLC was above 99% (99.8 ± 0.05% and the average radiochemical purity as determined by HPLC technique was above 97% (97.3 ± 1.5% for this period.Conclusions: The automated synthesis of [177Lu]-DOTATATE using Eckert & Ziegler Eurotope’s Modular-Lab Pharm Tracer® system is a robust, convenient and high yield approach to the radiolabelling of DOTATATE peptide benefiting from the use of NCA 177Lu and almost negligible radiation exposure of the operators.

  16. Streamlining workflow and automation to accelerate laboratory scale protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konczal, Jennifer; Gray, Christopher H

    2017-05-01

    Protein production facilities are often required to produce diverse arrays of proteins for demanding methodologies including crystallography, NMR, ITC and other reagent intensive techniques. It is common for these teams to find themselves a bottleneck in the pipeline of ambitious projects. This pressure to deliver has resulted in the evolution of many novel methods to increase capacity and throughput at all stages in the pipeline for generation of recombinant proteins. This review aims to describe current and emerging options to accelerate the success of protein production in Escherichia coli. We emphasize technologies that have been evaluated and implemented in our laboratory, including innovative molecular biology and expression vectors, small-scale expression screening strategies and the automation of parallel and multidimensional chromatography. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Automated interpretation of 3D laserscanned point clouds for plant organ segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahabzada, Mirwaes; Paulus, Stefan; Kersting, Kristian; Mahlein, Anne-Katrin

    2015-08-08

    Plant organ segmentation from 3D point clouds is a relevant task for plant phenotyping and plant growth observation. Automated solutions are required to increase the efficiency of recent high-throughput plant phenotyping pipelines. However, plant geometrical properties vary with time, among observation scales and different plant types. The main objective of the present research is to develop a fully automated, fast and reliable data driven approach for plant organ segmentation. The automated segmentation of plant organs using unsupervised, clustering methods is crucial in cases where the goal is to get fast insights into the data or no labeled data is available or costly to achieve. For this we propose and compare data driven approaches that are easy-to-realize and make the use of standard algorithms possible. Since normalized histograms, acquired from 3D point clouds, can be seen as samples from a probability simplex, we propose to map the data from the simplex space into Euclidean space using Aitchisons log ratio transformation, or into the positive quadrant of the unit sphere using square root transformation. This, in turn, paves the way to a wide range of commonly used analysis techniques that are based on measuring the similarities between data points using Euclidean distance. We investigate the performance of the resulting approaches in the practical context of grouping 3D point clouds and demonstrate empirically that they lead to clustering results with high accuracy for monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plant species with diverse shoot architecture. An automated segmentation of 3D point clouds is demonstrated in the present work. Within seconds first insights into plant data can be deviated - even from non-labelled data. This approach is applicable to different plant species with high accuracy. The analysis cascade can be implemented in future high-throughput phenotyping scenarios and will support the evaluation of the performance of different plant

  18. A production throughput forecasting system in an automated hard disk drive test operation using GRNN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samattapapong, N.; Afzulpurkar, N.

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to develop a pragmatic system of a production throughput forecasting system for an automated test operation in a hard drive manufacturing plant. The accurate forecasting result is necessary for the management team to response to any changes in the production processes and the resources allocations. In this study, we design a production throughput forecasting system in an automated test operation in hard drive manufacturing plant. In the proposed system, consists of three main stages. In the first stage, a mutual information method was adopted for selecting the relevant inputs into the forecasting model. In the second stage, a generalized regression neural network (GRNN) was implemented in the forecasting model development phase. Finally, forecasting accuracy was improved by searching the optimal smoothing parameter which selected from comparisons result among three optimization algorithms: particle swarm optimization (PSO), unrestricted search optimization (USO) and interval halving optimization (IHO). The experimental result shows that (1) the developed production throughput forecasting system using GRNN is able to provide forecasted results close to actual values, and to projected the future trends of production throughput in an automated hard disk drive test operation; (2) An IHO algorithm performed as superiority appropriate optimization method than the other two algorithms. (3) Compared with current forecasting system in manufacturing, the results show that the proposed system’s performance is superior to the current system in prediction accuracy and suitable for real-world application. The production throughput volume is a key performance index of hard disk drive manufacturing systems that need to be forecast. Because of the production throughput forecasting result is useful information for management team to respond to any changing in production processes and resources allocation. However, a practically forecasting system for

  19. IEC 61850: integrating substation automation into the power plant control system; IEC 61850: Integration der Schaltanlagenautomatisierung in die Kraftwerksleittechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, J. [ABB AG, Mannheim (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The new communication standard IEC 61850 has been developed in the substation automation domain and was released 2004 as a worldwide standard. Meanwhile IEC 61850 is already established in many substation automation markets. The paper discusses the implementation of IEC 61850 integrating process control and substation automation into one consistent system in a power plant. (orig.)

  20. Automation: a key technology to safe and reliable spent nuclear fuel handling in high throughput plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, E.; Berge, F.

    1999-01-01

    La Hague 30 year experience with nuclear spent fuel handling represents more than 48,000 assemblies handled in wet and dry environments. The front end facilities of the UP2-800 and UP3 reprocessing plants are dedicated to spent fuel handling, e.g. fuel unloading, interim storage, dispatch and measurement. The operations, including maintenance, are largely automated and are performed remotely from central control rooms. The use of automation at La Hague is aimed at reducing personnel exposure, increasing the purposeful utilization of equipment, increasing the reliability of operations and thus the safety of the facilities, and improving fuel accountability. The automation of the plants was designed to maintain a high achievable availability and flexibility of the facilities. Today, La Hague reprocessing plants have successfully reached their design capacity and handle fuel from utilities all over the world with a wide range of types and burnup. The future developments include a decision support system for operators. (author)

  1. How smart is your BEOL? productivity improvement through intelligent automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kristian; Egodage, Kokila; Tabbone, Gilles; Garetto, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    The back end of line (BEOL) workflow in the mask shop still has crucial issues throughout all standard steps which are inspection, disposition, photomask repair and verification of repair success. All involved tools are typically run by highly trained operators or engineers who setup jobs and recipes, execute tasks, analyze data and make decisions based on the results. No matter how experienced operators are and how good the systems perform, there is one aspect that always limits the productivity and effectiveness of the operation: the human aspect. Human errors can range from seemingly rather harmless slip-ups to mistakes with serious and direct economic impact including mask rejects, customer returns and line stops in the wafer fab. Even with the introduction of quality control mechanisms that help to reduce these critical but unavoidable faults, they can never be completely eliminated. Therefore the mask shop BEOL cannot run in the most efficient manner as unnecessary time and money are spent on processes that still remain labor intensive. The best way to address this issue is to automate critical segments of the workflow that are prone to human errors. In fact, manufacturing errors can occur for each BEOL step where operators intervene. These processes comprise of image evaluation, setting up tool recipes, data handling and all other tedious but required steps. With the help of smart solutions, operators can work more efficiently and dedicate their time to less mundane tasks. Smart solutions connect tools, taking over the data handling and analysis typically performed by operators and engineers. These solutions not only eliminate the human error factor in the manufacturing process but can provide benefits in terms of shorter cycle times, reduced bottlenecks and prediction of an optimized workflow. In addition such software solutions consist of building blocks that seamlessly integrate applications and allow the customers to use tailored solutions. To

  2. Processes for manufacture of products from plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a process for inhibiting browning of plant material comprising adding a chelating agent to a disrupted plant material and adjusting the pH to a value of 2.0 to 4.5. Processes for manufacture of soluble and insoluble products from a plant material are also disclosed. Soluble...... products are represented by proteins and soluble fibres, and insoluble products by insoluble fibres. The processes are particularly suited for processing of potatoes....

  3. Factors driving and restraining adoption of Automation technologies in Swedish wood product industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Mapulanga, Mwanza; Saladi, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Swedish wood product industry contributes significantly to the economy of the country. This industry adds more value to the sawn timber produced in order to manufacture different wooden products. Companies in Swedish wood product industry are presently seen as underdeveloped in terms of investments and developments in automation technologies. Automation technologies are seen by companies as a solution for improving productivity, product quality, manufacturing cost reduction and ultimately imp...

  4. Comparison of manual and automated pretreatment methods for AMS radiocarbon dating of plant fossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, L.A.; Stafford, Thomas W.

    1994-01-01

    A new automated pretreatment system for the preparation of materials submitted for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) analysis is less time-consuming and results in a higher sample yield. The new procedure was tested using two groups of plant fossils: one group was pretreated using the traditional method, and the second, using the automated pretreatment apparatus. The time it took to complete the procedure and the amount of sample material remaining were compared. The automated pretreatment apparatus proved to be more than three times faster and, in most cases, produced a higher yield. A darker discoloration of the KOH solutions was observed indicating that the automated system is more thorough in removing humates from the specimen compared to the manual method. -Authors

  5. Automation benefits BWR customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of the increasing use of automation at General Electric's Wilmington fuel fabrication plant. Computerised systems and automated equipment perform a large number of inspections, inventory and process operations, and new advanced systems are being continuously introduced to reduce operator errors and expand product reliability margins. (U.K.)

  6. Automated chemical monitoring in new projects of nuclear power plant units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanok, O. I.; Fedoseev, M. V.

    2013-07-01

    The development of automated chemical monitoring systems in nuclear power plant units for the past 30 years is briefly described. The modern level of facilities used to support the operation of automated chemical monitoring systems in Russia and abroad is shown. Hardware solutions suggested by the All-Russia Institute for Nuclear Power Plant Operation (which is the General Designer of automated process control systems for power units used in the AES-2006 and VVER-TOI Projects) are presented, including the structure of additional equipment for monitoring water chemistry (taking the Novovoronezh 2 nuclear power plant as an example). It is shown that the solutions proposed with respect to receiving and processing of input measurement signals and subsequent construction of standard control loops are unified in nature. Simultaneous receipt of information from different sources for ensuring that water chemistry is monitored in sufficient scope and with required promptness is one of the problems that have been solved successfully. It is pointed out that improved quality of automated chemical monitoring can be supported by organizing full engineering follow-up of the automated chemical monitoring system's equipment throughout its entire service life.

  7. Automated detection and control of volunteer potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, A.T.

    2009-01-01

    High amounts of manual labor are needed to control volunteer potato plants in arable fields. Due to the high costs, this leads to incomplete control of these weed plants, and they spread diseases like Phytophthora infestans to other fields. This results in higher environmental loads by curative

  8. Automation inflicted differences on operator performance in nuclear power plant control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Jonas; Osvalder, A.L.

    2007-03-01

    Today it is possible to automate almost any function in a human-machine system. Therefore it is important to find a balance between automation level and the prerequisites for the operator to maintain safe operation. Different human factors evaluation methods can be used to find differences between automatic and manual operations that have an effect on operator performance; e.g. Predictive Human Error Analysis (PHEA), NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX), Halden Questionnaire, and Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART). Results from an empirical study concerning automation levels, made at Ringhals power plant, showed that factors as time pressure and criticality of the work situation influenced the operator's performance and mental workload more than differences in level of automation. The results indicate that the operator's attention strategies differ between the manual and automatic sequences. Independently of level of automation, it is essential that the operator retains control and situational understanding. When performing a manual task, the operator is 'closer' to the process and in control with sufficient situational understanding. When the level of automation increases, the demands on information presentation increase to ensure safe plant operation. The need for control can be met by introducing 'control gates' where the operator has to accept that the automatic procedures are continuing as expected. Situational understanding can be established by clear information about process status and by continuous feedback. A conclusion of the study was that a collaborative control room environment is important. Rather than allocating functions to either the operator or the system, a complementary strategy should be used. Key parameters to consider when planning the work in the control room are time constraints and task criticality and how they affect the performance of the joint cognitive system.However, the examined working situations were too different

  9. Filtration of analog data measured on-line in automated control system of thermal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarov, V.I.; Krupnov, V.P.

    1991-01-01

    Two approaches to additional filtration of analog data in automated control systems of thermal and nuclear power plants are considered. The algorithms studied were used for the development of data reliability control subsystem in automated control system of nuclear power plants

  10. Automating Mapping Production for the Enterprise: from Contract to Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebbing, R.; Xie, C.; Beshah, B.; Welter, J.

    2012-07-01

    The ever increasing volume and quality of geospatial data has created new challenges for mapping companies. Due to increased image resolution, fusion of different data sources and more frequent data update requirements, mapping production is forced to streamline the work flow to meet client deadlines. But the data volume alone is not the only barrier for an efficient production work flow. Processing geospatial information traditionally uses domain and vendor specific applications that do not interface with each other, often leading to data duplication and therefore creating sources for error. Also, it creates isolation between different departments within a mapping company resulting in additional communication barriers. North West Geomatics has designed and implemented a data centric enterprise solution for the flight acquisition and production work flow to combat the above challenges. A central data repository containing not only geospatial data in the strictest sense such as images, vector layers and 3D point clouds, but also other information such as product specifications, client requirements, flight acquisition data, production resource usage and much more has been deployed at the company. As there is only one instance of the database shared throughout the whole organization it allows all employees, given they have been granted the appropriate permission, to view the current status of any project with a graphical and table based interface through its life cycle from sales, through flight acquisition, production and product delivery. Not only can users track progress and status of various work flow steps, but the system also allows users and applications to actively schedule or start specific production steps such as data ingestion and triangulation with many other steps (orthorectification, mosaicing, accounting, etc.) in the planning stages. While the complete system is exposed to the users through a web interface and therefore allowing outside customers to

  11. Aquatic effect assessment for plant protection products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, T.C.M.; Arts, G.H.P.; Hulscher, ten T.E.M.; Jong, de F.M.W.; Luttik, R.; Roex, E.; Smit, C.E.; Vliet, van P.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this report new proposals for the aquatic effects assessment of plant protection products (pesticides) in the Netherlands are described for edge-of-field surface waters (drainage ditches) falling under the domain of the Plant Protection Product Regulation (pre-registration) and for water bodies

  12. Planning product quality: An example - ornamental plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Miodrag

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The industry of ornamental plants is a subject of quality planning. The quality plan is a document setting out the specific quality practices in ornamental plants production. That plan introduce organizational structure procedures, processes and resources needed to implement quality in life cycle of product chain. For engineers it represents a new tool.

  13. Automated production of no carrier added holmium-166

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izard, M.E.; Dadchova, E.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: An automated system has been developed to produce no carrier added 166 Ho from the decay of 166 Dy produced by neutron activation of 164 Dy 2 O 3 . Targets consisting of 5-10 mg of 164 Dy 2 O 3 are irradiated in HIFAR at 5 x 10 13 n.s -1 .cm -2 for 12h then allowed to cool for 2 days. The irradiation can is then transferred to the automated system located in a 'hot' cell in the radiopharmaceutical research building. A two dimension robotic arm encompassing a grab and motorized screwdriver is used to open the irradiation can. A second arm carrying a teflon tube introduces 9M HCI into the can to dissolve the target. A second tube carries the dissolved target via a peristaltic pump to a heated vial where it is evaporated to dryness under a flow of N 2 . A Peltier cooled trap is used to prevent release of HCl fumes into the cell. A motorized syringe pump dispenses 1 mL of 0.1 M HNO 3 to redissolve the digest which is then transferred by peristaltic pump via a hollow fibre filter and auto injector into an Aminex- A5 HPLC column. 166 Dy is eluted from the column in 0.132 M α-HIBA into a heated cyclone flask and evaporated to dryness under a stream of N 2 heated to about 50 deg C. After two days the evaporated Dy/ 166 Ho digest is dissolved in another 1 mL of 0.1 M HNO 3 and injected onto the HPLC column. 166 Ho is collected in 20-25 mL of α-HIBA and evaporated to dryness as before at about 400 C to ensure complete decomposition of the α-HIBA. The product is finally dissolved in about I mL of 0.1 M HCI and pumped through a 0.22 μM filter to a product vial

  14. Medicinal plants: production and biochemical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chunzhao Liu; Zobayed, S.M.A; Murch, S.J.; Saxena, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in the area of biotechnology offer some possibility for the development of new technologies for the conservation, characterization and mass production of medicinal plant species, (i.e. in vitro cell culture techniques for the mass production of sterile, consistent, standardized medicinal plant materials). This paper discussed the following subjects - plant tissue culture, de novo shoot organogenesis, de novo root organogenesis, somatic embryogenesis, large scale propagation in bioreactors and discovery of unique biomolecules

  15. Routine Production of 89Zr Using an Automated Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. Lewis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 89Zr has emerged as a useful radioisotope for targeted molecular imaging via positron emission tomography (PET in both animal models and humans. This isotope is particularly attractive for cancer research because its half-life (t1/2 = 3.27 days is well-suited for in vivo targeting of macromolecules and nanoparticles to cell surface antigens expressed by cancer cells. Furthermore, 89Zr emits a low-energy positron (Eβ+,mean = 0.40 MeV, which is favorable for high spatial resolution in PET, with an adequate branching ratio for positron emission (BR = 23%. The demand for 89Zr for research purposes is increasing; however, 89Zr also emits significant gamma radiation (Γ15 keV = 6.6 R×cm2/mCi×h, which makes producing large amounts of this isotope by hand unrealistic from a radiation safety standpoint. Fortunately, a straightforward method exists for production of 89Zr by bombarding a natural Y target in a biomedical cyclotron and then separation of 89Zr from the target material by column chromatography. The chemical separation in this method lends itself to remote processing using an automated module placed inside a hot cell. In this work, we have designed, built and commissioned a module that has performed the chemical separation of 89Zr safely and routinely, at activities in excess of 50 mCi, with radionuclidic purity > 99.9% and satisfactory effective specific activity (ESA.

  16. Production and quality assurance automation in the Goddard Space Flight Center Flight Dynamics Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, K. B.; Cox, C. M.; Thomas, C. W.; Cuevas, O. O.; Beckman, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Facility (FDF) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) generates numerous products for NASA-supported spacecraft, including the Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS's), the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE), and the space shuttle. These products include orbit determination data, acquisition data, event scheduling data, and attitude data. In most cases, product generation involves repetitive execution of many programs. The increasing number of missions supported by the FDF has necessitated the use of automated systems to schedule, execute, and quality assure these products. This automation allows the delivery of accurate products in a timely and cost-efficient manner. To be effective, these systems must automate as many repetitive operations as possible and must be flexible enough to meet changing support requirements. The FDF Orbit Determination Task (ODT) has implemented several systems that automate product generation and quality assurance (QA). These systems include the Orbit Production Automation System (OPAS), the New Enhanced Operations Log (NEOLOG), and the Quality Assurance Automation Software (QA Tool). Implementation of these systems has resulted in a significant reduction in required manpower, elimination of shift work and most weekend support, and improved support quality, while incurring minimal development cost. This paper will present an overview of the concepts used and experiences gained from the implementation of these automation systems.

  17. Spectral filtering for plant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Roy E.; Mcmahon, Margaret J.; Rajapakse, Nihal C.; Decoteau, Dennis R.

    1994-01-01

    Both plants and animals have one general commonality in their perception of light. They both are sensitive primarily to the 400 to 700 nm wavelength portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. This is referred to as the visible spectrum for animals and as the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) spectrum for plants. Within this portion of the spectrum, animals perceive colors. Relatively recently it has been learned that within this same spectral range plants also demonstrate varying responses at different wavelengths, somewhat analogous to the definition of various colors at specific wavelengths. Although invisible to the human eye, portions of the electromagnetic spectrum on either side of the visible range are relatively inactive photosynthetically but have been found to influence important biological functions. These portions include the ultraviolet (UV approximately equal to 280-400 nm) and the far-red (FR approximately equal to 700-800 nm). The basic photoreceptor of plants for photosynthesis is chlorophyll. It serves to capture radiant energy which combined with carbon dioxide and water produces oxygen and assimulated carbon, used for the synthesis of cell wall polysaccarides, proteins, membrane lipids and other cellular constituents. The energy and carbon building blocks of photosynthesis sustain growth of plants. On the other hand, however, there are other photoreceptors, or pigments, that function as signal transducers to provide information that controls many physiological and morphological responses of how a plant grows. Known photomorphogenic receptors include phytochrome (the red/far-red sensor in the narrow bands of 655-665 nm and 725-735 nm ranges, respectively) and 'cryptochrome' (the hypothetical UV-B sensor in the 280-320 nm range). Since the USDA team of W. L. Butler, S. B. Hendricks, H. A. Borthwick, H. A. Siegleman and K. Norris in Beltsville, MD detected by spectroscopy, extracted and identified phytochrome as a protein in the 1950's, many

  18. Spectral filtering for plant production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R.E.; McMahon, M.J.; Rajapakse, N.C.; Becoteau, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Research to date suggests that spectral filtering can be an effective alternative to chemical growth regulators for altering plant development. If properly implemented, it can be nonchemical and environmentally friendly. The aqueous CuSO{sub 4}, and CuCl{sub 2} solutions in channelled plastic panels have been shown to be effective filters, but they can be highly toxic if the solutions contact plants. Some studies suggest that spectral filtration limited to short EOD intervals can also alter plant development. Future research should be directed toward confirmation of the influence of spectral filters and exposure times on a broader range of plant species and cultivars. Efforts should also be made to identify non-noxious alternatives to aqueous copper solutions and/or to incorporate these chemicals permanently into plastic films and panels that can be used in greenhouse construction. It would also be informative to study the impacts of spectral filters on insect and microbal populations in plant growth facilities. The economic impacts of spectral filtering techniques should be assessed for each delivery methodology.

  19. Increasing the Efficiency of Automation of Production Processes by Reporting the Parameters of the Parts’ Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pancho Tomov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the analysis and the proposal to increasing the efficiency of automation of production processes by reporting the parameters of the parts’ flow. As a main focus are defined the correlation and the dependence between the input and the output parameters of the automated production process. On that basis, the contemporary requirements for development of the production process call for it to be considered as a whole, regardless of the stage in which the process automation is performed.

  20. AVLIS Production Plant Project Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The AVLIS Production Plant is designated as a Major System Acquisition (in accordance with DOE Order 4240.IC) to deploy Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) technology at the Oak Ridge, Tennessee site, in support of the US Uranium Enrichment Program. The AVLIS Production Plant Project will deploy AVLIS technology by performing the design, construction, and startup of a production plant that will meet capacity production requirements of the Uranium Enrichment Program. The AVLIS Production Plant Project Management Plan has been developed to outline plans, baselines, and control systems to be employed in managing the AVLIS Production Plant Project and to define the roles and responsibilities of project participants. Participants will develop and maintain detailed procedures for implementing the management and control systems in agreement with this plan. This baseline document defines the system that measures work performed and costs incurred. This plan was developed by the AVLIS Production Plant Project staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in accordance with applicable DOE directives, orders and notices. 38 figures, 19 tables

  1. Power plant productivity and reliability information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazos, R.; Lizarraga, E.

    1988-04-01

    This article describes an information system for handling equipment failure information of fossil fuel plants. This system produces 33 different reports, which contain failure statistics, plant availability, unavailability classified by cause, plant reliability indices, and maintenance productivity indices. Some of the innovations introduced by this system are: (1) event partition into any number of subevents for accurate description of event evolution, (2) separation of equipment and event cause for easy reporting, and (3) failure-mode information for better event description.

  2. Natural products – learning chemistry from plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staniek, A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Fraser, P.D.; Kayser, O.; Martens, S.; Tissier, A.; Krol, van der A.R.; Wessjohann, L.; Warzecha, H.

    2014-01-01

    Plant natural products (PNPs) are unique in that they represent a vast array of different structural features, ranging from relatively simple molecules to very complex ones. Given the fact that many plant secondary metabolites exhibit profound biological activity, they are frequently used as

  3. Operational management in pot plant production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leutscher, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    Operational management in pot plant production was investigated by means of system analysis and simulation. A theoretical framework for operational decision-making consisted of elaboration decisions, progress decisions, and adoption decisions. This framework was incorporated in a pot plant

  4. Modifying plants for biofuel and biomaterial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Agnelo; Lupoi, Jason S; Hoang, Nam V; Healey, Adam; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A; Henry, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    The productivity of plants as biofuel or biomaterial crops is established by both the yield of plant biomass per unit area of land and the efficiency of conversion of the biomass to biofuel. Higher yielding biofuel crops with increased conversion efficiencies allow production on a smaller land footprint minimizing competition with agriculture for food production and biodiversity conservation. Plants have traditionally been domesticated for food, fibre and feed applications. However, utilization for biofuels may require the breeding of novel phenotypes, or new species entirely. Genomics approaches support genetic selection strategies to deliver significant genetic improvement of plants as sources of biomass for biofuel manufacture. Genetic modification of plants provides a further range of options for improving the composition of biomass and for plant modifications to assist the fabrication of biofuels. The relative carbohydrate and lignin content influences the deconstruction of plant cell walls to biofuels. Key options for facilitating the deconstruction leading to higher monomeric sugar release from plants include increasing cellulose content, reducing cellulose crystallinity, and/or altering the amount or composition of noncellulosic polysaccharides or lignin. Modification of chemical linkages within and between these biomass components may improve the ease of deconstruction. Expression of enzymes in the plant may provide a cost-effective option for biochemical conversion to biofuel. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. AVLIS production plant waste management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Following the executive summary, this document contains the following: (1) waste management facilities design objectives; (2) AVLIS production plant wastes; (3) waste management design criteria; (4) waste management plan description; and (5) waste management plan implementation. 17 figures, 18 tables

  6. plantiSMASH: automated identification, annotation and expression analysis of plant biosynthetic gene clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kautsar, Satria A.; Suarez Duran, Hernando G.; Blin, Kai

    2017-01-01

    in specific genomic loci: biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). Here, we introduce plantiSMASH, a versatile online analysis platform that automates the identification of candidate plant BGCs. Moreover, it allows integration of transcriptomic data to prioritize candidate BGCs based on the coexpression patterns......Plant specialized metabolites are chemically highly diverse, play key roles in host-microbe interactions, have important nutritional value in crops and are frequently applied as medicines. It has recently become clear that plant biosynthetic pathway-encoding genes are sometimes densely clustered...... of predicted biosynthetic enzyme-coding genes, and facilitates comparative genomic analysis to study the evolutionary conservation of each cluster. Applied on 48 high-quality plant genomes, plantiSMASH identifies a rich diversity of candidate plant BGCs. These results will guide further experimental...

  7. High-throughput phenotyping of plant resistance to aphids by automated video tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloth, Karen J; Ten Broeke, Cindy Jm; Thoen, Manus Pm; Hanhart-van den Brink, Marianne; Wiegers, Gerrie L; Krips, Olga E; Noldus, Lucas Pjj; Dicke, Marcel; Jongsma, Maarten A

    2015-01-01

    Piercing-sucking insects are major vectors of plant viruses causing significant yield losses in crops. Functional genomics of plant resistance to these insects would greatly benefit from the availability of high-throughput, quantitative phenotyping methods. We have developed an automated video tracking platform that quantifies aphid feeding behaviour on leaf discs to assess the level of plant resistance. Through the analysis of aphid movement, the start and duration of plant penetrations by aphids were estimated. As a case study, video tracking confirmed the near-complete resistance of lettuce cultivar 'Corbana' against Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosely), biotype Nr:0, and revealed quantitative resistance in Arabidopsis accession Co-2 against Myzus persicae (Sulzer). The video tracking platform was benchmarked against Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) recordings and aphid population development assays. The use of leaf discs instead of intact plants reduced the intensity of the resistance effect in video tracking, but sufficiently replicated experiments resulted in similar conclusions as EPG recordings and aphid population assays. One video tracking platform could screen 100 samples in parallel. Automated video tracking can be used to screen large plant populations for resistance to aphids and other piercing-sucking insects.

  8. Plant biotechnology for lignocellulosic biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quanzi; Song, Jian; Peng, Shaobing; Wang, Jack P; Qu, Guan-Zheng; Sederoff, Ronald R; Chiang, Vincent L

    2014-12-01

    Lignocelluloses from plant cell walls are attractive resources for sustainable biofuel production. However, conversion of lignocellulose to biofuel is more expensive than other current technologies, due to the costs of chemical pretreatment and enzyme hydrolysis for cell wall deconstruction. Recalcitrance of cell walls to deconstruction has been reduced in many plant species by modifying plant cell walls through biotechnology. These results have been achieved by reducing lignin content and altering its composition and structure. Reduction of recalcitrance has also been achieved by manipulating hemicellulose biosynthesis and by overexpression of bacterial enzymes in plants to disrupt linkages in the lignin-carbohydrate complexes. These modified plants often have improved saccharification yield and higher ethanol production. Cell wall-degrading (CWD) enzymes from bacteria and fungi have been expressed at high levels in plants to increase the efficiency of saccharification compared with exogenous addition of cellulolytic enzymes. In planta expression of heat-stable CWD enzymes from bacterial thermophiles has made autohydrolysis possible. Transgenic plants can be engineered to reduce recalcitrance without any yield penalty, indicating that successful cell wall modification can be achieved without impacting cell wall integrity or plant development. A more complete understanding of cell wall formation and structure should greatly improve lignocellulosic feedstocks and reduce the cost of biofuel production. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Automated synthesis system for production of 11C-glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monma, Minoru; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Iwata, Ren; Ido, Tatsuo

    1984-01-01

    A fully automated synthesis system of 11 C-glucose by the photosynthesis method has been developed for clinical use. This system has been designed to be as convenient as possible for routine use, and the full automation of the whole procedure from the target gas recovery to collection of the final 11 C-glucose/fructose mixture has been accomplished by microcomputer control. A mixture of 11 C-glucose/fructose (1:1) was obtained with 20--35% of radiochemical yield within 60 min. (author)

  10. Automation inflicted differences on operator performance in nuclear power plant control rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Jonas; Osvalder, A.L. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Product and Producton Development (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    Today it is possible to automate almost any function in a human-machine system. Therefore it is important to find a balance between automation level and the prerequisites for the operator to maintain safe operation. Different human factors evaluation methods can be used to find differences between automatic and manual operations that have an effect on operator performance; e.g. Predictive Human Error Analysis (PHEA), NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX), Halden Questionnaire, and Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART). Results from an empirical study concerning automation levels, made at Ringhals power plant, showed that factors as time pressure and criticality of the work situation influenced the operator's performance and mental workload more than differences in level of automation. The results indicate that the operator's attention strategies differ between the manual and automatic sequences. Independently of level of automation, it is essential that the operator retains control and situational understanding. When performing a manual task, the operator is 'closer' to the process and in control with sufficient situational understanding. When the level of automation increases, the demands on information presentation increase to ensure safe plant operation. The need for control can be met by introducing 'control gates' where the operator has to accept that the automatic procedures are continuing as expected. Situational understanding can be established by clear information about process status and by continuous feedback. A conclusion of the study was that a collaborative control room environment is important. Rather than allocating functions to either the operator or the system, a complementary strategy should be used. Key parameters to consider when planning the work in the control room are time constraints and task criticality and how they affect the performance of the joint cognitive system.However, the examined working

  11. Modernization of existing power plants. Progress in automation and process control/observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, I.

    1996-01-01

    Numerous power plants are now getting on in years, and their owners have to face the question 'New plant or upgrade job ?'. Experience in the past few years has shown that in many cases modernization/upgrading of existing plants is a more favorable option than building a complete new power plant. Advantages like lower capital investment costs and avoidance of licensing risks for new plants constitute important motives for choosing the upgrade option in numerous power plants modernization projects. The defined objective here is to ensure the units' operating capability for another 20 to 25 years, sometimes supplemented by meticulous compliance with current environmental impact legislation. Another cogent argument emerges from automation engineering advances in modern-day control systems which make an effective contribution to meeting upgrading objective like: equipment/material -friendly operation, extended useful lifetime, enhanced plant reliability, enhanced plant availability, improved plant efficiency, optimized staffing levels, enhanced cost-effectiveness, compliance with today's international standards. In this context special attention is paid to the economical aspects and to the increase of plant availability. (author). 6 figs

  12. Integrated automation system for a pilot plant for energy conversion using PEMFCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culcer, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Raceanu, Mircea; Stanciu, Vasile; Stefanescu, Ioan; Enache, Adrian; Lazaro, Pavel Gabriel; Lazaroiu, Gheorghe; Badea, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    Based on Hydrogen and Fuel Cells researches and technological capabilities achieved in the National R and D Programs, ICIT Rm. Valcea built an experimental-demonstrative pilot plant for energy conversion using hydrogen PEMFCs. This pilot plant consists of a fuel processor based on steam methane reforming (SMR) process, a hydrogen purification unit, a PEM fuel cells stack (FCS) and a power electronics unit. The paper deals with the dedicated controlling system that provides automated data acquisition, manual or on-line operational control, gas management, humidification, temperature and flow controls. (authors)

  13. CERES AuTomAted job Loading SYSTem (CATALYST): An automated workflow manager for satellite data production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, J. L.; Hillyer, T. N.; Wilkins, J.

    2012-12-01

    The CERES Science Team integrates data from 5 CERES instruments onboard the Terra, Aqua and NPP missions. The processing chain fuses CERES observations with data from 19 other unique sources. The addition of CERES Flight Model 5 (FM5) onboard NPP, coupled with ground processing system upgrades further emphasizes the need for an automated job-submission utility to manage multiple processing streams concurrently. The operator-driven, legacy-processing approach relied on manually staging data from magnetic tape to limited spinning disk attached to a shared memory architecture system. The migration of CERES production code to a distributed, cluster computing environment with approximately one petabyte of spinning disk containing all precursor input data products facilitates the development of a CERES-specific, automated workflow manager. In the cluster environment, I/O is the primary system resource in contention across jobs. Therefore, system load can be maximized with a throttling workload manager. This poster discusses a Java and Perl implementation of an automated job management tool tailored for CERES processing.

  14. Research plan on programmable automation systems in nuclear power plants (OHA) in 1995-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Pulkkinen, U.; Korhonen, J.

    1995-05-01

    The main purpose of nuclear energy research is to ensure the safety and continued development of Finnish nuclear power plants - a task which places high demands on expertise needed to support the work of public authorities and power companies. A factor necessarily influencing the orientation of the research is the Parliament's decision of late 1993 against further nuclear capacity in the country. Therefore the main emphasis of research shall be directed towards the ensuring the safety of existing plants and the continuous development of their safety along the progress of the science and technology. Anyhow, the preparedness for constructing new plants shall also be preserved. The utilization of programmable digital automation technology for the safety critical functions is the most significant change in the new plants, but also in existing plants this technology will be used for replacing and complementing the ageing automation systems. The safety evaluation of programmable digital systems can not be based on methods applied to conventional analog systems but new evaluation methods and tools must be developed for the assessing of their acceptability. (5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.)

  15. An automated HIV-1 Env-pseudotyped virus production for global HIV vaccine trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Schultz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infections with HIV still represent a major human health problem worldwide and a vaccine is the only long-term option to fight efficiently against this virus. Standardized assessments of HIV-specific immune responses in vaccine trials are essential for prioritizing vaccine candidates in preclinical and clinical stages of development. With respect to neutralizing antibodies, assays with HIV-1 Env-pseudotyped viruses are a high priority. To cover the increasing demands of HIV pseudoviruses, a complete cell culture and transfection automation system has been developed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The automation system for HIV pseudovirus production comprises a modified Tecan-based Cellerity system. It covers an area of 5×3 meters and includes a robot platform, a cell counting machine, a CO(2 incubator for cell cultivation and a media refrigerator. The processes for cell handling, transfection and pseudovirus production have been implemented according to manual standard operating procedures and are controlled and scheduled autonomously by the system. The system is housed in a biosafety level II cabinet that guarantees protection of personnel, environment and the product. HIV pseudovirus stocks in a scale from 140 ml to 1000 ml have been produced on the automated system. Parallel manual production of HIV pseudoviruses and comparisons (bridging assays confirmed that the automated produced pseudoviruses were of equivalent quality as those produced manually. In addition, the automated method was fully validated according to Good Clinical Laboratory Practice (GCLP guidelines, including the validation parameters accuracy, precision, robustness and specificity. CONCLUSIONS: An automated HIV pseudovirus production system has been successfully established. It allows the high quality production of HIV pseudoviruses under GCLP conditions. In its present form, the installed module enables the production of 1000 ml of virus-containing cell

  16. Plant Products for Innovative Biomaterials in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena M. Varoni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dental biomaterials and natural products represent two of the main growing research fields, revealing plant-derived compounds may play a role not only as nutraceuticals in affecting oral health, but also in improving physico-chemical properties of biomaterials used in dentistry. Therefore, our aim was to collect all available data concerning the utilization of plant polysaccharides, proteins and extracts rich in bioactive phytochemicals in enhancing performance of dental biomaterials. Although compelling evidences are suggestive of a great potential of plant products in promoting material-tissue/cell interface, to date, only few authors have investigated their use in development of innovative dental biomaterials. A small number of studies have reported plant extract-based titanium implant coatings and periodontal regenerative materials. To the best of our knowledge, this review is the first to deal with this topic, highlighting a general lack of research findings in an interesting field which still needs to be investigated.

  17. Parameters Investigation of Mathematical Model of Productivity for Automated Line with Availability by DMAIC Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Chan Sin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated line is widely applied in industry especially for mass production with less variety product. Productivity is one of the important criteria in automated line as well as industry which directly present the outputs and profits. Forecast of productivity in industry accurately in order to achieve the customer demand and the forecast result is calculated by using mathematical model. Mathematical model of productivity with availability for automated line has been introduced to express the productivity in terms of single level of reliability for stations and mechanisms. Since this mathematical model of productivity with availability cannot achieve close enough productivity compared to actual one due to lack of parameters consideration, the enhancement of mathematical model is required to consider and add the loss parameters that is not considered in current model. This paper presents the investigation parameters of productivity losses investigated by using DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control concept and PACE Prioritization Matrix (Priority, Action, Consider, and Eliminate. The investigated parameters are important for further improvement of mathematical model of productivity with availability to develop robust mathematical model of productivity in automated line.

  18. An Effective Methodology with Automated Product Configuration for Software Product Line Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Uk-Jin Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide adaptation of product line engineering in software industry has enabled cost effective development of high quality software for diverse market segments. In software product line (SPL, a family of software is specified with a set of core assets representing reusable features with their variability, dependencies, and constraints. From such core assets, valid software products are configured after thoroughly analysing the represented features and their properties. However, current implementations of SPL lack effective means to configure a valid product as core assets specified in SPL, being high-dimensional data, are often too complex to analyse. This paper presents a time and cost effective methodology with associated tool supports to design a SPL model, analyse features, and configure a valid product. The proposed approach uses eXtensible Markup Language (XML to model SPL, where an adequate schema is defined to precisely specify core assets. Furthermore, it enables automated product configuration by (i extracting all the properties of required features from a given SPL model and calculating them with Alloy Analyzer; (ii generating a decision model with appropriate eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformation (XSLT instructions embedded in each resolution effect; and (iii processing XSLT instructions of all the selected resolution effects.

  19. Mo99 Production Plant Layout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Naranjo, Angela Carol [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-25

    The NorthStar Medical Technologies 99Mo production facility configuration is envisioned to be 8 accelerator pairs irradiating 7 100Mo targets (one spare accelerator pair undergoing maintenance while the other 7 pairs are irradiating targets). The required shielding in every direction for the accelerators is initially estimated to be 10 feet of concrete. With the accelerator pairs on one (ground) level and spaced with the required shielding between adjacent pairs, the only practical path for target insertion and removal while minimizing floor space is vertical. The current scheme then requires a target vertical lift of nominally 10 feet through a shield stack. It is envisioned that the lift will be directly into a hot cell where an activated target can be removed from its holder and a new target attached and lowered. The hot cell is on a rail system so that a single hot cell can service all active target locations, as well as deliver the ready targets to the separations lab. On this rail system, coupled to the hot cell, will be a helium recovery and clean-up system. All helium coolant equipment is located on the upper level near to the target removal point.

  20. Pesticide productivity, host-plant resistance and productivity in China

    OpenAIRE

    Widawsky, David; Rozelle, Scott; Jin, Songqing; Huang, Jikun

    1998-01-01

    Pesticides are used as the primary method of pest control in Asian rice production. Conditions in China have led to demand for high and increasing rice yields, resulting in intensive cultivation and adoption of fertilizer responsive varieties. The consequence has been widespread pest infestations. Many studies have estimated pesticide productivity, but few have estimated the productivity of alternative methods of pest control, namely host-plant resistance. None have estimated the substitutabi...

  1. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4. Automated array assembly. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witham, C.R.

    1979-06-12

    MBA has been working on the automated array assembly task of the Low-Cost Solar Array project. A baseline sequence for the manufacture of solar cell modules is specified. Starting with silicon wafers, the process goes through damage etching, texture etching, junction formation, plasma edge etch, aluminum back surface field formation, and screen printed metallization to produce finished solar cells which are then series connected on a ribbon and bonded into a finished glass, PVB, tedlar module. A number of steps required additional developmental effort to verify technical and economic feasibility. These steps include texture etching, plasma edge etch, aluminum back surface field formation, array layup and interconnect, and module edge sealing and framing.

  2. Comparative analysis of automation of production process with industrial robots in Asia/Australia and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Karabegović

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The term "INDUSTRY 4.0" or "fourth industrial revolution" was first introduced at the fair in 2011 in Hannover. It comes from the high-tech strategy of the German Federal Government that promotes automation-computerization to complete smart automation, meaning the introduction of a method of self-automation, self-configuration, self-diagnosing and fixing the problem, knowledge and intelligent decision-making. Any automation, including smart, cannot be imagined without industrial robots. Along with the fourth industrial revolution, ‘’robotic revolution’’ is taking place in Japan. Robotic revolution refers to the development and research of robotic technology with the aim of using robots in all production processes, and the use of robots in real life, to be of service to a man in daily life. Knowing these facts, an analysis was conducted of the representation of industrial robots in the production processes on the two continents of Europe and Asia /Australia, as well as research that industry is ready for the introduction of intelligent automation with the goal of establishing future smart factories. The paper gives a representation of the automation of production processes in Europe and Asia/Australia, with predictions for the future.

  3. Power plant productivity improvement in New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-03-01

    The New York Public Service Commission (PSC), under contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE), began a joint program in September 1978 to improve the productivity of coal and nuclear electric generating units in New York State. The project had dual objectives: to ensure that the utilities in New York State have or develop a systematic permanent, cost-effective productivity improvement program based on sound engineering and economic considerations, and to develop a model program for Power Plant Productivity Improvement, which, through DOE, can also be utilized by other regulatory commissions in the country. To accomplish these objectives, the program was organized into the following sequence of activities: compilation and analysis of power plant performance data; evaluation and comparison of utility responses to outage/derating events; power plant productivity improvement project cost-benefit analysis; and evaluation of regulatory procedures and policies for improving productivity. The program that developed for improving the productivity of coal units is substantially different than for nuclear units. Each program is presented, and recommendations are made for activities of both the utilities and regulatory agencies which will promote improved productivity.

  4. Evaluation of automated analysis of 15N and total N in plant material and soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    was lower than 0.1%. The CV of repeated analyses of N-15-labelled plant material and soil samples varied between 0.3% and 1.1%. The reproducibility of repeated total N analyses using the automated method was comparable to results obtained with a semi-micro Kjeldahl procedure. However, the automated method...... analysis showed that the recovery of inorganic N in the NH3 trap was lower when the N was diffused from water than from 2 M KCl. The results also indicated that different proportions of the NO3- and the NH4+ in aqueous solution were recovered in the trap after combined diffusion. The method is most suited...

  5. Pinellas Plant facts. [Products, processes, laboratory facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant.

  6. Nuclear fuel production at BNFL plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petritskij, E.P.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of nuclear fuel production at BNFL plants is described, as well as basic technological processes of UO 2 powder production including IDR process for automatic fabrication of fuel elements and fuel assemblies. Physical and chemical properties of UO 2 powder, fuel pellet sintering parameters, data on in-reactor operation of nuclear fuels fabricated from pellets of controlled porosity with CONPOR additives, are presented. 8 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  7. Woody plants of North America [product review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; Hope A. Bragg

    2001-01-01

    The authors review a 2-CD set created to aid in identifying woody plants. The product is intended to supplement (rather than replace) field instruction for identifying 470 of the most common native and introduced trees and shrubs in North America.

  8. Internal transport control in pot plant production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annevelink, E.

    1999-01-01

    Drawing up internal transport schedules in pot plant production is a very complex task. Scheduling internal transport at the operational level and providing control on a day-to-day or even hour-to-hour basis in particular requires a new approach. A hierarchical planning approach based on

  9. 7 CFR 302.2 - Movement of plants and plant products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 302.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA; MOVEMENT OF PLANTS AND PLANT PRODUCTS § 302.2 Movement of plants and plant products. Inspection or documentation of the plant health status of...

  10. Future power plant control integrates process and substation automation into one system; Zukunftsorientierte Kraftwerksleittechnik vereint Prozess- und Stationsautomatisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, J. [ABB AG, Mannheim (Germany). Div. Energietechnik-Systeme

    2007-07-01

    The new IEC 61850 standard has been established for substation control systems. In future, IEC 61850 may also be widely used for electrical systems in power plants. IEC 61850 simplifies the integration of process and substation control systems in power plants by creating one automated system across manufacturers and thus makes a significant contribution to cost efficiency in operation and maintenance. (orig.)

  11. The 'PhenoBox', a flexible, automated, open-source plant phenotyping solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czedik-Eysenberg, Angelika; Seitner, Sebastian; Güldener, Ulrich; Koemeda, Stefanie; Jez, Jakub; Colombini, Martin; Djamei, Armin

    2018-04-05

    There is a need for flexible and affordable plant phenotyping solutions for basic research and plant breeding. We demonstrate our open source plant imaging and processing solution ('PhenoBox'/'PhenoPipe') and provide construction plans, source code and documentation to rebuild the system. Use of the PhenoBox is exemplified by studying infection of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon by the head smut fungus Ustilago bromivora, comparing phenotypic responses of maize to infection with a solopathogenic Ustilago maydis (corn smut) strain and effector deletion strains, and studying salt stress response in Nicotiana benthamiana. In U. bromivora-infected grass, phenotypic differences between infected and uninfected plants were detectable weeks before qualitative head smut symptoms. Based on this, we could predict the infection outcome for individual plants with high accuracy. Using a PhenoPipe module for calculation of multi-dimensional distances from phenotyping data, we observe a time after infection-dependent impact of U. maydis effector deletion strains on phenotypic response in maize. The PhenoBox/PhenoPipe system is able to detect established salt stress responses in N. benthamiana. We have developed an affordable, automated, open source imaging and data processing solution that can be adapted to various phenotyping applications in plant biology and beyond. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Power up your plant - An introduction to integrated process and power automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasel, Jeffrey

    2010-09-15

    This paper discusses how a single integrated system can increase energy efficiency, improve plant uptime, and lower life cycle costs. Integrated Process and Power Automation is a new system integration architecture and power strategy that addresses the needs of the process and power generation industries. The architecture is based on Industrial Ethernet standards such as IEC 61850 and Profinet as well as Fieldbus technologies. The energy efficiency gains from integration are discussed in a power generation use case. A power management system success story from a major oil and gas company, Petrobras, is also discussed.

  13. Biodiesel production plant project from fritter oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordoví Felipe, Carlos Miguel; Gandón Hernández, José; Sarracent López, Anabel; García Díaz, Marilín

    2017-01-01

    Increments in commercialization values of fossil fuels as well as the ecological impact in the environment, motivated the study about methods to obtain clean (alternative) energies that don't produce emanations or, in the worst of cases reduce them as much as possible. In this work is shown the project of a plant of a biodiesel production plant, using as raw material fritter oils coming from foods processing facilities and/or from tourist facilities. The production technology is based on studies, carried out by the foods research group in Chemical Engineering Faculty, Technological University of Havana in biodiesel production through the mechanism of alkaline transesterificationón with homogeneous catalysts. The plant was designed in modular type in order to facilitate any production amplification that is required and has all the necessary elements for its assembly, it is easy to repair in situ according to resources possibilities and of simple operation so that it is possible for not qualified workers in technical questions. The production capacity in this project is 300 liters of raw material per batch, coming from a fritter foods facility. (author)

  14. 9 CFR 355.21 - Products entering inspected plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Products entering inspected plants... Products entering inspected plants. All products of a kind certified under this part or materials to be used in the preparation of such products when brought into an inspected plant shall be identified and...

  15. Consistent integrated automation. Optimized power plant control by means of IEC 61850; Durchgaengig automatisieren. Optimierte Kraftwerksleittechnik durch die Norm IEC 61850

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, J. [ABB AG, Mannheim (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Power Generation

    2007-07-01

    Today's power plants are highly automated. All subsystems of large thermal power plants can be controlled from a central control room. The electrical systems are an important part. In future the new standard IEC 61850 will improve the integration of electrical systems into automation of power plants supporting the reduction of operation and maintenance cost. (orig.)

  16. Wastewater treatment as an energy production plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samela, Daniel A.

    The objective of this research was to investigate the potential for net energy production at a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP). Historically, wastewater treatment plants have been designed with the emphasis on process reliability and redundancy; efficient utilization of energy has not received equal consideration. With growing demands for energy and increased budgetary pressures in funding wastewater treatment plant costs, methods of reducing energy consumption and operating costs were explored in a new and novel direction pointed towards energy production rather than energy consumption. To estimate the potential for net energy production, a quantitative analysis was performed using a mathematical model which integrates the various unit operations to evaluate the overall plant energy balance. Secondary treatment performance analysis is included to ensure that the energy evaluation is consistent with plant treatment needs. Secondary treatment performance was conducted for activated sludge, trickling filters and RBCs. The equations for the mathematical model were developed independently for each unit operation by writing mass balance equations around the process units. The process units evaluated included those for preliminary treatment, primary treatment, secondary treatment, disinfection, and sludge treatment. Based on an analysis of both energy reduction and energy recovery methods, it was shown that net energy production at a secondary WWTP is possible utilizing technologies available today. Such technologies include those utilized for plant operations, as well as for energy recovery. The operation of fuel cells using digester gas represents one of the most significant new opportunities for energy recovery at wastewater facilities. The analysis predicts that a trickling filter WWTP utilizing commercial phosphoric acid fuel cells to recover energy from digester gas can provide for facility energy needs and have both electrical and thermal energy available for

  17. Automation drying unit molybdenum-zirconium gel radioisotope production technetium-99M for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrova, Y.; Khromushin, I.; Medvedeva, Z.; Fettsov, I.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : Since 2001 the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Republic of Kazakhstan has began production of radiopharmaceutical based on technetium-99m from irradiated reactor WWR-K of natural molybdenum, which allows to obtain a solution of technetium-99m of the required quality and high volume activity. In 2013 an automated system is started, which is unique and urgent task is to develop algorithms and software in Python, as well as the manufacture of certain elements of technological systems for automated production

  18. Pilot plant for biohidrometallurgical production of copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conić Vesna T.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, technical and technological characteristics of pilot plant for biohydrometallurgical production of copper financed by Ministry of Science and Environment Protection of Serbia, in the frame of capital providing for scientific research for the period 2006-2008 is presented. Presented within this project is the contribution and capability of the Institute for Mining and Metallurgy Bor to carry out the Fp6 IP project: 'Biotechnology for Metal Bearing Materials in Europe (BioMinE'. In the pilot plant, processes such as: microbiological leaching, pressures oxidation, chemical purification of solutions, solvent extraction and electrowining of copper were carried out. Bioleaching can treat complex copper concentrates which are either unacceptable to smelting or attract high penalties. Some of the elements penalized in smelting (for example zinc are dissolved in the bioleach process and can be recovered for sale. This may often allow an increased recovery of a few percent in the production of the copper concentrate. Bioleaching can be used in either small or large cathodic copper production from copper concentrate. Bioleaching uses conventional upstream and downstream process technology and the unit operation itself has been proven in the gold industry. For these reasons, this work describes the pilot plant for biotechnological production of copper from RTB Bor resources.

  19. Automated Identification of Northern Leaf Blight-Infected Maize Plants from Field Imagery Using Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeChant, Chad; Wiesner-Hanks, Tyr; Chen, Siyuan; Stewart, Ethan L; Yosinski, Jason; Gore, Michael A; Nelson, Rebecca J; Lipson, Hod

    2017-11-01

    Northern leaf blight (NLB) can cause severe yield loss in maize; however, scouting large areas to accurately diagnose the disease is time consuming and difficult. We demonstrate a system capable of automatically identifying NLB lesions in field-acquired images of maize plants with high reliability. This approach uses a computational pipeline of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) that addresses the challenges of limited data and the myriad irregularities that appear in images of field-grown plants. Several CNNs were trained to classify small regions of images as containing NLB lesions or not; their predictions were combined into separate heat maps, then fed into a final CNN trained to classify the entire image as containing diseased plants or not. The system achieved 96.7% accuracy on test set images not used in training. We suggest that such systems mounted on aerial- or ground-based vehicles can help in automated high-throughput plant phenotyping, precision breeding for disease resistance, and reduced pesticide use through targeted application across a variety of plant and disease categories.

  20. About the automated instrumentation in nuclear power plants; Sobre la instrumentacion automatizada en plantas nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia de los Rios, J. A.; Benitez R, J. S. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Garduno G, M P., E-mail: armando.segovia@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Tecnologica de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    The automation of the inspection processes and monitoring in nuclear facilities have as main objective the reduction of acquired radiation dose for the operators of the diverse work programs. For example, a typical maintenance task is the problems correction of leaks in the hydraulic facilities of the vapor circuits where is necessary the repair of pipes, measuring and control elements, as the valves. A program of effective maintenance should contemplate strategies of appropriate monitoring for the immediate detection of possible failures, with the purpose of the remedy them opportunely. For this function of failures detection is necessary to have instruments that allow the measuring of the parameters that facilitate their characterization. Given the prevailing conditions in the nuclear facilities, such instruments should possess special characteristics, reason why is necessary a study of them, as well as a careful selection of the susceptible apparatuses of being used. For this reason, this work presents a discussion about some of the existent conditions in the nuclear power plants, as well as the aspects to consider for the automated instrumentation of some places of a nuclear power plant. (Author)

  1. A methodology to determine the level of automation to improve the production process and reduce the ergonomics index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Amaya, Alejandro; Anaya-Pérez, María Elena; Benítez-Baltazar, Víctor Hugo

    2017-08-01

    Companies are constantly looking for improvements in productivity to increase their competitiveness. The use of automation technologies is a tool that have been proven to be effective to achieve this. There are companies that are not familiar with the process to acquire automation technologies, therefore, they abstain from investments and thereby miss the opportunity to take advantage of it. The present document proposes a methodology to determine the level of automation appropriate for the production process and thus minimize automation and improve production taking in consideration the ergonomics factor.

  2. Production of muconic acid in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eudes, Aymerick; Berthomieu, Roland; Hao, Zhangying; Zhao, Nanxia; Benites, Veronica Teixeira; Baidoo, Edward E K; Loqué, Dominique

    2018-03-01

    Muconic acid (MA) is a dicarboxylic acid used for the production of industrially relevant chemicals such as adipic acid, terephthalic acid, and caprolactam. Because the synthesis of these polymer precursors generates toxic intermediates by utilizing petroleum-derived chemicals and corrosive catalysts, the development of alternative strategies for the bio-based production of MA has garnered significant interest. Plants produce organic carbon skeletons by harvesting carbon dioxide and energy from the sun, and therefore represent advantageous hosts for engineered metabolic pathways towards the manufacturing of chemicals. In this work, we engineered Arabidopsis to demonstrate that plants can serve as green factories for the bio-manufacturing of MA. In particular, dual expression of plastid-targeted bacterial salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (CatA) resulted in the conversion of the endogenous salicylic acid (SA) pool into MA via catechol. Sequential increase of SA derived from the shikimate pathway was achieved by expressing plastid-targeted versions of bacterial salicylate synthase (Irp9) and feedback-resistant 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate synthase (AroG). Introducing this SA over-producing strategy into engineered plants that co-express NahG and CatA resulted in a 50-fold increase in MA titers. Considering that MA was easily recovered from senesced plant biomass after harvest, we envision the phytoproduction of MA as a beneficial option to add value to bioenergy crops. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Automated Finite State Workflow for Distributed Data Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajdu, L; Didenko, L; Lauret, J; Betts, W; Amol, J; Jang, H J; Noh, S Y

    2016-01-01

    In statistically hungry science domains, data deluges can be both a blessing and a curse. They allow the narrowing of statistical errors from known measurements, and open the door to new scientific opportunities as research programs mature. They are also a testament to the efficiency of experimental operations. However, growing data samples may need to be processed with little or no opportunity for huge increases in computing capacity. A standard strategy has thus been to share resources across multiple experiments at a given facility. Another has been to use middleware that “glues” resources across the world so they are able to locally run the experimental software stack (either natively or virtually). We describe a framework STAR has successfully used to reconstruct a ∼400 TB dataset consisting of over 100,000 jobs submitted to a remote site in Korea from STAR's Tier 0 facility at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The framework automates the full workflow, taking raw data files from tape and writing Physics-ready output back to tape without operator or remote site intervention. Through hardening we have demonstrated 97(±2)% efficiency, over a period of 7 months of operation. The high efficiency is attributed to finite state checking with retries to encourage resilience in the system over capricious and fallible infrastructure. (paper)

  4. Automated Finite State Workflow for Distributed Data Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdu, L.; Didenko, L.; Lauret, J.; Amol, J.; Betts, W.; Jang, H. J.; Noh, S. Y.

    2016-10-01

    In statistically hungry science domains, data deluges can be both a blessing and a curse. They allow the narrowing of statistical errors from known measurements, and open the door to new scientific opportunities as research programs mature. They are also a testament to the efficiency of experimental operations. However, growing data samples may need to be processed with little or no opportunity for huge increases in computing capacity. A standard strategy has thus been to share resources across multiple experiments at a given facility. Another has been to use middleware that “glues” resources across the world so they are able to locally run the experimental software stack (either natively or virtually). We describe a framework STAR has successfully used to reconstruct a ~400 TB dataset consisting of over 100,000 jobs submitted to a remote site in Korea from STAR's Tier 0 facility at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The framework automates the full workflow, taking raw data files from tape and writing Physics-ready output back to tape without operator or remote site intervention. Through hardening we have demonstrated 97(±2)% efficiency, over a period of 7 months of operation. The high efficiency is attributed to finite state checking with retries to encourage resilience in the system over capricious and fallible infrastructure.

  5. Pilot plant study for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.S. [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    Most of domestic alcohol fermentation factory adopt batch process of which productivity is lower than continuous fermentation process. They have made great effort to increase productivity by means of partial unit process automatization and process improvement with their accumulated experience but there is technical limitation in productivity of batch fermentation process. To produce and supply fuel alcohol, economic aspects must be considered first of all. Therefore, development of continuous fermentation process, of which productivity is high, is prerequisite to produce and use fuel alcohol but only a few foreign company possess continuous fermentation technic and use it in practical industrial scale fermentation. We constructed pilot plant (5 Stage CSTR 1 kl 99.5 v/v% ethanol/Day scale) to study some aspects stated below and our ultimate aims are production of industrial scale fuel alcohol and construction of the plant by ourselves. Some study concerned with energy saving separation and contamination control technic were entrusted to KAIST, A-ju university and KIST respectively. (author) 67 refs., 100 figs., 58 tabs.

  6. Safety analysis code input automation using the Nuclear Plant Data Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, H.; Leung, J.; Tajbakhsh, A.; Viles, F.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Data Bank (NPDB) is a computer-based system that organizes a nuclear power plant's technical data, providing mechanisms for data storage, retrieval, and computer-aided engineering analysis. It has the specific objective to describe thermohydraulic systems in order to support: rapid information retrieval and display, and thermohydraulic analysis modeling. The Nuclear Plant Data Bank (NPBD) system fully automates the storage and analysis based on this data. The system combines the benefits of a structured data base system and computer-aided modeling with links to large scale codes for engineering analysis. Emphasis on a friendly and very graphically oriented user interface facilitates both initial use and longer term efficiency. Specific features are: organization and storage of thermohydraulic data items, ease in locating specific data items, graphical and tabular display capabilities, interactive model construction, organization and display of model input parameters, input deck construction for TRAC and RELAP analysis programs, and traceability of plant data, user model assumptions, and codes used in the input deck construction process. The major accomplishments of this past year were the development of a RELAP model generation capability and the development of a CRAY version of the code

  7. Automation and quality assurance of the production cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajdu, L; Didenko, L; Lauret, J

    2010-01-01

    Processing datasets on the order of tens of terabytes is an onerous task, faced by production coordinators everywhere. Users solicit data productions and, especially for simulation data, the vast amount of parameters (and sometime incomplete requests) point at the need for a tracking, control and archiving all requests made so a coordinated handling could be made by the production team. With the advent of grid computing the parallel processing power has increased but traceability has also become increasing problematic due to the heterogeneous nature of Grids. Any one of a number of components may fail invalidating the job or execution flow in various stages of completion and re-submission of a few of the multitude of jobs (keeping the entire dataset production consistency) a difficult and tedious process. From the definition of the workflow to its execution, there is a strong need for validation, tracking, monitoring and reporting of problems. To ease the process of requesting production workflow, STAR has implemented several components addressing the full workflow consistency. A Web based online submission request module, implemented using Drupal's Content Management System API, enforces ahead that all parameters are described in advance in a uniform fashion. Upon submission, all jobs are independently tracked and (sometime experiment-specific) discrepancies are detected and recorded providing detailed information on where/how/when the job failed. Aggregate information on success and failure are also provided in near real-time.

  8. Simulation of a Production Line with Automated Guided Vehicle: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Verpa Leite

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, companies have increasingly needed to improve and develop their processes to flexible the production in order to reduce waiting times and increase productivity through smaller time intervals. To achieve these objectives, efficient and automated transport and handling material systems are required. Therefore, the AGV systems (Automated Guided Vehicle are often used to optimize the flow of materials within the production systems. In this paper, the author evaluates the usage of an AGV system in an industrial environment and analyzes the advantages, disadvantages of the project. Furthermore, the author uses the systems simulation software Promodel® 7.0 to develop a model, based on data collected from real production system, in order to analyze and optimize the use of AGVs. Throughout this paper, problems are identified as well as solution adopted by the author and the results obtained from the simulations.

  9. Extreme temperature regulation in the automation process in the production of biogas methane tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Uzhelovs'kyy, V.; Tkachenko, S.

    2015-01-01

    Problem statement. The efficiency of bioconversion processes is largely determined by the level of automation and process control biogas, which allows to optimize the process, enhance its efficiency and the ability to adapt to the real operating conditions.Analyzing of the resent research. In studies of contemporary experts in the field of process management energy production from unconventional sources has had a steady and good understanding of the management of biogas production from biomas...

  10. Total productive maintenance on example of automated foundry lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kukla

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Within framework of the presented study one has performed analysis of stoppages in automatic foundry lines operation, and basing on assumptions from complex maintenance system has undertaken himself to develop a service maintenance schedule for machinery installed in the line. Moreover, one has presented general assumptions of TPM system operated in conditions of series and multi-series production of cast iron castings. One has constructed operational database and has elaborated a list of line stoppage causes within a year. One has proposed a possibility of implementation of manufacturing systems modeling and simulating technique in management of production machinery operation in a foundry shop. Within framework of the simulation experiment one has developed schedules of production, schedules of maintenance and has forecasted indices of general productivity of the machinery for a various scenarios of events on example of casting line having in-series structure of operational reliability. In course of the study there was implemented ARENA universal software package to modeling and simulation of the manufacturing systems.

  11. Role of Osmotic Adjustment in Plant Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebre, G.M.

    2001-01-11

    Successful implementation of short rotation woody crops requires that the selected species and clones be productive, drought tolerant, and pest resistant. Since water is one of the major limiting factors in poplar (Populus sp.) growth, there is little debate for the need of drought tolerant clones, except on the wettest of sites (e.g., lower Columbia River delta). Whether drought tolerance is compatible with productivity remains a debatable issue. Among the many mechanisms of drought tolerance, dehydration postponement involves the maintenance of high leaf water potential due to, for example, an adequate root system. This trait is compatible with productivity, but requires available soil moisture. When the plant leaf water potential and soil water content decline, the plant must be able to survive drought through dehydration tolerance mechanisms, such as low osmotic potential or osmotic adjustment. Osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potential are considered compatible with growth and yield because they aid in the maintenance of leaf turgor. However, it has been shown that turgor alone does not regulate cell expansion or stomatal conductance and, therefore, the role of osmotic adjustment is debated. Despite this finding, osmotic adjustment has been correlated with grain yield in agronomic crop species, and gene markers responsible for osmotic adjustment are being investigated to improve drought tolerance in productive progenies. Although osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potentials have been investigated in several forest tree species, few studies have investigated the relationship between osmotic adjustment and growth. Most of these studies have been limited to greenhouse or container-grown plants. Osmotic adjustment and rapid growth have been specifically associated in Populus and black spruce (Picea mariuna (Mill.) B.S.P.) progenies. We tested whether these relationships held under field conditions using several poplar clones. In a study of two hybrid poplar

  12. Development of automated operating procedure system using fuzzy colored petri nets for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2004-01-01

    In this work, AuTomated Operating Procedure System (ATOPS) is developed. ATOPS is an automation system for emergency operation of a nuclear power plant (NPP) and it can monitor signals, diagnose statuses, and generate control actions according to corresponding operating procedures without any human operator's help. Main functions of ATOPS are an anomaly detection function and a procedure execution function but only the procedure execution function is implemented in this work because this work is just the first step. In the procedure execution function, operating procedures of NPPs are analyzed and modeled using Fuzzy Colored Petri Nets (FCPN) and executed depending on decision making of the inference engine. In this work, ATOPS prototype is developed to demonstrate its feasibility and it is also validated using the FISA-2/WS simulator. The validation is performed for the cases of a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) and a steam generator tube rupture (SGTR). The simulation results show that ATOPS works correctly in the emergency situations

  13. TBP production plant effluent treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriniwas, C.; Sugilal, G.; Wattal, P.K.

    2004-06-01

    TBP production facility at Heavy Water Plant, Talcher generates about 2000 litres of effluent per 200 kg batch. The effluent is basically an aqueous solution containing dissolved and dispersed organics such as dibutyl phosphate, butanol etc. The effluent has high salinity, chemical oxygen demand (30-80 g/L) and pungent odour. It requires treatment before discharge. A chemical precipitation process using ferric chloride was developed for quantitative separation of organics from the aqueous part of the effluent. This process facilitates the discharge of the aqueous effluent. Results of the laboratory and bench scale experiments on actual effluent samples are presented in this report. (author)

  14. The use of process simulation models in virtual commissioning of process automation software in drinking water treatment plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, G.I.M.; Kelderman, J.P.; Lapikas, T.; Van der Helm, A.W.C.; Van Schagen, K.M.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    This research deals with the contribution of process simulation models to the factory acceptance test (FAT) of process automation (PA) software of drinking water treatment plants. Two test teams tested the same piece of modified PA-software. One team used an advanced virtual commissioning (AVC)

  15. Historical plant cost and annual production expenses for selected electric plants, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a composite of the two prior publications, Hydroelectric Plant Construction Cost and Annual Production Expenses and Thermal-Electric Plant Construction Cost and Annual Production Expenses. Beginning in 1979, Thermal-Electric Plant Construction Cost and Annual Production Expenses contained information on both steam-electric and gas-turbine electric plant construction cost and annual production expenses. The summarized historical plant cost described under Historical Plant Cost in this report is the net cumulative-to-date actual outlays or expenditures for land, structures, and equipment to the utility. Historical plant cost is the initial investment in plant (cumulative to the date of initial commercial operation) plus the costs of all additions to the plant, less the value of retirements. Thus, historical plant cost includes expenditures made over several years, as modifications are made to the plant. Power Production Expenses is the reporting year's plant operation and maintenance expenses, including fuel expenses. These expenses do not include annual fixed charges on plant cost (capital costs) such as interest on debt, depreciation or amortization expenses, and taxes. Consequently, total production expenses and the derived unit costs are not the total cost of producing electric power at the various plants. This publication contains data on installed generating capacity, net generation, net capability, historical plant cost, production expenses, fuel consumption, physical and operating plant characteristics, and other relevant statistical information for selected plants

  16. Plants as natural antioxidants for meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomović, V.; Jokanović, M.; Šojić, B.; Škaljac, S.; Ivić, M.

    2017-09-01

    The meat industry is demanding antioxidants from natural sources to replace synthetic antioxidants because of the negative health consequences or beliefs regarding some synthetic ones. Plants materials provide good alternatives. Spices and herbs, generally used for their flavouring characteristics, can be added to meat products in various forms: whole, ground, or as isolates from their extracts. These natural antioxidants contain some active compounds, which exert antioxidative potential in meat products. This antioxidant activity is most often due to phenolic acids, phenolic diterpenes, flavonoids and volatile oils. Each of these compounds often has strong H-donating activity, thus making them extremely effective antioxidants; some compounds can chelate metals and donate H to oxygen radicals, thus slowing oxidation via two mechanisms. Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of natural antioxidants when used in meat products. Based on this literature review, it can be concluded that natural antioxidants are added to fresh and processed meat and meat products to delay, retard, or prevent lipid oxidation, retard development of off-flavours (rancidity), improve colour stability, improve microbiological quality and extend shelf-life, without any damage to the sensory or nutritional properties.

  17. Interannual variability of plant phenology in tussock tundra: modelling interactions of plant productivity, plant phenology, snowmelt and soil thaw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van M.T.; Williams, M.; Laundre, J.A.; Shaver, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    We present a linked model of plant productivity, plant phenology, snowmelt and soil thaw in order to estimate interannual variability of arctic plant phenology and its effects on plant productivity. The model is tested using 8 years of soil temperature data, and three years of bud break data of

  18. Earthworm and belowground competition effects on plant productivity in a plant diversity gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Milcu, Alexandru; Nitschke, Norma; Sabais, Alexander C W; Scherber, Christoph; Scheu, Stefan

    2009-08-01

    Diversity is one major factor driving plant productivity in temperate grasslands. Although decomposers like earthworms are known to affect plant productivity, interacting effects of plant diversity and earthworms on plant productivity have been neglected in field studies. We investigated in the field the effects of earthworms on plant productivity, their interaction with plant species and functional group richness, and their effects on belowground plant competition. In the framework of the Jena Experiment we determined plant community productivity (in 2004 and 2007) and performance of two phytometer plant species [Centaurea jacea (herb) and Lolium perenne (grass); in 2007 and 2008] in a plant species (from one to 16) and functional group richness gradient (from one to four). We sampled earthworm subplots and subplots with decreased earthworm density and reduced aboveground competition of phytometer plants by removing the shoot biomass of the resident plant community. Earthworms increased total plant community productivity (+11%), legume shoot biomass (+35%) and shoot biomass of the phytometer C. jacea (+21%). Further, phytometer performance decreased, i.e. belowground competition increased, with increasing plant species and functional group richness. Although single plant functional groups benefited from higher earthworm numbers, the effects did not vary with plant species and functional group richness. The present study indicates that earthworms indeed affect the productivity of semi-natural grasslands irrespective of the diversity of the plant community. Belowground competition increased with increasing plant species diversity. However, belowground competition was modified by earthworms as reflected by increased productivity of the phytometer C. jacea. Moreover, particularly legumes benefited from earthworm presence. Considering also previous studies, we suggest that earthworms and legumes form a loose mutualistic relationship affecting essential ecosystem

  19. [Problems and outlook for plant production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manichon, H

    1996-11-01

    Environmental damages due to very intensive cropping systems do exist. A lot of people think it is necessary to prohibit the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, as well as in developed and developing countries. If so, global production would dramatically decrease while human population is increasing. The objective of feeding population of the world could not be met, particularly in Africa. On the other hand, crop modelling shows that theoretical potential plant production in the world is sufficient, if environmental damages are avoided. Future challenge is double: increasing food production and protecting the environment. Different ways to achieve this goal are analyzed. Increasing food production only in developed countries is environmentally and economically not practicable because of high cost and social damages in developing countries. Each country has to increase its own production, particularly in the South. But adopting the very intensive cropping systems existing in the North is not possible. The challenge is to be able to increase crop production in each place, taking into account biophysical, sociological, economical and political peculiarities. In some places, existing extensive cropping systems cause damages to the environment, because population pressure lead to increase cultivated areas, consequently reducing follow and pasture of forest areas: these systems are not sustainable if not intensified. In other places, even in the South, water pollution results from excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides. A new paradigm is proposed to take into account this great diversity of situations: the "Doubly Green Revolution" will allow to define adapted and sustainable cropping systems. Scientific results obtained along last century and including recent results in biotechnology, will be at the basis of these new systems.

  20. Automated determinations of selenium in thermal power plant wastewater by sequential hydride generation and chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoe, Kentaro; Ohyama, Seiichi; Hashem, Md Abul; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Toda, Kei

    2016-02-01

    After the Fukushima disaster, power generation from nuclear power plants in Japan was completely stopped and old coal-based power plants were re-commissioned to compensate for the decrease in power generation capacity. Although coal is a relatively inexpensive fuel for power generation, it contains high levels (mgkg(-1)) of selenium, which could contaminate the wastewater from thermal power plants. In this work, an automated selenium monitoring system was developed based on sequential hydride generation and chemiluminescence detection. This method could be applied to control of wastewater contamination. In this method, selenium is vaporized as H2Se, which reacts with ozone to produce chemiluminescence. However, interference from arsenic is of concern because the ozone-induced chemiluminescence intensity of H2Se is much lower than that of AsH3. This problem was successfully addressed by vaporizing arsenic and selenium individually in a sequential procedure using a syringe pump equipped with an eight-port selection valve and hot and cold reactors. Oxidative decomposition of organoselenium compounds and pre-reduction of the selenium were performed in the hot reactor, and vapor generation of arsenic and selenium were performed separately in the cold reactor. Sample transfers between the reactors were carried out by a pneumatic air operation by switching with three-way solenoid valves. The detection limit for selenium was 0.008 mg L(-1) and calibration curve was linear up to 1.0 mg L(-1), which provided suitable performance for controlling selenium in wastewater to around the allowable limit (0.1 mg L(-1)). This system consumes few chemicals and is stable for more than a month without any maintenance. Wastewater samples from thermal power plants were collected, and data obtained by the proposed method were compared with those from batchwise water treatment followed by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  1. Automized squark-neutralino production to next-to-leading order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binoth, Thomas; Wigmore, Ioan; Netto, Dorival Goncalves; Lopez-Val, David; Plehn, Tilman; Mawatari, Kentarou

    2011-01-01

    The production of one hard jet in association with missing transverse energy is a major LHC search channel motivated by many scenarios for physics beyond the standard model. In scenarios with a weakly interacting dark matter candidate, like supersymmetry, it arises from the associated production of a quark partner with the dark matter agent. We present the next-to-leading-order cross section calculation as the first application of the fully automized MadGolem package. We find moderate corrections to the production rate with a strongly reduced theory uncertainty.

  2. Interdisciplinary development of manual and automated product usability assessments for older adults with dementia: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boger, Jennifer; Taati, Babak; Mihailidis, Alex

    2016-10-01

    The changes in cognitive abilities that accompany dementia can make it difficult to use everyday products that are required to complete activities of daily living. Products that are inherently more usable for people with dementia could facilitate independent activity completion, thus reducing the need for caregiver assistance. The objectives of this research were to: (1) gain an understanding of how water tap design impacted tap usability and (2) create an automated computerized tool that could assess tap usability. 27 older adults, who ranged from cognitively intact to advanced dementia, completed 1309 trials on five tap designs. Data were manually analyzed to investigate tap usability as well as used to develop an automated usability analysis tool. Researchers collaborated to modify existing techniques and to create novel ones to accomplish both goals. This paper presents lessons learned through the course of this research, which could be applicable in the development of other usability studies, automated vision-based assessments and the development of assistive technologies for cognitively impaired older adults. Collaborative interdisciplinary teamwork, which included older adult with dementia participants, was key to enabling innovative advances that achieved the projects' research goals. Implications for Rehabilitation Products that are implicitly familiar and usable by older adults could foster independent activity completion, potentially reducing reliance on a caregiver. The computer-based automated tool can significantly reduce the time and effort required to perform product usability analysis, making this type of analysis more feasible. Interdisciplinary collaboration can result in a more holistic understanding of assistive technology research challenges and enable innovative solutions.

  3. Towards Continuous Integration in Model-Based Engineering of Automated Production Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Mund, Iman Badr, Safa Bougouffa, Birgit Vogel-Heuser

    2017-01-01

    Continuous integration (CI) is widely used in software engineering. The observed benefits include reduced efforts for system integration, which is particularly appealing for engineering automated production systems (aPS) due to the different disciplines involved. Yet, while many individual quality assurance means for aPS have been proposed, their adequacy for and systematic use in CI remains unclear. In this article, we provide two key contributions: First, we propose a quality model for mode...

  4. Development of An Optimization Method for Determining Automation Rate in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Min; Seong, Poong Hyun; Kim, Jong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Since automation was introduced in various industrial fields, it has been known that automation provides positive effects like greater efficiency and fewer human errors, and negative effect defined as out-of-the-loop (OOTL). Thus, before introducing automation in nuclear field, the estimation of the positive and negative effects of automation on human operators should be conducted. In this paper, by focusing on CPS, the optimization method to find an appropriate proportion of automation is suggested by integrating the suggested cognitive automation rate and the concepts of the level of ostracism. The cognitive automation rate estimation method was suggested to express the reduced amount of human cognitive loads, and the level of ostracism was suggested to express the difficulty in obtaining information from the automation system and increased uncertainty of human operators' diagnosis. The maximized proportion of automation that maintains the high level of attention for monitoring the situation is derived by an experiment, and the automation rate is estimated by the suggested automation rate estimation method. It is expected to derive an appropriate inclusion proportion of the automation system avoiding the OOTL problem and having maximum efficacy at the same time

  5. On the databases and automated system for prediction of the power-genrating plant strength and operating life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyurin, O.S.; Petushkov, V.A.; Romanov, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    Problems on strength and operating life computer calculation of structural elements of automated power generating plants which operate under conditions of cyclic loading are considered. Structural charts and organization of the problem-oriented databases and information systems are discussed and analyzed. A variant of the database organization is suggested for the automated system of strength calculations. Methods for calculation of stress-strained states and temperature fields of the structural elements are described as dependent on actual operating conditions, plotting of the loading history and prediction of the life at the stages up to the crack initiation and development

  6. Production Planning and Planting Pattern Scheduling Information System for Horticulture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitadiar, Tanhella Zein; Farikhin; Surarso, Bayu

    2018-02-01

    This paper present the production of planning and planting pattern scheduling faced by horticulture farmer using two methods. Fuzzy time series method use to predict demand on based on sales amount, while linear programming is used to assist horticulture farmers in making production planning decisions and determining the schedule of cropping patterns in accordance with demand predictions of the fuzzy time series method, variable use in this paper is size of areas, production advantage, amount of seeds and age of the plants. This research result production planning and planting patterns scheduling information system with the output is recommendations planting schedule, harvest schedule and the number of seeds will be plant.

  7. Automating gene library synthesis by structure-based combinatorial protein engineering: examples from plant sesquiterpene synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokarry, Melissa; Laurendon, Caroline; O'Maille, Paul E

    2012-01-01

    Structure-based combinatorial protein engineering (SCOPE) is a homology-independent recombination method to create multiple crossover gene libraries by assembling defined combinations of structural elements ranging from single mutations to domains of protein structure. SCOPE was originally inspired by DNA shuffling, which mimics recombination during meiosis, where mutations from parental genes are "shuffled" to create novel combinations in the resulting progeny. DNA shuffling utilizes sequence identity between parental genes to mediate template-switching events (the annealing and extension of one parental gene fragment on another) in PCR reassembly reactions to generate crossovers and hence recombination between parental genes. In light of the conservation of protein structure and degeneracy of sequence, SCOPE was developed to enable the "shuffling" of distantly related genes with no requirement for sequence identity. The central principle involves the use of oligonucleotides to encode for crossover regions to choreograph template-switching events during PCR assembly of gene fragments to create chimeric genes. This approach was initially developed to create libraries of hybrid DNA polymerases from distantly related parents, and later developed to create a combinatorial mutant library of sesquiterpene synthases to explore the catalytic landscapes underlying the functional divergence of related enzymes. This chapter presents a simplified protocol of SCOPE that can be integrated with different mutagenesis techniques and is suitable for automation by liquid-handling robots. Two examples are presented to illustrate the application of SCOPE to create gene libraries using plant sesquiterpene synthases as the model system. In the first example, we outline how to create an active-site library as a series of complex mixtures of diverse mutants. In the second example, we outline how to create a focused library as an array of individual clones to distil minimal combinations of

  8. The control and automation of a complex experimental plant: The Sesta test facility; L`automazione di un impiuanto sperimentale complesso: La stazione di Sesta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maini, Michele; Prandoni, Walter [ENEL Spa, Cologno Monzese (Italy). Polo Elettrico e Automazione. Unita` Robotica

    1997-05-01

    The running of complex experimental plants in the field of energetic sources involves a strong component of automation. Since they are unique and innovative plants there are not well defined ways to run them. So it is necessary to design the automation each time and then to select the proper resources for the implementation. The plant for the testing of gas turbine components of Sesta is an important example of this type of approach.

  9. Towards intelligent automation of power plant design and operations: The role of interactive simulations and distributed expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otaduy, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    The design process of a power plant can be viewed as machine- chromosome engineering: When the final layout is implemented, the lifetime operating characteristics, constraints, strengths, and weaknesses of the resulting power-plant-specimen are durably determined. Hence, the safety, operability, maneuverability, availability, maintenance requirements, and costs of a power plant are directly related to the goodness of its electromechanical-genes. This paper addresses the desirability of incorporating distributed computing, distributed object management, and multimedia technologies to power plant engineering, in particular, to design and operations. The promise these technologies have for enhancing the quality and amount of engineering knowledge available, concurrently, online, to plant designers, maintenance crews, and operators is put into perspective. The role that advanced interactive simulations and expert systems will play in the intelligent automation of power plant design and operations is discussed

  10. Automated production of recombinant human proteins as resource for proteome research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poustka Annemarie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An arbitrary set of 96 human proteins was selected and tested to set-up a fully automated protein production strategy, covering all steps from DNA preparation to protein purification and analysis. The target proteins are encoded by functionally uncharacterized open reading frames (ORF identified by the German cDNA consortium. Fusion proteins were produced in E. coli with four different fusion tags and tested in five different purification strategies depending on the respective fusion tag. The automated strategy relies on standard liquid handling and clone picking equipment. Results A robust automated strategy for the production of recombinant human proteins in E. coli was established based on a set of four different protein expression vectors resulting in NusA/His, MBP/His, GST and His-tagged proteins. The yield of soluble fusion protein was correlated with the induction temperature and the respective fusion tag. NusA/His and MBP/His fusion proteins are best expressed at low temperature (25°C, whereas the yield of soluble GST fusion proteins was higher when protein expression was induced at elevated temperature. In contrast, the induction of soluble His-tagged fusion proteins was independent of the temperature. Amylose was not found useful for affinity-purification of MBP/His fusion proteins in a high-throughput setting, and metal chelating chromatography is recommended instead. Conclusion Soluble fusion proteins can be produced in E. coli in sufficient qualities and μg/ml culture quantities for downstream applications like microarray-based assays, and studies on protein-protein interactions employing a fully automated protein expression and purification strategy. Future applications might include the optimization of experimental conditions for the large-scale production of soluble recombinant proteins from libraries of open reading frames.

  11. Process development for automated solar-cell and module production. Task 4. Automated array assembly. Quarterly report No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagerty, J. J.; Gifford, M.

    1981-04-15

    The Automated Lamination Station is mechanically complete and is currently undergoing final wiring. The high current driver and isolator boards have been completed and installed, and the main interface board is under construction. The automated vacuum chamber has had a minor redesign to increase stiffness and improve the cover open/close mechanism. Design of the Final Assembly Station has been completed and construction is underway.

  12. Californium production at the transuranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Transuranium Processing Plant (TRU) at ORNL, which is the production, storage, and distribution center for the ERDA heavy element research program, is described. About 0.5 percent of 252 Cf is currently being produced. TRU is a hot-cell, chemical processing facility of advanced design. New concepts have been incorporated into the facility for absolute containment, remote operation, remote equipment installation, and remote maintenance. The facilities include a battery of nine heavily shielded process cells served by master-slave manipulators and eight laboratories, four on each of two floors. Processing includes chemical dissolution of the targets followed by a series of solvent extraction, ion exchange, and precipitation steps to separate and purify the transuranium elements. The transcurium elements Bk, Cf, Es, and Fm are distributed to users. Remote techniques are used to fabricate the Am and Cm into target rods for reirradiation in the HFIR. Californium-252 that is in excess of the needs of the heavy element research program and the Cf sales program is stored at TRU and processed repeatedly to recover the daughter product 248 Cm, which is a highly desirable research material

  13. Technoeconomic study of supercritical biodiesel production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, J.M.; Errazu, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last years, biodiesel has gained more market due to its benefits and because it appears as the natural substitute for diesel. However, the highest cost of this process is associated with the raw material employed, making it a less competitive and more expensive fuel. Therefore, research is being done in order to use low price raw material, such as acid oils, frying oils or soapstocks. In this work, a biodiesel production plant was developed using supercritical methanol and acid oils as raw materials. This technology was compared with some other alternatives previously described with the aim of making a comparative study, not only on the technical aspects but also on the economic results. A process simulator was employed to produce the conceptual design and simulate each technology. Using these models, it was possible to analyze different scenarios and to evaluate productivity, raw material consumption, economic competitiveness and environmental impacts of each process. Although the supercritical alternative appears as a good technical possibility to produce biodiesel, today, it is not an economic alternative due to its high operating costs

  14. Qualification of academic facilities for small-scale automated manufacture of autologous cell-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourd, Paul; Chandra, Amit; Alvey, David; Ginty, Patrick; McCall, Mark; Ratcliffe, Elizabeth; Rayment, Erin; Williams, David J

    2014-01-01

    Academic centers, hospitals and small companies, as typical development settings for UK regenerative medicine assets, are significant contributors to the development of autologous cell-based therapies. Often lacking the appropriate funding, quality assurance heritage or specialist regulatory expertise, qualifying aseptic cell processing facilities for GMP compliance is a significant challenge. The qualification of a new Cell Therapy Manufacturing Facility with automated processing capability, the first of its kind in a UK academic setting, provides a unique demonstrator for the qualification of small-scale, automated facilities for GMP-compliant manufacture of autologous cell-based products in these settings. This paper shares our experiences in qualifying the Cell Therapy Manufacturing Facility, focusing on our approach to streamlining the qualification effort, the challenges, project delays and inefficiencies we encountered, and the subsequent lessons learned.

  15. Automated pipeline for rapid production and screening of HIV-specific monoclonal antibodies using pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kartik A; Clark, John J; Goods, Brittany A; Politano, Timothy J; Mozdzierz, Nicholas J; Zimnisky, Ross M; Leeson, Rachel L; Love, J Christopher; Love, Kerry R

    2015-12-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind and neutralize human pathogens have great therapeutic potential. Advances in automated screening and liquid handling have resulted in the ability to discover antigen-specific antibodies either directly from human blood or from various combinatorial libraries (phage, bacteria, or yeast). There remain, however, bottlenecks in the cloning, expression and evaluation of such lead antibodies identified in primary screens that hinder high-throughput screening. As such, "hit-to-lead identification" remains both expensive and time-consuming. By combining the advantages of overlap extension PCR (OE-PCR) and a genetically stable yet easily manipulatable microbial expression host Pichia pastoris, we have developed an automated pipeline for the rapid production and screening of full-length antigen-specific mAbs. Here, we demonstrate the speed, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of our approach by generating several broadly neutralizing antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Editorial: from plant biotechnology to bio-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöger, Eva

    2013-10-01

    From plant biotechnology to bio-based products - this Special Issue of Biotechnology Journal is dedicated to plant biotechnology and is edited by Prof. Eva Stöger (University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria). The Special Issue covers a wide range of topics in plant biotechnology, including metabolic engineering of biosynthesis pathways in plants; taking advantage of the scalability of the plant system for the production of innovative materials; as well as the regulatory challenges and society acceptance of plant biotechnology. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Automated Leaf Tracking using Multi-view Image Sequences of Maize Plants for Leaf-growth Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Choudhury, S.; Awada, T.; Samal, A.; Stoerger, V.; Bashyam, S.

    2017-12-01

    Extraction of phenotypes with botanical importance by analyzing plant image sequences has the desirable advantages of non-destructive temporal phenotypic measurements of a large number of plants with little or no manual intervention in a relatively short period of time. The health of a plant is best interpreted by the emergence timing and temporal growth of individual leaves. For automated leaf growth monitoring, it is essential to track each leaf throughout the life cycle of the plant. Plants are constantly changing organisms with increasing complexity in architecture due to variations in self-occlusions and phyllotaxy, i.e., arrangements of leaves around the stem. The leaf cross-overs pose challenges to accurately track each leaf using single view image sequence. Thus, we introduce a novel automated leaf tracking algorithm using a graph theoretic approach by multi-view image sequence analysis based on the determination of leaf-tips and leaf-junctions in the 3D space. The basis of the leaf tracking algorithm is: the leaves emerge using bottom-up approach in the case of a maize plant, and the direction of leaf emergence strictly alternates in terms of direction. The algorithm involves labeling of the individual parts of a plant, i.e., leaves and stem, following graphical representation of the plant skeleton, i.e., one-pixel wide connected line obtained from the binary image. The length of the leaf is measured by the number of pixels in the leaf skeleton. To evaluate the performance of the algorithm, a benchmark dataset is indispensable. Thus, we publicly release University of Nebraska-Lincoln Component Plant Phenotyping dataset-2 (UNL-CPPD-2) consisting of images of the 20 maize plants captured by visible light camera of the Lemnatec Scanalyzer 3D high throughout plant phenotyping facility once daily for 60 days from 10 different views. The dataset is aimed to facilitate the development and evaluation of leaf tracking algorithms and their uniform comparisons.

  18. Evaluating space station applications of automation and robotics technologies from a human productivity point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    The role that automation, robotics, and artificial intelligence will play in Space Station operations is now beginning to take shape. Although there is only limited data on the precise nature of the payoffs that these technologies are likely to afford there is a general consensus that, at a minimum, the following benefits will be realized: increased responsiveness to innovation, lower operating costs, and reduction of exposure to hazards. Nevertheless, the question arises as to how much automation can be justified with the technical and economic constraints of the program? The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology which can be used to evaluate and rank different approaches to automating the functions and tasks planned for the Space Station. Special attention is given to the impact of advanced automation on human productivity. The methodology employed is based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process. This permits the introduction of individual judgements to resolve the confict that normally arises when incomparable criteria underly the selection process. Because of the large number of factors involved in the model, the overall problem is decomposed into four subproblems individually focusing on human productivity, economics, design, and operations, respectively. The results from each are then combined to yield the final rankings. To demonstrate the methodology, an example is developed based on the selection of an on-orbit assembly system. Five alternatives for performing this task are identified, ranging from an astronaut working in space, to a dexterous manipulator with sensory feedback. Computational results are presented along with their implications. A final parametric analysis shows that the outcome is locally insensitive to all but complete reversals in preference.

  19. Preparing for Automated Derivation of Products in a Software Product Line

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGregor, John D

    2005-01-01

    Organizations that adopt a software product line strategy often have business goals that concern improving their ability to produce products by lowering product development costs, reducing the time...

  20. Automated Arabidopsis plant root cell segmentation based on SVM classification and region merging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuzzo, Monica; Quelhas, Pedro; Campilho, Ana; Mendonça, Ana Maria; Campilho, Aurélio

    2009-09-01

    To obtain development information of individual plant cells, it is necessary to perform in vivo imaging of the specimen under study, through time-lapse confocal microscopy. Automation of cell detection/marking process is important to provide research tools in order to ease the search for special events, such as cell division. In this paper we discuss an automatic cell detection approach for Arabidopsis thaliana based on segmentation, which selects the best cell candidates from a starting watershed-based image segmentation and improves the result by merging adjacent regions. The selection of individual cells is obtained using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier, based on a cell descriptor constructed from the shape and edge strength of the cells' contour. In addition we proposed a novel cell merging criterion based on edge strength along the line that connects adjacent cells' centroids, which is a valuable tool in the reduction of cell over-segmentation. The result is largely pruned of badly segmented and over-segmented cells, thus facilitating the study of cells. When comparing the results after merging with the basic watershed segmentation, we obtain 1.5% better coverage (increase in F-measure) and up to 27% better precision in correct cell segmentation.

  1. Multiple products management system with sensors array in automated storage and retrieval systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongbunyong, Supachai; Roengritronnachai, Perawat; Kongsanit, Savanut; Chanok-owat, Chawisa; Polchankajorn, Pongsakorn

    2018-01-01

    Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (AS/RS) have now been widely used in a number of industries due to its capability to automatically manage the storage of products in effective ways. One of the key features of AS/RS is that each rack is not assigned for a specific product resulting in the benefit of space utilization and logistics related issues. In this research, sensor arrays are equipped at each rack in order to enhance this feature. As a result, various products can be identified and mixed in each rack, so that the space utilization efficiency can be increased. To prove the concept, a prototype system consisting of a Cartesian robot that manages the storage and retrieval of products with 9 variations based on size and color. The concept of Cyber-Physical System and self-awareness of the system are also implemented in this concept prototype.

  2. Aromatic plant production on metal contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Craker, Lyle E.; Xing Baoshan; Nielsen, Niels E.; Wilcox, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Field and container experiments were conducted to assess the feasibility of growing aromatic crops in metal contaminated areas and the effect of metals on herbage and oil productivity. The field experiments were conducted in the vicinities of the Non-Ferrous Metals Combine (Zn-Cu smelter) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria using coriander, sage, dill, basil, hyssop, lemon balm, and chamomile grown at various distances from the smelter. Herbage essential oil yields of basil, chamomile, dill, and sage were reduced when they were grown closer to the smelter. Metal removal from the site with the harvestable plant parts was as high as 180 g ha -1 for Cd, 660 g ha -1 for Pb, 180 g ha -1 for Cu, 350 g ha -1 for Mn, and 205 g ha -1 for Zn. Sequential extraction of soil demonstrated that metal fractionation was affected by the distance to the smelter. With decreasing distance to the smelter, the transfer factor (TF) for Cu and Zn decreased but increased for Cd, while the bioavailability factor (BF) for Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn decreased. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalyses of contaminated soil verified that most of the Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn were in the form of small (< 1 μm) particles, although there were larger particles (1-5 μm) with high concentrations of individual metals. This study demonstrated that high concentrations of heavy metals in soil or growth medium did not result in metal transfer into the essential oil. Of the tested metals, only Cu at high concentrations may reduce oil content. Our results demonstrated that aromatic crops may not have significant phytoremediation potential, but growth of these crops in metal contaminated agricultural soils is a feasible alternative. Aromatic crops can provide economic return and metal-free final product, the essential oil

  3. Aromatic plant production on metal contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D. [Mississippi State, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences and North Mississippi Research and Extension Center, 5421 Highway 145 South, Verona, MS 38879 (United States)], E-mail: vj40@pss.msstate.edu; Craker, Lyle E.; Xing Baoshan [Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, 12 Stockbridge Hall, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Nielsen, Niels E. [Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility Lab, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK1871, Copenhagen (Denmark); Wilcox, Andrew [Harper Adams University College, Newport, Shropshire, TF10 8NB (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-01

    Field and container experiments were conducted to assess the feasibility of growing aromatic crops in metal contaminated areas and the effect of metals on herbage and oil productivity. The field experiments were conducted in the vicinities of the Non-Ferrous Metals Combine (Zn-Cu smelter) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria using coriander, sage, dill, basil, hyssop, lemon balm, and chamomile grown at various distances from the smelter. Herbage essential oil yields of basil, chamomile, dill, and sage were reduced when they were grown closer to the smelter. Metal removal from the site with the harvestable plant parts was as high as 180 g ha{sup -1} for Cd, 660 g ha{sup -1} for Pb, 180 g ha{sup -1} for Cu, 350 g ha{sup -1} for Mn, and 205 g ha{sup -1} for Zn. Sequential extraction of soil demonstrated that metal fractionation was affected by the distance to the smelter. With decreasing distance to the smelter, the transfer factor (TF) for Cu and Zn decreased but increased for Cd, while the bioavailability factor (BF) for Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn decreased. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalyses of contaminated soil verified that most of the Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn were in the form of small (< 1 {mu}m) particles, although there were larger particles (1-5 {mu}m) with high concentrations of individual metals. This study demonstrated that high concentrations of heavy metals in soil or growth medium did not result in metal transfer into the essential oil. Of the tested metals, only Cu at high concentrations may reduce oil content. Our results demonstrated that aromatic crops may not have significant phytoremediation potential, but growth of these crops in metal contaminated agricultural soils is a feasible alternative. Aromatic crops can provide economic return and metal-free final product, the essential oil.

  4. Aromatic plant production on metal contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Craker, Lyle E; Xing, Baoshan; Nielsen, Niels E; Wilcox, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    Field and container experiments were conducted to assess the feasibility of growing aromatic crops in metal contaminated areas and the effect of metals on herbage and oil productivity. The field experiments were conducted in the vicinities of the Non-Ferrous Metals Combine (Zn-Cu smelter) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria using coriander, sage, dill, basil, hyssop, lemon balm, and chamomile grown at various distances from the smelter. Herbage essential oil yields of basil, chamomile, dill, and sage were reduced when they were grown closer to the smelter. Metal removal from the site with the harvestable plant parts was as high as 180 g ha(-1) for Cd, 660 g ha(-1) for Pb, 180 g ha(-1) for Cu, 350 g ha(-1) for Mn, and 205 g ha(-1) for Zn. Sequential extraction of soil demonstrated that metal fractionation was affected by the distance to the smelter. With decreasing distance to the smelter, the transfer factor (TF) for Cu and Zn decreased but increased for Cd, while the bioavailability factor (BF) for Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn decreased. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalyses of contaminated soil verified that most of the Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn were in the form of small (metals. This study demonstrated that high concentrations of heavy metals in soil or growth medium did not result in metal transfer into the essential oil. Of the tested metals, only Cu at high concentrations may reduce oil content. Our results demonstrated that aromatic crops may not have significant phytoremediation potential, but growth of these crops in metal contaminated agricultural soils is a feasible alternative. Aromatic crops can provide economic return and metal-free final product, the essential oil.

  5. Process automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Process automation technology has been pursued in the chemical processing industries and to a very limited extent in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Its effective use has been restricted in the past by the lack of diverse and reliable process instrumentation and the unavailability of sophisticated software designed for process control. The Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility was developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in part to demonstrate new concepts for control of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A demonstration of fuel reprocessing equipment automation using advanced instrumentation and a modern, microprocessor-based control system is nearing completion in the facility. This facility provides for the synergistic testing of all chemical process features of a prototypical fuel reprocessing plant that can be attained with unirradiated uranium-bearing feed materials. The unique equipment and mission of the IET facility make it an ideal test bed for automation studies. This effort will provide for the demonstration of the plant automation concept and for the development of techniques for similar applications in a full-scale plant. A set of preliminary recommendations for implementing process automation has been compiled. Some of these concepts are not generally recognized or accepted. The automation work now under way in the IET facility should be useful to others in helping avoid costly mistakes because of the underutilization or misapplication of process automation. 6 figs

  6. Automated fiber placement composite manufacturing: The mission at MSFC's Productivity Enhancement Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, John H.; Pelham, Larry I.

    1993-02-01

    Automated fiber placement is a manufacturing process used for producing complex composite structures. It is a notable leap to the state-of-the-art in technology for automated composite manufacturing. The fiber placement capability was established at the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Productivity Enhancement Complex in 1992 in collaboration with Thiokol Corporation to provide materials and processes research and development, and to fabricate components for many of the Center's Programs. The Fiber Placement System (FPX) was developed as a distinct solution to problems inherent to other automated composite manufacturing systems. This equipment provides unique capabilities to build composite parts in complex 3-D shapes with concave and other asymmetrical configurations. Components with complex geometries and localized reinforcements usually require labor intensive efforts resulting in expensive, less reproducible components; the fiber placement system has the features necessary to overcome these conditions. The mechanical systems of the equipment have the motion characteristics of a filament winder and the fiber lay-up attributes of a tape laying machine, with the additional capabilities of differential tow payout speeds, compaction and cut-restart to selectively place the correct number of fibers where the design dictates. This capability will produce a repeatable process resulting in lower cost and improved quality and reliability.

  7. Automatic controller to water plants Acionador automático para irrigar plantas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Oliveira Medici

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the massive demand of water for plant irrigation, there are few devices being used in the automation of this process in agriculture. This work evaluates a simple controller to water plants automatically that can be set up with low cost commercial materials, which are large-scale produced. This controller is composed by a ceramic capsule used in common domestic water filters; a plastic tube around 1.5 m long, and a pressostate used in domestic washing machines. The capsule and the pressostate are connected through the tube so that all parts are filled with water. The ceramic capsule is the sensor of the controller and has to be placed into the plant substrate. The pressostate has to be placed below the sensor and the lower it is, the higher is the water tension to start the irrigation, since the lower is the pressostate the higher is the water column above it and, therefore, the higher is the tension inside the ceramic cup to pull up the water column. The controller was evaluated in the control of drip irrigation for small containers filled with commercial organic substrate or soil. Linear regressions explained the relationship between the position of pressostate and the maximum water tension in the commercial substrate (p A despeito da enorme demanda por água na irrigação de plantas, existem poucos aparelhos para automação deste processo sendo usados na agricultura. Avaliou-se um acionador automático para irrigação, o qual pode ser confeccionado com materiais comerciais de baixo custo, pois são produzidos em larga escala. Este acionador é composto por uma cápsula cerâmica usada em filtros de água domésticos; um tubo plástico com cerca de um metro e meio de comprimento e um pressostato de máquinas de lavar roupas domésticas. A cápsula e o pressostato são conectados pelo tubo de forma que todo o espaço interno seja preenchido com água. A cápsula é o sensor do acionador e deve ser posicionada dentro do substrato das

  8. Gallium‐68 DOTATATE Production with Automated PET Radiopharmaceutical Synthesis System: A Three Year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Aslani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Gallium‐68 (Ga‐68 is an ideal research and hospital‐based PET radioisotope. Currently, the main form of Ga‐68 radiopharmaceutical that is being synthesised in‐house is Ga‐68 conjugated with DOTA based derivatives. The development of automated synthesis systems has increased the reliability, reproducibility and safety of radiopharmaceutical productions. Here we report on our three year, 500 syntheses experience with an automated system for Ga‐68 DOTATATE. Methods: The automated synthesis system we use is divided into three parts of a servomotor modules, b single use sterile synthesis cassettes and, c a computerized system that runs the modules. An audit trail is produced by the system as a requirement for GMP production. The required reagents and chemicals are made in‐. The Germanium breakthrough is determined on a weekly basis. Production yields for each synthesis are calculated to monitor the performance and efficiency of the synthesis. The quality of the final product is assessed after each synthesis by ITLC‐SG and HPLC methods. Results: A total of 500 Ga‐68 DOTATATE syntheses (>800 patient doses were performed between March 2011 and February 2014. The average generator yield was 81.3±0.2% for 2011, 76.7±0.4% for 2012 and 75.0±0.3% for 2013. Ga‐68 DOTATATE yields for 2011, 2012, and 2013 were 81.8±0.4%, 82.2±0.4% and 87.9±0.4%, respectively. These exceed the manufacturer’s expected value of approximately 70%. Germanium breakthrough averaged 8.6×10‐6% of total activity which is well below the recommended level of 0.001%. The average ITLC‐measured radiochemical purity was above 98.5% and the average HPLC‐measured radiochemical purity was above 99.5%. Although there were some system failures during synthesis, there were only eight occasions where the patient scans needed to be rescheduled. Conclusion: In our experience the automated synthesis system performs reliably with a relatively low incident

  9. Terrestrial plant methane production and emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    In this minireview, we evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants and plant. Clearly, despite much uncertainty and skepticism, we conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce...... aerobic CH4 into a global budget is inadequate. Thus it is too early to draw the line under the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  10. Industrial automation in floating production vessels for deep water oil and gas fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Garcia, A.L.; Ferrante, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    The process supervision in offshore platforms was performed in the past through the use of local pneumatic instrumentation, based on relays, semi-graphic panels and button operated control panels. Considering the advanced technology used in the new floating production projects for deep water, it became mandatory to develop supervision systems capable of integrating different control panels, increasing the level of monitorization and reducing the number of operators and control rooms. From the point of view of field integration, a standardized architecture makes the communication between different production platforms and the regional headquarters, where all the equipment and support infrastructure for the computerized network is installed, possible. This test paper describes the characteristics of the initial systems, the main problems observed, the studies performed and the results obtained in relation to the design and implementation of computational systems with open architecture for automation of process control in floating production systems for deep water in Brazil

  11. Soil biota suppress positive plant diversity effects on productivity at high but not low soil fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Shan; Deyn, De Gerlinde B.; Jiang, B.; Yu, Shixiao

    2017-01-01

    Plant community productivity commonly increases with increasing plant diversity, which is explained by complementarity among plant species in resource utilization (complementarity effect), or by selection of particularly productive plant species in diverse plant communities (selection effect).

  12. Transgenic plants as green factories for vaccine production | Vinod ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edible vaccine technology represents an alternative to fermentation based vaccine production system. Transgenic plants are used for the production of plant derived specific vaccines with native immunogenic properties stimulating both humoral and mucosal immune responses. Keeping in view the practical need of new ...

  13. Biotechnological applications for rosmarinic acid production in plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... valuable natural products. Plant as well as in vitro plant cell or tissue culture have served as resources for preservatives, natural pigments, flavors, enzymes, biobased fuels and plastics, cosmetics, and bioactive compounds (Mary, 2005). A series of distinct advantages such as production can be more ...

  14. Production of recombinant proteins in suspension-cultured plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasson, Carole; Michel, Rémy; Lienard, David; Saint-Jore-Dupas, Claude; Sourrouille, Christophe; de March, Ghislaine Grenier; Gomord, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    Plants have emerged in the past decade as a suitable alternative to the current production systems for recombinant pharmaceutical proteins and, today their potential for low-cost production of high quality, much safer and biologically active mammalian proteins is largely documented. Among various plant expression systems being explored, genetically modified suspension-cultured plant cells offer a promising system for production of biopharmaceuticals. Indeed, when compared to other plant-based production platforms that have been explored, suspension-cultured plant cells have the advantage of being totally devoid of problems associated with the vagaries of weather, pest, soil and gene flow in the environment. Because of short growth cycles, the timescale needed for the production of recombinant proteins in plant cell culture can be counted in days or weeks after transformation compared to months needed for the production in transgenic plants. Moreover, recovery and purification of recombinant proteins from plant biomass is an expensive and technically challenging business that may amount to 80-94% of the final product cost. One additional advantage of plant cell culture is that the recombinant protein fused with a signal sequence can be expressed and secreted into the culture medium, and therefore recovered and purified in the absence of large quantities of contaminating proteins. Consequently, the downstream processing of proteins extracted from plant cell culture medium is less expensive, which may/does balance the higher costs of fermentation. When needed for clinical use, recombinant proteins are easily produced in suspension-cultured plant cells under certified, controllable and sterile conditions that offer improved safety and provide advantages for good manufacturing practices and regulatory compliance. In this chapter, we present basic protocols for rapid generation of transgenic suspension-cultured cells of Nicotiana tabacum, Oriza sativa and Arabidopis

  15. A Methodology for the Development of a Production Experience Database for Earthmoving Operations Using Automated Data Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Kannan, Govindan

    1999-01-01

    Automated data acquisition has revolutionized the reliability of product design in recent years. A noteworthy example is the improvement in the design of aircrafts through field data. This research proposes a similar improvement in the reliability of process design of earthmoving operations through automated field data acquisition. The segment of earthmoving operations addressed in this research constitutes the truck-loader operation. Therefore, the applicability of this resear...

  16. Automated Flight Dynamics Product Generation for the EOS AM-1 Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusow, Carla

    1999-01-01

    As part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, the Earth Observing System (EOS) AM-1 spacecraft is designed to monitor long-term, global, environmental changes. Because of the complexity of the AM-1 spacecraft, the mission operations center requires more than 80 distinct flight dynamics products (reports). To create these products, the AM-1 Flight Dynamics Team (FDT) will use a combination of modified commercial software packages (e.g., Analytical Graphic's Satellite ToolKit) and NASA-developed software applications. While providing the most cost-effective solution to meeting the mission requirements, the integration of these software applications raises several operational concerns: (1) Routine product generation requires knowledge of multiple applications executing on variety of hardware platforms. (2) Generating products is a highly interactive process requiring a user to interact with each application multiple times to generate each product. (3) Routine product generation requires several hours to complete. (4) User interaction with each application introduces the potential for errors, since users are required to manually enter filenames and input parameters as well as run applications in the correct sequence. Generating products requires some level of flight dynamics expertise to determine the appropriate inputs and sequencing. To address these issues, the FDT developed an automation software tool called AutoProducts, which runs on a single hardware platform and provides all necessary coordination and communication among the various flight dynamics software applications. AutoProducts, autonomously retrieves necessary files, sequences and executes applications with correct input parameters, and deliver the final flight dynamics products to the appropriate customers. Although AutoProducts will normally generate pre-programmed sets of routine products, its graphical interface allows for easy configuration of customized and one-of-a-kind products. Additionally, AutoProducts

  17. Production planning in a Virtual Power Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, M.G.C.; Bakker, Vincent; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2009-01-01

    Distributed electricity generation is increasingly applied in the electricity grid. This generation can be more energy efficient than conventional generation; however, a large scale introduction of distributed generators implies possible instability in the grid. A Virtual Power Plant (VPP) deals

  18. Automated system for generation of soil moisture products for agricultural drought assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja Shekhar, S. S.; Chandrasekar, K.; Sesha Sai, M. V. R.; Diwakar, P. G.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    Drought is a frequently occurring disaster affecting lives of millions of people across the world every year. Several parameters, indices and models are being used globally to forecast / early warning of drought and monitoring drought for its prevalence, persistence and severity. Since drought is a complex phenomenon, large number of parameter/index need to be evaluated to sufficiently address the problem. It is a challenge to generate input parameters from different sources like space based data, ground data and collateral data in short intervals of time, where there may be limitation in terms of processing power, availability of domain expertise, specialized models & tools. In this study, effort has been made to automate the derivation of one of the important parameter in the drought studies viz Soil Moisture. Soil water balance bucket model is in vogue to arrive at soil moisture products, which is widely popular for its sensitivity to soil conditions and rainfall parameters. This model has been encoded into "Fish-Bone" architecture using COM technologies and Open Source libraries for best possible automation to fulfill the needs for a standard procedure of preparing input parameters and processing routines. The main aim of the system is to provide operational environment for generation of soil moisture products by facilitating users to concentrate on further enhancements and implementation of these parameters in related areas of research, without re-discovering the established models. Emphasis of the architecture is mainly based on available open source libraries for GIS and Raster IO operations for different file formats to ensure that the products can be widely distributed without the burden of any commercial dependencies. Further the system is automated to the extent of user free operations if required with inbuilt chain processing for every day generation of products at specified intervals. Operational software has inbuilt capabilities to automatically

  19. Plants and endophytes: equal partners in secondary metabolite production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig-Müller, Jutta

    2015-07-01

    Well known plant production systems should be re-evaluated due to findings that the interesting metabolite might actually be produced by microbes intimately associated with the plant, so-called endophytes. Endophytes can be bacteria or fungi and they are characterized usually by the feature that they do not cause any harm to the host. Indeed, in some cases, such as mycorrhizal fungi or other growth promoting endophytes, they can be beneficial for the plant. Here some examples are reviewed where the host plant and/or endophyte metabolism can be induced by the other partner. Also, partial or complete biosynthesis pathways for plant secondary metabolites can be attributed to such endophytes. In other cases the host plant is able to metabolize substances from fungal origin. The question of the natural role of such metabolic changes for the endophyte will be briefly touched. Finally, the consequences for the use of plant cultures for secondary metabolite production is discussed.

  20. Amino acid production exceeds plant nitrogen demand in Siberian tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Birgit; Eloy Alves, Ricardo J.; Bárta, Jiři; Čapek, Petr; Gentsch, Norman; Guggenberger, Georg; Hugelius, Gustaf; Knoltsch, Anna; Kuhry, Peter; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Mikutta, Robert; Palmtag, Juri; Prommer, Judith; Schnecker, Jörg; Shibistova, Olga; Takriti, Mounir; Urich, Tim; Richter, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Arctic plant productivity is often limited by low soil N availability. This has been attributed to slow breakdown of N-containing polymers in litter and soil organic matter (SOM) into smaller, available units, and to shallow plant rooting constrained by permafrost and high soil moisture. Using 15N pool dilution assays, we here quantified gross amino acid and ammonium production rates in 97 active layer samples from four sites across the Siberian Arctic. We found that amino acid production in organic layers alone exceeded literature-based estimates of maximum plant N uptake 17-fold and therefore reject the hypothesis that arctic plant N limitation results from slow SOM breakdown. High microbial N use efficiency in organic layers rather suggests strong competition of microorganisms and plants in the dominant rooting zone. Deeper horizons showed lower amino acid production rates per volume, but also lower microbial N use efficiency. Permafrost thaw together with soil drainage might facilitate deeper plant rooting and uptake of previously inaccessible subsoil N, and thereby promote plant productivity in arctic ecosystems. We conclude that changes in microbial decomposer activity, microbial N utilization and plant root density with soil depth interactively control N availability for plants in the Arctic.

  1. ENERGY PRODUCTION AND POLLUTION PREVENTION AT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS USING FUEL CELL POWER PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses energy production and pollution prevention at sewage treatment plants using fuel cell power plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at waste water treatment plants during the anaerobic treatment of sewage to reduce solids. The major constituents are...

  2. Plant Design for the Production of DUAGG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The cost of producing DUAGG is an important consideration for any interested private firm in determining whether DUCRETE is economically viable as a material of construction in next-generation spent nuclear fuel casks. This study analyzed this project as if it was a stand-alone project. The capital cost includes engineering design, equipment costs and installation, start up, and management; the study is not intended to be a life-cycle cost analysis. The costs estimated by this study are shown in Table ES.1, and the conclusions of this study are listed in Table ES.2. The development of DUAGG and DUCRETE is a major thrust of the Depleted Uranium Uses Research and Development Project. An obvious use of depleted uranium is as a shielding material (e.g., DUCRETE). DUCRETE is made by replacing the conventional stone aggregate in concrete with DUAGG. One objective of this project is to bring the development of DUCRETE to a point at which a demonstrated basis exists for its commercial deployment. The estimation of the costs to manufacture DUAGG is an important part of this effort. Paul Lessing and William Quapp developed DUAGG and DUCRETE as part of an Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) program to find beneficial uses for depleted uranium (DU). Subsequently, this technology was licensed to Teton Technologies, Inc. The DUAGG process mixes DUO 2 with sintering materials and additives to form pressed briquettes. These briquettes are sintered at 1300 C, and the very dense sintered briquettes are then crushed and classified into gap-graded size fractions. The graded DUAGG is then ready to be used to make high-strength heavy DUCRETE. The DUCRETE shielding will be placed into an annular steel cask-shell mold, which has internal steel reinforcing bars. The objectives of this study are to (1) use previous DUAGG process developments to design a plant that will produce DUAGG at a baseline rate, (2) determine the size of the equipment required to meet the

  3. Automation and use of robotic arm for development and routine production of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvadori, P.A.; Di Sacco, S.; Riva, A.; Fusani, L.

    1993-01-01

    The target of a radiopharmaceutical group is twofold: production of radiotracers for clinical use (routine) and development of new compounds. The level of activity to be handled selects the strategy to be used for radiocompounds handling, ranging from direct manipulation during basic development at microcurie level to sophisticated equipments such as automated black-boxes and robotic arms at curie level. The authors looked for a common solution, to both the management of routine productions and the problems arising during activity scaling up in new tracer development, by choosing a robotic arm integrated by a variety of specialized automatic devices able to perform actions which are difficult (too slow, too precise, too complicated, etc.,) to be made by the robot. The final solution from this approach is a open-quotes synthetic stationclose quotes with flexible architecture which can be used for different applications without harware modification/adaptation

  4. A prototype for automation of land-cover products from Landsat Surface Reflectance Data Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rover, J.; Goldhaber, M. B.; Steinwand, D.; Nelson, K.; Coan, M.; Wylie, B. K.; Dahal, D.; Wika, S.; Quenzer, R.

    2014-12-01

    Landsat data records of surface reflectance provide a three-decade history of land surface processes. Due to the vast number of these archived records, development of innovative approaches for automated data mining and information retrieval were necessary. Recently, we created a prototype utilizing open source software libraries for automatically generating annual Anderson Level 1 land cover maps and information products from data acquired by the Landsat Mission for the years 1984 to 2013. The automated prototype was applied to two target areas in northwestern and east-central North Dakota, USA. The approach required the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) and two user-input target acquisition year-days. The Landsat archive was mined for scenes acquired within a 100-day window surrounding these target dates, and then cloud-free pixels where chosen closest to the specified target acquisition dates. The selected pixels were then composited before completing an unsupervised classification using the NLCD. Pixels unchanged in pairs of the NLCD were used for training decision tree models in an iterative process refined with model confidence measures. The decision tree models were applied to the Landsat composites to generate a yearly land cover map and related information products. Results for the target areas captured changes associated with the recent expansion of oil shale production and agriculture driven by economics and policy, such as the increase in biofuel production and reduction in Conservation Reserve Program. Changes in agriculture, grasslands, and surface water reflect the local hydrological conditions that occurred during the 29-year span. Future enhancements considered for this prototype include a web-based client, ancillary spatial datasets, trends and clustering algorithms, and the forecasting of future land cover.

  5. Automating the production of high-purity zirconium from waste products in industrial furnaces SKB-5025 and apparatuses TS-40M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrikov, S.A.; Kotsar', M.L.; Lapidus, A.O.; Akhtonov, S.G.; Aleksandrov, A.V.; Ogorodnikov, L.V.; Chernyshev, A.A.; Kopysov, N.V.

    2014-01-01

    A disadvantage of iodide refining of zirconium in industrial furnaces in the processing of waste products production in JSC CMP is the low direct yield of the metal in iodide rods and large energy consumption of the process. The aim of this work is to optimize the process by means of automated control. The paper deals with the creation of a test unit to automate the iodide refining of zirconium in JSC CMP. The main features of the unit, the hardware and software of the automated unit and the results of its work during the operation are described. A scheme for the automation of 10 furnaces SKB-5025 by optimizing the total cost of computing equipment and for software improvements was proposed and implemented in 2012

  6. Comparison of automated BAX PCR and standard culture methods for detection of Listeria monocytogenes in blue Crabmeat (Callinectus sapidus) and blue crab processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagadala, Sivaranjani; Parveen, Salina; Schwarz, Jurgen G; Rippen, Thomas; Luchansky, John B

    2011-11-01

    This study compared the automated BAX PCR with the standard culture method (SCM) to detect Listeria monocytogenes in blue crab processing plants. Raw crabs, crabmeat, and environmental sponge samples were collected monthly from seven processing plants during the plant operating season, May through November 2006. For detection of L. monocytogenes in raw crabs and crabmeat, enrichment was performed in Listeria enrichment broth, whereas for environmental samples, demi-Fraser broth was used, and then plating on both Oxford agar and L. monocytogenes plating medium was done. Enriched samples were also analyzed by BAX PCR. A total of 960 samples were examined; 59 were positive by BAX PCR and 43 by SCM. Overall, there was no significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) between the methods for detecting the presence of L. monocytogenes in samples collected from crab processing plants. Twenty-two and 18 raw crab samples were positive for L. monocytogenes by SCM and BAX PCR, respectively. Twenty and 32 environmental samples were positive for L. monocytogenes by SCM and BAX PCR, respectively, whereas only one and nine finished products were positive. The sensitivities of BAX PCR for detecting L. monocytogenes in raw crabs, crabmeat, and environmental samples were 59.1, 100, and 60%, respectively. The results of this study indicate that BAX PCR is as sensitive as SCM for detecting L. monocytogenes in crabmeat, but more sensitive than SCM for detecting this bacterium in raw crabs and environmental samples.

  7. Integrated automatic non-destructive testing in industrial production and in the operation of technical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeller, P.

    1989-01-01

    The article deals with non-destructive testing (NDT) in automated manufacture and in the automated operation of industrial plant. In both areas of application, the tests are coupled to the process (real time operation) and the results are used for the control of manufacture or of the course of the process. The control process can be coupled to the process in open loop or closed loop. The subject is explained by the following examples: 1) Automated testing of sheets in a steelworks. 2) Automatic NDT on machine parts in tempering and machining by the 3MA system (3MA: micro-magnetic, multi-parameter, micro-structure and stress analysis). 3) Automated ultrasonic testing in manufacture and in the operation of plants with the ALOK data collection and processing system (ALOK: amplitude, running time, location curves). 4) Automated wheel running surface test on Intercity experimental train, and 5) automated level measurement on BWR pressure vessels. (orig./MM) [de

  8. Toward designing for trust in database automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duez, P. P.; Jamieson, G. A.

    2006-01-01

    Appropriate reliance on system automation is imperative for safe and productive work, especially in safety-critical systems. It is unsafe to rely on automation beyond its designed use; conversely, it can be both unproductive and unsafe to manually perform tasks that are better relegated to automated tools. Operator trust in automated tools mediates reliance, and trust appears to affect how operators use technology. As automated agents become more complex, the question of trust in automation is increasingly important. In order to achieve proper use of automation, we must engender an appropriate degree of trust that is sensitive to changes in operating functions and context. In this paper, we present research concerning trust in automation in the domain of automated tools for relational databases. Lee and See have provided models of trust in automation. One model developed by Lee and See identifies three key categories of information about the automation that lie along a continuum of attributional abstraction. Purpose-, process-and performance-related information serve, both individually and through inferences between them, to describe automation in such a way as to engender r properly-calibrated trust. Thus, one can look at information from different levels of attributional abstraction as a general requirements analysis for information key to appropriate trust in automation. The model of information necessary to engender appropriate trust in automation [1] is a general one. Although it describes categories of information, it does not provide insight on how to determine the specific information elements required for a given automated tool. We have applied the Abstraction Hierarchy (AH) to this problem in the domain of relational databases. The AH serves as a formal description of the automation at several levels of abstraction, ranging from a very abstract purpose-oriented description to a more concrete description of the resources involved in the automated process

  9. Automated intelligent rotor tine cultivation and punch planting to improve the selectivity of mechanical intra-row weed control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Griepentrog, Hans W.; Nielsen, Jon

    2012-01-01

    in sugar beet and carrot crops showed no synergistic effects between plant establishment procedures and selectivity of post-emergence weed harrowing. Even if punch planting and automated intelligent rotor tine cultivation were not combined, the results indicated that there was no reason to believe......There is much research on technical aspects related to sensor and mapping techniques, which enable so-called intelligent cultivators to target the intra-row spaces within crop rows. This study investigates (i) an expected advantage of an intelligent rotor tine cultivator (the cycloid hoe) in terms...... of crop-weed selectivity and (ii) an expected synergistic effect between punch planting and post-emergence weed harrowing, in terms of improved crop-weed selectivity. Selectivity is defined as the relationship between weed density decline and associated crop density decline 1 week after cultivation. Punch...

  10. An Analysis of the Records Management Process to Determine the Impact of Automation on Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    dressers , domestic workers, cleaners, and medical staff (14:267). 10 In macroeconomics, productivity is an important economic parameter. It is an indication...organizations. According to Christopher , API methods are similar to plant productivity measurement methods and can be used in cases where a single...output can be defined as the measure of successful performance of the organization (3:3.3). To develop an API, Christopher says that an organization

  11. Process development for automated solar cell and module production. Task 4. Automated array assembly. Quarterly report No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagerty, J. J.

    1980-10-15

    Work has been divided into five phases. The first phase is to modify existing hardware and controlling computer software to: (1) improve cell-to-cell placement accuracy, (2) improve the solder joint while reducing the amount of solder and flux smear on the cell's surface, and (3) reduce the system cycle time to 10 seconds. The second phase involves expanding the existing system's capabilities to be able to reject broken cells and make post-solder electrical tests. Phase 3 involves developing new hardware to allow for the automated encapsulation of solar modules. This involves three discrete pieces of hardware: (1) a vacuum platen end effector for the robot which allows it to pick up the 1' x 4' array of 35 inter-connected cells. With this, it can also pick up the cover glass and completed module, (2) a lamination preparation station which cuts the various encapsulation components from roll storage and positions them for encapsulation, and (3) an automated encapsulation chamber which interfaces with the above two and applies the heat and vacuum to cure the encapsulants. Phase 4 involves the final assembly of the encapsulated array into a framed, edge-sealed module completed for installation. For this we are using MBA's Glass Reinforced Concrete (GRC) in panels such as those developed by MBA for JPL under contract No. 955281. The GRC panel plays the multiple role of edge frame, substrate and mounting structure. An automated method of applying the edge seal will also be developed. The final phase (5) is the fabrication of six 1' x 4' electrically active solar modules using the above developed equipment. Progress is reported. (WHK)

  12. Development of Nuclear Power Plant Safety Evaluation Method for the Automation Algorithm Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Geun; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    It is commonly believed that replacing human operators to the automated system would guarantee greater efficiency, lower workloads, and fewer human error. Conventional machine learning techniques are considered as not capable to handle complex situations in NPP. Due to these kinds of issues, automation is not actively adopted although human error probability drastically increases during abnormal situations in NPP due to overload of information, high workload, and short time available for diagnosis. Recently, new machine learning techniques, which are known as ‘deep learning’ techniques have been actively applied to many fields, and the deep learning technique-based artificial intelligences (AIs) are showing better performance than conventional AIs. In 2015, deep Q-network (DQN) which is one of the deep learning techniques was developed and applied to train AI that automatically plays various Atari 2800 games, and this AI surpassed the human-level playing in many kind of games. Also in 2016, ‘Alpha-Go’, which was developed by ‘Google Deepmind’ based on deep learning technique to play the game of Go (i.e. Baduk), was defeated Se-dol Lee who is the World Go champion with score of 4:1. By the effort for reducing human error in NPPs, the ultimate goal of this study is the development of automation algorithm which can cover various situations in NPPs. As the first part, quantitative and real-time NPP safety evaluation method is being developed in order to provide the training criteria for automation algorithm. For that, EWS concept of medical field was adopted, and the applicability is investigated in this paper. Practically, the application of full automation (i.e. fully replaces human operators) may requires much more time for the validation and investigation of side-effects after the development of automation algorithm, and so the adoption in the form of full automation will take long time.

  13. Development of Nuclear Power Plant Safety Evaluation Method for the Automation Algorithm Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Geun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly believed that replacing human operators to the automated system would guarantee greater efficiency, lower workloads, and fewer human error. Conventional machine learning techniques are considered as not capable to handle complex situations in NPP. Due to these kinds of issues, automation is not actively adopted although human error probability drastically increases during abnormal situations in NPP due to overload of information, high workload, and short time available for diagnosis. Recently, new machine learning techniques, which are known as ‘deep learning’ techniques have been actively applied to many fields, and the deep learning technique-based artificial intelligences (AIs) are showing better performance than conventional AIs. In 2015, deep Q-network (DQN) which is one of the deep learning techniques was developed and applied to train AI that automatically plays various Atari 2800 games, and this AI surpassed the human-level playing in many kind of games. Also in 2016, ‘Alpha-Go’, which was developed by ‘Google Deepmind’ based on deep learning technique to play the game of Go (i.e. Baduk), was defeated Se-dol Lee who is the World Go champion with score of 4:1. By the effort for reducing human error in NPPs, the ultimate goal of this study is the development of automation algorithm which can cover various situations in NPPs. As the first part, quantitative and real-time NPP safety evaluation method is being developed in order to provide the training criteria for automation algorithm. For that, EWS concept of medical field was adopted, and the applicability is investigated in this paper. Practically, the application of full automation (i.e. fully replaces human operators) may requires much more time for the validation and investigation of side-effects after the development of automation algorithm, and so the adoption in the form of full automation will take long time

  14. Opportunities for Products of New Plant Breeding Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaart, J.G.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Smulders, Rene

    2016-01-01

    Various new plant breeding techniques (NPBT) have a similar aim, namely to produce improved crop varieties that are difficult to obtain through traditional breeding methods. Here, we review the opportunities for products created using NPBTs. We categorize products of these NPBTs into three product

  15. Software package to automate the design and production of translucent building structures made of pvc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrova Irina Yur’evna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of the design and production of translucent building structures made of PVC. The analysis of the automation systems of this process currently existing on the market is carried out, their advantages and disadvantages are identified. Basing on this analysis, a set of requirements for automation systems for the design and production of translucent building structures made of PVC is formulated; the basic entities are involved in those business processes. The necessary functions for the main application and for dealers’ application are specified. The main application is based on technological platform 1C: Enterprise 8.2. The dealers’ module is .NET application and is developed with the use of Microsoft Visual Studio and Microsoft SQL Server because these software products have client versions free for end users (.NET Framework 4.0 Client Profile and Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Express. The features of the developed software complex implementation are described; the relevant charts are given. The scheme of system deployment and protocols of data exchange between 1C server, 1C client and dealer is presented. Also the functions supported by 1C module and .NET module are described. The article describes the content of class library developed for .NET module. The specification of integration of the two applications in a single software package is given. The features of the GUI organization are described; the corresponding screenshots are given. The possible ways of further development of the described software complex are presented and a conclusion about its competitiveness and expediency of new researches is made.

  16. Intelligent Case Based Decision Support System for Online Diagnosis of Automated Production System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Rabah, N.; Saddem, R.; Ben Hmida, F.; Carre-Menetrier, V.; Tagina, M.

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis of Automated Production System (APS) is a decision-making process designed to detect, locate and identify a particular failure caused by the control law. In the literature, there are three major types of reasoning for industrial diagnosis: the first is model-based, the second is rule-based and the third is case-based. The common and major limitation of the first and the second reasonings is that they do not have automated learning ability. This paper presents an interactive and effective Case Based Decision Support System for online Diagnosis (CB-DSSD) of an APS. It offers a synergy between the Case Based Reasoning (CBR) and the Decision Support System (DSS) in order to support and assist Human Operator of Supervision (HOS) in his/her decision process. Indeed, the experimental evaluation performed on an Interactive Training System for PLC (ITS PLC) that allows the control of a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), simulating sensors or/and actuators failures and validating the control algorithm through a real time interactive experience, showed the efficiency of our approach.

  17. Intelligent Case Based Decision Support System for Online Diagnosis of Automated Production System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Rabah, N; Saddem, R; Carre-Menetrier, V; Ben Hmida, F; Tagina, M

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis of Automated Production System (APS) is a decision-making process designed to detect, locate and identify a particular failure caused by the control law. In the literature, there are three major types of reasoning for industrial diagnosis: the first is model-based, the second is rule-based and the third is case-based. The common and major limitation of the first and the second reasonings is that they do not have automated learning ability. This paper presents an interactive and effective Case Based Decision Support System for online Diagnosis (CB-DSSD) of an APS. It offers a synergy between the Case Based Reasoning (CBR) and the Decision Support System (DSS) in order to support and assist Human Operator of Supervision (HOS) in his/her decision process. Indeed, the experimental evaluation performed on an Interactive Training System for PLC (ITS PLC) that allows the control of a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), simulating sensors or/and actuators failures and validating the control algorithm through a real time interactive experience, showed the efficiency of our approach. (paper)

  18. Automation of a Nile red staining assay enables high throughput quantification of microalgal lipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morschett, Holger; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Oldiges, Marco

    2016-02-09

    Within the context of microalgal lipid production for biofuels and bulk chemical applications, specialized higher throughput devices for small scale parallelized cultivation are expected to boost the time efficiency of phototrophic bioprocess development. However, the increasing number of possible experiments is directly coupled to the demand for lipid quantification protocols that enable reliably measuring large sets of samples within short time and that can deal with the reduced sample volume typically generated at screening scale. To meet these demands, a dye based assay was established using a liquid handling robot to provide reproducible high throughput quantification of lipids with minimized hands-on-time. Lipid production was monitored using the fluorescent dye Nile red with dimethyl sulfoxide as solvent facilitating dye permeation. The staining kinetics of cells at different concentrations and physiological states were investigated to successfully down-scale the assay to 96 well microtiter plates. Gravimetric calibration against a well-established extractive protocol enabled absolute quantification of intracellular lipids improving precision from ±8 to ±2 % on average. Implementation into an automated liquid handling platform allows for measuring up to 48 samples within 6.5 h, reducing hands-on-time to a third compared to manual operation. Moreover, it was shown that automation enhances accuracy and precision compared to manual preparation. It was revealed that established protocols relying on optical density or cell number for biomass adjustion prior to staining may suffer from errors due to significant changes of the cells' optical and physiological properties during cultivation. Alternatively, the biovolume was used as a measure for biomass concentration so that errors from morphological changes can be excluded. The newly established assay proved to be applicable for absolute quantification of algal lipids avoiding limitations of currently established

  19. On the sustainable productivity of planted forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers

    1999-01-01

    Planted forests have more than a millennium of history and represent the world's best hope for meeting global wood requirements in the twenty-first century. Advances in genetic improvement, nursery practices, stand establishment, and tending, harvesting, and manufacturing have boosted plantation yields to a higher level than at any point in history. Despite this,...

  20. New CHP plant for a rubber products manufacturer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, R.; Martí, C.

    2016-01-01

    At the end of 2014 the company Industrias de Hule Galgo decided to undertake the installation project of an efficient CHP plant for its production plant, with the aim of bringing down energy costs and improving the company’s competitive position in the market. The new plant has already started its first operational phase. The project has comprised the installation of a single cycle with gas-powered gensets providing a total electrical capacity of 6.6 MW. This provides the necessary thermal oil for the production plant; covers 100% of the electrical power consumed by the industrial complex; and also generates cooling water, giving improved production capacity by supercooling the extrusion system. To execute these works, Industrias de Hule Galgo contracted the services of engineering company AESA to provide the engineering, procurement and construction of the CHP plant. (Author)

  1. Applicability Of A Semi-Automated Clinical Chemistry Analyzer In Determining The Antioxidant Concentrations Of Selected Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan L. Hilario

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Plants are rich sources of antioxidants that are protective against diseases associated to oxidative stress. There is a need for high throughput screening method that should be useful in determining the antioxidant concentration in plants. Such screening method should significantly simplify and speed up most antioxidant assays. This paper aimed at comparing the applicability of a semi-automated clinical chemistry analyzer Pointe Scientific MI USA with the traditional standard curve method and using a Vis spectrophotometer in performing the DPPH assay for antioxidant screening. Samples of crude aqueous leaf extract of kulitis Amaranthus viridis Linn and chayote Sechium edule Linn were screened for the Total Antioxidant Concentration TAC using the two methods. Results presented in mean SD amp956gdl were compared using unpaired Students t-test P0.05. All runs were done in triplicates. The mean TAC of A. viridis was 646.0 45.5 amp956gdl using the clinical chemistry analyzer and 581.9 19.4 amp956gdl using the standard curve-spectrophotometer. On the other hand the mean TAC of S. edule was 660.2 35.9 amp956gdl using the semi-automated clinical chemistry analyzer and 672.3 20.9 amp956gdl using the spectrophotometer. No significant differences were observed between the readings of the two methods for A. viridis P0.05 and S. edible P0.05. This implies that the clinical chemistry analyzer can be an alternative method in conducting the DPPH assay to determine the TAC in plants. This study presented the applicability of a semi-automated clinical chemistry analyzer in performing the DPPH assay. Further validation can be conducted by performing other antioxidant assays using this equipment.

  2. Fully automated, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of uranium and plutonium in reprocessing plant solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainka, E.; Neuber, J.; Wertenbach, H.; Berg, R.; Stojanik, B.; Fueger, B.

    1983-01-01

    A fully automated, computer-operated X-ray fluorescence system is described. Based on experience gained wih earlier systems, and taking into account a plant operator's requirements, a robust, pneumatically operated modular system was constructed. The problems encountered in adapting the system to glove-boxes; the features of the sample preparation; control of the system; and the calculation of the results, are outlined. A comparison between a scanning and a 7-channel X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was experimentally established. Measurement results are reported. (author)

  3. Plant Products Research Journal - Vol 16 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production and properties of fungal cellulase from native isolates using orange bagasse as carbon source · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Production and characterization of pectinases obtained from Aspergillus fumigatus in submerged fermentation system using pectin extracted from mango peels as carbon ...

  4. Application of plant cell and tissue culture for the production of phytochemicals in medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Bijaya

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 80% of the world inhabitants depend on the medicinal plants in the form of traditional formulations for their primary health care system well as in the treatment of a number of diseases since the ancient time. Many commercially used drugs have come from the information of indigenous knowledge of plants and their folk uses. Linking of the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants to modern research activities provides a new reliable approach, for the discovery of novel drugs much more effectively than with random collection. Increase in population and increasing demand of plant products along with illegal trade are causing depletion of medicinal plants and many are threatened in natural habitat. Plant tissue culture technique has proved potential alternative for the production of desirable bioactive components from plants, to produce the enough amounts of plant material that is needed and for the conservation of threatened species. Different plant tissue culture systems have been extensively studied to improve and enhance the production of plant chemicals in various medicinal plants.

  5. Effect of plant populations on the productivity of plantain and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth, crop yields and productivity of plantain (Musa paradisiacal) and cassava (Manihot esculenta) were observed. The two intercrop populations for plantain were planted at 3 x 3m and 3 x 2m spacing. The two populations for cassava were planted at 1 x 1 and 1 x 0.5m spacing. In Experiment I, cassava was intercropped ...

  6. Suitability of charcoal from selected tropical plants for the production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance characteristics of charcoal samples of five tropical plants were evaluated for the production of black powder for blasting, sporting and firework purposes. The charcoal produced from each of the tropical plants was used in combination with potassium nitrate and sulphur to produce black powders in the ratio ...

  7. suitability of charcoal from selected tropical plants for the production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    ABSTRACT. The performance characteristics of charcoal samples of five tropical plants were evaluated for the production of black powder for blasting, sporting and firework purposes. The charcoal produced from each of the tropical plants was used in combination with potassium nitrate and sulphur to produce black ...

  8. Biotechnological applications for rosmarinic acid production in plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant cell cultures, e.g. from Coleus blumei or Salvia officinalis, accumulate rosmarinic acid in amounts much higher than in the plant itself (up to 36% of the cell dry weight). Similarly some other biotechnological researches for production of rosmarinic acid were done in the past i.e. from shoot culture, producing hairy root, ...

  9. What about improving the productivity of electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawroski, H.; Knecht, P.D.; Prideaux, D.L.; Zahner, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    The FEA in April of 1974 established an Interagency Task Group on Power Plant Reliability, which was charged with the broad objective of improving the productivity of existing and planned large fossil-fueled and nuclear power plants. It took approximately 11 months for the task force to publish a report, ''Report on Improving the Productivity of Electrical Power Plants'' (FEA-263-G), a detailed analysis and comparison of successful and below-average-performance power plants. The Nuclear Service Corp. portion of this study examined four large central-station power plants: two fossil (coal) and two nuclear plants. Only plants with electrical generation capacities greater than 400 MWe were considered. The study included the following: staff technical skill, engineering support, QA program, plant/corporate coordination, operation philosophy, maintenance programs, federal/state regulations, network control, and equipment problems. Personnel were interviewed, and checklists providing input from some 21 or more plant and corporate personnel of each utility were utilized. Reports and other documentation were also reviewed. It was recognized early that productivity is closely allied to technical skills and positive motivation. For this reason, considerable attention was given to people in this study

  10. Initial biochar effects on plant productivity derive from N fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeffery, Simon; Memelink, Ilse; Hodgson, Edward; Jones, Sian; van de Voorde, Tess F. J.; Bezemer, T. Martijn; Mommer, Liesje; van Groenigen, Jan Willem

    2017-01-01

    Biochar application to soil is widely claimed to increase plant productivity. However, the underlying mechanisms are still not conclusively described. Here, we aim to elucidate these mechanisms using stable isotope probing.

  11. Enhanced methanol production in plants provides broad spectrum insect resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Dixit

    Full Text Available Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly, respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants.

  12. Enhanced methanol production in plants provides broad spectrum insect resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Sameer; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Harpal; Sidhu, Om Prakash; Verma, Praveen Chandra; K, Chandrashekar

    2013-01-01

    Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR) and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT) plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid) and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly), respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants.

  13. Enhanced Methanol Production in Plants Provides Broad Spectrum Insect Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Sameer; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Harpal; Sidhu, Om Prakash; Verma, Praveen Chandra; K, Chandrashekar

    2013-01-01

    Plants naturally emit methanol as volatile organic compound. Methanol is toxic to insect pests; but the quantity produced by most of the plants is not enough to protect them against invading insect pests. In the present study, we demonstrated that the over-expression of pectin methylesterase, derived from Arabidopsis thaliana and Aspergillus niger, in transgenic tobacco plants enhances methanol production and resistance to polyphagous insect pests. Methanol content in the leaves of transgenic plants was measured using proton nuclear spectroscopy (1H NMR) and spectra showed up to 16 fold higher methanol as compared to control wild type (WT) plants. A maximum of 100 and 85% mortality in chewing insects Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura larvae was observed, respectively when fed on transgenic plants leaves. The surviving larvae showed less feeding, severe growth retardation and could not develop into pupae. In-planta bioassay on transgenic lines showed up to 99 and 75% reduction in the population multiplication of plant sap sucking pests Myzus persicae (aphid) and Bemisia tabaci (whitefly), respectively. Most of the phenotypic characters of transgenic plants were similar to WT plants. Confocal microscopy showed no deformities in cellular integrity, structure and density of stomata and trichomes of transgenic plants compared to WT. Pollen germination and tube formation was also not affected in transgenic plants. Cell wall enzyme transcript levels were comparable with WT. This study demonstrated for the first time that methanol emission can be utilized for imparting broad range insect resistance in plants. PMID:24223989

  14. Computer-controlled radiochemical synthesis: a chemistry process control unit for the automated production of radiochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padgett, H.C.; Schmidt, D.G.; Luxen, A.; Bida, G.T.; Satyamurthy, N.; Barrio, J.R. (California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (USA). Dept. of Radiology)

    1989-01-01

    A computer-controlled general purpose chemistry process control unit (CPCU) suitable for the automated production of radiochemicals has been developed. This valve-and-tubing synthesis system can be user programmed to accommodate a variety of chemical processes. In a practical demonstration of its utility, the CPCU has been configured and programmed to synthesize 2-deoxy-2-(/sup 18/F)fluoro-D-glucose (2-(/sup 18/F)FDG) using aqueous (/sup 18/F)fluoride ion. The unit has been similarly configured and programmed to synthesize 2-deoxy-2-(/sup 18/F)fluoro-D-mannose (48% EOB), 3-(2'-(/sup 18/F)fluoroethyl)spiperone (29% EOB), and (/sup 18/F)fluoroacetate (66% EOB) from aqueous (/sup 18/F)-fluoride ion, and 2-(/sup 18/F)FDG from gaseous acetyl hypo(/sup 18/F)fluorite (20% EOB). (author).

  15. Advances in Automated QA/QC for TRISO Fuel Particle Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockey, Ronald L.; Bond, Leonard J.; Batishko, Charles R.; Gray, Joseph N.; Saurwein, John J.; Lowden, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    Fuel in most Generation IV reactor designs typically encompasses billions of the TRISO particles. Present day QA/QC methods, done manually and in many cases destructively, cannot economically test a statistically significant fraction of the large number of the individual fuel particles required. Fully automated inspection technologies are essential to economical TRISO fuel particle production. A combination of in-line nondestructive (NDE) measurements employing electromagnetic induction and digital optical imaging analysis is currently under investigation and preliminary data indicate the potential for meeting the demands of this application. To calibrate high-speed NDE methods, surrogate fuel particle samples are being coated with layers containing a wide array of defect types found to degrade fuel performance and these are being characterized via high-resolution CT and digital radiographic images

  16. Plant Products for Pharmacology: Application of Enzymes in Their Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Zarevúcka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Different plant products have been subjected to detailed investigations due to their increasing importance for improving human health. Plants are sources of many groups of natural products, of which large number of new compounds has already displayed their high impact in human medicine. This review deals with the natural products which may be found dissolved in lipid phase (phytosterols, vitamins etc.. Often subsequent convenient transformation of natural products may further improve the pharmacological properties of new potential medicaments based on natural products. To respect basic principles of sustainable and green procedures, enzymes are often employed as efficient natural catalysts in such plant product transformations. Transformations of lipids and other natural products under the conditions of enzyme catalysis show increasing importance in environmentally safe and sustainable production of pharmacologically important compounds. In this review, attention is focused on lipases, efficient and convenient biocatalysts for the enantio- and regioselective formation / hydrolysis of ester bond in a wide variety of both natural and unnatural substrates, including plant products, eg. plant oils and other natural lipid phase compounds. The application of enzymes for preparation of acylglycerols and transformation of other natural products provides big advantage in comparison with employing of conventional chemical methods: Increased selectivity, higher product purity and quality, energy conservation, elimination of heavy metal catalysts, and sustainability of the employed processes, which are catalyzed by enzymes. Two general procedures are used in the transformation of lipid-like natural products: (a Hydrolysis/alcoholysis of triacylglycerols and (b esterification of glycerol. The reactions can be performed under conventional conditions or in supercritical fluids/ionic liquids. Enzyme-catalyzed reactions in supercritical fluids combine the

  17. Catalytic production of aromatics and olefins from plant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, W.O.; Rodewald, P.G.; Weisz, P.B.

    1980-08-01

    Hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon-like plant materials offer the possibility of relatively simple and energy-efficient processing to liquid fuels or petrochemicals. The use of such highly reduced photosynthesis products as potential fuels has been advocated by Calvin and coworkers, and Buchanan and coworkers have evaluated several hundred plant species for the presence of hydrocarbons. The yield of extracted oils may exceed 10 wt % of the plant dry weight. Some field growth studies of the most promising of these plants are underway, e.g., by Calvin in California, by Native Plants, Inc., and by the Diamond Shamrock Co., in conjunction with the University of Arizona, mostly with Euphorbia and related genera. Exploratory studies were performed to determine if direct catalytic upgrading of the hydrocarbon-like plant constituents could be carried out. A preliminary report has been published recently. A variety of plant materials were shown to be upgraded to liquid premium fuels by relatively simple catalytic processing over Mobil's shape selective zeolite, ZSM-5. The present paper contains additional information on the conversion of a variety of plant materials with special emphasis on the production of petrochemicals, and discusses key mechanistic aspects of the reactions. Feedstocks were chosen to represent different types of plant materials: corn oil, castor oil and jojoba seed oil; plant extracts from Euphorbia lathyrus and Grindelia squarrosa; and hydrocarbons obtained by tapping of trees such as copaiba oil and natural rubber latex.

  18. State regulation and power plant productivity: background and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    This report was prepared by representatives of several state regulatory agencies. It is a guide to some of the activities currently under way in state agencies to promote increased availability of electrical generating power plants. Standard measures of plant performance are defined and the nature of data bases that report such measures is discussed. It includes reviews of current state, federal, and industry programs to enhance power plant productivity and provides detailed outlines of programs in effect in California, Illinois, Michigan, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, and Texas. A number of actions are presented that could be adopted by state regulatory agencies, depending on local conditions. They include: develop a commission position or policy statement to encourage productivity improvements by utilities; coordinate state efforts with ongoing industry and government programs to improve the acquisition of power plant performance data and the maintenance of quality information systems; acquire the capability to perform independent analyses of power plant productivity; direct the establishment of productivity improvement programs, including explicit performance objectives for both existing and planned power plants, and a performance program; establish a program of incentives to motivate productivity improvement activities; and participate in ongoing efforts at all levels and initiate new actions to promote productivity improvements

  19. Automated synthesis system for production of 2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose with computer control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, R.; Ido, T.; Takahashi, T.; Monma, M.

    1984-01-01

    An automated synthesis system for the production of 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoro-D-glucose( 18 FDG) has been developed. The system has been designed to be as convenient as possible for routine clinical use, and the whole synthetic procedure ranging from target irradiation to collection of a 18 FDG solution has been completely automated by using a microcomputer as a controller and sensors of temperature, pressure, radioactivity and liquid level. This system provides 20-30 mCi of 18 FDG in a sterile and pyrogen-free aqueous solution with a high radiochemical purity (over 98%) within 80 min after the 2-h irradiation with a current of 12 μA. The present automated synthesis system is suitable for routine production of 18 FDG. (author)

  20. Alternative strategies to by-pass the plant-based Azadirachtin-A production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spieth, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available All parts of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss show a broad spectrum efficacy against insect pests including insecticidal, anti-feedant or insect repellent activities. Several studies have shown that plant cell cultures can produce azadirachtins. We induced more than 40 novel Neem cell lines in modified Murashige and Skoog (MS media containing different concentrations of auxins and cytokinins. To enhance the Azadirachtin production from 1 mg/l, it was necessary to optimize the media composition separately for biomass and secondary metabolite production. In light of this complex challenge we used our novel fully automated high-throughput microbioreactor system that allows us a fast and controlled batch and fedbatch screening in 48-well microtiter plates. There is increasing evidence that plants like Azadirachta indica contain endophytes which are able to colonize internal plant tissue without causing visible disease symptoms. The estimated high species diversity of endophytes suggests a rich and almost untapped source of new secondary metabolites. We isolated more than 340 endophytes from various plant tissues and tested if they were able to produce Azadirachtin-A. Here, we present data on isolation of endophytes and induction of callus as well as first results of our microbioreactor system.

  1. Optimal planting systems for cut gladiolus and stock production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to elucidate the effect of different planting systems, videlicet (viz. flat, ridge, and raised bed system on growth, yield and quality of gladiolus and stock. Corms of ‘Rose Supreme’ and ‘White Prosperity’ gladiolus and seedlings of ‘Cheerful White’, ‘Lucinda Dark Rose Double’ and ‘Lucinda Dark Rose Single’ stock were planted on different planting systems in individual experiments for each species. Gladiolus had similar good quality production irrespective of planting systems with numerical superiority of ridge planting, which produced longer stems with higher stem fresh weight, but delayed corm sprouting by ca. 1 d compared to raised bed or flat planting system. Among cultivars, ‘Rose Supreme’ produced higher number of florets per spike, taller stems with longer spikes, higher fresh weight of stems and higher number of cormels than ‘White Prosperity’. Stock plants grown on flat beds produced stems with greater stem length, leaf area and fresh weight of stems compared to ridge or raised bed planting systems. Plants grown on ridges produced the highest stem diameter, number of leaves per plant, total leaf chlorophyll contents, and number of flowers per spike. ‘Cheerful White’ and ‘Lucinda Dark Rose Double’ performed best by producing good quality stems in shorter period compared to ‘Lucinda Dark Rose Single’. In summary, gladiolus should be grown on ridges, while stock may be planted on flat beds for higher yields of better quality flowers.

  2. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part B, Characterization; robotics/automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate theses problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part B of Volume 3 and contains the Characterization and Robotics/Automation sections.

  3. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part B, Characterization; robotics/automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate theses problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part B of Volume 3 and contains the Characterization and Robotics/Automation sections

  4. Plant Design Nuclear Fuel Element Production Capacity Optimization to Support Nuclear Power Plant in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang Galung Susanto

    2007-01-01

    The optimization production capacity for designing nuclear fuel element fabrication plant in Indonesia to support the nuclear power plant has been done. From calculation and by assuming that nuclear power plant to be built in Indonesia as much as 12 NPP and having capacity each 1000 MW, the optimum capacity for nuclear fuel element fabrication plant is 710 ton UO 2 /year. The optimum capacity production selected, has considered some aspects such as fraction batch (cycle, n = 3), length of cycle (18 months), discharge burn-up value (Bd) 35,000 up 50,000 MWD/ton U, enriched uranium to be used in the NPP (3.22 % to 4.51 %), future market development for fuel element, and the trend of capacity production selected by advances country to built nuclear fuel element fabrication plant type of PWR. (author)

  5. Towards more reliable automated multi-dose dispensing: retrospective follow-up study on medication dose errors and product defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palttala, Iida; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Honkanen, Outi; Suominen, Risto; Antikainen, Osmo; Hirvonen, Jouni; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2013-03-01

    To date, little is known on applicability of different types of pharmaceutical dosage forms in an automated high-speed multi-dose dispensing process. The purpose of the present study was to identify and further investigate various process-induced and/or product-related limitations associated with multi-dose dispensing process. The rates of product defects and dose dispensing errors in automated multi-dose dispensing were retrospectively investigated during a 6-months follow-up period. The study was based on the analysis of process data of totally nine automated high-speed multi-dose dispensing systems. Special attention was paid to the dependence of multi-dose dispensing errors/product defects and pharmaceutical tablet properties (such as shape, dimensions, weight, scored lines, coatings, etc.) to profile the most suitable forms of tablets for automated dose dispensing systems. The relationship between the risk of errors in dose dispensing and tablet characteristics were visualized by creating a principal component analysis (PCA) model for the outcome of dispensed tablets. The two most common process-induced failures identified in the multi-dose dispensing are predisposal of tablet defects and unexpected product transitions in the medication cassette (dose dispensing error). The tablet defects are product-dependent failures, while the tablet transitions are dependent on automated multi-dose dispensing systems used. The occurrence of tablet defects is approximately twice as common as tablet transitions. Optimal tablet preparation for the high-speed multi-dose dispensing would be a round-shaped, relatively small/middle-sized, film-coated tablet without any scored line. Commercial tablet products can be profiled and classified based on their suitability to a high-speed multi-dose dispensing process.

  6. Concepts in production ecology for analysis and design of animal and plant-animal production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van de G.W.J.; Ridder, de N.; Keulen, van H.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2003-01-01

    The use of a hierarchy in growth factors (defining, limiting and reducing growth factors), as developed for plant production has shown its usefulness in the analysis and design of plant production systems. This hierarchy presents a theoretical framework for the analysis of biophysical conditions in

  7. Capabilities for managing high-volume production of electric engineering equipment at the Electrochemical Production Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podlednev, V.M.

    1996-04-01

    The Electromechanical Production Plant is essentially a research center with experimental facilities and power full testing base. Major products of the plant today include heat pipes and devices of their basis of different functions and power from high temperature ranges to cryogenics. This report describes work on porous titanium and carbon-graphite current collectors, electrocatalyst synthesis, and electrocatalyst applications.

  8. Biopharmaceutical production in plants: problems, solutions and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomord, Véronique; Chamberlain, Paul; Jefferis, Roy; Faye, Loïc

    2005-11-01

    There are major structural differences between plant and mammalian N-linked glycans, with those from plants being immunogenic in most laboratory mammals and eliciting glycan-specific IgE and IgG antibodies in humans, when delivered parenterally. However, because humans are constantly exposed to plant glycoproteins in the diet, glycosylated plant-made pharmaceuticals (PMPs) should be acceptable for topical and oral administration. To exploit fully the potential that plants offer for the production of therapeutic proteins for parenteral administration, it might be necessary to inhibit plant-specific post-translational modifications to obtain "humanized" non-immunogenic N-glycans on PMPs. The benefits that could accrue are lower manufacturing costs, relative to mammalian cell culture, and a reduced risk of transmission of mammalian pathogens.

  9. Manual versus Automated Narrative Analysis of Agrammatic Production Patterns: The Northwestern Narrative Language Analysis and Computerized Language Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chien-Ju; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the outcomes of the manually coded Northwestern Narrative Language Analysis (NNLA) system, which was developed for characterizing agrammatic production patterns, and the automated Computerized Language Analysis (CLAN) system, which has recently been adopted to analyze speech samples of individuals…

  10. Roots, plant production and nutrient use efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigen, de P.; Noordwijk, van M.

    1987-01-01

    The role of roots in obtaining high crop production levels as well as a high nutrient use efficiency is discussed. Mathematical models of diffusion and massflow of solutes towards roots are developed for a constant daily uptake requirement. Analytical solutions are given for simple and more

  11. Plant Diversity Surpasses Plant Functional Groups and Plant Productivity as Driver of Soil Biota in the Long Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Milcu, Alexandru; Sabais, Alexander C. W.; Bessler, Holger; Brenner, Johanna; Engels, Christof; Klarner, Bernhard; Maraun, Mark; Partsch, Stephan; Roscher, Christiane; Schonert, Felix; Temperton, Vicky M.; Thomisch, Karolin; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Scheu, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Background One of the most significant consequences of contemporary global change is the rapid decline of biodiversity in many ecosystems. Knowledge of the consequences of biodiversity loss in terrestrial ecosystems is largely restricted to single ecosystem functions. Impacts of key plant functional groups on soil biota are considered to be more important than those of plant diversity; however, current knowledge mainly relies on short-term experiments. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied changes in the impacts of plant diversity and presence of key functional groups on soil biota by investigating the performance of soil microorganisms and soil fauna two, four and six years after the establishment of model grasslands. The results indicate that temporal changes of plant community effects depend on the trophic affiliation of soil animals: plant diversity effects on decomposers only occurred after six years, changed little in herbivores, but occurred in predators after two years. The results suggest that plant diversity, in terms of species and functional group richness, is the most important plant community property affecting soil biota, exceeding the relevance of plant above- and belowground productivity and the presence of key plant functional groups, i.e. grasses and legumes, with the relevance of the latter decreasing in time. Conclusions/Significance Plant diversity effects on biota are not only due to the presence of key plant functional groups or plant productivity highlighting the importance of diverse and high-quality plant derived resources, and supporting the validity of the singular hypothesis for soil biota. Our results demonstrate that in the long term plant diversity essentially drives the performance of soil biota questioning the paradigm that belowground communities are not affected by plant diversity and reinforcing the importance of biodiversity for ecosystem functioning. PMID:21249208

  12. Plant diversity surpasses plant functional groups and plant productivity as driver of soil biota in the long term.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Eisenhauer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant consequences of contemporary global change is the rapid decline of biodiversity in many ecosystems. Knowledge of the consequences of biodiversity loss in terrestrial ecosystems is largely restricted to single ecosystem functions. Impacts of key plant functional groups on soil biota are considered to be more important than those of plant diversity; however, current knowledge mainly relies on short-term experiments.We studied changes in the impacts of plant diversity and presence of key functional groups on soil biota by investigating the performance of soil microorganisms and soil fauna two, four and six years after the establishment of model grasslands. The results indicate that temporal changes of plant community effects depend on the trophic affiliation of soil animals: plant diversity effects on decomposers only occurred after six years, changed little in herbivores, but occurred in predators after two years. The results suggest that plant diversity, in terms of species and functional group richness, is the most important plant community property affecting soil biota, exceeding the relevance of plant above- and belowground productivity and the presence of key plant functional groups, i.e. grasses and legumes, with the relevance of the latter decreasing in time.Plant diversity effects on biota are not only due to the presence of key plant functional groups or plant productivity highlighting the importance of diverse and high-quality plant derived resources, and supporting the validity of the singular hypothesis for soil biota. Our results demonstrate that in the long term plant diversity essentially drives the performance of soil biota questioning the paradigm that belowground communities are not affected by plant diversity and reinforcing the importance of biodiversity for ecosystem functioning.

  13. Biodiversity influences plant productivity through niche–efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingjing; Zhou, Mo; Tobin, Patrick C.; McGuire, A. David; Reich, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    The loss of biodiversity is threatening ecosystem productivity and services worldwide, spurring efforts to quantify its effects on the functioning of natural ecosystems. Previous research has focused on the positive role of biodiversity on resource acquisition (i.e., niche complementarity), but a lack of study on resource utilization efficiency, a link between resource and productivity, has rendered it difficult to quantify the biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationship. Here we demonstrate that biodiversity loss reduces plant productivity, other things held constant, through theory, empirical evidence, and simulations under gradually relaxed assumptions. We developed a theoretical model named niche–efficiency to integrate niche complementarity and a heretofore-ignored mechanism of diminishing marginal productivity in quantifying the effects of biodiversity loss on plant productivity. Based on niche–efficiency, we created a relative productivity metric and a productivity impact index (PII) to assist in biological conservation and resource management. Relative productivity provides a standardized measure of the influence of biodiversity on individual productivity, and PII is a functionally based taxonomic index to assess individual species’ inherent value in maintaining current ecosystem productivity. Empirical evidence from the Alaska boreal forest suggests that every 1% reduction in overall plant diversity could render an average of 0.23% decline in individual tree productivity. Out of the 283 plant species of the region, we found that large woody plants generally have greater PII values than other species. This theoretical model would facilitate the integration of biological conservation in the international campaign against several pressing global issues involving energy use, climate change, and poverty. PMID:25901325

  14. Biodiversity influences plant productivity through niche-efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingjing; Zhou, Mo; Tobin, Patrick C; McGuire, A David; Reich, Peter B

    2015-05-05

    The loss of biodiversity is threatening ecosystem productivity and services worldwide, spurring efforts to quantify its effects on the functioning of natural ecosystems. Previous research has focused on the positive role of biodiversity on resource acquisition (i.e., niche complementarity), but a lack of study on resource utilization efficiency, a link between resource and productivity, has rendered it difficult to quantify the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship. Here we demonstrate that biodiversity loss reduces plant productivity, other things held constant, through theory, empirical evidence, and simulations under gradually relaxed assumptions. We developed a theoretical model named niche-efficiency to integrate niche complementarity and a heretofore-ignored mechanism of diminishing marginal productivity in quantifying the effects of biodiversity loss on plant productivity. Based on niche-efficiency, we created a relative productivity metric and a productivity impact index (PII) to assist in biological conservation and resource management. Relative productivity provides a standardized measure of the influence of biodiversity on individual productivity, and PII is a functionally based taxonomic index to assess individual species' inherent value in maintaining current ecosystem productivity. Empirical evidence from the Alaska boreal forest suggests that every 1% reduction in overall plant diversity could render an average of 0.23% decline in individual tree productivity. Out of the 283 plant species of the region, we found that large woody plants generally have greater PII values than other species. This theoretical model would facilitate the integration of biological conservation in the international campaign against several pressing global issues involving energy use, climate change, and poverty.

  15. Biodiversity influences plant productivity through niche–efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingjing; Zhou, Mo; Tobin, Patrick C.; McGuire, A. David; Reich, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    The loss of biodiversity is threatening ecosystem productivity and services worldwide, spurring efforts to quantify its effects on the functioning of natural ecosystems. Previous research has focused on the positive role of biodiversity on resource acquisition (i.e., niche complementarity), but a lack of study on resource utilization efficiency, a link between resource and productivity, has rendered it difficult to quantify the biodiversity–ecosystem functioning relationship. Here we demonstrate that biodiversity loss reduces plant productivity, other things held constant, through theory, empirical evidence, and simulations under gradually relaxed assumptions. We developed a theoretical model named niche–efficiency to integrate niche complementarity and a heretofore-ignored mechanism of diminishing marginal productivity in quantifying the effects of biodiversity loss on plant productivity. Based on niche–efficiency, we created a relative productivity metric and a productivity impact index (PII) to assist in biological conservation and resource management. Relative productivity provides a standardized measure of the influence of biodiversity on individual productivity, and PII is a functionally based taxonomic index to assess individual species’ inherent value in maintaining current ecosystem productivity. Empirical evidence from the Alaska boreal forest suggests that every 1% reduction in overall plant diversity could render an average of 0.23% decline in individual tree productivity. Out of the 283 plant species of the region, we found that large woody plants generally have greater PII values than other species. This theoretical model would facilitate the integration of biological conservation in the international campaign against several pressing global issues involving energy use, climate change, and poverty.

  16. Entropy production and plant transpiration in the Liz catchment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šír, Miloslav; Tesař, Miroslav; Krejča, M.; Weger, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2008), s. 81-89 ISSN 1802-503X Grant - others:MŠMT(CZ) 2B06132 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : plant transpiration * phytomass productivity * heat balance * entropy production Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  17. Impact of Metals on Secondary Metabolites Production and Plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative damage of important macromolecules including DNA, protens, lipids, chloroplast pigments and enzymes.8 Plant damage occurs when the ability of antioxidant processes and detoxification mechanisms are lower than the amount of. ROS production3.

  18. Measuring whole-plant transpiration gravimetrically: a scalable automated system built from components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian Cirelli; Victor J. Lieffers; Melvin T. Tyree

    2012-01-01

    Measuring whole-plant transpiration is highly relevant considering the increasing interest in understanding and improving plant water use at the whole-plant level. We present an original software package (Amalthea) and a design to create a system for measuring transpiration using laboratory balances based on the readily available commodity hardware. The system is...

  19. Heterologous production of peptides in plants: fusion proteins and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Juliane Flávia Cançado; Dias, Simoni Campos; Franco, Octávio Luiz; Lacorte, Cristiano

    2013-11-01

    Recombinant DNA technology has allowed the ectopic production of proteins and peptides of different organisms leading to biopharmaceutical production in large cultures of bacterial, yeasts and mammalian cells. Otherwise, the expression of recombinant proteins and peptides in plants is an attractive alternative presenting several advantages over the commonly used expression systems including reduced production costs, easy scale-up and reduced risks of pathogen contamination. Different types of proteins and peptides have been expressed in plants, including antibodies, antigens, and proteins and peptides of medical, veterinary and industrial applications. However, apart from providing a proof of concept, the use of plants as platforms for heterologous protein and peptide production still depends on key steps towards optimization including the enhancement of expression levels, manipulation of post-transcriptional modifications and improvements in purification methods. In this review, strategies to increase heterologous protein and peptide stability and accumulation are discussed, focusing on the expression of peptides through the use of gene fusions.

  20. Use of plant protection products in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Moura

    2017-01-01

    Results: The application of this research has shown the good practices adopted by the workers who were questioned and which are reading the labels, use of equipment for individual safety and proceed the correct disposal of waste of empty containers of PPP. However it can be noted that there are still aspects that the workers have to improve awareness level about the risk they are exposed to when handling PPP since not all employees were careful to adopt these good agricultural practices. Conclusions: The results also demonstrate the need for further action by the supervisory bodies to ensure that the PPP applicators have all the required training certificate by law. It should also be created more awareness campaigns about the safety issues when these products are used like the importance of reading labels, use of appropriate equipment for individual safety for each product type and exposure, and properly route for the waste package.

  1. DESIGN ELEMENTS OF THE AUTOMATED CONTROL SYSTEMS PRODUCTION ENTERPRISES AVIATION INSTRUMEN

    OpenAIRE

    P. P. Dobrov

    2016-01-01

    There are considered the basics of organization of design of the automated  enterprise control systems elements of the aircraft instrument engineering enterprises; there are specified the stages of introduction of the AECS of the aircraft instrument engineering enterprises; there are considered the aspects of choice of means and tools of the enterprise automation. There is specified that it is very important to clearly define the goals, objectives and methods of automation, to take into accou...

  2. Patterns in the Fate of Production in Plant Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrian, Just

    1999-10-01

    I examine, through an extensive compilation of published reports, the nature and variability of carbon flow (i.e., primary production, herbivory, detrital production, decomposition, export, and biomass and detrital storage) in a range of aquatic and terrestrial plant communities. Communities composed of more nutritional plants (i.e., higher nutrient concentrations) lose higher percentages of production to herbivores, channel lower percentages as detritus, experience faster decomposition rates, and, as a result, store smaller carbon pools. These results suggest plant palatability as a main limiting factor of consumer metabolical and feeding rates across communities. Hence, across communities, plant nutritional quality may be regarded as a descriptor of the importance of herbivore control on plant biomass ("top-down" control), the rapidity of nutrient and energy recycling, and the magnitude of carbon storage. These results contribute to an understanding of how much and why the trophic routes of carbon flow, and their ecological implications, vary across plant communities. They also offer a basis to predict the effects of widespread enhancement of plant nutritional quality due to large-scale anthropogenic eutrophication on carbon balances in ecosystems.

  3. Plant products and secondary metabolites with acaricide activity against ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Arjona-Cambranes, K; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Bolio-González, M E; Ortega-Pacheco, A; Alzina-López, A; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, E J; Gutiérrez-Blanco, E; Aguilar-Caballero, A J

    2017-04-30

    The present review documents the results of studies evaluating the acaricidal activity of different plant products and secondary metabolites against ticks that are resistant and susceptible to conventional acaricides. Studies published from 1998 to 2016 were included. The acaricidal activity of plant extracts, essential oils and secondary compounds from plants have been evaluated using bioassays with ticks in the larval and adult stages. There is variable effectiveness according to the species of plant and the concentrations used, with observed mortalities ranging from 5 to 100% against the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus), Amblyomma, Dermacentor, Hyalomma, and Argas genera. A number of plants have been reported to cause high mortalities and/or affect the reproductive capacity of ticks in the adult phase. In the majority of these trials, the main species of plants evaluated correspond to the families Lamiaceae, Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Piperaceae, Verbenaceae, and Poaceae. Different secondary metabolites such as thymol, carvacrol, 1,8-cineol and n-hexanal, have been found to be primarily responsible for the acaricidal activity of different essential oils against different species of ticks, while nicotine, dibenzyldisulfide and dibenzyltrisulfide have been evaluated for plant extracts. Only thymol, carvacrol and 1,8-cineol have been evaluated for acaricidal activity under in vivo conditions. The information in the present review allows the conclusion that the secondary metabolites contained in plant products could be used as an alternative for the control of ticks that are susceptible or resistant to commercial acaricides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. AUTOMATED DATA PRODUCTION FOR A NOVEL AIRBORNE MULTIANGLE SPECTROPOLARIMETRIC IMAGER (AIRMSPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Jovanovic

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel polarimetric imaging technique making use of rapid retardance modulation has been developed by JPL as a part of NASA's Instrument Incubator Program. It has been built into the Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI under NASA's Airborne Instrument Technology Transition Program, and is aimed primarily at remote sensing of the amounts and microphysical properties of aerosols and clouds. AirMSPI includes an 8-band (355, 380, 445, 470, 555, 660, 865, 935 nm pushbroom camera that measures polarization in a subset of the bands (470, 660, and 865 nm. The camera is mounted on a gimbal and acquires imagery in a configurable set of along-track viewing angles ranging between +67°and –67° relative to nadir. As a result, near simultaneous multi-angle, multi-spectral, and polarimetric measurements of the targeted areas at a spatial resolution ranging from 7 m to 20 m (depending on the viewing angle can be derived. An automated data production system is being built to support high data acquisition rate in concert with co-registration and orthorectified mapping requirements. To date, a number of successful engineering checkout flights were conducted in October 2010, August-September 2011, and January 2012. Data products resulting from these flights will be presented.

  5. Inhibition of herbicide photodegradation by plant products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyheraguibel, Boris; Richard, Claire; Ledoigt, Gerard; Ter Halle, Alexandra

    2011-05-11

    Pesticide reactivity toward light is rarely considered at the leaf surface after crop treatment; regardless, these degradation reactions directly impact the pesticide effectiveness. The use of sunscreen adjuvants to overcome photodegradation has presented some limitations so far. Raw hydroalcoholic plant extracts have been recently proposed to be used as photoprotecting adjuvants; on a model system they significantly decreased the photodegradation of pesticide. Here it is demonstrated that their use makes possible a dose reduction. Sulcotrione, a selective herbicide for use in maize, was tested in a growth chamber equipped with simulated solar light against a typical weed in maize. Sprayed weeds were monitored by biometrical and physiological parameters. Sulcotrione minimum dose required for a good herbicidal efficacy (ED(50), corresponding to 50% of chlorophyll content decay) was estimated to be 55 g ha(-1). In the presence of grape extract added in a 3-fold excess compared to the herbicide, the ED(50) decreased to 34 g ha(-1). The use of grape extract allows extension of sulcotrione herbicidal activity and reduction of the dose by 35% in controlled conditions. This is a promising result for the effective dose field adjustment.

  6. Plant growth promotion rhizobacteria in onion production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colo, Josip; Hajnal-Jafari, Timea I; Durić, Simonida; Stamenov, Dragana; Hamidović, Saud

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research was to examine the effect of rhizospheric bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum, Pseudomonas fluorescens (strains 1 and 2) and Bacillus subtilis on the growth and yield of onion and on the microorganisms in the rhizosphere of onion. The ability of microorganisms to produce indole-acetic acid (IAA), siderophores and to solubilize tricalcium phosphate (TCP) was also assessed. The experiment was conducted in field conditions, in chernozem type of soil. Bacillus subtilis was the best producer of IAA, whereas Pseudomonas fluorescens strains were better at producing siderophores and solubilizing phosphates. The longest seedling was observed with the application of Azotobacter chroococcum. The height of the plants sixty days after sowing was greater in all the inoculated variants than in the control. The highest onion yield was observed in Bacillus subtilis and Azotobacter chroococcum variants. The total number of bacteria and the number of Azotobacter chroococcum were larger in all the inoculated variants then in the control. The number of fungi decreased in most of the inoculated variants, whereas the number of actinomycetes decreased or remained the same.

  7. Metro Maps of Plant Disease Dynamics—Automated Mining of Differences Using Hyperspectral Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahabzada, Mirwaes; Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Bauckhage, Christian; Steiner, Ulrike; Oerke, Erich-Christian; Kersting, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the response dynamics of plants to biotic stress is essential to improve management practices and breeding strategies of crops and thus to proceed towards a more sustainable agriculture in the coming decades. In this context, hyperspectral imaging offers a particularly promising approach since it provides non-destructive measurements of plants correlated with internal structure and biochemical compounds. In this paper, we present a cascade of data mining techniques for fast and reliable data-driven sketching of complex hyperspectral dynamics in plant science and plant phenotyping. To achieve this, we build on top of a recent linear time matrix factorization technique, called Simplex Volume Maximization, in order to automatically discover archetypal hyperspectral signatures that are characteristic for particular diseases. The methods were applied on a data set of barley leaves (Hordeum vulgare) diseased with foliar plant pathogens Pyrenophora teres, Puccinia hordei and Blumeria graminis hordei. Towards more intuitive visualizations of plant disease dynamics, we use the archetypal signatures to create structured summaries that are inspired by metro maps, i.e. schematic diagrams of public transport networks. Metro maps of plant disease dynamics produced on several real-world data sets conform to plant physiological knowledge and explicitly illustrate the interaction between diseases and plants. Most importantly, they provide an abstract and interpretable view on plant disease progression. PMID:25621489

  8. Metro maps of plant disease dynamics--automated mining of differences using hyperspectral images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirwaes Wahabzada

    Full Text Available Understanding the response dynamics of plants to biotic stress is essential to improve management practices and breeding strategies of crops and thus to proceed towards a more sustainable agriculture in the coming decades. In this context, hyperspectral imaging offers a particularly promising approach since it provides non-destructive measurements of plants correlated with internal structure and biochemical compounds. In this paper, we present a cascade of data mining techniques for fast and reliable data-driven sketching of complex hyperspectral dynamics in plant science and plant phenotyping. To achieve this, we build on top of a recent linear time matrix factorization technique, called Simplex Volume Maximization, in order to automatically discover archetypal hyperspectral signatures that are characteristic for particular diseases. The methods were applied on a data set of barley leaves (Hordeum vulgare diseased with foliar plant pathogens Pyrenophora teres, Puccinia hordei and Blumeria graminis hordei. Towards more intuitive visualizations of plant disease dynamics, we use the archetypal signatures to create structured summaries that are inspired by metro maps, i.e. schematic diagrams of public transport networks. Metro maps of plant disease dynamics produced on several real-world data sets conform to plant physiological knowledge and explicitly illustrate the interaction between diseases and plants. Most importantly, they provide an abstract and interpretable view on plant disease progression.

  9. Biosynthesis and regulation of cyanogenic glycoside production in forage plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhanmin; Zhang, Kaixuan; Chen, Cheng; Wu, Yanmin; Tang, Yixiong; Georgiev, Milen I; Zhang, Xinquan; Lin, Min; Zhou, Meiliang

    2018-01-01

    The natural products cyanogenic glycosides (CNglcs) are present in various forage plant species including Sorghum spp., Trifolium spp., and Lotus spp. The release of toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) from endogenous CNglcs, which is known as cyanogenesis, leads to a serious problem for animal consumption while as defensive secondary metabolites, CNglcs play multiple roles in plant development and responses to adverse environment. Therefore, it is highly important to fully uncover the molecular mechanisms of CNglc biosynthesis and regulation to manipulate the contents of CNglcs in forage plants for fine-tuning the balance between defensive responses and food safety. This review summarizes recent studies on the production, function, polymorphism, and regulation of CNglcs in forage plants, aiming to provide updated knowledge on the ways to manipulate CNglcs for further beneficial economic effects.

  10. Present possibilities of protein concentrates production from plant sources

    OpenAIRE

    KRISTINOVÁ, Helena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the bachelor thesis was gather information about present possibilities of proteins concentrates production from plant sources. I focused on dried pea (Pisum sativum L.), soybean (Glycine soja) and potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum L.). The protein concentrates from leguminous plants are produced by three basic processes, i.e. acid leasing (at ~pH 4.5), extracting with aqueous alcohol (60 - 90%), and denaturing the protein with moist heat before extraction with water. Pea protein is p...

  11. Production of tetraploid plants of some citrus genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berken ÇİMEN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving new seedless citrus varieties is currently the main aspect of citrus breeding programs for both our country and the world. Triploid plants can be recovered directly from artificial and spontaneous mutations as well as crosses between two diploid genotypes resulting from the fertilization of 2n megagametophyte or by hybridization between diploid and tetraploid parents. Thus, production of tetraploid plants which are not naturally found in citrus germplasm has a great importance in terms of seedlessness breeding studies. This study covers production of tetraploid plants for parental usage in order to improve new varieties by ploidy manipulation. Buds of Clementine 22D, W. Murcott and Moro blood orange were used as plant material and effects of colchicine treatments on production of tetraploid forms of these genotypes were investigated. In this purpose, scion buds were treated with colchicine at concentration levels of 0.0%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6% and 0.8% for 4, 6 and 8 hours. After treatments, survival rate (% of plants was recorded and ploidy levels of the plants were determined by flow cytometry analysis. In addition, stomatal observations were recorded such as stomata density, length, width, size and index on the leaves of tetraploid plants in order to compare them with the observations of diploid plants. As a result of the study one tetraploid plant of Clementine 22D mandarin was recovered from the 0.4% colchicine treatment for 6 hours. Besides, mixoploid (2x+4x forms of W. Murcott mandarin and Moro blood orange were recovered.

  12. Performance optimization of the Växtkraft biogas production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorin, Eva; Lindmark, Johan; Nordlander, Eva; Odlare, Monica; Dahlquist, Erik; Kastensson, Jan; Leksell, Niklas; Pettersson, Carl-Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pre-treatment of ley crop can increase the biogas plant performance. ► Membrane filtration can increase the capacity of the biogas plant. ► Mechanical pre-treatment of the ley crop shows the highest energy efficiency. ► Using a distributor to spread the residues as fertilizer show promising results. -- Abstract: All over the world there is a strong interest and also potential for biogas production from organic residues as well as from different crops. However, to be commercially competitive with other types of fuels, efficiency improvements of the biogas production process are needed. In this paper, results of improvements studies done on a full scale co-digestion plant are presented. In the plant organic wastes from households and restaurants are mixed and digested with crops from pasture land. The areas for improvement of the plant addressed in this paper are treatment of the feed material to enhance the digestion rate, limitation of the ballast of organics in the water stream recirculated in the process, and use of the biogas plant residues at farms. Results from previous studies on pre-treatment and membrane filtration of recirculated process water are combined for an estimation of the total improvement potential. Further, the possibility of using neural networks to predict biogas production using historical data from the full-scale biogas plant was investigated. Results from an investigation using the process residues as fertilizer are also presented. The results indicate a potential to increase the biogas yield from the process with up to over 30% with pre-treatment of the feed and including membrane filtration in the process. Neural networks have the potential to be used for prediction of biogas production. Further, it is shown that the residues from biogas production can be used as fertilizers but that the emission of N 2 O from the fertilized soil is dependent on the soil type and spreading technology.

  13. Plant-based fertilizers for organic vegetable production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jørn Nygaard; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    To ensure high yield and quality in organic vegetable production, crops often require additional fertilizer applied during the season. Due to the risk of contamination of edible plant products from slurry, plant-based fertilizers may be used as an alternative. The purpose of our work was to develop...... N ha–1 in early harvested lucerne (Medicago sativa) with a C : N ratio of 10 resulted in the highest kale production whereas application of an equal amount of N in late harvested lucerne with a C : N ratio of 20 produced 34% less. Differences in vegetable production were not due to the amount of N...... to handle during transport, crop application, and soil incorporation. It is concluded that it is possible to produce green manures with high concentrations of S, P, K, and B, and low C : N ratios and that these properties have a great impact on the value of the green manure for vegetable production....

  14. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise eComas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length (SRL, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less ‘leaky’ and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g. functional differences between fine and coarse roots needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria and rice (Oryza show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait

  15. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas, Louise H; Becker, Steven R; Cruz, Von Mark V; Byrne, Patrick F; Dierig, David A

    2013-11-05

    Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less "leaky" and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g., functional differences between fine and coarse roots) needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria) and rice (Oryza) show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait genetics for breeding.

  16. Building blocks for automated elucidation of metabolites: natural product-likeness for candidate ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaseelan, Kalai Vanii; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2014-07-05

    In metabolomics experiments, spectral fingerprints of metabolites with no known structural identity are detected routinely. Computer-assisted structure elucidation (CASE) has been used to determine the structural identities of unknown compounds. It is generally accepted that a single 1D NMR spectrum or mass spectrum is usually not sufficient to establish the identity of a hitherto unknown compound. When a suite of spectra from 1D and 2D NMR experiments supplemented with a molecular formula are available, the successful elucidation of the chemical structure for candidates with up to 30 heavy atoms has been reported previously by one of the authors. In high-throughput metabolomics, usually 1D NMR or mass spectrometry experiments alone are conducted for rapid analysis of samples. This method subsequently requires that the spectral patterns are analyzed automatically to quickly identify known and unknown structures. In this study, we investigated whether additional existing knowledge, such as the fact that the unknown compound is a natural product, can be used to improve the ranking of the correct structure in the result list after the structure elucidation process. To identify unknowns using as little spectroscopic information as possible, we implemented an evolutionary algorithm-based CASE mechanism to elucidate candidates in a fully automated fashion, with input of the molecular formula and 13C NMR spectrum of the isolated compound. We also tested how filters like natural product-likeness, a measure that calculates the similarity of the compounds to known natural product space, might enhance the performance and quality of the structure elucidation. The evolutionary algorithm is implemented within the SENECA package for CASE reported previously, and is available for free download under artistic license at http://sourceforge.net/projects/seneca/. The natural product-likeness calculator is incorporated as a plugin within SENECA and is available as a GUI client and

  17. Electric plant cost and power production expenses 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    Electric Plant Cost and Power Production Expenses is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication presents electric utility statistics on power production expenses and construction costs of electric generating plants. Data presented here are intended to provide information to the electric utility industry, educational institutions, Federal, State, and local governments, and the general public. These data are collected and published to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act (Public Law 93-275), as amended

  18. Electric plant cost and power production expenses 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Electric Plant Cost and Power Production Expenses is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels (CNEAF); Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication presents electric utility statistics on power production expenses and construction costs of electric generating plants. Data presented here are intended to provide information to the electric utility industry, educational institutions, Federal, State, and local governments, and the general public. These data are collected and published to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act (Public Law 93-275), as amended

  19. Graphical analysis of French nuclear power plant production date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourdan, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of values of plant production uses here an original method of graphical analysis. This method clarifies various difficulties of analysing big experience feedback databases among which the language interpretation and distinctions between scarce events and multi-annual events. In general, the method shows the logical processes that production values obey (pure chance logic, administrative logic, and willpower) This method of graphical analysis provides a tool to observe and question in a concrete way so that each person involved can put the events in which he played a role into the general context of other plants. It is a deductible method to improve this big and complex system. (author)

  20. Graphical analysis of French nuclear power plant production date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jourdan, J.P. [Electricite de France (EDF), Projet Production EPR 1, 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    2001-07-01

    The analysis of values of plant production uses here an original method of graphical analysis. This method clarifies various difficulties of analysing big experience feedback databases among which the language interpretation and distinctions between scarce events and multi-annual events. In general, the method shows the logical processes that production values obey (pure chance logic, administrative logic, and willpower) This method of graphical analysis provides a tool to observe and question in a concrete way so that each person involved can put the events in which he played a role into the general context of other plants. It is a deductible method to improve this big and complex system. (author)

  1. Long-term automated surveillance of a commercial nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pattern recognition system for monitoring nuclear reactor signals is presented. The system is based on detecting deviations from baseline signatures learned automatically during normal plant operation. The capabilities and limitations of the recognition approach were investigated during a 2-1/2-year continuous, on-line series of experiments at the Sequoyah-1 nuclear power plant

  2. High-throughput phenotyping of plant resistance to aphids by automated video tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloth, K.J.; Broeke, ten C.J.M.; Thoen, H.P.M.; Hanhart-van den Brink, M.; Wiegers, G.L.; Krips, O.E.; Noldus, L.P.J.J.; Dicke, M.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Piercing-sucking insects are major vectors of plant viruses causing significant yield losses in crops.Functional genomics of plant resistance to these insects would greatly benefit from the availability of highthroughput, quantitative phenotyping methods. Results: We have developed an

  3. Water use, productivity and interactions among desert plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehleringer, J.R.

    1992-11-17

    Water plays a central role affecting all aspects of the dynamics in aridland ecosystems. Productivity, stability, and competitive interactions among ecosystem components within aridlands are key processes related directly to water in deserts. The ecological studies in this project revolve around one fundamental premise: that integrated aspects of plant metabolism provide insight into the structure and function of plant communities and ecosystems. While it is difficult to extrapolate from instantaneous physiological observations to higher scales, such as whole plant performance or to interactions between plants as components of ecosystems, several key aspects of plant metabolism are scalable. Analyses of stable isotopic composition in plant tissues at natural abundance levels provide a useful tool that can provide insight into the consequences of physiological processes over temporal and spatial scales. Some plant processes continuously fractionate among light and heavy stable isotopic forms of an element; over time this results in integrated measures of plant metabolism. For example, carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthesis results in leaf carbon isotopic composition that is a measure of the set-point for photosynthetic metabolism and of water-use efficiency. Thus it provides information on the temporal scaling of a key physiological process. In contrast, hydrogen is not fractionated during water uptake through the root. Soil water availability in shallow, deep, and/or groundwater layers vary spatially; therefore hydrogen isotope ratios of xylem sap provide a direct measure of the water source currently used by a plant. The longer-term record of carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios is recorded annually in xylem tissues (tree rings). The research in this project addresses variation in stable isotopic composition of aridland plants and its consequences for plant performance and community-level interactions.

  4. NLO electroweak automation and precise predictions for W+ multijet production at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallweit, S.; Lindert, J.M.; Maierhöfer, P.; Pozzorini, S.; Schönherr, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present a fully automated implementation of next-to-leading order electroweak (NLO EW) corrections in the OPENLOOPS matrix-element generator combined with the SHERPA and MUNICH Monte Carlo frameworks. The process-independent character of the implemented algorithms opens the door to NLO QCD+EW simulations for a vast range of Standard Model processes, up to high particle multiplicity, at current and future colliders. As a first application, we present NLO QCD+EW predictions for the production of positively charged on-shell W bosons in association with up to three jets at the Large Hadron Collider. At the TeV energy scale, due to the presence of large Sudakov logarithms, EW corrections reach the 20–40% level and play an important role for searches of physics beyond the Standard Model. The dependence of NLO EW effects on the jet multiplicity is investigated in detail, and we find that W+ multijet final states feature genuinely different EW effects as compared to the case of W+1 jet.

  5. Automated in-line mixing system for large scale production of chitosan-based polyplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli Naeini, Ashkan; Soliman, Ousamah Younoss; Alameh, Mohamad Gabriel; Lavertu, Marc; Buschmann, Michael D

    2017-08-15

    Chitosan (CS)-based polyplexes are efficient non-viral gene delivery systems that are most commonly prepared by manual mixing. However, manual mixing is not only poorly controlled but also restricted to relatively small preparation volumes, limiting clinical applications. In order to overcome these drawbacks and to produce clinical quantities of CS-based polyplexes, a fully automated in-line mixing platform was developed for production of large batches of small-size and homogeneous CS-based polyplexes. Operational conditions to produce small-sized homogeneous polyplexes were identified. Increasing mixing concentrations of CS and nucleic acid was directly associated with an increase in size and polydispersity of both CS/pDNA and CS/siRNA polyplexes. We also found that although the speed of mixing has a negligible impact on the properties of CS/pDNA polyplexes, the size and polydispersity of CS/siRNA polyplexes are strongly influenced by the mixing speed: the higher the speed, the smaller the size and polydispersity. While in-line and manual CS/pDNA polyplexes had similar size and PDI, CS/siRNA polyplexes were smaller and more homogenous when prepared in-line in the non-laminar flow regime compared to manual method. Finally, we found that in-line mixed CS/siRNA polyplexes have equivalent or higher silencing efficiency of ApoB in HepG2 cells, compared to manually prepared polyplexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Discussion after implementation of possible ergonomics contributions in production lines automation project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Adriano Canton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of work spaces designed based on Activity-Centered Ergonomics. The aim was to reflect on the role of Ergonomics in the design of productive situations in order to anticipate and mitigate the emergence of new constraints. This study was developed using a case study from the packaging industry, where an automated line was implemented to mitigate the injuries suffered as result of the manual system. This article was based on the results of an Ergonomic Work Analysis of the solution implemented, and the subsequent analysis of this design process. It was found that the adopted solution does not have enough leeway for dealing with variations inherent to the process, requiring constant interventions in the operation, by the operators in order to free the line to continue work. It was evident that the adopted solution did not involve the participation of important agents such as the operators and the maintenance crew, giving the project a technical vision that was concerned with eliminating the human factor. The conclusion of this study was that the Ergonomics integrated into the project development favors the collective construction of analysis of the research, and consequently, the development of more effective solutions.

  7. Influence of plant community composition on biomass production in planted grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschell, Max A; Webster, Christopher R; Flaspohler, David J; Fortin, Chad R

    2015-01-01

    United States energy policy mandates increased use of renewable fuels. Restoring grasslands could contribute to a portion of this requirement through biomass harvest for bioenergy use. We investigated which plant community characteristics are associated with differences in biomass yield from a range of realistic native prairie plantings (n = 11; i.e., conservation planting, restoration, and wildlife cover). Our primary goal was to understand whether patterns in plant community composition and the Floristic Quality Index (FQI) were related to productivity as evidenced by dormant season biomass yield. FQI is an objective measure of how closely a plant community represents that of a pre-European settlement community. Our research was conducted in planted fields of native tallgrass prairie species, and provided a gradient in floristic quality index, species richness, species diversity, and species evenness in south-central Wisconsin during 2008 and 2009. We used a network of 15 randomly located 1 m2 plots within each field to characterize the plant community and estimate biomass yield by clipping the plots at the end of each growing season. While plant community composition and diversity varied significantly by planting type, biomass yield did not vary significantly among planting types (ANOVA; P >0.05). Biomass yield was positively correlated with plant community evenness, richness, C4 grass cover, and floristic quality index, but negatively correlated with plant species diversity in our multi-season multiple linear mixed effects models. Concordantly, plots with biomass yield in the lowest quartile (biomass yield plant community evenness and 9% lower FQI scores than those in the upper quartile (biomass yield > 5800 kh/ha). Our results suggest that promoting the establishment of fields with high species evenness and floristic quality may increase biomass yield, while simultaneously supporting biodiversity.

  8. Automated protocols for spaceborne sub-meter resolution "Big Data" products for Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neigh, C. S. R.; Carroll, M.; Montesano, P.; Slayback, D. A.; Wooten, M.; Lyapustin, A.; Shean, D. E.; Alexandrov, O.; Macander, M. J.; Tucker, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    The volume of available remotely sensed data has grown exceeding Petabytes per year and the cost for data, storage systems and compute power have both dropped exponentially. This has opened the door for "Big Data" processing systems with high-end computing (HEC) such as the Google Earth Engine, NASA Earth Exchange (NEX), and NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS). At the same time, commercial very high-resolution (VHR) satellites have grown into a constellation with global repeat coverage that can support existing NASA Earth observing missions with stereo and super-spectral capabilities. Through agreements with the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center is acquiring Petabytes of global sub-meter to 4 meter resolution imagery from WorldView-1,2,3 Quickbird-2, GeoEye-1 and IKONOS-2 satellites. These data are a valuable no-direct cost for the enhancement of Earth observation research that supports US government interests. We are currently developing automated protocols for generating VHR products to support NASA's Earth observing missions. These include two primary foci: 1) on demand VHR 1/2° ortho mosaics - process VHR to surface reflectance, orthorectify and co-register multi-temporal 2 m multispectral imagery compiled as user defined regional mosaics. This will provide an easy access dataset to investigate biodiversity, tree canopy closure, surface water fraction, and cropped area for smallholder agriculture; and 2) on demand VHR digital elevation models (DEMs) - process stereo VHR to extract VHR DEMs with the NASA Ames stereo pipeline. This will benefit Earth surface studies on the cryosphere (glacier mass balance, flow rates and snow depth), hydrology (lake/water body levels, landslides, subsidence) and biosphere (forest structure, canopy height/cover) among others. Recent examples of products used in NASA Earth Science projects will be provided. This HEC API could foster surmounting prior spatial-temporal limitations while

  9. Pep2Path: automated mass spectrometry-guided genome mining of peptidic natural products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnix H Medema

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nonribosomally and ribosomally synthesized bioactive peptides constitute a source of molecules of great biomedical importance, including antibiotics such as penicillin, immunosuppressants such as cyclosporine, and cytostatics such as bleomycin. Recently, an innovative mass-spectrometry-based strategy, peptidogenomics, has been pioneered to effectively mine microbial strains for novel peptidic metabolites. Even though mass-spectrometric peptide detection can be performed quite fast, true high-throughput natural product discovery approaches have still been limited by the inability to rapidly match the identified tandem mass spectra to the gene clusters responsible for the biosynthesis of the corresponding compounds. With Pep2Path, we introduce a software package to fully automate the peptidogenomics approach through the rapid Bayesian probabilistic matching of mass spectra to their corresponding biosynthetic gene clusters. Detailed benchmarking of the method shows that the approach is powerful enough to correctly identify gene clusters even in data sets that consist of hundreds of genomes, which also makes it possible to match compounds from unsequenced organisms to closely related biosynthetic gene clusters in other genomes. Applying Pep2Path to a data set of compounds without known biosynthesis routes, we were able to identify candidate gene clusters for the biosynthesis of five important compounds. Notably, one of these clusters was detected in a genome from a different subphylum of Proteobacteria than that in which the molecule had first been identified. All in all, our approach paves the way towards high-throughput discovery of novel peptidic natural products. Pep2Path is freely available from http://pep2path.sourceforge.net/, implemented in Python, licensed under the GNU General Public License v3 and supported on MS Windows, Linux and Mac OS X.

  10. Automation of manufacturing products from intelligent polymeric composites with regard to the components relative velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олексій Модестович Халімовський

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A device design has been developed that makes it possible to insert intelligent sensors (IS into the products from composite polymeric materials to control their stress-strain state. The results of the experiments made it possible to improve the algorithm of coordinated work of the vector controlled induction electric drive of the device elements. The simulation results of the transient processes of the operating conditions of the IS automatic insertions into the predetermined spatial coordinates of the extruder channel polymer have been shown. The presence of such sensors within the given spatial coordinates of a product is realized due to rapid movement of molten polymer with included IS under use of the scheme of influx fitting to the polymer that moves in the main channel of the extruder. Based on the simulation results a dependence function for the immersion depth of the polymer melt with included IS from its movement velocity has been obtained. The approximation of this dependence via a polynomial function of 5-th order made it possible to determine with the relative error less than 1% analytically the linear velocity of the rod in the cylinder injector for transporting of the molten polymer with included IS to the predetermined spatial coordinates of the polymer channel of the extruder. For inserting of the intelligent sensors (IS into the depth of 1.2 mm a required motor speed of electric drive was calculated under considering of the peculiarities of the chosen kinematic scheme. The obtained experimental data have confirmed the possibility of technical implementation of the developed device as well as allowed refining of the algorithm for the automation system. The simulation results for the system have been presented. The system used the vector-controlled asynchronous electric drives with standard settings for their contours to provide the agreed movement of the plasticiser screw and the injector rod by inserting of IS at a given depth

  11. How does forest productivity influence river export of plant wax?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feakins, S. J.; West, A. J.; Galy, V.; Malhi, Y.; Girardin, C.; Asner, G. P.; Ponton, C.; Wu, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    How much carbon, fixed in tropical forest photosynthesis, is exported by rivers? From the large biomass held in tropical forests only a small component enters rivers for export. The exported fraction of tropical forest production represents the component removed from the rapid photosynthesis-respiration cycle, with potential for long-term sequestration in downstream sediments. Along the journey downstream, the transported organic matter may be lost to respiration, or stored in deposits before remobilization and later export. Discriminating between carbon sources in rivers presents a challenge to answering the question posed. But, plant waxes are specific tracers of plant biosynthesis that we use to identify sourcing and transport by the river, and that represent a resilient component with sequestration potential. Thus, we quantify the fraction of fresh forest production that goes into plant wax in a series of 9 forest plots in the Madre de Dios River catchment, Peru and set this in the context of catchment scale NPP estimates. Downstream sampling in two seasons captures the suspended particulate load of plant waxes in transit. Paired analyses of carbon and hydrogen isotopes allow for source apportionment by elevation allowing insight into catchment integration processes. Downstream concentrations of plant wax n-alkanes in river are related to discharge to yield estimates of the instantaneous catchment export flux in two contrasting seasons. Ultimately we seek to constrain the flux of plant wax exported by the river, and to estimate what fraction of forest NPP makes that journey from land to sea.

  12. Automated hydroponics nutrition plants systems using arduino uno microcontroller based on android

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihombing, P.; Karina, N. A.; Tarigan, J. T.; Syarif, M. I.

    2018-03-01

    Technological developments today make the combination of science is very common, including in Computer Science and Agriculture to make both of science need each other. This paper aims to develop a control tool for the flow of nutrients of hydroponic plants automatically using Arduino microcontroller and controlled by smartphone. We use an Arduino Uno microcontroller to automatically control the flow of nutrient solution with logic if else. The microcontroller can also send data of fluid level (solution) and temperature around the plant to smartphone android of the owner of the hydroponics plant. The height of the nutrient solution (water) is detected by the Ultrasonic sensor HC-SR04 and the temperature is detected by the temperature sensor LM35. Data from the sensor will forward into Arduino Uno and displayed in liquid crystal display (LCD) then via wireless fidelity (WIFI) ESP8266 module will transmit the height of the nutrient solution and the temperature around of the plants to Android smartphone.

  13. Major factors influencing craft productivity in nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borcherding, J.D.; Sebastian, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reports on a research study whose objective was to determine the most influential factors adversely affecting craft productivity in nuclear power plant construction from the perspective of the tradesmen employed at the sites. Data were collected through the use of a questionnaire survey and group interview sessions, predominantly with workmen, at six nuclear power plant construction projects. Craftsmen were chosen as the major data base because of their awareness of how their time would actually be spent on the project. Topics considered include the factors influencing craft productivity, material availability, redoing work, crew interfacing, overcrowded work areas, instruction time, inspection delays, craft turnover, craft absenteeism, foreman changes, foreman incompetence, engineering design lead time, comprehensive scheduling of the design function, the responsibility of the utility, value engineering, plant standardization, the effective utilization of the planning and scheduling system, and the labor-management committee

  14. AVLIS Production Plant Preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This preliminary Quality Assurance Plan and Assessment establishes the Quality Assurance requirements for the AVLIS Production Plant Project. The Quality Assurance Plan defines the management approach, organization, interfaces, and controls that will be used in order to provide adequate confidence that the AVLIS Production Plant design, procurement, construction, fabrication, installation, start-up, and operation are accomplished within established goals and objectives. The Quality Assurance Program defined in this document includes a system for assessing those elements of the project whose failure would have a significant impact on safety, environment, schedule, cost, or overall plant objectives. As elements of the project are assessed, classifications are provided to establish and assure that special actions are defined which will eliminate or reduce the probability of occurrence or control the consequences of failure. 8 figures, 18 tables

  15. Product quality and process control in the Windscale Vitrification Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beveridge, G.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Windscale Vitrification Plant (WVP) is owned and operated by British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) at the Sellafield Site in England. The purpose of the facility is to condition the high level liquid waste, resulting from the reprocessing of spent fuel into a suitable solid form for ultimate disposal. The form chosen is a borosilicate glass matrix which meets both the needs of long term durability and plant operability. A considerable amount of work has now been carried out in order to demonstrate that product quality can be guaranteed through process control. This work has ranged from very small scale lab. studies to full scale production plant trials. WVP entered active service in July 1990 and is currently dealing with the arisings from over 30 years of reprocessing

  16. Automated recovery of three-dimensional models of plant shoots from multiple color images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Michael P; French, Andrew P; Murchie, Erik H; Pridmore, Tony P

    2014-12-01

    Increased adoption of the systems approach to biological research has focused attention on the use of quantitative models of biological objects. This includes a need for realistic three-dimensional (3D) representations of plant shoots for quantification and modeling. Previous limitations in single-view or multiple-view stereo algorithms have led to a reliance on volumetric methods or expensive hardware to record plant structure. We present a fully automatic approach to image-based 3D plant reconstruction that can be achieved using a single low-cost camera. The reconstructed plants are represented as a series of small planar sections that together model the more complex architecture of the leaf surfaces. The boundary of each leaf patch is refined using the level-set method, optimizing the model based on image information, curvature constraints, and the position of neighboring surfaces. The reconstruction process makes few assumptions about the nature of the plant material being reconstructed and, as such, is applicable to a wide variety of plant species and topologies and can be extended to canopy-scale imaging. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on data sets of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rice (Oryza sativa) plants as well as a unique virtual data set that allows us to compute quantitative measures of reconstruction accuracy. The output is a 3D mesh structure that is suitable for modeling applications in a format that can be imported in the majority of 3D graphics and software packages. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Callus production and regeneration of the medicinal plant Papaver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-19

    Sep 19, 2011 ... and morphinan alkaloids production in two species of opium poppy. Biomed. Biotechnol. 1(2): 70-78. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962). A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant, 15: 473-497. Rao AQ, Hussain SS, Shahzad MS, Bokhari SYA, Raza MH, Rakha ...

  18. Initial biochar effects on plant productivity derive from N fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeffery, S.L.; Memelink, Ilse; Hodgson, Edward; Jones, S.; Voorde, van de T.F.J.; Bezemer, T.M.; Mommer, L.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aim
    Biochar application to soil is widely claimed to increase plant productivity. However, the underlying mechanisms are still not conclusively described. Here, we aim to elucidate these mechanisms using stable isotope probing.
    Methods
    We conducted two experiments with

  19. Plant natural products research in tuberculosis drug discovery and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The global resurgence of TB and the development of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), call for the development of new anti-tuberculosis drugs to combat this disease. Plant natural products have a proven global history of treating diseases and ailments.

  20. Plant latex lipase as biocatalysts for biodiesel production | Mazou ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrial-scale processes currently developed make use of chemical catalysis processes that are highly efficient but require very complex product purification steps. Enzymatic catalysis through plant lipases as biocatalysts is an alternative which, in contrast to chemical catalysis processes, appeared simple to perform, and ...

  1. AUTOMATION OF CHAMPAGNE WINES PROCESS IN SPARKLING WINE PRESSURE TANK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Lukyanchuk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The wine industry is now successfully solved the problem for the implementation of automation receiving points of grapes, crushing and pressing departments installation continuous fermentation work, blend tanks, production lines ordinary Madeira continuously working plants for ethyl alcohol installations champagne wine in continuous flow, etc. With the development of automation of technological progress productivity winemaking process develops in the following areas: organization of complex avtomatization sites grape processing with bulk transportation of the latter; improving the quality and durability of wines by the processing of a wide applying wine cold and heat, as well as technical and microbiological control most powerful automation equipment; the introduction of automated production processes of continuous technical champagne, sherry wine and cognac alcohol madery; the use of complex automation auxiliary production sites (boilers, air conditioners, refrigeration unitsand other.; complex avtomatization creation of enterprises, and sites manufactory bottling wines. In the wine industry developed more sophisticated schemes of automation and devices that enable the transition to integrated production automation, will create, are indicative automated enterprise serving for laboratories to study of the main problems of automation of production processes of winemaking.

  2. A new automated NaCl based robust method for routine production of gallium-68 labeled peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, Michael K.; Mueller, Dirk; Baum, Richard P.; Leonard Watkins, G.; Breeman, Wouter A.P.

    2013-01-01

    A new NaCl based method for preparation of gallium-68 labeled radiopharmaceuticals has been adapted for use with an automated gallium-68 generator system. The method was evaluated based on 56 preparations of [ 68 Ga]DOTATOC and compared to a similar acetone-based approach. Advantages of the new NaCl approach include reduced preparation time ( 97%), and specific activity (>40 MBq nmole −1 [ 68 Ga]DOTATOC) and is well-suited for clinical production of radiopharmaceuticals. - Highlights: ► A NaCl based automated production of Ga-68-radiopharmaceuticals is described. ► Using 5 M NaCl for pre-purification of 68Ga eliminates the need for organic solvents. ► The method provides for high efficiency, specific activity, and radiochemical purity. ► The new method eliminates the need for the quality control by gas chromatography

  3. Decreased plant productivity resulting from plant group removal experiment constrains soil microbial functional diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ximei; Johnston, Eric R; Barberán, Albert; Ren, Yi; Lü, Xiaotao; Han, Xingguo

    2017-10-01

    Anthropogenic environmental changes are accelerating the rate of biodiversity loss on Earth. Plant diversity loss is predicted to reduce soil microbial diversity primarily due to the decreased variety of carbon/energy resources. However, this intuitive hypothesis is supported by sparse empirical evidence, and most underlying mechanisms remain underexplored or obscure altogether. We constructed four diversity gradients (0-3) in a five-year plant functional group removal experiment in a steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia, China, and quantified microbial taxonomic and functional diversity with shotgun metagenome sequencing. The treatments had little effect on microbial taxonomic diversity, but were found to decrease functional gene diversity. However, the observed decrease in functional gene diversity was more attributable to a loss in plant productivity, rather than to the loss of any individual plant functional group per se. Reduced productivity limited fresh plant resources supplied to microorganisms, and thus, intensified the pressure of ecological filtering, favoring genes responsible for energy production/conversion, material transport/metabolism and amino acid recycling, and accordingly disfavored many genes with other functions. Furthermore, microbial respiration was correlated with the variation in functional composition but not taxonomic composition. Overall, the amount of carbon/energy resources driving microbial gene diversity was identified to be the critical linkage between above- and belowground communities, contrary to the traditional framework of linking plant clade/taxonomic diversity to microbial taxonomic diversity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. DESIGN ELEMENTS OF THE AUTOMATED CONTROL SYSTEMS PRODUCTION ENTERPRISES AVIATION INSTRUMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Dobrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are considered the basics of organization of design of the automated  enterprise control systems elements of the aircraft instrument engineering enterprises; there are specified the stages of introduction of the AECS of the aircraft instrument engineering enterprises; there are considered the aspects of choice of means and tools of the enterprise automation. There is specified that it is very important to clearly define the goals, objectives and methods of automation, to take into account the economic component  of design and implementation, and regulatory requirements for automation upon organization of design of the AECS elements of the aircraft instrument engineering enterprises. These requirements are recommended to be reflected in the design technical specification and in the business plan of automation, which is an organizational and economic design tool. An important element of the business plan of automation shall be a financial justification, cost calculation and determination of the schedule of scientific-research and development works, and other important stages of design of the AECS elements. It was found that the most effective approach to the organization of design of the AECS elements from an economic and organizational point of view is the cooperation of engineering and IT departments of enterprises and technical professionals (units of third-party developers. It was determined that an important technology to optimize the design process is the application of the integrated automation design systems. The recommendations can form the basis of the process of improving of design of the automated enterprise control systems elements at domestic and foreign aircraft instrument engineering enterprises.

  5. SAGA: A project to automate the management of software production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Roy H.; Laliberte, D.; Render, H.; Sum, R.; Smith, W.; Terwilliger, R.

    1987-01-01

    The Software Automation, Generation and Administration (SAGA) project is investigating the design and construction of practical software engineering environments for developing and maintaining aerospace systems and applications software. The research includes the practical organization of the software lifecycle, configuration management, software requirements specifications, executable specifications, design methodologies, programming, verification, validation and testing, version control, maintenance, the reuse of software, software libraries, documentation, and automated management.

  6. Improving configuration management of thermalhydraulic analysis by automating the linkage between pipe geometry and plant idealization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibb, R.; Girard, R.; Thompson, W.

    1997-01-01

    All safety analysis codes require some representation of actual plant data as a part of their input. Such representations, referred to at Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS) as plant idealizations, may include piping layout, orifice, pump or valve opening characteristics, boundary conditions of various sorts, reactor physics parameters, etc. As computing power increases, the numerical capabilities of thermalhydraulic analysis tools become more sophisticated, requiring more detailed assessments, and consequently more complex and complicated idealizations of the system models. Thus, a need has emerged to create a precise plant model layout in electronic form which ensures a realistic representation of the plant systems, and form which analytical approximations of any chosen degree of accuracy may be created. The benefits of this process are twofold. Firstly, the job of developing a plant idealization is made simpler, and therefore is cheaper for the utility. More important however, are the improvements in documentation and reproducibility that this process imparts to the resultant idealization. Just as the software that performs the numerical operations on the input data must be subject to verification/validation, equally robust measures must be taken to ensure that these software operations are being applied to valid idealizations, that are formally documented. Since the CATHENA Code is one of the most important thermalhydraulic code used for safety analysis at PLGS the main effort was directed towards the systems plant models for this code. This paper reports the results of the work carried on at PLGS and ANSL to link the existing piping data base to the actual CATHENA plant idealization. An introduction to the concept is given first, followed by a description of the databases, and the supervisory tool which manages the data, and associated software. An intermediate code, which applied some thermalhydraulic rules to the data, and translated the resultant data

  7. Phytotoxicity and Plant Productivity Analysis of Tar-Enriched Biochars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M. L.; Masiello, C. A.; Dugan, B.; Rudgers, J. A.; Capareda, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    Biochar is one of the three by-products obtained by the pyrolysis of organic material, the other two being syngas and bio-oil. The pyrolysis of biomass has generated a great amount of interest in recent years as all three by-products can be put toward beneficial uses. As part of a larger project designed to evaluate the hydrologic impact of biochar soil amendment, we generated a biochar through fast pyrolysis (less than 2 minutes) of sorghum stock at 600°C. In the initial biochar production run, the char bin was not purged with nitrogen. This inadvertent change in pyrolysis conditions produced a fast-pyrolysis biochar enriched with tars. We chose not to discard this batch, however, and instead used it to test the impact of tar-enriched biochars on plants. A suite of phytotoxicity tests were run to assess the effects of tar-rich biochar on plant germination and plant productivity. We designed the experiment to test for negative effects, using an organic carbon and nutrient-rich, greenhouse- optimized potting medium instead of soil. We used Black Seeded Simpson lettuce (Lactuca sativa) as the test organism. We found that even when tars are present within biochar, biochar amendment up to 10% by weight caused increased lettuce germination rates and increased biomass productivity. In this presentation, we will report the statistical significance of our germination and biomass data, as well as present preliminary data on how biochar amendment affects soil hydrologic properties.

  8. Coupling Solid Oxide Electrolyser (SOE) and ammonia production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinti, Giovanni; Frattini, Domenico; Jannelli, Elio; Desideri, Umberto; Bidini, Gianni

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An innovative NH 3 production plant was designed. • CO 2 emissions and energy consumption are studied in three different designs. • High temperature electrolysis allows to achieve high efficiency and heat recovery. • The coupling permits storage of electricity into a liquid carbon free chemical. - Abstract: Ammonia is one of the most produced chemicals worldwide and is currently synthesized using nitrogen separated from air and hydrogen from natural gas reforming with consequent high consumption of fossil fuel and high emission of CO 2 . A renewable path for ammonia production is desirable considering the potential development of ammonia as energy carrier. This study reports design and analysis of an innovative system for the production of green ammonia using electricity from renewable energy sources. This concept couples Solid Oxide Electrolysis (SOE), for the production of hydrogen, with an improved Haber Bosch Reactor (HBR), for ammonia synthesis. An air separator is also introduced to supply pure nitrogen. SOE operates with extremely high efficiency recovering high temperature heat from the Haber-Bosch reactor. Aspen was used to develop a model to study the performance of the plant. Both the SOE and the HBR operate at 650 °C. Ammonia production with zero emission of CO 2 can be obtained with a reduction of 40% of power input compared to equivalent plants.

  9. Biocatalytic reductions by plant tissue - Green alternative to alcohol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Nujić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of biocatalysts for the industrial synthesis of chemicals has been attracting much attention as an environmental friendly synthetic method. Various plants, such as apple (Malus pumila, carrot (Daucus carota, cucumber (Cucumis sativus, onion (Allium cepa, potato (Solanum tuberosum, radish (Raphanus sativus and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas were used as biocatalysts. Enzymes that plants produce are able to perform reactions under mild conditions (pH and temperature, with remarkable chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivity. Due to this feature the number of biocatalysts used in organic synthesis has rapidly increased during the last decades, especially for the production of chiral compounds. This review presents biotechnological processes for the production of chiral alcohols by reducing prochiral ketones with whole plant tissue. Chiral alcohols are important building blocks for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, pesticides, pheromones, flavors, fragrances and advanced materials such as liquid crystals. Reductase-catalyzed reactions are dependent on cofactors, and therefore, one major task in process development is to provide an effective method for regeneration of the cofactors consumed. The need for expensive cofactors is eliminated by using the whole plant tissue since the plant automatically provides this requirement. Depending on the vegetable used, either enantiomer may be obtained in high yield and high enantiomeric excess (ee, which could be a critical factor for drug development/bioactivity evaluation perspective. In this paper, various processes carried out on laboratory scales are presented. Attention is turned to conversion, yield, enantiomeric excess (ee.

  10. Comparative research of international exchange of plant products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorović Milutin T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The well known events which had taken place in our country over the period 1989-2001 provoked adverse effects on foreign trade exchange of the total economy, agriculture and commodities of plant origin. These effects and changes were analyzed using corresponding indices for the sub periods 1989-1992 and 1998-2001. The foreign trade exchange balance was substantially negative in both sub periods over the analyzed period showing an aggravating trend. Export covering import declined from 78.09% to only 47.71%. The positive balance of exchange of agricultural, especially commodities of plant origin in the first four years was turned into a negative balance of exchange in the second four years. Export covering import at the agricultural level declined from 164.79% to 78.58% and at the level of commodities of plant origin from 201,76% to 87.35%. There was a significant disturbance of commodity and regional structure exchange. The share of agriculture in the total export of the country was raised from 13.82% to 18.16%. The share of plant originating commodities in the total export of agriculture was raised from 71,96% to 86,34%. Basic agricultural products predominated in the export. In addition, in the domestic export the share of developed countries decreased which contributed to poor export results and increased the import dependence of the country. Considering the above said, the need arises to increase substantially agricultural production, i.e. commodities of plant origin. The structure and output of these productions should meet the needs of both domestic and foreign markets. International standards need to be applied in order to take hold of new foreign markets, exporting high technology processed products, using intensive and efficient promotive activities. Subsequently, greater investments and a planned production are needed, liberalization and especially the system of import control in foreign trade exchange of agricultural products, i

  11. User system of power production enterprises in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolf, B.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility is being discussed of the deployment of the user system of power production enterprises in Czechoslovak nuclear power plants. The user system is software serving for the computer batch processing of so-called type projects. At present it includes record-keeping and planning of the material and technical supply, of costs and wages, wage analyses, record-keeping and planning of basic means and items of gradual consumption and record-keeping of orders in general. The user system of power production enterprises has already been installed at the Dukovany nuclear power plant. The trends of further development of the system are indicated mainly with regard to the possibility of updating data in the different type projects and the possibility of interactive access to the said data. Briefly described is the following type project which will also be incorporated in the user system. This is an automated system for the identification and record-keeping of conditions of technical work safety. (Z.M.)

  12. Diversity-oriented natural product platform identifies plant constituents targeting Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Bowling, John J; Smithson, David; Clark, Julie; Jacob, Melissa R; Khan, Shabana I; Tekwani, Babu L; Connelly, Michele; Samoylenko, Vladimir; Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Zaki, Mohamed A; Wang, Mei; Hester, John P; Tu, Ying; Jeffries, Cynthia; Twarog, Nathaniel; Shelat, Anang A; Walker, Larry A; Muhammad, Ilias; Guy, R Kiplin

    2016-05-10

    A diverse library of pre-fractionated plant extracts, generated by an automated high-throughput system, was tested using an in vitro anti-malarial screening platform to identify known or new natural products for lead development. The platform identifies hits on the basis of in vitro growth inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum and counter-screens for cytotoxicity to human foreskin fibroblast or embryonic kidney cell lines. The physical library was supplemented by early-stage collection of analytical data for each fraction to aid rapid identification of the active components within each screening hit. A total of 16,177 fractions from 1300 plants were screened, identifying several P. falciparum inhibitory fractions from 35 plants. Although individual fractions were screened for bioactivity to ensure adequate signal in the analytical characterizations, fractions containing less than 2.0 mg of dry weight were combined to produce combined fractions (COMBIs). Fractions of active COMBIs had EC50 values of 0.21-50.28 and 0.08-20.04 µg/mL against chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant strains, respectively. In Berberis thunbergii, eight known alkaloids were dereplicated quickly from its COMBIs, but berberine was the most-active constituent against P. falciparum. The triterpenoids α-betulinic acid and β-betulinic acid of Eugenia rigida were also isolated as hits. Validation of the anti-malarial discovery platform was confirmed by these scaled isolations from B. thunbergii and E. rigida. These results demonstrate the value of curating and exploring a library of natural products for small molecule drug discovery. Attention given to the diversity of plant species represented in the library, focus on practical analytical data collection, and the use of counter-screens all facilitate the identification of anti-malarial compounds for lead development or new tools for chemical biology.

  13. An ImageJ based measurement setup for automated phenotyping of plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokorian, J.; Polder, G.; Keurentjes, J.J.B.; Vreugdenhil, D.; Olortegui Guzman, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of plant phenotyping studies is to understand the relationship between a plant’s genotype and phenotype. In our study we focus on the leaf morphology of Arabidopsis seedlings. Our experimental setup consists of a table of 0.9 m × 3.8 m with a matrix of about 1500 small cubes of

  14. A farm-scale pilot plant for biohydrogen and biomethane production by two-stage fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Oberti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is considered one of the possible main energy carriers for the future, thanks to its unique environmental properties. Indeed, its energy content (120 MJ/kg can be exploited virtually without emitting any exhaust in the atmosphere except for water. Renewable production of hydrogen can be obtained through common biological processes on which relies anaerobic digestion, a well-established technology in use at farm-scale for treating different biomass and residues. Despite two-stage hydrogen and methane producing fermentation is a simple variant of the traditional anaerobic digestion, it is a relatively new approach mainly studied at laboratory scale. It is based on biomass fermentation in two separate, seuqential stages, each maintaining conditions optimized to promote specific bacterial consortia: in the first acidophilic reactorhydrogen is produced production, while volatile fatty acids-rich effluent is sent to the second reactor where traditional methane rich biogas production is accomplished. A two-stage pilot-scale plant was designed, manufactured and installed at the experimental farm of the University of Milano and operated using a biomass mixture of livestock effluents mixed with sugar/starch-rich residues (rotten fruits and potatoes and expired fruit juices, afeedstock mixture based on waste biomasses directly available in the rural area where plant is installed. The hydrogenic and the methanogenic reactors, both CSTR type, had a total volume of 0.7m3 and 3.8 m3 respectively, and were operated in thermophilic conditions (55 2 °C without any external pH control, and were fully automated. After a brief description of the requirements of the system, this contribution gives a detailed description of its components and of engineering solutions to the problems encountered during the plant realization and start-up. The paper also discusses the results obtained in a first experimental run which lead to production in the range of previous

  15. Creating plant molecular factories for industrial and nutritional isoprenoid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Marilise; Enfissi, Eugenia Ma; Almeida, Juliana; Fraser, Paul D

    2018-02-01

    Chemical refining is a highly efficient process that has driven industrialisation and globalisation. However, dwindling fuel reserves and climatic fluctuation are now imposing key societal and economic challenges to health and welfare provision, agriculture, manufacturing outputs and energy. Plants are potentially exploitable 'green' chemical factories, with vast chemical diversity that can be used for the discovery and production of food, feed, medicines and biomaterials. Despite notable advances, plant based production under real-life scenarios remains, in most cases, economically uncompetitive when compared to inherently non-sustainable petrochemical based processes. In the present review the strategies available and those emerging will be described. Furthermore, how can the new evolving molecular tools such as genome editing be utilised to create a new paradigm of plant-based production? To illustrate the present status quo, we have chosen the isoprenoids as the class of natural products. These compounds display vast chemical diversity and have been used across multiple industrial sectors as medicines, supplements in food and feedstuffs, colourants and fragrances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Automated synthesis of a 96 product-sized library of triazole derivatives using a solid phase supported copper catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jlalia, Ibtissem; Beauvineau, Claire; Beauvière, Sophie; Onen, Esra; Aufort, Marie; Beauvineau, Aymeric; Khaba, Eihab; Herscovici, Jean; Meganem, Faouzi; Girard, Christian

    2010-04-28

    This article deal with the parallel synthesis of a 96 product-sized library using a polymer-based copper catalyst that we developed which can be easily separated from the products by simple filtration. This gave us the opportunity to use this catalyst in an automated chemical synthesis station (Chemspeed ASW-2000). Studies and results about the preparation of the catalyst, its use in different solvent systems, its recycling capabilities and its scope and limitations in the synthesis of this library will be addressed. The synthesis of the triazole library and the very good results obtained will finally be discussed.

  17. Implications of stratospheric ozone depletion upon plant production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teramura, A.H.

    1990-01-01

    An increase in the amount of UV-B radiation reaching the earth's surface is identified as the major factor of concern to result from stratospheric ozone depletion. UV radiation is believed to have wide ranging effects on plant physiology and biochemistry. In screening studies of > 300 species and cultivars, > 50% have shown sensitivity to UV radiation. The most sensitive plant families appear to be Leguminosae, Cucurbitaceae and Cruciferae. The need for a better understanding of the effects of UV radiation on crop plant physiology and particularly of the repair and protective mechanisms developed by some species is stressed. This paper was presented at a colloquium on Implications of global climate changes on horticultural cropping practices and production in developing countries held at the 86th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Horticultural Science at Tulsa, Oklahoma, on 2 Aug. 1989

  18. Computer Vision Hardware System for Automating Rough Mills of Furniture Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Conners; Chong T. Ng; Thomas H. Drayer; Joe G. Tront; D. Earl Kline; C.J. Gatchell

    1990-01-01

    The rough mill of a hardwood furniture or fixture plant is the place where dried lumber is cut into the rough parts that will be used in the rest of the manufacturing process. Approximately a third of the cost of operating the rough mill is the cost of the raw material. Hence any increase in the number of rough parts produced from a given volume of raw material can...

  19. Intelligent Production Monitoring and Control based on Three Main Modules for Automated Manufacturing Cells in the Automotive Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Ulrich; Kretzschmann, Ralf; Algebra, A. Vargas Veronica

    2008-01-01

    The automotive industry is distinguished by regionalization and customization of products. As consequence, the diversity of products will increase while the lot sizes will decrease. Thus, more product types will be handled along the process chain and common production paradigms will fail. Although Rapid Manufacturing (RM) methodology will be used for producing small individual lot sizes, new solution for joining and assembling these components are needed. On the other hand, the non-availability of existing operational knowledge and the absence of dynamic and explicit knowledge retrieval minimize the achievement of on-demand capabilities. Thus, in this paper, an approach for an Intelligent Production System will be introduced. The concept is based on three interlinked main modules: a Technology Data Catalogue (TDC) based on an ontology system, an Automated Scheduling Processor (ASP) based on graph theory and a central Programmable Automation Controller (PAC) for real-time sensor/actor communication. The concept is being implemented in a laboratory set-up with several assembly and joining processes and will be experimentally validated in some research and development projects

  20. Site overview of robotics and automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes the robotics and automation activities at the Savannah River Laboratory and the Savannah River Plant. The purpose is to provide an overview to facilitate the exchange of technology between various sites involved in development and production work for the Department of Energy. Throughout the paper references are made to assigned project engineers so that they may be contacted directly

  1. Research of beekeeping products using as radioprotectors for plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. О. Oginova

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Research conducted on a winter wheat, which was cultivated in a 30-km area in the year ofChernobylaccident, allowed to ascertain that complex use of sodium humate and beekeeping products is ineffective for diminishing the negative irradiation influence on the early growth processes of plants. Only the simultaneous use of humic preparations and anodic extraction of propolis has permanent positive effect.

  2. Power plant project success through total productive generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaivola, R.; Tamminen, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Total Productive Generation concept (TPG) defines the lines of action adopted by IVO Generation Services Ltd (IGS) for the operation and maintenance of power plants. The TPG concept is based on procedures tested in practice. The main idea of TPG is continuous development of quality, which is a joint effort of the entire staff. Its objective is to benefit IGS`s own staff and, in particular, the company`s customers. (orig.)

  3. A common registration-to-publication automated pipeline for nomenclatural acts for higher plants (International Plant Names Index, IPNI), fungi (Index Fungorum, MycoBank) and animals (ZooBank)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robert, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative effort among four lead indexes of taxon names and nomenclatural acts (International Plant Name Index (IPNI), Index Fungorum, MycoBank and ZooBank) and the journals PhytoKeys, MycoKeys and ZooKeys to create an automated, pre-publication, registration workflow, based on a

  4. Enhancement of Plant Productivity in the Post-Genomics Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-08-01

    Obtaining high plant yield is not always achievable in agricultural activity as it is determined by various factors, including cultivar quality, nutrient and water supplies, degree of infection by pathogens, natural calamities and soil conditions, which affect plant growth and development. More noticeably, sustainable plant productivity to provide sufficient food for the increasing human population has become a thorny issue to scientists in the era of unpredictable global climatic changes, appearance of more tremendous or multiple stresses, and land restriction for cultivation. Well-established agricultural management by agrotechnological means has shown no longer to be effective enough to confront with this challenge. Instead, in order to maximize the production, it is advisable to implement such practices in combination with biological applications. Nowadays, high technologies are widely adopted into agricultural production, biological diversity conservation and crop improvement. Wang et al. has nicely outlined the utilization of DNA-based technologies in this field. Among these are the applications of (i) DNA markers into cultivar identification, seed purity analysis, germplasm resource evaluation, heterosis prediction, genetic mapping, cloning and breeding; and (ii) gene expression data in supporting the description of crop phenology, the analytic comparison of crop growth under stress versus non-stress conditions, or the study of fertilizer effects. Besides, various purposes of using transgenic technologies in agriculture, such as generating cultivars with better product quality, better tolerance to biotic or abiotic stress, are also discussed in the review. One of the important highlights in this issue is the review of the benefits brought by high-throughput sequencing technology, which is also known as next-generation sequencing (NGS). It is not so difficult to recognize that its application has allowed us to carry out biological studies at much deeper level

  5. AVLIS Production Plant work breakdown structure and Dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The work breakdown structure has been prepared for the AVLIS Production Plant to define, organize, and identify the work efforts and is summarized in Fig. 1-1 for the top three project levels. The work breakdown structure itself is intended to be the primary organizational tool of the AVLIS Production Plant and is consistent with the overall AVLIS Program Work Breakdown Structure. It is designed to provide a framework for definition and accounting of all of the elements that are required for the eventual design, procurement, and construction of the AVLIS Production Plant. During the present phase of the AVLIS Project, the conceptual engineering phase, the work breakdown structure is intended to be the master structure and project organizer of documents, designs, and cost estimates. As the master project organizer, the key role of the work breakdown structure is to provide the mechanism for developing completeness in AVLIS cost estimates and design development of all hardware and systems. The work breakdown structure provides the framework for tracking, on a one-to-one basis, the component design criteria, systems requirements, design concepts, design drawings, performance projections, and conceptual cost estimates. It also serves as a vehicle for contract reporting. 12 figures, 2 tables

  6. Production Analysis of Biogas Plant in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Slaboch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an agriculture production analysis of biogas plant in the Czech Republic and evaluates the effect of input-factors and their relevance. Cobb-Douglas functions for crop, livestock and total agriculture production are used. Econometric models are used for structure and magnitude determination of land and labour factors at individual farms, which lead to an increase of production defined in scenarios. Estimations are based on cross-section data. Results indicate statistical significance and the economically highest effect of land and fixed assets on the total agriculture production. The results of first period model show, that there is preferably a need for an increase of fixed assets when enlarging the livestock production. There is an increase of the importance of wages in total and livestock production in 2011 compared to 2010. The crop production is dependent on land are in the most, but the model must be rejected because of parameters intensity and economic justification. Quantification of relationships among variables can be used for planning of the whole production or its components.

  7. System implementation of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) in a nitrogen production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrantes Salazar, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    System of hazard analysis and critical control points are deployed in a production plant of liquid nitrogen. The fact that the nitrogen has become a complement to food packaging to increase shelf life, or provide a surface that protect it from manipulation, has been the main objective. Analysis of critical control points for the nitrogen production plant has been the adapted methodology. The knowledge of both the standard and the production process, as well as the on site verification process, have been necessary. In addition, all materials and/or processing units that are found in contact with the raw material or the product under study were evaluated. Such a way that the intrinsic risks of each were detected, from the physical, chemical and biological points of view according to the origin or pollution source. For each found risk was evaluated the probability of occurrence according to the frequency and gravity of it, with these variables determined was achieved the definition of the type of risk detected. In the cases that was presented a greater risk or critical, these were subjected decision tree; with which is concluded the non determination of critical control points. However, for each one of them were established the maximum permitted limits. To generate each of the results it has literature or scientific reference of reliable provenance, where is indicated properly the support of the evaluated matter. In a general way, the material matrix and the process matrix are found without critical control points; so that the project is concluded in the analysis, and it has to generate without the monitoring system and verification. To increase this project is suggested in order to cover the packaging system of gaseous nitrogen, due to it was delimited to liquid nitrogen. Furthermore, the liquid nitrogen is a 100% automated and closed process so the introduction of contaminants is very reduced, unlike the gaseous nitrogen process. (author) [es

  8. Complete automation of nuclear reactors control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, J.

    1955-01-01

    The use of nuclear reactor for energy production induces the installation of automatic control systems which need to be safe enough and can adapt to the industrial scale of energy production. These automatic control systems have to insure the constancy of power level and adjust the power produced to the energy demand. Two functioning modes are considered: nuclear plant connected up to other electric production systems as hydraulic or thermic plants or nuclear plants functioning on an independent network. For nuclear plants connected up with other production plants, xenon poisoning and operating cost lead to keep working at maximum power the nuclear reactors. Thus, the power modulation control system will not be considered and only start-up control, safety control, and control systems will be automated. For nuclear power plants working on an independent network, the power modulation control system is needed to economize fuel. It described the automated control system for reactors functioning with constant power: a power measurement system constituted of an ionization chamber and a direct-current amplifier will control the steadfastness of the power produced. For reactors functioning with variable power, the automated power control system will allow to change the power and maintain it steady with all the necessary safety and will control that working conditions under P max and R max (maximum power and maximum reactivity). The effects of temperature and xenon poisoning will also be discussed. Safety systems will be added to stop completely the functioning of the reactor if P max is reached. (M.P.)

  9. Development of an automation system for iodine-125 brachytherapy seed production by (Nd:YAG) laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somessari, Samir Luiz

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop an automation system for iodine-125 radioactive seed production by (Nd:YAG) laser welding, which has been used successfully in Low Dose Rate (LDR) brachytherapy treatment. This small seed consists of a welded titanium capsule, with 0.8mm in diameter and 4.5mm in length, containing iodine-125 adsorbed onto a silver rod. The iodine-125 seeds are implanted into the human prostate to irradiate the tumor for cancer treatment. Nowadays, the Radiation Technology Center, at IPEN-CNEN/SP imports and distributes 36,000 iodine-125 seeds per year, for the clinics and hospitals in the country. However, the Brazilian market potential is now over 8,000 iodine-125 seeds per month. The local production of these iodine-125 radioactive sources becomes a priority for the Institute, in order to reduce the price and the problems of prostate cancer management. It will permit to spread their use to a largest number of patients in Brazil. On the other hand, the industrial automation plays an important role for iodine-125 seeds in order to increase the productivity, with high quality and assurance, avoiding human factors, implementing and operating with Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP). The technology consists of appliance electronic and electro-mechanical parts and components to control machines and processes. The automation system technology for iodine-125 seed production developed in this work was mainly assembled employing Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), stepper motors, drivers, (Nd:YAG) laser welding machine, photoelectric sensors and supervisory. (author)

  10. Development of an automation system for iodine-125 brachytherapy seed production by ND:YAG laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somessari, Samir L.; Feher, Anselmo; Sprenger, Francisco E.; Rostellato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Costa, Fabio E.; Calvo, Wilson A.P.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop an automation system for iodine-125 radioactive seed production by Nd:YAG laser welding, which has been used successfully in low dose rate brachytherapy treatment. This small seed consists of a welded titanium capsule, with 0.8 mm in diameter and 4.5 mm in length, containing iodine-125 adsorbed onto a silver rod. The iodine-125 seeds are implanted into the human prostate to irradiate the tumor for cancer treatment. Nowadays, the Radiation Technology Center, at IPEN-CNEN/SP imports and distributes 36,000 iodine-125 seeds per year, for the clinics and hospitals in the country. However, the Brazilian market potential is now over 8,000 iodine-125 seeds per month. The local production of these iodine-125 radioactive sources became a priority for the Institute, in order to reduce the price and the problems of prostate cancer management. It will permit to spread their use to a larger number of patients in Brazil. On the other hand, the industrial automation plays an important role for iodine-125 seeds in order to increase the productivity, with high quality and assurance, avoiding human factors, implementing and operating with good manufacturing practices. The technology consists of appliance electronic and electro-mechanical parts and components to control machines and processes. The automation system technology for iodine-125 seed production developed in this work was mainly assembled employing a Programmable Logic Controller, a stepper motor, an Nd:YAG laser welding machine and a supervisory. (author)

  11. Plant cell technologies in space: Background, strategies and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkorian, A. D.; Scheld, H. W.

    1987-01-01

    An attempt is made to summarize work in plant cell technologies in space. The evolution of concepts and the general principles of plant tissue culture are discussed. The potential for production of high value secondary products by plant cells and differentiated tissue in automated, precisely controlled bioreactors is discussed. The general course of the development of the literature on plant tissue culture is highlighted.

  12. Demonstration of an automated on-line surveillance system at a commercial nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.M.; Sweeney, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    As a first step in demonstrating the practicality of performing continuous on-line surveillance of the performance of nuclear steam supply systems using noise related techniques, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is operating a computerized noise signal data acquisition and processing system at the Sequoyah Unit 1 Nuclear Plant, an 1148 MWe four-loop Westinghouse pressurized water reactor (PWR) located near Chattanooga, Tennessee. The principal objective is to establish, with a degree of continuity and completeness not previously achieved, the long-term characteristics of signals from neutron detectors and process sensors in order to evaluate the feasibility of detecting and diagnosing anomalous reactor conditions by means of changes in these signals. The system is designed to automatically screen the gathered data, using a number of descriptors derived from the power spectra of the monitored signals, and thereby select for the noise analyst's perusal only those data which differ statistically from norms which the system has previously established

  13. Production costs: U.S. hydroelectric power plants, 4th Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The book provides 1991 operation and maintenance expenses for over 800 conventional and pumped-storage hydroelectric power plants. Report shows operator and plant name, plant year-in-service, installed capacity, 1991 net generation, O ampersand M expenses, total production costs and current plant capitalization. Fifty eight percent of the utility-owned hydroelectric plants in the US are covered by this report. Data diskette provides additional capital and production cost accounts and number of employees for each plant

  14. Invasive plants as feedstock for biochar and bioenergy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Rui; Gao, Bin; Fang, June

    2013-07-01

    In this work, the potential of invasive plant species as feedstock for value-added products (biochar and bioenergy) through pyrolysis was investigated. The product yield rates of two major invasive species in the US, Brazilian Pepper (BP) and Air Potato (AP), were compared to that of two traditional feedstock materials, water oak and energy cane. Three pyrolysis temperatures (300, 450, and 600°C) and four feedstock masses (10, 15, 20, and 25 g) were tested for a total of 12 experimental conditions. AP had high biochar and low oil yields, while BP had a high oil yield. At lower temperatures, the minimum feedstock residence time for biochar and bioenergy production increased at a faster rate as feedstock weight increased than it did at higher temperatures. A simple mathematical model was successfully developed to describe the relationship between feedstock weight and the minimum residence time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Searching for artemisinin production improvement in plants and microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbacka, Katarzyna; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2011-11-01

    The endoperoxide sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin which is isolated from the plant Artemisia annua, and its semi-synthetic derivatives, are potent, novel, antimalarial drugs. They are effective against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium strains and have become essential components of the so-called Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy, that is recommended by the World Health Organization as the treatment of choice for malaria tropica. Moreover, artemisinin and its derivatives show additional anti-parasite, antitumor, and anti-viral properties. The plants, however, are very poor resources for the drug, as the content of artemisinin is low (from 0,1 to 1,5 % of dried leaves) and dependent on seasonal and somatic variations as well as the infestation of bacteria, fungi and insects. A chemical synthesis of the compound is complex and uneconomic. Therefore, artemisinin is in short supply and remains unaffordable for most people in malaria-endemic countries. Thus, many researchers have focused on enhancing the production of artemisinin, first, through traditional breeding and in in vitro plant tissue cultures and, then, by heterologous expression systems (a semi-synthetic approach) with the use of genetically-modified or transgenic microbes. In this review, we summarize the progress made in the production of artemisinin by the biotechnological approach.

  16. Arco to enter European PGE production with new Rotterdam plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, I.

    1993-01-01

    Arco Chemical (Newtown Square, PA) will enter production of propylene glycol ethers (PGEs) in Europe by building a 70,000-m.t./year plant at its Rotterdam site. Arco's board has approved the project, with construction to begin this year and completion expected in mid-1995. 'This new plant supports the company's long-standing strategy to increase its downstream integration in value-added derivatives of propylene oxide,' says Jack Oppasser, president of Arco Chemical Europe (Maidenhead, U.K.). 'It allows the company to sustain its strong position in the growing European glycol ether market.' Arco's move represents a challenge to Dow Europe (Horgen, Switzerland), which dominates the European PGE market. Dow is Europe's biggest producer of PGEs, with its Dowanol brands commanding a share greater than 50% of the estimated 90,000-m.t./year methyl-based PGE market. This was recently boosted by completion of the expansion of its plant at Stade, Germany, from 60,000 m.t./year to 110,000 m.t./year. While Arco does not currently make PGEs in Europe, it is the second-largest supplier, with about 15,000 m.t.-20,000 m.t./year, via 'third-party manufacturing arrangements' with European producers, including BP Chemicals, and imports from its 90-million lbs/year plant at Bayport, TX. However, Arco refuses to comment on this because of 'antitrust aspects.'

  17. Biotechnological Strategies to Improve Plant Biomass Quality for Bioethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Mario Peña-Castro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition from an economy dependent on nonrenewable energy sources to one with higher diversity of renewables will not be a simple process. It requires an important research effort to adapt to the dynamics of the changing energy market, sort costly processes, and avoid overlapping with social interest markets such as food and livestock production. In this review, we analyze the desirable traits of raw plant materials for the bioethanol industry and the molecular biotechnology strategies employed to improve them, in either plants already under use (as maize or proposed species (large grass families. The fundamentals of these applications can be found in the mechanisms by which plants have evolved different pathways to manage carbon resources for reproduction or survival in unexpected conditions. Here, we review the means by which this information can be used to manipulate these mechanisms for commercial uses, including saccharification improvement of starch and cellulose, decrease in cell wall recalcitrance through lignin modification, and increase in plant biomass.

  18. Plant compounds insecticide activity against Coleoptera pests of stored products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Marcio Dionizio; Picanco, Marcelo Coutinho; Guedes, Raul Narciso Carvalho; Campos, Mateus Ribeiro de; Silva, Gerson Adriano; Martins, Julio Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal]. E-mail: marcio.dionizio@gmail.com; picanco@ufv.br; guedes@ufv.br; mateusc3@yahoo.com.br; agronomiasilva@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-15

    The objective of this work was to screen plants with insecticide activity, in order to isolate, identify and assess the bioactivity of insecticide compounds present in these plants, against Coleoptera pests of stored products: Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. (Silvanidae), Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Curculionidae). The plant species used were: basil (Ocimum selloi Benth.), rue (Ruta graveolens L.), lion's ear (Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R.Br.), jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.), baleeira herb (Cordia verbenacea L.), mint (Mentha piperita L.), wild balsam apple (Mormodica charantia L.), and billy goat weed or mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L.). The insecticide activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from those plants on R. dominica was evaluated. Among them, only hexane extract of A. conyzoides showed insecticide activity; the hexane extract of this species was successively fractionated by silica gel column chromatography, for isolation and purification of the active compounds. Compounds 5,6,7,8,3',4',5'-heptamethoxyflavone; 5,6,7,8,3'-pentamethoxy-4',5'-methilenedioxyflavone and coumarin were identified. However, only coumarin showed insecticide activity against three insect pests (LD{sub 50} from 2.72 to 39.71 mg g{sup -1} a.i.). The increasing order of insects susceptibility to coumarin was R. dominica, S. zeamais and O. surinamensis. (author)

  19. Application of a Novel and Automated Branched DNA in Situ Hybridization Method for the Rapid and Sensitive Localization of mRNA Molecules in Plant Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Bowling

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: A novel branched DNA detection technology, RNAscope in situ hybridization (ISH, originally developed for use on human clinical and animal tissues, was adapted for use in plant tissue in an attempt to overcome some of the limitations associated with traditional ISH assays. Methods and Results: Zea mays leaf tissue was formaldehyde fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE and then probed with the RNAscope ISH assay for two endogenous genes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK. Results from both manual and automated methods showed tissue- and cell-specific mRNA localization patterns expected from these well-studied genes. Conclusions: RNAscope ISH is a sensitive method that generates high-quality, easily interpretable results from FFPE plant tissues. Automation of the RNAscope method on the Ventana Discovery Ultra platform allows significant advantages for repeatability, reduction in variability, and flexibility of workflow processes.

  20. Application of a novel and automated branched DNA in situ hybridization method for the rapid and sensitive localization of mRNA molecules in plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Andrew J; Pence, Heather E; Church, Jeffrey B

    2014-04-01

    A novel branched DNA detection technology, RNAscope in situ hybridization (ISH), originally developed for use on human clinical and animal tissues, was adapted for use in plant tissue in an attempt to overcome some of the limitations associated with traditional ISH assays. • Zea mays leaf tissue was formaldehyde fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) and then probed with the RNAscope ISH assay for two endogenous genes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). Results from both manual and automated methods showed tissue- and cell-specific mRNA localization patterns expected from these well-studied genes. • RNAscope ISH is a sensitive method that generates high-quality, easily interpretable results from FFPE plant tissues. Automation of the RNAscope method on the Ventana Discovery Ultra platform allows significant advantages for repeatability, reduction in variability, and flexibility of workflow processes.

  1. Genetical Studies On Haploid Production In Some Ornamental Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOSTAFA, M.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Haploid are plants with a gametophytic chromosome number and doubled haploid are dihaploids that have undergone chromosome duplication. The production of haploid and doubled haploid (DHs) through gametic embryogenesis allows a single-step development of complete homozygous lines from heterozygous parents, shortening the time required to produce homozygous plants in comparison with the conventional breeding methods that employ several generations of selfing. The production of haploid and DHs provides a particularly attractive biotechnological tool, and the development of haploidy technology and protocols to produce homozygous plants has had a significant impact on agricultural systems. Nowadays, these bio technologies represent an integral part of the breeding programmes of many agronomically important crops. There are several available methods to obtain haploid and DHs, of which in vitro anther or isolated microspore culture are the most effective and widely used (Germana Maria 2011). Tissue culture techniques, particularly short-term culture procedures such as shoot-tip culture and regeneration from primary explants, have been proposed as methods for obtaining large numbers of plants identical to the plant used as an explant source( Evans et al., 1984). Nicotiana spp. are one of the most important commercial crops in the world ( Liu and Zhang, 2008). Nicotiana alata is member from family solanacea, it is ornamental plant and the diploid cells contains 18 chromosomes. Nitsch (1969) reported the first production of haploid plants through anther culture and regeneration of plants of Nicotiana alata, For these reasons they have been considered to suitable candidates for model species in somatic cell genetics research( Bourgin et al., 1979). Radiobiological studies on plant tissues in culture may provide information on the cell growth behavior, radiosensitivity and the induction of mutations. The radiosensitivity of plants and calli can be manifested mostly in three

  2. Development and application of two semi-automated tools for targeted medical product surveillance in a distributed data network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, John G; Wang, Shirley V; Fuller, Candace C; Toh, Sengwee; Panozzo, Catherine A; Cocoros, Noelle; Zhou, Meijia; Gagne, Joshua J; Maro, Judith C

    2017-12-01

    An important component of the Food and Drug Administration's Sentinel Initiative is the active post-market risk identification and analysis (ARIA) system, which utilizes semi-automated, parameterized computer programs to implement propensity-score adjusted and self-controlled risk interval designs to conduct targeted surveillance of medical products in the Sentinel Distributed Database. In this manuscript, we review literature relevant to the development of these programs and describe their application within the Sentinel Initiative. These quality-checked and publicly available tools have been successfully used to conduct rapid, replicable, and targeted safety analyses of several medical products. In addition to speed and reproducibility, use of semi-automated tools allows investigators to focus on decisions regarding key methodological parameters. We also identified challenges associated with the use of these methods in distributed and prospective datasets like the Sentinel Distributed Database, namely uncertainty regarding the optimal approach to estimating propensity scores in dynamic data among data partners of heterogeneous size. Future research should focus on the methodological challenges raised by these applications as well as developing new modular programs for targeted surveillance of medical products.

  3. Intelligent production of rotor blades using IT-aided automation approaches; Intelligente Fertigung von Rotorblaettern durch IT-gestuetzte Automationsansaetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlendorf, J.H.; Thoben, K.D. [Bremen Univ. (Germany). BIK Institut fuer integrierte Produktentwicklung; Hans, C.; Ghrairi, Z. [Bremer Institut fuer Produktion und Logistik GmbH, Bremen (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    In this paper, the necessity of a control system for resin infusion and curing was elaborated with the example of rotor blade manufacturing. Also, an innovative multi-component learning control system that is based on the results of the iReMo-project was introduced. It reveals so-far hidden processes within the moulding tools via a sophisticated sensor-network, meets all imposed requirements and will therewith considerably change and improve the moulding process of reinforced polymer composite materials. In an environment that has little contact with the automation technology today, these innovations already bear a great potential to increase efficiency and quality and reduce costs and lead times. Further benefits will result from the interconnection with other automation solutions for fibre-reinforced composites products, i.e., the automatic placement of fabrics in the mould and will be subject to future research activities. An emphasis will be put on the continuous data management to assure quality and traceability. A consequent gathering and filing of all product data in terms of a Product Lifecyle Management (PLM) would be also possible for fibre-reinforced composites. (orig.)

  4. Operation of plant to produce Mo-99 from fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, R.O.; Cristini, P.R.; Marziale, D.P.; Furnari, E.S.; Fernandez, H.O.

    1987-01-01

    As it is well known, the production of Mo-99/Tc-99m generators has an outstanding place in radioisotope programs of the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission. The basic raw material is Mo-99 from fission of U-235. In 1985 the production plant of this radionuclide began to operate, according to an adaptation of the method that was developed in Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The present work describes the target irradiation conditions in the reactor RA-3 (mini plates of U/Al alloy with 90% enriched uranium), the flow diagram and the operative conditions of the production process. The containment, filtration and removal conditions of the generated fission gases and the disposal of liquid and solid wastes are also analyzed. On the basis of the experience achieved in the development of more than twenty production processes, process efficiency is analyzed, taking into account the theoretical evaluation resulting from the application of the computer program 'Origin'(ORML) to the conditions of our case. The purity characteristics of the final product are reported (Zr-95 0,1 ppm; Nb-95 1 ppm; Ru-103 20 ppm; I-131 10 ppm) as well as the chemical characteristics that make it suitable to be used in the production of Mo-99/I c-99m generators. (Author)

  5. Tandem Biocatalysis Unlocks the Challenging de Novo Production of Plant Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplais, Christophe; Estevez, Yannick

    2017-11-16

    Intimate partnership: Knowledge of the biocatalytic cascades in different cellular compartments is limited, but deciphering these systems in nature can be used to inspire synthetic strategies. Two studies report new insights into the biosynthesis of alkaloids and sesterterpenoids in plants. This highlight presents these novel biotransformations to illustrate how tandem biocatalysis can impact the future of natural product production. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Automated production of [¹⁸F]VAT suitable for clinical PET study of vesicular acetylcholine transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xuyi; Bognar, Christopher; Zhang, Xiang; Gaehle, Gregory G; Moerlein, Stephen M; Perlmutter, Joel S; Tu, Zhude

    2016-01-01

    Automated production of a promising radiopharmaceutical (-)-(1-(8-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethoxy)-3-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)-piperidin-4-yl)(4-fluorophenyl)methanone ([(18)F]VAT) for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter(VAChT) was achieved using a two-step procedure in a current Good Manufacturing Practices fashion. The production of [(18)F]VAT was accomplished in approximately 140 min, with radiochemical yield of ~15.0% (decay corrected), specific activity>111 GBq/µmol, radiochemical purity>99% and mass of VAT ~3.4 μg/batch (n>10). The radiopharmaceutical product meets all quality control criteria for human use, and is suitable for clinical PET studies of VAChT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Antioxidant Capacity Determination in Plants and Plant-Derived Products: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Aneta; Cimpeanu, Carmen; Predoi, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    The present paper aims at reviewing and commenting on the analytical methods applied to antioxidant and antioxidant capacity assessment in plant-derived products. Aspects related to oxidative stress, reactive oxidative species' influence on key biomolecules, and antioxidant benefits and modalities of action are discussed. Also, the oxidant-antioxidant balance is critically discussed. The conventional and nonconventional extraction procedures applied prior to analysis are also presented, as the extraction step is of pivotal importance for isolation and concentration of the compound(s) of interest before analysis. Then, the chromatographic, spectrometric, and electrochemical methods for antioxidant and antioxidant capacity determination in plant-derived products are detailed with respect to their principles, characteristics, and specific applications. Peculiarities related to the matrix characteristics and other factors influencing the method's performances are discussed. Health benefits of plants and derived products are described, as indicated in the original source. Finally, critical and conclusive aspects are given when it comes to the choice of a particular extraction procedure and detection method, which should consider the nature of the sample, prevalent antioxidant/antioxidant class, and the mechanism underlying each technique. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed for each method. PMID:28044094

  8. Automated integrative high-throughput phenotyping of plant shoots: a case study of the cold-tolerance of pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humplík, Jan F; Lazár, Dušan; Fürst, Tomáš; Husičková, Alexandra; Hýbl, Miroslav; Spíchal, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Recently emerging approaches to high-throughput plant phenotyping have discovered their importance as tools in unravelling the complex questions of plant growth, development and response to the environment, both in basic and applied science. High-throughput methods have been also used to study plant responses to various types of biotic and abiotic stresses (drought, heat, salinity, nutrient-starving, UV light) but only rarely to cold tolerance. We present here an experimental procedure of integrative high-throughput in-house phenotyping of plant shoots employing automated simultaneous analyses of shoot biomass and photosystem II efficiency to study the cold tolerance of pea (Pisum sativum L.). For this purpose, we developed new software for automatic RGB image analysis, evaluated various parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence obtained from kinetic chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, and performed an experiment in which the growth and photosynthetic activity of two different pea cultivars were followed during cold acclimation. The data obtained from the automated RGB imaging were validated through correlation of pixel based shoot area with measurement of the shoot fresh weight. Further, data obtained from automated chlorophyll fluorescence imaging analysis were compared with chlorophyll fluorescence parameters measured by a non-imaging chlorophyll fluorometer. In both cases, high correlation was obtained, confirming the reliability of the procedure described. This study of the response of two pea cultivars to cold stress confirmed that our procedure may have important application, not only for selection of cold-sensitive/tolerant varieties of pea, but also for studies of plant cold-response strategies in general. The approach, provides a very broad tool for the morphological and physiological selection of parameters which correspond to shoot growth and the efficiency of photosystem II, and is thus applicable in studies of various plant species and crops.

  9. Production of potato minitubers using advanced environmental control technologies developed for growing plants in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    Development of plant growth systems for use in outer space have been modified for use on earth as the backbone of a new system for rapid growth of potato minitubers. The automation of this new biotechnology provides for a fully controllable method of producing pathogen-free nuclear stock potato minitubers from tissue cultured clones of varieties of potato in a biomanufacturing facility. These minitubers are the beginning stage of seed potato production. Because the new system provides for pathogen-free minitubers by the tens-of-millions, rather than by the thousands which are currently produced in advanced seed potato systems, a new-dimension in seed potato development, breeding and multiplication has been achieved. The net advantage to earth-borne agricultural farming systems will be the elimination of several years of seed multiplication from the current system, higher quality potato production, and access to new potato varieties resistant to diseases and insects which will eliminate the need for chemical controls.

  10. COTTAGE CHEESE PRODUCTS WITH INGREDIENTS OF PLANT ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proposed the use of feijoa as a filler for cheese products. Distinctive at-sign feijoa is a high content of watersoluble compounds in the fruits of iodine. According to their content feijoa can match with seafood, no plant does not accumulate a large number of iodine compounds (about 0.2 1 mg per 100 g of product. Feijoa is very useful for people living in iodine deficiency regions, as well as for preventers of thyroid diseases. The rind of the fruit is rich in antioxidants. The technology of GUT-goad product feijoa. Feature of the technology is that the finished cheese is made in the form of a mixture of filler pureed fruit pulp and sugar in a ratio of 1: 1, and the powder dry skin. Objects of research a filler in the form of syrup (pineapple guava pulp and sugar and the rind of the fruit in the form of crushed dry cottage cheese. Compatible with cream cheese filling sensory determined by the following indicators appearance, consistency, color, smell, taste. Syrup dosage ranged from 1 to 10%, dry filler from 0.5 to 3.5%. A mixture of fillers were added to the finished curd product in the ratio of syrup fairies feijoa and dry powder peel 8: 1.5. Technological process of cottage cheese product is different from the traditional operations of preparation of fillers and incorporation in the finished cheese. Determined the antioxidant activity syrup feijoa 1,963 mg / dm3 . It was found that the cheese product is rich in antioxidants, iodine, which helps to eliminate free radicals from the body and strengthen health care. Herbal additive allows to obtain a product with a new taste characteristics. The shelf life of cottage cheese products 5 days.

  11. Buildup of 236U in the gaseous diffusion plant product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    A generalized projection of the average annual 236 U concentration that can be expected in future enriched uranium product from the US-ERDA gaseous diffusion plants when reprocessed fuels become available for cascade feeding is given. It is concluded that the buildup of 236 U is not an ever-increasing function, but approaches a limiting value. Projected concentrations result in only slight separative work losses and present no operational problem to ERDA in supplying light water reactor requirements. The use of recycle uranium from power reactor spent fuels will result in significant savings in natural uranium feed

  12. Genetically engineered plants in the product development pipeline in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, Ranjini; Pande, Hem

    2016-01-02

    In order to proactively identify emerging issues that may impact the risk assessment and risk management functions of the Indian biosafety regulatory system, the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change sought to understand the nature and diversity of genetically engineered crops that may move to product commercialization within the next 10 y. This paper describes the findings from a questionnaire designed to solicit information about public and private sector research and development (R&D) activities in plant biotechnology. It is the first comprehensive overview of the R&D pipeline for GE crops in India.

  13. Integration of oxygen membranes for oxygen production in cement plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Søgaard, Martin; Hjuler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The present paper describes the integration of oxygen membranes in cement plants both from an energy, exergy and economic point of view. Different configurations for oxygen enrichment of the tertiary air for combustion in the pre-calciner and full oxy-fuel combustion in both pre-calciner and kiln...... a concentrated CO2 source that can be used for enhanced oil recovery, in combination with biomass gasification and electrolysis for synthesis gas production, or possibly sequestered. The cases with oxygen enriched air provide very promising economic figures of merit with discounted payback periods slightly...

  14. DESIGN OF A PRODUCTION PLANT CARMINE AND ANNATO

    OpenAIRE

    Erazo E., Raymundo; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Departamento de Análisis y Diseño de Procesos Av. Venezuela s/n - Lima Perú; Caso H., M. J.; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química Departamento de Análisis y Diseño de Procesos Av. Venezuela s/n - Lima Perú

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present the design of a plant to produce Carmine and Annatto from Cochineal and annatto tree, respectively. The piant will be installed in Lima and all the equípments of the process will be build from stainless steel 316 with sanitary finishing. We estimate an inversion of US$ 351 650 to produce 12,7 Kg of Carmine and 15,5 Kg of Annatto per day. The quality of the products are among the required standards by the international market. The rentability of the process is 20,45% fo...

  15. Technical study for the automation and control of processes of the chemical processing plant for liquid radioactive waste at Racso Nuclear Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevedo D, M.; Ayala S, A.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to introduce the development of an automation and control system in a chemical processing plant for liquid radioactive waste of low and medium activity. The control system established for the chemical processing plant at RACSO Nuclear Center is described. It is an on-off sequential type system with feedback. This type of control has been chosen according to the volumes to be treated at the plant as processing is carried out by batches. The system will be governed by a programmable controller (PLC), modular, with a minimum of 24 digital inputs, 01 analog input, 16 digital outputs and 01 analog input. Digital inputs and outputs are specifically found at the level sensors of the tanks and at the solenoid-type electro valve control. Analog inputs and outputs have been considered at the pH control. The comprehensive system has been divided into three control bonds, The bonds considered for the operation of the plant are described, the plant has storing, fitting, processing and clarifying tanks. National Instruments' Lookout software has been used for simulation, constituting an important tool not only for a design phase but also for a practical one since this software will be used as SCADA system. Finally, the advantages and benefits of this automation system are analyzed, radiation doses received by occupationally exposed workers are reduced and reliability on the operation on the system is increased. (authors)

  16. An approach to evaluate task allocation between operators and automation with respect to safety of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macwan, A.; Wei, Z.G.; Wieringa, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Even though the use of automation is increasing in complex systems, its effect on safety cannot be systematically analyzed using current techniques. Of particular interest is task allocation between operators and automation. In evaluating its effect on safety, a quantitative definition of degree of automation (doA) is used. The definition of doA accounts for the effect of task on safety, irrespective of whether the task is carried out by operator or automation. Also included is the indirect effect due to the change in workload perceived by the operator. This workload is translated into stress which affects operator performance, expressed as human error probability, and subsequently, safety. The approach can be useful for evaluation of existing task allocation schemes as well as in making decisions about task allocation between operators and automation. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig

  17. Metabolic engineering of higher plants and algae for isoprenoid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempinski, Chase; Jiang, Zuodong; Bell, Stephen; Chappell, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Isoprenoids are a class of compounds derived from the five carbon precursors, dimethylallyl diphosphate, and isopentenyl diphosphate. These molecules present incredible natural chemical diversity, which can be valuable for humans in many aspects such as cosmetics, agriculture, and medicine. However, many terpenoids are only produced in small quantities by their natural hosts and can be difficult to generate synthetically. Therefore, much interest and effort has been directed toward capturing the genetic blueprint for their biochemistry and engineering it into alternative hosts such as plants and algae. These autotrophic organisms are attractive when compared to traditional microbial platforms because of their ability to utilize atmospheric CO2 as a carbon substrate instead of supplied carbon sources like glucose. This chapter will summarize important techniques and strategies for engineering the accumulation of isoprenoid metabolites into higher plants and algae by choosing the correct host, avoiding endogenous regulatory mechanisms, and optimizing potential flux into the target compound. Future endeavors will build on these efforts by fine-tuning product accumulation levels via the vast amount of available "-omic" data and devising metabolic engineering schemes that integrate this into a whole-organism approach. With the development of high-throughput transformation protocols and synthetic biology molecular tools, we have only begun to harness the power and utility of plant and algae metabolic engineering.

  18. Consequences of ozone depletion for terrestrial plant productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teramura, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    Many plants are greatly affected by increases in UV-B radiation but there is tremendous variability in their sensitivity. Plants have evolved natural adaptations such as anatomical, morphological and biochemical features which protect them from UV-B radiation. The extent of these natural adaptations may be related to the geographic origin of the species. For example, species originating from areas receiving high ambient levels of UV-B radiation were found to be highly resistant to UV-B radiation. In sensitive species, photosynthetic activity may be reduced by direct effects on photosynthetic enzymes and metabolic pathways or by indirect effects on photosynthetic pigments or stomatal function. The fluence response of these changes has yet to be clearly demonstrated in most cases. These biochemical and physiological responses may result in reduced growth (plant height, dry weight, leaf area, etc.) photosynthetic activity and flowering. Approximately half of the species tested appear sensitive and sensitivity also differs greatly among cultivars of the same species. Increases in UV-B radiation resulting from stratospheric ozone depletion could alter productivity in some species, as shown in field studies with soybean and loblolly pine. However, in order to assess the magnitude of such changes, we must further understand the mechanisms of UV-B protection in tolerant species and damage in sensitive species as well as the potential indirect effects such as changes in competitive interactions or ecosystem processes

  19. Effects of Different Plant Products against Pig Mange Mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mägi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the antiparasitic efficiency of herbal-based products. Four medicinal plant species extracts in 10% ethanol solutions (hogweed Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden, mugwort Artemisia vulgaris L., tansy Tanacetum vulgare L., wormwood Artemisia absinthium L., and seven essential medicinal ethereal oils used in 1% emulsions (garlic Allium sativum L., black pepper Piper nigrum L., juniper Juniperus communis L., citronella grass Cymbopogon nardus Rendle, pennyroyal Mentha pulegium L., eucalyptus Eucalyptus globulus Labill., tea tree Melaleuca alternifolia Gheel were tested a on pig farm in Estonia to control swine sarcoptic mange mites (Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis (L. 1758 Latreille, 1802. Trial groups (6 pigs each were treated over the whole body twice, with one week interval in between; one group was left as untreated control. All the preparations used inhibited the development of and were more or less lethal to mange mites. Tea tree and citronella volatile oil preparations proved to be the most effective (viability of mites < 5% in 4 weeks. The most active extract of tested ethanol solutions was obtained from hogweed seeds: after two treatments of pigs, 57-93% of parasites died in 2-4 weeks. The extracts of local plants tansy and wormwood diminished the number of mites up to 44% within the first week after treatments. The results indicate that plant extracts may be further tested in practice as alternatives to drugs of synthetic origin.

  20. Micropropagation of tulip: production of virus-free stock plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podwyszyńska, Małgorzata; Sochacki, Dariusz

    2010-01-01

    We describe here a new tulip micropropagation method based on the cyclic shoot multiplication in presence of the thidiazuron (TDZ), which enables the production of virus-free stock plants, speeds up breeding, and provides new genotypes for the market. In our novel protocol, cyclic shoot multiplication can be performed for 2-3 years by using TDZ instead of other cytokinins, as 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and N(6)-(-isopentyl)adenine (2iP). It makes possible to produce 500-2,000 microbulbs from one healthy plant. There are six main stages of tulip micropropagation. Stage 0 is the selection of true-to-type and virus-free plants, confirmed by ELISA. Fragments of flower stems isolated from bulbs are used as initial explants. Shoot multiplication is based on the regeneration of adventitious shoots, which are sub-cultured every 8 weeks. In the Stage 3, the specially prepared shoots are induced by low temperature treatment to form bulbs which finally develop on a sucrose-rich medium at 20 degrees C. Bulbs are then dried for 6 weeks and rooted in vivo. The number of multiplication subcultures should be limited to 5-10 cycles in order to lower the risk of mutation. Virus indexing should be repeated 3-4 times, at the initial stage and then during shoot multiplication. Genetic stability of micropropagated shoots can be confirmed using molecular markers.

  1. Production Planning with Respect to Uncertainties. Simulator Based Production Planning of Average Sized Combined Heat and Power Production Plants; Produktionsplanering under osaekerhet. Simulatorbaserad produktionsplanering av medelstora kraftvaermeanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeggstaahl, Daniel [Maelardalen Univ., Vaesteraas (Sweden); Dotzauer, Erik [AB Fortum, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    Production planning in Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems is considered. The focus is on development and use of mathematical models and methods. Different aspects on production planning are discussed, including weather and load predictions. Questions relevant on the different planning horizons are illuminated. The main purpose with short-term (one week) planning is to decide when to start and stop the production units, and to decide how to use the heat storage. The main conclusion from the outline of pros and cons of commercial planning software are that several are using Mixed Integer Programming (MIP). In that sense they are similar. Building a production planning model means that the planning problem is formulated as a mathematical optimization problem. The accuracy of the input data determines the practical detail level of the model. Two alternatives to the methods used in today's commercial programs are proposed: stochastic optimization and simulator-based optimization. The basic concepts of mathematical optimization are outlined. A simulator-based model for short-term planning is developed. The purpose is to minimize the production costs, depending on the heat demand in the district heating system, prices of electricity and fuels, emission taxes and fees, etc. The problem is simplified by not including any time-linking conditions. The process model is developed in IPSEpro, a heat and mass-balance software from SimTech Simulation Technology. TOMLAB, an optimization toolbox in MATLAB, is used as optimizer. Three different solvers are applied: glcFast, glcCluster and SNOPT. The link between TOMLAB and IPSEpro is accomplished using the Microsoft COM technology. MATLAB is the automation client and contains the control of IPSEpro and TOMLAB. The simulator-based model is applied to the CHP plant in Eskilstuna. Two days are chosen and analyzed. The optimized production is compared to the measured. A sensitivity analysis on how variations in outdoor

  2. Plant-microbe interactions: Plant hormone production by phylloplane fungi. Research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomi, T.; Ilvesoksa, J.; Rosenqvist, H.

    1993-06-23

    The molds Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium cladosporioides and the yeast Aureobasidium pullulans, isolated from the leaves of three short-rotation Salix clones, were found to produce indole-3-acetic acid (a growth promoter of plants). Abscisic acid (a growth inhibitor of plants) production was detected in B. cinerea. The contents of indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid in the leaves of the Salix clones and the amounts of fungal propagules in these leaves were also measured, in order to evaluate whether the amounts of plant growth regulators produced by the fungi would make a significant contribution to the hormonal quantities of the leaves. The content of abscisic acid, and to a lesser degree that of indole-3-acetic acid, showed a positive correlation with the frequency of infection by the hormone producing organisms. The amounts of hormone producing fungi on leaves that bore visible colonies were, however, not sufficiently high to support the argument that neither the fungal production of abscisic nor indole-3-acetic acid would to a significant degree contribute to the hormonal contents of the leaves of the Salix clones.

  3. Transport and transcriptional regulation of oil production in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manan, Sehrish; Chen, Beibei; She, Guangbiao; Wan, Xiaochun; Zhao, Jian

    2017-08-01

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) serves as an energy reservoir and phospholipids as build blocks of biomembrane to support plant life. They also provide human with foods and nutrients. Multi-compartmentalized biosynthesis, trafficking or cross-membrane transport of lipid intermediates or precursors and their regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. Recent progress has aided our understanding of how fatty acids (FAs) and phospholipids are transported between the chloroplast, the cytoplasm, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and how the ins and outs of lipids take place in the peroxisome and other organelles for lipid metabolism and function. In addition, information regarding the transcriptional regulation network associated with FA and TAG biosynthesis has been further enriched. Recent breakthroughs made in lipid transport and transcriptional regulation has provided significant insights into our comprehensive understanding of plant lipid biology. This review attempts to highlight the recent progress made on lipid synthesis, transport, degradation, and their regulatory mechanisms. Metabolic engineering, based on these knowledge-powered technologies for production of edible oils or biofuels, is reviewed. The biotechnological application of metabolic enzymes, transcription factors and transporters, for oil production and composition improvement, are discussed in a broad context in order to provide a fresh scenario for researchers and to guide future research and applications.

  4. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Mohamed Darwish; Diego Acevedo; Jessica Knight

    2003-09-01

    This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system, which is powered by the waste heat from low pressure condensing steam in power plants. The desalination is driven by water vapor saturating dry air flowing through a diffusion tower. Liquid water is condensed out of the air/vapor mixture in a direct contact condenser. A thermodynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production efficiency of 4.5% based on a feed water inlet temperature of only 50 C. An example is discussed in which the DDD process utilizes waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant to produce 1.51 million gallons of fresh water per day. The main focus of the initial development of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower. A detailed mathematical model for the diffusion tower has been described, and its numerical implementation has been used to characterize its performance and provide guidance for design. The analysis has been used to design a laboratory scale diffusion tower, which has been thoroughly instrumented to allow detailed measurements of heat and mass transfer coefficient, as well as fresh water production efficiency. The experimental facility has been described in detail.

  5. Biochar amendment improves soil fertility and productivity of mulberry plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruque Ahmed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Biochar has the potential to improve soil fertility and crop productivity. A field experiment was carried out at the experimental field of Bangladesh Sericulture Research and Training Institute (BSRTI, Rajshahi, Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of biochar on soil properties, growth, yield and foliar disease incidence of mulberry plant. The study consisted of 6 treatments: control, basal dose of NPK, rice husk biochar, mineral enriched biochar, basal dose + rice husk biochar and basal dose + mineral enriched biochar. Growth parameters such as node/meter, total branch number/plant, total leaf yield/hectare/year were significantly increased in basal dose + mineral enriched biochar treated plot in second year compared with the other fertilizer treatments. In second year, the total leaf yield/hectare/year were also 142.1% and 115.9% higher in combined application of basal dose + mineral enriched biochar and basal dose + rice husk biochar, respectively, than the control treatment. The soil properties such as organic matter, phosphorus, sulphur and zinc percentage were significantly increased with both the (mineral enriched and rice husk biochar treated soil applied with or without recommended basal dose of NPK than the control and only the recommended basal dose of NPK, respectively. Further, the lowest incidences of tukra (6.4%, powdery mildew (10.4% and leaf spot (7.6% disease were observed in second year under mineral enriched biochar treated plot than the others. The findings revealed that utilization of biochar has positive effect on the improvement of soil fertility and productivity as well as disease suppression of mulberry plant.

  6. Grain production, nutrient concentration and utilization in response to the increase of coffee plant density

    OpenAIRE

    Lana Braccini, Maria do Carmo; UNIOESTE; Braccini, Alessandro de Lucca e; Editor Chefe - UEM; Scapim, Carlos Alberto; UEM; Vidigal Filho, Pedro Soares; UEM; Zabini, André Vinicius; UEM

    2008-01-01

    The most efficient means of improving coffee production in the first years is by mean of increasing plant density. This work had the objective of evaluating the fertilizer utilization, nutrients absorption and coffee production in relation to different plant densities. The experiment was implanted in october 1997 using coffee plants, Coffea Arabica L. (Rubiaceae), of ‘IAPAR 59’ variety. The plant densities evaluated were: 3333; 5000; 6666; 10000 and 20000 plants per hectare. The experimental ...

  7. Feasibility Study of Hydrogen Production at Existing Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey

    2009-07-01

    Cooperative Agreement DE-FC07-06ID14788 was executed between the U.S. Department of Energy, Electric Transportation Applications, and Idaho National Laboratory to investigate the economics of producing hydrogen by electrolysis using electricity generated by nuclear power. The work under this agreement is divided into the following four tasks: Task 1 – Produce Data and Analyses Task 2 – Economic Analysis of Large-Scale Alkaline Electrolysis Task 3 – Commercial-Scale Hydrogen Production Task 4 – Disseminate Data and Analyses. Reports exist on the prospect that utility companies may benefit from having the option to produce electricity or produce hydrogen, depending on market conditions for both. This study advances that discussion in the affirmative by providing data and suggesting further areas of study. While some reports have identified issues related to licensing hydrogen plants with nuclear plants, this study provides more specifics and could be a resource guide for further study and clarifications. At the same time, this report identifies other area of risks and uncertainties associated with hydrogen production on this scale. Suggestions for further study in some of these topics, including water availability, are included in the report. The goals and objectives of the original project description have been met. Lack of industry design for proton exchange membrane electrolysis hydrogen production facilities of this magnitude was a roadblock for a significant period. However, recent design breakthroughs have made costing this facility much more accurate. In fact, the new design information on proton exchange membrane electrolyzers scaled to the 1 kg of hydrogen per second electrolyzer reduced the model costs from $500 to $100 million. Task 1 was delayed when the original electrolyzer failed at the end of its economic life. However, additional valuable information was obtained when the new electrolyzer was installed. Products developed during this study

  8. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2004-09-01

    An innovative Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) process was recently described where evaporation of mineralized water is driven by diffusion within a packed bed. The energy source to drive the process is derived from low pressure condensing steam within the main condenser of a steam power generating plant. Since waste heat is used to drive the process, the main cost of fresh water production is attributed to the energy cost of pumping air and water through the packed bed. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A combined thermodynamic and dynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3'' Hg. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower and direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. An experimental DDD facility has been fabricated, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. Direct contact condensers with and without packing have been investigated. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is significantly enhanced when packing is added to the direct contact condensers.

  9. Manufacturing of Zirconium products at Chepetsky Mechanical Plant, Stock Company. Prospects of development and products quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergazov, K.; Shtuza, M.; Lozitsky, S.; Kutyavin, A.

    2015-01-01

    The report described all the steps required to fabricate zirconium components, starting from the procurement of feed material up to rolling of sheets, tubes, bars and manufacture of the applicable parts required to manufacture fuel assemblies. Automated state-of-the-art equipment used for advanced productivity, as well as various installations able to perform numerous inspection steps to assure quality of the manufactured products was showcased. The challenges to be addressed in the nearest future were also presented

  10. Radiolytic gas production from concrete containing Savannah River Plant waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.

    1978-01-01

    To determine the extent of gas production from radiolysis of concrete containing radioactive Savannah River Plant waste, samples of concrete and simulated waste were irradiated by 60 Co gamma rays and 244 Cm alpha particles. Gamma radiolysis simulated radiolysis by beta particles from fission products in the waste. Alpha radiolysis indicated the effect of alpha particles from transuranic isotopes in the waste. With gamma radiolysis, hydrogen was the only significant product; hydrogen reached a steady-state pressure that increased with increasing radiation intensity. Hydrogen was produced faster, and a higher steady-state pressure resulted when an organic set retarder was present. Oxygen that was sealed with the wastes was depleted. Gamma radiolysis also produced nitrous oxide gas when nitrate or nitrite was present in the concrete. With alpha radiolysis, hydrogen and oxygen were produced. Hydrogen did not reach a steady-state pressure at 137 Cs and 90 Sr), hydrogen will reach a steady-state pressure of 8 to 28 psi, and oxygen will be partially consumed. These predictions were confirmed by measurement of gas produced over a short time in a container of concrete and actual SRP waste. The tests with simulated waste also indicated that nitrous oxide may form, but because of the low nitrate or nitrite content of the waste, the maximum pressure of nitrous oxide after 300 years will be 238 Pu and 239 Pu will predominate; the hydrogen and oxygen pressures will increase to >200 psi

  11. Automated electron microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, K.A.; Walker, L.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Plant Laboratory at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has recently obtained a Cameca MBX electron microprobe with a Tracor Northern TN5500 automation system. This allows full stage and spectrometer automation and digital beam control. The capabilities of the system include qualitative and quantitative elemental microanalysis for all elements above and including boron in atomic number, high- and low-magnification imaging and processing, elemental mapping and enhancement, and particle size, shape, and composition analyses. Very low magnification, quantitative elemental mapping using stage control (which is of particular interest) has been accomplished along with automated size, shape, and composition analysis over a large relative area

  12. Operational proof of automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaerschky, R.; Reifenhaeuser, R.; Schlicht, K.

    1976-01-01

    Automation of the power plant process may imply quite a number of problems. The automation of dynamic operations requires complicated programmes often interfering in several branched areas. This reduces clarity for the operating and maintenance staff, whilst increasing the possibilities of errors. The synthesis and the organization of standardized equipment have proved very successful. The possibilities offered by this kind of automation for improving the operation of power plants will only sufficiently and correctly be turned to profit, however, if the application of these technics of equipment is further improved and if its volume is tallied with a definite etc. (orig.) [de

  13. Automation of extrusion of porous cable products based on a digital controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chostkovskii, B. K.; Mitroshin, V. N.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a new approach to designing an automated system for monitoring and controlling the process of applying porous insulation material on a conductive cable core, which is based on using structurally and parametrically optimized digital controllers of an arbitrary order instead of calculating typical PID controllers using known methods. The digital controller is clocked by signals from the clock length sensor of a measuring wheel, instead of a timer signal, and this provides the robust properties of the system with respect to the changing insulation speed. Digital controller parameters are tuned to provide the operating parameters of the manufactured cable using a simulation model of stochastic extrusion and are minimized by moving a regular simplex in the parameter space of the tuned controller.

  14. Vision Technology for Automated Characterization of Parasite Eggs in a Medicinal Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Johan Musaeus

    . In the present PhD project, a microscopy-based vision instrument has been developed to automate the characterization of egg suspension quantity and quality. The instrument uses digital image analysis and statistical classification to detect and count the eggs and to characterize the developmental stages......Eggs from the pig whipworm, Trichuris suis ova, constitute the active pharmaceutical ingredient in a drug candidate targeting immune-mediated diseases such as Crohn’s disease, multiple sclerosis, a.o. The drug candidate is currently being evaluated in clinical trials around the world...... of the larvae inside the eggs based on morphology and darkfield scattering. The novel application of this technology is described in a patent application. The assessed concentration and embryonation percentage is used in the preparation of medicinal doses for the patients. The instrument has been evaluated...

  15. Influence of ingredients of motor transport exhausts on the seed productivity of adornment flowering plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. P. Pryimak

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Basic descriptions of the seminal productivity for some ornamental flowering plants under influence of cars’ emissions are presented. Decreasing of the seminal productivity, germinating capacity of seeds and mass of thousand seeds was found. Recommendations on plants using for planting of the cities environment polluted by vehicles emissions are proposed.

  16. Green electricity production with living plants and bacteria in a fuel cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Snel, J.F.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2008-01-01

    The world needs sustainable, efficient, and renewable energy production. We present the plant microbial fuel cell (plant-MFC), a concept that exploits a bioenergy source in situ. In the plant-MFC, plants and bacteria were present to convert solar energy into green electricity. The principal idea is

  17. How Planting Density Affects Number and Yield of Potato Minitubers in a Commercial Glasshouse Production System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, van der A.J.H.; Lommen, W.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Commercial potato minituber production systems aim at high tuber numbers per plant. This study investigated by which mechanisms planting density (25.0, 62.5 and 145.8 plants/m2) of in vitro derived plantlets affected minituber yield and minituber number per plantlet. Lowering planting density

  18. Food-Energy Interactive Tradeoff Analysis of Sustainable Urban Plant Factory Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chun Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the food–energy interactive nexus of sustainable urban plant factory systems. Plant factory systems grow agricultural products within artificially controlled growing environment and multi-layer vertical growing systems. The system controls the supply of light, temperature, humidity, nutrition, water, and carbon dioxide for growing plants. Plant factories are able to produce consistent and high-quality agricultural products within less production space for urban areas. The production systems use less labor, pesticide, water, and nutrition. However, food production of plant factories has many challenges including higher energy demand, energy costs, and installation costs of artificially controlled technologies. In the research, stochastic optimization model and linear complementarity models are formulated to conduct optimal and equilibrium food–energy analysis of plant factory production. A case study of plant factories in the Taiwanese market is presented.

  19. PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF DIMETHYLAMINE VAPORS EMISSION: HERBICIDE PRODUCTION PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorana Arsenijević

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The widely used herbicide, dimethylamine salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D-DMA, is usually prepared by mixing a dimethylamine (DMA aqueous solution with a solid 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D. The vapors of the both, reactants and products, are potentially hazardous for the environment. The contribution of DMA vapors in overall pollution from this process is most significant, concerning vapor pressures data of these pollutants. Therefore, the control of the air pollution in the manufacture and handling of methylamines is very important. Within this paper, the optimal air pollution control system in preparation of 2,4-D-DMA was developed for the pesticides manufacturing industry. This study employed the simple pollution prevention concept to reduce the emission of DMA vapors at the source. The investigations were performed on the pilot plant scale. To reduce the emission of DMA vapors, the effluent gases from the herbicide preparation zone were passed through the packed bed scrubber (water - scrubbing medium, and the catalytic reactor in sequence. The end result is a substantially improved air quality in the working area, as well as in the urbanized areas located near the chemical plant.

  20. Review of current research on hydrocarbon production by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, H. M.; Inman, B.

    1979-01-01

    This review assesses the status of research and development in the area of plants that produce hydrocarbons as a possible replacement for traditional fossil fuels. The information is meant to be used as a basis for determining the scope of a possible R and D program by DOE/FFB. Except in the case of guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray), research on hydrocarbon species generally has not advanced beyond preliminary screening, extraction, and growth studies. Virtually no field studies have been initiated; hydrocarbon component extraction, separation, identification, and characterization have been only timidly approached; the biochemistry of hydrocarbon formation remains virtually untouched; and potential market analysis has been based on insufficient data. Research interest is increasing in this area, however. Industrial interest understandably centers about guayule prospects and is supplemented by NSF and DOE research funds. Additional support for other research topics has been supplied by DOE and USDA and by certain university systems. Due to the infant state of technology in this area of energy research, it is not possible to predict or satisfactorily assess at this time the potential contribution that plant hydrocarbons might make toward decreasing the nation's dependence upon petroleum. However, the general impression received from experts interviewed during this review was that the major thrust of research should be directed toward the manufacture of petrochemical substitutes rather than fuel production.

  1. Properties of bituminization product from Olkiluoto power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkiainen, M.; Vuorinen, U.

    1985-09-01

    In Finland, disposal into repositories excavated into bedrock on the present power plant sites is considered to be the most feasible alternative for the low- and intermediate level wastes. The Nuclear Waste Commission of the Finnish power companies has sponsored mainly experimental research work on long-term properties of bituminized ion exchange resin performed in the Reactor Laboratory of the Technical Research Centre of Finland since 1981. This report presents results on follow-up measurements of the leach tests started in 1981 and results on new leach tests with cement equilibrated water. Swelling of the bituminization product caused by water uptake is considered important. Both unrestricted and restricted swelling measurements were performed and are reported here. In addition to leaching and swelling also radiolytic gas generation and pH-changes of the leachant are discussed

  2. Antihypertensive peptides from animal products, marine organisms, and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yun; Hur, Sun Jun

    2017-08-01

    Bioactive peptides from food proteins exert beneficial effects on human health, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and antihypertensive activity. Several studies have reported that ACE-inhibitory peptides can come from animal products, marine organisms, and plants-derived by hydrolyzing enzymes such as pepsin, chymotrypsin, and trypsin-and microbial enzymes such as alcalase, thermolysin, flavourzyme, and proteinase K. Different ACE-inhibitory effects are closely related with different peptide sequences and molecular weights. Sequences of ACE-inhibitory peptides are composed of hydrophobic (proline) and aliphatic amino acids (isoleucine and leucine) at the N-terminus. As result of this review, we assume that low molecular weight peptides have a greater ACE inhibition because lower molecular weight peptides have a higher absorbency in the body. Therefore, the ACE-inhibitory effect is closely related with the degree of enzymatic hydrolysis and the composition of the peptide sequence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Engineering microbial cell factories for the production of plant natural products: from design principles to industrial-scale production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaonan; Ding, Wentao; Jiang, Huifeng

    2017-07-19

    Plant natural products (PNPs) are widely used as pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, seasonings, pigments, etc., with a huge commercial value on the global market. However, most of these PNPs are still being extracted from plants. A resource-conserving and environment-friendly synthesis route for PNPs that utilizes microbial cell factories has attracted increasing attention since the 1940s. However, at the present only a handful of PNPs are being produced by microbial cell factories at an industrial scale, and there are still many challenges in their large-scale application. One of the challenges is that most biosynthetic pathways of PNPs are still unknown, which largely limits the number of candidate PNPs for heterologous microbial production. Another challenge is that the metabolic fluxes toward the target products in microbial hosts are often hindered by poor precursor supply, low catalytic activity of enzymes and obstructed product transport. Consequently, despite intensive studies on the metabolic engineering of microbial hosts, the fermentation costs of most heterologously produced PNPs are still too high for industrial-scale production. In this paper, we review several aspects of PNP production in microbial cell factories, including important design principles and recent progress in pathway mining and metabolic engineering. In addition, implemented cases of industrial-scale production of PNPs in microbial cell factories are also highlighted.

  4. Consequences of reduced production of electricity in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Power Administration has assessed the possibilities of expanding electric power sources other than nuclear power plants for the years 1980 and 1985. Reports on costs in the form of loss of capital and increased operating costs involved in the dismantling of nuclear power plants are made in Supplement 1. The economics division of the Finance Department, starting with a long-range study model of the Swedish economy, has calculated the consequences of a cutback in electric power up to 1980 for Sweden's economy and employment in that year. The consequences of reduction of electricity supplies up to 1985 are summarized in Supplement 2 in this report. It is concluded that in order to be able to manage the problem of supplying electricity by 1985, it will be necessary to increase oil power above what was assumed in the energy policy program. There will have to be new oil-based power as well. According to the Power Administration, oil-power facilities can be expanded to varying degrees, depending upon when the decision is made. The Power Administration's calculations show that 125 TWh is possible in 1985 without nuclear power only if a decision for discontinuation is made in the fall of 1976. This is based on very optimistic assumptions about the time of execution of a program for oil-steam operation, and also on the assumption that extreme measures will be initiated to force expansion of both district-heating distribution and power + heat facilities. Oil consumption for production of electricity in such an electric power system would be about 9 million m 3 , which is about 5 times more than at present and about one-third of the present total consumption of petroleum products in Sweden

  5. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight; Venugopal Jogi

    2005-09-01

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A dynamic analysis of heat and mass transfer demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3 Hg. The optimum operating condition for the DDD process with a high temperature of 50 C and sink temperature of 25 C has an air mass flux of 1.5 kg/m{sup 2}-s, air to feed water mass flow ratio of 1 in the diffusion tower, and a fresh water to air mass flow ratio of 2 in the condenser. Operating at these conditions yields a fresh water production efficiency (m{sub fW}/m{sub L}) of 0.031 and electric energy consumption rate of 0.0023 kW-hr/kg{sub fW}. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data. Recently, it has been recognized that the fresh water production efficiency can be significantly enhanced with air heating. This type of configuration is well suited for power plants utilizing air-cooled condensers. The experimental DDD facility has been modified with an air heating section, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is enhanced when air

  6. Chemical composition of buckwheat plant parts and selected buckwheat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Vojtíšková

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition plant parts (roots, stalks, leaves, blossoms of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and selected products made from its seeds (peels, whole seed, wholemeal flour, broken seeds, crunchy products Natural and Cocoa, flour, and pasta was determined. Samples were dried and ground to a fine powder. All analyses were performed according to the Commission Regulation no. 152/2009, while rutin concentration was determined by the modified HPLC method. The lowest content of moisture was found in roots (4.3% and in peels (almost 8% and the highest moisture (nearly 11% was discovered in seeds. The lowest amount of crude protein (3.5% was found in peels, the highest crude protein amount (>13% in both flours and leaves (23%. The starch content (>50% in dry matter differs from one sample to another. Only in peels the content of starch was about 3.5%. From all examined samples, the lowest content of fat was found in crunchy products Cocoa, 1.7%. The lowest amount of histidine was determined in all studied samples, except peels, the highest content of glutamic acid was determined in almost all samples, except peels. Whole-meal flour is very rich source of Ca and Fe. The content of these elements was 1172 mg.kg-1 and 45.9 mg.kg-1, respectively. On the other hand, the highest content of Pb (>1 mg.kg-1 was found in broken seeds. The greatest concentration of rutin was determined in blossoms and leaves (83.6 and 69.9 mg.g-1, respectively. On the other hand, the lowest concentrations of rutin were found in buckwheat products (generally less then 1 mg.g-1, i.e. in wholemeal flour, 702 μg.kg-1, the lowest almost 10 μg.kg-1 in pasta.

  7. Overcoming the plasticity of plant specialized metabolism for selective diterpene production in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ignea, Codruta; Athanasakoglou, Anastasia; Andreadelli, Aggeliki

    2017-01-01

    Plants synthesize numerous specialized metabolites (also termed natural products) to mediate dynamic interactions with their surroundings. The complexity of plant specialized metabolism is the result of an inherent biosynthetic plasticity rooted in the substrate and product promiscuity of the enz...... the complex landscape of plant natural product biosynthesis to achieve heterologous production of useful minor metabolites. In the context of plant adaptation, these findings also suggest a molecular basis for the rapid evolution of terpene biosynthetic pathways.......Plants synthesize numerous specialized metabolites (also termed natural products) to mediate dynamic interactions with their surroundings. The complexity of plant specialized metabolism is the result of an inherent biosynthetic plasticity rooted in the substrate and product promiscuity...... of the enzymes involved. The pathway of carnosic acid-related diterpenes in rosemary and sage involves promiscuous cytochrome P450s whose combined activity results in a multitude of structurally related compounds. Some of these minor products, such as pisiferic acid and salviol, have established bioactivity...

  8. The Wood Strengthening and Decorative Automated Production Line ZY-06L-Type Manipulator Motion Analysis and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Hao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available ZY-06L-type manipulator is the important components of Wood Surface layer Strengthening and Decorative Automated Production Line, designed for a variety of sheet metal or semi-finished components handling, distribution and laying work in the workshop. Through the establishment of the manipulator kinematics equations, combined the position coordinates of the manipulator and object in the actual work environment, and solving this equation to get the relationship between the manipulator end-effectors position and posture with the joint variables. The use of engineering software UG NX8.0 for modeling and simulation of the manipulator, and analysis the reasonableness of structural and workflow design. Provide the basis and reference to the manipulator structure optimization and control systems developments.

  9. Foundations & principles of distributed manufacturing elements of manufacturing networks, cyber-physical production systems and smart automation

    CERN Document Server

    Kühnle, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    The book presents a coherent description of distributed manufacturing, providing a solid base for further research on the subject as well as smart implementations in companies. It provides a guide for those researching and working in a range of fields, such as smart manufacturing, cloud computing, RFID tracking, distributed automation, cyber physical production and global design anywhere, manufacture anywhere solutions. Foundations & Principles of Distributed Manufacturing anticipates future advances in the fields of embedded systems, the Internet of Things and cyber physical systems, outlining how adopting these innovations could rapidly bring about improvements in key performance indicators, which could in turn generate competition pressure by rendering successful business models obsolete. In laying the groundwork for powerful theoretical models, high standards for the homogeneity and soundness of the suggested setups are applied. The book especially elaborates on the upcoming competition in online manu...

  10. Plants with modified lignin content and methods for production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiao; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A.

    2014-08-05

    The invention provides methods for decreasing lignin content and for increasing the level of fermentable carbohydrates in plants by down-regulation of the NST transcription factor. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of NST are described. Transgenic plants are provided that comprise reduced lignin content. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved biofuel feedstock and as highly digestible forage crops. Methods for processing plant tissue and for producing ethanol by utilizing such plants are also provided.

  11. Application of succulent plant leaves for Agrobacterium infiltration-mediated protein production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infiltration of tobacco leaves with a suspension of Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring a binary plant expression plasmid provides a convenient method for laboratory scale protein production. When expressing plant cell wall degrading enzymes in the widely used tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana), diffic...

  12. Biofuel Production by Fermentation of Water Plants and Agricultural Lignocellulosic by-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anker Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While at present most energy crops are depriving human feedstock, fermentation of agricultural residues and fast growing water plants possesses a good prospect to become a significant source for bio-fuel; as both substrates are widely available and do not require agricultural areas. Water hyacinth for instance can be cultivated in fresh, brackish or wastewater and owing to its rapid growth and availability. Since owing to its natural abundance it is considered to be an invasive plant in most continents, its utilization and use as a renewable energy source may also contribute for its dilution and control. Agricultural lignocellulosic surplus by-products are also a promising fermentable substrate for bioethanol production, as it decreases both disposal expenses and greenhouse gases emissions. This paper describes a scheme and methodology for transformation of any lignocellulosic biomass into biofuel by simple cost effective operation scheme, integrating an innovative process of mechanochemical activation pre-treatment followed by fermentation of the herbal digest and ethanol production through differential distillation. Under this approach several complex and costly staged of conventional ethanol production scheme may be replaced and by genetic engineering of custom fermenting microorganisms the fermentation process becomes a fully continuous industrial process.

  13. Integration of production control and enterprise management systems in horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdouw, Cor; Robbemond, Robbert; Kruize, Jan Willem

    2015-01-01

    Production processes in horticulture are increasingly industrialized. Greenhouses have developed towards high-tech production plants that are highly automated by advanced systems for climate control, irrigation, crop monitoring, harvesting, internal transportation, sorting and packaging. At the

  14. Computation code TEP 1 for automated evaluation of technical and economic parameters of operation of WWER-440 nuclear power plant units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadrazil, J.; Cvan, M.; Strimelsky, V.

    1987-01-01

    The TEP 1 program is used for automated evaluation of the technical and economic parameters of nuclear power plant units with WWER-440 reactors. This is an application program developed by the Research Institute for Nuclear Power Plants in Jaslovske Bohunice for the KOMPLEX-URAN 2M information system, delivered by the USSR to the V-2 nuclear power plants in Jaslovske Bohunice and in Dukovany. The TEP 1 program is written in FORTRAN IV and its operation has two parts. First the evaluation of technical and economic parameters of operation for a calculation interval of 10 mins and second, the control of the calculation procedure, follow-up on input data, determination of technical and economic parameters for a lengthy time interval, and data printout and storage. The TEP 1 program was tested at the first unit of the V-2 power plant and no serious faults appeared in the process of the evaluation of technical and economic parameters. A modification of the TEP 1 programme for the Dukovany nuclear power plant is now being tested on the first unit of the plant. (Z.M.)

  15. Automation of Presentation Record Production Based on Rich-Media Technology Using SNT Petri Nets Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Martiník

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rich-media describes a broad range of digital interactive media that is increasingly used in the Internet and also in the support of education. Last year, a special pilot audiovisual lecture room was built as a part of the MERLINGO (MEdia-rich Repository of LearnING Objects project solution. It contains all the elements of the modern lecture room determined for the implementation of presentation recordings based on the rich-media technologies and their publication online or on-demand featuring the access of all its elements in the automated mode including automatic editing. Property-preserving Petri net process algebras (PPPA were designed for the specification and verification of the Petri net processes. PPPA does not need to verify the composition of the Petri net processes because all their algebraic operators preserve the specified set of the properties. These original PPPA are significantly generalized for the newly introduced class of the SNT Petri process and agent nets in this paper. The PLACE-SUBST and ASYNC-PROC algebraic operators are defined for this class of Petri nets and their chosen properties are proved. The SNT Petri process and agent nets theory were significantly applied at the design, verification, and implementation of the programming system ensuring the pilot audiovisual lecture room functionality.

  16. Automation of Presentation Record Production Based on Rich-Media Technology Using SNT Petri Nets Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiník, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Rich-media describes a broad range of digital interactive media that is increasingly used in the Internet and also in the support of education. Last year, a special pilot audiovisual lecture room was built as a part of the MERLINGO (MEdia-rich Repository of LearnING Objects) project solution. It contains all the elements of the modern lecture room determined for the implementation of presentation recordings based on the rich-media technologies and their publication online or on-demand featuring the access of all its elements in the automated mode including automatic editing. Property-preserving Petri net process algebras (PPPA) were designed for the specification and verification of the Petri net processes. PPPA does not need to verify the composition of the Petri net processes because all their algebraic operators preserve the specified set of the properties. These original PPPA are significantly generalized for the newly introduced class of the SNT Petri process and agent nets in this paper. The PLACE-SUBST and ASYNC-PROC algebraic operators are defined for this class of Petri nets and their chosen properties are proved. The SNT Petri process and agent nets theory were significantly applied at the design, verification, and implementation of the programming system ensuring the pilot audiovisual lecture room functionality.

  17. A proposal for safety design philosophy of HTGR for coupling hydrogen production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Tazawa, Yujiro; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2013-06-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting research and development for hydrogen production utilizing heat from High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs). Towards the realization of nuclear hydrogen production, coupled hydrogen production plants should not be treated as an extension of a nuclear plant in order to open the door for the entry of non-nuclear industries as well as assuring reactor safety against postulated abnormal events initiated in the hydrogen production plants. Since hydrogen production plant utilizing nuclear heat has never been built in the world, little attention has been given to the establishment of a safety design for such system including the High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). In the present study, requirements in order to design, construct and operate hydrogen production plants under conventional chemical plant standards are identified. In addition, design considerations for safety design of nuclear facility are suggested. Furthermore, feasibility of proposed safety design and design considerations are evaluated. (author)

  18. Classifying Scenarios in a Product Design Process: a study to achieve automated scenario generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anggreeni, Irene; van der Voort, Mascha C.; van Houten, F.J.A.M.; Miedema, J.; Lutters, D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explains the possible uses of scenarios in product design. A scenario classification is proposed as a framework to create, use and reuse different types of scenarios in a product design process. Our aims are three-fold: (1) to obtain a better view on the extent to which scenarios can be

  19. Human/autonomy collaboration for the automated generation of intelligence products

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBona, Phil; Schlachter, Jason; Kuter, Ugur; Goldman, Robert

    2017-05-01

    Intelligence Analysis remains a manual process despite trends toward autonomy in information processing. Analysts need agile decision-­-support tools that can adapt to the evolving information needs of the mission, allowing the analyst to pose novel analytic questions. Our research enables the analysts to only provide a constrained English specification of what the intelligence product should be. Using HTN planning, the autonomy discovers, decides, and generates a workflow of algorithms to create the intelligence product. Therefore, the analyst can quickly and naturally communicate to the autonomy what information product is needed, rather than how to create it.

  20. Paradise lost: alien plant invaders compromising productive, rich state forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy J. Loewenstein; James H. Miller; Erwin Chamblis

    2008-01-01

    Kudzu and Chinese privet along Alabama roadways are a familiar sight and Japanese honeysuckle is so commonplace it has practically become a part of Southern culture. But are these and other invasive plants really having a negative impact on forests? Just how bad is the invasive plant problem? What are the most effective ways to combat invasive plants?

  1. Tissue culture as a plant production technique for horticultural crops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over 100 years ago, Haberlandt envisioned the concept of plant tissue culture and provided the groundwork for the cultivation of plant cells, tissues and organs in culture. Initially plant tissue cultures arose as a research tool and focused on attempts to culture and study the development of small, isolated cells and segments ...

  2. A production throughput forecasting system in an automated hard disk drive test operation using GRNN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Samattapapong

    2016-04-01

    Originality/value: The production throughput volume is a key performance index of hard disk drive manufacturing systems that need to be forecast. Because of the production throughput forecasting result is useful information for management team to respond to any changing in production processes and resources allocation. However, a practically forecasting system for production throughput has not been described in detail yet. The experiments were conducted on a real data set from the final testing operation of hard disk drive manufacturing factory by using Visual Basics Application on Microsoft Excel© to develop preliminary forecasting system on testing and verification process. The experimental result shows that the proposed model is superior to the performance of the current forecasting system.

  3. Towards product design automation based on parameterized standard model with diversiform knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaobing

    2017-04-01

    Product standardization based on CAD software is an effective way to improve design efficiency. In the past, research and development on standardization mainly focused on the level of component, and the standardization of the entire product as a whole is rarely taken into consideration. In this paper, the size and structure of 3D product models are both driven by the Excel datasheets, based on which a parameterized model library is therefore established. Diversiform knowledge including associated parameters and default properties are embedded into the templates in advance to simplify their reuse. Through the simple operation, we can obtain the correct product with the finished 3D models including single parts or complex assemblies. Two examples are illustrated later to invalid the idea, which will greatly improve the design efficiency.

  4. Work and Programmable Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Paul W.

    A new industrial era based on electronics and the microprocessor has arrived, an era that is being called intelligent automation. Intelligent automation, in the form of robots, replaces workers, and the new products, using microelectronic devices, require significantly less labor to produce than the goods they replace. The microprocessor thus…

  5. Generic Protocol for Optimization of Heterologous Protein Production Using Automated Microbioreactor Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmerich, Johannes; Freier, Lars; Wiechert, Wolfgang; von Lieres, Eric; Oldiges, Marco

    2017-12-15

    A core business in industrial biotechnology using microbial production cell factories is the iterative process of strain engineering and optimization of bioprocess conditions. One important aspect is the improvement of cultivation medium to provide an optimal environment for microbial formation of the product of interest. It is well accepted that the media composition can dramatically influence overall bioprocess performance. Nutrition medium optimization is known to improve recombinant protein production with microbial systems and thus, this is a rewarding step in bioprocess development. However, very often standard media recipes are taken from literature, since tailor-made design of the cultivation medium is a tedious task that demands microbioreactor technology for sufficient cultivation throughput, fast product analytics, as well as support by lab robotics to enable reliability in liquid handling steps. Furthermore, advanced mathematical methods are required for rationally analyzing measurement data and efficiently designing parallel experiments such as to achieve optimal information content. The generic nature of the presented protocol allows for easy adaption to different lab equipment, other expression hosts, and target proteins of interest, as well as further bioprocess parameters. Moreover, other optimization objectives like protein production rate, specific yield, or product quality can be chosen to fit the scope of other optimization studies. The applied Kriging Toolbox (KriKit) is a general tool for Design of Experiments (DOE) that contributes to improved holistic bioprocess optimization. It also supports multi-objective optimization which can be important in optimizing both upstream and downstream processes.

  6. Generic Protocol for Optimization of Heterologous Protein Production Using Automated Microbioreactor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechert, Wolfgang; von Lieres, Eric; Oldiges, Marco

    2017-01-01

    A core business in industrial biotechnology using microbial production cell factories is the iterative process of strain engineering and optimization of bioprocess conditions. One important aspect is the improvement of cultivation medium to provide an optimal environment for microbial formation of the product of interest. It is well accepted that the media composition can dramatically influence overall bioprocess performance. Nutrition medium optimization is known to improve recombinant protein production with microbial systems and thus, this is a rewarding step in bioprocess development. However, very often standard media recipes are taken from literature, since tailor-made design of the cultivation medium is a tedious task that demands microbioreactor technology for sufficient cultivation throughput, fast product analytics, as well as support by lab robotics to enable reliability in liquid handling steps. Furthermore, advanced mathematical methods are required for rationally analyzing measurement data and efficiently designing parallel experiments such as to achieve optimal information content. The generic nature of the presented protocol allows for easy adaption to different lab equipment, other expression hosts, and target proteins of interest, as well as further bioprocess parameters. Moreover, other optimization objectives like protein production rate, specific yield, or product quality can be chosen to fit the scope of other optimization studies. The applied Kriging Toolbox (KriKit) is a general tool for Design of Experiments (DOE) that contributes to improved holistic bioprocess optimization. It also supports multi-objective optimization which can be important in optimizing both upstream and downstream processes. PMID:29286407

  7. External radiation assessment in a wet phosphoric acid production plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolivar, J.P.; Perez-Moreno, J.P. [Dept. Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, 21012 Huelva (Spain); Mas, J.L. [Dept. Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Universitaria Politecnica, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: ppmasb@us.es; Martin, J.E.; San Miguel, E.G. [Dept. Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, 21012 Huelva (Spain); Garcia-Tenorio, R. [Dept. Fisica Aplicada II, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Arquitectura, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    The factories dedicated to the production of phosphoric acid by the so-called wet acid method are usually considered typical NORM industries, because the phosphate rock used as raw material usually contains high concentrations of {sup 238}U-series radionuclides. The magnitude and behaviour of the radionuclides involved in the production process revealed the need to determine its dosimetric impact on workers. This work aims to partially compensate this lack of knowledge through the determination of external effective dose rates at different zones in the process at a typical plant located in the southwest of Spain. To this end, two dosimetric sampling campaigns have been carried out at this phosphoric acid production plant. The first sampling was carried out when phosphate rocks originating in Morocco were processed, and the second one when phosphate rock processed came from the Kola Peninsula (Russia Federation). This differentiation was necessary because the activity concentrations are almost one order of magnitude higher in Moroccan phosphate rock than in Kola phosphate rock. The results obtained have reflected external dose rate enhancements as high as 1.4 {mu}Sv h{sup -1} (i.e., up to thirty times the external exposition due to radionuclides in unperturbed soils) at several points in the facility, particularly where the digested rock (pulp) is filtered. However, the most problematic points are characterised by a small occupation factor. That means that the increment in the annual effective external gamma dose received by the most-exposed worker is clearly below 1 mSv (European Commission limit for the general population) under normal production. Nevertheless, special care in the design and schedule of cleaning and maintaining work in the areas with high doses should be taken in order to avoid any possibility of exceeding the previously mentioned general population limit. In addition, the results of the dosimetric campaign showed no clear correlation between {sup

  8. Protection of Stored Plant Products Using Chlorophacinone Against Rodent Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vukša

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from some preventive measures advisably taken during construction of storage facilities or at the time of product storage, treatments with chemical rodenticides are the most widely practiced method of controlling commensal rodents. Their control in storage facilities is normally carried out after animal presence has been observed, and treatments from early autumn onwards throughout the season provide the best effect. The aim of this paper is to present the effects of rodent control using baits with less content am chlorofacinon than recommended, to the protection of stored plant products. The experiments were set up using the relevant OEPP/EPPO method. A ready for use (RB paste bait formulation was used with different contents (0.005% and 0.0075% of the active ingredient chlorophacinone.Baits were laid in boxes along rodent routes, underneath pallets with sacs and in places where major damage had been observed. Baits for house mouse were placed at a rate of 10-20 g per 1-3 m, while 30-50 g of bait for brown rats were laid at specific points. Daily bait intake was monitored over a period of ten days and the portions were replaced with new ones as needed. Placebo baits were laid in identical boxes for four days before the experiment began. The abundance of house mouse was estimated based on the highest and lowest daily intake of bait divided by the species’ daily requirement. Mice presence was monitored over the next 20 days. Rodenticide efficacy was calculated using Abbott’s formula. The data in this experiment show that chorophacinone contents of 0.005% and 0.0075% in RB baits had no effect on the palatability and bait efficacy in controlling house mouse and brown rat indoors. The average efficacy of chorophacinone was 87-93% against house mouse and 90-100% against brown rat.

  9. Plant growth promotion in cereal and leguminous agricultural important plants: from microorganism capacities to crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Montaño, F; Alías-Villegas, C; Bellogín, R A; del Cerro, P; Espuny, M R; Jiménez-Guerrero, I; López-Baena, F J; Ollero, F J; Cubo, T

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria which actively colonize plant roots, exerting beneficial effects on plant development. The PGPR may (i) promote the plant growth either by using their own metabolism (solubilizing phosphates, producing hormones or fixing nitrogen) or directly affecting the plant metabolism (increasing the uptake of water and minerals), enhancing root development, increasing the enzymatic activity of the plant or "helping" other beneficial microorganisms to enhance their action on the plants; (ii) or may promote the plant growth by suppressing plant pathogens. These abilities are of great agriculture importance in terms of improving soil fertility and crop yield, thus reducing the negative impact of chemical fertilizers on the environment. The progress in the last decade in using PGPR in a variety of plants (maize, rice, wheat, soybean and bean) along with their mechanism of action are summarized and discussed here. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Production of Bioactive Recombinant Bovine Chymosin in Tobacco Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Yi Wei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chymosin (also known as rennin plays an essential role in the coagulation of milk in the cheese industry. Chymosin is traditionally extracted from the rumen of calves and is of high cost. Here, we present an alternative method to producing bovine chymosin from transgenic tobacco plants. The CYM gene, which encodes a preprochymosin from bovine, was introduced into the tobacco nuclear genome under control of the viral 35S cauliflower mosaic promoter. The integration and transcription of the foreign gene were confirmed with Southern blotting and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR analyses, respectively. Immunoblotting analyses were performed to demonstrate expression of chymosin, and the expression level was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The results indicated recombinant bovine chymosin was successfully expressed at an average level of 83.5 ng/g fresh weight, which is 0.52% of the total soluble protein. The tobacco-derived chymosin exhibited similar native milk coagulation bioactivity as the commercial product extracted from bovine rumen.

  11. Pollen production in selected species of anemophilous plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Piotrowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the study, structural features of flowers of the following allergenic plant species were analysed: Betula verrucosa, Secale cereale, Rumex acetosella, Plantago major and Artemisia vulgaris. Pollen production was established by calculating the number of pollen grains produced by the stamen, flower and inflorescence. The dates of occurrence and pollen grains concentration in the air of Lublin were determined. A positive correlation was found between the length of anthers and the number of pollen grains produced. The largest number of pollen grains per anther is produced by Secale cereale (22 360, whereas the smallest one by Plantago major (5 870. The other species produced intermediate numbers of pollen grains in the anther: Betula verrucosa - 11 160, Rumex acetosella - 10 850, Artemisia vulgaris - 9 580. The birch pollen season in Lublin lasts about a month, and pollen of this taxon reaches the highest airborne concentrations among the studied taxa. Low values of pollen concentrations are characteristic for rye and plantain, whereas slightly higher values are recorded for sorrel pollen. Mugwort pollen reaches high concentrations which are noted at the beginning of August.

  12. TRENDS OF DEVELOPMENT OF PRODUCTION AND REALIZATION OF PLANT PRODUCTION AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES OF MYKOLAIV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushniruk Viktor

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Agriculture is one of the largest and most important sectors of the Ukrainian economy. The food security and independence of the state, the state of the internal and external markets, and, consequently, the standard of living of the population are directly dependent on its functional state. Mykolaiv region has significant opportunities for the development of the agricultural sector. There are favorable natural and climatic conditions, fertile land, labor resources and long-standing cultivating traditions. The region is considered one of the regions of intensive agriculture in Ukraine and has significant land resources. Purpose. The article presents the analysis of the development of production and sale of crop production by the agrarian enterprises of the Mykolaiv region, as well as revealing ways to increase the volume of their production and sales. Results. The crop area of main agricultural crops in all categories of farms was analyzed, and structural changes for 2010-2016 were revealed. The priority branch of the agro-industrial complex, which has an important strategic significance, first of all, is determined by the level of production of which the food security of the state depends, its economy and welfare of the population. The dynamics of agricultural crop yields in agrarian enterprises as the determining factor of influence on the efficiency of activity in the field of plant growing is researched. The dynamics of gross collections of crop production in agricultural enterprises is analyzed and the contribution of the Mykolaiv region to the national production of grain is determined. The volumes and average prices of sales of agricultural products by agrarian enterprises are investigated and it is determined that the modern development of the agrarian sector of the economy requires special attention to the formation and activation of the activities of market infrastructure entities. The production of which crops are an

  13. Use of an automated digital images system for detecting plant status changes in response to climate change manipulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaraccio, Carla; Piga, Alessandra; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2014-05-01

    The importance of phenological research for understanding the consequences of global environmental change on vegetation is highlighted in the most recent IPCC reports. Collecting time series of phenological events appears to be of crucial importance to better understand how vegetation systems respond to climatic regime fluctuations, and, consequently, to develop effective management and adaptation strategies. However, traditional monitoring of phenology is labor intensive and costly and affected to a certain degree of subjective inaccuracy. Other methods used to quantify the seasonal patterns of vegetation development are based on satellite remote sensing (land surface phenology) but they operate at coarse spatial and temporal resolution. To overcome the issues of these methodologies different approaches for vegetation monitoring based on "near-surface" remote sensing have been proposed in recent researches. In particular, the use of digital cameras has become more common for phenological monitoring. Digital images provide spectral information in the red, green, and blue (RGB) wavelengths. Inflection points in seasonal variations of intensities of each color channel can be used to identify phenological events. Canopy green-up phenology can be quantified from the greenness indices. Species-specific dates of leaf emergence can be estimated by RGB image analyses. In this research, an Automated Phenological Observation System (APOS), based on digital image sensors, was used for monitoring the phenological behavior of shrubland species in a Mediterranean site. The system was developed under the INCREASE (an Integrated Network on Climate Change Research) EU-funded research infrastructure project, which is based upon large scale field experiments with non-intrusive climatic manipulations. Monitoring of phenological behavior was conducted continuously since October 2012. The system was set to acquire one panorama per day at noon which included three experimental plots for

  14. Automation and control in industrial installations. Its application in pressurized fluidized bed plants, coal washeries etc. Automatizacion y control en instalaciones industriales. Su aplicacion en centrales de lecho fluido a presion, lavaderos de carbon etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo Tarifa, R. (ENDESA, Madrid (Spain))

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the automation and electronic control systems, based on the most advanced technologies on the market. The most recent techniques concerning industrial plant supervision and the processing of information obtained from the above mentioned systems are discussed. Intraplant communications between the control systems and the supervision computers as well as communications among cascade computers are described. These studies are applied to specific cases of pressurized fluidized bed plants, coal washing plants, coal yards, etc.

  15. Industrial resin inspection for display production using automated fluid-inspection based on multimodal optical detection techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Park, Kibeom; Jung, Yeongri; Kim, Pilun; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun

    2017-09-01

    The large-scale liquid-crystal display (LCD) industry requires an accurate inspection system for identifying defects, as the LCD quality can be drastically degraded because of defects. In particular, the refractive index of LCD panels can be changed by internal micrometer-range substances, which form as a result of defectiveness and the insufficient solidification of industrial liquid resins. Intrinsically, the defect inspection of the raw materials must be performed prior to the LCD manufacturing process. Thus, optical coherence tomography (OCT) based automated fluid-inspection (AFI) methodology was introduced to demarcate and enumerate the defects in industrial liquid resins and the final product (LCD smartphone). The accuracy of the method was enhanced by implementing an intensity-detection algorithm. Subsequently, the optimal solidification rates of liquid resins were investigated using a fluorescence sensor-based ultraviolet hardening method to prevent the formation of defects between the internal layers of the LCD panel. Therefore, AFI can be implemented as an effective and cost-saving method in the smartphone industry for improving the quality of the final product.

  16. New design targets and new automated technology for the production of radionuclides with high specificity radioactivity in nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, A.S.; Kiselev, G.V.

    1997-01-01

    Current demands of industry require the application of radionuclides with high specific radioactivity under low consumption of neutrons. To provide this aim staff of ITEP Reactor Department investigated the different type AEs of start targets for the production of the main radionuclides; Co-60, Ir-192 and others. In first turn the targets of Co and Ir without the block-effect of neutron flux (with low absorption of neutrons) were investigated. The following principal results were received for example for Ir-192: block effect is equal 0.086 for diameter of Ir target mm and is equal 0.615 for diameter Ir target 0.5mm. It means average neutron flux for Ir target diameter 0.5mm and therefore the production of Ir-192 will be at 10 times more than for diameter 6.0mm. To provide the automated technology of the manufacture of radioactive sources with radionuclides with high specific radioactivity it was proposed that the compound targets for the irradiation of ones and for the management with the irradiated targets. Different types of compound targets were analyzed. (authors)

  17. Application of X-ray digital radiography to online automated inspection of interior assembly structures of complex products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Yueping [National Key Laboratory for Electronic Measurement Technology, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China) and Key Laboratory of Instrumentation Science and Dynamic Measurement (North University of China), Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030051 (China)], E-mail: yuepinghan@163.com; Han Yan [Key Laboratory of Instrumentation Science and Dynamic Measurement (North University of China), Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Li Ruihong [National Key Laboratory for Electronic Measurement Technology, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Wang Liming [Key Laboratory of Instrumentation Science and Dynamic Measurement (North University of China), Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030051 (China)

    2009-06-11

    The paper proposes an application of X-ray digital radiography to online automated inspection and recognition of the interior assembly structures of complex products by means of the multiple views techniques. First, a vertical hybrid projection function (VHPF) is proposed as the recognition feature of a two-dimensional image. VHPF combines an integral projection function and a standard deviation function so that it can reflect the mean and the variance of the pixels in the vertical direction in an image. Secondly, by considering the different importance grades of objects inside the product and the independence of these objects along the circumference, the paper presents a hierarchical recognition method and uses a neural network system to speed up the computation process with parallel operations. Thirdly, using the whole-orientation features of one standard swatch and by extracting its maximal system of linear independence as the feature basis, the issue of blind areas for recognition is resolved. Based on this approach, the first domestic X-ray multi-view digital detection system has been developed and applied to the online detection of objects containing complicated assembly structures.

  18. Application of X-ray digital radiography to online automated inspection of interior assembly structures of complex products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yueping; Han Yan; Li Ruihong; Wang Liming

    2009-01-01

    The paper proposes an application of X-ray digital radiography to online automated inspection and recognition of the interior assembly structures of complex products by means of the multiple views techniques. First, a vertical hybrid projection function (VHPF) is proposed as the recognition feature of a two-dimensional image. VHPF combines an integral projection function and a standard deviation function so that it can reflect the mean and the variance of the pixels in the vertical direction in an image. Secondly, by considering the different importance grades of objects inside the product and the independence of these objects along the circumference, the paper presents a hierarchical recognition method and uses a neural network system to speed up the computation process with parallel operations. Thirdly, using the whole-orientation features of one standard swatch and by extracting its maximal system of linear independence as the feature basis, the issue of blind areas for recognition is resolved. Based on this approach, the first domestic X-ray multi-view digital detection system has been developed and applied to the online detection of objects containing complicated assembly structures.

  19. Application of X-ray digital radiography to online automated inspection of interior assembly structures of complex products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yueping; Han, Yan; Li, Ruihong; Wang, Liming

    2009-06-01

    The paper proposes an application of X-ray digital radiography to online automated inspection and recognition of the interior assembly structures of complex products by means of the multiple views techniques. First, a vertical hybrid projection function (VHPF) is proposed as the recognition feature of a two-dimensional image. VHPF combines an integral projection function and a standard deviation function so that it can reflect the mean and the variance of the pixels in the vertical direction in an image. Secondly, by considering the different importance grades of objects inside the product and the independence of these objects along the circumference, the paper presents a hierarchical recognition method and uses a neural network system to speed up the computation process with parallel operations. Thirdly, using the whole-orientation features of one standard swatch and by extracting its maximal system of linear independence as the feature basis, the issue of blind areas for recognition is resolved. Based on this approach, the first domestic X-ray multi-view digital detection system has been developed and applied to the online detection of objects containing complicated assembly structures.

  20. New design targets and new automated technology for the production of radionuclides with high specificity radioactivity in nuclear research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerasimov, A.S.; Kiselev, G.V. [State Russian Center of the Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics

    1997-10-01

    Current demands of industry require the application of radionuclides with high specific radioactivity under low consumption of neutrons. To provide this aim staff of ITEP Reactor Department investigated the different type AEs of start targets for the production of the main radionuclides; Co-60, Ir-192 and others. In first turn the targets of Co and Ir without the block-effect of neutron flux (with low absorption of neutrons) were investigated. The following principal results were received for example for Ir-192: block effect is equal 0.086 for diameter of Ir target mm and is equal 0.615 for diameter Ir target 0.5mm. It means average neutron flux for Ir target diameter 0.5mm and therefore the production of Ir-192 will be at 10 times more than for diameter 6.0mm. To provide the automated technology of the manufacture of radioactive sources with radionuclides with high specific radioactivity it was proposed that the compound targets for the irradiation of ones and for the management with the irradiated targets. Different types of compound targets were analyzed. (authors)

  1. Soil microbes contribute to the classic plant diversity-productivity pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnitzer, S.A.; Klironomos, J.N.; HilleRisLambers, J.; Kinkel, L.L.; Reich, P.B.; Nes, van E.H.; Scheffer, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem productivity commonly increases asymptotically with plant species diversity, and determining the mechanisms responsible for this well-known pattern is essential to predict potential changes in ecosystem productivity with ongoing species loss. Previous studies attributed the asymptotic

  2. Automated post-simulation visualization of modular building production assembly line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Sang Hyeok; Al-Hussein, Mohamed; Al-Jibouri, Saad H.S.; Yu, Haitao

    2012-01-01

    Simulation is often used to model production processes with the aim of understanding and improving them. In many cases, however, information produced by simulation is not detailed enough and can be misinterpreted. The use of visualization in combination with simulation can provide project

  3. Automated work packages architecture: An initial set of human factors and instrumentation and controls requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Oxstrand, Johanna H. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Le Blanc, Katya L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The work management process in current fleets of national nuclear power plants is so highly dependent on large technical staffs and quality of work instruction, i.e., paper-based, that this puts nuclear energy at somewhat of a long-term economic disadvantage and increase the possibility of human errors. Technologies like mobile portable devices and computer-based procedures can play a key role in improving the plant work management process, thereby increasing productivity and decreasing cost. Automated work packages are a fundamentally an enabling technology for improving worker productivity and human performance in nuclear power plants work activities because virtually every plant work activity is accomplished using some form of a work package. As part of this year’s research effort, automated work packages architecture is identified and an initial set of requirements identified, that are essential and necessary for implementation of automated work packages in nuclear power plants.

  4. Space flight research leading to the development of enhanced plant products: Results from STS-94

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodieck, Louis S.; Hoehn, Alex; Heyenga, A. Gerard

    1998-01-01

    Products derived from plants, such as foods, pharmaceuticals, lumber, paper, oils, etc., are pervasive in everyday life and generate revenues in the hundreds of billions of dollars. Research on space-grown plants has the potential to alter quantities, properties and types of plant-derived products in beneficial ways. Research on space grown plants may help expand the utilization of this resource for Earth based benefit to an even greater extent. The use of space flight conditions may help provide a greater understanding and ultimate manipulation of the metabolic and genetic control of commercially important plant products. Companies that derive and sell plant products could significantly benefit from investing in space research and development. A flight investigation was conducted on the Shuttle mission STS-94 to establish the initial experimental conditions necessary to test the hypothesis that the exposure of certain plant forms to an adequate period of microgravity may divert the cell metabolic expenditure on structural compounds such as lignin to alternative secondary metabolic compounds which are of commercial interest. Nine species of plants were grown for 16 days in the Astro/Plant Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (Astro/PGBA) under well-controlled environmental conditions. Approximately half of the plant species exhibited significant growth comparable with synchronous ground controls. The other flight plant species were stunted and showed signs of stress with the cause still under investigation. For the plants that grew well, analyses are underway and are expected to demonstrate the potential for space flight biotechnology research.

  5. Plant response-based sensing for control starategies in sustainable greenhouse production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacira, M.; Sase, S.; Okushima, L.; Ling, P.P.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of environmental variability is one of the major concerns in experimental design for both research in plant systems and greenhouse plant production. Microclimates surrounding plants are not usually uniform. Therefore, many samples and sensors are required to obtain a true representation of the plant population. A plant monitoring system capable of reducing the required number of samples by reducing environmental variability would be more advantageous. To better understand plant-environment interaction, it is essential to study plants, microclimate surrounding the plants and the growth media. To achieve this, the monitoring system must be equipped with proper instrumentation. To achieve proper management practices and sustainable greenhouse production, it is essential first to understand plants and their interactions with their surroundings and then establish plant response-based sensing and control strategies for greenhouse processes. Therefore, an effort was conducted to review and discuss current sensing and control strategies in greenhouse research and plant production and provide recommendations on plant response-based sensing and control strategies for sustainable greenhouse production

  6. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Jackura; John Groppo; Thomas Robl

    2006-12-31

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes an investigation of the secondary classification characteristics of the ash feedstock excavated from the lower ash pond at Ghent Station. The market study for the products of the processing plant (Subtask 1.6), conducted by Cemex, is reported herein. The study incorporated simplifying assumptions and focused only on pozzolan and ultra fine fly ash (UFFA). It found that the market for pozzolan in the Ghent area was oversupplied, with resultant poor pricing structure. Reachable export markets for the Ghent pozzolan market were mostly locally served with the exception of Florida. It was concluded that a beneficiated material for that market may be at a long term disadvantage. The market for the UFFA was more complex as this material would compete with other beneficiated ash and potential metakaolin and silica fume as well. The study concluded that this market represented about 100,000 tons of sales per year and, although lucrative, represented a widely dispersed niche market.

  7. ADVANCED MULTI-PRODUCT COAL UTILIZATION BY-PRODUCT PROCESSING PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Jewell; Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2005-03-01

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. This part of the study includes the examination of the feedstocks for the beneficiation plant. The ash, as produced by the plant, and that stored in the lower pond were examined. The ash produced by the plant was found to be highly variable as the plant consumes high and low sulfur bituminous coal, in Units 1 and 2 and a mixture of subbituminous and bituminous coal in Units 3 and 4. The ash produced reflected this consisting of an iron-rich ({approx}24%, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), aluminum rich ({approx}29% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and high calcium (6%-7%, CaO) ash, respectively. The LOI of the ash typically was in the range of 5.5% to 6.5%, but individual samples ranged from 1% to almost 9%. The lower pond at Ghent is a substantial body, covering more than 100 acres, with a volume that exceeds 200 million cubic feet. The sedimentation, stratigraphy and resource assessment of the in place ash was investigated with vibracoring and three-dimensional, computer-modeling techniques. Thirteen cores to depths reaching nearly 40 feet, were retrieved, logged in the field and transported to the lab for a series of analyses for particle size, loss on ignition, petrography, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray fluorescence. Collected data were processed using ArcViewGIS, Rockware, and Microsoft Excel to create three-dimensional, layered iso-grade maps, as well as stratigraphic columns and profiles, and reserve estimations. The ash in the pond was projected to exceed 7 million tons and contain over 1.5 million tons of coarse carbon, and 1.8 million tons of fine (<10 {micro}m) glassy pozzolanic material. The size, quality and consistency of the ponded material suggests that it is the better feedstock for the beneficiation plant.

  8. Distribution of invasive plants in the Nitra river basin: threats and benefits for food production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fehér

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasive plants are introduced multicellular organisms of the kingdom Plantae, which produce their food by photosynthesis. An invasive plant has the ability to thrive and spread aggressively outside its native range. A naturally aggressive plant may be especially invasive when it is introduced to a new habitat. The basic literature emphasizes mainly the ecological and environmental effects of invasive plants. Impacts of these plants on the food production have never been studied in details. The direct and indirect or potential effects of occurrence of invasive plants on food production have been analysed on basis of published data according to eight selected criteria: food, fodder for animals, food and drink additives, indirect support for food production, weeds on arable lands, meadow weeds, allergenic plants in food and toxic plants. The principal components analysis of habitat preferences of invasive plants in the Nitra river basin showed that the majority of invasive plants growing along rivers is edible (Fallopia spp., Helianthus tuberosus, Impatiens glandulifera and invasive plants preferring drier agricultural fields or grasslands are toxic and/or allergenic with low or zero level of edibility (Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Heracleum mantegazzianum. The plants living in drier conditions may produce more toxins to protect the sources (eg. water in their tissues than plants near water flows where there is abundance of sources.

  9. Application of Biophysics Methods in Crop Production and Plant Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilevski, Goce; Bosev, D; Mitrev, Sasa; Mihajlov, Ljupco; Vasilevski, N

    2004-01-01

    The plants have perfect and various synthetic possibilities. These possibilities led to development of complex organic matters, full of energy, from the simple inorganic organisms. That is why the plants have distictive and specific place among the life forms on our planet. Generally they are highly organized and dynamic organizams, who are moving and transfom1ing the organic mater in their potential chemical energy. Today it is well known that photosynthesis at plants is a unique bioenerg...

  10. Automated CD34+ cell isolation of peripheral blood stem cell apheresis product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Gabriele; Wiercinska, Eliza; Karpova, Darja; Bunos, Milica; Hümmer, Christiane; Wingenfeld, Eva; Sorg, Nadine; Poppe, Carolin; Huppert, Volker; Stuth, Juliane; Reck, Kristina; Essl, Mike; Seifried, Erhard; Bönig, Halvard

    2015-10-01

    Immunomagnetic enrichment of CD34+ hematopoietic "stem" cells (HSCs) using paramagnetic nanobead coupled CD34 antibody and immunomagnetic extraction with the CliniMACS plus system is the standard approach to generating T-cell-depleted stem cell grafts. Their clinical beneficence in selected indications is established. Even though CD34+ selected grafts are typically given in the context of a severely immunosuppressive conditioning with anti-thymocyte globulin or similar, the degree of T-cell depletion appears to affect clinical outcomes and thus in addition to CD34 cell recovery, the degree of T-cell depletion critically describes process quality. An automatic immunomagnetic cell processing system, CliniMACS Prodigy, including a protocol for fully automatic CD34+ cell selection from apheresis products, was recently developed. We performed a formal process validation to support submission of the protocol for CE release, a prerequisite for clinical use of Prodigy CD34+ products. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor-mobilized healthy-donor apheresis products were subjected to CD34+ cell selection using Prodigy with clinical reagents and consumables and advanced beta versions of the CD34 selection software. Target and non-target cells were enumerated using sensitive flow cytometry platforms. Nine successful clinical-scale CD34+ cell selections were performed. Beyond setup, no operator intervention was required. Prodigy recovered 74 ± 13% of target cells with a viability of 99.9 ± 0.05%. Per 5 × 10E6 CD34+ cells, which we consider a per-kilogram dose of HSCs, products contained 17 ± 3 × 10E3 T cells and 78 ± 22 × 10E3 B cells. The process for CD34 selection with Prodigy is robust and labor-saving but not time-saving. Compared with clinical CD34+ selected products concurrently generated with the predecessor technology, product properties, importantly including CD34+ cell recovery and T-cell contents, were not significantly different. The automatic system is

  11. Principles and limitations of stable isotopes in differentiating organic and conventional foodstuffs: 1. Plant products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Caio Teves; Chalk, Phillip Michael; Magalhães, Alberto M T

    2015-01-01

    Among the lighter elements having two or more stable isotopes (H, C, N, O, S), δ(15)N appears to be the most promising isotopic marker to differentiate plant products from conventional and organic farms. Organic plant products vary within a range of δ(15)N values of +0.3 to +14.6%, while conventional plant products range from negative to positive values, i.e. -4.0 to +8.7%. The main factors affecting δ(15)N signatures of plants are N fertilizers, biological N2 fixation, plant organs and plant age. Correlations between mode of production and δ(13)C (except greenhouse tomatoes warmed with natural gas) or δ(34)S signatures have not been established, and δ(2)H and δ(18)O are unsuitable markers due to the overriding effect of climate on the isotopic composition of plant-available water. Because there is potential overlap between the δ(15)N signatures of organic and conventionally produced plant products, δ(15)N has seldom been used successfully as the sole criterion for differentiation, but when combined with complementary analytical techniques and appropriate statistical tools, the probability of a correct identification increases. The use of organic fertilizers by conventional farmers or the marketing of organic produce as conventional due to market pressures are additional factors confounding correct identification. The robustness of using δ(15)N to differentiate mode of production will depend on the establishment of databases that have been verified for individual plant products.

  12. Plant virus expression vectors set the stage as production platforms for biopharmaceutical proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferon, Kathleen Laura

    2012-11-10

    Transgenic plants present enormous potential as a cost-effective and safe platform for large-scale production of vaccines and other therapeutic proteins. A number of different technologies are under development for the production of pharmaceutical proteins from plant tissues. One method used to express high levels of protein in plants involves the employment of plant virus expression vectors. Plant virus vectors have been designed to carry vaccine epitopes as well as full therapeutic proteins such as monoclonal antibodies in plant tissue both safely and effectively. Biopharmaceuticals such as these offer enormous potential on many levels, from providing relief to those who have little access to modern medicine, to playing an active role in the battle against cancer. This review describes the current design and status of plant virus expression vectors used as production platforms for biopharmaceutical proteins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Deviations in behavior and productivity data before diagnosis of health disorders in cows milked with an automated system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M T M; Dancy, K M; LeBlanc, S J; Pajor, E A; DeVries, T J

    2017-10-01

    To explore potential changes in behavior and productivity useful for early detection of health disorders in cows milked with automated milking systems (AMS), we collected longitudinal data throughout lactation of 57 dairy cows housed in a freestall barn with an AMS. Health problems were recorded, including subclinical ketosis (SCK; n = 19), metritis (n = 11), hoof disorders (n = 14), pneumonia (n = 7), and displaced abomasum (DA; n = 5). Data on rumination, activity, milking frequency and yield, and lying behavior were recorded electronically. Using repeated-measures mixed linear regression models, these data were analyzed for the days before the day of diagnosis/treatment (d 0) for each disorder separately, controlling for days in milk and parity. Analyses were performed between the day on which each outcome variable deviated significantly from baseline (up to d -14) and the day before diagnosis (nadir at d -1, before treatment and recovery). Outcomes tested were 3-d rolling averages of milk yield, milking frequency, and AMS supplement intake, in addition to daily rumination time (DRT), body weight, milk temperature, activity (measure of head/neck motion), and 3 lying behavior variables. From d -8, -6, and -5 before diagnosis of DA, SCK, or pneumonia, respectively, DRT declined by 45, 25, and 50 min/d. From d -14 to -1 before diagnosis of hoof disorders, DRT declined by 3 min/d. Body weight declined from d -4 before pneumonia (-14 kg/d) and metritis (-13 kg/d), from d -6 before SCK (-10 kg/d), and from d -5 before hoof disorders (-5 kg/d). Milk yield declined by 4.4 and 4.1 kg/d from d -4 before DA and pneumonia diagnoses, respectively, and by 1.2 kg/d from d -5 before SCK diagnosis. Activity levels declined before diagnosis of DA, pneumonia, SCK, or metritis. Lying behavior changed before diagnosis of DA, pneumonia, or metritis. Our results provide evidence that rumination behavior often deviated before milk yield and that several variables could contribute to

  14. Optimized production planning model for a multi-plant cultivation system under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Shunkui; Guo, Doudou; Niu, Qingliang; Huang, Danfeng

    2015-02-01

    An inexact multi-constraint programming model under uncertainty was developed by incorporating a production plan algorithm into the crop production optimization framework under the multi-plant collaborative cultivation system. In the production plan, orders from the customers are assigned to a suitable plant under the constraints of plant capabilities and uncertainty parameters to maximize profit and achieve customer satisfaction. The developed model and solution method were applied to a case study of a multi-plant collaborative cultivation system to verify its applicability. As determined in the case analysis involving different orders from customers, the period of plant production planning and the interval between orders can significantly affect system benefits. Through the analysis of uncertain parameters, reliable and practical decisions can be generated using the suggested model of a multi-plant collaborative cultivation system.

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis influences strigolactone production under salinity and alleviates salt stress in lettuce plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroca, Ricardo; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Zamarreño, Angel María; Paz, José Antonio; García-Mina, José María; Pozo, María José; López-Ráez, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can alleviate salt stress in plants. However the intimate mechanisms involved, as well as the effect of salinity on the production of signalling molecules associated to the host plant-AM fungus interaction remains largely unknown. In the present work, we have investigated the effects of salinity on lettuce plant performance and production of strigolactones, and assessed its influence on mycorrhizal root colonization. Three different salt concentrations were applied to mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants, and their effects, over time, analyzed. Plant biomass, stomatal conductance, efficiency of photosystem II, as well as ABA content and strigolactone production were assessed. The expression of ABA biosynthesis genes was also analyzed. AM plants showed improved growth rates and a better performance of physiological parameters such as stomatal conductance and efficiency of photosystem II than non-mycorrhizal plants under salt stress since very early stages - 3 weeks - of plant colonization. Moreover, ABA levels were lower in those plants, suggesting that they were less stressed than non-colonized plants. On the other hand, we show that both AM symbiosis and salinity influence strigolactone production, although in a different way in AM and non-AM plants. The results suggest that AM symbiosis alleviates salt stress by altering the hormonal profiles and affecting plant physiology in the host plant. Moreover, a correlation between strigolactone production, ABA content, AM root colonization and salinity level is shown. We propose here that under these unfavourable conditions, plants increase strigolactone production in order to promote symbiosis establishment to cope with salt stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. The biological productivity of natural forage plants` soils of Tersko-Sulakskaya lowland of Dagestan

    OpenAIRE

    M. E. Kotenko; M. A. Balamirzoev

    2009-01-01

    The present condition of soil cover and biological productivity of Tersko-Sulakskaya lowland’s forage plants is studied. The conducted investigations showed that overwrite forage plants on the salted soils have low forage productivity and nutritive value. The soils under it need a deep melioration measures.

  17. Halomonas alkalicola sp. nov., isolated from a household product plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoli; Zhai, Lei; Lin, Yafang; Yao, Su; Wang, Lijiang; Ge, Yuanyuan; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Tianci; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Jiquan; Cheng, Chi

    2017-05-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, alkaliphilic and moderately halophilic bacterium, designated 56-L4-10aEnT, was isolated from a household product plant in China. Cells of the novel isolate were rod-shaped, non-spore-forming and non-motile. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain 56-L4-10aEnT belongs to the genus Halomonas, with the six closest neighbours being Halomonas mongoliensis Z-7009T (97.59 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Halomonas ventosae Al12T (97.35 %), Halomonas campaniensis 5AGT (97.22 %), Halomonas alimentaria YKJ-16T (97.22 %), Halomonas shengliensis SL014B-85T (97.12 %) and Halomonas fontilapidosi 5CRT (97.09 %). The main polar lipids of strain 56-L4-10aEnT contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The predominant respiratory quinone was Q-9, with Q-8 as a minor component. The major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c and C16 : 0. Strain 56-L4-10aEnT was clearly distinguished from the type strains mentioned above through phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization, fatty acid composition data and a range of physiological and biochemical characteristics comparisons. It is evident from the genotypic and phenotypic data that strain 56-L4-10aEnTcould be classified as a representative of a novel species of the genus Halomonas, for which the name Halomonas alkalicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 56-L4-10aEnT (=CICC 11012sT=DSM 103354T).

  18. Influence of Plant Community Composition on Biomass Production in Planted Grasslands

    OpenAIRE

    Henschell, Max A.; Webster, Christopher R.; Flaspohler, David J.; Fortin, Chad R.

    2015-01-01

    United States energy policy mandates increased use of renewable fuels. Restoring grasslands could contribute to a portion of this requirement through biomass harvest for bioenergy use. We investigated which plant community characteristics are associated with differences in biomass yield from a range of realistic native prairie plantings (n = 11; i.e., conservation planting, restoration, and wildlife cover). Our primary goal was to understand whether patterns in plant community composition and...

  19. Biomass production and potential water stress increase with planting density in four highly productive clonal Eucalyptus genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo Hakamada; Robert M. Hubbard; Silvio Ferraz; Jose Luiz Stape; Cristiane Lemos

    2017-01-01

    The choice of planting density and tree genotype are basic decisions when establishing a forest stand. Understanding the interaction between planting density and genotype, and their relationship with biomass production and potential water stress, is crucial as forest managers are faced with a changing climate. However, few studies have investigated this relationship,...

  20. Diversity in susceptibility of Botrytis cinerea to biocontrol products inducing plant defence mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Bardin, Marc; Comby, Morgane; Lenaerts, Ruben; Nicot, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The development of plant defence stimulants to increase host resistance represents anattractive alternative to fungicides for the protection of crops against plant pathogens. In this study we evaluated the efficiency of 14 products presumed to induce plant defence mechanisms against Botrytis cinerea on tomato and lettuce. Two days after the application of the products, tomato and lettuce leaves were inoculated with B. cinerea and incubated in conditions conducive to disease development.Out...

  1. Effects of Planting Time and Fertilizer Application on the Productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects, on the performance of intercropped maize (Zea mays L.) And cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) (Walp.) of varying the planting time of cowpea after maize, varying the planting date of simultaneous maize-cowpea intercropping, and applying fertilizer to the intercrop were studied in two field experiments in Njala (7 6' ...

  2. Plant species richness regulates soil respiration through changes in productivity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavares Correa Dias, A.; van Ruijven, J.; Berendse, F.

    2010-01-01

    Soil respiration is an important pathway of the C cycle. However, it is still poorly understood how changes in plant community diversity can affect this ecosystem process. Here we used a long-term experiment consisting of a gradient of grassland plant species richness to test for effects of

  3. Plant species richness regulates soil respiration through changes in productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dias, A.A.; Ruijven, van J.; Berendse, F.

    2010-01-01

    Soil respiration is an important pathway of the C cycle. However, it is still poorly understood how changes in plant community diversity can affect this ecosystem process. Here we used a long-term experiment consisting of a gradient of grassland plant species richness to test for effects of

  4. Production Of Cellulase In Plastids Of Transgenic Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamppa, Gayle

    2002-08-06

    A genetic construct encoding a fusion protein including endogluconase E1 and a transit peptide is used to transform plants. The plants produce cellulase by expressing the genetic construct. The cellulase is targeted to plastids and can be collected and purified.

  5. Production and assessment of red alder planting stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Radwan; Y. Tanaka; A. Dobkowskl; W. Fangen

    1992-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted over 4 years to test and develop methods to produce acceptable red alder planting stock and to assess quality and outplanting performance of resulting stock. Results indicated that red alder planting stock can be produced as containerized seedlings (plugs) or as bare-root nontransplant and transplant trees. In general, bare-root...

  6. Inconsistency in Automated Reports of Scientific Productivity and Impact in Academic Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plana, Natalie M; Massie, Jonathan P; Bekisz, Jonathan M; Fryml, Elise M; Spore, Stuart; Diaz-Siso, J Rodrigo; Flores, Roberto L

    2018-03-01

    Currently, no consensus metric for measuring academic productivity within plastic surgery exists. The h-index is widely used, as it captures both the quantity and quality of an individual's contribution. However, discrepancies in online reporting make accurate h-index calculation challenging. This study highlights inconsistencies within plastic surgery by assessing differences in reporting of the h-index and other measures of academic productivity across online scientific databases. Plastic surgery faculty at institutions with Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited residency programs were identified and searched across four databases: Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, and the National Library of Medicine (PubMed). The total number of publications, citations, and h-index were recorded for each author and analyzed using a Mann-Whitney test. Seven hundred twenty-two faculty members were included in this study. Reporting of publications was highest in Google Scholar and lowest in Web of Science. Because of incomplete information (PubMed) and underuse (Google Scholar), h-index could be assessed only between Web of Science and Scopus, where the average discrepancy in citations and h-index was 722 and 7.0 per author, respectively. Discrepancies were more significant among faculty members holding a Ph.D. degree, higher academic rank, or belonging to the male gender. Inconsistencies between online scientific databases profoundly affect plastic surgeons. Given the importance placed on metrics such as the h-index, it is imperative that the plastic surgery community push for solutions that ensure more reliable, transparent, and cohesive reporting of academic productivity.

  7. QUALITY IMPROVEMENT THROUGH AUTOMATION OF PRODUCT DESIGN PROCESS IN A MANUFACTURING ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Sawant

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the use of CAE for improving some of the quality dimensions of the business process, such as reliability and quick response to market. To establish this, a software based approach is developed coupled with interface with CAD environment by using RAD technology. This system would help enable the rapid design and generation of model of a critical component like the rotor of a submersible pump. The parametric design of the critical component i.e. mo tor is established and software solution for the same is developed. The dimensions of the rotor are critical and interdependent. The flexibility thus obtained using the software will facilitate fast design of a submersible pump. This case study has been carried at M/s. Vira Pumps, Kolhapur, India. The company manufactures and exports different types of submersible pumps and motors to many countries. The company is working in this area from last 35 years. Being an ISO 9001 certified company there is an on going continual improvement process in all its areas of operation. ISO 9001:2008 specifies requirements for a quality management system where an organization needs to demonstrate its ability to consistently provide product that meets customer requirements, and aims to enhance customer satisfaction through the quick reply and improved reliability of the product with CAE.

  8. Learning based on library automation in mobile devices: The video production by students of Universidade Federal do Cariri Library Science Undergraduate Degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vernon VIEIRA

    Full Text Available Abstract The video production for learning has been evident over the last few years especially when it involves aspects of the application of hardware and software for automation spaces. In Librarianship Undergraduate Degrees the need for practical learning focused on the knowledge of the requirements for library automation demand on teacher to develop an educational content to enable the student to learn through videos in order to increase the knowledge about information technology. Thus, discusses the possibilities of learning through mobile devices in education reporting an experience that took place with students who entered in March, 2015 (2015.1 Bachelor Degree in Library Science from the Universidade Federal do Cariri (Federal University of Cariri in state of Ceará, Brazil. The literature review includes articles publicated in scientific journals and conference proceedings and books in English, Portuguese and Spanish on the subject. The methodology with quantitative and qualitative approach includes an exploratory study, where the data collection was used online survey to find out the experience of the elaboration of library automation videos by students who studied in that course. The learning experience using mobile devices for recording of technological environments of libraries allowed them to be produced 25 videos that contemplated aspects of library automation having these actively participated in production of the video and its publication on the Internet.

  9. Systems and methods for automated production of multi-composition nanomaterial

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao

    2015-12-24

    Various methods and systems are provided for production of nanowires or other nanomaterials. In one example, among others, a system includes a furnace configured to heat at least a portion of a tube, a material feeder coupled to a first end of the tube, and a vacuum pumping system coupled to a second end of the tube. The material feeder can include a source material manipulator that can position a source material in a fixture of a feeder arm and a linear manipulator that can extend the fixture into the tube, where it can be heated to produce a precursor vapor that can be used to form a nanomaterial on a substrate. In another example, a method includes extending a fixture holding source material into a furnace tube, drawing a precursor vapor produced from the source material across a substrate in the furnace tube, and forming nanomaterial on the substrate.

  10. An automated ion implant/pulse anneal machine for low cost silicon cell production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armini, A.J.; Bunker, S.N.; Spitzer, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    The continuing development of a high throughput ion implanter and a pulsed electron beam annealer designed for dedicated silicon solar cell manufacture is reviewed. This equipment is intended for production of junctions in 10 cm wide wafers at a throughput up to 10 MWsub(p) per year. The principal features of the implanter are the lack of mass analysis and defocusing utilizing electrostatic deflection. The implanted surface is annealed by liquid phase epitaxy resulting from a single burst of a large area electron beam. Cells with non-mass analyzed ion implantation have yielded AM1 cell efficiencies in excess of 15%. Pulse annealed Czochralski cells have been made with AM1 efficiencies of 13% vs. 15% for a furnace annealed group. Results of pulse annealing of polycrystalline materials indicate that cell performance comparable to diffusion can be obtained. (Auth.)

  11. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2009-06-30

    The overall objective of this project is to design, construct, and operate an ash beneficiation facility that will generate several products from coal combustion ash stored in a utility ash pond. The site selected is LG&E's Ghent Station located in Carroll County, Kentucky. The specific site under consideration is the lower ash pond at Ghent, a closed landfill encompassing over 100 acres. Coring activities revealed that the pond contains over 7 million tons of ash, including over 1.5 million tons of coarse carbon and 1.8 million tons of fine (<10 {micro}m) glassy pozzolanic material. These potential products are primarily concentrated in the lower end of the pond adjacent to the outlet. A representative bulk sample was excavated for conducting laboratory-scale process testing while a composite 150 ton sample was also excavated for demonstration-scale testing at the Ghent site. A mobile demonstration plant with a design feed rate of 2.5 tph was constructed and hauled to the Ghent site to evaluate unit processes (i.e. primary classification, froth flotation, spiral concentration, secondary classification, etc.) on a continuous basis to determine appropriate scale-up data. Unit processes were configured into four different flowsheets and operated at a feed rate of 2.5 tph to verify continuous operating performance and generate bulk (1 to 2 tons) products for product testing. Cementitious products were evaluated for performance in mortar and concrete as well as cement manufacture process addition. All relevant data from the four flowsheets was compiled to compare product yields and quality while preliminary flowsheet designs were generated to determine throughputs, equipment size specifications and capital cost summaries. A detailed market study was completed to evaluate the potential markets for cementitious products. Results of the study revealed that the Ghent local fly ash market is currently oversupplied by more than 500,000 tpy and distant markets (i

  12. Performance Optimizing of a Sanitary Towel Production Plant Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted in a rm that manufactures sanitary pads and babies disposable towels which production is below the installed capacity as a result of high production downtime that resulted from incessant breakdown of the subsystems of the production system. The aim of the study was to reduce the production ...

  13. Production of secretory IgA antibodies in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrick, J W; Yu, L; Naftzger, C; Jaiswal, S; Wycoff, K

    2001-10-15

    Functional antibodies produced in tobacco plants were first reported over a decade ago (1989). The basic protocol used to generate these 'plantibodies' involved the independent cloning of H and L chain antibody genes in Agrobacterium tumefaciens vectors, the transformation of plant tissue in vitro with the recombinant bacterium, the reconstitution of whole plants expressing individual chains, and their sexual cross. In a 'Mendelian' fashion, a fully assembled and functional antibody was recovered from plant tissue in some double-transgenic plants. In mammalian cells, the antibody H and L chains are produced as precursor proteins that are translocated into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), under the guidance of signal sequences. Within the ER, the signal peptides are proteolytically cleaved, and several stress proteins act as chaperonins to bind the unassembled antibody chains, and direct subsequent folding and tetramer formation. A similar process occurs in plant cells, and expression can be directed via signal sequences (even of foreign origin) into the aqueous environment of the apoplasm, or to be accumulated in other specific plant tissues, including tubers, fruit, or seed. Plants can facilely assemble secretory IgA, which is comprised of four chains, H and L chains, J chain and secretory component. Plant 'bioreactors' are expected to yield over 10 kg of therapeutic antibody/acre in tobacco, maize, soybean, and alfalfa [(Ann. NY Acad. Sci.)721(1994)235; (Biotechnol. Bioeng.)20(1999)135]. Compared with conventional steel tank bioreactors using mammalian cells, or microorganisms, the costs of GMP plantibodies are expected to perhaps one tenth. The differences in glycosylation patterns of plant and mammalian cell produced antibodies apparently have no effect on antigen-binding or specificity, but there is some concern about potential immunogenicity in humans. N-linked glycans of plants differ from human by having fucose-linked alpha 1,3 and the sugar xylose. No

  14. The beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant (Ust-Kamenogrsk, Kazakhstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant (Zavod), Ust-Kamenogorsk, Abay prospect 102 (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The Report includes data on beryllium production of Ulba metallurgical plant, located in Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan). Beryllium production is showed to have extended technological opportunities in manufacturing semi-products (beryllium ingots, master alloys, metallic beryllium powders, beryllium oxide) and in production of structural beryllium and its parts. Ulba metallurgical plant owns a unique technology of beryllium vacuum distillation, which allows to produce reactor grades of beryllium with a low content of metallic impurities. At present Ulba plant does not depend on raw materials suppliers. The quantity of stored raw materials and semi-products will allow to provide a 25-years work of beryllium production at a full capacity. The plant has a satisfactory experience in solving ecological problems, which could be useful in ITER program. (author)

  15. Advanced Multi-Product Coal Utilization By-Product Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Robl; John Groppo

    2007-03-31

    The objective of the project is to build a multi-product ash beneficiation plant at Kentucky Utilities 2,200-MW Ghent Generating Station, located in Carroll County, Kentucky. Phase 1 was completed successfully, but the project did not continue on to Phase 2 due to withdrawal of CEMEX from the project. Attempts at replacing CEMEX were not successful. Problematic to the continuation of the project was its location in the Ohio Valley which is oversupplied and has low prices for fly ash and the change in CEMEX priorities due to merger and acquisitions. Thus, CAER concurred with the DOE to conclude the project at the end of Budget Period 1, March 31, 2007.

  16. Isoprene emission protects photosynthesis but reduces plant productivity during drought in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Annette C; Hewitt, C Nicholas; Possell, Malcolm; Vickers, Claudia E; Purnell, Anna; Mullineaux, Philip M; Davies, William J; Dodd, Ian C

    2014-01-01

    Isoprene protects the photosynthetic apparatus of isoprene-emitting plants from oxidative stress. The role of isoprene in the response of plants to drought is less clear. Water was withheld from transgenic isoprene-emitting and non-emitting tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants, to examine: the response of isoprene emission to plant water deficit; a possible relationship between concentrations of the drought-induced phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) and isoprene; and whether isoprene affected foliar reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation levels. Isoprene emission did not affect whole-plant water use, foliar ABA concentration or leaf water potential under water deficit. Compared with well-watered controls, droughted non-emitting plants significantly increased ROS content (31-46%) and lipid peroxidation (30-47%), concomitant with decreased operating and maximum efficiencies of photosystem II photochemistry and lower leaf and whole-plant water use efficiency (WUE). Droughted isoprene-emitting plants showed no increase in ROS content or lipid peroxidation relative to well-watered controls, despite isoprene emission decreasing before leaf wilting. Although isoprene emission protected the photosynthetic apparatus and enhanced leaf and whole-plant WUE, non-emitting plants had 8-24% more biomass under drought, implying that isoprene emission incurred a yield penalty. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Automated Enrichment, Transduction, and Expansion of Clinical-Scale CD62L+ T Cells for Manufacturing of Gene Therapy Medicinal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priesner, Christoph; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Esser, Ruth; Mockel-Tenbrinck, Nadine; Leise, Jana; Drechsel, Katharina; Marburger, Michael; Quaiser, Andrea; Goudeva, Lilia; Arseniev, Lubomir; Kaiser, Andrew D.; Glienke, Wolfgang; Koehl, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Multiple clinical studies have demonstrated that adaptive immunotherapy using redirected T cells against advanced cancer has led to promising results with improved patient survival. The continuously increasing interest in those advanced gene therapy medicinal products (GTMPs) leads to a manufacturing challenge regarding automation, process robustness, and cell storage. Therefore, this study addresses the proof of principle in clinical-scale selection, stimulation, transduction, and expansion of T cells using the automated closed CliniMACS® Prodigy system. Naïve and central memory T cells from apheresis products were first immunomagnetically enriched using anti-CD62L magnetic beads and further processed freshly (n = 3) or split for cryopreservation and processed after thawing (n = 1). Starting with 0.5 × 108 purified CD3+ T cells, three mock runs and one run including transduction with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-containing vector resulted in a median final cell product of 16 × 108 T cells (32-fold expansion) up to harvesting after 2 weeks. Expression of CD62L was downregulated on T cells after thawing, which led to the decision to purify CD62L+CD3+ T cells freshly with cryopreservation thereafter. Most important in the split product, a very similar expansion curve was reached comparing the overall freshly CD62L selected cells with those after thawing, which could be demonstrated in the T cell subpopulations as well by showing a nearly identical conversion of the CD4/CD8 ratio. In the GFP run, the transduction efficacy was 83%. In-process control also demonstrated sufficient glucose levels during automated feeding and medium removal. The robustness of the process and the constant quality of the final product in a closed and automated system give rise to improve harmonized manufacturing protocols for engineered T cells in future gene therapy studies. PMID:27562135

  18. Efficient production of transgenic Alstroemeria plants by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, J.B.; Raemakers, C.J.J.M.; Jacobsen, E.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2007-01-01

    A highly efficient and reproducible protocol was developed to obtain transgenic Alstroemeria plants by combining Agrobacterium tumefaciens with friable embryogenic callus (FEC). To develop this transformation method, factors such as infection time, cocultivation period, effect of acetosyringone

  19. Effects of plant diversity on primary production and species interactions in brackish water angiosperm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Tiina; Gustafsson, Camilla; Boström, Christoffer

    2009-01-01

    Research on plant biodiversity and ecosystem functioning has mainly focused on terrestrial ecosystems, and our understanding of how plant species diversity and interactions affect processes in marine ecosystems is still limited. To investigate if plant species richness and composition influence...... plant productivity in brackish water angiosperm communities, a 14 wk field experiment was conducted. Using a replacement design with a standardized initial aboveground biomass, shoots of Zostera marina, Potamogeton filiformis and P. perfoliatus were planted on a shallow, sandy bottom in replicated...... production in bicultures in general, while a positive net effect was found in the P. perfoliatus and P. filiformis biculture. Despite the absence of significant results for other treatments and plant variables, a trend of positive complementarity and negative selection effects were present. Plant diversity...

  20. Control of automated behavior: insights from the discrete sequence production task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamse, Elger L.; Ruitenberg, Marit F. L.; de Kleine, Elian; Verwey, Willem B.

    2013-01-01

    Work with the discrete sequence production (DSP) task has provided a substantial literature on discrete sequencing skill over the last decades. The purpose of the current article is to provide a comprehensive overview of this literature and of the theoretical progress that it has prompted. We start with a description of the DSP task and the phenomena that are typically observed with it. Then we propose a cognitive model, the dual processor model (DPM), which explains performance of (skilled) discrete key-press sequences. Key features of this model are the distinction between a cognitive processor and a motor system (i.e., motor buffer and motor processor), the interplay between these two processing systems, and the possibility to execute familiar sequences in two different execution modes. We further discuss how this model relates to several related sequence skill research paradigms and models, and we outline outstanding questions for future research throughout the paper. We conclude by sketching a tentative neural implementation of the DPM. PMID:23515430

  1. Automated cleaning of fan coil units with a natural detergent-disinfectant product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Onofrio Valeria

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Air conditioning systems represent one important source of microbial pollutants for indoor air. In the past few years, numerous strategies have been conceived to reduce the contamination of air conditioners, mainly in hospital settings. The biocidal detergent BATT2 represents a natural product obtained through extraction from brown seaweeds, that has been tested previously on multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Methods BATT2 has been utilized for the disinfection of fan coil units from four air conditioning systems located in hospital environments with a mean degree of risk. Samples were collected from the air supplied by the conditioning systems and from the surfaces of fan coil units, before and after sanitization procedures. Total microbial counts at 37°C and 22°C and mycotic count at 32°C were evaluated. Staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also detected on surfaces samples. Results The biodetergent was able to reduce up 50% of the microbial pollution of fan coil units surfaces and air supplied by the air conditioners. Conclusions BATT2 could be considered for cleaning/disinfection of air conditioning systems, that should be performed on the basis of accurate and verifiable sanitization protocols.

  2. Automated early detection of drops in commercial egg production using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Morales, I; Fernández-Blanco, E; Rivero, D; Pazos, A

    2017-12-01

    1. The purpose of this work was to support decision-making in poultry farms by performing automatic early detection of anomalies in egg production. 2. Unprocessed data were collected from a commercial egg farm on a daily basis over 7 years. Records from a total of 24 flocks, each with approximately 20 000 laying hens, were studied. 3. Other similar works have required a prior feature extraction by a poultry expert, and this method is dependent on time and expert knowledge. 4. The present approach reduces the dependency on time and expert knowledge because of the automatic selection of relevant features and the use of artificial neural networks capable of cost-sensitive learning. 5. The optimum configuration of features and parameters in the proposed model was evaluated on unseen test data obtained by a repeated cross-validation technique. 6. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value are presented and discussed at 5 forecasting intervals. The accuracy of the proposed model was 0.9896 for the day before a problem occurs.

  3. [Scientific productivity standards and the National Automous University of Mexico School of Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Federico; Palomares, Alejandra; Piña, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    The scientific production at theNational Autonomous University of Mexico (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, UNAM) School of Medicine was analyzed during the period from 1999 to 2002. We found the following: 1) 94.83% of total international scientific papers was recovered; 2) mean impact factor had a value of 2.5, ca. the value reported by CONACYT, México, for the period 1998-2002; 3) percentage of corresponding authors was 58.83%, 27.80% of papers were national collaborations, 9.83% were international collaborations, and 3.37% corresponded to personal publications; 4) by using corresponding author and collaborations, academic leaders were identified; 5) there are differences among academic departments, and 6) basic research from the UNAM School of Medicine contributes 14% of national research and teaches ca. 2,450 students per year. It is proposed that this type of analysis should be used to establish the politics of science.

  4. Progress towards a small-scale, automated optical thin-film production capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drage, D.J.; Netterfield, R.P.; Dligatch, S.; Blenman, N.; Fairman, P.S.; Katsaros, A.; Preston, E.W.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The Optical Thin-film group at CSIRO Telecommunications and Industrial Physics (CTIP) has, working over a number of years, built up considerable expertise in producing complex dielectric, multilayer thin-film designs to meet unusual and demanding optical performance specifications. At the same time the process of vacuum deposition of dielectric materials has been advanced, particularly by the development and use of ion-assisted deposition (IAD). Proposed modifications to our existing chamber (DB600) and the addition of a new, larger diameter chamber (DD750), presently under construction, will increase output and reliability while improving quality. We will describe the changes already made to the DB600 such as: the gridless ion source, in-situ ellipsometric monitoring along with spectrophotometric monitoring, full e-beam scan on the material source, complete source shuttering and reactive deposition of SiO 2 from thermally evaporated SiO. The effects of making these beneficial changes will be described. Further changes to be made to the DB600 include, replacing its diffusion pump with a cryo-pump and automatic control of the deposition process. All the changes described for the DB600 along with a positive drive system for rotation of the substrate holder, rod feed e-gun hearths, and multiple crystal monitor heads, will be included in the DD750 design which will also be described. We believe that these improvements will give us the capability of small-scale production of reproducible, high quality filters

  5. EFFECTS OF PLANTING DENSITYAND ORGANIC FERTILIZATION DOSES ON PRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY OF CACTUS PEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NALÍGIA GOMES DE MIRANDA E SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cactus is crucial for the livestock of semi - arid regions in Brazil. This plant has shown the high productivity of forage, which is influenced by several management factors. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of organic fertilization doses (20, 40 and 80 t/ ha of bovine manure/ha/two years and planting densities (20, 40, 80 and 160 thousand plants/ha on the productivity of cactus pear Clone IPA - 20 ( Opuntia ficus - indica Mill. At the Experimental Station of Caruaru at the Agronomic Institute of Pernambuco, IPA has conducted the experiment. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with split plot arrangements. Higher shoot productivity was observed with increased population density and the application of manure at 80 t ha - 1two years - 1 with values of 61, 90, 117 and 139 t DM ha - 1 two years - 1 at densities of 20, 40, 80 and 160,000 plants ha - 1. The planting density influenced the productivity of cladode - plant and root dry weight, showing exponential responses, with higher cladode - plant and roots weight by area observed with increased plant density. The efficiency of organic fertilization decreased with the increase in manure doses. For increase cactus productivity, 40 t of bovine manure ha - 1 two years - 1 for plantations with 160,000 plants/ha is recommended.

  6. Lethal Hydroxyl Radical Production in Paraquat-treated Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Babbs, Charles F; Pham, Jo Ann; Coolbaugh, Ronald C

    1989-01-01

    Bipyridinium herbicides, including paraquat and diquat, are believed to act by generating highly reactive, oxygen-centered free radicals within chloroplasts when treated plants are exposed to sunlight. This hypothesis has not yet been confirmed by direct chemical measurements of specific free radicals. We studied paraquat-treated plants using a new method able to detect and quantify formation of highly reactive and deleterious hydroxyl radicals (HO*), in which dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is use...

  7. New and bioactive natural products isolated from madagascar plants and marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Y; Harinantenaina, L

    2010-01-01

    Madagascar, the world's fourth biggest island has an unique biodiversity. The interest on the phytochemical investigation of Malagasy plants and marine natural products started from the isolation of the potent anti-cancerous bisindole alkaloids: vinblastine and vincristine. In this paper, works published in the last two decades (1991-2009) on 270 new natural products isolated from Madagascar higher plants, liverworts and marine organisms are reviewed. Several results on the bioassays of the isolated new natural products have been reported.

  8. Evolution of crop production under a pseudo-space environment using model plants, Lotus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Motohashi, Kyohei; Omi, Naomi; Sato, Seigo; Aoki, Toshio; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Habitation in outer space is one of our challenges. We have been studying space agriculture and/or spacecraft agriculture to provide food and oxygen for the habitation area in the space environment. However, careful investigation should be made concerning the results of exotic environmental effects on the endogenous production of biologically active substances in indi-vidual cultivated plants in a space environment. We have already reported that the production of functional substances in cultivated plants as crops are affected by gravity. The amounts of the main physiological substances in these plants grown under terrestrial control were different from that grown in a pseudo-microgravity. These results suggested that the nutrition would be changed in the plants/crops grown in the space environment when human beings eat in space. This estimation required us to investigate each of the useful components produced by each plant grown in the space environment. These estimations involved several study fields, includ-ing nutrition, plant physiology, etc. On the other hand, the analysis of model plant genomes has recently been remarkably advanced. Lotus japonicus, a leguminous plant, is also one of the model plant. The leguminosae is a large family in the plant vegetable kingdom and almost the entire genome sequence of Lotus japonicus has been determined. Nitrogen fixation would be possible even in a space environment. We are trying to determine the best conditions and evolution for crop production using the model plants.

  9. Opportunities for Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California - Phase II Report. San Luis Rey Wastewater Treatment Plant Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Lisa; Lekov, Alex; McKane, Aimee; Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-08-20

    This case study enhances the understanding of open automated demand response opportunities in municipal wastewater treatment facilities. The report summarizes the findings of a 100 day submetering project at the San Luis Rey Wastewater Treatment Plant, a municipal wastewater treatment facility in Oceanside, California. The report reveals that key energy-intensive equipment such as pumps and centrifuges can be targeted for large load reductions. Demand response tests on the effluent pumps resulted a 300 kW load reduction and tests on centrifuges resulted in a 40 kW load reduction. Although tests on the facility?s blowers resulted in peak period load reductions of 78 kW sharp, short-lived increases in the turbidity of the wastewater effluent were experienced within 24 hours of the test. The results of these tests, which were conducted on blowers without variable speed drive capability, would not be acceptable and warrant further study. This study finds that wastewater treatment facilities have significant open automated demand response potential. However, limiting factors to implementing demand response are the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration load, along with the cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities.

  10. Possibilities for using plant extracts added to ruminant feed aimed at improving production results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grdović Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant extracts with the objective of improving production results and the quality of food articles of animal origin is an area which is acquiring increasing scientific importance. Numerous investigations carried out so far on ruminants and other species of domestic animals have been aimed at examining specific bioactive matter of plants. The results of these investigations have demonstrated a positive influence on the production results. A large number of data indicate that plant extracts added to animal feed contribute to increasing overall productivity. Furthermore, plant extracts as additives in animal feed have a positive effect also on the health condition of the animals. A large number of plants have characteristics which potentially improve consumption, digestibility and conversion of food, and also growth. Examinations have been performed of the effects of different plant extracts on food consumption, wool growth, growth and composition of the trunk, milk production, reproductive parameters, agents for wool shearing, preventing bloat, methane production, as well as the influence of plants on curbing nematode infestations of ruminants. This work presents a review of scientific investigations of different plant species and their effects on the production characteristics of ruminants. .

  11. Quantitative Analysis of Plant Hormones, Auxins, in Biotechnologically Cultured Products of Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    HIDEYO, SUZUKI; CHUZO, SUGA; TEIJIRO, MORIMOTO; MASATOSHI, HARADA; National Institute Hygienic Sciences; Bioscience Research Laboratory, Mitsui Petrochemical Industries, Ltd.; Bioscience Research Laboratory, Mitsui Petrochemical Industries, Ltd.; National Institute Hygienic Sciences

    1991-01-01

    The biotechnologically cultured cells of Coptis plant and Lithospermum plant were analyzed for the residual levels of plant hormones, especially of auxins, 3-indoleacetic acid (IAA) and α-naphthylacetic acid (NAA). The procedures of clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a reversed-phase column were studied. 0.1 n sodium hydroxide extracts of samples were successively partitioned between water and ether. Two solvent mixtures of water-acetonitrile-glacial acetic acid ...

  12. Analysis of nitrosamines in water by automated SPE and isotope dilution GC/HRMS Occurrence in the different steps of a drinking water treatment plant, and in chlorinated samples from a reservoir and a sewage treatment plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, Carles; Palacios, Oscar; Ventura, Francesc; Rivera, Josep; Caixach, Josep

    2008-08-15

    A method based on automated solid-phase extraction (SPE) and isotope dilution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) has been developed for the analysis of nine nitrosamines in water samples. The combination of automated SPE and GC/HRMS for the analysis of nitrosamines has not been reported previously. The method shows as advantages the selectivity and sensitivity of GC/HRMS analysis and the high efficiency of automated SPE with coconut charcoal EPA 521 cartridges. Low method detection limits (MDLs) were achieved, along with a greater facility of the procedure and less dependence on the operator with regard to the methods based on manual SPE. Quality requirements for isotope dilution-based methods were accomplished for most analysed nitrosamines, regarding to trueness (80-120%), method precision (water samples (16 samples from a drinking water treatment plant {DWTP}, 2 chlorinated samples from a sewage treatment plant {STP} effluent, and 1 chlorinated sample from a reservoir) were analysed. Concentrations of nitrosamines in the STP effluent were 309.4 and 730.2 ng/L, being higher when higher doses of chlorine were applied. N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) were the main compounds identified in the STP effluent, and NDEA was detected above 200 ng/L, regulatory level for NDMA in effluents stated in Ontario (Canada). Lower concentrations of nitrosamines were found in the reservoir (20.3 ng/L) and in the DWTP samples (n.d. -28.6 ng/L). NDMA and NDEA were respectively found in the reservoir and in treated and highly chlorinated DWTP samples at concentrations above 10 ng/L (guide value established in different countries). The highest concentrations of nitrosamines were found after chlorination and ozonation processes (ozonated, treated and highly chlorinated water) in DWTP samples.

  13. Automation in Immunohematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Bajpai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process.

  14. Climate driven crop planting date in the ACME Land Model (ALM): Impacts on productivity and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewniak, B.

    2017-12-01

    Climate is one of the key drivers of crop suitability and productivity in a region. The influence of climate and weather on the growing season determine the amount of time crops spend in each growth phase, which in turn impacts productivity and, more importantly, yields. Planting date can have a strong influence on yields with earlier planting generally resulting in higher yields, a sensitivity that is also present in some crop models. Furthermore, planting date is already changing and may continue, especially if longer growing seasons caused by future climate change drive early (or late) planting decisions. Crop models need an accurate method to predict plant date to allow these models to: 1) capture changes in crop management to adapt to climate change, 2) accurately model the timing of crop phenology, and 3) improve crop simulated influences on carbon, nutrient, energy, and water cycles. Previous studies have used climate as a predictor for planting date. Climate as a plant date predictor has more advantages than fixed plant dates. For example, crop expansion and other changes in land use (e.g., due to changing temperature conditions), can be accommodated without additional model inputs. As such, a new methodology to implement a predictive planting date based on climate inputs is added to the Accelerated Climate Model for Energy (ACME) Land Model (ALM). The model considers two main sources of climate data important for planting: precipitation and temperature. This method expands the current temperature threshold planting trigger and improves the estimated plant date in ALM. Furthermore, the precipitation metric for planting, which synchronizes the crop growing season with the wettest months, allows tropical crops to be introduced to the model. This presentation will demonstrate how the improved model enhances the ability of ALM to capture planting date compared with observations. More importantly, the impact of changing the planting date and introducing tropical

  15. WORKING OF THE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF THE BARED SEEDS OF A COTTON IN THE CHEMICAL WAY AND PROCESS AUTOMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Mamedov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The technology of preparation of seeds of a cotton by an ogoleniye way with application of chemical reactants is developed and offered. The mechanized and automated development shop (factory type on new technology is created

  16. Commercial Plant Production and Consumption Still Follow the Latitudinal Gradient in Species Diversity despite Economic Globalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik J Nelson

    Full Text Available Increasing trade between countries and gains in income have given consumers around the world access to a richer and more diverse set of commercial plant products (i.e., foods and fibers produced by farmers. According to the economic theory of comparative advantage, countries open to trade will be able to consume more-in terms of volume and diversity-if they concentrate production on commodities that they can most cost-effectively produce, while importing goods that are expensive to produce, relative to other countries. Here, we perform a global analysis of traded commercial plant products and find little evidence that increasing globalization has incentivized agricultural specialization. Instead, a country's plant production and consumption patterns are still largely determined by local evolutionary legacies of plant diversification. Because tropical countries harbor a greater diversity of lineages across the tree of life than temperate countries, tropical countries produce and consume a greater diversity of plant products than do temperate countries. In contrast, the richer and more economically advanced temperate countries have the capacity to produce and consume more plant species than the generally poorer tropical countries, yet this collection of plant species is drawn from fewer branches on the tree of life. Why have countries not increasingly specialized in plant production despite the theoretical financial incentive to do so? Potential explanations include the persistence of domestic agricultural subsidies that distort production decisions, cultural preferences for diverse local food production, and that diverse food production protects rural households in developing countries from food price shocks. Less specialized production patterns will make crop systems more resilient to zonal climatic and social perturbations, but this may come at the expense of global crop production efficiency, an important step in making the transition to a

  17. Commercial Plant Production and Consumption Still Follow the Latitudinal Gradient in Species Diversity despite Economic Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik J.; Helmus, Matthew R.; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Polasky, Stephen; Lasky, Jesse R.; Zanne, Amy E.; Pearse, William D.; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Miteva, Daniela A.; Fagan, William F.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing trade between countries and gains in income have given consumers around the world access to a richer and more diverse set of commercial plant products (i.e., foods and fibers produced by farmers). According to the economic theory of comparative advantage, countries open to trade will be able to consume more–in terms of volume and diversity–if they concentrate production on commodities that they can most cost-effectively produce, while importing goods that are expensive to produce, relative to other countries. Here, we perform a global analysis of traded commercial plant products and find little evidence that increasing globalization has incentivized agricultural specialization. Instead, a country’s plant production and consumption patterns are still largely determined by local evolutionary legacies of plant diversification. Because tropical countries harbor a greater diversity of lineages across the tree of life than temperate countries, tropical countries produce and consume a greater diversity of plant products than do temperate countries. In contrast, the richer and more economically advanced temperate countries have the capacity to produce and consume more plant species than the generally poorer tropical countries, yet this collection of plant species is drawn from fewer branches on the tree of life. Why have countries not increasingly specialized in plant production despite the theoretical financial incentive to do so? Potential explanations include the persistence of domestic agricultural subsidies that distort production decisions, cultural preferences for diverse local food production, and that diverse food production protects rural households in developing countries from food price shocks. Less specialized production patterns will make crop systems more resilient to zonal climatic and social perturbations, but this may come at the expense of global crop production efficiency, an important step in making the transition to a hotter and more

  18. Commercial Plant Production and Consumption Still Follow the Latitudinal Gradient in Species Diversity despite Economic Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik J; Helmus, Matthew R; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine; Polasky, Stephen; Lasky, Jesse R; Zanne, Amy E; Pearse, William D; Kraft, Nathan J B; Miteva, Daniela A; Fagan, William F

    2016-01-01

    Increasing trade between countries and gains in income have given consumers around the world access to a richer and more diverse set of commercial plant products (i.e., foods and fibers produced by farmers). According to the economic theory of comparative advantage, countries open to trade will be able to consume more-in terms of volume and diversity-if they concentrate production on commodities that they can most cost-effectively produce, while importing goods that are expensive to produce, relative to other countries. Here, we perform a global analysis of traded commercial plant products and find little evidence that increasing globalization has incentivized agricultural specialization. Instead, a country's plant production and consumption patterns are still largely determined by local evolutionary legacies of plant diversification. Because tropical countries harbor a greater diversity of lineages across the tree of life than temperate countries, tropical countries produce and consume a greater diversity of plant products than do temperate countries. In contrast, the richer and more economically advanced temperate countries have the capacity to produce and consume more plant species than the generally poorer tropical countries, yet this collection of plant species is drawn from fewer branches on the tree of life. Why have countries not increasingly specialized in plant production despite the theoretical financial incentive to do so? Potential explanations include the persistence of domestic agricultural subsidies that distort production decisions, cultural preferences for diverse local food production, and that diverse food production protects rural households in developing countries from food price shocks. Less specialized production patterns will make crop systems more resilient to zonal climatic and social perturbations, but this may come at the expense of global crop production efficiency, an important step in making the transition to a hotter and more

  19. Management functions for a distributed system applied in power plants and substations automation; Funcoes de gerenciamento para um sistema distribuido aplicado na automacao de usinas e subestacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Rogerio Sergio Neves de

    1988-04-01

    This work presents the management functions for a distributed computer control system, which has been developed at Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica - CEPEL with the aim to automate hydroelectric power plants and extra high voltage power substations. The initial specifications developed are based on a architecture without redundancies which initially has the objective to get the effective knowledge of the system's behaviour. In the first part is given an introduction of dependability, with two aims: to present the basic concepts and terminology, and, to present a set of techniques in the area of computing systems fault tolerance. In control system is introduced, in terms of its architecture and functionality. The third part introduces the management activities for the distributed system are introduced together with a general model. Finally, the fault diagnosis in the distributed system is discussed, where is presented a new diagnosis algorithm. (author)

  20. RAPID-L Highly Automated Fast Reactor Concept Without Any Control Rods (1) Reactor concept and plant dynamics analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambe, Mitsuru; Tsunoda, Hirokazu; Mishima, Kaichiro; Iwamura, Takamichi

    2002-01-01

    The 200 kWe uranium-nitride fueled lithium cooled fast reactor concept 'RAPID-L' to achieve highly automated reactor operation has been demonstrated. RAPID-L is designed for Lunar base power system. It is one of the variants of RAPID (Refueling by All Pins Integrated Design), fast reactor concept, which enable quick and simplified refueling. The essential feature of RAPID concept is that the reactor core consists of an integrated fuel assembly instead of conventional fuel subassemblies. In this small size reactor core, 2700 fuel pins are integrated altogether and encased in a fuel cartridge. Refueling is conducted by replacing a fuel cartridge. The reactor can be operated without refueling for up to 10 years. Unique challenges in reactivity control systems design have been attempted in RAPID-L concept. The reactor has no control rod, but involves the following innovative reactivity control systems: Lithium Expansion Modules (LEM) for inherent reactivity feedback, Lithium Injection Modules (LIM) for inherent ultimate shutdown, and Lithium Release Modules (LRM) for automated reactor startup. All these systems adopt lithium-6 as a liquid poison instead of B 4 C rods. In combination with LEMs, LIMs and LRMs, RAPID-L can be operated without operator. This is the first reactor concept ever established in the world. This reactor concept is also applicable to the terrestrial fast reactors. In this paper, RAPID-L reactor concept and its transient characteristics are presented. (authors)

  1. Food production in developing countries - the role of plant biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    D. I. Ferreira

    1995-01-01

    The world is facing major problems with regard to food production. Agricultural land suffers from various conditions which make it less efficient for crop production while the rapid population growth, especially in developing countries, raises concern for sustainable food production. The Green Revolution has failed to secure sustainable food production and it is hoped that biotechnology will facilitate the transition to more sustainable agriculture. Excellent progress has been made with b...

  2. Food production in developing countries - the role of plant biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Ferreira

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing major problems with regard to food production. Agricultural land suffers from various conditions which make it less efficient for crop production while the rapid population growth, especially in developing countries, raises concern for sustainable food production. The Green Revolution has failed to secure sustainable food production and it is hoped that biotechnology will facilitate the transition to more sustainable agriculture. Excellent progress has been made with both Cell Biology (tissue culture and Molecular Biology (genetic engineering.

  3. Plant Secondary Metabolites in some Medicinal Plants of Mongolia Used for Enhancing Animal Health and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makkar, HPS.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels and activities of a number of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs are known to increase in response to increase in stress. The Mongolian plants considered to possess medicinal properties may contain novel compounds since they are exposed to severe conditions; such plants could become good candidates for modern drug discovery programmes. Information on distribution, palatability to livestock and opinion of local people on their nutritive and medicinal values was compiled for 15 plant materials from 14 plant species considered important for medicinal purposes. These plants were evaluated for nutritive value and PSMs: tannins, saponins, lectins, alkaloids and cyanogens. High levels of tannins were found in roots of Bergenia crassifolia and in leaves of B. crassifolia, Vaccinium vitisidaea and Rheum undulatum. High lectin activity (haemagglutination was present in B. crassifolia roots, and leaves of R. undulatum, Iris lacteal and Thymus gobicus contained weak lectin activity. Tanacetum vulgare, Serratula centauroids, Taraxacum officinale and Delphinum elatum leaves contained saponin activity (haemolysis. Alkaloids and cyanogens were not present in any of the samples. The paper discusses the known medicinal uses of these plants in light of the PSMs levels, and identifies plant samples for future applications in human and livestock health, welfare and safety.

  4. New Challenges for the Design of High Value Plant Products : Stabilization of Anthocyanins in Plant Vacuoles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passeri, V.; Koes, R.; Quattrocchio, F.M.

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade plant biotechnologists and breeders have made several attempt to improve the antioxidant content of plant-derived food. Most efforts concentrated on increasing the synthesis of antioxidants, in particular anthocyanins, by inducing the transcription of genes encoding the

  5. Automation, Performance and International Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Lene; Sørensen, Anders

    This paper presents new evidence on trade‐induced automation in manufacturing firms using unique data combining a retrospective survey that we have assembled with register data for 2005‐2010. In particular, we establish a causal effect where firms that have specialized in product types for which...... the Chinese exports to the world market has risen sharply invest more in automated capital compared to firms that have specialized in other product types. We also study the relationship between automation and firm performance and find that firms with high increases in scale and scope of automation have faster...... productivity growth than other firms. Moreover, automation improves the efficiency of all stages of the production process by reducing setup time, run time, and inspection time and increasing uptime and quantity produced per worker. The efficiency improvement varies by type of automation....

  6. Gas exchange rates, plant height, yield components, and productivity of upland rice as affected by plant regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Félix Alvarez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate gas exchange rates, plant height, yield components, and productivity of upland rice, as affected by type and application time of plant growth regulators. A randomized block design, in a 4x2 factorial arrangement, with four replicates was used. Treatments consisted of three growth regulators (mepiquat chloride, trinexapac-ethyl, and paclobutrazol, besides a control treatment applied at two different phenological stages: early tillering or panicle primordial differentiation. The experiment was performed under sprinkler-irrigated field conditions. Net CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, plant transpiration, and water-use efficiency were measured four times in Primavera upland rice cultivar, between booting and milky grain phenophases. Gas exchange rates were neither influenced by growth regulators nor by application time. There was, however, interaction between these factors on the other variables. Application of trinexapac-ethyl at both tillering and differentiation stages reduced plant height and negatively affected yield components and rice productivity. However, paclobutrazol and mepiquat chloride applied at tillering, reduced plant height without affecting rice yield. Mepiquat chloride acted as a growth stimulator when applied at the differentiation stage, and significantly increased plant height, panicle number, and grain yield of upland rice.

  7. The significance of mineralogical analysis of Witwatersrand plant products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, G.M.; Snegg, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    The ore processor must obtain knowledge of the mode of occurrence of the mineral or minerals he tries to recover in order to be able to improve the extraction process or to increase the grade of the residues. The mineralogist can supply this information, thereby 1) enabling the metallurgist to take steps to improve the efficiency of the plant, 2) enabling planning of a more efficient future plant for processing similar ores, or 3) assisting in the planning of metallurgical testwork. Examples of such investigations are 1) treatment of free gold in the recovery plant, 2) deportment of gold in residues, 3) recovery of gold from thucholite, and 4) quantitative determination of the deportment of uranium (or gold) in head and in residue samples

  8. Development of an optimization model for the location of biofuel production plants

    OpenAIRE

    Leduc, Sylvain

    2009-01-01

    First generation biofuels have not achieved the expected greenhouse gas emission savings and the production may in some cases compete with food production. Issued from non arable land and certified wood, the production of the second generation biofuels are more adapted to tackle those issues. Very large production plants are however required to reach competitive production costs via economy of scale effects. This may cause large logistical issues as the biomass feedstock often is located on t...

  9. Buzz in Paris: flower production and plant-pollinator interactions in plants from contrasted urban and rural origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desaegher, James; Nadot, Sophie; Dajoz, Isabelle; Colas, Bruno

    2017-12-01

    Urbanisation, associated with habitat fragmentation, affects pollinator communities and insect foraging behaviour. These biotic changes are likely to select for modified traits in insect-pollinated plants from urban populations compared to rural populations. To test this hypothesis, we conducted an experiment involving four plant species commonly found in both urban and rural landscapes of the Île-de-France region (France): Cymbalaria muralis, Geranium robertianum, Geum urbanum and Prunella vulgaris. The four species were grown in four urban and four rural experimental sites in 2015. For each species and each experimental site, plants were grown from seeds collected in five urban and five rural locations. During flowering, we observed flower production and insect-flower interactions during 14 weeks and tested for the effects of experimental site location and plant origin on flower production and on the number of floral visits. The study species had various flower morphology and hence were visited by different floral visitors. The effect of experimental sites and seed origin also varied among study species. We found that (1) insect visits on P. vulgaris were more frequent in rural than in urban sites; (2) for C. muralis, the slope relating the number of pollinator visits to the number of flowers per individual was steeper in urban versus rural sites, suggesting a greater benefit in allocating resources to flower production in urban conditions; (3) as a likely consequence, C. muralis tended to produce more flowers in plants from urban versus rural origin.

  10. UPVapor: Cofrentes nuclear power plant production results analysis software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curiel, M.; Palomo, M. J.; Baraza, A.; Vaquer, J.

    2010-10-01

    UPVapor software version 02 has been developed for the Cofrentes nuclear power plant Data Analysis Department (Spain). It is an analysis graphical environment in which users have available all the plant variables registered in the process computer system (SIEC). In order to perform this, UPVapor software has many advanced graphic tools for work simplicity, as well as a friendly environment easy to use and with many configuration possibilities. Plant variables are classified in the same way that they are in SIEC computer and these values are taken from it through the network of Iberdrola. UPVapor can generate two different types of graphics: evolution graphs and X Y graphs. The first ones analyse the evolution up to twenty plant variables in a user's defined time period and according to historic plant files. Many tools are available: cursors, graphic configuration, mobile means, non valid data visualization ... Moreover, a particular analysis configuration can be saved, as a pre selection, giving the possibility of charging pre selection directly and developing quick monitoring of a group of preselected plant variables. In X Y graphs, it is possible to analyse a variable value against another variable in a defined time. As an option, users can filter previous data depending on a variable certain range, with the possibility of programming up to five filters. As well as the other graph, X Y graph has many configurations, saving and printing options. With UPVapor software, data analysts can save a valuable time during daily work and, as it is of easy utilization, it permits to other users to perform their own analysis without ask the analysts to develop. Besides, it can be used from any work centre with access to network framework. (Author)

  11. UPVapor: Cofrentes nuclear power plant production results analysis software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curiel, M. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Palomo, M. J. [ISIRYM, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia (Spain); Baraza, A. [Iberdrola Generacion S. A., Central Nuclear Cofrentes, Carretera Almansa Requena s/n, 04662 Cofrentes, Valencia (Spain); Vaquer, J., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.co [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    UPVapor software version 02 has been developed for the Cofrentes nuclear power plant Data Analysis Department (Spain). It is an analysis graphical environment in which users have available all the plant variables registered in the process computer system (SIEC). In order to perform this, UPVapor software has many advanced graphic tools for work simplicity, as well as a friendly environment easy to use and with many configuration possibilities. Plant variables are classified in the same way that they are in SIEC computer and these values are taken from it through the network of Iberdrola. UPVapor can generate two different types of graphics: evolution graphs and X Y graphs. The first ones analyse the evolution up to twenty plant variables in a user's defined time period and according to historic plant files. Many tools are available: cursors, graphic configuration, mobile means, non valid data visualization ... Moreover, a particular analysis configuration can be saved, as a pre selection, giving the possibility of charging pre selection directly and developing quick monitoring of a group of preselected plant variables. In X Y graphs, it is possible to analyse a variable value against another variable in a defined time. As an option, users can filter previous data depending on a variable certain range, with the possibility of programming up to five filters. As well as the other graph, X Y graph has many configurations, saving and printing options. With UPVapor software, data analysts can save a valuable time during daily work and, as it is of easy utilization, it permits to other users to perform their own analysis without ask the analysts to develop. Besides, it can be used from any work centre with access to network framework. (Author)

  12. Nut production in response to thinning and fertilization for planted walnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix Ponder; Steve Rutledge; J.W. Van Sambeek

    2013-01-01

    Nut production from nursery-run black walnuts grown on 225 acres at the Hammons Products Company's Sho-Neff Black Walnut Farm in Stockton, MO, was evaluated from 1995 to 2010 to determine if nut production increased after thinning and fertilization in 2001. The farm consists of 11 upland and 10 bottomland plantings on sites ranging from unsuitable to well suited...

  13. Marketing automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TODOR Raluca Dania

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The automation of the marketing process seems to be nowadays, the only solution to face the major changes brought by the fast evolution of technology and the continuous increase in supply and demand. In order to achieve the desired marketing results, businessis have to employ digital marketing and communication services. These services are efficient and measurable thanks to the marketing technology used to track, score and implement each campaign. Due to the technical progress, the marketing fragmentation, demand for customized products and services on one side and the need to achieve constructive dialogue with the customers, immediate and flexible response and the necessity to measure the investments and the results on the other side, the classical marketing approached had changed continue to improve substantially.

  14. Automated Quality Control of in Situ Soil Moisture from the North American Soil Moisture Database Using NLDAS-2 Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, M. B.; Xia, Y.; Ford, T.; Wu, Y.; Quiring, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    The North American Soil Moisture Database (NASMD) was initiated in 2011 to provide support for developing climate forecasting tools, calibrating land surface models and validating satellite-derived soil moisture algorithms. The NASMD has collected data from over 30 soil moisture observation networks providing millions of in situ soil moisture observations in all 50 states as well as Canada and Mexico. It is recognized that the quality of measured soil moisture in NASMD is highly variable due to the diversity of climatological conditions, land cover, soil texture, and topographies of the stations and differences in measurement devices (e.g., sensors) and installation. It is also recognized that error, inaccuracy and imprecision in the data set can have significant impacts on practical operations and scientific studies. Therefore, developing an appropriate quality control procedure is essential to ensure the data is of the best quality. In this study, an automated quality control approach is developed using the North American Land Data Assimilation System phase 2 (NLDAS-2) Noah soil porosity, soil temperature, and fraction of liquid and total soil moisture to flag erroneous and/or spurious measurements. Overall results show that this approach is able to flag unreasonable values when the soil is partially frozen. A validation example using NLDAS-2 multiple model soil moisture products at the 20 cm soil layer showed that the quality control procedure had a significant positive impact in Alabama, North Carolina, and West Texas. It had a greater impact in colder regions, particularly during spring and autumn. Over 433 NASMD stations have been quality controlled using the methodology proposed in this study, and the algorithm will be implemented to control data quality from the other ~1,200 NASMD stations in the near future.

  15. Robust Production of Cytomegalovirus pp65-Specific T Cells Using a Fully Automated IFN-γ Cytokine Capture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nayoun; Nam, Young-Sun; Im, Keon-Il; Lim, Jung-Yeon; Jeon, Young-Woo; Song, Yunejin; Lee, Jong Wook; Cho, Seok-Goo

    2018-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus(CMV)-related diseases are a serious cause of morbidity and mortality following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). CMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CMV-CTLs) have been reported as an alternative to antiviral drugs that provide long-term CMV-specific immunity without major side effects. However, their application has been limited by the prolonged manufacturing process required. In this study, we applied the IFN-γ cytokine capture system (CCS) using the fully automated CliniMACS Prodigy device for rapid production of CMV-CTLs, which may be applicable in clinically urgent CMV-related diseases. Five validation runs were performed using apheresis samples from randomly selected CMV-seropositive healthy blood donors. Successive processes, including antigen stimulation, anti-IFN-γ labeling, magnetic enrichment and elution, were then performed automatically using the CliniMACS Prodigy, which took approximately 13 h. The original apheresis samples consisted mainly of CD45RA+ CD62L+ naïve T cells as well as 0.3% IFN-γ-secreting CD3+ T cells that showed a response to the CMV pp65 antigen (CD3+ IFN-γ+ cells). Following IFN-γ enrichment, the target fraction contained 51.3% CD3+ IFN-γ+ cells with a reduction in naïve T cells and selection of CD45RA- CD62L- and CD45RA+ CD62L- memory T cells. Furthermore, extended culture of these isolated cells revealed functional activity, including efficient proliferation, sustained antigen-specific IFN-γ secretion, and cytotoxicity against pp65-pulsed target cells. The findings reported here suggest that the IFN-γ CCS by the CliniMACS Prodigy is a simple and robust approach to produce CMV-CTLs, which may be applicable for the treatment of clinically urgent CMV-related diseases.

  16. Embedded system for building automation

    OpenAIRE

    Rolih, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    Home automation is a fast developing field of computer science and electronics. Companies are offering many different products for home automation. Ranging anywhere from complete systems for building management and control, to simple smart lights that can be connected to the internet. These products offer the user greater living comfort and lower their expenses by reducing the energy usage. This thesis shows the development of a simple home automation system that focuses mainly on the enhance...

  17. Design and control of integrated styrene aniline production plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Partenie, O.; Van der Last, V.; Sorin Bildea, C.; Altimari, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper illustrates the operational difficulties arising from simultaneously performing exothermic and endothermic reactions, and demonstrates that a plant can be built and safely operated by integrating the design and plantwide control issues. The behaviour of reactor – separation – recycle

  18. Improving planting pattern for intercropping in the whole production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... DR system provided larger unshaded area of land and higher light penetration. Considering the overall performance of ... Due to most economically important crops, most of which are heliophilous plants of which the .... This, together with variation in solar angle to the row position of treatment plots, resulted ...

  19. Natural products from resurrection plants : Potential for medical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gechev, Tsanko S; Hille, Jacques; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Benina, Maria; Mehterov, Nikolay; Toneva, Valentina; Fernie, Alisdair R; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Resurrection species are a group of land plants that can tolerate extreme desiccation of their vegetative tissues during harsh drought stress, and still quickly - often within hours - regain normal physiological and metabolic functions following rehydration. At the molecular level, this desiccation

  20. Evaluating Sustainability: Soap versus Biodiesel Production from Plant Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Nicola L. B.; Streff, Jennifer M.; Brokman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Herein we describe a series of experiments for the undergraduate organic laboratory curriculum in which various plant oils (soybean, rapeseed, and olive) are subjected to saponification and transesterification reactions to create a set of compounds that can function as soaps or as fuels. The experiments introduce students to and asks them to…