Sample records for automated parallel cultures

  1. Automating parallel implementation of neural learning algorithms. (United States)

    Rana, O F


    Neural learning algorithms generally involve a number of identical processing units, which are fully or partially connected, and involve an update function, such as a ramp, a sigmoid or a Gaussian function for instance. Some variations also exist, where units can be heterogeneous, or where an alternative update technique is employed, such as a pulse stream generator. Associated with connections are numerical values that must be adjusted using a learning rule, and and dictated by parameters that are learning rule specific, such as momentum, a learning rate, a temperature, amongst others. Usually, neural learning algorithms involve local updates, and a global interaction between units is often discouraged, except in instances where units are fully connected, or involve synchronous updates. In all of these instances, concurrency within a neural algorithm cannot be fully exploited without a suitable implementation strategy. A design scheme is described for translating a neural learning algorithm from inception to implementation on a parallel machine using PVM or MPI libraries, or onto programmable logic such as FPGAs. A designer must first describe the algorithm using a specialised Neural Language, from which a Petri net (PN) model is constructed automatically for verification, and building a performance model. The PN model can be used to study issues such as synchronisation points, resource sharing and concurrency within a learning rule. Specialised constructs are provided to enable a designer to express various aspects of a learning rule, such as the number and connectivity of neural nodes, the interconnection strategies, and information flows required by the learning algorithm. A scheduling and mapping strategy is then used to translate this PN model onto a multiprocessor template. We demonstrate our technique using a Kohonen and backpropagation learning rules, implemented on a loosely coupled workstation cluster, and a dedicated parallel machine, with PVM libraries.

  2. Toward an automated parallel computing environment for geosciences (United States)

    Zhang, Huai; Liu, Mian; Shi, Yaolin; Yuen, David A.; Yan, Zhenzhen; Liang, Guoping


    Software for geodynamic modeling has not kept up with the fast growing computing hardware and network resources. In the past decade supercomputing power has become available to most researchers in the form of affordable Beowulf clusters and other parallel computer platforms. However, to take full advantage of such computing power requires developing parallel algorithms and associated software, a task that is often too daunting for geoscience modelers whose main expertise is in geosciences. We introduce here an automated parallel computing environment built on open-source algorithms and libraries. Users interact with this computing environment by specifying the partial differential equations, solvers, and model-specific properties using an English-like modeling language in the input files. The system then automatically generates the finite element codes that can be run on distributed or shared memory parallel machines. This system is dynamic and flexible, allowing users to address different problems in geosciences. It is capable of providing web-based services, enabling users to generate source codes online. This unique feature will facilitate high-performance computing to be integrated with distributed data grids in the emerging cyber-infrastructures for geosciences. In this paper we discuss the principles of this automated modeling environment and provide examples to demonstrate its versatility.

  3. Combinatorial parallel synthesis and automated screening of a novel class of liquid crystalline materials. (United States)

    Deeg, Oliver; Kirsch, Peer; Pauluth, Detlef; Bäuerle, Peter


    Combinatorial parallel synthesis has led to the rapid generation of a single-compound library of novel fluorinated quaterphenyls. Subsequent automated screening revealed liquid crystalline (LC) behaviour and gave qualitative relationships of molecular structures and solid state properties.

  4. Automating the selection of standard parallels for conic map projections (United States)

    Šavriǒ, Bojan; Jenny, Bernhard


    Conic map projections are appropriate for mapping regions at medium and large scales with east-west extents at intermediate latitudes. Conic projections are appropriate for these cases because they show the mapped area with less distortion than other projections. In order to minimize the distortion of the mapped area, the two standard parallels of conic projections need to be selected carefully. Rules of thumb exist for placing the standard parallels based on the width-to-height ratio of the map. These rules of thumb are simple to apply, but do not result in maps with minimum distortion. There also exist more sophisticated methods that determine standard parallels such that distortion in the mapped area is minimized. These methods are computationally expensive and cannot be used for real-time web mapping and GIS applications where the projection is adjusted automatically to the displayed area. This article presents a polynomial model that quickly provides the standard parallels for the three most common conic map projections: the Albers equal-area, the Lambert conformal, and the equidistant conic projection. The model defines the standard parallels with polynomial expressions based on the spatial extent of the mapped area. The spatial extent is defined by the length of the mapped central meridian segment, the central latitude of the displayed area, and the width-to-height ratio of the map. The polynomial model was derived from 3825 maps-each with a different spatial extent and computationally determined standard parallels that minimize the mean scale distortion index. The resulting model is computationally simple and can be used for the automatic selection of the standard parallels of conic map projections in GIS software and web mapping applications.

  5. Automated parallel DNA sequencing on multiple channel microchips. (United States)

    Liu, S; Ren, H; Gao, Q; Roach, D J; Loder, R T; Armstrong, T M; Mao, Q; Blaga, I; Barker, D L; Jovanovich, S B


    We report automated DNA sequencing in 16-channel microchips. A microchip prefilled with sieving matrix is aligned on a heating plate affixed to a movable platform. Samples are loaded into sample reservoirs by using an eight-tip pipetting device, and the chip is docked with an array of electrodes in the focal plane of a four-color scanning detection system. Under computer control, high voltage is applied to the appropriate reservoirs in a programmed sequence that injects and separates the DNA samples. An integrated four-color confocal fluorescent detector automatically scans all 16 channels. The system routinely yields more than 450 bases in 15 min in all 16 channels. In the best case using an automated base-calling program, 543 bases have been called at an accuracy of >99%. Separations, including automated chip loading and sample injection, normally are completed in less than 18 min. The advantages of DNA sequencing on capillary electrophoresis chips include uniform signal intensity and tolerance of high DNA template concentration. To understand the fundamentals of these unique features we developed a theoretical treatment of cross-channel chip injection that we call the differential concentration effect. We present experimental evidence consistent with the predictions of the theory.

  6. A Parallel Genetic Algorithm for Automated Electronic Circuit Design (United States)

    Lohn, Jason D.; Colombano, Silvano P.; Haith, Gary L.; Stassinopoulos, Dimitris; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)


    We describe a parallel genetic algorithm (GA) that automatically generates circuit designs using evolutionary search. A circuit-construction programming language is introduced and we show how evolution can generate practical analog circuit designs. Our system allows circuit size (number of devices), circuit topology, and device values to be evolved. We present experimental results as applied to analog filter and amplifier design tasks.

  7. Efficient parallel Levenberg-Marquardt model fitting towards real-time automated parametric imaging microscopy. (United States)

    Zhu, Xiang; Zhang, Dianwen


    We present a fast, accurate and robust parallel Levenberg-Marquardt minimization optimizer, GPU-LMFit, which is implemented on graphics processing unit for high performance scalable parallel model fitting processing. GPU-LMFit can provide a dramatic speed-up in massive model fitting analyses to enable real-time automated pixel-wise parametric imaging microscopy. We demonstrate the performance of GPU-LMFit for the applications in superresolution localization microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy.

  8. Efficient Parallel Levenberg-Marquardt Model Fitting towards Real-Time Automated Parametric Imaging Microscopy


    Xiang Zhu; Dianwen Zhang


    We present a fast, accurate and robust parallel Levenberg-Marquardt minimization optimizer, GPU-LMFit, which is implemented on graphics processing unit for high performance scalable parallel model fitting processing. GPU-LMFit can provide a dramatic speed-up in massive model fitting analyses to enable real-time automated pixel-wise parametric imaging microscopy. We demonstrate the performance of GPU-LMFit for the applications in superresolution localization microscopy and fluorescence lifetim...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Based on the characteristics of parallel dispensers in automated picking system, an order-picking optimization problem is presented. Firstly, the working principle of parallel dispensers is introduced, which implies the time cost of picking each order is influenced by the order-picking sequence. So the order-picking optimization problem can be classified as a dynamic traveling salesman problem (TSP). Then a mathematical model of the problem is established and an improved max-min ant system (MMAS) is adopted to solve the model. The improvement includes two aspects. One is that the initial assignment of ants depends on a probabilistic formula instead of a random deployment; the other is that the heuristic factor is expressed by the extra picking time of each order instead of the total. At last, an actual simulation is made on an automated picking system with parallel dispensers. The simulation results proved the optimization value and the validity of improvement on MMAS.

  10. Automated cantilever exchange and optical alignment for High-throughput, parallel atomic force microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Bijnagte, Tom; Kramer, Lukas; Dekker, Bert; Herfst, Rodolf; Sadeghian, Hamed


    In atomic force microscopy (AFM), the exchange and alignment of the AFM cantilever with respect to the optical beam and position-sensitive detector (PSD) are often performed manually. This process is tedious and time-consuming and sometimes damages the cantilever or tip. To increase the throughput of AFM in industrial applications, the ability to automatically exchange and align the cantilever in a very short time with sufficient accuracy is required. In this paper, we present the development of an automated cantilever exchange and optical alignment instrument. We present an experimental proof of principle by exchanging various types of AFM cantilevers in 6 seconds with an accuracy better than 2 um. The exchange and alignment unit is miniaturized to allow for integration in a parallel AFM. The reliability of the demonstrator has also been evaluated. Ten thousand continuous exchange and alignment cycles were performed without failure. The automated exchange and alignment of the AFM cantilever overcome a large ...

  11. SequenceL: Automated Parallel Algorithms Derived from CSP-NT Computational Laws (United States)

    Cooke, Daniel; Rushton, Nelson


    With the introduction of new parallel architectures like the cell and multicore chips from IBM, Intel, AMD, and ARM, as well as the petascale processing available for highend computing, a larger number of programmers will need to write parallel codes. Adding the parallel control structure to the sequence, selection, and iterative control constructs increases the complexity of code development, which often results in increased development costs and decreased reliability. SequenceL is a high-level programming language that is, a programming language that is closer to a human s way of thinking than to a machine s. Historically, high-level languages have resulted in decreased development costs and increased reliability, at the expense of performance. In recent applications at JSC and in industry, SequenceL has demonstrated the usual advantages of high-level programming in terms of low cost and high reliability. SequenceL programs, however, have run at speeds typically comparable with, and in many cases faster than, their counterparts written in C and C++ when run on single-core processors. Moreover, SequenceL is able to generate parallel executables automatically for multicore hardware, gaining parallel speedups without any extra effort from the programmer beyond what is required to write the sequen tial/singlecore code. A SequenceL-to-C++ translator has been developed that automatically renders readable multithreaded C++ from a combination of a SequenceL program and sample data input. The SequenceL language is based on two fundamental computational laws, Consume-Simplify- Produce (CSP) and Normalize-Trans - pose (NT), which enable it to automate the creation of parallel algorithms from high-level code that has no annotations of parallelism whatsoever. In our anecdotal experience, SequenceL development has been in every case less costly than development of the same algorithm in sequential (that is, single-core, single process) C or C++, and an order of magnitude less

  12. Anthropology and cultural neuroscience: creating productive intersections in parallel fields. (United States)

    Brown, R A; Seligman, R


    Partly due to the failure of anthropology to productively engage the fields of psychology and neuroscience, investigations in cultural neuroscience have occurred largely without the active involvement of anthropologists or anthropological theory. Dramatic advances in the tools and findings of social neuroscience have emerged in parallel with significant advances in anthropology that connect social and political-economic processes with fine-grained descriptions of individual experience and behavior. We describe four domains of inquiry that follow from these recent developments, and provide suggestions for intersections between anthropological tools - such as social theory, ethnography, and quantitative modeling of cultural models - and cultural neuroscience. These domains are: the sociocultural construction of emotion, status and dominance, the embodiment of social information, and the dual social and biological nature of ritual. Anthropology can help locate unique or interesting populations and phenomena for cultural neuroscience research. Anthropological tools can also help "drill down" to investigate key socialization processes accountable for cross-group differences. Furthermore, anthropological research points at meaningful underlying complexity in assumed relationships between social forces and biological outcomes. Finally, ethnographic knowledge of cultural content can aid with the development of ecologically relevant stimuli for use in experimental protocols.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkov Andrey Anatol'evich


    Full Text Available This article covers data transfer processes in the automated system of parallel design and construction. The authors consider the structure of reports used by contractors and clients when large-scale projects are implemented. All necessary items of information are grouped into three levels, and each level is described by certain attributes. The authors drive a lot of attention to the integrated operational schedule as it is the main tool of project management. Some recommendations concerning the forms and the content of reports are presented. Integrated automation of all operations is a necessary condition for the successful implementation of the new concept. The technical aspect of the notion of parallel design and construction also includes the client-to-server infrastructure that brings together all process implemented by the parties involved into projects. This approach should be taken into consideration in the course of review of existing codes and standards to eliminate any inconsistency between the construction legislation and the practical experience of engineers involved into the process.

  14. Rapid, automated, parallel quantitative immunoassays using highly integrated microfluidics and AlphaLISA (United States)

    TakYu, Zeta; Guan, Huijiao; Ki Cheung, Mei; McHugh, Walker M.; Cornell, Timothy T.; Shanley, Thomas P.; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Fu, Jianping


    Immunoassays represent one of the most popular analytical methods for detection and quantification of biomolecules. However, conventional immunoassays such as ELISA and flow cytometry, even though providing high sensitivity and specificity and multiplexing capability, can be labor-intensive and prone to human error, making them unsuitable for standardized clinical diagnoses. Using a commercialized no-wash, homogeneous immunoassay technology (‘AlphaLISA’) in conjunction with integrated microfluidics, herein we developed a microfluidic immunoassay chip capable of rapid, automated, parallel immunoassays of microliter quantities of samples. Operation of the microfluidic immunoassay chip entailed rapid mixing and conjugation of AlphaLISA components with target analytes before quantitative imaging for analyte detections in up to eight samples simultaneously. Aspects such as fluid handling and operation, surface passivation, imaging uniformity, and detection sensitivity of the microfluidic immunoassay chip using AlphaLISA were investigated. The microfluidic immunoassay chip could detect one target analyte simultaneously for up to eight samples in 45 min with a limit of detection down to 10 pg mL-1. The microfluidic immunoassay chip was further utilized for functional immunophenotyping to examine cytokine secretion from human immune cells stimulated ex vivo. Together, the microfluidic immunoassay chip provides a promising high-throughput, high-content platform for rapid, automated, parallel quantitative immunosensing applications.

  15. Digital microfluidics for automated hanging drop cell spheroid culture. (United States)

    Aijian, Andrew P; Garrell, Robin L


    Cell spheroids are multicellular aggregates, grown in vitro, that mimic the three-dimensional morphology of physiological tissues. Although there are numerous benefits to using spheroids in cell-based assays, the adoption of spheroids in routine biomedical research has been limited, in part, by the tedious workflow associated with spheroid formation and analysis. Here we describe a digital microfluidic platform that has been developed to automate liquid-handling protocols for the formation, maintenance, and analysis of multicellular spheroids in hanging drop culture. We show that droplets of liquid can be added to and extracted from through-holes, or "wells," and fabricated in the bottom plate of a digital microfluidic device, enabling the formation and assaying of hanging drops. Using this digital microfluidic platform, spheroids of mouse mesenchymal stem cells were formed and maintained in situ for 72 h, exhibiting good viability (>90%) and size uniformity (% coefficient of variation screen was performed on human colorectal adenocarcinoma spheroids to demonstrate the ability to recapitulate physiologically relevant phenomena such as insulin-induced drug resistance. With automatable and flexible liquid handling, and a wide range of in situ sample preparation and analysis capabilities, the digital microfluidic platform provides a viable tool for automating cell spheroid culture and analysis.

  16. Automated integration of genomic physical mapping data via parallel simulated annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slezak, T.


    The Human Genome Center at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is nearing closure on a high-resolution physical map of human chromosome 19. We have build automated tools to assemble 15,000 fingerprinted cosmid clones into 800 contigs with minimal spanning paths identified. These islands are being ordered, oriented, and spanned by a variety of other techniques including: Fluorescence Insitu Hybridization (FISH) at 3 levels of resolution, ECO restriction fragment mapping across all contigs, and a multitude of different hybridization and PCR techniques to link cosmid, YAC, AC, PAC, and Pl clones. The FISH data provide us with partial order and distance data as well as orientation. We made the observation that map builders need a much rougher presentation of data than do map readers; the former wish to see raw data since these can expose errors or interesting biology. We further noted that by ignoring our length and distance data we could simplify our problem into one that could be readily attacked with optimization techniques. The data integration problem could then be seen as an M x N ordering of our N cosmid clones which ``intersect`` M larger objects by defining ``intersection`` to mean either contig/map membership or hybridization results. Clearly, the goal of making an integrated map is now to rearrange the N cosmid clone ``columns`` such that the number of gaps on the object ``rows`` are minimized. Our FISH partially-ordered cosmid clones provide us with a set of constraints that cannot be violated by the rearrangement process. We solved the optimization problem via simulated annealing performed on a network of 40+ Unix machines in parallel, using a server/client model built on explicit socket calls. For current maps we can create a map in about 4 hours on the parallel net versus 4+ days on a single workstation. Our biologists are now using this software on a daily basis to guide their efforts toward final closure.

  17. Parallelization and High-Performance Computing Enables Automated Statistical Inference of Multi-scale Models. (United States)

    Jagiella, Nick; Rickert, Dennis; Theis, Fabian J; Hasenauer, Jan


    Mechanistic understanding of multi-scale biological processes, such as cell proliferation in a changing biological tissue, is readily facilitated by computational models. While tools exist to construct and simulate multi-scale models, the statistical inference of the unknown model parameters remains an open problem. Here, we present and benchmark a parallel approximate Bayesian computation sequential Monte Carlo (pABC SMC) algorithm, tailored for high-performance computing clusters. pABC SMC is fully automated and returns reliable parameter estimates and confidence intervals. By running the pABC SMC algorithm for ∼10(6) hr, we parameterize multi-scale models that accurately describe quantitative growth curves and histological data obtained in vivo from individual tumor spheroid growth in media droplets. The models capture the hybrid deterministic-stochastic behaviors of 10(5)-10(6) of cells growing in a 3D dynamically changing nutrient environment. The pABC SMC algorithm reliably converges to a consistent set of parameters. Our study demonstrates a proof of principle for robust, data-driven modeling of multi-scale biological systems and the feasibility of multi-scale model parameterization through statistical inference.

  18. An Extended Case Study Methoology for Investigating Influence of Cultural, Organizational, and Automation Factors on Human-Automation Trust (United States)

    Koltai, Kolina Sun; Ho, Nhut; Masequesmay, Gina; Niedober, David; Skoog, Mark; Johnson, Walter; Cacanindin, Artemio


    This paper discusses a case study that examined the influence of cultural, organizational and automation capability upon human trust in, and reliance on, automation. In particular, this paper focuses on the design and application of an extended case study methodology, and on the foundational lessons revealed by it. Experimental test pilots involved in the research and development of the US Air Forces newly developed Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System served as the context for this examination. An eclectic, multi-pronged approach was designed to conduct this case study, and proved effective in addressing the challenges associated with the cases politically sensitive and military environment. Key results indicate that the system design was in alignment with pilot culture and organizational mission, indicating the potential for appropriate trust development in operational pilots. These include the low-vulnerabilityhigh risk nature of the pilot profession, automation transparency and suspicion, system reputation, and the setup of and communications among organizations involved in the system development.

  19. Long-term maintenance of human induced pluripotent stem cells by automated cell culture system. (United States)

    Konagaya, Shuhei; Ando, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Toshiaki; Suemori, Hirofumi; Iwata, Hiroo


    Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, are regarded as new sources for cell replacement therapy. These cells can unlimitedly expand under undifferentiated conditions and be differentiated into multiple cell types. Automated culture systems enable the large-scale production of cells. In addition to reducing the time and effort of researchers, an automated culture system improves the reproducibility of cell cultures. In the present study, we newly designed a fully automated cell culture system for human iPS maintenance. Using an automated culture system, hiPS cells maintained their undifferentiated state for 60 days. Automatically prepared hiPS cells had a potency of differentiation into three germ layer cells including dopaminergic neurons and pancreatic cells.

  20. Combined Coupled-Cluster and Many-body Perturbation Theories: Automated Derivation and Parallel Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, So; Fan, Peng-Dong; Auer, Alexander A.; Nooijen, Marcel; Piecuch, Piotr


    Various approximations of combined coupled-cluster (CC) and many-body perturbation theories (MBPT) have been derived and implemented into parallel execution programs that take account of spin, spatial (real Abelian), and permutation symmetries within the spin-orbital formalisms for closed- and open-shell molecules. The models range from CCSD(T), CCSD[T], CCSD(2)T, CCSD(2)TQ, CCSDT(2)Q to the completely renormalized CCSD(T) and CCSD[T], where CCSD (CCSDT) is the CC with connected single and double (and triple) excitation operators and subscripted or parenthesized 2, T, and Q indicate the order of perturbation or the rank of connected excitation operators in the correction. The derivation and implementation have been semi-automated by the algebraic and symbolic manipulation program. The computer-synthesized subroutines generate the tensors with the highest rank in a block-wise manner so that they never need to be stored in their entirety, reusing the other pre-calculated intermediate tensors defined also prioritizing the memory optimization (subroutines for these are also computer synthesized). Consequently, the overall memory cost for the perturbation corrections of connected triple and quadruple excitation operators scales as O(n4) and O(n6), respectively (n is the number of orbitals). For systems with different multi-reference character in their wave functions, we found the order of accuracy is roughly CCSD < CR-CCSD(T) ? CCSD(2)T ? CCSD(T) < CCSD(2)TQ ? CCSDT < CCSDT(2)Q, whereas CR-CCSD(T) is effective for extreme cases of quasi-degeneracy (particularly for stretched single bonds) and the operation costs of CCSD(2)TQ and CCSDT(2)Q in the present implementations scale as rather steep O(n9). The perturbation correction part of the CCSD(T)/cc-pVDZ calculations for azulene exhibited a 45-fold speedup upon a 64-fold increase in the number of processors to 512 processors.

  1. Automated detection of structured coarse-grained parallelism in sequential legacy applications


    Edler Von Koch, Tobias Joseph Kastulus


    The efficient execution of sequential legacy applications on modern, parallel computer architectures is one of today’s most pressing problems. Automatic parallelization has been investigated as a potential solution for several decades but its success generally remains restricted to small niches of regular, array-based applications. This thesis investigates two techniques that have the potential to overcome these limitations. Beginning at the lowest level of abstraction, the ...

  2. Culture medium optimization for osmotolerant yeasts by use of a parallel fermenter system and rapid microbiological testing. (United States)

    Pfannebecker, Jens; Schiffer-Hetz, Claudia; Fröhlich, Jürgen; Becker, Barbara


    In the present study, a culture medium for qualitative detection of osmotolerant yeasts, named OM, was developed. For the development, culture media with different concentrations of glucose, fructose, potassium chloride and glycerin were analyzed in a Biolumix™ test incubator. Selectivity for osmotolerant yeasts was guaranteed by a water activity (aw)-value of 0.91. The best results regarding fast growth of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii (WH 1002) were achieved in a culture medium consisting of 45% glucose, 5% fructose and 0.5% yeast extract and in a medium with 30% glucose, 10% glycerin, 5% potassium chloride and 0.5% yeast extract. Substances to stimulate yeast fermentation rates were analyzed in a RAMOS(®) parallel fermenter system, enabling online measurement of the carbon dioxide transfer rate (CTR) in shaking flasks. Significant increases of the CTR was achieved by adding especially 0.1-0.2% ammonium salts ((NH4)2HPO4, (NH4)2SO4 or NH4NO3), 0.5% meat peptone and 1% malt extract. Detection times and the CTR of 23 food-borne yeast strains of the genera Zygosaccharomyces, Torulaspora, Schizosaccharomyces, Candida and Wickerhamomyces were analyzed in OM bouillon in comparison to the selective culture media YEG50, MYG50 and DG18 in the parallel fermenter system. The OM culture medium enabled the detection of 10(2)CFU/g within a time period of 2-3days, depending on the analyzed yeast species. Compared with YEG50 and MYG50 the detection times could be reduced. As an example, W. anomalus (WH 1021) was detected after 124h in YEG50, 95.5h in MYG50 and 55h in OM bouillon. Compared to YEG50 the maximum CO2 transfer rates for Z. rouxii (WH 1001), T. delbrueckii (DSM 70526), S. pombe (DSM 70576) and W. anomalus (WH 1016) increased by a factor ≥2.6. Furthermore, enrichment cultures of inoculated high-sugar products in OM culture medium were analyzed in the Biolumix™ system. The results proved that detection times of 3days for Z. rouxii and T. delbrueckii can be realized by

  3. "Parallel Leadership in an "Unparallel" World"--Cultural Constraints on the Transferability of Western Educational Leadership Theories across Cultures (United States)

    Goh, Jonathan Wee Pin


    With the global economy becoming more integrated, the issues of cross-cultural relevance and transferability of leadership theories and practices have become increasingly urgent. Drawing upon the concept of parallel leadership in schools proposed by Crowther, Kaagan, Ferguson, and Hann as an example, the purpose of this paper is to examine the…

  4. Development and automation of photobioreactors for microalgae intensive cultures for the use in industrial gas studies


    Debelius, Bibiana; Hernández, Cristina; Gurgel, H.; Bueno, Alicia; Ponce, Rocío; Ortega, Teodora; Gómez-Parra, Abelardo; Lubián, Luis M.; Forja, Jesús M.


    Although photobioreactors provide much more advantages over open cultivation systems, still more work has to be done in making them cost effective to set up and to operate than conventional pipe reactors and which give high algae yields. This study develops the design of two automation tubular photobioreactors of 550 L for intensive microalgae cultures.

  5. Parallelized system for biopolymer degradation studies through automated microresonator measurement in liquid flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casci Ceccacci, Andrea; Morelli, Lidia; Bosco, Filippo


    In this work we present a novel automated system which allows the study of enzymatic degradation of biopolymer films coated on micromechanical resonators. The system combines an optical readout based on Blu-Ray technology with a software-controlled scanning mechanism. Integrated with a microfluidic...... setup unit, the system allows high-throughput measurements of resonance frequency over microresonator arrays under controlled flow conditions. We here demonstrate the acquisition of statistical data on biopolymer films degradation under enzymatic reaction over a large sample of micromechanical...

  6. Rapid automated classification of anesthetic depth levels using GPU based parallelization of neural networks. (United States)

    Peker, Musa; Şen, Baha; Gürüler, Hüseyin


    The effect of anesthesia on the patient is referred to as depth of anesthesia. Rapid classification of appropriate depth level of anesthesia is a matter of great importance in surgical operations. Similarly, accelerating classification algorithms is important for the rapid solution of problems in the field of biomedical signal processing. However numerous, time-consuming mathematical operations are required when training and testing stages of the classification algorithms, especially in neural networks. In this study, to accelerate the process, parallel programming and computing platform (Nvidia CUDA) facilitates dramatic increases in computing performance by harnessing the power of the graphics processing unit (GPU) was utilized. The system was employed to detect anesthetic depth level on related electroencephalogram (EEG) data set. This dataset is rather complex and large. Moreover, the achieving more anesthetic levels with rapid response is critical in anesthesia. The proposed parallelization method yielded high accurate classification results in a faster time.

  7. Fully automated single-use stirred-tank bioreactors for parallel microbial cultivations. (United States)

    Kusterer, Andreas; Krause, Christian; Kaufmann, Klaus; Arnold, Matthias; Weuster-Botz, Dirk


    Single-use stirred tank bioreactors on a 10-mL scale operated in a magnetic-inductive bioreaction block for 48 bioreactors were equipped with individual stirrer-speed tracing, as well as individual DO- and pH-monitoring and control. A Hall-effect sensor system was integrated into the bioreaction block to measure individually the changes in magnetic field density caused by the rotating permanent magnets. A restart of the magnetic inductive drive was initiated automatically each time a Hall-effect sensor indicates one non-rotating gas-inducing stirrer. Individual DO and pH were monitored online by measuring the fluorescence decay time of two chemical sensors immobilized at the bottom of each single-use bioreactor. Parallel DO measurements were shown to be very reliable and independently from the fermentation media applied in this study for the cultivation of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The standard deviation of parallel pH measurements was pH 0.1 at pH 7.0 at the minimum and increased to a standard deviation of pH 0.2 at pH 6.0 or at pH 8.5 with the complex medium applied for fermentations with S. cerevisiae. Parallel pH-control was thus shown to be meaningful with a tolerance band around the pH set-point of +/- pH 0.2 if the set-point is pH 6.0 or lower.

  8. Automation of Molecular-Based Analyses: A Primer on Massively Parallel Sequencing (United States)

    Nguyen, Lan; Burnett, Leslie


    Recent advances in genetics have been enabled by new genetic sequencing techniques called massively parallel sequencing (MPS) or next-generation sequencing. Through the ability to sequence in parallel hundreds of thousands to millions of DNA fragments, the cost and time required for sequencing has dramatically decreased. There are a number of different MPS platforms currently available and being used in Australia. Although they differ in the underlying technology involved, their overall processes are very similar: DNA fragmentation, adaptor ligation, immobilisation, amplification, sequencing reaction and data analysis. MPS is being used in research, translational and increasingly now also in clinical settings. Common applications include sequencing of whole genomes, whole exomes or targeted genes for disease-causing gene discovery, genetic diagnosis and targeted cancer therapy. Even though the revolution that is occurring with MPS is exciting due to its increasing use, improving and emerging technologies and new applications, significant challenges still exist. Particularly challenging issues are the bioinformatics required for data analysis, interpretation of results and the ethical dilemma of ‘incidental findings’. PMID:25336762

  9. Effects of diluents on cell culture viability measured by automated cell counter (United States)

    Chen, Aaron; Leith, Matthew; Tu, Roger; Tahim, Gurpreet; Sudra, Anish; Bhargava, Swapnil


    Commercially available automated cell counters based on trypan blue dye-exclusion are widely used in industrial cell culture process development and manufacturing to increase throughput and eliminate inherent variability in subjective interpretation associated with manual hemocytometers. When using these cell counters, sample dilution is often necessary to stay within the assay measurement range; however, the effect of time and diluents on cell culture is not well understood. This report presents the adverse effect of phosphate buffered saline as a diluent on cell viability when used in combination with an automated cell counter. The reduced cell viability was attributed to shear stress introduced by the automated cell counter. Furthermore, length of time samples were incubated in phosphate buffered saline also contributed to the observed drop in cell viability. Finally, as erroneous viability measurements can severely impact process decisions and product quality, this report identifies several alternative diluents that can maintain cell culture viability over time in order to ensure accurate representation of cell culture conditions. PMID:28264018

  10. An Automated Parallel Image Registration Technique Based on the Correlation of Wavelet Features (United States)

    LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Campbell, William J.; Cromp, Robert F.; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)


    With the increasing importance of multiple platform/multiple remote sensing missions, fast and automatic integration of digital data from disparate sources has become critical to the success of these endeavors. Our work utilizes maxima of wavelet coefficients to form the basic features of a correlation-based automatic registration algorithm. Our wavelet-based registration algorithm is tested successfully with data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the Landsat/Thematic Mapper(TM), which differ by translation and/or rotation. By the choice of high-frequency wavelet features, this method is similar to an edge-based correlation method, but by exploiting the multi-resolution nature of a wavelet decomposition, our method achieves higher computational speeds for comparable accuracies. This algorithm has been implemented on a Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) massively parallel computer, the MasPar MP-2, as well as on the CrayT3D, the Cray T3E and a Beowulf cluster of Pentium workstations.

  11. Swab culture monitoring of automated endoscope reprocessors after high-level disinfection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lung-Sheng Lu; Keng-Liang Wu; Yi-Chun Chiu; Ming-Tzung Lin; Tsung-Hui Hu; King-Wah Chiu


    AIM:To conduct a bacterial culture study for monitoring decontamination of automated endoscope reprocessors (AERs) after high-level disinfection (HLD).METHODS:From February 2006 to January 2011,authors conducted randomized consecutive sampling each month for 7 AERs.Authors collected a total of 420 swab cultures,including 300 cultures from 5 gastroscope AERs,and 120 cultures from 2 colonoscope AERs.Swab cultures were obtained from the residual water from the AERs after a full reprocessing cycle.Samples were cultured to test for aerobic bacteria,anaerobic bacteria,and mycobacterium tuberculosis.RESULTS:The positive culture rate of the AERs was 2.0% (6/300) for gastroscope AERs and 0.8% (1/120)for colonoscope AERs.All the positive cultures,including 6 from gastroscope and 1 from colonoscope AERs,showed monofloral colonization.Of the gastroscope AER samples,50% (3/6) were colonized by aerobic bacterial and 50% (3/6) by fungal contaminations.CONCLUSION:A full reprocessing cycle of an AER with HLD is adequate for disinfection of the machine.Swab culture is a useful method for monitoring AER decontamination after each reprocessing cycle.Fungal contamination of AERs after reprocessing should also be kept in mind.

  12. Influence of Cultural, Organizational, and Automation Capability on Human Automation Trust: A Case Study of Auto-GCAS Experimental Test Pilots (United States)

    Koltai, Kolina; Ho, Nhut; Masequesmay, Gina; Niedober, David; Skoog, Mark; Cacanindin, Artemio; Johnson, Walter; Lyons, Joseph


    This paper discusses a case study that examined the influence of cultural, organizational and automation capability upon human trust in, and reliance on, automation. In particular, this paper focuses on the design and application of an extended case study methodology, and on the foundational lessons revealed by it. Experimental test pilots involved in the research and development of the US Air Force's newly developed Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System served as the context for this examination. An eclectic, multi-pronged approach was designed to conduct this case study, and proved effective in addressing the challenges associated with the case's politically sensitive and military environment. Key results indicate that the system design was in alignment with pilot culture and organizational mission, indicating the potential for appropriate trust development in operational pilots. These include the low-vulnerability/ high risk nature of the pilot profession, automation transparency and suspicion, system reputation, and the setup of and communications among organizations involved in the system development.

  13. Parallel expression of synaptophysin and evoked neurotransmitter release during development of cultured neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrhart-Bornstein, M; Treiman, M; Hansen, Gert Helge;


    and neurotransmitter release were measured in each of the culture types as a function of development for up to 8 days in vitro, using the same batch of cells for both sets of measurements to obtain optimal comparisons. The content and the distribution of synaptophysin in the developing cells were assessed...... by quantitative immunoblotting and light microscope immunocytochemistry, respectively. In both cell types, a close parallelism was found between the temporal pattern of development in synaptophysin expression and neurotransmitter release. This temporal pattern differed between the two types of neurons....... The cerebral cortex neurons showed a biphasic time course of increase in synaptophysin content, paralleled by a biphasic pattern of development in their ability to release [3H]GABA in response to depolarization by glutamate or elevated K+ concentrations. In contrast, a monophasic, approximately linear increase...

  14. Performance of Gram staining on blood cultures flagged negative by an automated blood culture system. (United States)

    Peretz, A; Isakovich, N; Pastukh, N; Koifman, A; Glyatman, T; Brodsky, D


    Blood is one of the most important specimens sent to a microbiology laboratory for culture. Most blood cultures are incubated for 5-7 days, except in cases where there is a suspicion of infection caused by microorganisms that proliferate slowly, or infections expressed by a small number of bacteria in the bloodstream. Therefore, at the end of incubation, misidentification of positive cultures and false-negative results are a real possibility. The aim of this work was to perform a confirmation by Gram staining of the lack of any microorganisms in blood cultures that were identified as negative by the BACTEC™ FX system at the end of incubation. All bottles defined as negative by the BACTEC FX system were Gram-stained using an automatic device and inoculated on solid growth media. In our work, 15 cultures that were defined as negative by the BACTEC FX system at the end of the incubation were found to contain microorganisms when Gram-stained. The main characteristic of most bacteria and fungi growing in the culture bottles that were defined as negative was slow growth. This finding raises a problematic issue concerning the need to perform Gram staining of all blood cultures, which could overload the routine laboratory work, especially laboratories serving large medical centers and receiving a large number of blood cultures.

  15. Automated Static Culture System Cell Module Mixing Protocol and Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis (United States)

    Kleis, Stanley J.; Truong, Tuan; Goodwin, Thomas J,


    This report is a documentation of a fluid dynamic analysis of the proposed Automated Static Culture System (ASCS) cell module mixing protocol. The report consists of a review of some basic fluid dynamics principles appropriate for the mixing of a patch of high oxygen content media into the surrounding media which is initially depleted of oxygen, followed by a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study of this process for the proposed protocol over a range of the governing parameters. The time histories of oxygen concentration distributions and mechanical shear levels generated are used to characterize the mixing process for different parameter values.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ö. Kıvılcım


    Full Text Available The preliminary phase in any architectural heritage project is to obtain metric measurements and documentation of the building and its individual elements. On the other hand, conventional measurement techniques require tremendous resources and lengthy project completion times for architectural surveys and 3D model production. Over the past two decades, the widespread use of laser scanning and digital photogrammetry have significantly altered the heritage documentation process. Furthermore, advances in these technologies have enabled robust data collection and reduced user workload for generating various levels of products, from single buildings to expansive cityscapes. More recently, the use of procedural modelling methods and BIM relevant applications for historic building documentation purposes has become an active area of research, however fully automated systems in cultural heritage documentation still remains open. In this paper, we present a semi-automated methodology, for 3D façade modelling of cultural heritage assets based on parametric and procedural modelling techniques and using airborne and terrestrial laser scanning data. We present the contribution of our methodology, which we implemented in an open source software environment using the example project of a 16th century early classical era Ottoman structure, Sinan the Architect’s Şehzade Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey.

  17. a Semi-Automated Point Cloud Processing Methodology for 3d Cultural Heritage Documentation (United States)

    Kıvılcım, C. Ö.; Duran, Z.


    The preliminary phase in any architectural heritage project is to obtain metric measurements and documentation of the building and its individual elements. On the other hand, conventional measurement techniques require tremendous resources and lengthy project completion times for architectural surveys and 3D model production. Over the past two decades, the widespread use of laser scanning and digital photogrammetry have significantly altered the heritage documentation process. Furthermore, advances in these technologies have enabled robust data collection and reduced user workload for generating various levels of products, from single buildings to expansive cityscapes. More recently, the use of procedural modelling methods and BIM relevant applications for historic building documentation purposes has become an active area of research, however fully automated systems in cultural heritage documentation still remains open. In this paper, we present a semi-automated methodology, for 3D façade modelling of cultural heritage assets based on parametric and procedural modelling techniques and using airborne and terrestrial laser scanning data. We present the contribution of our methodology, which we implemented in an open source software environment using the example project of a 16th century early classical era Ottoman structure, Sinan the Architect's Şehzade Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey.

  18. FY1995 study of low power LSI design automation software with parallel processing; 1995 nendo heiretsu shori wo katsuyoshita shodenryoku LSI muke sekkei jidoka software no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The needs for low power LSIs have rapidly increased recently. For the low power LSI development, not only new circuit technologies but also new design automation tools supporting the new technologies are indispensable. The purpose of this project is to develop a new design automation software, which is able to design new digital LSIs with much lower power than that of conventional CMOS LSIs. A new design automation software for very low power LSIs has been developed targeting the pass-transistor logic SPL, a dedicated low power circuit technology. The software includes a logic synthesis function for pass-transistor-based macrocells and a macrocell placement function. Several new algorithms have been developed for the software, e.g. BDD construction. Some of them are designed and implemented for parallel processing in order to reduce the processing time. The logic synthesis function was tested on a set of benchmarks and finally applied to a low power CPU design. The designed 8-bit CPU was fully compatible with Zilog Z-80. The power dissipation of the CPU was compared with that of commercial CMOS Z-80. At most 82% of power of CMOS was reduced by the new CPU. On the other hand, parallel processing speed up was measured on the macrocell placement function. 34 folds speed up was realized. (NEDO)

  19. Evaluation of a Multi-Parameter Sensor for Automated, Continuous Cell Culture Monitoring in Bioreactors (United States)

    Pappas, D.; Jeevarajan, A.; Anderson, M. M.


    Compact and automated sensors are desired for assessing the health of cell cultures in biotechnology experiments in microgravity. Measurement of cell culture medium allows for the optirn.jzation of culture conditions on orbit to maximize cell growth and minimize unnecessary exchange of medium. While several discrete sensors exist to measure culture health, a multi-parameter sensor would simplify the experimental apparatus. One such sensor, the Paratrend 7, consists of three optical fibers for measuring pH, dissolved oxygen (p02), dissolved carbon dioxide (pC02) , and a thermocouple to measure temperature. The sensor bundle was designed for intra-arterial placement in clinical patients, and potentially can be used in NASA's Space Shuttle and International Space Station biotechnology program bioreactors. Methods: A Paratrend 7 sensor was placed at the outlet of a rotating-wall perfused vessel bioreactor system inoculated with BHK-21 (baby hamster kidney) cells. Cell culture medium (GTSF-2, composed of 40% minimum essential medium, 60% L-15 Leibovitz medium) was manually measured using a bench top blood gas analyzer (BGA, Ciba-Corning). Results: A Paratrend 7 sensor was used over a long-term (>120 day) cell culture experiment. The sensor was able to track changes in cell medium pH, p02, and pC02 due to the consumption of nutrients by the BHK-21. When compared to manually obtained BGA measurements, the sensor had good agreement for pH, p02, and pC02 with bias [and precision] of 0.02 [0.15], 1 mm Hg [18 mm Hg], and -4.0 mm Hg [8.0 mm Hg] respectively. The Paratrend oxygen sensor was recalibrated (offset) periodically due to drift. The bias for the raw (no offset or recalibration) oxygen measurements was 42 mm Hg [38 mm Hg]. The measured response (rise) time of the sensor was 20 +/- 4s for pH, 81 +/- 53s for pC02, 51 +/- 20s for p02. For long-term cell culture measurements, these response times are more than adequate. Based on these findings , the Paratrend sensor could

  20. Automated detection of soma location and morphology in neuronal network cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcin Ozcan

    Full Text Available Automated identification of the primary components of a neuron and extraction of its sub-cellular features are essential steps in many quantitative studies of neuronal networks. The focus of this paper is the development of an algorithm for the automated detection of the location and morphology of somas in confocal images of neuronal network cultures. This problem is motivated by applications in high-content screenings (HCS, where the extraction of multiple morphological features of neurons on large data sets is required. Existing algorithms are not very efficient when applied to the analysis of confocal image stacks of neuronal cultures. In addition to the usual difficulties associated with the processing of fluorescent images, these types of stacks contain a small number of images so that only a small number of pixels are available along the z-direction and it is challenging to apply conventional 3D filters. The algorithm we present in this paper applies a number of innovative ideas from the theory of directional multiscale representations and involves the following steps: (i image segmentation based on support vector machines with specially designed multiscale filters; (ii soma extraction and separation of contiguous somas, using a combination of level set method and directional multiscale filters. We also present an approach to extract the soma's surface morphology using the 3D shearlet transform. Extensive numerical experiments show that our algorithms are computationally efficient and highly accurate in segmenting the somas and separating contiguous ones. The algorithms presented in this paper will facilitate the development of a high-throughput quantitative platform for the study of neuronal networks for HCS applications.

  1. Identifying and Quantifying Cultural Factors That Matter to the IT Workforce: An Approach Based on Automated Content Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiedel, Theresa; Müller, Oliver; Debortoli, Stefan;


    builds on 112,610 online reviews of Fortune 500 IT companies collected from Glassdoor, an online platform on which current and former employees can anonymously review companies and their management. We perform an automated content analysis to identify cultural factors that employees emphasize...... of culture and the success of companies, the validity of this approach is often discussed and researchers call for new ways of studying culture. Therefore, our research goal is to present an alternative approach to culture analysis for examining which cultural factors matter to the IT workforce. Our study...... in their reviews. Through a regression analysis on numerical employee satisfaction ratings, we find that a culture of learning and performance orientation contributes to employee motivation, while a culture of assertiveness and gender inegalitarianism has a strong negative influence on employees’ satisfaction...

  2. A landscape lake flow pattern design approach based on automated CFD simulation and parallel multiple objective optimization. (United States)

    Guo, Hao; Tian, Yimei; Shen, Hailiang; Wang, Yi; Kang, Mengxin

    A design approach for determining the optimal flow pattern in a landscape lake is proposed based on FLUENT simulation, multiple objective optimization, and parallel computing. This paper formulates the design into a multi-objective optimization problem, with lake circulation effects and operation cost as two objectives, and solves the optimization problem with non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II. The lake flow pattern is modelled in FLUENT. The parallelization aims at multiple FLUENT instance runs, which is different from the FLUENT internal parallel solver. This approach: (1) proposes lake flow pattern metrics, i.e. weighted average water flow velocity, water volume percentage of low flow velocity, and variance of flow velocity, (2) defines user defined functions for boundary setting, objective and constraints calculation, and (3) parallels the execution of multiple FLUENT instances runs to significantly reduce the optimization wall-clock time. The proposed approach is demonstrated through a case study for Meijiang Lake in Tianjin, China.

  3. An engineered approach to stem cell culture: automating the decision process for real-time adaptive subculture of stem cells. (United States)

    Ker, Dai Fei Elmer; Weiss, Lee E; Junkers, Silvina N; Chen, Mei; Yin, Zhaozheng; Sandbothe, Michael F; Huh, Seung-il; Eom, Sungeun; Bise, Ryoma; Osuna-Highley, Elvira; Kanade, Takeo; Campbell, Phil G


    Current cell culture practices are dependent upon human operators and remain laborious and highly subjective, resulting in large variations and inconsistent outcomes, especially when using visual assessments of cell confluency to determine the appropriate time to subculture cells. Although efforts to automate cell culture with robotic systems are underway, the majority of such systems still require human intervention to determine when to subculture. Thus, it is necessary to accurately and objectively determine the appropriate time for cell passaging. Optimal stem cell culturing that maintains cell pluripotency while maximizing cell yields will be especially important for efficient, cost-effective stem cell-based therapies. Toward this goal we developed a real-time computer vision-based system that monitors the degree of cell confluency with a precision of 0.791±0.031 and recall of 0.559±0.043. The system consists of an automated phase-contrast time-lapse microscope and a server. Multiple dishes are sequentially imaged and the data is uploaded to the server that performs computer vision processing, predicts when cells will exceed a pre-defined threshold for optimal cell confluency, and provides a Web-based interface for remote cell culture monitoring. Human operators are also notified via text messaging and e-mail 4 hours prior to reaching this threshold and immediately upon reaching this threshold. This system was successfully used to direct the expansion of a paradigm stem cell population, C2C12 cells. Computer-directed and human-directed control subcultures required 3 serial cultures to achieve the theoretical target cell yield of 50 million C2C12 cells and showed no difference for myogenic and osteogenic differentiation. This automated vision-based system has potential as a tool toward adaptive real-time control of subculturing, cell culture optimization and quality assurance/quality control, and it could be integrated with current and developing robotic cell

  4. A novel automated bioreactor for scalable process optimisation of haematopoietic stem cell culture. (United States)

    Ratcliffe, E; Glen, K E; Workman, V L; Stacey, A J; Thomas, R J


    Proliferation and differentiation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from umbilical cord blood at large scale will potentially underpin production of a number of therapeutic cellular products in development, including erythrocytes and platelets. However, to achieve production processes that are scalable and optimised for cost and quality, scaled down development platforms that can define process parameter tolerances and consequent manufacturing controls are essential. We have demonstrated the potential of a new, automated, 24×15 mL replicate suspension bioreactor system, with online monitoring and control, to develop an HSC proliferation and differentiation process for erythroid committed cells (CD71(+), CD235a(+)). Cell proliferation was relatively robust to cell density and oxygen levels and reached up to 6 population doublings over 10 days. The maximum suspension culture density for a 48 h total media exchange protocol was established to be in the order of 10(7)cells/mL. This system will be valuable for the further HSC suspension culture cost reduction and optimisation necessary before the application of conventional stirred tank technology to scaled manufacture of HSC derived products.

  5. Cultural Heritage: An example of graphical documentation with automated photogrammetric systems (United States)

    Giuliano, M. G.


    In the field of Cultural Heritage, the use of automated photogrammetric systems, based on Structure from Motion techniques (SfM), is widely used, in particular for the study and for the documentation of the ancient ruins. This work has been carried out during the PhD cycle that was produced the "Carta Archeologica del territorio intorno al monte Massico". The study suggests the archeological documentation of the mausoleum "Torre del Ballerino" placed in the south-west area of Falciano del Massico, along the Via Appia. The graphic documentation has been achieved by using photogrammetric system (Image Based Modeling) and by the classical survey with total station, Nikon Nivo C. The data acquisition was carried out through digital camera Canon EOS 5D Mark II with Canon EF 17-40 mm f/4L USM @ 20 mm with images snapped in RAW and corrected in Adobe Lightroom. During the data processing, the camera calibration and orientation was carried out by the software Agisoft Photoscans and the final result has allowed to achieve a scaled 3D model of the monument, imported in software MeshLab for the different view. Three orthophotos in jpg format were extracted by the model, and then were imported in AutoCAD obtaining façade's surveys.

  6. Field measurement of acid gases and soluble anions in atmospheric particulate matter using a parallel plate wet denuder and an alternating filter-based automated analysis system. (United States)

    Boring, C Bradley; Al-Horr, Rida; Genfa, Zhang; Dasgupta, Pumendu K; Martin, Michael W; Smith, William F


    We present a new fully automated instrument for the measurement of acid gases and soluble anionic constituents of atmospheric particulate matter. The instrument operates in two independent parallel channels. In one channel, a wet denuder collects soluble acid gases; these are analyzed by anion chromatography (IC). In a second channel, a cyclone removes large particles and the aerosol stream is then processed by another wet denuder to remove potentially interfering gases. The particles are then collected by one of two glass fiber filters which are alternately sampled, washed, and dried. The washings are preconcentrated and analyzed by IC. Detection limits of low to subnanogram per cubic meter concentrations of most gaseous and particulate constituents can be readily attained. The instrument has been extensively field-tested; some field data are presented. Results of attempts to decipher the total anionic constitution of urban ambient aerosol by IC-MS analysis are also presented.

  7. An engineered approach to stem cell culture: automating the decision process for real-time adaptive subculture of stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Fei Elmer Ker

    Full Text Available Current cell culture practices are dependent upon human operators and remain laborious and highly subjective, resulting in large variations and inconsistent outcomes, especially when using visual assessments of cell confluency to determine the appropriate time to subculture cells. Although efforts to automate cell culture with robotic systems are underway, the majority of such systems still require human intervention to determine when to subculture. Thus, it is necessary to accurately and objectively determine the appropriate time for cell passaging. Optimal stem cell culturing that maintains cell pluripotency while maximizing cell yields will be especially important for efficient, cost-effective stem cell-based therapies. Toward this goal we developed a real-time computer vision-based system that monitors the degree of cell confluency with a precision of 0.791±0.031 and recall of 0.559±0.043. The system consists of an automated phase-contrast time-lapse microscope and a server. Multiple dishes are sequentially imaged and the data is uploaded to the server that performs computer vision processing, predicts when cells will exceed a pre-defined threshold for optimal cell confluency, and provides a Web-based interface for remote cell culture monitoring. Human operators are also notified via text messaging and e-mail 4 hours prior to reaching this threshold and immediately upon reaching this threshold. This system was successfully used to direct the expansion of a paradigm stem cell population, C2C12 cells. Computer-directed and human-directed control subcultures required 3 serial cultures to achieve the theoretical target cell yield of 50 million C2C12 cells and showed no difference for myogenic and osteogenic differentiation. This automated vision-based system has potential as a tool toward adaptive real-time control of subculturing, cell culture optimization and quality assurance/quality control, and it could be integrated with current and

  8. 3DMADMAC|AUTOMATED: synergistic hardware and software solution for automated 3D digitization of cultural heritage objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sitnik


    Full Text Available In this article a fully automated 3D shape measurement system and data processing algorithms are presented. Main purpose of this system is to automatically (without any user intervention and rapidly (at least ten times faster than manual measurement digitize whole object’s surface with some limitations to its properties: maximum measurement volume is described as a cylinder with 2,8m height and 0,6m radius, maximum object's weight is 2 tons.  Measurement head is automatically calibrated by the system for chosen working volume (from 120mm x 80mm x 60mm and ends up to 1,2m x 0,8m x 0,6m. Positioning of measurement head in relation to measured object is realized by computer-controlled manipulator. The system is equipped with two independent collision detection modules to prevent damaging measured object with moving sensor’s head. Measurement process is divided into three steps. First step is used for locating any part of object’s surface in assumed measurement volume. Second step is related to calculation of "next best view" position of measurement head on the base of existing 3D scans. Finally small holes in measured 3D surface are detected and measured. All 3D data processing (filtering, ICP based fitting and final views integration is performed automatically. Final 3D model is created on the base of user specified parameters like accuracy of surface representation and/or density of surface sampling. In the last section of the paper, exemplary measurement result of two objects: biscuit (from the collection of Museum Palace at Wilanów and Roman votive altar (Lower Moesia, II-III AD are presented.

  9. Automated method for the rapid and precise estimation of adherent cell culture characteristics from phase contrast microscopy images. (United States)

    Jaccard, Nicolas; Griffin, Lewis D; Keser, Ana; Macown, Rhys J; Super, Alexandre; Veraitch, Farlan S; Szita, Nicolas


    The quantitative determination of key adherent cell culture characteristics such as confluency, morphology, and cell density is necessary for the evaluation of experimental outcomes and to provide a suitable basis for the establishment of robust cell culture protocols. Automated processing of images acquired using phase contrast microscopy (PCM), an imaging modality widely used for the visual inspection of adherent cell cultures, could enable the non-invasive determination of these characteristics. We present an image-processing approach that accurately detects cellular objects in PCM images through a combination of local contrast thresholding and post hoc correction of halo artifacts. The method was thoroughly validated using a variety of cell lines, microscope models and imaging conditions, demonstrating consistently high segmentation performance in all cases and very short processing times (Source-code for MATLAB and ImageJ is freely available under a permissive open-source license.

  10. Evaluation of a Fully Automated Research Prototype for the Immediate Identification of Microorganisms from Positive Blood Cultures under Clinical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay M. Hyman


    Full Text Available A clinical laboratory evaluation of an intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy (IFS-based identification system paired to a BacT/Alert Virtuo microbial detection system (bioMéééérieux, Inc., Durham, NC was performed to assess the potential for fully automated identification of positive blood cultures. The prototype IFS system incorporates a novel method combining a simple microbial purification procedure with rapid in situ identification via spectroscopy. Results were available within 15 min of a bottle signaling positive and required no manual intervention. Among cultures positive for organisms contained within the database and producing acceptable spectra, 75 of 88 (85.2% and 79 of 88 (89.8% were correctly identified to the species and genus level, respectively. These results are similar to the performance of existing rapid methods.

  11. Repeated Stimulation of Cultured Networks of Rat Cortical Neurons Induces Parallel Memory Traces (United States)

    le Feber, Joost; Witteveen, Tim; van Veenendaal, Tamar M.; Dijkstra, Jelle


    During systems consolidation, memories are spontaneously replayed favoring information transfer from hippocampus to neocortex. However, at present no empirically supported mechanism to accomplish a transfer of memory from hippocampal to extra-hippocampal sites has been offered. We used cultured neuronal networks on multielectrode arrays and…

  12. Surveillance cultures of samples obtained from biopsy channels and automated endoscope reprocessors after high-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu King-Wah


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The instrument channels of gastrointestinal (GI endoscopes may be heavily contaminated with bacteria even after high-level disinfection (HLD. The British Society of Gastroenterology guidelines emphasize the benefits of manually brushing endoscope channels and using automated endoscope reprocessors (AERs for disinfecting endoscopes. In this study, we aimed to assess the effectiveness of decontamination using reprocessors after HLD by comparing the cultured samples obtained from biopsy channels (BCs of GI endoscopes and the internal surfaces of AERs. Methods We conducted a 5-year prospective study. Every month random consecutive sampling was carried out after a complete reprocessing cycle; 420 rinse and swabs samples were collected from BCs and internal surface of AERs, respectively. Of the 420 rinse samples collected from the BC of the GI endoscopes, 300 were obtained from the BCs of gastroscopes and 120 from BCs of colonoscopes. Samples were collected by flushing the BCs with sterile distilled water, and swabbing the residual water from the AERs after reprocessing. These samples were cultured to detect the presence of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and mycobacteria. Results The number of culture-positive samples obtained from BCs (13.6%, 57/420 was significantly higher than that obtained from AERs (1.7%, 7/420. In addition, the number of culture-positive samples obtained from the BCs of gastroscopes (10.7%, 32/300 and colonoscopes (20.8%, 25/120 were significantly higher than that obtained from AER reprocess to gastroscopes (2.0%, 6/300 and AER reprocess to colonoscopes (0.8%, 1/120. Conclusions Culturing rinse samples obtained from BCs provides a better indication of the effectiveness of the decontamination of GI endoscopes after HLD than culturing the swab samples obtained from the inner surfaces of AERs as the swab samples only indicate whether the AERs are free from microbial contamination or not.

  13. The performance of fully automated urine analysis results for predicting the need of urine culture test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Yüksel


    Full Text Available Objectives: Urinalysis and urine culture are most common tests for diagnosis of urinary tract infections. The aim of our study is to examine the diagnostic performance of urine analysis and the role of urine analysis to determine the requirements for urine culture. Methods: Urine culture and urine analysis results of 362 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Culture results were taken as a reference for chemical and microscopic examination of urine and diagnostic accuracy of the test parameters, that may be a marker for urinary tract infection, and the performance of urine analysis were calculated for predicting the urine culture requirements. Results: A total of 362 urine culture results of patients were evaluated and 67% of them were negative. The results of leukocyte esterase and nitrite in chemical analysis and leukocytes and bacteria in microscopic analysis were normal in 50.4% of culture negative urines. In diagnostic accuracy calculations, leukocyte esterase (86.1% and microscopy leukocytes (88.0% were found with high sensitivity, nitrite (95.4% and bacteria (86.6% were found with high specificity. The area under the curve was calculated as 0.852 in ROC analysis for microscopic examination for leukocytes. Conclusion: Full-automatic urine devices can provide sufficient diagnostic accuracy for urine analysis. The evaluation of urine analysis results in an effective way can predict the necessity for urine culture requests and especially may contribute to a reduction in the work load and cost. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 286-289

  14. Automated screening of blood cultures with the Malthus microbiological growth analyser. (United States)

    Brown, D F; Warner, M; Taylor, C E; Warren, R E


    A total of 3347 blood cultures from patients in all hospital wards were examined on a Malthus microbiological growth analyser and by a conventional system. There was no significant difference in the total numbers of positive cultures of clinical importance between the two systems (p greater than 0.05). Staphylococcus aureus, however, was isolated more often by the conventional method (p less than 0.05). Failure of the automatic detection routine limited the potential of the Malthus system for earlier detection of positive cultures. Daily visual examination of Malthus curves and subculture of bottles not promptly attached to the apparatus were necessary to avoid missing some positive cultures. False positive rates were 13% for the Malthus system and 2% for the conventional system. The contamination rate was considerably lower in the Malthus system (p less than 0.001). Further development would be necessary for the apparatus to be acceptable for routine screening of blood cultures.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Markiewicz


    Full Text Available At present, digital documentation recorded in the form of raster or vector files is the obligatory way of inventorying historical objects. The orthoimage is a cartometric form of photographic presentation of information in the two-dimensional reference system. The paper will discuss the issue of automation of the orthoimage generation basing on the TLS data and digital images. At present attempts are made to apply modern technologies not only for the needs of surveys, but also during the data processing. This paper will present attempts aiming at utilisation of appropriate algorithms and the author’s application for automatic generation of the projection plane, for the needs of acquisition of intensity orthoimages from the TLS data. Such planes are defined manually in the majority of popular TLS data processing applications. A separate issue related to the RGB image generation is the orientation of digital images in relation to scans. It is important, in particular in such cases when scans and photographs are not taken simultaneously. This paper will present experiments concerning the utilisation of the SIFT algorithm for automatic matching of intensity orthoimages of the intensity and digital (RGB photographs. Satisfactory results of the process of automation, as well as in relation to the quality of resulting orthoimages have been obtained.

  16. EST2uni: an open, parallel tool for automated EST analysis and database creation, with a data mining web interface and microarray expression data integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuez Fernando


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed sequence tag (EST collections are composed of a high number of single-pass, redundant, partial sequences, which need to be processed, clustered, and annotated to remove low-quality and vector regions, eliminate redundancy and sequencing errors, and provide biologically relevant information. In order to provide a suitable way of performing the different steps in the analysis of the ESTs, flexible computation pipelines adapted to the local needs of specific EST projects have to be developed. Furthermore, EST collections must be stored in highly structured relational databases available to researchers through user-friendly interfaces which allow efficient and complex data mining, thus offering maximum capabilities for their full exploitation. Results We have created EST2uni, an integrated, highly-configurable EST analysis pipeline and data mining software package that automates the pre-processing, clustering, annotation, database creation, and data mining of EST collections. The pipeline uses standard EST analysis tools and the software has a modular design to facilitate the addition of new analytical methods and their configuration. Currently implemented analyses include functional and structural annotation, SNP and microsatellite discovery, integration of previously known genetic marker data and gene expression results, and assistance in cDNA microarray design. It can be run in parallel in a PC cluster in order to reduce the time necessary for the analysis. It also creates a web site linked to the database, showing collection statistics, with complex query capabilities and tools for data mining and retrieval. Conclusion The software package presented here provides an efficient and complete bioinformatics tool for the management of EST collections which is very easy to adapt to the local needs of different EST projects. The code is freely available under the GPL license and can be obtained at http

  17. The Use of Two Culturing Methods in Parallel Reveals a High Prevalence and Diversity of Arcobacter spp. in a Wastewater Treatment Plant


    Arturo Levican; Luis Collado; Maria José Figueras


    The genus Arcobacter includes species considered emerging food and waterborne pathogens. Despite Arcobacter has been linked to the presence of faecal pollution, few studies have investigated its prevalence in wastewater, and the only isolated species were Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter cryaerophilus. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of Arcobacter spp. at a WWTP using in parallel two culturing methods (direct plating and culturing after enrichment) and a direct detection by m-P...

  18. Automated analysis of food-borne pathogens using a novel microbial cell culture, sensing and classification system. (United States)

    Xiang, Kun; Li, Yinglei; Ford, William; Land, Walker; Schaffer, J David; Congdon, Robert; Zhang, Jing; Sadik, Omowunmi


    We hereby report the design and implementation of an Autonomous Microbial Cell Culture and Classification (AMC(3)) system for rapid detection of food pathogens. Traditional food testing methods require multistep procedures and long incubation period, and are thus prone to human error. AMC(3) introduces a "one click approach" to the detection and classification of pathogenic bacteria. Once the cultured materials are prepared, all operations are automatic. AMC(3) is an integrated sensor array platform in a microbial fuel cell system composed of a multi-potentiostat, an automated data collection system (Python program, Yocto Maxi-coupler electromechanical relay module) and a powerful classification program. The classification scheme consists of Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN), Support Vector Machines (SVM) and General Regression Neural Network (GRNN) oracle-based system. Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) is performed on standard samples or unknown samples. Then, using preset feature extractions and quality control, accepted data are analyzed by the intelligent classification system. In a typical use, thirty-two extracted features were analyzed to correctly classify the following pathogens: Escherichia coli ATCC#25922, Escherichia coli ATCC#11775, and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC#12228. 85.4% accuracy range was recorded for unknown samples, and within a shorter time period than the industry standard of 24 hours.

  19. High-Throughput, Automated Protein A Purification Platform with Multiattribute LC-MS Analysis for Advanced Cell Culture Process Monitoring. (United States)

    Dong, Jia; Migliore, Nicole; Mehrman, Steven J; Cunningham, John; Lewis, Michael J; Hu, Ping


    The levels of many product related variants observed during the production of monoclonal antibodies are dependent on control of the manufacturing process, especially the cell culture process. However, it is difficult to characterize samples pulled from the bioreactor due to the low levels of product during the early stages of the process and the high levels of interfering reagents. Furthermore, analytical results are often not available for several days, which slows the process development cycle and prevents "real time" adjustments to the manufacturing process. To reduce the delay and enhance our ability to achieve quality targets, we have developed a low-volume, high-throughput, and high-content analytical platform for at-line product quality analysis. This workflow includes an automated, 96-well plate protein A purification step to isolate antibody product from the cell culture fermentation broth, followed by rapid, multiattribute LC-MS analysis. We have demonstrated quantitative correlations between particular process parameters with the levels of glycosylated and glycated species in a series of small scale experiments, but the platform could be used to monitor other attributes and applied across the biopharmaceutical industry.

  20. Evaluation of the Paratrend Multi-Analyte Sensor for Potential Utilization in Long-Duration Automated Cell Culture Monitoring (United States)

    Hwang, Emma Y.; Pappas, Dimitri; Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Anderson, Melody M.


    BACKGROUND: Compact and automated sensors are desired for assessing the health of cell cultures in biotechnology experiments. While several single-analyte sensors exist to measure culture health, a multi-analyte sensor would simplify the cell culture system. One such multi-analyte sensor, the Paratrend 7 manufactured by Diametrics Medical, consists of three optical fibers for measuring pH, dissolved carbon dioxide (pCO(2)), dissolved oxygen (pO(2)), and a thermocouple to measure temperature. The sensor bundle was designed for intra-vascular measurements in clinical settings, and can be used in bioreactors operated both on the ground and in NASA's Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) experiments. METHODS: A Paratrend 7 sensor was placed at the outlet of a bioreactor inoculated with BHK-21 (baby hamster kidney) cells. The pH, pCO(2), pO(2), and temperature data were transferred continuously to an external computer. Cell culture medium, manually extracted from the bioreactor through a sampling port, was also assayed using a bench top blood gas analyzer (BGA). RESULTS: Two Paratrend 7 sensors were used over a single cell culture experiment (64 days). When compared to the manually obtained BGA samples, the sensor had good agreement for pH, pCO(2), and pO(2) with bias (and precision) 0.005(0.024), 8.0 mmHg (4.4 mmHg), and 11 mmHg (17 mmHg), respectively for the first two sensors. A third Paratrend sensor (operated for 141 days) had similar agreement (0.02+/-0.15 for pH, -4+/-8 mm Hg for pCO(2), and 24+/-18 mmHg for pO(2)). CONCLUSION: The resulting biases and precisions are com- parable to Paratrend sensor clinical results. Although the pO(2) differences may be acceptable for clinically relevant measurement ranges, the O(2) sensor in this bundle may not be reliable enough for the ranges of pO(2) in these cell culture studies without periodic calibration.

  1. An automated blood culture system: the detection of anaerobic bacteria using a Malthus Microbiological Growth Analyser. (United States)

    McMaster, J P; Barr, J G; Campbell, R R; Bennett, R B; Smyth, E T


    The Malthus Microbiological Growth Analyser has proved to be sensitive in detecting conductivity changes due to anaerobic metabolism in a number of widely used blood culture media. Freshly prepared cooked meat media and Thiol medium yielded the greatest gross conductivity changes, and were more sensitive of anaerobic metabolism than other media. Failure of the instrument to detect anaerobic metabolism was a problem particularly associated with growth in the thioglycollate medium. False positive detections of growth were attributed to a number of factors including electrode instability (6.0%) and bacterial contamination (8.75%).

  2. Automated Voxel Model from Point Clouds for Structural Analysis of Cultural Heritage (United States)

    Bitelli, G.; Castellazzi, G.; D'Altri, A. M.; De Miranda, S.; Lambertini, A.; Selvaggi, I.


    In the context of cultural heritage, an accurate and comprehensive digital survey of a historical building is today essential in order to measure its geometry in detail for documentation or restoration purposes, for supporting special studies regarding materials and constructive characteristics, and finally for structural analysis. Some proven geomatic techniques, such as photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning, are increasingly used to survey buildings with different complexity and dimensions; one typical product is in form of point clouds. We developed a semi-automatic procedure to convert point clouds, acquired from laserscan or digital photogrammetry, to a filled volume model of the whole structure. The filled volume model, in a voxel format, can be useful for further analysis and also for the generation of a Finite Element Model (FEM) of the surveyed building. In this paper a new approach is presented with the aim to decrease operator intervention in the workflow and obtain a better description of the structure. In order to achieve this result a voxel model with variable resolution is produced. Different parameters are compared and different steps of the procedure are tested and validated in the case study of the North tower of the San Felice sul Panaro Fortress, a monumental historical building located in San Felice sul Panaro (Modena, Italy) that was hit by an earthquake in 2012.

  3. Adaptação cultural e confiabilidade para o Brasil do Automated Telephone Disease Management: resultados preliminares Adaptación cultural y confiabilidad para el Brasil del Automated Telephone Disease Management: resultados preliminares Cultural adaptation and reliability for Brazil of the Automated Telephone Disease Management: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Balaminut


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Traduzir, adaptar culturalmente para o Brasil o ATDM Satisfaction Scales e avaliar a confiabilidade da versão adaptada em adultos brasileiros com DM. MÉTODOS: Estudo metodológico, cujo processo de adaptação cultural incluiu: tradução, comitê de juízes, retrotradução, análise semântica e pré-teste. Este estudo incluiu uma amostra de 39 adultos brasileiros com DM cadastrados em um programa educativo do interior paulista. RESULTADOS: A versão adaptada do instrumento mostrou boa aceitação com fácil compreensão dos itens pelos participantes, com confiabilidade variando entre 0,30 e 0,43. CONCLUSÃO: Após a análise das propriedades psicométricas e finalização do processo de validação no País, o instrumento poderá ser utilizado por pesquisadores brasileiros, possibilitando ser comparado com outras culturas.OBJETIVOS: Traducir, adaptar culturalmente para el Brasil el ATDM Satisfaction Scales y evaluar la confiabilidad de la versión adaptada en adultos brasileros con DM. MÉTODOS: Estudio metodológico, cuyo proceso de adaptación cultural incluyó: traducción, comité de jueces, retrotraducción, análisis semántica y pre-test.Este estudio incluyó una muestra de 39 adultos brasileros con DM registrados en un programa educativo del interior paulista. RESULTADOS: La versión adaptada del instrumento mostró buena aceptación con fácil comprensión de los items por los participantes, con confiabilidad variando entre 0,30 y 0,43. CONCLUSIÓN: Después del análisis de las propiedades psicométricas y finalización del proceso de validación en el País, el instrumento podrá ser utilizado por investigadores brasileros, posibilitando su comparación con otras culturas.OBJECTIVES: To translate, culturally adapt for Brazil the Automated Telephone Disease Management (ATDM Satisfaction Scales and evaluate the reliability of the adapted version in Brazilian adults with diabetes mellitus (DM. METHODS: A methodological

  4. LC–MS/MS based-comparative study of (S-nicotine metabolism by microorganisms, mushroom and plant cultures: Parallels to its mammalian metabolic fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira R. Khattab


    Full Text Available The metabolic fate of nicotine using the cell cultures of microorganisms, mushroom and plants was explored using LC–MS/MS analysis. The study demonstrated parallels to phase I mammalian metabolism of nicotine and reported that nicotine was biotransformed into its N-oxide by Streptomyces fradiae culture. Moreover, it was metabolized in Pleurotus ostreatus culture into nornicotine, norcotinine and β-nicotyrine; whereas, cotinine and its 3′-hydroxylated derivative were the identified nicotine metabolic products in Pimpinella anisum cell culture. However, the microbial culture of Agaricus bisporus bioconverted nicotine into one of its derived-carcinogenic nitrosamines which is “4-(methylnitrosamino-4-(3-pyridylbutanal”. Mushroom and plant cell cultures were thus proven to be competent to microbial cultures in bioconverting nicotine into many of its previously reported metabolites. Convincingly, the obtained results highlighted the prospect of utilizing other species which are intrinsically-endowed with unique biocatalytic systems, such as mushrooms and plants, in the drug metabolic studies.

  5. Automated vector selection of SIVQ and parallel computing integration MATLAB TM : Innovations supporting large-scale and high-throughput image analysis studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Cheng


    Full Text Available Introduction: Spatially invariant vector quantization (SIVQ is a texture and color-based image matching algorithm that queries the image space through the use of ring vectors. In prior studies, the selection of one or more optimal vectors for a particular feature of interest required a manual process, with the user initially stochastically selecting candidate vectors and subsequently testing them upon other regions of the image to verify the vector′s sensitivity and specificity properties (typically by reviewing a resultant heat map. In carrying out the prior efforts, the SIVQ algorithm was noted to exhibit highly scalable computational properties, where each region of analysis can take place independently of others, making a compelling case for the exploration of its deployment on high-throughput computing platforms, with the hypothesis that such an exercise will result in performance gains that scale linearly with increasing processor count. Methods: An automated process was developed for the selection of optimal ring vectors to serve as the predicate matching operator in defining histopathological features of interest. Briefly, candidate vectors were generated from every possible coordinate origin within a user-defined vector selection area (VSA and subsequently compared against user-identified positive and negative "ground truth" regions on the same image. Each vector from the VSA was assessed for its goodness-of-fit to both the positive and negative areas via the use of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC transfer function, with each assessment resulting in an associated area-under-the-curve (AUC figure of merit. Results: Use of the above-mentioned automated vector selection process was demonstrated in two cases of use: First, to identify malignant colonic epithelium, and second, to identify soft tissue sarcoma. For both examples, a very satisfactory optimized vector was identified, as defined by the AUC metric. Finally, as an

  6. The Use of Two Culturing Methods in Parallel Reveals a High Prevalence and Diversity of Arcobacter spp. in a Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Levican


    Full Text Available The genus Arcobacter includes species considered emerging food and waterborne pathogens. Despite Arcobacter has been linked to the presence of faecal pollution, few studies have investigated its prevalence in wastewater, and the only isolated species were Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter cryaerophilus. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of Arcobacter spp. at a WWTP using in parallel two culturing methods (direct plating and culturing after enrichment and a direct detection by m-PCR. In addition, the genetic diversity of the isolates was established using the ERIC-PCR genotyping method. Most of the wastewater samples (96.7% were positive for Arcobacter and a high genetic diversity was observed among the 651 investigated isolates that belonged to 424 different ERIC genotypes. However, only few strains persisted at different dates or sampling points. The use of direct plating in parallel with culturing after enrichment allowed recovering the species A. butzleri, A. cryaerophilus, Arcobacter thereius, Arcobacter defluvii, Arcobacter skirrowii, Arcobacter ellisii, Arcobacter cloacae, and Arcobacter nitrofigilis, most of them isolated for the first time from wastewater. The predominant species was A. butzleri, however, by direct plating predominated A. cryaerophilus. Therefore, the overall predominance of A. butzleri was a bias associated with the use of enrichment.

  7. The Use of Two Culturing Methods in Parallel Reveals a High Prevalence and Diversity of Arcobacter spp. in a Wastewater Treatment Plant (United States)


    The genus Arcobacter includes species considered emerging food and waterborne pathogens. Despite Arcobacter has been linked to the presence of faecal pollution, few studies have investigated its prevalence in wastewater, and the only isolated species were Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter cryaerophilus. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of Arcobacter spp. at a WWTP using in parallel two culturing methods (direct plating and culturing after enrichment) and a direct detection by m-PCR. In addition, the genetic diversity of the isolates was established using the ERIC-PCR genotyping method. Most of the wastewater samples (96.7%) were positive for Arcobacter and a high genetic diversity was observed among the 651 investigated isolates that belonged to 424 different ERIC genotypes. However, only few strains persisted at different dates or sampling points. The use of direct plating in parallel with culturing after enrichment allowed recovering the species A. butzleri, A. cryaerophilus, Arcobacter thereius, Arcobacter defluvii, Arcobacter skirrowii, Arcobacter ellisii, Arcobacter cloacae, and Arcobacter nitrofigilis, most of them isolated for the first time from wastewater. The predominant species was A. butzleri, however, by direct plating predominated A. cryaerophilus. Therefore, the overall predominance of A. butzleri was a bias associated with the use of enrichment. PMID:27981053

  8. Reductions in self-reported stress and anticipatory heart rate with the use of a semi-automated parallel parking system. (United States)

    Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; Coughlin, Joseph F


    Drivers' reactions to a semi-autonomous technology for assisted parallel parking system were evaluated in a field experiment. A sample of 42 drivers balanced by gender and across three age groups (20-29, 40-49, 60-69) were given a comprehensive briefing, saw the technology demonstrated, practiced parallel parking 3 times each with and without the assistive technology, and then were assessed on an additional 3 parking events each with and without the technology. Anticipatory stress, as measured by heart rate, was significantly lower when drivers approached a parking space knowing that they would be using the assistive technology as opposed to manually parking. Self-reported stress levels following assisted parks were also lower. Thus, both subjective and objective data support the position that the assistive technology reduced stress levels in drivers who were given detailed training. It was observed that drivers decreased their use of turn signals when using the semi-autonomous technology, raising a caution concerning unintended lapses in safe driving behaviors that may occur when assistive technologies are used.

  9. NGS-QCbox and Raspberry for Parallel, Automated and Rapid Quality Control Analysis of Large-Scale Next Generation Sequencing (Illumina Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan A V S K Katta

    Full Text Available Rapid popularity and adaptation of next generation sequencing (NGS approaches have generated huge volumes of data. High throughput platforms like Illumina HiSeq produce terabytes of raw data that requires quick processing. Quality control of the data is an important component prior to the downstream analyses. To address these issues, we have developed a quality control pipeline, NGS-QCbox that scales up to process hundreds or thousands of samples. Raspberry is an in-house tool, developed in C language utilizing HTSlib (v1.2.1 (, for computing read/base level statistics. It can be used as stand-alone application and can process both compressed and uncompressed FASTQ format files. NGS-QCbox integrates Raspberry with other open-source tools for alignment (Bowtie2, SNP calling (SAMtools and other utilities (bedtools towards analyzing raw NGS data at higher efficiency and in high-throughput manner. The pipeline implements batch processing of jobs using Bpipe ( in parallel and internally, a fine grained task parallelization utilizing OpenMP. It reports read and base statistics along with genome coverage and variants in a user friendly format. The pipeline developed presents a simple menu driven interface and can be used in either quick or complete mode. In addition, the pipeline in quick mode outperforms in speed against other similar existing QC pipeline/tools. The NGS-QCbox pipeline, Raspberry tool and associated scripts are made available at the URL and for rapid quality control analysis of large-scale next generation sequencing (Illumina data.

  10. NGS-QCbox and Raspberry for Parallel, Automated and Rapid Quality Control Analysis of Large-Scale Next Generation Sequencing (Illumina) Data (United States)

    Katta, Mohan A. V. S. K.; Khan, Aamir W.; Doddamani, Dadakhalandar; Thudi, Mahendar; Varshney, Rajeev K.


    Rapid popularity and adaptation of next generation sequencing (NGS) approaches have generated huge volumes of data. High throughput platforms like Illumina HiSeq produce terabytes of raw data that requires quick processing. Quality control of the data is an important component prior to the downstream analyses. To address these issues, we have developed a quality control pipeline, NGS-QCbox that scales up to process hundreds or thousands of samples. Raspberry is an in-house tool, developed in C language utilizing HTSlib (v1.2.1) (, for computing read/base level statistics. It can be used as stand-alone application and can process both compressed and uncompressed FASTQ format files. NGS-QCbox integrates Raspberry with other open-source tools for alignment (Bowtie2), SNP calling (SAMtools) and other utilities (bedtools) towards analyzing raw NGS data at higher efficiency and in high-throughput manner. The pipeline implements batch processing of jobs using Bpipe ( in parallel and internally, a fine grained task parallelization utilizing OpenMP. It reports read and base statistics along with genome coverage and variants in a user friendly format. The pipeline developed presents a simple menu driven interface and can be used in either quick or complete mode. In addition, the pipeline in quick mode outperforms in speed against other similar existing QC pipeline/tools. The NGS-QCbox pipeline, Raspberry tool and associated scripts are made available at the URL and for rapid quality control analysis of large-scale next generation sequencing (Illumina) data. PMID:26460497

  11. NGS-QCbox and Raspberry for Parallel, Automated and Rapid Quality Control Analysis of Large-Scale Next Generation Sequencing (Illumina) Data. (United States)

    Katta, Mohan A V S K; Khan, Aamir W; Doddamani, Dadakhalandar; Thudi, Mahendar; Varshney, Rajeev K


    Rapid popularity and adaptation of next generation sequencing (NGS) approaches have generated huge volumes of data. High throughput platforms like Illumina HiSeq produce terabytes of raw data that requires quick processing. Quality control of the data is an important component prior to the downstream analyses. To address these issues, we have developed a quality control pipeline, NGS-QCbox that scales up to process hundreds or thousands of samples. Raspberry is an in-house tool, developed in C language utilizing HTSlib (v1.2.1) (, for computing read/base level statistics. It can be used as stand-alone application and can process both compressed and uncompressed FASTQ format files. NGS-QCbox integrates Raspberry with other open-source tools for alignment (Bowtie2), SNP calling (SAMtools) and other utilities (bedtools) towards analyzing raw NGS data at higher efficiency and in high-throughput manner. The pipeline implements batch processing of jobs using Bpipe ( in parallel and internally, a fine grained task parallelization utilizing OpenMP. It reports read and base statistics along with genome coverage and variants in a user friendly format. The pipeline developed presents a simple menu driven interface and can be used in either quick or complete mode. In addition, the pipeline in quick mode outperforms in speed against other similar existing QC pipeline/tools. The NGS-QCbox pipeline, Raspberry tool and associated scripts are made available at the URL and for rapid quality control analysis of large-scale next generation sequencing (Illumina) data.

  12. 南朝骈文隶事及其深层文化意蕴%The Allusions in Parallel Prose in Southern Dynasties and Their Deep Cultural Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    作为南朝骈文形式方面的一大重要特征,隶事与对偶、辞藻、声律、句式等共同成就了骈文的形式之美。南朝骈文隶事不仅数量多,而且方式也非常灵活。齐梁以前,隶事总数相对较少,技巧也较为粗浅。齐梁以后,隶事数量大增,技巧也由粗浅走向精湛。南朝骈文隶事既可充实文章内容,提高艺术表现力,又可装饰文章形式,增强审美性,在骈文追求形式美的过程中起到至关重要的作用。南朝骈文隶事有其深层次的文化动因,除尊经崇古的心态使然外,还受重形式的文学审美取向与重博学的社会文化风气的影响。%As one of the main features in the form of parallel prose in Southern Dynasties,the allusions and antithesis,flow-ery languages,rhythm,sentence patterns altogether contributed to the form beauty of parallel prose.Large number of allusions and flexible manners existed in the articles.Prior to the Qi,Liang Dynasties,the total number of allusions was relatively small and the skill was rough.After the Qi,Liang Dynasties,the number of allusions largely increased and the skill also changed from the rough to the exquisite.The allusions in parallel prose in Southern Dynasties not only could enrich the content of the article, improve the expressive force,but also could beautify the article form,enhance the aesthetic effect.The allusions played an im-portant role in the process of pursuing for form beauty in parallel prose.There were deep cultural reasons in allusions in parallel prose in Southern Dynasties.In addition to worshiping Confucian academic and ancient things,there were much influence coming from the literary aesthetic orientation where attaching great importance to the form and the social and cultural atmos-phere where paying attention to the learned.

  13. Toward fully automated high performance computing drug discovery: a massively parallel virtual screening pipeline for docking and molecular mechanics/generalized Born surface area rescoring to improve enrichment. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohua; Wong, Sergio E; Lightstone, Felice C


    In this work we announce and evaluate a high throughput virtual screening pipeline for in-silico screening of virtual compound databases using high performance computing (HPC). Notable features of this pipeline are an automated receptor preparation scheme with unsupervised binding site identification. The pipeline includes receptor/target preparation, ligand preparation, VinaLC docking calculation, and molecular mechanics/generalized Born surface area (MM/GBSA) rescoring using the GB model by Onufriev and co-workers [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2007, 3, 156-169]. Furthermore, we leverage HPC resources to perform an unprecedented, comprehensive evaluation of MM/GBSA rescoring when applied to the DUD-E data set (Directory of Useful Decoys: Enhanced), in which we selected 38 protein targets and a total of ∼0.7 million actives and decoys. The computer wall time for virtual screening has been reduced drastically on HPC machines, which increases the feasibility of extremely large ligand database screening with more accurate methods. HPC resources allowed us to rescore 20 poses per compound and evaluate the optimal number of poses to rescore. We find that keeping 5-10 poses is a good compromise between accuracy and computational expense. Overall the results demonstrate that MM/GBSA rescoring has higher average receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under curve (AUC) values and consistently better early recovery of actives than Vina docking alone. Specifically, the enrichment performance is target-dependent. MM/GBSA rescoring significantly out performs Vina docking for the folate enzymes, kinases, and several other enzymes. The more accurate energy function and solvation terms of the MM/GBSA method allow MM/GBSA to achieve better enrichment, but the rescoring is still limited by the docking method to generate the poses with the correct binding modes.

  14. Systematic review automation technologies (United States)


    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

  15. Warehouse automation


    Pogačnik, Jure


    An automated high bay warehouse is commonly used for storing large number of material with a high throughput. In an automated warehouse pallet movements are mainly performed by a number of automated devices like conveyors systems, trolleys, and stacker cranes. From the introduction of the material to the automated warehouse system to its dispatch the system requires no operator input or intervention since all material movements are done automatically. This allows the automated warehouse to op...

  16. Automated detection of micro-organisms in blood cultures by means of the Malthus Microbiological Growth Analyser. (United States)

    Brown, D F; Warner, M; Taylor, C E; Warren, R E


    A prototype Malthus Microbiological Growth Analyser was compared with conventional methods for examining blood cultures in a trial of 651 cultures mostly from patients with haematological malignancy or undergoing haemodialysis or renal transplantation. Of 100 significantly positive cultures, organisms from 82 grew in the conventional aerobic (+ CO2) bottle, 78 in the conventional anaerobic bottle and 71 in the Malthus bottle. The differences were not statistically significant (p greater than 0.05). The Malthus system detected 83.6% of significantly positive cultures earlier than the comparable conventional bottles while 7.3% positive cultures were detected earlier by the conventional system. When use of the Malthus system was restricted to the hours of 09.00 to 17.30 daily 27.3% positive cultures were detected earlier by the Malthus system and 16.4% were detected earlier by the conventional system. One of the organisms which grew in the Malthus bottle, a contaminating Staphylococcus epidermidis, was not detected by the Malthus system. Instability of electrodes resulted in 26.9% false positive cultures with the prototype Malthus system. Contamination rates in both the Malthus and conventional anaerobic bottles were lower than in the aerobic bottles.

  17. Evaluation of an automated rapid diagnostic assay for detection of Gram-negative bacteria and their drug-resistance genes in positive blood cultures. (United States)

    Tojo, Masayoshi; Fujita, Takahiro; Ainoda, Yusuke; Nagamatsu, Maki; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Mezaki, Kazuhisa; Sakurai, Aki; Masui, Yoshinori; Yazaki, Hirohisa; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Totsuka, Kyoichi; Kirikae, Teruo; Ohmagari, Norio


    We evaluated the performance of the Verigene Gram-Negative Blood Culture Nucleic Acid Test (BC-GN; Nanosphere, Northbrook, IL, USA), an automated multiplex assay for rapid identification of positive blood cultures caused by 9 Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and for detection of 9 genes associated with β-lactam resistance. The BC-GN assay can be performed directly from positive blood cultures with 5 minutes of hands-on and 2 hours of run time per sample. A total of 397 GNB positive blood cultures were analyzed using the BC-GN assay. Of the 397 samples, 295 were simulated samples prepared by inoculating GNB into blood culture bottles, and the remaining were clinical samples from 102 patients with positive blood cultures. Aliquots of the positive blood cultures were tested by the BC-GN assay. The results of bacterial identification between the BC-GN assay and standard laboratory methods were as follows: Acinetobacter spp. (39 isolates for the BC-GN assay/39 for the standard methods), Citrobacter spp. (7/7), Escherichia coli (87/87), Klebsiella oxytoca (13/13), and Proteus spp. (11/11); Enterobacter spp. (29/30); Klebsiella pneumoniae (62/72); Pseudomonas aeruginosa (124/125); and Serratia marcescens (18/21); respectively. From the 102 clinical samples, 104 bacterial species were identified with the BC-GN assay, whereas 110 were identified with the standard methods. The BC-GN assay also detected all β-lactam resistance genes tested (233 genes), including 54 bla(CTX-M), 119 bla(IMP), 8 bla(KPC), 16 bla(NDM), 24 bla(OXA-23), 1 bla(OXA-24/40), 1 bla(OXA-48), 4 bla(OXA-58), and 6 blaVIM. The data shows that the BC-GN assay provides rapid detection of GNB and β-lactam resistance genes in positive blood cultures and has the potential to contributing to optimal patient management by earlier detection of major antimicrobial resistance genes.

  18. Culture expansion of adipose derived stromal cells. A closed automated Quantum Cell Expansion System compared with manual flask-based culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack-Sørensen, Mandana; Follin, Bjarke; Juhl, Morten


    BACKGROUND: Adipose derived stromal cells (ASCs) are a rich and convenient source of cells for clinical regenerative therapeutic approaches. However, applications of ASCs often require cell expansion to reach the needed dose. In this study, cultivation of ASCs from stromal vascular fraction (SVF......) over two passages in the automated and functionally closed Quantum Cell Expansion System (Quantum system) is compared with traditional manual cultivation. METHODS: Stromal vascular fraction was isolated from abdominal fat, suspended in α-MEM supplemented with 10% Fetal Bovine Serum and seeded......, and endotoxins, in addition to the assessment of cell counts, viability, immunophenotype, and differentiation potential. RESULTS: The viability of ASCs passage 0 (P0) and P1 was above 96%, regardless of cultivation in flasks or Quantum system. Expression of surface markers and differentiation potential...

  19. Microbial identification and automated antibiotic susceptibility testing directly from positive blood cultures using MALDI-TOF MS and VITEK 2. (United States)

    Wattal, C; Oberoi, J K


    The study addresses the utility of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation Time-Of-Flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) using VITEK MS and the VITEK 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) system for direct identification (ID) and timely AST from positive blood culture bottles using a lysis-filtration method (LFM). Between July and December 2014, a total of 140 non-duplicate mono-microbial blood cultures were processed. An aliquot of positive blood culture broth was incubated with lysis buffer before the bacteria were filtered and washed. Micro-organisms recovered from the filter were first identified using VITEK MS and its suspension was used for direct AST by VITEK 2 once the ID was known. Direct ID and AST results were compared with classical methods using solid growth. Out of the 140 bottles tested, VITEK MS resulted in 70.7 % correct identification to the genus and/ or species level. For the 103 bottles where identification was possible, there was agreement in 97 samples (94.17 %) with classical culture. Compared to the routine method, the direct AST resulted in category agreement in 860 (96.5 %) of 891 bacteria-antimicrobial agent combinations tested. The results of direct ID and AST were available 16.1 hours before those of the standard approach on average. The combined use of VITEK MS and VITEK 2 directly on samples from positive blood culture bottles using a LFM technique can result in rapid and reliable ID and AST results in blood stream infections to result in early institution of targeted treatment. The combination of LFM and AST using VITEK 2 was found to expedite AST more reliably.

  20. Accounting Automation




    Accounting Automation   Click Link Below To Buy:  Or Visit Accounting Automation” Please respond to the following: Imagine you are a consultant hired to convert a manual accounting system to an automated system. Suggest the key advantages and disadvantages of automating a manual accounting system. Identify the most important step in the conversion process. Provide a rationale for your response. ...

  1. Home Automation


    Ahmed, Zeeshan


    In this paper I briefly discuss the importance of home automation system. Going in to the details I briefly present a real time designed and implemented software and hardware oriented house automation research project, capable of automating house's electricity and providing a security system to detect the presence of unexpected behavior.

  2. A time-to-event pharmacodynamic model describing treatment response in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis using days to positivity in automated liquid mycobacterial culture. (United States)

    Chigutsa, Emmanuel; Patel, Kashyap; Denti, Paolo; Visser, Marianne; Maartens, Gary; Kirkpatrick, Carl M J; McIlleron, Helen; Karlsson, Mats O


    Days to positivity in automated liquid mycobacterial culture have been shown to correlate with mycobacterial load and have been proposed as a useful biomarker for treatment responses in tuberculosis. However, there is currently no quantitative method or model to analyze the change in days to positivity with time on treatment. The objectives of this study were to describe the decline in numbers of mycobacteria in sputum collected once weekly for 8 weeks from patients on treatment for tuberculosis using days to positivity in liquid culture. One hundred forty-four patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis were recruited from a tuberculosis clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. A nonlinear mixed-effects repeated-time-to-event modeling approach was used to analyze the time-to-positivity data. A biexponential model described the decline in the estimated number of bacteria in patients' sputum samples, while a logistic model with a lag time described the growth of the bacteria in liquid culture. At baseline, the estimated number of rapidly killed bacteria is typically 41 times higher than that of those that are killed slowly. The time to kill half of the rapidly killed bacteria was about 1.8 days, while it was 39 days for slowly killed bacteria. Patients with lung cavitation had higher bacterial loads than patients without lung cavitation. The model successfully described the increase in days to positivity as treatment progressed, differentiating between bacteria that are killed rapidly and those that are killed slowly. Our model can be used to analyze similar data from studies testing new drug regimens.

  3. Automated Cooperative Trajectories (United States)

    Hanson, Curt; Pahle, Joseph; Brown, Nelson


    This presentation is an overview of the Automated Cooperative Trajectories project. An introduction to the phenomena of wake vortices is given, along with a summary of past research into the possibility of extracting energy from the wake by flying close parallel trajectories. Challenges and barriers to adoption of civilian automatic wake surfing technology are identified. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is described that will support future research. Finally, a roadmap for future research and technology transition is proposed.

  4. Parallel algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, Henri; Robert, Yves


    ""…The authors of the present book, who have extensive credentials in both research and instruction in the area of parallelism, present a sound, principled treatment of parallel algorithms. … This book is very well written and extremely well designed from an instructional point of view. … The authors have created an instructive and fascinating text. The book will serve researchers as well as instructors who need a solid, readable text for a course on parallelism in computing. Indeed, for anyone who wants an understandable text from which to acquire a current, rigorous, and broad vi

  5. Parallel biocomputing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witte John S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advent of high throughput genomics and high-resolution imaging techniques, there is a growing necessity in biology and medicine for parallel computing, and with the low cost of computing, it is now cost-effective for even small labs or individuals to build their own personal computation cluster. Methods Here we briefly describe how to use commodity hardware to build a low-cost, high-performance compute cluster, and provide an in-depth example and sample code for parallel execution of R jobs using MOSIX, a mature extension of the Linux kernel for parallel computing. A similar process can be used with other cluster platform software. Results As a statistical genetics example, we use our cluster to run a simulated eQTL experiment. Because eQTL is computationally intensive, and is conceptually easy to parallelize, like many statistics/genetics applications, parallel execution with MOSIX gives a linear speedup in analysis time with little additional effort. Conclusions We have used MOSIX to run a wide variety of software programs in parallel with good results. The limitations and benefits of using MOSIX are discussed and compared to other platforms.

  6. 全自动血培养系统在外伤性眼内炎的临床应用%Clinical application of automated blood culture system in traumatic endophthalmitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任玉玲; 薛黎萍; 刘春林; 肖丽波


    Objective To evaluate the clinical application of BacT/ALERT 3D automated blood culture system in traumatic endophthalmitis.Methods A total of 113 vitreous specimens of traumatic endophthalmitis were collected by BacT/ALERT PF pediatric blood culture bottle,detected by BacT/ALERT 3D automated blood culture system and analysed by Vitek-2 compact.We evaluated the positive rate,time to show positive,the types of microorganisms.Results In a total of 113 cultured vitreous specimens,81 cases were positive.Positive rate was 71.7%.Grampositive microorganisms accounted for 62.9% of the positive culture results.Gramnegative microorganisms accounted for 34.6% and fungi accounted for 2.5%.The shortest time to show positive was 4h.Conclusion The automated blood culture system has been widely used in blood and body fluid culture.The application of the automated blood culture for endophthalmitis can raise the positive detection rate,reduce the detection time to show positive and increase the types of microorganisms detected.%目的 评价全自动血培养系统( BacT/ALERT 3 D)在外伤性眼内炎的临床应用.方法 外伤性眼内炎113例(113眼)的玻璃体液进行病原菌培养,用中和抗生素儿童培养瓶( BacT/A-LERT PF)采集标本,全自动血培养系统进行病原菌培养,Vitek-2 compact进行菌种鉴定和药敏试验,对检出阳性者,分析阳性率和病原菌种类.结果 113份玻璃体液标本检出病原微生物81例,阳性率为71.7%,其中革兰阳性细菌占62.9%,革兰阴性细菌占34.6%,真菌占2.5%.最快检出时间为4h.结论 全自动血培养系统应用于外伤性眼内炎提高了玻璃体液病原菌培养的阳性率,缩短阳性检出时间,检出病原菌种类多,结果准确.

  7. Library Automation


    Dhakne, B. N.; Giri, V. V.; Waghmode, S. S.


    New technologies library provides several new materials, media and mode of storing and communicating the information. Library Automation reduces the drudgery of repeated manual efforts in library routine. By use of library automation collection, Storage, Administration, Processing, Preservation and communication etc.

  8. Automated Solar-Array Assembly (United States)

    Soffa, A.; Bycer, M.


    Large arrays are rapidly assembled from individual solar cells by automated production line developed for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Apparatus positions cells within array, attaches interconnection tabs, applies solder flux, and solders interconnections. Cells are placed in either straight or staggered configurations and may be connected either in series or in parallel. Are attached at rate of one every 5 seconds.

  9. Automation or De-automation (United States)

    Gorlach, Igor; Wessel, Oliver


    In the global automotive industry, for decades, vehicle manufacturers have continually increased the level of automation of production systems in order to be competitive. However, there is a new trend to decrease the level of automation, especially in final car assembly, for reasons of economy and flexibility. In this research, the final car assembly lines at three production sites of Volkswagen are analysed in order to determine the best level of automation for each, in terms of manufacturing costs, productivity, quality and flexibility. The case study is based on the methodology proposed by the Fraunhofer Institute. The results of the analysis indicate that fully automated assembly systems are not necessarily the best option in terms of cost, productivity and quality combined, which is attributed to high complexity of final car assembly systems; some de-automation is therefore recommended. On the other hand, the analysis shows that low automation can result in poor product quality due to reasons related to plant location, such as inadequate workers' skills, motivation, etc. Hence, the automation strategy should be formulated on the basis of analysis of all relevant aspects of the manufacturing process, such as costs, quality, productivity and flexibility in relation to the local context. A more balanced combination of automated and manual assembly operations provides better utilisation of equipment, reduces production costs and improves throughput.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A new algorithm for the stabilization of (possibly turbulent, chaotic) distributed systems, governed by linear or non linear systems of equations is presented. The SPA (Stabilization Parallel Algorithm) is based on a systematic parallel decomposition of the problem (related to arbitrarily overlapping decomposition of domains) and on a penalty argument. SPA is presented here for the case of linear parabolic equations: with distrjbuted or boundary control. It extends to practically all linear and non linear evolution equations, as it will be presented in several other publications.

  11. Investigating the feasibility of scale up and automation of human induced pluripotent stem cells cultured in aggregates in feeder free conditions. (United States)

    Soares, Filipa A C; Chandra, Amit; Thomas, Robert J; Pedersen, Roger A; Vallier, Ludovic; Williams, David J


    The transfer of a laboratory process into a manufacturing facility is one of the most critical steps required for the large scale production of cell-based therapy products. This study describes the first published protocol for scalable automated expansion of human induced pluripotent stem cell lines growing in aggregates in feeder-free and chemically defined medium. Cells were successfully transferred between different sites representative of research and manufacturing settings; and passaged manually and using the CompacT SelecT automation platform. Modified protocols were developed for the automated system and the management of cells aggregates (clumps) was identified as the critical step. Cellular morphology, pluripotency gene expression and differentiation into the three germ layers have been used compare the outcomes of manual and automated processes.

  12. Automated High Throughput Drug Target Crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupp, B


    The molecular structures of drug target proteins and receptors form the basis for 'rational' or structure guided drug design. The majority of target structures are experimentally determined by protein X-ray crystallography, which as evolved into a highly automated, high throughput drug discovery and screening tool. Process automation has accelerated tasks from parallel protein expression, fully automated crystallization, and rapid data collection to highly efficient structure determination methods. A thoroughly designed automation technology platform supported by a powerful informatics infrastructure forms the basis for optimal workflow implementation and the data mining and analysis tools to generate new leads from experimental protein drug target structures.

  13. An automated HIV-1 Env-pseudotyped virus production for global HIV vaccine trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Schultz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infections with HIV still represent a major human health problem worldwide and a vaccine is the only long-term option to fight efficiently against this virus. Standardized assessments of HIV-specific immune responses in vaccine trials are essential for prioritizing vaccine candidates in preclinical and clinical stages of development. With respect to neutralizing antibodies, assays with HIV-1 Env-pseudotyped viruses are a high priority. To cover the increasing demands of HIV pseudoviruses, a complete cell culture and transfection automation system has been developed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The automation system for HIV pseudovirus production comprises a modified Tecan-based Cellerity system. It covers an area of 5×3 meters and includes a robot platform, a cell counting machine, a CO(2 incubator for cell cultivation and a media refrigerator. The processes for cell handling, transfection and pseudovirus production have been implemented according to manual standard operating procedures and are controlled and scheduled autonomously by the system. The system is housed in a biosafety level II cabinet that guarantees protection of personnel, environment and the product. HIV pseudovirus stocks in a scale from 140 ml to 1000 ml have been produced on the automated system. Parallel manual production of HIV pseudoviruses and comparisons (bridging assays confirmed that the automated produced pseudoviruses were of equivalent quality as those produced manually. In addition, the automated method was fully validated according to Good Clinical Laboratory Practice (GCLP guidelines, including the validation parameters accuracy, precision, robustness and specificity. CONCLUSIONS: An automated HIV pseudovirus production system has been successfully established. It allows the high quality production of HIV pseudoviruses under GCLP conditions. In its present form, the installed module enables the production of 1000 ml of virus-containing cell

  14. Parallel R

    CERN Document Server

    McCallum, Ethan


    It's tough to argue with R as a high-quality, cross-platform, open source statistical software product-unless you're in the business of crunching Big Data. This concise book introduces you to several strategies for using R to analyze large datasets. You'll learn the basics of Snow, Multicore, Parallel, and some Hadoop-related tools, including how to find them, how to use them, when they work well, and when they don't. With these packages, you can overcome R's single-threaded nature by spreading work across multiple CPUs, or offloading work to multiple machines to address R's memory barrier.

  15. Parallel Programming Environment for OpenMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insung Park


    Full Text Available We present our effort to provide a comprehensive parallel programming environment for the OpenMP parallel directive language. This environment includes a parallel programming methodology for the OpenMP programming model and a set of tools (Ursa Minor and InterPol that support this methodology. Our toolset provides automated and interactive assistance to parallel programmers in time-consuming tasks of the proposed methodology. The features provided by our tools include performance and program structure visualization, interactive optimization, support for performance modeling, and performance advising for finding and correcting performance problems. The presented evaluation demonstrates that our environment offers significant support in general parallel tuning efforts and that the toolset facilitates many common tasks in OpenMP parallel programming in an efficient manner.

  16. Simplified automated image analysis for detection and phenotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on porous supports by monitoring growing microcolonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice L den Hertog

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Even with the advent of nucleic acid (NA amplification technologies the culture of mycobacteria for diagnostic and other applications remains of critical importance. Notably microscopic observed drug susceptibility testing (MODS, as opposed to traditional culture on solid media or automated liquid culture, has shown potential to both speed up and increase the provision of mycobacterial culture in high burden settings. METHODS: Here we explore the growth of Mycobacterial tuberculosis microcolonies, imaged by automated digital microscopy, cultured on a porous aluminium oxide (PAO supports. Repeated imaging during colony growth greatly simplifies "computer vision" and presumptive identification of microcolonies was achieved here using existing publically available algorithms. Our system thus allows the growth of individual microcolonies to be monitored and critically, also to change the media during the growth phase without disrupting the microcolonies. Transfer of identified microcolonies onto selective media allowed us, within 1-2 bacterial generations, to rapidly detect the drug susceptibility of individual microcolonies, eliminating the need for time consuming subculturing or the inoculation of multiple parallel cultures. SIGNIFICANCE: Monitoring the phenotype of individual microcolonies as they grow has immense potential for research, screening, and ultimately M. tuberculosis diagnostic applications. The method described is particularly appealing with respect to speed and automation.

  17. Automating Finance (United States)

    Moore, John


    In past years, higher education's financial management side has been riddled with manual processes and aging mainframe applications. This article discusses schools which had taken advantage of an array of technologies that automate billing, payment processing, and refund processing in the case of overpayment. The investments are well worth it:…

  18. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz


    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  19. Automated large-scale culture and medium-throughput chemical screen for modulators of proliferation and viability of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuroepithelial-like stem cells. (United States)

    McLaren, Donna; Gorba, Thorsten; Marguerie de Rotrou, Anita; Pillai, Gopalan; Chappell, Clare; Stacey, Alison; Lingard, Sarah; Falk, Anna; Smith, Austin; Koch, Philipp; Brüstle, Oliver; Vickers, Richard; Tinsley, Jon; Flanders, David; Bello, Paul; Craig, Stewart


    The aim of this study was to demonstrate proof-of-concept feasibility for the use of human neural stem cells (NSCs) for high-throughput screening (HTS) applications. For this study, an adherent human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived long-term, self-renewing, neuroepithelial-like stem (lt-NES) cell line was selected as a representative NSC. Here, we describe the automated large-scale serum-free culture ("scale-up") of human lt-NES cells on the CompacT SelecT cell culture robotic platform, followed by their subsequent automated "scale-out" into a microwell plate format. We also report a medium-throughput screen of 1000 compounds to identify modulators of neural stem cell proliferation and/or survival. The screen was performed on two independent occasions using a cell viability assay with end-point reading resulting in the identification of 24 potential hit compounds, 5 of which were found to increase the proliferation and/or survival of human lt-NES on both occasions. Follow-up studies confirmed a dose-dependent effect of one of the hit compounds, which was a Cdk-2 modulator. This approach could be further developed as part of a strategy to screen compounds to either improve the procedures for the in vitro expansion of neural stem cells or to potentially modulate endogenous neural stem cell behavior in the diseased nervous system.

  20. Heating automation


    Tomažič, Tomaž


    This degree paper presents usage and operation of peripheral devices with microcontroller for heating automation. The main goal is to make a quality system control for heating three house floors and with that, increase efficiency of heating devices and lower heating expenses. Heat pump, furnace, boiler pump, two floor-heating pumps and two radiator pumps need to be controlled by this system. For work, we have chosen a development kit stm32f4 - discovery with five temperature sensors, LCD disp...

  1. Automation Security


    Mirzoev, Dr. Timur


    Web-based Automated Process Control systems are a new type of applications that use the Internet to control industrial processes with the access to the real-time data. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks contain computers and applications that perform key functions in providing essential services and commodities (e.g., electricity, natural gas, gasoline, water, waste treatment, transportation) to all Americans. As such, they are part of the nation s critical infrastructu...

  2. Marketing automation


    Raluca Dania TODOR


    The automation of the marketing process seems to be nowadays, the only solution to face the major changes brought by the fast evolution of technology and the continuous increase in supply and demand. In order to achieve the desired marketing results, businessis have to employ digital marketing and communication services. These services are efficient and measurable thanks to the marketing technology used to track, score and implement each campaign. Due to the...

  3. Computer-Aided Parallelizer and Optimizer (United States)

    Jin, Haoqiang


    The Computer-Aided Parallelizer and Optimizer (CAPO) automates the insertion of compiler directives (see figure) to facilitate parallel processing on Shared Memory Parallel (SMP) machines. While CAPO currently is integrated seamlessly into CAPTools (developed at the University of Greenwich, now marketed as ParaWise), CAPO was independently developed at Ames Research Center as one of the components for the Legacy Code Modernization (LCM) project. The current version takes serial FORTRAN programs, performs interprocedural data dependence analysis, and generates OpenMP directives. Due to the widely supported OpenMP standard, the generated OpenMP codes have the potential to run on a wide range of SMP machines. CAPO relies on accurate interprocedural data dependence information currently provided by CAPTools. Compiler directives are generated through identification of parallel loops in the outermost level, construction of parallel regions around parallel loops and optimization of parallel regions, and insertion of directives with automatic identification of private, reduction, induction, and shared variables. Attempts also have been made to identify potential pipeline parallelism (implemented with point-to-point synchronization). Although directives are generated automatically, user interaction with the tool is still important for producing good parallel codes. A comprehensive graphical user interface is included for users to interact with the parallelization process.

  4. Parallel Eclipse Project Checkout (United States)

    Crockett, Thomas M.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Powell, Mark W.; Bachmann, Andrew G.


    Parallel Eclipse Project Checkout (PEPC) is a program written to leverage parallelism and to automate the checkout process of plug-ins created in Eclipse RCP (Rich Client Platform). Eclipse plug-ins can be aggregated in a feature project. This innovation digests a feature description (xml file) and automatically checks out all of the plug-ins listed in the feature. This resolves the issue of manually checking out each plug-in required to work on the project. To minimize the amount of time necessary to checkout the plug-ins, this program makes the plug-in checkouts parallel. After parsing the feature, a request to checkout for each plug-in in the feature has been inserted. These requests are handled by a thread pool with a configurable number of threads. By checking out the plug-ins in parallel, the checkout process is streamlined before getting started on the project. For instance, projects that took 30 minutes to checkout now take less than 5 minutes. The effect is especially clear on a Mac, which has a network monitor displaying the bandwidth use. When running the client from a developer s home, the checkout process now saturates the bandwidth in order to get all the plug-ins checked out as fast as possible. For comparison, a checkout process that ranged from 8-200 Kbps from a developer s home is now able to saturate a pipe of 1.3 Mbps, resulting in significantly faster checkouts. Eclipse IDE (integrated development environment) tries to build a project as soon as it is downloaded. As part of another optimization, this innovation programmatically tells Eclipse to stop building while checkouts are happening, which dramatically reduces lock contention and enables plug-ins to continue downloading until all of them finish. Furthermore, the software re-enables automatic building, and forces Eclipse to do a clean build once it finishes checking out all of the plug-ins. This software is fully generic and does not contain any NASA-specific code. It can be applied to any

  5. Automated recognition of cell phenotypes in histology images based on membrane- and nuclei-targeting biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tözeren Aydın


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three-dimensional in vitro culture of cancer cells are used to predict the effects of prospective anti-cancer drugs in vivo. In this study, we present an automated image analysis protocol for detailed morphological protein marker profiling of tumoroid cross section images. Methods Histologic cross sections of breast tumoroids developed in co-culture suspensions of breast cancer cell lines, stained for E-cadherin and progesterone receptor, were digitized and pixels in these images were classified into five categories using k-means clustering. Automated segmentation was used to identify image regions composed of cells expressing a given biomarker. Synthesized images were created to check the accuracy of the image processing system. Results Accuracy of automated segmentation was over 95% in identifying regions of interest in synthesized images. Image analysis of adjacent histology slides stained, respectively, for Ecad and PR, accurately predicted regions of different cell phenotypes. Image analysis of tumoroid cross sections from different tumoroids obtained under the same co-culture conditions indicated the variation of cellular composition from one tumoroid to another. Variations in the compositions of cross sections obtained from the same tumoroid were established by parallel analysis of Ecad and PR-stained cross section images. Conclusion Proposed image analysis methods offer standardized high throughput profiling of molecular anatomy of tumoroids based on both membrane and nuclei markers that is suitable to rapid large scale investigations of anti-cancer compounds for drug development.

  6. Study on Parallel Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Liang Chen; Guang-Zhong Sun; Yun-Quan Zhang; Ze-Yao Mo


    In this paper, we present a general survey on parallel computing. The main contents include parallel computer system which is the hardware platform of parallel computing, parallel algorithm which is the theoretical base of parallel computing, parallel programming which is the software support of parallel computing. After that, we also introduce some parallel applications and enabling technologies. We argue that parallel computing research should form an integrated methodology of "architecture - algorithm - programming - application". Only in this way, parallel computing research becomes continuous development and more realistic.

  7. Low-cost, flexible polymer arrays for long-term neuronal culture. (United States)

    Hogan, N Catherine; Talei-Franzesi, Giovanni; Abudayyeh, Omar; Taberner, Andrew; Hunter, Ian


    Conducting polymers are promising materials for fabrication of microelectrode arrays for both neural stimulation and recording. Our ability to engineer the morphology and composition of polypyrrole together with its suitability as an electrically addressable tissue/cell substrate have been used to develop an inexpensive, disposable three-dimensional polymeric array for use in neuronal culture and drug discovery. These arrays could be interfaced with a fixed, parallel stimulation and optical imaging system, amenable to automated handling and data analysis.

  8. Automating CPM-GOMS (United States)

    John, Bonnie; Vera, Alonso; Matessa, Michael; Freed, Michael; Remington, Roger


    CPM-GOMS is a modeling method that combines the task decomposition of a GOMS analysis with a model of human resource usage at the level of cognitive, perceptual, and motor operations. CPM-GOMS models have made accurate predictions about skilled user behavior in routine tasks, but developing such models is tedious and error-prone. We describe a process for automatically generating CPM-GOMS models from a hierarchical task decomposition expressed in a cognitive modeling tool called Apex. Resource scheduling in Apex automates the difficult task of interleaving the cognitive, perceptual, and motor resources underlying common task operators (e.g. mouse move-and-click). Apex's UI automatically generates PERT charts, which allow modelers to visualize a model's complex parallel behavior. Because interleaving and visualization is now automated, it is feasible to construct arbitrarily long sequences of behavior. To demonstrate the process, we present a model of automated teller interactions in Apex and discuss implications for user modeling. available to model human users, the Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection (GOMS) method [6, 21] has been the most widely used, providing accurate, often zero-parameter, predictions of the routine performance of skilled users in a wide range of procedural tasks [6, 13, 15, 27, 28]. GOMS is meant to model routine behavior. The user is assumed to have methods that apply sequences of operators and to achieve a goal. Selection rules are applied when there is more than one method to achieve a goal. Many routine tasks lend themselves well to such decomposition. Decomposition produces a representation of the task as a set of nested goal states that include an initial state and a final state. The iterative decomposition into goals and nested subgoals can terminate in primitives of any desired granularity, the choice of level of detail dependent on the predictions required. Although GOMS has proven useful in HCI, tools to support the

  9. Automating quantum experiment control (United States)

    Stevens, Kelly E.; Amini, Jason M.; Doret, S. Charles; Mohler, Greg; Volin, Curtis; Harter, Alexa W.


    The field of quantum information processing is rapidly advancing. As the control of quantum systems approaches the level needed for useful computation, the physical hardware underlying the quantum systems is becoming increasingly complex. It is already becoming impractical to manually code control for the larger hardware implementations. In this chapter, we will employ an approach to the problem of system control that parallels compiler design for a classical computer. We will start with a candidate quantum computing technology, the surface electrode ion trap, and build a system instruction language which can be generated from a simple machine-independent programming language via compilation. We incorporate compile time generation of ion routing that separates the algorithm description from the physical geometry of the hardware. Extending this approach to automatic routing at run time allows for automated initialization of qubit number and placement and additionally allows for automated recovery after catastrophic events such as qubit loss. To show that these systems can handle real hardware, we present a simple demonstration system that routes two ions around a multi-zone ion trap and handles ion loss and ion placement. While we will mainly use examples from transport-based ion trap quantum computing, many of the issues and solutions are applicable to other architectures.

  10. A Performance Analysis Tool for PVM Parallel Programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wang; Yin Liu; Changjun Jiang; Zhaoqing Zhang


    In this paper,we introduce the design and implementation of ParaVT,which is a visual performance analysis and parallel debugging tool.In ParaVT,we propose an automated instrumentation mechanism. Based on this mechanism,ParaVT automatically analyzes the performance bottleneck of parallel applications and provides a visual user interface to monitor and analyze the performance of parallel programs.In addition ,it also supports certain extensions.

  11. Automated Budget System (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  12. Automation 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Zieliński, Cezary; Kaliczyńska, Małgorzata


    This book consists of papers presented at Automation 2017, an international conference held in Warsaw from March 15 to 17, 2017. It discusses research findings associated with the concepts behind INDUSTRY 4.0, with a focus on offering a better understanding of and promoting participation in the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Each chapter presents a detailed analysis of a specific technical problem, in most cases followed by a numerical analysis, simulation and description of the results of implementing the solution in a real-world context. The theoretical results, practical solutions and guidelines presented are valuable for both researchers working in the area of engineering sciences and practitioners looking for solutions to industrial problems. .

  13. Marketing automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TODOR Raluca Dania


    Full Text Available The automation of the marketing process seems to be nowadays, the only solution to face the major changes brought by the fast evolution of technology and the continuous increase in supply and demand. In order to achieve the desired marketing results, businessis have to employ digital marketing and communication services. These services are efficient and measurable thanks to the marketing technology used to track, score and implement each campaign. Due to the technical progress, the marketing fragmentation, demand for customized products and services on one side and the need to achieve constructive dialogue with the customers, immediate and flexible response and the necessity to measure the investments and the results on the other side, the classical marketing approached had changed continue to improve substantially.

  14. Analysis of the Positive Pathogenic Bacteria and the Alarm Time by Automated Blood Culture System%全自动血培养仪阳性病原菌种类及报警时间分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖忠; 叶杰; 陈振南


    Objective:To analyse the positive pathogenic bacteria of the blood culture and the alarm time.Method:A total of 2180 blood specimens were collected from April 2010 to April 2012 in our hospital and the specimens were detected by BD BACTEC 9120 automated blood culture system.Analyse the bacterial species and alarm time of the blood specimens in aerobic and anaerobic bottles.Result:282 blood culture positive samples were isolated from the 2180 blood culture samples,which was true positive in 263 cases.The positive rate of the blood culture was 12.1%,which 269 strains of pathogens were isolated,including Gram-positive cocci accounted for 40.1%,gram negative bacilli 57.2%,fungi 2.6%.However the positive rate was just 15.6% only from aerobic bottles and 5.7% only from anaerobic ones,and 20.9% from both of the two bottles.The fastest positive time was 5.02 h, during the test,the number of positive reactions accounted for 69.1% in 24 hours,92.5% in 48 hours,and 97% in 72 hours.The false positive rate was 0.87%, and the false negative rate was 0.52%.Conclusion:Application of both aerobic and anaerobic cultivation detected by BD BACTEC 9120 automated blood culture system can improve the blood culture positive rate,shorten the positive detection time.%  目的:分析血培养阳性病原菌种类及仪器报警时间.方法:用 BD BACTEC 9120全自动血培养仪检测笔者所在医院2010年4月-2012年4月共计2180份血标本,分析血标本在需氧瓶和厌氧瓶中生长细菌的种类及仪器报警时间.结果:2180例血培养标本中报警阳性282例,其中真阳性263例,阳性率为12.1%.分离出细菌269株,其中革兰阳性球菌占40.1%,革兰阴性杆菌占57.2%,真菌占2.6%.其中仅需氧瓶报阳的阳性率为6.3%,仅厌氧瓶报阳的阳性率为2.8%,需氧瓶及厌氧瓶均报阳的阳性率为2.9%;最快阳性检出时间为5.02 h,24 h内检出的阳性数占69.1%,48 h 检出的阳性数占92.5%,72 h 检出的阳性数占97.0%

  15. Comparison of automated BAX polymerase chain reaction and standard culture methods for detection of Listeria monocyogenes in blue crab meat (Callinectus sapidus) and blue crab processing plants (United States)

    This study compared the BAX Polymerase Chain Reaction method (BAX PCR) with the Standard Culture Method (SCM) for detection of L. monocytogenes in blue crab meat and crab processing plants. The aim of this study was to address this data gap. Raw crabs, finished products and environmental sponge samp...

  16. Rapid detection of Gram-negative bacteria and their drug resistance genes from positive blood cultures using an automated microarray assay. (United States)

    Han, Eunhee; Park, Dong-Jin; Kim, Yukyoung; Yu, Jin Kyung; Park, Kang Gyun; Park, Yeon-Joon


    We evaluated the performance of the Verigene Gram-negative blood culture (BC-GN) assay (CE-IVD version) for identification of Gram-negative (GN) bacteria and detection of resistance genes. A total of 163 GN organisms (72 characterized strains and 91 clinical isolates from 86 patients) were tested; among the clinical isolates, 86 (94.5%) isolates were included in the BC-GN panel. For identification, the agreement was 98.6% (146/148, 95% confidence interval [CI], 92.1-100) and 70% (7/10, 95% CI, 53.5-100) for monomicrobial and polymicrobial cultures, respectively. Of the 48 resistance genes harbored by 43 characterized strains, all were correctly detected. Of the 19 clinical isolates harboring resistance genes, 1 CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli isolated in polymicrobial culture was not detected. Overall, BC-GN assay provides acceptable accuracy for rapid identification of Gram-negative bacteria and detection of resistance genes, compared with routine laboratory methods despite that it has limitations in the number of genus/species and resistance gene included in the panel and it shows lower sensitivity in polymicrobial cultures.

  17. Three-dimensional growth of human endothelial cells in an automated cell culture experiment container during the SpaceX CRS-8 ISS space mission - The SPHEROIDS project. (United States)

    Pietsch, Jessica; Gass, Samuel; Nebuloni, Stefano; Echegoyen, David; Riwaldt, Stefan; Baake, Christin; Bauer, Johann; Corydon, Thomas J; Egli, Marcel; Infanger, Manfred; Grimm, Daniela


    Human endothelial cells (ECs) were sent to the International Space Station (ISS) to determine the impact of microgravity on the formation of three-dimensional structures. For this project, an automatic experiment unit (EU) was designed allowing cell culture in space. In order to enable a safe cell culture, cell nourishment and fixation after a pre-programmed timeframe, the materials used for construction of the EUs were tested in regard to their biocompatibility. These tests revealed a high biocompatibility for all parts of the EUs, which were in contact with the cells or the medium used. Most importantly, we found polyether ether ketones for surrounding the incubation chamber, which kept cellular viability above 80% and allowed the cells to adhere as long as they were exposed to normal gravity. After assembling the EU the ECs were cultured therein, where they showed good cell viability at least for 14 days. In addition, the functionality of the automatic medium exchange, and fixation procedures were confirmed. Two days before launch, the ECs were cultured in the EUs, which were afterwards mounted on the SpaceX CRS-8 rocket. 5 and 12 days after launch the cells were fixed. Subsequent analyses revealed a scaffold-free formation of spheroids in space.

  18. Automated extraction improves multiplex molecular detection of infection in septic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito J Regueiro

    Full Text Available Sepsis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients worldwide. Molecular technologies for rapid detection of microorganisms in patients with sepsis have only recently become available. LightCycler SeptiFast test M(grade (Roche Diagnostics GmbH is a multiplex PCR analysis able to detect DNA of the 25 most frequent pathogens in bloodstream infections. The time and labor saved while avoiding excessive laboratory manipulation is the rationale for selecting the automated MagNA Pure compact nucleic acid isolation kit-I (Roche Applied Science, GmbH as an alternative to conventional SeptiFast extraction. For the purposes of this study, we evaluate extraction in order to demonstrate the feasibility of automation. Finally, a prospective observational study was done using 106 clinical samples obtained from 76 patients in our ICU. Both extraction methods were used in parallel to test the samples. When molecular detection test results using both manual and automated extraction were compared with the data from blood cultures obtained at the same time, the results show that SeptiFast with the alternative MagNA Pure compact extraction not only shortens the complete workflow to 3.57 hrs., but also increases sensitivity of the molecular assay for detecting infection as defined by positive blood culture confirmation.

  19. Automation tools for flexible aircraft maintenance.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prentice, William J.; Drotning, William D.; Watterberg, Peter A.; Loucks, Clifford S.; Kozlowski, David M.


    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project 26546 at Sandia, during the period FY01 through FY03. The project team visited four DoD depots that support extensive aircraft maintenance in order to understand critical needs for automation, and to identify maintenance processes for potential automation or integration opportunities. From the visits, the team identified technology needs and application issues, as well as non-technical drivers that influence the application of automation in depot maintenance of aircraft. Software tools for automation facility design analysis were developed, improved, extended, and integrated to encompass greater breadth for eventual application as a generalized design tool. The design tools for automated path planning and path generation have been enhanced to incorporate those complex robot systems with redundant joint configurations, which are likely candidate designs for a complex aircraft maintenance facility. A prototype force-controlled actively compliant end-effector was designed and developed based on a parallel kinematic mechanism design. This device was developed for demonstration of surface finishing, one of many in-contact operations performed during aircraft maintenance. This end-effector tool was positioned along the workpiece by a robot manipulator, programmed for operation by the automated planning tools integrated for this project. Together, the hardware and software tools demonstrate many of the technologies required for flexible automation in a maintenance facility.

  20. Parallel Programming with Intel Parallel Studio XE

    CERN Document Server

    Blair-Chappell , Stephen


    Optimize code for multi-core processors with Intel's Parallel Studio Parallel programming is rapidly becoming a "must-know" skill for developers. Yet, where to start? This teach-yourself tutorial is an ideal starting point for developers who already know Windows C and C++ and are eager to add parallelism to their code. With a focus on applying tools, techniques, and language extensions to implement parallelism, this essential resource teaches you how to write programs for multicore and leverage the power of multicore in your programs. Sharing hands-on case studies and real-world examples, the

  1. Laboratory automation: trajectory, technology, and tactics. (United States)

    Markin, R S; Whalen, S A


    Laboratory automation is in its infancy, following a path parallel to the development of laboratory information systems in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Changes on the horizon in healthcare and clinical laboratory service that affect the delivery of laboratory results include the increasing age of the population in North America, the implementation of the Balanced Budget Act (1997), and the creation of disease management companies. Major technology drivers include outcomes optimization and phenotypically targeted drugs. Constant cost pressures in the clinical laboratory have forced diagnostic manufacturers into less than optimal profitability states. Laboratory automation can be a tool for the improvement of laboratory services and may decrease costs. The key to improvement of laboratory services is implementation of the correct automation technology. The design of this technology should be driven by required functionality. Automation design issues should be centered on the understanding of the laboratory and its relationship to healthcare delivery and the business and operational processes in the clinical laboratory. Automation design philosophy has evolved from a hardware-based approach to a software-based approach. Process control software to support repeat testing, reflex testing, and transportation management, and overall computer-integrated manufacturing approaches to laboratory automation implementation are rapidly expanding areas. It is clear that hardware and software are functionally interdependent and that the interface between the laboratory automation system and the laboratory information system is a key component. The cost-effectiveness of automation solutions suggested by vendors, however, has been difficult to evaluate because the number of automation installations are few and the precision with which operational data have been collected to determine payback is suboptimal. The trend in automation has moved from total laboratory automation to a

  2. Manufacturing and automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Córdoba Nieto


    Full Text Available The article presents concepts and definitions from different sources concerning automation. The work approaches automation by virtue of the author’s experience in manufacturing production; why and how automation prolects are embarked upon is considered. Technological reflection regarding the progressive advances or stages of automation in the production area is stressed. Coriat and Freyssenet’s thoughts about and approaches to the problem of automation and its current state are taken and examined, especially that referring to the problem’s relationship with reconciling the level of automation with the flexibility and productivity demanded by competitive, worldwide manufacturing.

  3. Practical parallel computing

    CERN Document Server

    Morse, H Stephen


    Practical Parallel Computing provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of high-performance parallel processing. This book discusses the development of parallel applications on a variety of equipment.Organized into three parts encompassing 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the technology trends that converge to favor massively parallel hardware over traditional mainframes and vector machines. This text then gives a tutorial introduction to parallel hardware architectures. Other chapters provide worked-out examples of programs using several parallel languages. Thi

  4. Parallel sorting algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Akl, Selim G


    Parallel Sorting Algorithms explains how to use parallel algorithms to sort a sequence of items on a variety of parallel computers. The book reviews the sorting problem, the parallel models of computation, parallel algorithms, and the lower bounds on the parallel sorting problems. The text also presents twenty different algorithms, such as linear arrays, mesh-connected computers, cube-connected computers. Another example where algorithm can be applied is on the shared-memory SIMD (single instruction stream multiple data stream) computers in which the whole sequence to be sorted can fit in the

  5. Computing Parallelism in Discourse

    CERN Document Server

    Gardent, C; Gardent, Claire; Kohlhase, Michael


    Although much has been said about parallelism in discourse, a formal, computational theory of parallelism structure is still outstanding. In this paper, we present a theory which given two parallel utterances predicts which are the parallel elements. The theory consists of a sorted, higher-order abductive calculus and we show that it reconciles the insights of discourse theories of parallelism with those of Higher-Order Unification approaches to discourse semantics, thereby providing a natural framework in which to capture the effect of parallelism on discourse semantics.

  6. An automated swimming respirometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)



    An automated respirometer is described that can be used for computerized respirometry of trout and sharks.......An automated respirometer is described that can be used for computerized respirometry of trout and sharks....

  7. Configuration Management Automation (CMA) - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Configuration Management Automation (CMA) will provide an automated, integrated enterprise solution to support CM of FAA NAS and Non-NAS assets and investments. CMA...

  8. Autonomy and Automation (United States)

    Shively, Jay


    A significant level of debate and confusion has surrounded the meaning of the terms autonomy and automation. Automation is a multi-dimensional concept, and we propose that Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) automation should be described with reference to the specific system and task that has been automated, the context in which the automation functions, and other relevant dimensions. In this paper, we present definitions of automation, pilot in the loop, pilot on the loop and pilot out of the loop. We further propose that in future, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) RPAS Panel avoids the use of the terms autonomy and autonomous when referring to automated systems on board RPA. Work Group 7 proposes to develop, in consultation with other workgroups, a taxonomy of Levels of Automation for RPAS.

  9. Parallel computing works!

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, Geoffrey C; Messina, Guiseppe C


    A clear illustration of how parallel computers can be successfully appliedto large-scale scientific computations. This book demonstrates how avariety of applications in physics, biology, mathematics and other scienceswere implemented on real parallel computers to produce new scientificresults. It investigates issues of fine-grained parallelism relevant forfuture supercomputers with particular emphasis on hypercube architecture. The authors describe how they used an experimental approach to configuredifferent massively parallel machines, design and implement basic systemsoftware, and develop

  10. Introduction to parallel programming

    CERN Document Server

    Brawer, Steven


    Introduction to Parallel Programming focuses on the techniques, processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in parallel programming. The book first offers information on Fortran, hardware and operating system models, and processes, shared memory, and simple parallel programs. Discussions focus on processes and processors, joining processes, shared memory, time-sharing with multiple processors, hardware, loops, passing arguments in function/subroutine calls, program structure, and arithmetic expressions. The text then elaborates on basic parallel programming techniques, barriers and race

  11. Parallel adaptive wavelet collocation method for PDEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejadmalayeri, Alireza, E-mail: [FortiVenti Inc., Suite 404, 999 Canada Place, Vancouver, BC, V6C 3E2 (Canada); Vezolainen, Alexei, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, UCB 427, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Brown-Dymkoski, Eric, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, UCB 427, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Vasilyev, Oleg V., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, UCB 427, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)


    A parallel adaptive wavelet collocation method for solving a large class of Partial Differential Equations is presented. The parallelization is achieved by developing an asynchronous parallel wavelet transform, which allows one to perform parallel wavelet transform and derivative calculations with only one data synchronization at the highest level of resolution. The data are stored using tree-like structure with tree roots starting at a priori defined level of resolution. Both static and dynamic domain partitioning approaches are developed. For the dynamic domain partitioning, trees are considered to be the minimum quanta of data to be migrated between the processes. This allows fully automated and efficient handling of non-simply connected partitioning of a computational domain. Dynamic load balancing is achieved via domain repartitioning during the grid adaptation step and reassigning trees to the appropriate processes to ensure approximately the same number of grid points on each process. The parallel efficiency of the approach is discussed based on parallel adaptive wavelet-based Coherent Vortex Simulations of homogeneous turbulence with linear forcing at effective non-adaptive resolutions up to 2048{sup 3} using as many as 2048 CPU cores.

  12. Developing Parallel Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Sen


    Full Text Available Parallel programming is an extension of sequential programming; today, it is becoming the mainstream paradigm in day-to-day information processing. Its aim is to build the fastest programs on parallel computers. The methodologies for developing a parallelprogram can be put into integrated frameworks. Development focuses on algorithm, languages, and how the program is deployed on the parallel computer.

  13. Workflow automation architecture standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshofsky, R.P.; Rohen, W.T. [Boeing Computer Services Co., Richland, WA (United States)


    This document presents an architectural standard for application of workflow automation technology. The standard includes a functional architecture, process for developing an automated workflow system for a work group, functional and collateral specifications for workflow automation, and results of a proof of concept prototype.

  14. A parallel buffer tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitchinava, Nodar; Zeh, Norbert


    We present the parallel buffer tree, a parallel external memory (PEM) data structure for batched search problems. This data structure is a non-trivial extension of Arge's sequential buffer tree to a private-cache multiprocessor environment and reduces the number of I/O operations by the number...... of available processor cores compared to its sequential counterpart, thereby taking full advantage of multicore parallelism. The parallel buffer tree is a search tree data structure that supports the batched parallel processing of a sequence of N insertions, deletions, membership queries, and range queries...

  15. Automated Parallel Computing Tools for Multicore Machines and Clusters Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to improve productivity of high performance computing for applications on multicore computers and clusters. These machines built from one or more chips...

  16. Parallel Atomistic Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Algorithms developed to enable the use of atomistic molecular simulation methods with parallel computers are reviewed. Methods appropriate for bonded as well as non-bonded (and charged) interactions are included. While strategies for obtaining parallel molecular simulations have been developed for the full variety of atomistic simulation methods, molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo have received the most attention. Three main types of parallel molecular dynamics simulations have been developed, the replicated data decomposition, the spatial decomposition, and the force decomposition. For Monte Carlo simulations, parallel algorithms have been developed which can be divided into two categories, those which require a modified Markov chain and those which do not. Parallel algorithms developed for other simulation methods such as Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo, grand canonical molecular dynamics, and Monte Carlo methods for protein structure determination are also reviewed and issues such as how to measure parallel efficiency, especially in the case of parallel Monte Carlo algorithms with modified Markov chains are discussed.

  17. Invariants for Parallel Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Yajun; WU Jiye; FAN Qinshan; HUANG Kezhi


    This paper analyzes the geometric quantities that remain unchanged during parallel mapping (i.e., mapping from a reference curved surface to a parallel surface with identical normal direction). The second gradient operator, the second class of integral theorems, the Gauss-curvature-based integral theorems, and the core property of parallel mapping are used to derive a series of parallel mapping invadants or geometri-cally conserved quantities. These include not only local mapping invadants but also global mapping invari-ants found to exist both in a curved surface and along curves on the curved surface. The parallel mapping invadants are used to identify important transformations between the reference surface and parallel surfaces. These mapping invadants and transformations have potential applications in geometry, physics, biome-chanics, and mechanics in which various dynamic processes occur along or between parallel surfaces.

  18. Automation in Clinical Microbiology (United States)

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.


    Historically, the trend toward automation in clinical pathology laboratories has largely bypassed the clinical microbiology laboratory. In this article, we review the historical impediments to automation in the microbiology laboratory and offer insight into the reasons why we believe that we are on the cusp of a dramatic change that will sweep a wave of automation into clinical microbiology laboratories. We review the currently available specimen-processing instruments as well as the total laboratory automation solutions. Lastly, we outline the types of studies that will need to be performed to fully assess the benefits of automation in microbiology laboratories. PMID:23515547

  19. Single-cell bacteria growth monitoring by automated DEP-facilitated image analysis. (United States)

    Peitz, Ingmar; van Leeuwen, Rien


    Growth monitoring is the method of choice in many assays measuring the presence or properties of pathogens, e.g. in diagnostics and food quality. Established methods, relying on culturing large numbers of bacteria, are rather time-consuming, while in healthcare time often is crucial. Several new approaches have been published, mostly aiming at assaying growth or other properties of a small number of bacteria. However, no method so far readily achieves single-cell resolution with a convenient and easy to handle setup that offers the possibility for automation and high throughput. We demonstrate these benefits in this study by employing dielectrophoretic capturing of bacteria in microfluidic electrode structures, optical detection and automated bacteria identification and counting with image analysis algorithms. For a proof-of-principle experiment we chose an antibiotic susceptibility test with Escherichia coli and polymyxin B. Growth monitoring is demonstrated on single cells and the impact of the antibiotic on the growth rate is shown. The minimum inhibitory concentration as a standard diagnostic parameter is derived from a dose-response plot. This report is the basis for further integration of image analysis code into device control. Ultimately, an automated and parallelized setup may be created, using an optical microscanner and many of the electrode structures simultaneously. Sufficient data for a sound statistical evaluation and a confirmation of the initial findings can then be generated in a single experiment.

  20. Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebrock, Lorie M. (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Duggan, David Patrick


    This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

  1. Parallelism in matrix computations

    CERN Document Server

    Gallopoulos, Efstratios; Sameh, Ahmed H


    This book is primarily intended as a research monograph that could also be used in graduate courses for the design of parallel algorithms in matrix computations. It assumes general but not extensive knowledge of numerical linear algebra, parallel architectures, and parallel programming paradigms. The book consists of four parts: (I) Basics; (II) Dense and Special Matrix Computations; (III) Sparse Matrix Computations; and (IV) Matrix functions and characteristics. Part I deals with parallel programming paradigms and fundamental kernels, including reordering schemes for sparse matrices. Part II is devoted to dense matrix computations such as parallel algorithms for solving linear systems, linear least squares, the symmetric algebraic eigenvalue problem, and the singular-value decomposition. It also deals with the development of parallel algorithms for special linear systems such as banded ,Vandermonde ,Toeplitz ,and block Toeplitz systems. Part III addresses sparse matrix computations: (a) the development of pa...

  2. Parallelization in Modern C++

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    The traditionally used and well established parallel programming models OpenMP and MPI are both targeting lower level parallelism and are meant to be as language agnostic as possible. For a long time, those models were the only widely available portable options for developing parallel C++ applications beyond using plain threads. This has strongly limited the optimization capabilities of compilers, has inhibited extensibility and genericity, and has restricted the use of those models together with other, modern higher level abstractions introduced by the C++11 and C++14 standards. The recent revival of interest in the industry and wider community for the C++ language has also spurred a remarkable amount of standardization proposals and technical specifications being developed. Those efforts however have so far failed to build a vision on how to seamlessly integrate various types of parallelism, such as iterative parallel execution, task-based parallelism, asynchronous many-task execution flows, continuation s...

  3. Integrating Parallelizing Compilation Technologies for SMP Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Bing Feng; Li Chen; Yi-Ran Wang; Xiao-Mi An; Lin Ma; Chun-Lei Sang; Zhao-Qing Zhang


    In this paper, a source to source parallelizing complier system, AutoPar, is presentd. The system transforms FORTRAN programs to multi-level hybrid MPI/OpenMP parallel programs. Integrated parallel optimizing technologies are utilized extensively to derive an effective program decomposition in the whole program scope. Other features such as synchronization optimization and communication optimization improve the performance scalability of the generated parallel programs, from both intra-node and inter-node. The system makes great effort to boost automation of parallelization.Profiling feedback is used in performance estimation which is the basis of automatic program decomposition. Performance results for eight benchmarks in NPB1.0 from NAS on an SMP cluster are given, and the speedup is desirable. It is noticeable that in the experiment, at most one data distribution directive and a reduction directive are inserted by the user in BT/SP/LU. The compiler is based on ORC, Open Research Compiler. ORC is a powerful compiler infrastructure, with such features as robustness, flexibility and efficiency. Strong analysis capability and well-defined infrastructure of ORC make the system implementation quite fast.

  4. Automated DNA Sequencing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Ekkebus, C.P.; Hauser, L.J.; Kress, R.L.; Mural, R.J.


    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a core DNA sequencing facility to support biological research endeavors at ORNL and to conduct basic sequencing automation research. This facility is novel because its development is based on existing standard biology laboratory equipment; thus, the development process is of interest to the many small laboratories trying to use automation to control costs and increase throughput. Before automation, biology Laboratory personnel purified DNA, completed cycle sequencing, and prepared 96-well sample plates with commercially available hardware designed specifically for each step in the process. Following purification and thermal cycling, an automated sequencing machine was used for the sequencing. A technician handled all movement of the 96-well sample plates between machines. To automate the process, ORNL is adding a CRS Robotics A- 465 arm, ABI 377 sequencing machine, automated centrifuge, automated refrigerator, and possibly an automated SpeedVac. The entire system will be integrated with one central controller that will direct each machine and the robot. The goal of this system is to completely automate the sequencing procedure from bacterial cell samples through ready-to-be-sequenced DNA and ultimately to completed sequence. The system will be flexible and will accommodate different chemistries than existing automated sequencing lines. The system will be expanded in the future to include colony picking and/or actual sequencing. This discrete event, DNA sequencing system will demonstrate that smaller sequencing labs can achieve cost-effective the laboratory grow.

  5. Practical Parallel Rendering

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, Alan


    Meeting the growing demands for speed and quality in rendering computer graphics images requires new techniques. Practical parallel rendering provides one of the most practical solutions. This book addresses the basic issues of rendering within a parallel or distributed computing environment, and considers the strengths and weaknesses of multiprocessor machines and networked render farms for graphics rendering. Case studies of working applications demonstrate, in detail, practical ways of dealing with complex issues involved in parallel processing.

  6. Introduction to Parallel Computing (United States)


    Topology C, Ada, C++, Data-parallel FORTRAN, 2D mesh of node boards, each node FORTRAN-90 (late 1992) board has 1 application processor Devopment Tools ...parallel machines become the wave of the present, tools are increasingly needed to assist programmers in creating parallel tasks and coordinating...their activities. Linda was designed to be such a tool . Linda was designed with three important goals in mind: to be portable, efficient, and easy to use

  7. Parallel Wolff Cluster Algorithms (United States)

    Bae, S.; Ko, S. H.; Coddington, P. D.

    The Wolff single-cluster algorithm is the most efficient method known for Monte Carlo simulation of many spin models. Due to the irregular size, shape and position of the Wolff clusters, this method does not easily lend itself to efficient parallel implementation, so that simulations using this method have thus far been confined to workstations and vector machines. Here we present two parallel implementations of this algorithm, and show that one gives fairly good performance on a MIMD parallel computer.

  8. Approach of generating parallel programs from parallelized algorithm design strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Jian-yi; LI Xiao-ying


    Today, parallel programming is dominated by message passing libraries, such as message passing interface (MPI). This article intends to simplify parallel programming by generating parallel programs from parallelized algorithm design strategies. It uses skeletons to abstract parallelized algorithm design strategies, as well as parallel architectures. Starting from problem specification, an abstract parallel abstract programming language+ (Apla+) program is generated from parallelized algorithm design strategies and problem-specific function definitions. By combining with parallel architectures, implicity of parallelism inside the parallelized algorithm design strategies is exploited. With implementation and transformation, C++ and parallel virtual machine (CPPVM) parallel program is finally generated. Parallelized branch and bound (B&B) algorithm design strategy and parallelized divide and conquer (D & C) algorithm design strategy are studied in this article as examples. And it also illustrates the approach with a case study.

  9. CS-Studio Scan System Parallelization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasemir, Kay [ORNL; Pearson, Matthew R [ORNL


    For several years, the Control System Studio (CS-Studio) Scan System has successfully automated the operation of beam lines at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). As it is applied to additional beam lines, we need to support simultaneous adjustments of temperatures or motor positions. While this can be implemented via virtual motors or similar logic inside the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) Input/Output Controllers (IOCs), doing so requires a priori knowledge of experimenters requirements. By adding support for the parallel control of multiple process variables (PVs) to the Scan System, we can better support ad hoc automation of experiments that benefit from such simultaneous PV adjustments.

  10. Parallel Algorithms and Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robey, Robert W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This is a powerpoint presentation on parallel algorithms and patterns. A parallel algorithm is a well-defined, step-by-step computational procedure that emphasizes concurrency to solve a problem. Examples of problems include: Sorting, searching, optimization, matrix operations. A parallel pattern is a computational step in a sequence of independent, potentially concurrent operations that occurs in diverse scenarios with some frequency. Examples are: Reductions, prefix scans, ghost cell updates. We only touch on parallel patterns in this presentation. It really deserves its own detailed discussion which Gabe Rockefeller would like to develop.

  11. Embodied and Distributed Parallel DJing. (United States)

    Cappelen, Birgitta; Andersson, Anders-Petter


    Everyone has a right to take part in cultural events and activities, such as music performances and music making. Enforcing that right, within Universal Design, is often limited to a focus on physical access to public areas, hearing aids etc., or groups of persons with special needs performing in traditional ways. The latter might be people with disabilities, being musicians playing traditional instruments, or actors playing theatre. In this paper we focus on the innovative potential of including people with special needs, when creating new cultural activities. In our project RHYME our goal was to create health promoting activities for children with severe disabilities, by developing new musical and multimedia technologies. Because of the users' extreme demands and rich contribution, we ended up creating both a new genre of musical instruments and a new art form. We call this new art form Embodied and Distributed Parallel DJing, and the new genre of instruments for Empowering Multi-Sensorial Things.

  12. Laboratory Automation and Middleware. (United States)

    Riben, Michael


    The practice of surgical pathology is under constant pressure to deliver the highest quality of service, reduce errors, increase throughput, and decrease turnaround time while at the same time dealing with an aging workforce, increasing financial constraints, and economic uncertainty. Although not able to implement total laboratory automation, great progress continues to be made in workstation automation in all areas of the pathology laboratory. This report highlights the benefits and challenges of pathology automation, reviews middleware and its use to facilitate automation, and reviews the progress so far in the anatomic pathology laboratory.

  13. Patterns For Parallel Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Mattson, Timothy G; Massingill, Berna L


    From grids and clusters to next-generation game consoles, parallel computing is going mainstream. Innovations such as Hyper-Threading Technology, HyperTransport Technology, and multicore microprocessors from IBM, Intel, and Sun are accelerating the movement's growth. Only one thing is missing: programmers with the skills to meet the soaring demand for parallel software.

  14. Parallel paving: An algorithm for generating distributed, adaptive, all-quadrilateral meshes on parallel computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lober, R.R.; Tautges, T.J.; Vaughan, C.T.


    Paving is an automated mesh generation algorithm which produces all-quadrilateral elements. It can additionally generate these elements in varying sizes such that the resulting mesh adapts to a function distribution, such as an error function. While powerful, conventional paving is a very serial algorithm in its operation. Parallel paving is the extension of serial paving into parallel environments to perform the same meshing functions as conventional paving only on distributed, discretized models. This extension allows large, adaptive, parallel finite element simulations to take advantage of paving`s meshing capabilities for h-remap remeshing. A significantly modified version of the CUBIT mesh generation code has been developed to host the parallel paving algorithm and demonstrate its capabilities on both two dimensional and three dimensional surface geometries and compare the resulting parallel produced meshes to conventionally paved meshes for mesh quality and algorithm performance. Sandia`s {open_quotes}tiling{close_quotes} dynamic load balancing code has also been extended to work with the paving algorithm to retain parallel efficiency as subdomains undergo iterative mesh refinement.

  15. Parallel computing works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    An account of the Caltech Concurrent Computation Program (C{sup 3}P), a five year project that focused on answering the question: Can parallel computers be used to do large-scale scientific computations '' As the title indicates, the question is answered in the affirmative, by implementing numerous scientific applications on real parallel computers and doing computations that produced new scientific results. In the process of doing so, C{sup 3}P helped design and build several new computers, designed and implemented basic system software, developed algorithms for frequently used mathematical computations on massively parallel machines, devised performance models and measured the performance of many computers, and created a high performance computing facility based exclusively on parallel computers. While the initial focus of C{sup 3}P was the hypercube architecture developed by C. Seitz, many of the methods developed and lessons learned have been applied successfully on other massively parallel architectures.

  16. Automation in the clinical microbiology laboratory. (United States)

    Novak, Susan M; Marlowe, Elizabeth M


    Imagine a clinical microbiology laboratory where a patient's specimens are placed on a conveyor belt and sent on an automation line for processing and plating. Technologists need only log onto a computer to visualize the images of a culture and send to a mass spectrometer for identification. Once a pathogen is identified, the system knows to send the colony for susceptibility testing. This is the future of the clinical microbiology laboratory. This article outlines the operational and staffing challenges facing clinical microbiology laboratories and the evolution of automation that is shaping the way laboratory medicine will be practiced in the future.

  17. Automated manufacturing of chimeric antigen receptor T cells for adoptive immunotherapy using CliniMACS prodigy. (United States)

    Mock, Ulrike; Nickolay, Lauren; Philip, Brian; Cheung, Gordon Weng-Kit; Zhan, Hong; Johnston, Ian C D; Kaiser, Andrew D; Peggs, Karl; Pule, Martin; Thrasher, Adrian J; Qasim, Waseem


    Novel cell therapies derived from human T lymphocytes are exhibiting enormous potential in early-phase clinical trials in patients with hematologic malignancies. Ex vivo modification of T cells is currently limited to a small number of centers with the required infrastructure and expertise. The process requires isolation, activation, transduction, expansion and cryopreservation steps. To simplify procedures and widen applicability for clinical therapies, automation of these procedures is being developed. The CliniMACS Prodigy (Miltenyi Biotec) has recently been adapted for lentiviral transduction of T cells and here we analyse the feasibility of a clinically compliant T-cell engineering process for the manufacture of T cells encoding chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) for CD19 (CAR19), a widely targeted antigen in B-cell malignancies. Using a closed, single-use tubing set we processed mononuclear cells from fresh or frozen leukapheresis harvests collected from healthy volunteer donors. Cells were phenotyped and subjected to automated processing and activation using TransAct, a polymeric nanomatrix activation reagent incorporating CD3/CD28-specific antibodies. Cells were then transduced and expanded in the CentriCult-Unit of the tubing set, under stabilized culture conditions with automated feeding and media exchange. The process was continuously monitored to determine kinetics of expansion, transduction efficiency and phenotype of the engineered cells in comparison with small-scale transductions run in parallel. We found that transduction efficiencies, phenotype and function of CAR19 T cells were comparable with existing procedures and overall T-cell yields sufficient for anticipated therapeutic dosing. The automation of closed-system T-cell engineering should improve dissemination of emerging immunotherapies and greatly widen applicability.

  18. Automating checks of plan check automation. (United States)

    Halabi, Tarek; Lu, Hsiao-Ming


    While a few physicists have designed new plan check automation solutions for their clinics, fewer, if any, managed to adapt existing solutions. As complex and varied as the systems they check, these programs must gain the full confidence of those who would run them on countless patient plans. The present automation effort, planCheck, therefore focuses on versatility and ease of implementation and verification. To demonstrate this, we apply planCheck to proton gantry, stereotactic proton gantry, stereotactic proton fixed beam (STAR), and IMRT treatments.

  19. Automation in Warehouse Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg, R.; Verriet, J.


    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and support

  20. Automate functional testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kalindri


    Full Text Available Currently, software engineers are increasingly turning to the option of automating functional tests, but not always have successful in this endeavor. Reasons range from low planning until over cost in the process. Some principles that can guide teams in automating these tests are described in this article.

  1. More Benefits of Automation. (United States)

    Getz, Malcolm


    Describes a study that measured the benefits of an automated catalog and automated circulation system from the library user's point of view in terms of the value of time saved. Topics discussed include patterns of use, access time, availability of information, search behaviors, and the effectiveness of the measures used. (seven references)…

  2. Algorithms and parallel computing

    CERN Document Server

    Gebali, Fayez


    There is a software gap between the hardware potential and the performance that can be attained using today's software parallel program development tools. The tools need manual intervention by the programmer to parallelize the code. Programming a parallel computer requires closely studying the target algorithm or application, more so than in the traditional sequential programming we have all learned. The programmer must be aware of the communication and data dependencies of the algorithm or application. This book provides the techniques to explore the possible ways to

  3. Parallel Programming Paradigms (United States)


    GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4, TITL.: td Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Parallel Programming Paradigms...studied. 0A ITI is Jt, t’i- StCUI-eASSIICATION OFvrHIS PAGFrm".n Def. £ntered, Parallel Programming Paradigms Philip Arne Nelson Department of Computer...8416878 and by the Office of Naval Research Contracts No. N00014-86-K-0264 and No. N00014-85- K-0328. 8 ?~~ O .G 1 49 II Parallel Programming Paradigms

  4. Logical inference techniques for loop parallelization

    KAUST Repository

    Oancea, Cosmin E.


    This paper presents a fully automatic approach to loop parallelization that integrates the use of static and run-time analysis and thus overcomes many known difficulties such as nonlinear and indirect array indexing and complex control flow. Our hybrid analysis framework validates the parallelization transformation by verifying the independence of the loop\\'s memory references. To this end it represents array references using the USR (uniform set representation) language and expresses the independence condition as an equation, S = Ø, where S is a set expression representing array indexes. Using a language instead of an array-abstraction representation for S results in a smaller number of conservative approximations but exhibits a potentially-high runtime cost. To alleviate this cost we introduce a language translation F from the USR set-expression language to an equally rich language of predicates (F(S) ⇒ S = Ø). Loop parallelization is then validated using a novel logic inference algorithm that factorizes the obtained complex predicates (F(S)) into a sequence of sufficient-independence conditions that are evaluated first statically and, when needed, dynamically, in increasing order of their estimated complexities. We evaluate our automated solution on 26 benchmarks from PERFECTCLUB and SPEC suites and show that our approach is effective in parallelizing large, complex loops and obtains much better full program speedups than the Intel and IBM Fortran compilers. Copyright © 2012 ACM.

  5. Advances in inspection automation (United States)

    Weber, Walter H.; Mair, H. Douglas; Jansen, Dion; Lombardi, Luciano


    This new session at QNDE reflects the growing interest in inspection automation. Our paper describes a newly developed platform that makes the complex NDE automation possible without the need for software programmers. Inspection tasks that are tedious, error-prone or impossible for humans to perform can now be automated using a form of drag and drop visual scripting. Our work attempts to rectify the problem that NDE is not keeping pace with the rest of factory automation. Outside of NDE, robots routinely and autonomously machine parts, assemble components, weld structures and report progress to corporate databases. By contrast, components arriving in the NDT department typically require manual part handling, calibrations and analysis. The automation examples in this paper cover the development of robotic thickness gauging and the use of adaptive contour following on the NRU reactor inspection at Chalk River.

  6. Automation in immunohematology. (United States)

    Bajpai, Meenu; Kaur, Ravneet; Gupta, Ekta


    There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process.

  7. Automated model building

    CERN Document Server

    Caferra, Ricardo; Peltier, Nicholas


    This is the first book on automated model building, a discipline of automated deduction that is of growing importance Although models and their construction are important per se, automated model building has appeared as a natural enrichment of automated deduction, especially in the attempt to capture the human way of reasoning The book provides an historical overview of the field of automated deduction, and presents the foundations of different existing approaches to model construction, in particular those developed by the authors Finite and infinite model building techniques are presented The main emphasis is on calculi-based methods, and relevant practical results are provided The book is of interest to researchers and graduate students in computer science, computational logic and artificial intelligence It can also be used as a textbook in advanced undergraduate courses

  8. Automation in Warehouse Development

    CERN Document Server

    Verriet, Jacques


    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and supports the quality of picking processes. Secondly, the development of models to simulate and analyse warehouse designs and their components facilitates the challenging task of developing warehouses that take into account each customer’s individual requirements and logistic processes. Automation in Warehouse Development addresses both types of automation from the innovative perspective of applied science. In particular, it describes the outcomes of the Falcon project, a joint endeavour by a consortium of industrial and academic partners. The results include a model-based approach to automate warehouse control design, analysis models for warehouse design, concepts for robotic item handling and computer vision, and auton...

  9. Automation in Immunohematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Bajpai


    Full Text Available There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process.

  10. Expansion of activated lymphocytes obtained from renal cell carcinoma in an automated hollow fiber bioreactor. (United States)

    Hillman, G G; Wolf, M L; Montecillo, E; Younes, E; Ali, E; Pontes, J E; Haas, G P


    Immunotherapy using IL-2 alone or combined with activated lymphocytes has been promising for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Cytotoxic lymphocytes can be isolated from tumors, expanded in vitro with IL-2, and adoptively transferred back into the tumor-bearing host. These cells can also be transduced with the genes coding for cytokines for local delivery to tumor sites. A major drawback in adoptive immunotherapy is the cumbersome and expensive culture technology associated with the growth of large numbers of cells required for their therapeutic effect. To reduce the cost, resources, and manpower, we have developed the methodology for lymphocyte activation and expansion in the automated hollow fiber bioreactor IMMUNO*STAR Cell Expander (ACT BIOMEDICAL, INC). Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TIL) isolated from human renal cell carcinoma tumor specimens were inoculated at a number of 10(8) cells in a small bioreactor of 30 ml extracapillary space volume. We have determined the medium flow rates and culture conditions to obtain a significant and repeated expansion of TIL at weekly intervals. The lymphocytes cultured in the bioreactor demonstrated the same phenotype and cytotoxic activity as those expanded in parallel in tissue culture plates. Lymphocyte expansion in the hollow fiber bioreactor required lower volumes of medium, human serum, IL-2 and minimal labor. This technology may facilitate the use of adoptive immunotherapy for the treatment of refractory malignancies.

  11. Automation of Hubble Space Telescope Mission Operations (United States)

    Burley, Richard; Goulet, Gregory; Slater, Mark; Huey, William; Bassford, Lynn; Dunham, Larry


    On June 13, 2011, after more than 21 years, 115 thousand orbits, and nearly 1 million exposures taken, the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope successfully transitioned from 24x7x365 staffing to 815 staffing. This required the automation of routine mission operations including telemetry and forward link acquisition, data dumping and solid-state recorder management, stored command loading, and health and safety monitoring of both the observatory and the HST Ground System. These changes were driven by budget reductions, and required ground system and onboard spacecraft enhancements across the entire operations spectrum, from planning and scheduling systems to payload flight software. Changes in personnel and staffing were required in order to adapt to the new roles and responsibilities required in the new automated operations era. This paper will provide a high level overview of the obstacles to automating nominal HST mission operations, both technical and cultural, and how those obstacles were overcome.

  12. Parallel programming with PCN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, I.; Tuecke, S.


    PCN is a system for developing and executing parallel programs. It comprises a high-level programming language, tools for developing and debugging programs in this language, and interfaces to Fortran and C that allow the reuse of existing code in multilingual parallel programs. Programs developed using PCN are portable across many different workstations, networks, and parallel computers. This document provides all the information required to develop parallel programs with the PCN programming system. In includes both tutorial and reference material. It also presents the basic concepts that underly PCN, particularly where these are likely to be unfamiliar to the reader, and provides pointers to other documentation on the PCN language, programming techniques, and tools. PCN is in the public domain. The latest version of both the software and this manual can be obtained by anonymous FTP from Argonne National Laboratory in the directory pub/pcn at (c.f. Appendix A).

  13. Automated planar patch-clamp. (United States)

    Milligan, Carol J; Möller, Clemens


    Ion channels are integral membrane proteins that regulate the flow of ions across the plasma membrane and the membranes of intracellular organelles of both excitable and non-excitable cells. Ion channels are vital to a wide variety of biological processes and are prominent components of the nervous system and cardiovascular system, as well as controlling many metabolic functions. Furthermore, ion channels are known to be involved in many disease states and as such have become popular therapeutic targets. For many years now manual patch-clamping has been regarded as one of the best approaches for assaying ion channel function, through direct measurement of ion flow across these membrane proteins. Over the last decade there have been many remarkable breakthroughs in the development of technologies enabling the study of ion channels. One of these breakthroughs is the development of automated planar patch-clamp technology. Automated platforms have demonstrated the ability to generate high-quality data with high throughput capabilities, at great efficiency and reliability. Additional features such as simultaneous intracellular and extracellular perfusion of the cell membrane, current clamp operation, fast compound application, an increasing rate of parallelization, and more recently temperature control have been introduced. Furthermore, in addition to the well-established studies of over-expressed ion channel proteins in cell lines, new generations of planar patch-clamp systems have enabled successful studies of native and primary mammalian cells. This technology is becoming increasingly popular and extensively used both within areas of drug discovery as well as academic research. Many platforms have been developed including NPC-16 Patchliner(®) and SyncroPatch(®) 96 (Nanion Technologies GmbH, Munich), CytoPatch™ (Cytocentrics AG, Rostock), PatchXpress(®) 7000A, IonWorks(®) Quattro and IonWorks Barracuda™, (Molecular Devices, LLC); Dynaflow(®) HT (Cellectricon

  14. Hetrogenous Parallel Computing



    With processor core counts doubling every 18-24 months and penetrating all markets from high-end servers in supercomputers to desktops and laptops down to even mobile phones, we sit at the dawn of a world of ubiquitous parallelism, one where extracting performance via parallelism is paramount. That is, the "free lunch" to better performance, where programmers could rely on substantial increases in single-threaded performance to improve software, is over. The burden falls on developers to expl...

  15. Parallel Software Model Checking (United States)


    JAN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Parallel Software Model Checking 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...AND ADDRESS(ES) Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9...3: ∧ ≥ 10 ∧ ≠ 10 ⇒ : Parallel Software Model Checking Team Members Sagar Chaki, Arie Gurfinkel

  16. Continuous parallel coordinates. (United States)

    Heinrich, Julian; Weiskopf, Daniel


    Typical scientific data is represented on a grid with appropriate interpolation or approximation schemes,defined on a continuous domain. The visualization of such data in parallel coordinates may reveal patterns latently contained in the data and thus can improve the understanding of multidimensional relations. In this paper, we adopt the concept of continuous scatterplots for the visualization of spatially continuous input data to derive a density model for parallel coordinates. Based on the point-line duality between scatterplots and parallel coordinates, we propose a mathematical model that maps density from a continuous scatterplot to parallel coordinates and present different algorithms for both numerical and analytical computation of the resulting density field. In addition, we show how the 2-D model can be used to successively construct continuous parallel coordinates with an arbitrary number of dimensions. Since continuous parallel coordinates interpolate data values within grid cells, a scalable and dense visualization is achieved, which will be demonstrated for typical multi-variate scientific data.

  17. A centralized global automation group in a decentralized organization. (United States)

    Ormand, J; Bruner, J; Birkemo, L; Hinderliter-Smith, J; Veitch, J


    In the latter part of the 1990s, many companies have worked to foster a 'matrix' style culture through several changes in organizational structure. This type of culture facilitates communication and development of new technology across organizational and global boundaries. At Glaxo Wellcome, this matrix culture is reflected in an automation strategy that relies on both centralized and decentralized resources. The Group Development Operations Information Systems Robotics Team is a centralized resource providing development, support, integration, and training in laboratory automation across businesses in the Development organization. The matrix culture still presents challenges with respect to communication and managing the development of technology. A current challenge for our team is to go beyond our recognized role as a technology resource and actually to influence automation strategies across the global Development organization. We shall provide an overview of our role as a centralized resource, our team strategy, examples of current and past successes and failures, and future directions.

  18. Chef infrastructure automation cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Marschall, Matthias


    Chef Infrastructure Automation Cookbook contains practical recipes on everything you will need to automate your infrastructure using Chef. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to automate your server and cloud infrastructure.The book first shows you the simplest way to achieve a certain task. Then it explains every step in detail, so that you can build your knowledge about how things work. Eventually, the book shows you additional things to consider for each approach. That way, you can learn step-by-step and build profound knowledge on how to go about your configuration management

  19. A Comparison of Automatic Parallelization Tools/Compilers on the SGI Origin 2000 Using the NAS Benchmarks (United States)

    Saini, Subhash; Frumkin, Michael; Hribar, Michelle; Jin, Hao-Qiang; Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry


    Porting applications to new high performance parallel and distributed computing platforms is a challenging task. Since writing parallel code by hand is extremely time consuming and costly, porting codes would ideally be automated by using some parallelization tools and compilers. In this paper, we compare the performance of the hand written NAB Parallel Benchmarks against three parallel versions generated with the help of tools and compilers: 1) CAPTools: an interactive computer aided parallelization too] that generates message passing code, 2) the Portland Group's HPF compiler and 3) using compiler directives with the native FORTAN77 compiler on the SGI Origin2000.

  20. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven


    This edited book comprises papers about the impacts, benefits and challenges of connected and automated cars. It is the third volume of the LNMOB series dealing with Road Vehicle Automation. The book comprises contributions from researchers, industry practitioners and policy makers, covering perspectives from the U.S., Europe and Japan. It is based on the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015 which was jointly organized by the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in July 2015. The topical spectrum includes, but is not limited to, public sector activities, human factors, ethical and business aspects, energy and technological perspectives, vehicle systems and transportation infrastructure. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  1. I-94 Automation FAQs (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — In order to increase efficiency, reduce operating costs and streamline the admissions process, U.S. Customs and Border Protection has automated Form I-94 at air and...

  2. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation 2


    This paper collection is the second volume of the LNMOB series on Road Vehicle Automation. The book contains a comprehensive review of current technical, socio-economic, and legal perspectives written by experts coming from public authorities, companies and universities in the U.S., Europe and Japan. It originates from the Automated Vehicle Symposium 2014, which was jointly organized by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Burlingame, CA, in July 2014. The contributions discuss the challenges arising from the integration of highly automated and self-driving vehicles into the transportation system, with a focus on human factors and different deployment scenarios. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  3. Hydrometeorological Automated Data System (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of Hydrologic Development of the National Weather Service operates HADS, the Hydrometeorological Automated Data System. This data set contains the last 48...

  4. Automating the Media Center. (United States)

    Holloway, Mary A.


    Discusses the need to develop more efficient information retrieval skills by the use of new technology. Lists four stages used in automating the media center. Describes North Carolina's pilot programs. Proposes benefits and looks at the media center's future. (MVL)

  5. Disassembly automation automated systems with cognitive abilities

    CERN Document Server

    Vongbunyong, Supachai


    This book presents a number of aspects to be considered in the development of disassembly automation, including the mechanical system, vision system and intelligent planner. The implementation of cognitive robotics increases the flexibility and degree of autonomy of the disassembly system. Disassembly, as a step in the treatment of end-of-life products, can allow the recovery of embodied value left within disposed products, as well as the appropriate separation of potentially-hazardous components. In the end-of-life treatment industry, disassembly has largely been limited to manual labor, which is expensive in developed countries. Automation is one possible solution for economic feasibility. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.



    Муравський, В. В.; Хома, Н. Г.


    Accountant accepts active voice in organization of the automated account in the conditions of the informative systems introduction in enterprise activity. Effective accounting automation needs identification and warning of organizational risks. Authors researched, classified and generalized the risks of introduction of the informative accounting systems. The ways of liquidation of the organizational risks sources andminimization of their consequences are gives. The method of the effective con...

  7. Instant Sikuli test automation

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Ben


    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to follow style using the Starter guide approach.This book is aimed at automation and testing professionals who want to use Sikuli to automate GUI. Some Python programming experience is assumed.

  8. Automated security management

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Shaer, Ehab; Xie, Geoffrey


    In this contributed volume, leading international researchers explore configuration modeling and checking, vulnerability and risk assessment, configuration analysis, and diagnostics and discovery. The authors equip readers to understand automated security management systems and techniques that increase overall network assurability and usability. These constantly changing networks defend against cyber attacks by integrating hundreds of security devices such as firewalls, IPSec gateways, IDS/IPS, authentication servers, authorization/RBAC servers, and crypto systems. Automated Security Managemen

  9. Automation of Diagrammatic Reasoning


    Jamnik, Mateja; Bundy, Alan; Green, Ian


    Theorems in automated theorem proving are usually proved by logical formal proofs. However, there is a subset of problems which humans can prove in a different way by the use of geometric operations on diagrams, so called diagrammatic proofs. Insight is more clearly perceived in these than in the corresponding algebraic proofs: they capture an intuitive notion of truthfulness that humans find easy to see and understand. We are identifying and automating this diagrammatic reasoning on mathemat...

  10. Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Christopher


    I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.

  11. Marketing automation supporting sales


    Sandell, Niko


    The past couple of decades has been a time of major changes in marketing. Digitalization has become a permanent part of marketing and at the same time enabled efficient collection of data. Personalization and customization of content are playing a crucial role in marketing when new customers are acquired. This has also created a need for automation to facilitate the distribution of targeted content. As a result of successful marketing automation more information of the customers is gathered ...

  12. Parallel optical sampler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Skogen, Erik J; Vawter, Gregory A


    An optical sampler includes a first and second 1.times.n optical beam splitters splitting an input optical sampling signal and an optical analog input signal into n parallel channels, respectively, a plurality of optical delay elements providing n parallel delayed input optical sampling signals, n photodiodes converting the n parallel optical analog input signals into n respective electrical output signals, and n optical modulators modulating the input optical sampling signal or the optical analog input signal by the respective electrical output signals, and providing n successive optical samples of the optical analog input signal. A plurality of output photodiodes and eADCs convert the n successive optical samples to n successive digital samples. The optical modulator may be a photodiode interconnected Mach-Zehnder Modulator. A method of sampling the optical analog input signal is disclosed.

  13. Parallel Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Uecker, Martin


    The main disadvantage of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are its long scan times and, in consequence, its sensitivity to motion. Exploiting the complementary information from multiple receive coils, parallel imaging is able to recover images from under-sampled k-space data and to accelerate the measurement. Because parallel magnetic resonance imaging can be used to accelerate basically any imaging sequence it has many important applications. Parallel imaging brought a fundamental shift in image reconstruction: Image reconstruction changed from a simple direct Fourier transform to the solution of an ill-conditioned inverse problem. This work gives an overview of image reconstruction from the perspective of inverse problems. After introducing basic concepts such as regularization, discretization, and iterative reconstruction, advanced topics are discussed including algorithms for auto-calibration, the connection to approximation theory, and the combination with compressed sensing.

  14. Elements of EAF automation processes (United States)

    Ioana, A.; Constantin, N.; Dragna, E. C.


    Our article presents elements of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) automation. So, we present and analyze detailed two automation schemes: the scheme of electrical EAF automation system; the scheme of thermic EAF automation system. The application results of these scheme of automation consists in: the sensitive reduction of specific consummation of electrical energy of Electric Arc Furnace, increasing the productivity of Electric Arc Furnace, increase the quality of the developed steel, increasing the durability of the building elements of Electric Arc Furnace.

  15. Balanço de água por aquisição automática de dados em cultura de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. The daily water consumption of a wheat culture using atmospheric and soil data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Luiz Prevedello


    Full Text Available Utilizando técnica de aquisição automática de dados atmosféricos e de teor de água do solo, este trabalho quantificou o consumo diário de água em cultura do trigo em Latossolo Vermelho do município de Ponta Grossa, Estado do Paraná, durante o período de agosto a dezembro de 2003, procurando dar ênfase à contribuição das chuvas e dos fluxos ascendentes de água das camadas mais profundas do solo nesse consumo. Os resultados mostraram que no período monitorado: (a a lâmina média diária de água evapotranspirada pela cultura do trigo foi de 6,75 mm, com o fluxo ascendente de água no perfil de solo contribuindo com 62 % desse total; (b as taxas de evapotranspiração estimadas pelo método de Penman e pela equação do balanço hídrico (pedológico se transladaram no tempo com simetria aproximadamente igual, mas com defasagem aproximada de sete dias, como se o solo respondesse às variações impostas pela atmosfera cerca de uma semana depois; (c as chuvas tiveram efeito importante no armazenamento de água no solo, contribuindo para elevação das taxas evapotranspirativas; e (d pelo fato de o potencial mátrico médio na zona das raízes ter-se apresentado próximo do limite crítico para a cultura, concluiu-se que a irrigação poderia produzir impactos potencialmente positivos para a cultura, por disponibilizar mais água no solo e garantir níveis evapotranspirativos mais altos, como é agronomicamente desejável.The daily water consumption of a wheat culture was quantified on an Oxisoil using atmospheric and soil data measured automatically on an experimental farm in Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil. The measurement period was August through December 2003. The rain contribution to soil moisture and the vertical upward movement of water within the soil were particularly emphasized. Our results show that in the evaluated period (a wheat evapotranspiration amounted to 6.75 mm a day, to which upward water flux contributed with 62

  16. Coarrars for Parallel Processing (United States)

    Snyder, W. Van


    The design of the Coarray feature of Fortran 2008 was guided by answering the question "What is the smallest change required to convert Fortran to a robust and efficient parallel language." Two fundamental issues that any parallel programming model must address are work distribution and data distribution. In order to coordinate work distribution and data distribution, methods for communication and synchronization must be provided. Although originally designed for Fortran, the Coarray paradigm has stimulated development in other languages. X10, Chapel, UPC, Titanium, and class libraries being developed for C++ have the same conceptual framework.

  17. Parallel programming with Python

    CERN Document Server

    Palach, Jan


    A fast, easy-to-follow and clear tutorial to help you develop Parallel computing systems using Python. Along with explaining the fundamentals, the book will also introduce you to slightly advanced concepts and will help you in implementing these techniques in the real world. If you are an experienced Python programmer and are willing to utilize the available computing resources by parallelizing applications in a simple way, then this book is for you. You are required to have a basic knowledge of Python development to get the most of this book.

  18. Extended Field Laser Confocal Microscopy (EFLCM: Combining automated Gigapixel image capture with in silico virtual microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strandh Christer


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Confocal laser scanning microscopy has revolutionized cell biology. However, the technique has major limitations in speed and sensitivity due to the fact that a single laser beam scans the sample, allowing only a few microseconds signal collection for each pixel. This limitation has been overcome by the introduction of parallel beam illumination techniques in combination with cold CCD camera based image capture. Methods Using the combination of microlens enhanced Nipkow spinning disc confocal illumination together with fully automated image capture and large scale in silico image processing we have developed a system allowing the acquisition, presentation and analysis of maximum resolution confocal panorama images of several Gigapixel size. We call the method Extended Field Laser Confocal Microscopy (EFLCM. Results We show using the EFLCM technique that it is possible to create a continuous confocal multi-colour mosaic from thousands of individually captured images. EFLCM can digitize and analyze histological slides, sections of entire rodent organ and full size embryos. It can also record hundreds of thousands cultured cells at multiple wavelength in single event or time-lapse fashion on fixed slides, in live cell imaging chambers or microtiter plates. Conclusion The observer independent image capture of EFLCM allows quantitative measurements of fluorescence intensities and morphological parameters on a large number of cells. EFLCM therefore bridges the gap between the mainly illustrative fluorescence microscopy and purely quantitative flow cytometry. EFLCM can also be used as high content analysis (HCA instrument for automated screening processes.

  19. Parallel k-means++

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    A parallelization of the k-means++ seed selection algorithm on three distinct hardware platforms: GPU, multicore CPU, and multithreaded architecture. K-means++ was developed by David Arthur and Sergei Vassilvitskii in 2007 as an extension of the k-means data clustering technique. These algorithms allow people to cluster multidimensional data, by attempting to minimize the mean distance of data points within a cluster. K-means++ improved upon traditional k-means by using a more intelligent approach to selecting the initial seeds for the clustering process. While k-means++ has become a popular alternative to traditional k-means clustering, little work has been done to parallelize this technique. We have developed original C++ code for parallelizing the algorithm on three unique hardware architectures: GPU using NVidia's CUDA/Thrust framework, multicore CPU using OpenMP, and the Cray XMT multithreaded architecture. By parallelizing the process for these platforms, we are able to perform k-means++ clustering much more quickly than it could be done before.

  20. Parallel Fast Legendre Transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alves de Inda, M.; Bisseling, R.H.; Maslen, D.K.


    We discuss a parallel implementation of a fast algorithm for the discrete polynomial Legendre transform We give an introduction to the DriscollHealy algorithm using polynomial arithmetic and present experimental results on the eciency and accuracy of our implementation The algorithms were implemente

  1. Parallel hierarchical global illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, Q.O.


    Solving the global illumination problem is equivalent to determining the intensity of every wavelength of light in all directions at every point in a given scene. The complexity of the problem has led researchers to use approximation methods for solving the problem on serial computers. Rather than using an approximation method, such as backward ray tracing or radiosity, the authors have chosen to solve the Rendering Equation by direct simulation of light transport from the light sources. This paper presents an algorithm that solves the Rendering Equation to any desired accuracy, and can be run in parallel on distributed memory or shared memory computer systems with excellent scaling properties. It appears superior in both speed and physical correctness to recent published methods involving bidirectional ray tracing or hybrid treatments of diffuse and specular surfaces. Like progressive radiosity methods, it dynamically refines the geometry decomposition where required, but does so without the excessive storage requirements for ray histories. The algorithm, called Photon, produces a scene which converges to the global illumination solution. This amounts to a huge task for a 1997-vintage serial computer, but using the power of a parallel supercomputer significantly reduces the time required to generate a solution. Currently, Photon can be run on most parallel environments from a shared memory multiprocessor to a parallel supercomputer, as well as on clusters of heterogeneous workstations.

  2. Practical parallel programming

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Barr E


    This is the book that will teach programmers to write faster, more efficient code for parallel processors. The reader is introduced to a vast array of procedures and paradigms on which actual coding may be based. Examples and real-life simulations using these devices are presented in C and FORTRAN.

  3. Implementation of Parallel Algorithms (United States)


    Lecture Notes in Computer Science , Warwich, England, July 16-20... Lecture Notes in Computer Science , Springer-Verlag, Bangalor, India, December 1990. J. Reif, J. Canny, and A. Page, "An Exact Algorithm for Kinodynamic...Parallel Algorithms and its Impact on Computational Geometry, in Optimal Algorithms, H. Djidjev editor, Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes in Computer Science

  4. Parallel and Distributed Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Kemper, Alfons; Prieto, Manuel; Szalay, Alex


    Euro-Par Topic 5 addresses data management issues in parallel and distributed computing. Advances in data management (storage, access, querying, retrieval, mining) are inherent to current and future information systems. Today, accessing large volumes of information is a reality: Data-intensive appli

  5. Parallel hierarchical radiosity rendering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.


    In this dissertation, the step-by-step development of a scalable parallel hierarchical radiosity renderer is documented. First, a new look is taken at the traditional radiosity equation, and a new form is presented in which the matrix of linear system coefficients is transformed into a symmetric matrix, thereby simplifying the problem and enabling a new solution technique to be applied. Next, the state-of-the-art hierarchical radiosity methods are examined for their suitability to parallel implementation, and scalability. Significant enhancements are also discovered which both improve their theoretical foundations and improve the images they generate. The resultant hierarchical radiosity algorithm is then examined for sources of parallelism, and for an architectural mapping. Several architectural mappings are discussed. A few key algorithmic changes are suggested during the process of making the algorithm parallel. Next, the performance, efficiency, and scalability of the algorithm are analyzed. The dissertation closes with a discussion of several ideas which have the potential to further enhance the hierarchical radiosity method, or provide an entirely new forum for the application of hierarchical methods.

  6. Parallel universes beguile science

    CERN Multimedia


    A staple of mind-bending science fiction, the possibility of multiple universes has long intrigued hard-nosed physicists, mathematicians and cosmologists too. We may not be able -- as least not yet -- to prove they exist, many serious scientists say, but there are plenty of reasons to think that parallel dimensions are more than figments of eggheaded imagination.

  7. Parallel processing of remotely sensed data: Application to the ATSR-2 instrument (United States)

    Simpson, J.; McIntire, T.; Berg, J.; Tsou, Y.


    Massively parallel computational paradigms can mitigate many issues associated with the analysis of large and complex remotely sensed data sets. Recently, the Beowulf cluster has emerged as the most attractive, massively parallel architecture due to its low cost and high performance. Whereas most Beowulf designs have emphasized numerical modeling applications, the Parallel Image Processing Environment (PIPE) specifically addresses the unique requirements of remote sensing applications. Automated, parallelization of user-defined analyses is fully supported. A neural network application, applied to Along Track Scanning Radiometer-2 (ATSR-2) data shows the advantages and performance characteristics of PIPE.

  8. To Parallelize or Not to Parallelize, Speed Up Issue

    CERN Document Server

    Elnashar, Alaa Ismail


    Running parallel applications requires special and expensive processing resources to obtain the required results within a reasonable time. Before parallelizing serial applications, some analysis is recommended to be carried out to decide whether it will benefit from parallelization or not. In this paper we discuss the issue of speed up gained from parallelization using Message Passing Interface (MPI) to compromise between the overhead of parallelization cost and the gained parallel speed up. We also propose an experimental method to predict the speed up of MPI applications.

  9. Materials Testing and Automation (United States)

    Cooper, Wayne D.; Zweigoron, Ronald B.


    The advent of automation in materials testing has been in large part responsible for recent radical changes in the materials testing field: Tests virtually impossible to perform without a computer have become more straightforward to conduct. In addition, standardized tests may be performed with enhanced efficiency and repeatability. A typical automated system is described in terms of its primary subsystems — an analog station, a digital computer, and a processor interface. The processor interface links the analog functions with the digital computer; it includes data acquisition, command function generation, and test control functions. Features of automated testing are described with emphasis on calculated variable control, control of a variable that is computed by the processor and cannot be read directly from a transducer. Three calculated variable tests are described: a yield surface probe test, a thermomechanical fatigue test, and a constant-stress-intensity range crack-growth test. Future developments are discussed.

  10. Automation of Taxiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Bursík


    Full Text Available The article focuses on the possibility of automation of taxiing, which is the part of a flight, which, under adverse weather conditions, greatly reduces the operational usability of an airport, and is the only part of a flight that has not been affected by automation, yet. Taxiing is currently handled manually by the pilot, who controls the airplane based on information from visual perception. The article primarily deals with possible ways of obtaining navigational information, and its automatic transfer to the controls. Analyzed wand assessed were currently available technologies such as computer vision, Light Detection and Ranging and Global Navigation Satellite System, which are useful for navigation and their general implementation into an airplane was designed. Obstacles to the implementation were identified, too. The result is a proposed combination of systems along with their installation into airplane’s systems so that it is possible to use the automated taxiing.

  11. Parallel grid population (United States)

    Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago


    Parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. One example embodiment is a method for parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. The method includes a first act of dividing a grid into n distinct grid portions, where n is the number of processors available for populating the grid. The method also includes acts of dividing a plurality of objects into n distinct sets of objects, assigning a distinct set of objects to each processor such that each processor determines by which distinct grid portion(s) each object in its distinct set of objects is at least partially bounded, and assigning a distinct grid portion to each processor such that each processor populates its distinct grid portion with any objects that were previously determined to be at least partially bounded by its distinct grid portion.

  12. Ultrascalable petaflop parallel supercomputer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton On Hudson, NY); Chiu, George (Cross River, NY); Cipolla, Thomas M. (Katonah, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Hall, Shawn (Pleasantville, NY); Haring, Rudolf A. (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Kopcsay, Gerard V. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Ohmacht, Martin (Yorktown Heights, NY); Salapura, Valentina (Chappaqua, NY); Sugavanam, Krishnan (Mahopac, NY); Takken, Todd (Brewster, NY)


    A massively parallel supercomputer of petaOPS-scale includes node architectures based upon System-On-a-Chip technology, where each processing node comprises a single Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) having up to four processing elements. The ASIC nodes are interconnected by multiple independent networks that optimally maximize the throughput of packet communications between nodes with minimal latency. The multiple networks may include three high-speed networks for parallel algorithm message passing including a Torus, collective network, and a Global Asynchronous network that provides global barrier and notification functions. These multiple independent networks may be collaboratively or independently utilized according to the needs or phases of an algorithm for optimizing algorithm processing performance. The use of a DMA engine is provided to facilitate message passing among the nodes without the expenditure of processing resources at the node.

  13. Collisionless parallel shocks (United States)

    Khabibrakhmanov, I. KH.; Galeev, A. A.; Galinskii, V. L.


    Consideration is given to a collisionless parallel shock based on solitary-type solutions of the modified derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation (MDNLS) for parallel Alfven waves. The standard derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation is generalized in order to include the possible anisotropy of the plasma distribution and higher-order Korteweg-de Vies-type dispersion. Stationary solutions of MDNLS are discussed. The anisotropic nature of 'adiabatic' reflections leads to the asymmetric particle distribution in the upstream as well as in the downstream regions of the shock. As a result, nonzero heat flux appears near the front of the shock. It is shown that this causes the stochastic behavior of the nonlinear waves, which can significantly contribute to the shock thermalization.

  14. Parallel clustering with CFinder

    CERN Document Server

    Pollner, Peter; Vicsek, Tamas; 10.1142/S0129626412400014


    The amount of available data about complex systems is increasing every year, measurements of larger and larger systems are collected and recorded. A natural representation of such data is given by networks, whose size is following the size of the original system. The current trend of multiple cores in computing infrastructures call for a parallel reimplementation of earlier methods. Here we present the grid version of CFinder, which can locate overlapping communities in directed, weighted or undirected networks based on the clique percolation method (CPM). We show that the computation of the communities can be distributed among several CPU-s or computers. Although switching to the parallel version not necessarily leads to gain in computing time, it definitely makes the community structure of extremely large networks accessible.

  15. Parallel programming with MPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatebe, Osamu [Electrotechnical Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)


    MPI is a practical, portable, efficient and flexible standard for message passing, which has been implemented on most MPPs and network of workstations by machine vendors, universities and national laboratories. MPI avoids specifying how operations will take place and superfluous work to achieve efficiency as well as portability, and is also designed to encourage overlapping communication and computation to hide communication latencies. This presentation briefly explains the MPI standard, and comments on efficient parallel programming to improve performance. (author)

  16. Implementation of Parallel Algorithms (United States)


    their socia ’ relations or to achieve some goals. For example, we define a pair-wise force law of i epulsion and attraction for a group of identical...quantization based compression schemes. Photo-refractive crystals, which provide high density recording in real time, are used as our holographic media . The...of Parallel Algorithms (J. Reif, ed.). Kluwer Academic Pu’ ishers, 1993. (4) "A Dynamic Separator Algorithm", D. Armon and J. Reif. To appear in

  17. Algorithmically specialized parallel computers

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Lawrence; Gannon, Dennis B


    Algorithmically Specialized Parallel Computers focuses on the concept and characteristics of an algorithmically specialized computer.This book discusses the algorithmically specialized computers, algorithmic specialization using VLSI, and innovative architectures. The architectures and algorithms for digital signal, speech, and image processing and specialized architectures for numerical computations are also elaborated. Other topics include the model for analyzing generalized inter-processor, pipelined architecture for search tree maintenance, and specialized computer organization for raster

  18. Parallel Algorithms Derivation (United States)


    Lecture Notes in Computer Science , Warwich, England, July 16.20, 1990. J. Reif and J. Storer, "A Parallel Architecture for...34, The 10th Conference on Foundations of Software Technology and Theoretical Computer Science, Lecture Notes in Computer Science , Springer-Verlag...Geometry, in Optimal Algorithms, H. Djidjev editor, Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes in Computer Science 401, 1989, 1.8.. J. Reif, R. Paturi, and S.

  19. Xyce parallel electronic simulator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Eric R; Mei, Ting; Russo, Thomas V.; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Schiek, Richard Louis; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Fixel, Deborah A.; Coffey, Todd S; Pawlowski, Roger P; Santarelli, Keith R.


    This document is a reference guide to the Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator, and is a companion document to the Xyce Users Guide. The focus of this document is (to the extent possible) exhaustively list device parameters, solver options, parser options, and other usage details of Xyce. This document is not intended to be a tutorial. Users who are new to circuit simulation are better served by the Xyce Users Guide.

  20. Stability of parallel flows

    CERN Document Server

    Betchov, R


    Stability of Parallel Flows provides information pertinent to hydrodynamical stability. This book explores the stability problems that occur in various fields, including electronics, mechanics, oceanography, administration, economics, as well as naval and aeronautical engineering. Organized into two parts encompassing 10 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the general equations of a two-dimensional incompressible flow. This text then explores the stability of a laminar boundary layer and presents the equation of the inviscid approximation. Other chapters present the general equation

  1. Automating the CMS DAQ

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gerry; Behrens, Ulf; Branson, James; Chaze, Olivier; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Hartl, Christian; Hegeman, Jeroen Guido; Holzner, Andre Georg; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Franciscus; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius; Morovic, Srecko; Nunez Barranco Fernandez, Carlos; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Ozga, Wojciech Andrzej; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schwick, Christoph; Spataru, Andrei Cristian; Stieger, Benjamin Bastian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Veverka, Jan; Wakefield, Christopher Colin; Zejdl, Petr


    We present the automation mechanisms that have been added to the Data Acquisition and Run Control systems of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment during Run 1 of the LHC, ranging from the automation of routine tasks to automatic error recovery and context-sensitive guidance to the operator. These mechanisms helped CMS to maintain a data taking efficiency above 90\\% and to even improve it to 95\\% towards the end of Run 1, despite an increase in the occurrence of single-event upsets in sub-detector electronics at high LHC luminosity.

  2. Automating the CMS DAQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.; et al.


    We present the automation mechanisms that have been added to the Data Acquisition and Run Control systems of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment during Run 1 of the LHC, ranging from the automation of routine tasks to automatic error recovery and context-sensitive guidance to the operator. These mechanisms helped CMS to maintain a data taking efficiency above 90% and to even improve it to 95% towards the end of Run 1, despite an increase in the occurrence of single-event upsets in sub-detector electronics at high LHC luminosity.

  3. The Parallel C Preprocessor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene D. Brooks III


    Full Text Available We describe a parallel extension of the C programming language designed for multiprocessors that provide a facility for sharing memory between processors. The programming model was initially developed on conventional shared memory machines with small processor counts such as the Sequent Balance and Alliant FX/8, but has more recently been used on a scalable massively parallel machine, the BBN TC2000. The programming model is split-join rather than fork-join. Concurrency is exploited to use a fixed number of processors more efficiently rather than to exploit more processors as in the fork-join model. Team splitting, a mechanism to split the team of processors executing a code into subteams to handle parallel subtasks, is used to provide an efficient mechanism to exploit nested concurrency. We have found the split-join programming model to have an inherent implementation advantage, compared to the fork-join model, when the number of processors in a machine becomes large.

  4. Parallel Feature Extraction System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAHuimin; WANGYan


    Very high speed image processing is needed in some application specially for weapon. In this paper, a high speed image feature extraction system with parallel structure was implemented by Complex programmable logic device (CPLD), and it can realize image feature extraction in several microseconds almost with no delay. This system design is presented by an application instance of flying plane, whose infrared image includes two kinds of feature: geometric shape feature in the binary image and temperature-feature in the gray image. Accordingly the feature extraction is taken on the two kind features. Edge and area are two most important features of the image. Angle often exists in the connection of the different parts of the target's image, which indicates that one area ends and the other area begins. The three key features can form the whole presentation of an image. So this parallel feature extraction system includes three processing modules: edge extraction, angle extraction and area extraction. The parallel structure is realized by a group of processors, every detector is followed by one route of processor, every route has the same circuit form, and works together at the same time controlled by a set of clock to realize feature extraction. The extraction system has simple structure, small volume, high speed, and better stability against noise. It can be used in the war field recognition system.

  5. Altering user' acceptance of automation through prior automation exposure. (United States)

    Bekier, Marek; Molesworth, Brett R C


    Air navigation service providers worldwide see increased use of automation as one solution to overcome the capacity constraints imbedded in the present air traffic management (ATM) system. However, increased use of automation within any system is dependent on user acceptance. The present research sought to determine if the point at which an individual is no longer willing to accept or cooperate with automation can be manipulated. Forty participants underwent training on a computer-based air traffic control programme, followed by two ATM exercises (order counterbalanced), one with and one without the aid of automation. Results revealed after exposure to a task with automation assistance, user acceptance of high(er) levels of automation ('tipping point') decreased; suggesting it is indeed possible to alter automation acceptance. Practitioner Summary: This paper investigates whether the point at which a user of automation rejects automation (i.e. 'tipping point') is constant or can be manipulated. The results revealed after exposure to a task with automation assistance, user acceptance of high(er) levels of automation decreased; suggesting it is possible to alter automation acceptance.

  6. Embryoid Body-Explant Outgrowth Cultivation from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in an Automated Closed Platform (United States)

    Tone, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Saeko; Akiyama, Hirokazu; Nishimura, Akira; Ichimura, Masaki; Nakatani, Masaru; Kiyono, Tohru


    Automation of cell culture would facilitate stable cell expansion with consistent quality. In the present study, feasibility of an automated closed-cell culture system “P 4C S” for an embryoid body- (EB-) explant outgrowth culture was investigated as a model case for explant culture. After placing the induced pluripotent stem cell- (iPSC-) derived EBs into the system, the EBs successfully adhered to the culture surface and the cell outgrowth was clearly observed surrounding the adherent EBs. After confirming the outgrowth, we carried out subculture manipulation, in which the detached cells were simply dispersed by shaking the culture flask, leading to uniform cell distribution. This enabled continuous stable cell expansion, resulting in a cell yield of 3.1 × 107. There was no evidence of bacterial contamination throughout the cell culture experiments. We herewith developed the automated cultivation platform for EB-explant outgrowth cells. PMID:27648449

  7. Microcontroller for automation application (United States)

    Cooper, H. W.


    The description of a microcontroller currently being developed for automation application was given. It is basically an 8-bit microcomputer with a 40K byte random access memory/read only memory, and can control a maximum of 12 devices through standard 15-line interface ports.

  8. Automated Composite Column Wrapping


    ECT Team, Purdue


    The Automated Composite Column Wrapping is performed by a patented machine known as Robo-Wrapper. Currently there are three versions of the machine available for bridge retrofit work depending on the size of the columns being wrapped. Composite column retrofit jacket systems can be structurally just as effective as conventional steel jacketing in improving the seismic response characteristics of substandard reinforced concrete columns.

  9. Automated Web Applications Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan CĂPRIŢĂ


    Full Text Available Unit tests are a vital part of several software development practicesand processes such as Test-First Programming, Extreme Programming andTest-Driven Development. This article shortly presents the software quality andtesting concepts as well as an introduction to an automated unit testingframework for PHP web based applications.

  10. Automated Student Model Improvement (United States)

    Koedinger, Kenneth R.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth A.; Stamper, John C.


    Student modeling plays a critical role in developing and improving instruction and instructional technologies. We present a technique for automated improvement of student models that leverages the DataShop repository, crowd sourcing, and a version of the Learning Factors Analysis algorithm. We demonstrate this method on eleven educational…

  11. Automated Accounting. Instructor Guide. (United States)

    Moses, Duane R.

    This curriculum guide was developed to assist business instructors using Dac Easy Accounting College Edition Version 2.0 software in their accounting programs. The module consists of four units containing assignment sheets and job sheets designed to enable students to master competencies identified in the area of automated accounting. The first…



    Carrión Muñoz, Rolando; Docente de la FII - UNMSM


    The article shows the role that ergonomics in automation of processes, and the importance for Industrial Engineering.  El artículo nos muestra el papel que tiene la ergonomía en la automatización de los procesos, y la importancia para la Ingeniería Industrial.

  13. Mechatronic Design Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun

    successfully design analogue filters, vibration absorbers, micro-electro-mechanical systems, and vehicle suspension systems, all in an automatic or semi-automatic way. It also investigates the very important issue of co-designing plant-structures and dynamic controllers in automated design of Mechatronic...

  14. Protokoller til Home Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kristian Ellebæk


    computer, der kan skifte mellem foruddefinerede indstillinger. Nogle gange kan computeren fjernstyres over internettet, så man kan se hjemmets status fra en computer eller måske endda fra en mobiltelefon. Mens nævnte anvendelser er klassiske indenfor home automation, er yderligere funktionalitet dukket op...

  15. Myths in test automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmine Francis


    Full Text Available Myths in automation of software testing is an issue of discussion that echoes about the areas of service in validation of software industry. Probably, the first though that appears in knowledgeable reader would be Why this old topic again? What's New to discuss the matter? But, for the first time everyone agrees that undoubtedly automation testing today is not today what it used to be ten or fifteen years ago, because it has evolved in scope and magnitude. What began as a simple linear scripts for web applications today has a complex architecture and a hybrid framework to facilitate the implementation of testing applications developed with various platforms and technologies. Undoubtedly automation has advanced, but so did the myths associated with it. The change in perspective and knowledge of people on automation has altered the terrain. This article reflects the points of views and experience of the author in what has to do with the transformation of the original myths in new versions, and how they are derived; also provides his thoughts on the new generation of myths.

  16. Architectural Adaptability in Parallel Programming (United States)


    I AD-A247 516 Architectural Adaptability in Parallel Programming Lawrence Alan Crowl Technical Report 381 May 1991 92-06322 UNIVERSITY OF ROC R...COMPUTER SCIENCE Best Avai~lable Copy Architectural Adaptability in Parallel Programming by Lawrence Alan Crowl Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the development of their programs. In applying abstraction to parallel programming , we can use abstractions to represent potential parallelism

  17. A Survey of Parallel Computing (United States)


    MPP-Pascal (Parallel Pascal designed by Anthony Reeves) and Parallel Fortran-77 programming languages are provided. The MPP costs between $2 and $4...Arnould Gross Kung Lam Menzilcioglu Webb 1987], [Annaratone Bitz Clune Kung Lam Maulik Ribas Tseng Webb 1987], and [Bruegge Chang Cohn Gross Lam Lieu...for the SIMD class of computers, but Anthony Reeves (designer of Parallel Pascal) recently started looking into implementing Parallel Pascal on the FPS

  18. Parallel Architectures and Bioinspired Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, José; Lanchares, Juan


    This monograph presents examples of best practices when combining bioinspired algorithms with parallel architectures. The book includes recent work by leading researchers in the field and offers a map with the main paths already explored and new ways towards the future. Parallel Architectures and Bioinspired Algorithms will be of value to both specialists in Bioinspired Algorithms, Parallel and Distributed Computing, as well as computer science students trying to understand the present and the future of Parallel Architectures and Bioinspired Algorithms.

  19. Automating spectral measurements (United States)

    Goldstein, Fred T.


    This paper discusses the architecture of software utilized in spectroscopic measurements. As optical coatings become more sophisticated, there is mounting need to automate data acquisition (DAQ) from spectrophotometers. Such need is exacerbated when 100% inspection is required, ancillary devices are utilized, cost reduction is crucial, or security is vital. While instrument manufacturers normally provide point-and-click DAQ software, an application programming interface (API) may be missing. In such cases automation is impossible or expensive. An API is typically provided in libraries (*.dll, *.ocx) which may be embedded in user-developed applications. Users can thereby implement DAQ automation in several Windows languages. Another possibility, developed by FTG as an alternative to instrument manufacturers' software, is the ActiveX application (*.exe). ActiveX, a component of many Windows applications, provides means for programming and interoperability. This architecture permits a point-and-click program to act as automation client and server. Excel, for example, can control and be controlled by DAQ applications. Most importantly, ActiveX permits ancillary devices such as barcode readers and XY-stages to be easily and economically integrated into scanning procedures. Since an ActiveX application has its own user-interface, it can be independently tested. The ActiveX application then runs (visibly or invisibly) under DAQ software control. Automation capabilities are accessed via a built-in spectro-BASIC language with industry-standard (VBA-compatible) syntax. Supplementing ActiveX, spectro-BASIC also includes auxiliary serial port commands for interfacing programmable logic controllers (PLC). A typical application is automatic filter handling.

  20. CSM parallel structural methods research (United States)

    Storaasli, Olaf O.


    Parallel structural methods, research team activities, advanced architecture computers for parallel computational structural mechanics (CSM) research, the FLEX/32 multicomputer, a parallel structural analyses testbed, blade-stiffened aluminum panel with a circular cutout and the dynamic characteristics of a 60 meter, 54-bay, 3-longeron deployable truss beam are among the topics discussed.

  1. A fully automated multicapillary electrophoresis device for DNA analysis. (United States)

    Behr, S; Mätzig, M; Levin, A; Eickhoff, H; Heller, C


    We describe the construction and performance of a fully automated multicapillary electrophoresis system for the analysis of fluorescently labeled biomolecules. A special detection system allows the simultaneous spectral analysis of all 96 capillaries. The main features are true parallel detection without any moving parts, high robustness, and full compatibility to existing protocols. The device can process up to 40 microtiter plates (96 and 384 well) without human interference, which means up to 15,000 samples before it has to be reloaded.

  2. A Parallel Butterfly Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Poulson, Jack


    The butterfly algorithm is a fast algorithm which approximately evaluates a discrete analogue of the integral transform (Equation Presented.) at large numbers of target points when the kernel, K(x, y), is approximately low-rank when restricted to subdomains satisfying a certain simple geometric condition. In d dimensions with O(Nd) quasi-uniformly distributed source and target points, when each appropriate submatrix of K is approximately rank-r, the running time of the algorithm is at most O(r2Nd logN). A parallelization of the butterfly algorithm is introduced which, assuming a message latency of α and per-process inverse bandwidth of β, executes in at most (Equation Presented.) time using p processes. This parallel algorithm was then instantiated in the form of the open-source DistButterfly library for the special case where K(x, y) = exp(iΦ(x, y)), where Φ(x, y) is a black-box, sufficiently smooth, real-valued phase function. Experiments on Blue Gene/Q demonstrate impressive strong-scaling results for important classes of phase functions. Using quasi-uniform sources, hyperbolic Radon transforms, and an analogue of a three-dimensional generalized Radon transform were, respectively, observed to strong-scale from 1-node/16-cores up to 1024-nodes/16,384-cores with greater than 90% and 82% efficiency, respectively. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  3. Theory of Parallel Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Zhen; Ding, Huafeng


    This book contains mechanism analysis and synthesis. In mechanism analysis, a mobility methodology is first systematically presented. This methodology, based on the author's screw theory, proposed in 1997, of which the generality and validity was only proved recently,  is a very complex issue, researched by various scientists over the last 150 years. The principle of kinematic influence coefficient and its latest developments are described. This principle is suitable for kinematic analysis of various 6-DOF and lower-mobility parallel manipulators. The singularities are classified by a new point of view, and progress in position-singularity and orientation-singularity is stated. In addition, the concept of over-determinate input is proposed and a new method of force analysis based on screw theory is presented. In mechanism synthesis, the synthesis for spatial parallel mechanisms is discussed, and the synthesis method of difficult 4-DOF and 5-DOF symmetric mechanisms, which was first put forward by the a...

  4. Cultural Resources, RecreationAreasESRI-This data set represents the recreational areas found in Utah, including campgrounds, golf courses and ski resorts., Published in 2001, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cultural Resources dataset, published at Smaller than 1:100000 scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2001. It is...

  5. C++ and Massively Parallel Computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Lickly


    Full Text Available Our goal is to apply the software engineering advantages of object-oriented programming to the raw power of massively parallel architectures. To do this we have constructed a hierarchy of C++ classes to support the data-parallel paradigm. Feasibility studies and initial coding can be supported by any serial machine that has a C++ compiler. Parallel execution requires an extended Cfront, which understands the data-parallel classes and generates C* code. (C* is a data-parallel superset of ANSI C developed by Thinking Machines Corporation. This approach provides potential portability across parallel architectures and leverages the existing compiler technology for translating data-parallel programs onto both SIMD and MIMD hardware.

  6. Computer Assisted Parallel Program Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, Shigeo


    Parallel computation is widely employed in scientific researches, engineering activities and product development. Parallel program writing itself is not always a simple task depending on problems solved. Large-scale scientific computing, huge data analyses and precise visualizations, for example, would require parallel computations, and the parallel computing needs the parallelization techniques. In this Chapter a parallel program generation support is discussed, and a computer-assisted parallel program generation system P-NCAS is introduced. Computer assisted problem solving is one of key methods to promote innovations in science and engineering, and contributes to enrich our society and our life toward a programming-free environment in computing science. Problem solving environments (PSE) research activities had started to enhance the programming power in 1970's. The P-NCAS is one of the PSEs; The PSE concept provides an integrated human-friendly computational software and hardware system to solve a target ...

  7. Parallel Computing in SCALE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHart, Mark D [ORNL; Williams, Mark L [ORNL; Bowman, Stephen M [ORNL


    The SCALE computational architecture has remained basically the same since its inception 30 years ago, although constituent modules and capabilities have changed significantly. This SCALE concept was intended to provide a framework whereby independent codes can be linked to provide a more comprehensive capability than possible with the individual programs - allowing flexibility to address a wide variety of applications. However, the current system was designed originally for mainframe computers with a single CPU and with significantly less memory than today's personal computers. It has been recognized that the present SCALE computation system could be restructured to take advantage of modern hardware and software capabilities, while retaining many of the modular features of the present system. Preliminary work is being done to define specifications and capabilities for a more advanced computational architecture. This paper describes the state of current SCALE development activities and plans for future development. With the release of SCALE 6.1 in 2010, a new phase of evolutionary development will be available to SCALE users within the TRITON and NEWT modules. The SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) code system developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a comprehensive and integrated package of codes and nuclear data for a wide range of applications in criticality safety, reactor physics, shielding, isotopic depletion and decay, and sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) analysis. Over the last three years, since the release of version 5.1 in 2006, several important new codes have been introduced within SCALE, and significant advances applied to existing codes. Many of these new features became available with the release of SCALE 6.0 in early 2009. However, beginning with SCALE 6.1, a first generation of parallel computing is being introduced. In addition to near-term improvements, a plan for longer term SCALE enhancement

  8. ATLAS Distributed Computing Automation

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Borrego, C; Campana, S; Di Girolamo, A; Elmsheuser, J; Hejbal, J; Kouba, T; Legger, F; Magradze, E; Medrano Llamas, R; Negri, G; Rinaldi, L; Sciacca, G; Serfon, C; Van Der Ster, D C


    The ATLAS Experiment benefits from computing resources distributed worldwide at more than 100 WLCG sites. The ATLAS Grid sites provide over 100k CPU job slots, over 100 PB of storage space on disk or tape. Monitoring of status of such a complex infrastructure is essential. The ATLAS Grid infrastructure is monitored 24/7 by two teams of shifters distributed world-wide, by the ATLAS Distributed Computing experts, and by site administrators. In this paper we summarize automation efforts performed within the ATLAS Distributed Computing team in order to reduce manpower costs and improve the reliability of the system. Different aspects of the automation process are described: from the ATLAS Grid site topology provided by the ATLAS Grid Information System, via automatic site testing by the HammerCloud, to automatic exclusion from production or analysis activities.

  9. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R.A.


    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC.

  10. The automation of science. (United States)

    King, Ross D; Rowland, Jem; Oliver, Stephen G; Young, Michael; Aubrey, Wayne; Byrne, Emma; Liakata, Maria; Markham, Magdalena; Pir, Pinar; Soldatova, Larisa N; Sparkes, Andrew; Whelan, Kenneth E; Clare, Amanda


    The basis of science is the hypothetico-deductive method and the recording of experiments in sufficient detail to enable reproducibility. We report the development of Robot Scientist "Adam," which advances the automation of both. Adam has autonomously generated functional genomics hypotheses about the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and experimentally tested these hypotheses by using laboratory automation. We have confirmed Adam's conclusions through manual experiments. To describe Adam's research, we have developed an ontology and logical language. The resulting formalization involves over 10,000 different research units in a nested treelike structure, 10 levels deep, that relates the 6.6 million biomass measurements to their logical description. This formalization describes how a machine contributed to scientific knowledge.

  11. The Automated Medical Office



    With shock and surprise many physicians learned in the 1980s that they must change the way they do business. Competition for patients, increasing government regulation, and the rapidly escalating risk of litigation forces physicians to seek modern remedies in office management. The author describes a medical clinic that strives to be paperless using electronic innovation to solve the problems of medical practice management. A computer software program to automate information management in a c...

  12. Automation of printing machine


    Sušil, David


    Bachelor thesis is focused on the automation of the printing machine and comparing the two types of printing machines. The first chapter deals with the history of printing, typesettings, printing techniques and various kinds of bookbinding. The second chapter describes the difference between sheet-fed printing machines and offset printing machines, the difference between two representatives of rotary machines, technological process of the products on these machines, the description of the mac...

  13. Automation in biological crystallization. (United States)

    Stewart, Patrick Shaw; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen


    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given.

  14. Automation in biological crystallization (United States)

    Shaw Stewart, Patrick; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen


    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given. PMID:24915074

  15. Parallel Polarization State Generation (United States)

    She, Alan; Capasso, Federico


    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristics with applications in spectroscopic ellipsometry, spectropolarimetry, communications, imaging, and security.

  16. Accelerated Parallel Texture Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao-Da Huang; Xin Tong; Wen-Cheng Wang


    Texture optimization is a texture synthesis method that can efficiently reproduce various features of exemplar textures. However, its slow synthesis speed limits its usage in many interactive or real time applications. In this paper, we propose a parallel texture optimization algorithm to run on GPUs. In our algorithm, k-coherence search and principle component analysis (PCA) are used for hardware acceleration, and two acceleration techniques are further developed to speed up our GPU-based texture optimization. With a reasonable precomputation cost, the online synthesis speed of our algorithm is 4000+ times faster than that of the original texture optimization algorithm and thus our algorithm is capable of interactive applications. The advantages of the new scheme are demonstrated by applying it to interactive editing of flow-guided synthesis.

  17. Parallel Polarization State Generation

    CERN Document Server

    She, Alan


    The control of polarization, an essential property of light, is of wide scientific and technological interest. The general problem of generating arbitrary time-varying states of polarization (SOP) has always been mathematically formulated by a series of linear transformations, i.e. a product of matrices, imposing a serial architecture. Here we show a parallel architecture described by a sum of matrices. The theory is experimentally demonstrated by modulating spatially-separated polarization components of a laser using a digital micromirror device that are subsequently beam combined. This method greatly expands the parameter space for engineering devices that control polarization. Consequently, performance characteristics, such as speed, stability, and spectral range, are entirely dictated by the technologies of optical intensity modulation, including absorption, reflection, emission, and scattering. This opens up important prospects for polarization state generation (PSG) with unique performance characteristi...

  18. Parallel imaging microfluidic cytometer. (United States)

    Ehrlich, Daniel J; McKenna, Brian K; Evans, James G; Belkina, Anna C; Denis, Gerald V; Sherr, David H; Cheung, Man Ching


    By adding an additional degree of freedom from multichannel flow, the parallel microfluidic cytometer (PMC) combines some of the best features of fluorescence-activated flow cytometry (FCM) and microscope-based high-content screening (HCS). The PMC (i) lends itself to fast processing of large numbers of samples, (ii) adds a 1D imaging capability for intracellular localization assays (HCS), (iii) has a high rare-cell sensitivity, and (iv) has an unusual capability for time-synchronized sampling. An inability to practically handle large sample numbers has restricted applications of conventional flow cytometers and microscopes in combinatorial cell assays, network biology, and drug discovery. The PMC promises to relieve a bottleneck in these previously constrained applications. The PMC may also be a powerful tool for finding rare primary cells in the clinic. The multichannel architecture of current PMC prototypes allows 384 unique samples for a cell-based screen to be read out in ∼6-10 min, about 30 times the speed of most current FCM systems. In 1D intracellular imaging, the PMC can obtain protein localization using HCS marker strategies at many times for the sample throughput of charge-coupled device (CCD)-based microscopes or CCD-based single-channel flow cytometers. The PMC also permits the signal integration time to be varied over a larger range than is practical in conventional flow cytometers. The signal-to-noise advantages are useful, for example, in counting rare positive cells in the most difficult early stages of genome-wide screening. We review the status of parallel microfluidic cytometry and discuss some of the directions the new technology may take.

  19. About Parallel Programming: Paradigms, Parallel Execution and Collaborative Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana MOCEAN


    Full Text Available In the last years, there were made efforts for delineation of a stabile and unitary frame, where the problems of logical parallel processing must find solutions at least at the level of imperative languages. The results obtained by now are not at the level of the made efforts. This paper wants to be a little contribution at these efforts. We propose an overview in parallel programming, parallel execution and collaborative systems.

  20. Contaminant analysis automation demonstration proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, M.G.; Schur, A.; Heubach, J.G.


    The nation-wide and global need for environmental restoration and waste remediation (ER&WR) presents significant challenges to the analytical chemistry laboratory. The expansion of ER&WR programs forces an increase in the volume of samples processed and the demand for analysis data. To handle this expanding volume, productivity must be increased. However. The need for significantly increased productivity, faces contaminant analysis process which is costly in time, labor, equipment, and safety protection. Laboratory automation offers a cost effective approach to meeting current and future contaminant analytical laboratory needs. The proposed demonstration will present a proof-of-concept automated laboratory conducting varied sample preparations. This automated process also highlights a graphical user interface that provides supervisory, control and monitoring of the automated process. The demonstration provides affirming answers to the following questions about laboratory automation: Can preparation of contaminants be successfully automated?; Can a full-scale working proof-of-concept automated laboratory be developed that is capable of preparing contaminant and hazardous chemical samples?; Can the automated processes be seamlessly integrated and controlled?; Can the automated laboratory be customized through readily convertible design? and Can automated sample preparation concepts be extended to the other phases of the sample analysis process? To fully reap the benefits of automation, four human factors areas should be studied and the outputs used to increase the efficiency of laboratory automation. These areas include: (1) laboratory configuration, (2) procedures, (3) receptacles and fixtures, and (4) human-computer interface for the full automated system and complex laboratory information management systems.

  1. Instant Ligand Libraries. Parallel Synthesis of Monodentate Phosphoramidites and in Situ Screening in Asymmetric Hydrogenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefort, Laurent; Boogers, Jeroen A.F.; Vries, André H.M. de; Vries, Johannes G. de


    Chiral phosphoramidites have been identified as excellent ligands for various metal-catalyzed enantioselective transformations. Taking advantage of their easy preparation and modular nature, we designed a fully automated protocol for the parallel preparation of a library of 32 phosphoramidites and i

  2. Toward the automation of road networks extraction processes (United States)

    Leymarie, Frederic; Boichis, Nicolas; Airault, Sylvain; Jamet, Olivier


    Syseca and IGN are working on various steps in the ongoing march from digital photogrammetry to the semi-automation and ultimately the full automation of data manipulation, i.e., capture and analysis. The immediate goals are to reduce the production costs and the data availability delays. Within this context, we have tackle the distinctive problem of 'automated road network extraction.' The methodology adopted is to first study semi-automatic solutions which probably increase the global efficiency of human operators in topographic data capture; in a second step, automatic solutions are designed based upon the gained experience. We report on different (semi-)automatic solutions for the road following algorithm. One key aspect of our method is to have the stages of 'detection' and 'geometric recovery' cooperate together while remaining distinct. 'Detection' is based on a local (texture) analysis of the image, while 'geometric recovery' is concerned with the extraction of 'road objects' for both monocular and stereo information. 'Detection' is a low-level visual process, 'reasoning' directly at the level of image intensities, while the mid-level visual process, 'geometric recovery', uses contextual knowledge about roads, both generic, e.g. parallelism of borders, and specific, e.g. using previously extracted road segments and disparities. We then pursue our 'march' by reporting on steps we are exploring toward full automation. We have in particular made attempts at tackling the automation of the initialization step to start searching in a valid direction.

  3. Parallel Framework for Cooperative Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitică Craus


    Full Text Available This paper describes the work of an object oriented framework designed to be used in the parallelization of a set of related algorithms. The idea behind the system we are describing is to have a re-usable framework for running several sequential algorithms in a parallel environment. The algorithms that the framework can be used with have several things in common: they have to run in cycles and the work should be possible to be split between several "processing units". The parallel framework uses the message-passing communication paradigm and is organized as a master-slave system. Two applications are presented: an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO parallel algorithm for the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP and an Image Processing (IP parallel algorithm for the Symmetrical Neighborhood Filter (SNF. The implementations of these applications by means of the parallel framework prove to have good performances: approximatively linear speedup and low communication cost.

  4. Cloud parallel processing of tandem mass spectrometry based proteomics data. (United States)

    Mohammed, Yassene; Mostovenko, Ekaterina; Henneman, Alex A; Marissen, Rob J; Deelder, André M; Palmblad, Magnus


    Data analysis in mass spectrometry based proteomics struggles to keep pace with the advances in instrumentation and the increasing rate of data acquisition. Analyzing this data involves multiple steps requiring diverse software, using different algorithms and data formats. Speed and performance of the mass spectral search engines are continuously improving, although not necessarily as needed to face the challenges of acquired big data. Improving and parallelizing the search algorithms is one possibility; data decomposition presents another, simpler strategy for introducing parallelism. We describe a general method for parallelizing identification of tandem mass spectra using data decomposition that keeps the search engine intact and wraps the parallelization around it. We introduce two algorithms for decomposing mzXML files and recomposing resulting pepXML files. This makes the approach applicable to different search engines, including those relying on sequence databases and those searching spectral libraries. We use cloud computing to deliver the computational power and scientific workflow engines to interface and automate the different processing steps. We show how to leverage these technologies to achieve faster data analysis in proteomics and present three scientific workflows for parallel database as well as spectral library search using our data decomposition programs, X!Tandem and SpectraST.

  5. Greater Buyer Effectiveness through Automation (United States)


    FOB = free on board FPAC = Federal Procurement Automation Council FPDS = Federal Procurement Data System 4GL = fourth generation language GAO = General...Procurement Automation Council ( FPAC ), entitled Compendium of Automated Procurement Systems in Federal Agencies. The FPAC inventory attempted to identify...In some cases we have updated descriptions of systems identified by the FPAC study, but many of the newer systems are identified here for the first

  6. 78 FR 66039 - Modification of National Customs Automation Program Test Concerning Automated Commercial... (United States)


    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Modification of National Customs Automation Program Test... National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) test concerning the Simplified Entry functionality in the...'s (CBP's) National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) test concerning Automated...

  7. 77 FR 48527 - National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Test Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE... (United States)


    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Test Concerning...: General notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces modifications to the National Customs Automation Program...) National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) test concerning Automated Commercial Environment...

  8. Automated Distributed Simulation in Ptolemy II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lázaro Cuadrado, Daniel; Ravn, Anders Peter; Koch, Peter


    the ensuing communication and synchronization problems. Very often the designer has to explicitly specify extra information concerning distribution for the framework to make an effort to exploit parallelism. This paper presents Automated Distributed Simulation (ADS), which allows the designer to forget about......Despite the well known advantages of distributed processing for intensive computations like simulation, frameworks often fail to exploit them. A distributed simulation is harder to develop than a sequential one, because it is necessary to interface and map activities to processors and handle...... distribution concerns while benefiting from the advantages. ADS relies on the actor formalism. It is realized as an open source implementation for the Ptolemy II simulation framework. Experiments compare different topologies, granularities and number of blocks, achieving linear speedups for practical cases. We...

  9. Parallel Programming in the Age of Ubiquitous Parallelism (United States)

    Pingali, Keshav


    Multicore and manycore processors are now ubiquitous, but parallel programming remains as difficult as it was 30-40 years ago. During this time, our community has explored many promising approaches including functional and dataflow languages, logic programming, and automatic parallelization using program analysis and restructuring, but none of these approaches has succeeded except in a few niche application areas. In this talk, I will argue that these problems arise largely from the computation-centric foundations and abstractions that we currently use to think about parallelism. In their place, I will propose a novel data-centric foundation for parallel programming called the operator formulation in which algorithms are described in terms of actions on data. The operator formulation shows that a generalized form of data-parallelism called amorphous data-parallelism is ubiquitous even in complex, irregular graph applications such as mesh generation/refinement/partitioning and SAT solvers. Regular algorithms emerge as a special case of irregular ones, and many application-specific optimization techniques can be generalized to a broader context. The operator formulation also leads to a structural analysis of algorithms called TAO-analysis that provides implementation guidelines for exploiting parallelism efficiently. Finally, I will describe a system called Galois based on these ideas for exploiting amorphous data-parallelism on multicores and GPUs

  10. Trajectories in parallel optics. (United States)

    Klapp, Iftach; Sochen, Nir; Mendlovic, David


    In our previous work we showed the ability to improve the optical system's matrix condition by optical design, thereby improving its robustness to noise. It was shown that by using singular value decomposition, a target point-spread function (PSF) matrix can be defined for an auxiliary optical system, which works parallel to the original system to achieve such an improvement. In this paper, after briefly introducing the all optics implementation of the auxiliary system, we show a method to decompose the target PSF matrix. This is done through a series of shifted responses of auxiliary optics (named trajectories), where a complicated hardware filter is replaced by postprocessing. This process manipulates the pixel confined PSF response of simple auxiliary optics, which in turn creates an auxiliary system with the required PSF matrix. This method is simulated on two space variant systems and reduces their system condition number from 18,598 to 197 and from 87,640 to 5.75, respectively. We perform a study of the latter result and show significant improvement in image restoration performance, in comparison to a system without auxiliary optics and to other previously suggested hybrid solutions. Image restoration results show that in a range of low signal-to-noise ratio values, the trajectories method gives a significant advantage over alternative approaches. A third space invariant study case is explored only briefly, and we present a significant improvement in the matrix condition number from 1.9160e+013 to 34,526.

  11. World-wide distribution automation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaney, T.M.


    A worldwide power distribution automation system is outlined. Distribution automation is defined and the status of utility automation is discussed. Other topics discussed include a distribution management system, substation feeder, and customer functions, potential benefits, automation costs, planning and engineering considerations, automation trends, databases, system operation, computer modeling of system, and distribution management systems.

  12. Parallel Backtracking with Answer Memoing for Independent And-Parallelism

    CERN Document Server

    de Guzmán, Pablo Chico; Carro, Manuel; Hermenegildo, Manuel V


    Goal-level Independent and-parallelism (IAP) is exploited by scheduling for simultaneous execution two or more goals which will not interfere with each other at run time. This can be done safely even if such goals can produce multiple answers. The most successful IAP implementations to date have used recomputation of answers and sequentially ordered backtracking. While in principle simplifying the implementation, recomputation can be very inefficient if the granularity of the parallel goals is large enough and they produce several answers, while sequentially ordered backtracking limits parallelism. And, despite the expected simplification, the implementation of the classic schemes has proved to involve complex engineering, with the consequent difficulty for system maintenance and extension, while still frequently running into the well-known trapped goal and garbage slot problems. This work presents an alternative parallel backtracking model for IAP and its implementation. The model features parallel out-of-or...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test. With the help of software testing we can verify or validate the software product. Normally testing will be done after development of software but we can perform the software testing at the time of development process also. This paper will give you a brief introduction about Automated API Testing Tool. This tool of testing will reduce lots of headache after the whole development of software. It saves time as well as money. Such type of testing is helpful in the Industries & Colleges also.

  14. The automated medical office. (United States)

    Petreman, M


    With shock and surprise many physicians learned in the 1980s that they must change the way they do business. Competition for patients, increasing government regulation, and the rapidly escalating risk of litigation forces physicians to seek modern remedies in office management. The author describes a medical clinic that strives to be paperless using electronic innovation to solve the problems of medical practice management. A computer software program to automate information management in a clinic shows that practical thinking linked to advanced technology can greatly improve office efficiency.

  15. [Automated anesthesia record system]. (United States)

    Zhu, Tao; Liu, Jin


    Based on Client/Server architecture, a software of automated anesthesia record system running under Windows operation system and networks has been developed and programmed with Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0, Visual Basic 6.0 and SQL Server. The system can deal with patient's information throughout the anesthesia. It can collect and integrate the data from several kinds of medical equipment such as monitor, infusion pump and anesthesia machine automatically and real-time. After that, the system presents the anesthesia sheets automatically. The record system makes the anesthesia record more accurate and integral and can raise the anesthesiologist's working efficiency.

  16. Automated landmark-guided deformable image registration (United States)

    Kearney, Vasant; Chen, Susie; Gu, Xuejun; Chiu, Tsuicheng; Liu, Honghuan; Jiang, Lan; Wang, Jing; Yordy, John; Nedzi, Lucien; Mao, Weihua


    The purpose of this work is to develop an automated landmark-guided deformable image registration (LDIR) algorithm between the planning CT and daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) with low image quality. This method uses an automated landmark generation algorithm in conjunction with a local small volume gradient matching search engine to map corresponding landmarks between the CBCT and the planning CT. The landmarks act as stabilizing control points in the following Demons deformable image registration. LDIR is implemented on graphics processing units (GPUs) for parallel computation to achieve ultra fast calculation. The accuracy of the LDIR algorithm has been evaluated on a synthetic case in the presence of different noise levels and data of six head and neck cancer patients. The results indicate that LDIR performed better than rigid registration, Demons, and intensity corrected Demons for all similarity metrics used. In conclusion, LDIR achieves high accuracy in the presence of multimodality intensity mismatch and CBCT noise contamination, while simultaneously preserving high computational efficiency.

  17. Sunglint Detection for Unmanned and Automated Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Zielinski


    Full Text Available We present an empirical quality control protocol for above-water radiometric sampling focussing on identifying sunglint situations. Using hyperspectral radiometers, measurements were taken on an automated and unmanned seaborne platform in northwest European shelf seas. In parallel, a camera system was used to capture sea surface and sky images of the investigated points. The quality control consists of meteorological flags, to mask dusk, dawn, precipitation and low light conditions, utilizing incoming solar irradiance (ES spectra. Using 629 from a total of 3,121 spectral measurements that passed the test conditions of the meteorological flagging, a new sunglint flag was developed. To predict sunglint conspicuous in the simultaneously available sea surface images a sunglint image detection algorithm was developed and implemented. Applying this algorithm, two sets of data, one with (having too much or detectable white pixels or sunglint and one without sunglint (having least visible/detectable white pixel or sunglint, were derived. To identify the most effective sunglint flagging criteria we evaluated the spectral characteristics of these two data sets using water leaving radiance (LW and remote sensing reflectance (RRS. Spectral conditions satisfying ‘mean LW (700–950 nm < 2 mW∙m−2∙nm−1∙Sr−1’ or alternatively ‘minimum RRS (700–950 nm < 0.010 Sr−1’, mask most measurements affected by sunglint, providing an efficient empirical flagging of sunglint in automated quality control.

  18. Evaluation of an automated method for urinocolture screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ballabio


    Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary tract infections are one of the most common diseases found in medical practice and are diagnosed with traditional methods of cultivation on plates. In this study we evaluated an automated instrumentation for screening of the urinocultures that can provide results quickly and guarantee traceability. The comparison of results obtained with automatic and plate methods is reported. Methods: 316 urine samples including midstream urine, urine catheter and urine bag have been analyzed by Alfred 60 (Alifax through light scattering technology that measures the replication of the bacteria. Simultaneously, the samples were sown on agar plates CPS3,Agar Cled, Mc Conkey Agar. Results:A total of 316 samples were analyzed by the automated method, 190 resulted negative, all confirmed by culture, while 126 were found positive. 82 cases were confirmed positive in culture plate, 65 with significant isolation of bacteria and 17 with polymicrobial flora with a significant charge. 44 cases were negative in culture plate but positive for the automated method. Conclusions: The absence of false negative results at low charges can represent a starting point to introduce an automated method for urinocolture screening.

  19. Application of Pfortran and Co-Array Fortran in the Parallelization of the GROMOS96 Molecular Dynamics Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bała


    Full Text Available After at least a decade of parallel tool development, parallelization of scientific applications remains a significant undertaking. Typically parallelization is a specialized activity supported only partially by the programming tool set, with the programmer involved with parallel issues in addition to sequential ones. The details of concern range from algorithm design down to low-level data movement details. The aim of parallel programming tools is to automate the latter without sacrificing performance and portability, allowing the programmer to focus on algorithm specification and development. We present our use of two similar parallelization tools, Pfortran and Cray's Co-Array Fortran, in the parallelization of the GROMOS96 molecular dynamics module. Our parallelization started from the GROMOS96 distribution's shared-memory implementation of the replicated algorithm, but used little of that existing parallel structure. Consequently, our parallelization was close to starting with the sequential version. We found the intuitive extensions to Pfortran and Co-Array Fortran helpful in the rapid parallelization of the project. We present performance figures for both the Pfortran and Co-Array Fortran parallelizations showing linear speedup within the range expected by these parallelization methods.

  20. Parallel performance of a preconditioned CG solver for unstructured finite element applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadid, J.N.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Moffat, H.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    A parallel unstructured finite element (FE) implementation designed for message passing MIMD machines is described. This implementation employs automated problem partitioning algorithms for load balancing unstructured grids, a distributed sparse matrix representation of the global finite element equations and a parallel conjugate gradient (CG) solver. In this paper a number of issues related to the efficient implementation of parallel unstructured mesh applications are presented. These include the differences between structured and unstructured mesh parallel applications, major communication kernels for unstructured CG solvers, automatic mesh partitioning algorithms, and the influence of mesh partitioning metrics on parallel performance. Initial results are presented for example finite element (FE) heat transfer analysis applications on a 1024 processor nCUBE 2 hypercube. Results indicate over 95% scaled efficiencies are obtained for some large problems despite the required unstructured data communication.

  1. Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diachin, L; Hornung, R; Plassmann, P; WIssink, A


    As large-scale, parallel computers have become more widely available and numerical models and algorithms have advanced, the range of physical phenomena that can be simulated has expanded dramatically. Many important science and engineering problems exhibit solutions with localized behavior where highly-detailed salient features or large gradients appear in certain regions which are separated by much larger regions where the solution is smooth. Examples include chemically-reacting flows with radiative heat transfer, high Reynolds number flows interacting with solid objects, and combustion problems where the flame front is essentially a two-dimensional sheet occupying a small part of a three-dimensional domain. Modeling such problems numerically requires approximating the governing partial differential equations on a discrete domain, or grid. Grid spacing is an important factor in determining the accuracy and cost of a computation. A fine grid may be needed to resolve key local features while a much coarser grid may suffice elsewhere. Employing a fine grid everywhere may be inefficient at best and, at worst, may make an adequately resolved simulation impractical. Moreover, the location and resolution of fine grid required for an accurate solution is a dynamic property of a problem's transient features and may not be known a priori. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is a technique that can be used with both structured and unstructured meshes to adjust local grid spacing dynamically to capture solution features with an appropriate degree of resolution. Thus, computational resources can be focused where and when they are needed most to efficiently achieve an accurate solution without incurring the cost of a globally-fine grid. Figure 1.1 shows two example computations using AMR; on the left is a structured mesh calculation of a impulsively-sheared contact surface and on the right is the fuselage and volume discretization of an RAH-66 Comanche helicopter [35]. Note the

  2. Parallel External Memory Graph Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodari


    In this paper, we study parallel I/O efficient graph algorithms in the Parallel External Memory (PEM) model, one o f the private-cache chip multiprocessor (CMP) models. We study the fundamental problem of list ranking which leads to efficient solutions to problems on trees, such as computing lowest...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. А. Сухопарова


    Full Text Available Problem of parallel import is urgent question at now. Parallel import legalization in Russia is expedient. Such statement based on opposite experts opinion analysis. At the same time it’s necessary to negative consequences consider of this decision and to apply remedies to its minimization.Purchase on > Buy now

  4. Parallel Readout of Optical Disks (United States)


    mismatch between mass storage media and semiconductor memories.2 A parallel random ac- cess memory would be one possible way to construct a parallel...27, 2987-2992 (1988). 11. T. Yatagai, J. G. Camacho -Basilio, and H. Onda, "Recording of Computer-Generated Holograms on an Optical Disk Master

  5. Parallel FFT using Eden Skeletons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthold, Jost; Dieterle, Mischa; Lobachev, Oleg;


    approaches like calculating FFT using a parallel map-and-transpose skeleton provide more flexibility to overcome these problems. Assuming a distributed access to input data and re-organising computation to return results in a distributed way improves the parallel runtime behaviour....

  6. Parallel Computers in Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narsingh Deo


    Full Text Available Signal processing often requires a great deal of raw computing power for which it is important to take a look at parallel computers. The paper reviews various types of parallel computer architectures from the viewpoint of signal and image processing.

  7. Parallel context-free languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven


    The relation between the family of context-free languages and the family of parallel context-free languages is examined in this paper. It is proved that the families are incomparable. Finally we prove that the family of languages of finite index is contained in the family of parallel context......-free languages....

  8. Ethics, evolution and culture. (United States)

    Mesoudi, Alex; Danielson, Peter


    Recent work in the fields of evolutionary ethics and moral psychology appears to be converging on a single empirically- and evolutionary-based science of morality or ethics. To date, however, these fields have failed to provide an adequate conceptualisation of how culture affects the content and distribution of moral norms. This is particularly important for a large class of moral norms relating to rapidly changing technological or social environments, such as norms regarding the acceptability of genetically modified organisms. Here we suggest that a science of morality/ethics can benefit from adopting a cultural evolution or gene-culture coevolution approach, which treats culture as a second, separate evolutionary system that acts in parallel to biological/genetic evolution. This cultural evolution approach brings with it a set of established theoretical concepts (e.g. different cultural transmission mechanisms) and empirical methods (e.g. evolutionary game theory) that can significantly improve our understanding of human morality.

  9. Automated Postediting of Documents

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, K; Knight, Kevin; Chander, Ishwar


    Large amounts of low- to medium-quality English texts are now being produced by machine translation (MT) systems, optical character readers (OCR), and non-native speakers of English. Most of this text must be postedited by hand before it sees the light of day. Improving text quality is tedious work, but its automation has not received much research attention. Anyone who has postedited a technical report or thesis written by a non-native speaker of English knows the potential of an automated postediting system. For the case of MT-generated text, we argue for the construction of postediting modules that are portable across MT systems, as an alternative to hardcoding improvements inside any one system. As an example, we have built a complete self-contained postediting module for the task of article selection (a, an, the) for English noun phrases. This is a notoriously difficult problem for Japanese-English MT. Our system contains over 200,000 rules derived automatically from online text resources. We report on l...

  10. Automated Test Case Generation

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    I would like to present the concept of automated test case generation. I work on it as part of my PhD and I think it would be interesting also for other people. It is also the topic of a workshop paper that I am introducing in Paris. (abstract below) Please note that the talk itself would be more general and not about the specifics of my PhD, but about the broad field of Automated Test Case Generation. I would introduce the main approaches (combinatorial testing, symbolic execution, adaptive random testing) and their advantages and problems. (oracle problem, combinatorial explosion, ...) Abstract of the paper: Over the last decade code-based test case generation techniques such as combinatorial testing or dynamic symbolic execution have seen growing research popularity. Most algorithms and tool implementations are based on finding assignments for input parameter values in order to maximise the execution branch coverage. Only few of them consider dependencies from outside the Code Under Test’s scope such...

  11. Maneuver Automation Software (United States)

    Uffelman, Hal; Goodson, Troy; Pellegrin, Michael; Stavert, Lynn; Burk, Thomas; Beach, David; Signorelli, Joel; Jones, Jeremy; Hahn, Yungsun; Attiyah, Ahlam; Illsley, Jeannette


    The Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) automates the process of generating commands for maneuvers to keep the spacecraft of the Cassini-Huygens mission on a predetermined prime mission trajectory. Before MAS became available, a team of approximately 10 members had to work about two weeks to design, test, and implement each maneuver in a process that involved running many maneuver-related application programs and then serially handing off data products to other parts of the team. MAS enables a three-member team to design, test, and implement a maneuver in about one-half hour after Navigation has process-tracking data. MAS accepts more than 60 parameters and 22 files as input directly from users. MAS consists of Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) scripts that link, sequence, and execute the maneuver- related application programs: "Pushing a single button" on a graphical user interface causes MAS to run navigation programs that design a maneuver; programs that create sequences of commands to execute the maneuver on the spacecraft; and a program that generates predictions about maneuver performance and generates reports and other files that enable users to quickly review and verify the maneuver design. MAS can also generate presentation materials, initiate electronic command request forms, and archive all data products for future reference.

  12. Automated digital magnetofluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, J; Garcia, A A; Marquez, M [Harrington Department of Bioengineering Arizona State University, Tempe AZ 85287-9709 (United States)], E-mail:


    Drops can be moved in complex patterns on superhydrophobic surfaces using a reconfigured computer-controlled x-y metrology stage with a high degree of accuracy, flexibility, and reconfigurability. The stage employs a DMC-4030 controller which has a RISC-based, clock multiplying processor with DSP functions, accepting encoder inputs up to 22 MHz, provides servo update rates as high as 32 kHz, and processes commands at rates as fast as 40 milliseconds. A 6.35 mm diameter cylindrical NdFeB magnet is translated by the stage causing water drops to move by the action of induced magnetization of coated iron microspheres that remain in the drop and are attracted to the rare earth magnet through digital magnetofluidics. Water drops are easily moved in complex patterns in automated digital magnetofluidics at an average speed of 2.8 cm/s over a superhydrophobic polyethylene surface created by solvent casting. With additional components, some potential uses for this automated microfluidic system include characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces, water quality analysis, and medical diagnostics.

  13. Parallel contingency statistics with Titan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David C.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre


    This report summarizes existing statistical engines in VTK/Titan and presents the recently parallelized contingency statistics engine. It is a sequel to [PT08] and [BPRT09] which studied the parallel descriptive, correlative, multi-correlative, and principal component analysis engines. The ease of use of this new parallel engines is illustrated by the means of C++ code snippets. Furthermore, this report justifies the design of these engines with parallel scalability in mind; however, the very nature of contingency tables prevent this new engine from exhibiting optimal parallel speed-up as the aforementioned engines do. This report therefore discusses the design trade-offs we made and study performance with up to 200 processors.

  14. NEC和非堵塞式主从并行遗传算法应用于天线自动设计的研究%A Study of Applying NEC and Non-Blocking Master-Slave Parallel Genetic Algorithms to Automated Antenna Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈星; 黄卡玛; 赵翔


    利用优化算法和天线数值计算方法实现对天线结构的自动设计(Automated design)是现代天线研究的一个重要趋势.本文讨论了天线自动设计的原理和流程,采用遗传算法(Genetic algorithms)和NEC(Numerical electromagnetics code)天线数值计算程序,建立了一套天线自动设计软件平台.采用并行计算技术提高自动设计效率,搭建了一套Beowulf并行计算机系统,首次提出非堵塞式主从并行遗传算法的实现方案.以对锥削螺旋-圆锥喇叭天线的自动设计为例,结果表明该自动设计软件平台具备对复杂天线进行准确和有效设计的能力.16节点的并行效率达到了82.25%,超过同类研究结果.

  15. Get smart! automate your house!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Amstel, P.; Gorter, N.; De Rouw, J.


    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability This manual will help you in reducing both energy usage and costs by automating your home. It gives an introduction to a number of home automation systems that every homeowner can install.

  16. Opening up Library Automation Software (United States)

    Breeding, Marshall


    Throughout the history of library automation, the author has seen a steady advancement toward more open systems. In the early days of library automation, when proprietary systems dominated, the need for standards was paramount since other means of inter-operability and data exchange weren't possible. Today's focus on Application Programming…

  17. Classification of Automated Search Traffic (United States)

    Buehrer, Greg; Stokes, Jack W.; Chellapilla, Kumar; Platt, John C.

    As web search providers seek to improve both relevance and response times, they are challenged by the ever-increasing tax of automated search query traffic. Third party systems interact with search engines for a variety of reasons, such as monitoring a web site’s rank, augmenting online games, or possibly to maliciously alter click-through rates. In this paper, we investigate automated traffic (sometimes referred to as bot traffic) in the query stream of a large search engine provider. We define automated traffic as any search query not generated by a human in real time. We first provide examples of different categories of query logs generated by automated means. We then develop many different features that distinguish between queries generated by people searching for information, and those generated by automated processes. We categorize these features into two classes, either an interpretation of the physical model of human interactions, or as behavioral patterns of automated interactions. Using the these detection features, we next classify the query stream using multiple binary classifiers. In addition, a multiclass classifier is then developed to identify subclasses of both normal and automated traffic. An active learning algorithm is used to suggest which user sessions to label to improve the accuracy of the multiclass classifier, while also seeking to discover new classes of automated traffic. Performance analysis are then provided. Finally, the multiclass classifier is used to predict the subclass distribution for the search query stream.

  18. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation. (United States)

    Andreyewsky, Alexander


    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  19. Automated Methods Of Corrosion Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Reeve, John Ch


    The chapter describes the following automated measurements: Corrosion Measurements by Titration, Imaging Corrosion by Scanning Probe Microscopy, Critical Pitting Temperature and Application of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Permeation Cell.......The chapter describes the following automated measurements: Corrosion Measurements by Titration, Imaging Corrosion by Scanning Probe Microscopy, Critical Pitting Temperature and Application of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Permeation Cell....

  20. Parallel programming characteristics of a DSP-based parallel system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Shu; GUO Qing-ping


    This paper firstly introduces the structure and working principle of DSP-based parallel system, parallel accelerating board and SHARC DSP chip. Then it pays attention to investigating the system's programming characteristics, especially the mode of communication, discussing how to design parallel algorithms and presenting a domain-decomposition-based complete multi-grid parallel algorithm with virtual boundary forecast (VBF) to solve a lot of large-scale and complicated heat problems. In the end, Mandelbrot Set and a non-linear heat transfer equation of ceramic/metal composite material are taken as examples to illustrate the implementation of the proposed algorithm. The results showed that the solutions are highly efficient and have linear speedup.

  1. Template based parallel checkpointing in a massively parallel computer system (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens; Inglett, Todd Alan


    A method and apparatus for a template based parallel checkpoint save for a massively parallel super computer system using a parallel variation of the rsync protocol, and network broadcast. In preferred embodiments, the checkpoint data for each node is compared to a template checkpoint file that resides in the storage and that was previously produced. Embodiments herein greatly decrease the amount of data that must be transmitted and stored for faster checkpointing and increased efficiency of the computer system. Embodiments are directed to a parallel computer system with nodes arranged in a cluster with a high speed interconnect that can perform broadcast communication. The checkpoint contains a set of actual small data blocks with their corresponding checksums from all nodes in the system. The data blocks may be compressed using conventional non-lossy data compression algorithms to further reduce the overall checkpoint size.

  2. Automated Standard Hazard Tool (United States)

    Stebler, Shane


    The current system used to generate standard hazard reports is considered cumbersome and iterative. This study defines a structure for this system's process in a clear, algorithmic way so that standard hazard reports and basic hazard analysis may be completed using a centralized, web-based computer application. To accomplish this task, a test server is used to host a prototype of the tool during development. The prototype is configured to easily integrate into NASA's current server systems with minimal alteration. Additionally, the tool is easily updated and provides NASA with a system that may grow to accommodate future requirements and possibly, different applications. Results of this project's success are outlined in positive, subjective reviews complete by payload providers and NASA Safety and Mission Assurance personnel. Ideally, this prototype will increase interest in the concept of standard hazard automation and lead to the full-scale production of a user-ready application.

  3. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt


    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  4. [From automation to robotics]. (United States)


    The introduction of automation into the laboratory of biology seems to be unavoidable. But at which cost, if it is necessary to purchase a new machine for every new application? Fortunately the same image processing techniques, belonging to a theoretic framework called Mathematical Morphology, may be used in visual inspection tasks, both in car industry and in the biology lab. Since the market for industrial robotics applications is much higher than the market of biomedical applications, the price of image processing devices drops, and becomes sometimes less than the price of a complete microscope equipment. The power of the image processing methods of Mathematical Morphology will be illustrated by various examples, as automatic silver grain counting in autoradiography, determination of HLA genotype, electrophoretic gels analysis, automatic screening of cervical smears... Thus several heterogeneous applications may share the same image processing device, provided there is a separate and devoted work station for each of them.

  5. Automated electronic filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Amal


    This book describes a novel, efficient and powerful scheme for designing and evaluating the performance characteristics of any electronic filter designed with predefined specifications. The author explains techniques that enable readers to eliminate complicated manual, and thus error-prone and time-consuming, steps of traditional design techniques. The presentation includes demonstration of efficient automation, using an ANSI C language program, which accepts any filter design specification (e.g. Chebyschev low-pass filter, cut-off frequency, pass-band ripple etc.) as input and generates as output a SPICE(Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) format netlist. Readers then can use this netlist to run simulations with any version of the popular SPICE simulator, increasing accuracy of the final results, without violating any of the key principles of the traditional design scheme.

  6. An Analysis of the Relationship of Confucian Thoughts to Chinese Traditional Culture with Western Culture Concerned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    By drawing support from the kernel theories of Confucian thoughts and the dominant characteristic of Chinese traditional culture,this article was to introduce how Confucian thoughts play a chief role in Chinese traditional culture.The study first analyzed the kernel theories of Confucian thoughts and the chief characteristic of Chinese traditional culture in two parallel lines.Then Chinese traditional culture was deliberated in culture patterns with Confucian thoughts and Western Culture concerned.

  7. Interactive Parallel and Distributed Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Pagliarini, Luigi


    We present the concept of interactive parallel and distributed processing, and the challenges that programmers face in designing interactive parallel and distributed systems. Specifically, we introduce the challenges that are met and the decisions that need to be taken with respect...... to distributedness, master dependency, software behavioural models, adaptive interactivity, feedback, connectivity, topology, island modeling, and user interaction. We introduce the system of modular interactive tiles as a tool for easy, fast, and flexible exploration of these issues, and through examples show how...... to implement interactive parallel and distributed processing with different software behavioural models such as open loop, randomness based, rule based, user interaction based, AI and ALife based software....

  8. Automated Essay Scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semire DIKLI


    Full Text Available Automated Essay Scoring Semire DIKLI Florida State University Tallahassee, FL, USA ABSTRACT The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali, 2004. AES is defined as the computer technology that evaluates and scores the written prose (Shermis & Barrera, 2002; Shermis & Burstein, 2003; Shermis, Raymat, & Barrera, 2003. Revision and feedback are essential aspects of the writing process. Students need to receive feedback in order to increase their writing quality. However, responding to student papers can be a burden for teachers. Particularly if they have large number of students and if they assign frequent writing assignments, providing individual feedback to student essays might be quite time consuming. AES systems can be very useful because they can provide the student with a score as well as feedback within seconds (Page, 2003. Four types of AES systems, which are widely used by testing companies, universities, and public schools: Project Essay Grader (PEG, Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA, E-rater, and IntelliMetric. AES is a developing technology. Many AES systems are used to overcome time, cost, and generalizability issues in writing assessment. The accuracy and reliability of these systems have been proven to be high. The search for excellence in machine scoring of essays is continuing and numerous studies are being conducted to improve the effectiveness of the AES systems.

  9. Interpreting the Data: Parallel Analysis with Sawzall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Pike


    Full Text Available Very large data sets often have a flat but regular structure and span multiple disks and machines. Examples include telephone call records, network logs, and web document repositories. These large data sets are not amenable to study using traditional database techniques, if only because they can be too large to fit in a single relational database. On the other hand, many of the analyses done on them can be expressed using simple, easily distributed computations: filtering, aggregation, extraction of statistics, and so on. We present a system for automating such analyses. A filtering phase, in which a query is expressed using a new procedural programming language, emits data to an aggregation phase. Both phases are distributed over hundreds or even thousands of computers. The results are then collated and saved to a file. The design – including the separation into two phases, the form of the programming language, and the properties of the aggregators – exploits the parallelism inherent in having data and computation distributed across many machines.

  10. Clarity: an open-source manager for laboratory automation. (United States)

    Delaney, Nigel F; Rojas Echenique, José I; Marx, Christopher J


    Software to manage automated laboratories, when interfaced with hardware instruments, gives users a way to specify experimental protocols and schedule activities to avoid hardware conflicts. In addition to these basics, modern laboratories need software that can run multiple different protocols in parallel and that can be easily extended to interface with a constantly growing diversity of techniques and instruments. We present Clarity, a laboratory automation manager that is hardware agnostic, portable, extensible, and open source. Clarity provides critical features including remote monitoring, robust error reporting by phone or email, and full state recovery in the event of a system crash. We discuss the basic organization of Clarity, demonstrate an example of its implementation for the automated analysis of bacterial growth, and describe how the program can be extended to manage new hardware. Clarity is mature, well documented, actively developed, written in C# for the Common Language Infrastructure, and is free and open-source software. These advantages set Clarity apart from currently available laboratory automation programs. The source code and documentation for Clarity is available at

  11. Clarity: An Open Source Manager for Laboratory Automation (United States)

    Delaney, Nigel F.; Echenique, José Rojas; Marx, Christopher J.


    Software to manage automated laboratories interfaces with hardware instruments, gives users a way to specify experimental protocols, and schedules activities to avoid hardware conflicts. In addition to these basics, modern laboratories need software that can run multiple different protocols in parallel and that can be easily extended to interface with a constantly growing diversity of techniques and instruments. We present Clarity: a laboratory automation manager that is hardware agnostic, portable, extensible and open source. Clarity provides critical features including remote monitoring, robust error reporting by phone or email, and full state recovery in the event of a system crash. We discuss the basic organization of Clarity; demonstrate an example of its implementation for the automated analysis of bacterial growth; and describe how the program can be extended to manage new hardware. Clarity is mature; well documented; actively developed; written in C# for the Common Language Infrastructure; and is free and open source software. These advantages set Clarity apart from currently available laboratory automation programs. PMID:23032169

  12. Sub-Second Parallel State Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yousu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rice, Mark J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Glaesemann, Kurt R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Shaobu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Zhenyu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This report describes the performance of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) sub-second parallel state estimation (PSE) tool using the utility data from the Bonneville Power Administrative (BPA) and discusses the benefits of the fast computational speed for power system applications. The test data were provided by BPA. They are two-days’ worth of hourly snapshots that include power system data and measurement sets in a commercial tool format. These data are extracted out from the commercial tool box and fed into the PSE tool. With the help of advanced solvers, the PSE tool is able to solve each BPA hourly state estimation problem within one second, which is more than 10 times faster than today’s commercial tool. This improved computational performance can help increase the reliability value of state estimation in many aspects: (1) the shorter the time required for execution of state estimation, the more time remains for operators to take appropriate actions, and/or to apply automatic or manual corrective control actions. This increases the chances of arresting or mitigating the impact of cascading failures; (2) the SE can be executed multiple times within time allowance. Therefore, the robustness of SE can be enhanced by repeating the execution of the SE with adaptive adjustments, including removing bad data and/or adjusting different initial conditions to compute a better estimate within the same time as a traditional state estimator’s single estimate. There are other benefits with the sub-second SE, such as that the PSE results can potentially be used in local and/or wide-area automatic corrective control actions that are currently dependent on raw measurements to minimize the impact of bad measurements, and provides opportunities to enhance the power grid reliability and efficiency. PSE also can enable other advanced tools that rely on SE outputs and could be used to further improve operators’ actions and automated controls to mitigate effects

  13. The STAPL Parallel Graph Library

    KAUST Repository



    This paper describes the stapl Parallel Graph Library, a high-level framework that abstracts the user from data-distribution and parallelism details and allows them to concentrate on parallel graph algorithm development. It includes a customizable distributed graph container and a collection of commonly used parallel graph algorithms. The library introduces pGraph pViews that separate algorithm design from the container implementation. It supports three graph processing algorithmic paradigms, level-synchronous, asynchronous and coarse-grained, and provides common graph algorithms based on them. Experimental results demonstrate improved scalability in performance and data size over existing graph libraries on more than 16,000 cores and on internet-scale graphs containing over 16 billion vertices and 250 billion edges. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013.

  14. Massively Parallel Finite Element Programming

    KAUST Repository

    Heister, Timo


    Today\\'s large finite element simulations require parallel algorithms to scale on clusters with thousands or tens of thousands of processor cores. We present data structures and algorithms to take advantage of the power of high performance computers in generic finite element codes. Existing generic finite element libraries often restrict the parallelization to parallel linear algebra routines. This is a limiting factor when solving on more than a few hundreds of cores. We describe routines for distributed storage of all major components coupled with efficient, scalable algorithms. We give an overview of our effort to enable the modern and generic finite element library deal.II to take advantage of the power of large clusters. In particular, we describe the construction of a distributed mesh and develop algorithms to fully parallelize the finite element calculation. Numerical results demonstrate good scalability. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine


    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an arti...... by an artificial liquid membrane. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction is a modification of hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, where the hollow fibers are replaced by flat membranes in a 96-well plate format....

  16. Live Migration Of Parallel Applications


    Romero, Raul Fabian


    Romero, Raul F. M.S., Purdue University, August, 2010. Live Migration of Parallel Applications. Major Professor: Thomas J. Hacker. It has been observed on engineering and scientific data centers that the absence of a clear separation between software and hardware can severely affect parallel applications. Applications that run across several nodes tend to be greatly affected because a single computational failure present in one of the nodes often leads the entire application to produce ...

  17. Parallel SFC/MS-MUX screening to assess enantiomeric purity. (United States)

    Laskar, Derek B; Zeng, Lu; Xu, Rongda; Kassel, Daniel B


    Enantiomeric excess (ee) was evaluated for two internally synthesized compound libraries using a high-throughput automated, intelligent four-channel parallel supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry system equipped with a multiplexed ion source interface (SFC/MS-MUX). The two libraries contained compounds spanning a wide range of enantiomeric ratios with structurally diverse chemical scaffolds and stereogenic centers. The system analyzed each sample simultaneously against four chiral columns using up to six organic modifiers. Enhancements to our previously published parallel supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry system were implemented to address the challenges associated with automated trace enantiomer identification and quantitation. A reversal of enantiomer elution order was observed for several samples across multiple CSPs and modifiers. The relationship between elution order and % ee accuracy is presented for compounds exhibiting high, middle and low % ee values. Despite incidences in which the minor enantiomer eluted prior to the major enantiomer with less than baseline resolution, the overall % ee was in agreement with separations in which full baseline resolution was achieved. The methods presented here demonstrate the value and utility of high-throughput ee determinations to support drug discovery and development programs.

  18. Writing parallel programs that work

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    Serial algorithms typically run inefficiently on parallel machines. This may sound like an obvious statement, but it is the root cause of why parallel programming is considered to be difficult. The current state of the computer industry is still that almost all programs in existence are serial. This talk will describe the techniques used in the Intel Parallel Studio to provide a developer with the tools necessary to understand the behaviors and limitations of the existing serial programs. Once the limitations are known the developer can refactor the algorithms and reanalyze the resulting programs with the tools in the Intel Parallel Studio to create parallel programs that work. About the speaker Paul Petersen is a Sr. Principal Engineer in the Software and Solutions Group (SSG) at Intel. He received a Ph.D. degree in Computer Science from the University of Illinois in 1993. After UIUC, he was employed at Kuck and Associates, Inc. (KAI) working on auto-parallelizing compiler (KAP), and was involved in th...

  19. Towards Automated Design, Analysis and Optimization of Declarative Curation Workflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhong Song


    Full Text Available Data curation is increasingly important. Our previous work on a Kepler curation package has demonstrated advantages that come from automating data curation pipelines by using workflow systems. However, manually designed curation workflows can be error-prone and inefficient due to a lack of user understanding of the workflow system, misuse of actors, or human error. Correcting problematic workflows is often very time-consuming. A more proactive workflow system can help users avoid such pitfalls. For example, static analysis before execution can be used to detect the potential problems in a workflow and help the user to improve workflow design. In this paper, we propose a declarative workflow approach that supports semi-automated workflow design, analysis and optimization. We show how the workflow design engine helps users to construct data curation workflows, how the workflow analysis engine detects different design problems of workflows and how workflows can be optimized by exploiting parallelism.

  20. Tools for the automation of large control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gaspar, Clara


    The new LHC experiments at CERN will have very large numbers of channels to operate. In order to be able to configure and monitor such large systems, a high degree of parallelism is necessary. The control system is built as a hierarchy of sub-systems distributed over several computers. A toolkit – SMI++, combining two approaches: finite state machines and rule-based programming, allows for the description of the various sub-systems as decentralized deciding entities, reacting in real-time to changes in the system, thus providing for the automation of standard procedures and the for the automatic recovery from error conditions in a hierarchical fashion. In this paper we will describe the principles and features of SMI++ as well as its integration with an industrial SCADA tool for use by the LHC experiments and we will try to show that such tools, can provide a very convenient mechanism for the automation of large scale, high complexity, applications.

  1. Tools for the Automation of Large Distributed Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gaspar, Clara


    The new LHC experiments at CERN will have very large numbers of channels to operate. In order to be able to configure and monitor such large systems, a high degree of parallelism is necessary. The control system is built as a hierarchy of sub-systems distributed over several computers. A toolkit - SMI++, combining two approaches: finite state machines and rule-based programming, allows for the description of the various sub-systems as decentralized deciding entities, reacting is real-time to changes in the system, thus providing for the automation of standard procedures and for the automatic recovery from error conditions in a hierarchical fashion. In this paper we will describe the principles and features of SMI++ as well as its integration with an industrial SCADA tool for use by the LHC experiments and we will try to show that such tools, can provide a very convenient mechanism for the automation of large scale, high complexity, applications.

  2. Building Automation Using Wired Communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Supriya Gund*,


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a building automation system where communication technology LAN has been used. This paper mainly focuses on the controlling of home appliances remotely and providing security when the user is away from the place. This system provides ideal solution to the problems faced by home owners in daily life. This system provides security against intrusion as well as automates various home appliances using LAN. To demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed system, the device such as fire sensor, gas sensor, panic switch, intruder switch along with the smartcard have been developed and evaluated with the building automation system. These techniques are successfully merged in a single building automation system. This system offers a complete, low cost powerful and user friendly way of real-time monitoring and remote control of a building.

  3. Evolution of Home Automation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Rihan


    Full Text Available In modern society home and office automation has becomeincreasingly important, providing ways to interconnectvarious home appliances. This interconnection results infaster transfer of information within home/offices leading tobetter home management and improved user experience.Home Automation, in essence, is a technology thatintegrates various electrical systems of a home to provideenhanced comfort and security. Users are grantedconvenient and complete control over all the electrical homeappliances and they are relieved from the tasks thatpreviously required manual control. This paper tracks thedevelopment of home automation technology over the lasttwo decades. Various home automation technologies havebeen explained briefly, giving a chronological account of theevolution of one of the most talked about technologies ofrecent times.

  4. Home automation with Intel Galileo

    CERN Document Server

    Dundar, Onur


    This book is for anyone who wants to learn Intel Galileo for home automation and cross-platform software development. No knowledge of programming with Intel Galileo is assumed, but knowledge of the C programming language is essential.

  5. Automating the Purple Crow Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicks Shannon


    Full Text Available The Purple Crow LiDAR (PCL was built to measure short and long term coupling between the lower, middle, and upper atmosphere. The initial component of my MSc. project is to automate two key elements of the PCL: the rotating liquid mercury mirror and the Zaber alignment mirror. In addition to the automation of the Zaber alignment mirror, it is also necessary to describe the mirror’s movement and positioning errors. Its properties will then be added into the alignment software. Once the alignment software has been completed, we will compare the new alignment method with the previous manual procedure. This is the first among several projects that will culminate in a fully-automated lidar. Eventually, we will be able to work remotely, thereby increasing the amount of data we collect. This paper will describe the motivation for automation, the methods we propose, preliminary results for the Zaber alignment error analysis, and future work.

  6. Network based automation for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahabeddini Parizi, Mohammad; Radziwon, Agnieszka


    The implementation of appropriate automation concepts which increase productivity in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) requires a lot of effort, due to their limited resources. Therefore, it is strongly recommended for small firms to open up for the external sources of knowledge, which...... automation solutions. The empirical data collection involved application of a combination of comparative case study method with action research elements. This article provides an outlook over the challenges in implementing technological improvements and the way how it could be resolved in collaboration...... with other members of the same regional ecosystem. The findings highlight two main automation related areas where manufacturing SMEs could leverage on external sources on knowledge – these are assistance in defining automation problem as well as appropriate solution and provider selection. Consequently...

  7. National Automated Conformity Inspection Process - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The National Automated Conformity Inspection Process (NACIP) Application is intended to expedite the workflow process as it pertains to the FAA Form 81 0-10 Request...

  8. Synchronizing Parallel Tasks Using STM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Saptarshi Ray


    Full Text Available The past few years have marked the start of a historic transition from sequential to parallel computation. The necessity to write parallel programs is increasing as systems are getting more complex while processor speed increases are slowing down. Current parallel programming uses low-level programming constructs like threads and explicit synchronization using locks to coordinate thread execution. Parallel programs written with these constructs are difficult to design, program and debug. Also locks have many drawbacks which make them a suboptimal solution. One such drawback is that locks should be only used to enclose the critical section of the parallel-processing code. If locks are used to enclose the entire code then the performance of the code drastically decreases. Software Transactional Memory (STM is a promising new approach to programming shared-memory parallel processors. It is a concurrency control mechanism that is widely considered to be easier to use by programmers than locking. It allows portions of a program to execute in isolation, without regard to other, concurrently executing tasks. A programmer can reason about the correctness of code within a transaction and need not worry about complex interactions with other, concurrently executing parts of the program. If STM is used to enclose the entire code then the performance of the code is the same as that of the code in which STM is used to enclose the critical section only and is far better than code in which locks have been used to enclose the entire code. So STM is easier to use than locks as critical section does not need to be identified in case of STM. This paper shows the concept of writing code using Software Transactional Memory (STM and the performance comparison of codes using locks with those using STM. It also shows why the use of STM in parallel-processing code is better than the use of locks.

  9. Evolution of Home Automation Technology


    Mohd. Rihan; M. Salim Beg


    In modern society home and office automation has becomeincreasingly important, providing ways to interconnectvarious home appliances. This interconnection results infaster transfer of information within home/offices leading tobetter home management and improved user experience.Home Automation, in essence, is a technology thatintegrates various electrical systems of a home to provideenhanced comfort and security. Users are grantedconvenient and complete control over all the electrical homeappl...

  10. Technology modernization assessment flexible automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, D.W.; Boyd, D.R.; Hansen, N.H.; Hansen, M.A.; Yount, J.A.


    The objectives of this report are: to present technology assessment guidelines to be considered in conjunction with defense regulations before an automation project is developed to give examples showing how assessment guidelines may be applied to a current project to present several potential areas where automation might be applied successfully in the depot system. Depots perform primarily repair and remanufacturing operations, with limited small batch manufacturing runs. While certain activities (such as Management Information Systems and warehousing) are directly applicable to either environment, the majority of applications will require combining existing and emerging technologies in different ways, with the special needs of depot remanufacturing environment. Industry generally enjoys the ability to make revisions to its product lines seasonally, followed by batch runs of thousands or more. Depot batch runs are in the tens, at best the hundreds, of parts with a potential for large variation in product mix; reconfiguration may be required on a week-to-week basis. This need for a higher degree of flexibility suggests a higher level of operator interaction, and, in turn, control systems that go beyond the state of the art for less flexible automation and industry in general. This report investigates the benefits and barriers to automation and concludes that, while significant benefits do exist for automation, depots must be prepared to carefully investigate the technical feasibility of each opportunity and the life-cycle costs associated with implementation. Implementation is suggested in two ways: (1) develop an implementation plan for automation technologies based on results of small demonstration automation projects; (2) use phased implementation for both these and later stage automation projects to allow major technical and administrative risk issues to be addressed. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs. (JF)

  11. Aprendizaje automático


    Moreno, Antonio


    En este libro se introducen los conceptos básicos en una de las ramas más estudiadas actualmente dentro de la inteligencia artificial: el aprendizaje automático. Se estudian temas como el aprendizaje inductivo, el razonamiento analógico, el aprendizaje basado en explicaciones, las redes neuronales, los algoritmos genéticos, el razonamiento basado en casos o las aproximaciones teóricas al aprendizaje automático.

  12. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hongbo


    Proceedings of the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’15, held in Fuzhou, China. The topics include adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, reconfigurable control, etc. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into interdisciplinary solutions in the field of intelligent automation.

  13. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract) (United States)

    Post, R. S.


    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  14. Multifunction automated crawling system (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Joffe, Benjamin (Inventor); Backes, Paul Gregory (Inventor)


    The present invention is an automated crawling robot system including a platform, a first leg assembly, a second leg assembly, first and second rails attached to the platform, and an onboard electronic computer controller. The first leg assembly has an intermittent coupling device and the second leg assembly has an intermittent coupling device for intermittently coupling the respective first and second leg assemblies to a particular object. The first and second leg assemblies are slidably coupled to the rail assembly and are slidably driven by motors to thereby allow linear movement. In addition, the first leg assembly is rotary driven by a rotary motor to thereby provide rotary motion relative to the platform. To effectuate motion, the intermittent coupling devices of the first and second leg assemblies alternately couple the respective first and second leg assemblies to an object. This motion is done while simultaneously moving one of the leg assemblies linearly in the desired direction and preparing the next step. This arrangement allows the crawler of the present invention to traverse an object in a range of motion covering 360 degrees.

  15. Automated ISS Flight Utilities (United States)

    Offermann, Jan Tuzlic


    During my internship at NASA Johnson Space Center, I worked in the Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG), where I was tasked with a number of projects focused on the automation of tasks and activities related to the operation of the International Space Station (ISS). As I worked on a number of projects, I have written short sections below to give a description for each, followed by more general remarks on the internship experience. My first project is titled "General Exposure Representation EVADOSE", also known as "GEnEVADOSE". This project involved the design and development of a C++/ ROOT framework focused on radiation exposure for extravehicular activity (EVA) planning for the ISS. The utility helps mission managers plan EVAs by displaying information on the cumulative radiation doses that crew will receive during an EVA as a function of the egress time and duration of the activity. SRAG uses a utility called EVADOSE, employing a model of the space radiation environment in low Earth orbit to predict these doses, as while outside the ISS the astronauts will have less shielding from charged particles such as electrons and protons. However, EVADOSE output is cumbersome to work with, and prior to GEnEVADOSE, querying data and producing graphs of ISS trajectories and cumulative doses versus egress time required manual work in Microsoft Excel. GEnEVADOSE automates all this work, reading in EVADOSE output file(s) along with a plaintext file input by the user providing input parameters. GEnEVADOSE will output a text file containing all the necessary dosimetry for each proposed EVA egress time, for each specified EVADOSE file. It also plots cumulative dose versus egress time and the ISS trajectory, and displays all of this information in an auto-generated presentation made in LaTeX. New features have also been added, such as best-case scenarios (egress times corresponding to the least dose), interpolated curves for trajectories, and the ability to query any time in the

  16. Automated Gas Distribution System (United States)

    Starke, Allen; Clark, Henry


    The cyclotron of Texas A&M University is one of the few and prized cyclotrons in the country. Behind the scenes of the cyclotron is a confusing, and dangerous setup of the ion sources that supplies the cyclotron with particles for acceleration. To use this machine there is a time consuming, and even wasteful step by step process of switching gases, purging, and other important features that must be done manually to keep the system functioning properly, while also trying to maintain the safety of the working environment. Developing a new gas distribution system to the ion source prevents many of the problems generated by the older manually setup process. This developed system can be controlled manually in an easier fashion than before, but like most of the technology and machines in the cyclotron now, is mainly operated based on software programming developed through graphical coding environment Labview. The automated gas distribution system provides multi-ports for a selection of different gases to decrease the amount of gas wasted through switching gases, and a port for the vacuum to decrease the amount of time spent purging the manifold. The Labview software makes the operation of the cyclotron and ion sources easier, and safer for anyone to use.

  17. Genetic circuit design automation. (United States)

    Nielsen, Alec A K; Der, Bryan S; Shin, Jonghyeon; Vaidyanathan, Prashant; Paralanov, Vanya; Strychalski, Elizabeth A; Ross, David; Densmore, Douglas; Voigt, Christopher A


    Computation can be performed in living cells by DNA-encoded circuits that process sensory information and control biological functions. Their construction is time-intensive, requiring manual part assembly and balancing of regulator expression. We describe a design environment, Cello, in which a user writes Verilog code that is automatically transformed into a DNA sequence. Algorithms build a circuit diagram, assign and connect gates, and simulate performance. Reliable circuit design requires the insulation of gates from genetic context, so that they function identically when used in different circuits. We used Cello to design 60 circuits forEscherichia coli(880,000 base pairs of DNA), for which each DNA sequence was built as predicted by the software with no additional tuning. Of these, 45 circuits performed correctly in every output state (up to 10 regulators and 55 parts), and across all circuits 92% of the output states functioned as predicted. Design automation simplifies the incorporation of genetic circuits into biotechnology projects that require decision-making, control, sensing, or spatial organization.

  18. Automated sugar analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Alcides MARQUES


    Full Text Available Abstract Sugarcane monosaccharides are reducing sugars, and classical analytical methodologies (Lane-Eynon, Benedict, complexometric-EDTA, Luff-Schoorl, Musson-Walker, Somogyi-Nelson are based on reducing copper ions in alkaline solutions. In Brazil, certain factories use Lane-Eynon, others use the equipment referred to as “REDUTEC”, and additional factories analyze reducing sugars based on a mathematic model. The objective of this paper is to understand the relationship between variations in millivolts, mass and tenors of reducing sugars during the analysis process. Another objective is to generate an automatic model for this process. The work herein uses the equipment referred to as “REDUTEC”, a digital balance, a peristaltic pump, a digital camcorder, math programs and graphics programs. We conclude that the millivolts, mass and tenors of reducing sugars exhibit a good mathematical correlation, and the mathematical model generated was benchmarked to low-concentration reducing sugars (<0.3%. Using the model created herein, reducing sugars analyses can be automated using the new equipment.

  19. Pattern-Driven Automatic Parallelization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph W. Kessler


    Full Text Available This article describes a knowledge-based system for automatic parallelization of a wide class of sequential numerical codes operating on vectors and dense matrices, and for execution on distributed memory message-passing multiprocessors. Its main feature is a fast and powerful pattern recognition tool that locally identifies frequently occurring computations and programming concepts in the source code. This tool also works for dusty deck codes that have been "encrypted" by former machine-specific code transformations. Successful pattern recognition guides sophisticated code transformations including local algorithm replacement such that the parallelized code need not emerge from the sequential program structure by just parallelizing the loops. It allows access to an expert's knowledge on useful parallel algorithms, available machine-specific library routines, and powerful program transformations. The partially restored program semantics also supports local array alignment, distribution, and redistribution, and allows for faster and more exact prediction of the performance of the parallelized target code than is usually possible.

  20. Evaluating parallel optimization on transputers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Chalmers


    Full Text Available The faster processing power of modern computers and the development of efficient algorithms have made it possible for operations researchers to tackle a much wider range of problems than ever before. Further improvements in processing speed can be achieved utilising relatively inexpensive transputers to process components of an algorithm in parallel. The Davidon-Fletcher-Powell method is one of the most successful and widely used optimisation algorithms for unconstrained problems. This paper examines the algorithm and identifies the components that can be processed in parallel. The results of some experiments with these components are presented which indicates under what conditions parallel processing with an inexpensive configuration is likely to be faster than the traditional sequential implementations. The performance of the whole algorithm with its parallel components is then compared with the original sequential algorithm. The implementation serves to illustrate the practicalities of speeding up typical OR algorithms in terms of difficulty, effort and cost. The results give an indication of the savings in time a given parallel implementation can be expected to yield.

  1. Parallel plasma fluid turbulence calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leboeuf, J.N.; Carreras, B.A.; Charlton, L.A.; Drake, J.B.; Lynch, V.E.; Newman, D.E.; Sidikman, K.L.; Spong, D.A.


    The study of plasma turbulence and transport is a complex problem of critical importance for fusion-relevant plasmas. To this day, the fluid treatment of plasma dynamics is the best approach to realistic physics at the high resolution required for certain experimentally relevant calculations. Core and edge turbulence in a magnetic fusion device have been modeled using state-of-the-art, nonlinear, three-dimensional, initial-value fluid and gyrofluid codes. Parallel implementation of these models on diverse platforms--vector parallel (National Energy Research Supercomputer Center`s CRAY Y-MP C90), massively parallel (Intel Paragon XP/S 35), and serial parallel (clusters of high-performance workstations using the Parallel Virtual Machine protocol)--offers a variety of paths to high resolution and significant improvements in real-time efficiency, each with its own advantages. The largest and most efficient calculations have been performed at the 200 Mword memory limit on the C90 in dedicated mode, where an overlap of 12 to 13 out of a maximum of 16 processors has been achieved with a gyrofluid model of core fluctuations. The richness of the physics captured by these calculations is commensurate with the increased resolution and efficiency and is limited only by the ingenuity brought to the analysis of the massive amounts of data generated.

  2. Parallel Density-Based Clustering for Discovery of Ionospheric Phenomena (United States)

    Pankratius, V.; Gowanlock, M.; Blair, D. M.


    Ionospheric total electron content maps derived from global networks of dual-frequency GPS receivers can reveal a plethora of ionospheric features in real-time and are key to space weather studies and natural hazard monitoring. However, growing data volumes from expanding sensor networks are making manual exploratory studies challenging. As the community is heading towards Big Data ionospheric science, automation and Computer-Aided Discovery become indispensable tools for scientists. One problem of machine learning methods is that they require domain-specific adaptations in order to be effective and useful for scientists. Addressing this problem, our Computer-Aided Discovery approach allows scientists to express various physical models as well as perturbation ranges for parameters. The search space is explored through an automated system and parallel processing of batched workloads, which finds corresponding matches and similarities in empirical data. We discuss density-based clustering as a particular method we employ in this process. Specifically, we adapt Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN). This algorithm groups geospatial data points based on density. Clusters of points can be of arbitrary shape, and the number of clusters is not predetermined by the algorithm; only two input parameters need to be specified: (1) a distance threshold, (2) a minimum number of points within that threshold. We discuss an implementation of DBSCAN for batched workloads that is amenable to parallelization on manycore architectures such as Intel's Xeon Phi accelerator with 60+ general-purpose cores. This manycore parallelization can cluster large volumes of ionospheric total electronic content data quickly. Potential applications for cluster detection include the visualization, tracing, and examination of traveling ionospheric disturbances or other propagating phenomena. Acknowledgments. We acknowledge support from NSF ACI-1442997 (PI V. Pankratius).

  3. PARAVT: Parallel Voronoi tessellation code (United States)

    González, R. E.


    In this study, we present a new open source code for massive parallel computation of Voronoi tessellations (VT hereafter) in large data sets. The code is focused for astrophysical purposes where VT densities and neighbors are widely used. There are several serial Voronoi tessellation codes, however no open source and parallel implementations are available to handle the large number of particles/galaxies in current N-body simulations and sky surveys. Parallelization is implemented under MPI and VT using Qhull library. Domain decomposition takes into account consistent boundary computation between tasks, and includes periodic conditions. In addition, the code computes neighbors list, Voronoi density, Voronoi cell volume, density gradient for each particle, and densities on a regular grid. Code implementation and user guide are publicly available at


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new self-organizing map, parallel self-organizing map (PSOM), was proposed for information parallel processing purpose. In this model, there are two separate layers of neurons connected together,the number of neurons in both layer and connections between them is equal to the number of total elements of input signals, the weight updating is managed through a sequence of operations among some unitary transformation and operation matrixes, so the conventional repeated learning procedure was modified to learn just once and an algorithm was developed to realize this new learning method. With a typical classification example, the performance of PSOM demonstrated convergence results similar to Kohonen's model. Theoretic analysis and proofs also showed some interesting properties of PSOM. As it was pointed out, the contribution of such a network may not be so significant, but its parallel mode may be interesting for quantum computation.

  5. Method and automated apparatus for detecting coliform organisms (United States)

    Dill, W. P.; Taylor, R. E.; Jeffers, E. L. (Inventor)


    Method and automated apparatus are disclosed for determining the time of detection of metabolically produced hydrogen by coliform bacteria cultured in an electroanalytical cell from the time the cell is inoculated with the bacteria. The detection time data provides bacteria concentration values. The apparatus is sequenced and controlled by a digital computer to discharge a spent sample, clean and sterilize the culture cell, provide a bacteria nutrient into the cell, control the temperature of the nutrient, inoculate the nutrient with a bacteria sample, measures the electrical potential difference produced by the cell, and measures the time of detection from inoculation.

  6. A Parallel Adaboost-Backpropagation Neural Network for Massive Image Dataset Classification (United States)

    Cao, Jianfang; Chen, Lichao; Wang, Min; Shi, Hao; Tian, Yun


    Image classification uses computers to simulate human understanding and cognition of images by automatically categorizing images. This study proposes a faster image classification approach that parallelizes the traditional Adaboost-Backpropagation (BP) neural network using the MapReduce parallel programming model. First, we construct a strong classifier by assembling the outputs of 15 BP neural networks (which are individually regarded as weak classifiers) based on the Adaboost algorithm. Second, we design Map and Reduce tasks for both the parallel Adaboost-BP neural network and the feature extraction algorithm. Finally, we establish an automated classification model by building a Hadoop cluster. We use the Pascal VOC2007 and Caltech256 datasets to train and test the classification model. The results are superior to those obtained using traditional Adaboost-BP neural network or parallel BP neural network approaches. Our approach increased the average classification accuracy rate by approximately 14.5% and 26.0% compared to the traditional Adaboost-BP neural network and parallel BP neural network, respectively. Furthermore, the proposed approach requires less computation time and scales very well as evaluated by speedup, sizeup and scaleup. The proposed approach may provide a foundation for automated large-scale image classification and demonstrates practical value.

  7. A Parallel Adaboost-Backpropagation Neural Network for Massive Image Dataset Classification. (United States)

    Cao, Jianfang; Chen, Lichao; Wang, Min; Shi, Hao; Tian, Yun


    Image classification uses computers to simulate human understanding and cognition of images by automatically categorizing images. This study proposes a faster image classification approach that parallelizes the traditional Adaboost-Backpropagation (BP) neural network using the MapReduce parallel programming model. First, we construct a strong classifier by assembling the outputs of 15 BP neural networks (which are individually regarded as weak classifiers) based on the Adaboost algorithm. Second, we design Map and Reduce tasks for both the parallel Adaboost-BP neural network and the feature extraction algorithm. Finally, we establish an automated classification model by building a Hadoop cluster. We use the Pascal VOC2007 and Caltech256 datasets to train and test the classification model. The results are superior to those obtained using traditional Adaboost-BP neural network or parallel BP neural network approaches. Our approach increased the average classification accuracy rate by approximately 14.5% and 26.0% compared to the traditional Adaboost-BP neural network and parallel BP neural network, respectively. Furthermore, the proposed approach requires less computation time and scales very well as evaluated by speedup, sizeup and scaleup. The proposed approach may provide a foundation for automated large-scale image classification and demonstrates practical value.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Farhadzade


    Full Text Available Breakers relate to Electric Power Systems’ equipment, the reliability of which influence, to a great extend, on reliability of Power Plants. In particular, the breakers determine structural reliability of switchgear circuit of Power Stations and network substations. Failure in short-circuit switching off by breaker with further failure of reservation unit or system of long-distance protection lead quite often to system emergency.The problem of breakers’ reliability improvement and the reduction of maintenance expenses is becoming ever more urgent in conditions of systematic increasing of maintenance cost and repair expenses of oil circuit and air-break circuit breakers. The main direction of this problem solution is the improvement of diagnostic control methods and organization of on-condition maintenance. But this demands to use a great amount of statistic information about nameplate data of breakers and their operating conditions, about their failures, testing and repairing, advanced developments (software of computer technologies and specific automated information system (AIS.The new AIS with AISV logo was developed at the department: “Reliability of power equipment” of AzRDSI of Energy. The main features of AISV are:· to provide the security and data base accuracy;· to carry out systematic control of breakers conformity with operating conditions;· to make the estimation of individual  reliability’s value and characteristics of its changing for given combination of characteristics variety;· to provide personnel, who is responsible for technical maintenance of breakers, not only with information but also with methodological support, including recommendations for the given problem solving  and advanced methods for its realization.

  9. Cellular automata a parallel model

    CERN Document Server

    Mazoyer, J


    Cellular automata can be viewed both as computational models and modelling systems of real processes. This volume emphasises the first aspect. In articles written by leading researchers, sophisticated massive parallel algorithms (firing squad, life, Fischer's primes recognition) are treated. Their computational power and the specific complexity classes they determine are surveyed, while some recent results in relation to chaos from a new dynamic systems point of view are also presented. Audience: This book will be of interest to specialists of theoretical computer science and the parallelism challenge.

  10. A Droplet Microfluidic Platform for Automating Genetic Engineering. (United States)

    Gach, Philip C; Shih, Steve C C; Sustarich, Jess; Keasling, Jay D; Hillson, Nathan J; Adams, Paul D; Singh, Anup K


    We present a water-in-oil droplet microfluidic platform for transformation, culture and expression of recombinant proteins in multiple host organisms including bacteria, yeast and fungi. The platform consists of a hybrid digital microfluidic/channel-based droplet chip with integrated temperature control to allow complete automation and integration of plasmid addition, heat-shock transformation, addition of selection medium, culture, and protein expression. The microfluidic format permitted significant reduction in consumption (100-fold) of expensive reagents such as DNA and enzymes compared to the benchtop method. The chip contains a channel to continuously replenish oil to the culture chamber to provide a fresh supply of oxygen to the cells for long-term (∼5 days) cell culture. The flow channel also replenished oil lost to evaporation and increased the number of droplets that could be processed and cultured. The platform was validated by transforming several plasmids into Escherichia coli including plasmids containing genes for fluorescent proteins GFP, BFP and RFP; plasmids with selectable markers for ampicillin or kanamycin resistance; and a Golden Gate DNA assembly reaction. We also demonstrate the applicability of this platform for transformation in widely used eukaryotic organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. Duration and temperatures of the microfluidic heat-shock procedures were optimized to yield transformation efficiencies comparable to those obtained by benchtop methods with a throughput up to 6 droplets/min. The proposed platform offers potential for automation of molecular biology experiments significantly reducing cost, time and variability while improving throughput.

  11. Development of Microreactor Array Chip-Based Measurement System for Massively Parallel Analysis of Enzymatic Activity (United States)

    Hosoi, Yosuke; Akagi, Takanori; Ichiki, Takanori

    Microarray chip technology such as DNA chips, peptide chips and protein chips is one of the promising approaches for achieving high-throughput screening (HTS) of biomolecule function since it has great advantages in feasibility of automated information processing due to one-to-one indexing between array position and molecular function as well as massively parallel sample analysis as a benefit of down-sizing and large-scale integration. Mostly, however, the function that can be evaluated by such microarray chips is limited to affinity of target molecules. In this paper, we propose a new HTS system of enzymatic activity based on microreactor array chip technology. A prototype of the automated and massively parallel measurement system for fluorometric assay of enzymatic reactions was developed by the combination of microreactor array chips and a highly-sensitive fluorescence microscope. Design strategy of microreactor array chips and an optical measurement platform for the high-throughput enzyme assay are discussed.

  12. Representing and computing regular languages on massively parallel networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.I.; O' Sullivan, J.A. (Electronic Systems and Research Lab., of Electrical Engineering, Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (US)); Boysam, B. (Dept. of Electrical, Computer and Systems Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (US)); Smith, K.R. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Southern Illinois Univ., Edwardsville, IL (US))


    This paper proposes a general method for incorporating rule-based constraints corresponding to regular languages into stochastic inference problems, thereby allowing for a unified representation of stochastic and syntactic pattern constraints. The authors' approach first established the formal connection of rules to Chomsky grammars, and generalizes the original work of Shannon on the encoding of rule-based channel sequences to Markov chains of maximum entropy. This maximum entropy probabilistic view leads to Gibb's representations with potentials which have their number of minima growing at precisely the exponential rate that the language of deterministically constrained sequences grow. These representations are coupled to stochastic diffusion algorithms, which sample the language-constrained sequences by visiting the energy minima according to the underlying Gibbs' probability law. The coupling to stochastic search methods yields the all-important practical result that fully parallel stochastic cellular automata may be derived to generate samples from the rule-based constraint sets. The production rules and neighborhood state structure of the language of sequences directly determines the necessary connection structures of the required parallel computing surface. Representations of this type have been mapped to the DAP-510 massively-parallel processor consisting of 1024 mesh-connected bit-serial processing elements for performing automated segmentation of electron-micrograph images.

  13. Composition and Rhetoric Usage of Parallelism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖林; 朱蕾


      Parallelism gets a rhetorical effect by means of syntactic approach. The use of parallelism makes the effect of balanced beauty between words and words, sentences and sentences, paragraphs and paragraphs. From the per-spective of semantic, all parts and components of parallelism are closely related, parallelism plays an important role in creating the rhetorical effect and strengthening the tone.

  14. Automation: Decision Aid or Decision Maker? (United States)

    Skitka, Linda J.


    This study clarified that automation bias is something unique to automated decision making contexts, and is not the result of a general tendency toward complacency. By comparing performance on exactly the same events on the same tasks with and without an automated decision aid, we were able to determine that at least the omission error part of automation bias is due to the unique context created by having an automated decision aid, and is not a phenomena that would occur even if people were not in an automated context. However, this study also revealed that having an automated decision aid did lead to modestly improved performance across all non-error events. Participants in the non- automated condition responded with 83.68% accuracy, whereas participants in the automated condition responded with 88.67% accuracy, across all events. Automated decision aids clearly led to better overall performance when they were accurate. People performed almost exactly at the level of reliability as the automation (which across events was 88% reliable). However, also clear, is that the presence of less than 100% accurate automated decision aids creates a context in which new kinds of errors in decision making can occur. Participants in the non-automated condition responded with 97% accuracy on the six "error" events, whereas participants in the automated condition had only a 65% accuracy rate when confronted with those same six events. In short, the presence of an AMA can lead to vigilance decrements that can lead to errors in decision making.

  15. Automated security response robot (United States)

    Ciccimaro, Dominic A.; Everett, Hobart R.; Gilbreath, Gary A.; Tran, Tien T.


    ROBART III is intended as an advance demonstration platform for non-lethal response measures, extending the concepts of reflexive teleoperation into the realm of coordinated weapons control in law enforcement and urban warfare scenarios. A rich mix of ultrasonic and optical proximity and range sensors facilitates remote operation in unstructured and unexplored buildings with minimal operator supervision. Autonomous navigation and mapping of interior spaces is significantly enhanced by an innovative algorithm which exploits the fact that the majority of man-made structures are characterized by parallel and orthogonal walls. Extremely robust intruder detection and assessment capabilities are achieved through intelligent fusion of a multitude of inputs form various onboard motion sensors. Intruder detection is addressed by a 360-degree staring array of passive-IR motion detectors, augmented by a number of positionable head-mounted sensors. Automatic camera tracking of a moving target is accomplished using a video line digitizer. Non-lethal response systems include a six- barrelled pneumatically-powered Gatling gun, high-powered strobe lights, and three ear-piercing 103-decibel sirens.

  16. Comparison of Workspace Reduction Between Kinematically Redundant Serial and Parallel Manipulators Under Joint Failures (United States)


    Bibliography [1] J. Carlson, R. Murphy, and A. Nelson. How UGVs physically fail in the field. IEEE Transactions on Robotics , 21(3):423 – 437, June 2005...Design, 110(1):35–41, 1988. [7] C. Gosselin and J. Angeles. Singularity analysis of closed-loop kinematic chains. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and...locked joint failures. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 13(4):622–629, August 1997. [11] Jean-Pierre Merlet. Parallel Robots. Kluwer

  17. Fast, Massively Parallel Data Processors (United States)

    Heaton, Robert A.; Blevins, Donald W.; Davis, ED


    Proposed fast, massively parallel data processor contains 8x16 array of processing elements with efficient interconnection scheme and options for flexible local control. Processing elements communicate with each other on "X" interconnection grid with external memory via high-capacity input/output bus. This approach to conditional operation nearly doubles speed of various arithmetic operations.

  18. Matpar: Parallel Extensions for MATLAB (United States)

    Springer, P. L.


    Matpar is a set of client/server software that allows a MATLAB user to take advantage of a parallel computer for very large problems. The user can replace calls to certain built-in MATLAB functions with calls to Matpar functions.

  19. Seeing or moving in parallel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Ehrsson, H Henrik; Nielsen, Jens Bo


    cerebellum during the symmetric movements. These findings suggest the presence of different error-monitoring mechanisms for symmetric and parallel movements. The results indicate that separate areas within PMd and SMA are responsible for both perception and performance of ongoing movements...... and that the cerebellum supports symmetric movements by monitoring deviations from the stable coordination pattern....

  20. A Heterogeneous Parallel Programming Capability (United States)


    the various implementations of Express attempted to address only the first of these is- sues - providing a portable, standard platform for parallel ... programming on a wide variety of dif- I I! 5 ferent systems. Each implementation, however, was independent, but allowed programs to execute on a single

  1. High-Level Parallel Programming. (United States)

    parallel programming languages. These issues were evaluated via the utilization of a language called UC. UC is a programming language aimed at balancing notational simplicity with execution efficiency and portability. UC accomplishes this by separating the programming task from the efficiency issues. This report gives a description of the language, its current implementation, its verification methodology and its use in designing various

  2. New Methodologies for Parallel Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Rui Fan; Xiao-Wei Li; Guo-Jie Li


    Moore's law continues to grant computer architects ever more transistors in the foreseeable future,and parallelism is the key to continued performance scaling in modern microprocessors.In this paper,the achievements in our research project,which is supported by the National Basic Research 973 Program of China,on parallel architecture,are systematically presented.The innovative approaches and techniques to solve the significant problems in parallel architecture design are summarized,including architecture level optimization,compiler and languag~supported technologies,reliability,power-performance efficient design,test and verification challenges,and platform building.Two prototype chips,a multiheavy-core Godson-3 and a many-light-core Godson-T,are described to demonstrate the highly scalable and reconfigurable parallel architecture designs.We also present some of our achievements appearing in ISCA,MICRO,ISSCC,HPCA,PLDI,PACT,IJCAI,Hot Chips,DATE,IEEE Trans.VLSI,IEEE Micro,IEEE Trans.Computers,etc.

  3. Parallel Sparse Matrix - Vector Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Joe; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Dammann, Bernd

    This technical report contains a case study of a sparse matrix-vector product routine, implemented for parallel execution on a compute cluster with both pure MPI and hybrid MPI-OpenMP solutions. C++ classes for sparse data types were developed and the report shows how these class can be used...

  4. The Everett axiom of parallelism

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, Yury A; Dulphan, Anna Ya


    In this work we consider the meaningfulness of the concept parallel worlds. To that extent we propose the model of the infinite-dimensionaly multievent space, generating everettics altervers in each point of Minkowski space time. Our research reveals fractal character of such alterverse.

  5. International Conference Automation : Challenges in Automation, Robotics and Measurement Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Zieliński, Cezary; Kaliczyńska, Małgorzata


    This book presents the set of papers accepted for presentation at the International Conference Automation, held in Warsaw, 2-4 March of 2016. It presents the research results presented by top experts in the fields of industrial automation, control, robotics and measurement techniques. Each chapter presents a thorough analysis of a specific technical problem which is usually followed by numerical analysis, simulation, and description of results of implementation of the solution of a real world problem. The presented theoretical results, practical solutions and guidelines will be valuable for both researchers working in the area of engineering sciences and for practitioners solving industrial problems. .

  6. PALM: a Parallel Dynamic Coupler (United States)

    Thevenin, A.; Morel, T.


    In order to efficiently represent complex systems, numerical modeling has to rely on many physical models at a time: an ocean model coupled with an atmospheric model is at the basis of climate modeling. The continuity of the solution is granted only if these models can constantly exchange information. PALM is a coupler allowing the concurrent execution and the intercommunication of programs not having been especially designed for that. With PALM, the dynamic coupling approach is introduced: a coupled component can be launched and can release computers' resources upon termination at any moment during the simulation. In order to exploit as much as possible computers' possibilities, the PALM coupler handles two levels of parallelism. The first level concerns the components themselves. While managing the resources, PALM allocates the number of processes which are necessary to any coupled component. These models can be parallel programs based on domain decomposition with MPI or applications multithreaded with OpenMP. The second level of parallelism is a task parallelism: one can define a coupling algorithm allowing two or more programs to be executed in parallel. PALM applications are implemented via a Graphical User Interface called PrePALM. In this GUI, the programmer initially defines the coupling algorithm then he describes the actual communications between the models. PALM offers a very high flexibility for testing different coupling techniques and for reaching the best load balance in a high performance computer. The transformation of computational independent code is almost straightforward. The other qualities of PALM are its easy set-up, its flexibility, its performances, the simple updates and evolutions of the coupled application and the many side services and functions that it offers.

  7. Graphics-Based Parallel Programming Tools (United States)


    AD-A254 406 (9 FINAL REPORT DLECTF ’AUG 13 1992 Graphics-Based Parallel Programming Tools .p Janice E. Cuny, Principal Investigator Department of...suggest parallel (either because we use a parallel graph rewriting mechanism or because we apply our results to parallel programming ), we interpret it to...was to provide support for the ex- plicit representation of graphs for use within a parallel programming environ- ment. In our environment, we view a

  8. Using CLIPS in the domain of knowledge-based massively parallel programming (United States)

    Dvorak, Jiri J.


    The Program Development Environment (PDE) is a tool for massively parallel programming of distributed-memory architectures. Adopting a knowledge-based approach, the PDE eliminates the complexity introduced by parallel hardware with distributed memory and offers complete transparency in respect of parallelism exploitation. The knowledge-based part of the PDE is realized in CLIPS. Its principal task is to find an efficient parallel realization of the application specified by the user in a comfortable, abstract, domain-oriented formalism. A large collection of fine-grain parallel algorithmic skeletons, represented as COOL objects in a tree hierarchy, contains the algorithmic knowledge. A hybrid knowledge base with rule modules and procedural parts, encoding expertise about application domain, parallel programming, software engineering, and parallel hardware, enables a high degree of automation in the software development process. In this paper, important aspects of the implementation of the PDE using CLIPS and COOL are shown, including the embedding of CLIPS with C++-based parts of the PDE. The appropriateness of the chosen approach and of the CLIPS language for knowledge-based software engineering are discussed.

  9. Manual versus automated blood sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, A C; Kalliokoski, Otto; Sørensen, Dorte B


    Facial vein (cheek blood) and caudal vein (tail blood) phlebotomy are two commonly used techniques for obtaining blood samples from laboratory mice, while automated blood sampling through a permanent catheter is a relatively new technique in mice. The present study compared physiological parameters......, glucocorticoid dynamics as well as the behavior of mice sampled repeatedly for 24 h by cheek blood, tail blood or automated blood sampling from the carotid artery. Mice subjected to cheek blood sampling lost significantly more body weight, had elevated levels of plasma corticosterone, excreted more fecal...... corticosterone metabolites, and expressed more anxious behavior than did the mice of the other groups. Plasma corticosterone levels of mice subjected to tail blood sampling were also elevated, although less significantly. Mice subjected to automated blood sampling were less affected with regard to the parameters...

  10. Automated Approaches to RFI Flagging (United States)

    Garimella, Karthik; Momjian, Emmanuel


    It is known that Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is a major issue in centimeter wavelength radio astronomy. Radio astronomy software packages include tools to excise RFI; both manual and automated utilizing the visibilities (the uv data). Here we present results on an automated RFI flagging approach that utilizes a uv-grid, which is the intermediate product when converting uv data points to an image. It is a well known fact that any signal that appears widespread in a given domain (e.g., image domain) is compact in the Fourier domain (uv-grid domain), i.e., RFI sources that appear as large scale structures (e.g., stripes) in images can be located and flagged using the uv-grid data set. We developed several automated uv-grid based flagging algorithms to detect and excise RFI. These algorithms will be discussed, and results of applying them to measurement sets will be presented.

  11. Automated power management and control (United States)

    Dolce, James L.


    A comprehensive automation design is being developed for Space Station Freedom's electric power system. A joint effort between NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Exploration Technology and NASA's Office of Space Station Freedom, it strives to increase station productivity by applying expert systems and conventional algorithms to automate power system operation. The initial station operation will use ground-based dispatches to perform the necessary command and control tasks. These tasks constitute planning and decision-making activities that strive to eliminate unplanned outages. We perceive an opportunity to help these dispatchers make fast and consistent on-line decisions by automating three key tasks: failure detection and diagnosis, resource scheduling, and security analysis. Expert systems will be used for the diagnostics and for the security analysis; conventional algorithms will be used for the resource scheduling.

  12. Automatic Parallelization Tool: Classification of Program Code for Parallel Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Basthikodi


    Full Text Available Performance growth of single-core processors has come to a halt in the past decade, but was re-enabled by the introduction of parallelism in processors. Multicore frameworks along with Graphical Processing Units empowered to enhance parallelism broadly. Couples of compilers are updated to developing challenges forsynchronization and threading issues. Appropriate program and algorithm classifications will have advantage to a great extent to the group of software engineers to get opportunities for effective parallelization. In present work we investigated current species for classification of algorithms, in that related work on classification is discussed along with the comparison of issues that challenges the classification. The set of algorithms are chosen which matches the structure with different issues and perform given task. We have tested these algorithms utilizing existing automatic species extraction toolsalong with Bones compiler. We have added functionalities to existing tool, providing a more detailed characterization. The contributions of our work include support for pointer arithmetic, conditional and incremental statements, user defined types, constants and mathematical functions. With this, we can retain significant data which is not captured by original speciesof algorithms. We executed new theories into the device, empowering automatic characterization of program code.

  13. Automated theorem proving theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Newborn, Monty


    As the 21st century begins, the power of our magical new tool and partner, the computer, is increasing at an astonishing rate. Computers that perform billions of operations per second are now commonplace. Multiprocessors with thousands of little computers - relatively little! -can now carry out parallel computations and solve problems in seconds that only a few years ago took days or months. Chess-playing programs are on an even footing with the world's best players. IBM's Deep Blue defeated world champion Garry Kasparov in a match several years ago. Increasingly computers are expected to be more intelligent, to reason, to be able to draw conclusions from given facts, or abstractly, to prove theorems-the subject of this book. Specifically, this book is about two theorem-proving programs, THEO and HERBY. The first four chapters contain introductory material about automated theorem proving and the two programs. This includes material on the language used to express theorems, predicate calculus, and the rules of...

  14. 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zhidong


    Proceedings of the 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’13, held in Yangzhou, China. The topics include e.g. adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, and reconfigurable control. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry, and government can gain an inside view of new solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent automation. Zengqi Sun and Zhidong Deng are professors at the Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, China.

  15. 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zhidong


    Proceedings of the 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’13, held in Yangzhou, China. The topics include e.g. adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, and reconfigurable control. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry, and government can gain an inside view of new solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent automation.   Zengqi Sun and Zhidong Deng are professors at the Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, China.

  16. Automated synthesis of sialylated oligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Esposito


    Full Text Available Sialic acid-containing glycans play a major role in cell-surface interactions with external partners such as cells and viruses. Straightforward access to sialosides is required in order to study their biological functions on a molecular level. Here, automated oligosaccharide synthesis was used to facilitate the preparation of this class of biomolecules. Our strategy relies on novel sialyl α-(2→3 and α-(2→6 galactosyl imidates, which, used in combination with the automated platform, provided rapid access to a small library of conjugation-ready sialosides of biological relevance.

  17. Automation, Labor Productivity and Employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Lene; Rose Skaksen, Jan; Sørensen, Anders

    CEBR fremlægger nu den første rapport i AIM-projektet. Rapporten viser, at der er gode muligheder for yderligere automation i en stor del af de danske fremstillingsvirksomheder. For i dag er gennemsnitligt kun omkring 30 % af virksomhedernes produktionsprocesser automatiserede. Navnlig procesområ......CEBR fremlægger nu den første rapport i AIM-projektet. Rapporten viser, at der er gode muligheder for yderligere automation i en stor del af de danske fremstillingsvirksomheder. For i dag er gennemsnitligt kun omkring 30 % af virksomhedernes produktionsprocesser automatiserede. Navnlig...

  18. Design automation, languages, and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai


    As the complexity of electronic systems continues to increase, the micro-electronic industry depends upon automation and simulations to adapt quickly to market changes and new technologies. Compiled from chapters contributed to CRC's best-selling VLSI Handbook, this volume covers a broad range of topics relevant to design automation, languages, and simulations. These include a collaborative framework that coordinates distributed design activities through the Internet, an overview of the Verilog hardware description language and its use in a design environment, hardware/software co-design, syst

  19. Agile Data: Automating database refactorings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Xavier


    Full Text Available This paper discusses an automated approach to database change management throughout the companies’ development workflow. By using automated tools, companies can avoid common issues related to manual database deployments. This work was motivated by analyzing usual problems within organizations, mostly originated from manual interventions that may result in systems disruptions and production incidents. In addition to practices of continuous integration and continuous delivery, the current paper describes a case study in which a suggested pipeline is implemented in order to reduce the deployment times and decrease incidents due to ineffective data controlling.

  20. Design Automation in Synthetic Biology. (United States)

    Appleton, Evan; Madsen, Curtis; Roehner, Nicholas; Densmore, Douglas


    Design automation refers to a category of software tools for designing systems that work together in a workflow for designing, building, testing, and analyzing systems with a target behavior. In synthetic biology, these tools are called bio-design automation (BDA) tools. In this review, we discuss the BDA tools areas-specify, design, build, test, and learn-and introduce the existing software tools designed to solve problems in these areas. We then detail the functionality of some of these tools and show how they can be used together to create the desired behavior of two types of modern synthetic genetic regulatory networks.

  1. Network based automation for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahabeddini Parizi, Mohammad; Radziwon, Agnieszka


    could be obtained through network interaction. Based on two extreme cases of SMEs representing low-tech industry and an in-depth analysis of their manufacturing facilities this paper presents how collaboration between firms embedded in a regional ecosystem could result in implementation of new...... automation solutions. The empirical data collection involved application of a combination of comparative case study method with action research elements. This article provides an outlook over the challenges in implementing technological improvements and the way how it could be resolved in collaboration......, this paper develops and discusses a set of guidelines for systematic productivity improvement within an innovative collaboration in regards to automation processes in SMEs....

  2. Improving automated load flexibility of nuclear power plants with ALFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Andreas [AREVA GmbH, Karlstein (Germany). Plant Control/Training; Klaus, Peter [E.ON NPP Isar 2, Essenbach (Germany). Plant Operation/Production Engineering


    In several German and Swiss Nuclear Power Plants with Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) the control of the reactor power was and will be improved in order to be able to support the energy transition with increasing volatile renewable energy in the grid by flexible load operation according to the need of the load dispatcher (power system stability). Especially regarding the mentioned German NPPs with a nominal electric power of approx. 1,500 MW, the general objectives are the main automated grid relevant operation modes. The new possibilities of digital I and C (as TELEPERM {sup registered} XS) enable the automation of the operating modes provided that manual support is no longer necessary. These possibilities were and will be implemented by AREVA within the ALFC-projects. Manifold adaption algorithms to the reactor physical variations during the nuclear load cycle enable a precise control of the axial power density distribution and of the reactivity management in the reactor core. Finally this is the basis for a highly automated load flexibility with the parallel respect and surveillance of the operational limits of a PWR.

  3. Automated quality control in a file-based broadcasting workflow (United States)

    Zhang, Lina


    Benefit from the development of information and internet technologies, television broadcasting is transforming from inefficient tape-based production and distribution to integrated file-based workflows. However, no matter how many changes have took place, successful broadcasting still depends on the ability to deliver a consistent high quality signal to the audiences. After the transition from tape to file, traditional methods of manual quality control (QC) become inadequate, subjective, and inefficient. Based on China Central Television's full file-based workflow in the new site, this paper introduces an automated quality control test system for accurate detection of hidden troubles in media contents. It discusses the system framework and workflow control when the automated QC is added. It puts forward a QC criterion and brings forth a QC software followed this criterion. It also does some experiments on QC speed by adopting parallel processing and distributed computing. The performance of the test system shows that the adoption of automated QC can make the production effective and efficient, and help the station to achieve a competitive advantage in the media market.

  4. Automation of heating systems. Final report; Heizungsautomatisierung. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriesel, W.; Lange, T.; Hain, H.; Rennefahrt, J.; Schlorf, S.; Warnstorff, A.


    Modern space HVAC systems are largely automated. In order to minimize energy consumption, attempts were made to develop a generalizable, innovative automation concept with self-learning, predictive and self-optimizing automation systems. This necessitates parallel automatic online process modelling and identification. Several modelling methods for experimental process analysis were programmed and investigated, and a preliminary selection was made. As a result, the multistage GMDH algorithm and the neuronal net were followed up, and the alpha-perceptron algorithm was analyzed and evaluated. [Deutsch] Moderne Anlagen der Heizungs-, Lueftungs- und Klimatechnik sind bereits hochgradig mit Automatisierungstechnik ausgeruestet. Als ein Beitrag zur Problemloesung mit Minimierung des Gesamtenergiebedarfs wurde der Entwurf eines moeglichst verallgemeinerungsfaehigen und damit uebertragbaren innovativen Automatisierungskonzeptes mit selbsteinstellenden, lernfaehigen, praediktiven und selbstoptimierenden Automatisierungseinrichtungen angesehen. Dazu ist eine schritthaltende, automatische On-line-Prozessmodellbildung und On-line-Identifikation erforderlich. Hierfuer wurden mehrere Modellierungsmethoden fuer die experimentelle Prozessanalyse programmiert und voruntersucht sowie hieraus eine Vorauswahl getroffen. In deren Ergebnis wurde der Mehrstufige GMDH-Algorithmus sowie das Neuronale Netz weiterverfolgt und zusaetzlich der Alpha-Perzeptron-Algorithmus naeher analysiert und kritisch bewertet. (orig.)

  5. Automated quantification of synapses by fluorescence microscopy. (United States)

    Schätzle, Philipp; Wuttke, René; Ziegler, Urs; Sonderegger, Peter


    The quantification of synapses in neuronal cultures is essential in studies of the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Conventional counting of synapses based on morphological or immunocytochemical criteria is extremely work-intensive. We developed a fully automated method which quantifies synaptic elements and complete synapses based on immunocytochemistry. Pre- and postsynaptic elements are detected by their corresponding fluorescence signals and their proximity to dendrites. Synapses are defined as the combination of a pre- and postsynaptic element within a given distance. The analysis is performed in three dimensions and all parameters required for quantification can be easily adjusted by a graphical user interface. The integrated batch processing enables the analysis of large datasets without any further user interaction and is therefore efficient and timesaving. The potential of this method was demonstrated by an extensive quantification of synapses in neuronal cultures from DIV 7 to DIV 21. The method can be applied to all datasets containing a pre- and postsynaptic labeling plus a dendritic or cell surface marker.

  6. Automated Ply Inspection (API) for AFP Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Automated Ply Inspection (API) system autonomously inspects layups created by high speed automated fiber placement (AFP) machines. API comprises a high accuracy...

  7. Structural synthesis of parallel robots

    CERN Document Server

    Gogu, Grigore

    This book represents the fifth part of a larger work dedicated to the structural synthesis of parallel robots. The originality of this work resides in the fact that it combines new formulae for mobility, connectivity, redundancy and overconstraints with evolutionary morphology in a unified structural synthesis approach that yields interesting and innovative solutions for parallel robotic manipulators.  This is the first book on robotics that presents solutions for coupled, decoupled, uncoupled, fully-isotropic and maximally regular robotic manipulators with Schönflies motions systematically generated by using the structural synthesis approach proposed in Part 1.  Overconstrained non-redundant/overactuated/redundantly actuated solutions with simple/complex limbs are proposed. Many solutions are presented here for the first time in the literature. The author had to make a difficult and challenging choice between protecting these solutions through patents and releasing them directly into the public domain. T...

  8. An anthropologist in parallel structure


    Noelle Molé Liston


    The essay examines the parallels between Molé Liston’s studies on labor and precarity in Italy and the United States’ anthropology job market. Probing the way economic shift reshaped the field of anthropology of Europe in the late 2000s, the piece explores how the neoliberalization of the American academy increased the value in studying the hardships and daily lives of non-western populations in Europe.

  9. Combinatorics of spreads and parallelisms

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Norman


    Partitions of Vector Spaces Quasi-Subgeometry Partitions Finite Focal-SpreadsGeneralizing André SpreadsThe Going Up Construction for Focal-SpreadsSubgeometry Partitions Subgeometry and Quasi-Subgeometry Partitions Subgeometries from Focal-SpreadsExtended André SubgeometriesKantor's Flag-Transitive DesignsMaximal Additive Partial SpreadsSubplane Covered Nets and Baer Groups Partial Desarguesian t-Parallelisms Direct Products of Affine PlanesJha-Johnson SL(2,

  10. Distributed and Parallel Component Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zheng-quan; XU Yang; YAN Ai-ping


    Software component library is the essential part of reuse-based software development. It is shown that making use of a single component library to store all kinds of components and from which components are searched is very inefficient. We construct multi-libraries to support software reuse and use PVM as development environments to imitate largescale computer, which is expected to fulfill distributed storage and parallel search of components efficiently and improve software reuse.

  11. Preconditioned method in parallel computation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Ruichan; Wei Jianing


    The grid equations in decomposed domain by parallel computation are soled, and a method of local orthogonalization to solve the large-scaled numerical computation is presented. It constructs preconditioned iteration matrix by the combination of predigesting LU decomposition and local orthogonalization, and the convergence of solution is proved. Indicated from the example, this algorithm can increase the rate of computation efficiently and it is quite stable.

  12. Parallel Multiscale Autoregressive Density Estimation


    Reed, Scott; Oord, Aäron van den; Kalchbrenner, Nal; Colmenarejo, Sergio Gómez; Wang, Ziyu; Belov, Dan; de Freitas, Nando


    PixelCNN achieves state-of-the-art results in density estimation for natural images. Although training is fast, inference is costly, requiring one network evaluation per pixel; O(N) for N pixels. This can be sped up by caching activations, but still involves generating each pixel sequentially. In this work, we propose a parallelized PixelCNN that allows more efficient inference by modeling certain pixel groups as conditionally independent. Our new PixelCNN model achieves competitive density e...

  13. Ask the experts: automation: part I. (United States)

    Allinson, John L; Blick, Kenneth E; Cohen, Lucinda; Higton, David; Li, Ming


    Bioanalysis invited a selection of leading researchers to express their views on automation in the bioanalytical laboratory. The topics discussed include the challenges that the modern bioanalyst faces when integrating automation into existing drug-development processes, the impact of automation and how they envision the modern bioanalytical laboratory changing in the near future. Their enlightening responses provide a valuable insight into the impact of automation and the future of the constantly evolving bioanalytical laboratory.

  14. Automated Integrated Analog Filter Design Issues



    An analysis of modern automated integrated analog circuits design methods and their use in integrated filter design is done. Current modern analog circuits automated tools are based on optimization algorithms and/or new circuit generation methods. Most automated integrated filter design methods are only suited to gmC and switched current filter topologies. Here, an algorithm for an active RC integrated filter design is proposed, that can be used in automated filter designs. The algorithm is t...

  15. Parallel processing of genomics data (United States)

    Agapito, Giuseppe; Guzzi, Pietro Hiram; Cannataro, Mario


    The availability of high-throughput experimental platforms for the analysis of biological samples, such as mass spectrometry, microarrays and Next Generation Sequencing, have made possible to analyze a whole genome in a single experiment. Such platforms produce an enormous volume of data per single experiment, thus the analysis of this enormous flow of data poses several challenges in term of data storage, preprocessing, and analysis. To face those issues, efficient, possibly parallel, bioinformatics software needs to be used to preprocess and analyze data, for instance to highlight genetic variation associated with complex diseases. In this paper we present a parallel algorithm for the parallel preprocessing and statistical analysis of genomics data, able to face high dimension of data and resulting in good response time. The proposed system is able to find statistically significant biological markers able to discriminate classes of patients that respond to drugs in different ways. Experiments performed on real and synthetic genomic datasets show good speed-up and scalability.

  16. 75 FR 64737 - Automated Commercial Environment (ACE): Announcement of a National Customs Automation Program... (United States)


    ... National Customs Automation Program Test of Automated Manifest Capabilities for Ocean and Rail Carriers... Protection (CBP) will be conducting a National Customs Automation Program test concerning the transmission of...: Background The National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) was established in Subtitle B of Title...

  17. 76 FR 69755 - National Customs Automation Program Test Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE... (United States)


    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection National Customs Automation Program Test Concerning Automated... Protection's (CBP's) plan to conduct a National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) test concerning Automated..., at . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The National Customs...

  18. 76 FR 34246 - Automated Commercial Environment (ACE); Announcement of National Customs Automation Program Test... (United States)


    ... National Customs Automation Program Test of Automated Procedures for In-Bond Shipments Transiting Through....S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) plans to conduct a National Customs Automation Program ( . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The National Customs Automation Program (NCAP)...

  19. Evaluation of the measurement uncertainty in automated long-term sampling of PCDD/PCDFs. (United States)

    Vicaretti, M; D'Emilia, G; Mosca, S; Guerriero, E; Rotatori, M


    Since the publication of the first version of European standard EN-1948 in 1996, long-term sampling equipment has been improved to a high standard for the sampling and analysis of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD)/polychlorodibenzofuran (PCDF) emissions from industrial sources. The current automated PCDD/PCDF sampling systems enable to extend the measurement time from 6-8 h to 15-30 days in order to have data values better representative of the real pollutant emission of the plant in the long period. EN-1948:2006 is still the European technical reference standard for the determination of PCDD/PCDF from stationary source emissions. In this paper, a methodology to estimate the measurement uncertainty of long-term automated sampling is presented. The methodology has been tested on a set of high concentration sampling data resulting from a specific experience; it is proposed with the intent that it is to be applied on further similar studies and generalized. A comparison between short-term sampling data resulting from manual and automated parallel measurements has been considered also in order to verify the feasibility and usefulness of automated systems and to establish correlations between results of the two methods to use a manual method for calibration of automatic long-term one. The uncertainty components of the manual method are analyzed, following the requirements of EN-1948-3:2006, allowing to have a preliminary evaluation of the corresponding uncertainty components of the automated system. Then, a comparison between experimental data coming from parallel sampling campaigns carried out in short- and long-term sampling periods is realized. Long-term sampling is more reliable to monitor PCDD/PCDF emissions than occasional short-term sampling. Automated sampling systems can assure very useful emission data both in short and long sampling periods. Despite this, due to the different application of the long-term sampling systems, the automated results could not be

  20. Adaptive Parallel Tempering for Stochastic Maximum Likelihood Learning of RBMs

    CERN Document Server

    Desjardins, Guillaume; Bengio, Yoshua


    Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBM) have attracted a lot of attention of late, as one the principle building blocks of deep networks. Training RBMs remains problematic however, because of the intractibility of their partition function. The maximum likelihood gradient requires a very robust sampler which can accurately sample from the model despite the loss of ergodicity often incurred during learning. While using Parallel Tempering in the negative phase of Stochastic Maximum Likelihood (SML-PT) helps address the issue, it imposes a trade-off between computational complexity and high ergodicity, and requires careful hand-tuning of the temperatures. In this paper, we show that this trade-off is unnecessary. The choice of optimal temperatures can be automated by minimizing average return time (a concept first proposed by [Katzgraber et al., 2006]) while chains can be spawned dynamically, as needed, thus minimizing the computational overhead. We show on a synthetic dataset, that this results in better likelihood ...

  1. Parallel Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations. (United States)

    Ren, Ruichao; Orkoulas, G


    With strict detailed balance, parallel Monte Carlo simulation through domain decomposition cannot be validated with conventional Markov chain theory, which describes an intrinsically serial stochastic process. In this work, the parallel version of Markov chain theory and its role in accelerating Monte Carlo simulations via cluster computing is explored. It is shown that sequential updating is the key to improving efficiency in parallel simulations through domain decomposition. A parallel scheme is proposed to reduce interprocessor communication or synchronization, which slows down parallel simulation with increasing number of processors. Parallel simulation results for the two-dimensional lattice gas model show substantial reduction of simulation time for systems of moderate and large size.

  2. Easy and Effective Parallel Programmable ETL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach


    , typically the case that the ETL program can exploit both task parallelism and data parallelism to run faster. This, on the other hand, makes the development time longer as it is complex to create a parallel ETL program. To remedy this situation, we propose efficient ways to parallelize typical ETL tasks...... and we implement these new constructs in an ETL framework. The constructs are easy to apply and do only require few modifications to an ETL program to parallelize it. They support both task and data parallelism and give the programmer different possibilities to choose from. An experimental evaluation...

  3. Automated Analysis of Infinite Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Mikael


    The security of a network protocol crucially relies on the scenario in which the protocol is deployed. This paper describes syntactic constructs for modelling network scenarios and presents an automated analysis tool, which can guarantee that security properties hold in all of the (infinitely many...

  4. Automated Orientation of Aerial Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høhle, Joachim


    Methods for automated orientation of aerial images are presented. They are based on the use of templates, which are derived from existing databases, and area-based matching. The characteristics of available database information and the accuracy requirements for map compilation and orthoimage...

  5. Automated minimax design of networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Voldby, J


    A new gradient algorithm for the solution of nonlinear minimax problems has been developed. The algorithm is well suited for automated minimax design of networks and it is very simple to use. It compares favorably with recent minimax and leastpth algorithms. General convergence problems related...

  6. Automating Workflow using Dialectical Argumentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urovi, Visara; Bromuri, Stefano; McGinnis, Jarred; Stathis, Kostas; Omicini, Andrea


    This paper presents a multi-agent framework based on argumentative agent technology for the automation of the workflow selection and execution. In this framework, workflow selection is coordinated by agent interactions governed by the rules of a dialogue game whose purpose is to evaluate the workflo

  7. Teacherbot: Interventions in Automated Teaching (United States)

    Bayne, Sian


    Promises of "teacher-light" tuition and of enhanced "efficiency" via the automation of teaching have been with us since the early days of digital education, sometimes embraced by academics and institutions, and sometimes resisted as a set of moves which are damaging to teacher professionalism and to the humanistic values of…

  8. Automated monitoring of milk meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.; Andre, G.


    Automated monitoring might be an alternative for periodic checking of electronic milk meters. A computer model based on Dynamic Linear Modelling (DLM) has been developed for this purpose. Two situations are distinguished: more milking stands in the milking parlour and only one milking stand in the m

  9. Automated Accounting. Payroll. Instructor Module. (United States)

    Moses, Duane R.

    This teacher's guide was developed to assist business instructors using Dac Easy Accounting Payroll Version 3.0 edition software in their accounting programs. The module contains assignment sheets and job sheets designed to enable students to master competencies identified in the area of automated accounting--payroll. Basic accounting skills are…

  10. Automation, Performance and International Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Lene; Sørensen, Anders

    This paper presents new evidence on trade‐induced automation in manufacturing firms using unique data combining a retrospective survey that we have assembled with register data for 2005‐2010. In particular, we establish a causal effect where firms that have specialized in product types for which ...

  11. Automation of Space Inventory Management (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W.; Ngo, Phong; Wagner, Raymond; Barton, Richard; Gifford, Kevin


    This viewgraph presentation describes the utilization of automated space-based inventory management through handheld RFID readers and BioNet Middleware. The contents include: 1) Space-Based INventory Management; 2) Real-Time RFID Location and Tracking; 3) Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) RFID; and 4) BioNet Middleware.

  12. Feasibility Analysis of Crane Automation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Ming-xiao; MEI Xue-song; JIANG Ge-dong; ZHANG Gui-qing


    This paper summarizes the modeling methods, open-loop control and closed-loop control techniques of various forms of cranes, worldwide, and discusses their feasibilities and limitations in engineering. Then the dynamic behaviors of cranes are analyzed. Finally, we propose applied modeling methods and feasible control techniques and demonstrate the feasibilities of crane automation.

  13. Automated Clustering of Similar Amendments

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    The Italian Senate is clogged by computer-generated amendments. This talk will describe a simple strategy to cluster them in an automated fashion, so that the appropriate Senate procedures can be used to get rid of them in one sweep.

  14. Adaptation : A Partially Automated Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manjing, Tham; Bukhsh, F.A.; Weigand, H.


    This paper showcases the possibility of creating an adaptive auditing system. Adaptation in an audit environment need human intervention at some point. Based on a case study this paper focuses on automation of adaptation process. It is divided into solution design and validation parts. The artifact

  15. Designing automated handheld navigation support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uluca, D.; Streefkerk, J.W.; Sciacchitano, B.; McCrickard, D.S.


    Map usage on handheld devices suffers from limited screen size and the minimal attention that users can dedicate to them in mobile situations. This work examines effects of automating navigation features like zooming and panning as well as other features such as rotation, path finding and artifact r

  16. Illinois: Library Automation and Connectivity Initiatives. (United States)

    Lamont, Bridget L.; Bloomberg, Kathleen L.


    Discussion of library automation in Illinois focuses on ILLINET, the Illinois Library and Information Network. Topics include automated resource sharing; ILLINET's online catalog; regional library system automation; community networking and public library technology development; telecommunications initiatives; electronic access to state government…

  17. You're a What? Automation Technician (United States)

    Mullins, John


    Many people think of automation as laborsaving technology, but it sure keeps Jim Duffell busy. Defined simply, automation is a technique for making a device run or a process occur with minimal direct human intervention. But the functions and technologies involved in automated manufacturing are complex. Nearly all functions, from orders coming in…

  18. Library Automation in the Netherlands and Pica. (United States)

    Bossers, Anton; Van Muyen, Martin


    Describes the Pica Library Automation Network (originally the Project for Integrated Catalogue Automation), which is based on a centralized bibliographic database. Highlights include the Pica conception of library automation, online shared cataloging system, circulation control system, acquisition system, and online Dutch union catalog with…

  19. Does Automated Feedback Improve Writing Quality? (United States)

    Wilson, Joshua; Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Andrada, Gilbert N.


    The current study examines data from students in grades 4-8 who participated in a statewide computer-based benchmark writing assessment that featured automated essay scoring and automated feedback. We examined whether the use of automated feedback was associated with gains in writing quality across revisions to an essay, and with transfer effects…

  20. Lab on a chip automates in vitro cell culturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perozziello, Gerardo; Møllenbach, Jacob; Laursen, Steen


    A novel in vitro fertilization system is presented based on an incubation chamber and a microfluidic device which serves as advanced microfluidic cultivation chamber. The flow is controlled by hydrostatic height differences and evaporation is avoided with help of mineral oil. Six patient compartm...

  1. Automating Shallow Seismic Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steeples, Don W.


    This seven-year, shallow-seismic reflection research project had the aim of improving geophysical imaging of possible contaminant flow paths. Thousands of chemically contaminated sites exist in the United States, including at least 3,700 at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Imaging technologies such as shallow seismic reflection (SSR) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) sometimes are capable of identifying geologic conditions that might indicate preferential contaminant-flow paths. Historically, SSR has been used very little at depths shallower than 30 m, and even more rarely at depths of 10 m or less. Conversely, GPR is rarely useful at depths greater than 10 m, especially in areas where clay or other electrically conductive materials are present near the surface. Efforts to image the cone of depression around a pumping well using seismic methods were only partially successful (for complete references of all research results, see the full Final Technical Report, DOE/ER/14826-F), but peripheral results included development of SSR methods for depths shallower than one meter, a depth range that had not been achieved before. Imaging at such shallow depths, however, requires geophone intervals of the order of 10 cm or less, which makes such surveys very expensive in terms of human time and effort. We also showed that SSR and GPR could be used in a complementary fashion to image the same volume of earth at very shallow depths. The primary research focus of the second three-year period of funding was to develop and demonstrate an automated method of conducting two-dimensional (2D) shallow-seismic surveys with the goal of saving time, effort, and money. Tests involving the second generation of the hydraulic geophone-planting device dubbed the ''Autojuggie'' showed that large numbers of geophones can be placed quickly and automatically and can acquire high-quality data, although not under rough topographic conditions. In some easy

  2. Prevalence of discordant microscopic changes with automated CBC analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano de Jesus Santos


    Full Text Available Introduction:The most common cause of diagnostic error is related to errors in laboratory tests as well as errors of results interpretation. In order to reduce them, the laboratory currently has modern equipment which provides accurate and reliable results. The development of automation has revolutionized the laboratory procedures in Brazil and worldwide.Objective:To determine the prevalence of microscopic changes present in blood slides concordant and discordant with results obtained using fully automated procedures.Materials and method:From January to July 2013, 1,000 hematological parameters slides were analyzed. Automated analysis was performed on last generation equipment, which methodology is based on electrical impedance, and is able to quantify all the figurative elements of the blood in a universe of 22 parameters. The microscopy was performed by two experts in microscopy simultaneously.Results:The data showed that only 42.70% were concordant, comparing with 57.30% discordant. The main findings among discordant were: Changes in red blood cells 43.70% (n = 250, white blood cells 38.46% (n = 220, and number of platelet 17.80% (n = 102.Discussion:The data show that some results are not consistent with clinical or physiological state of an individual, and cannot be explained because they have not been investigated, which may compromise the final diagnosis.Conclusion:It was observed that it is of fundamental importance that the microscopy qualitative analysis must be performed in parallel with automated analysis in order to obtain reliable results, causing a positive impact on the prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic follow-up.

  3. Parallel synthesis of a series of potentially brain penetrant aminoalkyl benzoimidazoles. (United States)

    Micco, Iolanda; Nencini, Arianna; Quinn, Joanna; Bothmann, Hendrick; Ghiron, Chiara; Padova, Alessandro; Papini, Silvia


    Alpha7 agonists were identified via GOLD (CCDC) docking in the putative agonist binding site of an alpha7 homology model and a series of aminoalkyl benzoimidazoles was synthesised to obtain potentially brain penetrant drugs. The array was prepared starting from the reaction of ortho-fluoronitrobenzenes with a selection of diamines, followed by reduction of the nitro group to obtain a series of monoalkylated phenylene diamines. N,N'-Carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) mediated acylation, followed by a parallel automated work-up procedure, afforded the monoacylated phenylenediamines which were cyclised under acidic conditions. Parallel work-up and purification afforded the array products in good yields and purities with a robust parallel methodology which will be useful for other libraries. Screening for alpha7 activity revealed compounds with agonist activity for the receptor.

  4. Bisection technique for designing synchronous parallel algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A basic technique for designing synchronous parallel algorithms, the so-called bisection technique, is proposed. The basic pattern of designing parallel algorithms is described. The relationship between the designing idea and I Ching (principles of change) is discussed.

  5. Overview of the Force Scientific Parallel Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Alaghband


    Full Text Available The Force parallel programming language designed for large-scale shared-memory multiprocessors is presented. The language provides a number of parallel constructs as extensions to the ordinary Fortran language and is implemented as a two-level macro preprocessor to support portability across shared memory multiprocessors. The global parallelism model on which the Force is based provides a powerful parallel language. The parallel constructs, generic synchronization, and freedom from process management supported by the Force has resulted in structured parallel programs that are ported to the many multiprocessors on which the Force is implemented. Two new parallel constructs for looping and functional decomposition are discussed. Several programming examples to illustrate some parallel programming approaches using the Force are also presented.

  6. Parallel kinematics type, kinematics, and optimal design

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xin-Jun


    Parallel Kinematics- Type, Kinematics, and Optimal Design presents the results of 15 year's research on parallel mechanisms and parallel kinematics machines. This book covers the systematic classification of parallel mechanisms (PMs) as well as providing a large number of mechanical architectures of PMs available for use in practical applications. It focuses on the kinematic design of parallel robots. One successful application of parallel mechanisms in the field of machine tools, which is also called parallel kinematics machines, has been the emerging trend in advanced machine tools. The book describes not only the main aspects and important topics in parallel kinematics, but also references novel concepts and approaches, i.e. type synthesis based on evolution, performance evaluation and optimization based on screw theory, singularity model taking into account motion and force transmissibility, and others.   This book is intended for researchers, scientists, engineers and postgraduates or above with interes...

  7. Lock-Free Parallel Access Collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce P. Lester


    Full Text Available All new computers have multicore processors. To exploit this hardware parallelism for improved performance, the predominant approach today is multithreading using shared variables and locks. This approach has potential data races that can create a nondeterministic program. This paper presents a promising new approach to parallel programming that is both lock-free and deterministic. The standard forall primitive for parallel execution of for-loop iterations is extended into a more highly structured primitive called a Parallel Operation (POP. Each parallel process created by a POP may read shared variables (or shared collections freely. Shared collections modified by a POP must be selected from a special set of predefined Parallel Access Collections (PAC. Each PAC has several Write Modes that govern parallel updates in a deterministic way. This paper presents an overview of a Prototype Library that implements this POP-PAC approach for the C++ language, including performance results for two benchmark parallel programs.

  8. Parallel methods in problems of mathematical physics


    Boris Rybakin


    The article deals with various methods of parallelization of algorithms of problems of mathematical physics. Parallel methods of solution of these problems on the basis of multiprocessor transputer based systems with distributed memory are considered.

  9. Applied Parallel Computing Industrial Computation and Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; NA NA NA Olesen, Dorte

    Proceedings and the Third International Workshop on Applied Parallel Computing in Industrial Problems and Optimization (PARA96)......Proceedings and the Third International Workshop on Applied Parallel Computing in Industrial Problems and Optimization (PARA96)...

  10. Qualification of an automated device to objectively assess the effect of hair care products on hair shine. (United States)

    Hagens, Ralf; Wiersbinski, Tim; Becker, Michael E; Weisshaar, Jürgen; Schreiner, Volker; Wenck, Horst


    The authors developed and qualified an automated routine screening tool to quantify hair shine. This tool is able to separately record individual properties of hair shine such as specular reflection and multiple reflection, as well as additional features such as sparkle, parallelism of hair fibers, and hair color, which strongly affect the subjective ranking by individual readers. A side-by-side comparison of different hair care and styling products with regard to hair shine using the automated screening tool in parallel with standard panel assessment showed that the automated system provides an almost identical ranking and the same statistical significances as the panel assessment. Provided stringent stratification of hair fibers for color and parallelism, the automated tool competes favorably with panel assessments of hair shine. In this case, data generated with the opsira Shine-Box are clearly superior over data generated by panel assessment in terms of reliability and repeatability, workload and time consumption, and sensitivity and specificity to detect differences after shampoo, conditioner, and leave-in treatment. The automated tool is therefore well suited to replace standard panel assessments in claim support, at least as a screening tool. A further advantage of the automated system over panel assessments is the fact that absolute numeric values are generated for a given hair care product, whereas panel assessments can only give rankings of a series of hair care products included in the same study. Thus, the absolute numeric data generated with the automated system allow comparison of hair care products between studies or at different time points after treatment.

  11. Urine culture (United States)

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  12. Semantics-based Automated Web Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Feng Guo


    Full Text Available We present TAO, a software testing tool performing automated test and oracle generation based on a semantic approach. TAO entangles grammar-based test generation with automated semantics evaluation using a denotational semantics framework. We show how TAO can be incorporated with the Selenium automation tool for automated web testing, and how TAO can be further extended to support automated delta debugging, where a failing web test script can be systematically reduced based on grammar-directed strategies. A real-life parking website is adopted throughout the paper to demonstrate the effectivity of our semantics-based web testing approach.

  13. Automation for a base station stability testing



    This Batchelor’s thesis was commissioned by Oy LM Ericsson Ab Oulu. The aim of it was to help to investigate and create a test automation solution for the stability testing of the LTE base station. The main objective was to create a test automation for a predefined test set. This test automation solution had to be created for specific environments and equipment. This work included creating the automation for the test cases and putting them to daily test automation jobs. The key factor...

  14. Classical MD calculations with parallel computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)


    We have developed parallel computation codes for a classical molecular dynamics (MD) method. In order to use them on work station clusters as well as parallel super computers, we use MPI (message passing interface) library for distributed-memory type computers. Two algorithms are compared: (1) particle parallelism technique: easy to install, effective for rather small number of processors. (2) region parallelism technique: take some time to install, effective even for many nodes. (J.P.N.)

  15. Parallel Graph Transformation based on Merged Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa Aouat


    Full Text Available Graph transformation is one of the key concepts in graph grammar. In order to accelerate the graph transformation, the concept of parallel graph transformation has been proposed by different tools such as AGG tool. The theory of parallel graph transformation used by AGG just allows clarifying the concepts of conflict and dependency between the transformation rules. This work proposes an approach of parallel graph transformations which enables dependent transformation rules to be executed in parallel.

  16. Application of parallel computing to robot dynamics


    Schäfer, Peter; Schiehlen, Werner


    In this paper an approach for the application of parallel processing to the dynamic analysis of robots based on the multibody system method is presented. The inherent structure of the symbolic equations of motion is used for partitioning those into independent modules for concurrent evaluation. The applied strategies for parallelization include the parallel evaluation of subsystem equations and the parallel computation of the inertia matrix along with its factorization, and of the force vecto...

  17. Force user's manual: A portable, parallel FORTRAN (United States)

    Jordan, Harry F.; Benten, Muhammad S.; Arenstorf, Norbert S.; Ramanan, Aruna V.


    The use of Force, a parallel, portable FORTRAN on shared memory parallel computers is described. Force simplifies writing code for parallel computers and, once the parallel code is written, it is easily ported to computers on which Force is installed. Although Force is nearly the same for all computers, specific details are included for the Cray-2, Cray-YMP, Convex 220, Flex/32, Encore, Sequent, Alliant computers on which it is installed.

  18. The parallel volume at large distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Jürgen

    In this paper we examine the asymptotic behavior of the parallel volume of planar non-convex bodies as the distance tends to infinity. We show that the difference between the parallel volume of the convex hull of a body and the parallel volume of the body itself tends to . This yields a new proof...... for the fact that a planar body can only have polynomial parallel volume, if it is convex. Extensions to Minkowski spaces and random sets are also discussed....

  19. The parallel volume at large distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Jürgen

    In this paper we examine the asymptotic behavior of the parallel volume of planar non-convex bodies as the distance tends to infinity. We show that the difference between the parallel volume of the convex hull of a body and the parallel volume of the body itself tends to 0. This yields a new proof...... for the fact that a planar body can only have polynomial parallel volume, if it is convex. Extensions to Minkowski spaces and random sets are also discussed....

  20. Safeguards Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.


    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  1. Advances in Parallelization for Large Scale Oct-Tree Mesh Generation (United States)

    O'Connell, Matthew; Karman, Steve L.


    Despite great advancements in the parallelization of numerical simulation codes over the last 20 years, it is still common to perform grid generation in serial. Generating large scale grids in serial often requires using special "grid generation" compute machines that can have more than ten times the memory of average machines. While some parallel mesh generation techniques have been proposed, generating very large meshes for LES or aeroacoustic simulations is still a challenging problem. An automated method for the parallel generation of very large scale off-body hierarchical meshes is presented here. This work enables large scale parallel generation of off-body meshes by using a novel combination of parallel grid generation techniques and a hybrid "top down" and "bottom up" oct-tree method. Meshes are generated using hardware commonly found in parallel compute clusters. The capability to generate very large meshes is demonstrated by the generation of off-body meshes surrounding complex aerospace geometries. Results are shown including a one billion cell mesh generated around a Predator Unmanned Aerial Vehicle geometry, which was generated on 64 processors in under 45 minutes.

  2. Parallel Computing Using Web Servers and "Servlets". (United States)

    Lo, Alfred; Bloor, Chris; Choi, Y. K.


    Describes parallel computing and presents inexpensive ways to implement a virtual parallel computer with multiple Web servers. Highlights include performance measurement of parallel systems; models for using Java and intranet technology including single server, multiple clients and multiple servers, single client; and a comparison of CGI (common…

  3. A Parallel Programming Model With Sequential Semantics (United States)


    Parallel programming is more difficult than sequential programming in part because of the complexity of reasoning, testing, and debugging in the...context of concurrency. In the thesis, we present and investigate a parallel programming model that provides direct control of parallelism in a notation

  4. Parallel Programming Archetypes in Combinatorics and Optimization (United States)


    A parallel programming archetype is a language independent program design strategy. We describe two archetypes in combinatorics and optimization...the systematic design of efficient sequential and parallel programs. The research whose results are presented in this document is part of the ongoing project on Parallel Programming Archetype.

  5. Data-parallel DNS of turbulent flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstappen, R.W.C.P.; Veldman, A.E.P.; Emerson, DR; Ecer, A; Periaux, J; Satofuka, N


    This contribution deals with direct numerical simulation (DNS) of incompressible turbulent flows on parallel computers. We make use of the data-parallel model on shared memory systems as well as on a distributed memory machine. The combination of fast parallel computers and efficient numerical algor

  6. Reservoir Thermal Recover Simulation on Parallel Computers (United States)

    Li, Baoyan; Ma, Yuanle

    The rapid development of parallel computers has provided a hardware background for massive refine reservoir simulation. However, the lack of parallel reservoir simulation software has blocked the application of parallel computers on reservoir simulation. Although a variety of parallel methods have been studied and applied to black oil, compositional, and chemical model numerical simulations, there has been limited parallel software available for reservoir simulation. Especially, the parallelization study of reservoir thermal recovery simulation has not been fully carried out, because of the complexity of its models and algorithms. The authors make use of the message passing interface (MPI) standard communication library, the domain decomposition method, the block Jacobi iteration algorithm, and the dynamic memory allocation technique to parallelize their serial thermal recovery simulation software NUMSIP, which is being used in petroleum industry in China. The parallel software PNUMSIP was tested on both IBM SP2 and Dawn 1000A distributed-memory parallel computers. The experiment results show that the parallelization of I/O has great effects on the efficiency of parallel software PNUMSIP; the data communication bandwidth is also an important factor, which has an influence on software efficiency. Keywords: domain decomposition method, block Jacobi iteration algorithm, reservoir thermal recovery simulation, distributed-memory parallel computer

  7. A rolling 6U parallel mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihuai MIAO; Yanan YAO


    @@ Since the 1980s, parallel mechanisms have attracted tremendous attention and have been a long hot topic in the field of mechanisms and robotics.The most typical applications of parallel mechanisms are Stewart platform [1] and Delta parallel robot [2].

  8. Coordination in serial-parallel image processing (United States)

    Wójcik, Waldemar; Dubovoi, Vladymyr M.; Duda, Marina E.; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Yesmakhanova, Laura; Kozbakova, Ainur


    Serial-parallel systems used to convert the image. The control of their work results with the need to solve coordination problem. The paper summarizes the model of coordination of resource allocation in relation to the task of synchronizing parallel processes; the genetic algorithm of coordination developed, its adequacy verified in relation to the process of parallel image processing.

  9. 17 CFR 12.24 - Parallel proceedings. (United States)


    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Parallel proceedings. 12.24... REPARATIONS General Information and Preliminary Consideration of Pleadings § 12.24 Parallel proceedings. (a) Definition. For purposes of this section, a parallel proceeding shall include: (1) An arbitration...

  10. Organizational Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian HUDREA


    Full Text Available Cultural orientations of an organization can be its greatest strength, providing the basis for problem solving, cooperation, and communication. Culture, however, can also inhibit needed changes. Cultural changes typically happen slowly – but without cultural change, many other organizational changes are doomed to fail. The dominant culture of an organization is a major contributor to its success. But, of course, no organizational culture is purely one type or another. And the existence of secondary cultures can provide the basis for change. Therefore, organizations need to understand the cultural environments and values.

  11. Parallel Assembly of LIGA Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christenson, T.R.; Feddema, J.T.


    In this paper, a prototype robotic workcell for the parallel assembly of LIGA components is described. A Cartesian robot is used to press 386 and 485 micron diameter pins into a LIGA substrate and then place a 3-inch diameter wafer with LIGA gears onto the pins. Upward and downward looking microscopes are used to locate holes in the LIGA substrate, pins to be pressed in the holes, and gears to be placed on the pins. This vision system can locate parts within 3 microns, while the Cartesian manipulator can place the parts within 0.4 microns.

  12. Parallel execution of portfolio optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Nuriyev, R


    Analysis of asset liability management (ALM) strategies especially for long term horizon is a crucial issue for banks, funds and insurance companies. Modern economic models, investment strategies and optimization criteria make ALM studies computationally very intensive task. It attracts attention to multiprocessor system and especially to the cheapest one: multi core PCs and PC clusters. In this article we are analyzing problem of parallel organization of portfolio optimization, results of using clusters for optimization and the most efficient cluster architecture for these kinds of tasks.

  13. Lightweight Specifications for Parallel Correctness (United States)


    dynamic simulator (moldyn), ray tracer ( raytracer ), and Monte Carlo stock price simu- lator (montecarlo). Benchmark tsp is a parallel Traveling...10 0 0 0 0 moldyn 1300 6 10 2 0 0 0 lufact 1500 9 10 1 0 0 0 raytracer 1900 4 10 3 1 0 0 montecarlo 3600 4 + 34 10 1 0 2 0 PJ pi 150 + 15,000 5 4 9 0...computing each fractal in the first place. Determinism Violations We found two cases of nondeterministic behavior. First, a known data race in the raytracer

  14. Scalable Parallel Algebraic Multigrid Solvers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bank, R; Lu, S; Tong, C; Vassilevski, P


    The authors propose a parallel algebraic multilevel algorithm (AMG), which has the novel feature that the subproblem residing in each processor is defined over the entire partition domain, although the vast majority of unknowns for each subproblem are associated with the partition owned by the corresponding processor. This feature ensures that a global coarse description of the problem is contained within each of the subproblems. The advantages of this approach are that interprocessor communication is minimized in the solution process while an optimal order of convergence rate is preserved; and the speed of local subproblem solvers can be maximized using the best existing sequential algebraic solvers.

  15. Parallel algorithms and cluster computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Karl Heinz


    This book presents major advances in high performance computing as well as major advances due to high performance computing. It contains a collection of papers in which results achieved in the collaboration of scientists from computer science, mathematics, physics, and mechanical engineering are presented. From the science problems to the mathematical algorithms and on to the effective implementation of these algorithms on massively parallel and cluster computers we present state-of-the-art methods and technology as well as exemplary results in these fields. This book shows that problems which seem superficially distinct become intimately connected on a computational level.

  16. Introduction of Automation for the Production of Bilingual, Parallel-Aligned Text (United States)


    2 Figure 1. The pipeline process. Sada -e Azadi __,. wGet Newspaper tnte~l!ONI Human Rlgnts sada ~­ azadi ~neVJoomla...Mark Arehart (MITRE), and it was tailored to extract data only from a single source—the online newspaper, Sada -e Azadi. An enhanced version of the...Pipeline The web site, Sada -e Azadi, displays the online version of an International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) publication. Its features include

  17. Mainstreaming culture in psychology. (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M


    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks.

  18. An Overview of Moonlight Applications Test Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appasami Govindasamy


    Full Text Available Now-a-days web applications are developed by new technologies like Moonlight, Silverlight, JAVAFX, FLEX, etc. Silverlight is Microsoft's cross platform runtime and development technology for running Web-based multimedia applications in windows platform. Moonlight is an open-source implementation of the Silverlight development platform for Linux and other Unix/X11-based operating systems. It is a new technology in .Net 4.0 to develop rich interactive and attractive platform independent web applications. User Interface Test Automation is very essential for Software industries to reduce test time, cost and man power. Moonlight is new .NET technology to develop rich interactive Internet applications with the collaboration of Novel Corporation. Testing these kinds of applications are not so easy to test, especially the User interface test automation is very difficult. Software test automation has the capability to decrease the overall cost of testing and improve software quality, but most testing organizations have not been able to achieve the full potential of test automation. Many groups that implement test automation programs run into a number of common pitfalls. These problems can lead to test automation plans being completely scrapped, with the tools purchased for test automation becoming expensive. Often teams continue their automation effort, burdened with huge costs in maintaining large suites of automated test scripts. This paper will first discuss some of the key benefits of software test automation, and then examine the most common techniques used to implement software test automation of Moonlight Applications Test Automation. It will then discuss test automation and their potential. Finally, it will do test automation.

  19. Parallelisms and revelatory concepts of the Johannine Prologue in Greco-Roman context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benno Zuiddam


    Full Text Available This article builds on the increasing recognition of divine communication and God’s plan as a central concept in the prologue to the Fourth gospel. A philological analysis reveals parallel structures with an emphasis on divine communication in which the Logos takes a central part. These should be understood within the context of this gospel, but have their roots in the Old Testament. The Septuagint offers parallel concepts, particularly in its wisdom literature. Apart from these derivative parallels, the revelatory concepts and terminology involved in John 1:1–18, also find functional parallels in the historical environment of the fourth gospel. They share similarities with the role of Apollo Phoebus in the traditionally assigned geographical context of the region of Ephesus in Asia Minor. This functional parallelism served the reception of John’s biblical message in a Greco-Roman cultural setting.Keywords: John's Gospel; Apollo Phoebus; Logos; Revelation; Ephesus

  20. Advances in randomized parallel computing

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar


    The technique of randomization has been employed to solve numerous prob­ lems of computing both sequentially and in parallel. Examples of randomized algorithms that are asymptotically better than their deterministic counterparts in solving various fundamental problems abound. Randomized algorithms have the advantages of simplicity and better performance both in theory and often in practice. This book is a collection of articles written by renowned experts in the area of randomized parallel computing. A brief introduction to randomized algorithms In the aflalysis of algorithms, at least three different measures of performance can be used: the best case, the worst case, and the average case. Often, the average case run time of an algorithm is much smaller than the worst case. 2 For instance, the worst case run time of Hoare's quicksort is O(n ), whereas its average case run time is only O( n log n). The average case analysis is conducted with an assumption on the input space. The assumption made to arrive at t...

  1. Xyce parallel electronic simulator design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornquist, Heidi K.; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Mei, Ting; Schiek, Richard Louis; Keiter, Eric Richard; Russo, Thomas V.


    This document is the Xyce Circuit Simulator developer guide. Xyce has been designed from the 'ground up' to be a SPICE-compatible, distributed memory parallel circuit simulator. While it is in many respects a research code, Xyce is intended to be a production simulator. As such, having software quality engineering (SQE) procedures in place to insure a high level of code quality and robustness are essential. Version control, issue tracking customer support, C++ style guildlines and the Xyce release process are all described. The Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator has been under development at Sandia since 1999. Historically, Xyce has mostly been funded by ASC, the original focus of Xyce development has primarily been related to circuits for nuclear weapons. However, this has not been the only focus and it is expected that the project will diversify. Like many ASC projects, Xyce is a group development effort, which involves a number of researchers, engineers, scientists, mathmaticians and computer scientists. In addition to diversity of background, it is to be expected on long term projects for there to be a certain amount of staff turnover, as people move on to different projects. As a result, it is very important that the project maintain high software quality standards. The point of this document is to formally document a number of the software quality practices followed by the Xyce team in one place. Also, it is hoped that this document will be a good source of information for new developers.

  2. Automated illustration of patients instructions. (United States)

    Bui, Duy; Nakamura, Carlos; Bray, Bruce E; Zeng-Treitler, Qing


    A picture can be a powerful communication tool. However, creating pictures to illustrate patient instructions can be a costly and time-consuming task. Building on our prior research in this area, we developed a computer application that automatically converts text to pictures using natural language processing and computer graphics techniques. After iterative testing, the automated illustration system was evaluated using 49 previously unseen cardiology discharge instructions. The completeness of the system-generated illustrations was assessed by three raters using a three-level scale. The average inter-rater agreement for text correctly represented in the pictograph was about 66 percent. Since illustration in this context is intended to enhance rather than replace text, these results support the feasibility of conducting automated illustration.

  3. Advances in Automation and Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    International conference on Automation and Robotics ICAR2011


    The international conference on Automation and Robotics-ICAR2011 is held during December 12-13, 2011 in Dubai, UAE. The proceedings of ICAR2011 have been published by Springer Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, which include 163 excellent papers selected from more than 400 submitted papers.   The conference is intended to bring together the researchers and engineers/technologists working in different aspects of intelligent control systems and optimization, robotics and automation, signal processing, sensors, systems modeling and control, industrial engineering, production and management.   This part of proceedings includes 81 papers contributed by many researchers in relevant topic areas covered at ICAR2011 from various countries such as France, Japan, USA, Korea and China etc.     Many papers introduced their advanced research work recently; some of them gave a new solution to problems in the field, with powerful evidence and detail demonstration. Others stated the application of their designed and...

  4. Automated methods of corrosion measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Reeve, John Ch


    Measurements of corrosion rates and other parameters connected with corrosion processes are important, first as indicators of the corrosion resistance of metallic materials and second because such measurements are based on general and fundamental physical, chemical, and electrochemical relations....... Hence improvements and innovations in methods applied in corrosion research are likeliy to benefit basic disciplines as well. A method for corrosion measurements can only provide reliable data if the beckground of the method is fully understood. Failure of a method to give correct data indicates a need...... to revise assumptions regarding the basis of the method, which sometimes leads to the discovery of as-yet unnoticed phenomena. The present selection of automated methods for corrosion measurements is not motivated simply by the fact that a certain measurement can be performed automatically. Automation...

  5. CCD characterization and measurements automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotov, I.V., E-mail: [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Frank, J.; Kotov, A.I. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Kubanek, P. [Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences, Prague, CZ 18221 (Czech Republic); Image Processing Laboratory, Universidad de Valencia (Spain); O' Connor, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Prouza, M. [Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences, Prague, CZ 18221 (Czech Republic); Radeka, V.; Takacs, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)


    Modern mosaic cameras have grown both in size and in number of sensors. The required volume of sensor testing and characterization has grown accordingly. For camera projects as large as the LSST, test automation becomes a necessity. A CCD testing and characterization laboratory was built and is in operation for the LSST project. Characterization of LSST study contract sensors has been performed. The characterization process and its automation are discussed, and results are presented. Our system automatically acquires images, populates a database with metadata information, and runs express analysis. This approach is illustrated on {sup 55}Fe data analysis. {sup 55}Fe data are used to measure gain, charge transfer efficiency and charge diffusion. Examples of express analysis results are presented and discussed.

  6. Fully automated (operational) modal analysis (United States)

    Reynders, Edwin; Houbrechts, Jeroen; De Roeck, Guido


    Modal parameter estimation requires a lot of user interaction, especially when parametric system identification methods are used and the modes are selected in a stabilization diagram. In this paper, a fully automated, generally applicable three-stage clustering approach is developed for interpreting such a diagram. It does not require any user-specified parameter or threshold value, and it can be used in an experimental, operational, and combined vibration testing context and with any parametric system identification algorithm. The three stages of the algorithm correspond to the three stages in a manual analysis: setting stabilization thresholds for clearing out the diagram, detecting columns of stable modes, and selecting a representative mode from each column. An extensive validation study illustrates the accuracy and robustness of this automation strategy.

  7. DOLFIN: Automated Finite Element Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Logg, Anders; 10.1145/1731022.1731030


    We describe here a library aimed at automating the solution of partial differential equations using the finite element method. By employing novel techniques for automated code generation, the library combines a high level of expressiveness with efficient computation. Finite element variational forms may be expressed in near mathematical notation, from which low-level code is automatically generated, compiled and seamlessly integrated with efficient implementations of computational meshes and high-performance linear algebra. Easy-to-use object-oriented interfaces to the library are provided in the form of a C++ library and a Python module. This paper discusses the mathematical abstractions and methods used in the design of the library and its implementation. A number of examples are presented to demonstrate the use of the library in application code.

  8. PDDP, A Data Parallel Programming Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen H. Warren


    Full Text Available PDDP, the parallel data distribution preprocessor, is a data parallel programming model for distributed memory parallel computers. PDDP implements high-performance Fortran-compatible data distribution directives and parallelism expressed by the use of Fortran 90 array syntax, the FORALL statement, and the WHERE construct. Distributed data objects belong to a global name space; other data objects are treated as local and replicated on each processor. PDDP allows the user to program in a shared memory style and generates codes that are portable to a variety of parallel machines. For interprocessor communication, PDDP uses the fastest communication primitives on each platform.

  9. Special Effect of Parallel Inductive Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈涛; 刘振兴; W.Heikkila


    Acceleration of electrons by a field-aligned electric field during a magnetospheric substorm in the deep geomagnetic tail is studied by means of a one-dimensional electromagnetic particle code. It was found that the free acceleration of the electrons by the parallel electric field is obvious; kinetic energy variation is greater than electromagnetic energy variation in the presence of parallel electric field. Magnetic energy is greater than kinetic energy variation and electric energy variation in the absence of the parallel electric field. More wave modes in the presence of the parallel electric field are generated than those in the absence of the parallel electric field.

  10. A Data-Parallel Version of Aleph

    CERN Document Server

    Konstantopoulos, Stasinos


    This is to present work on modifying the Aleph ILP system so that it evaluates the hypothesised clauses in parallel by distributing the data-set among the nodes of a parallel or distributed machine. The paper briefly discusses MPI, the interface used to access message- passing libraries for parallel computers and clusters. It then proceeds to describe an extension of YAP Prolog with an MPI interface and an implementation of data-parallel clause evaluation for Aleph through this interface. The paper concludes by testing the data-parallel Aleph on artificially constructed data-sets.

  11. Automated Tools for Rapid Prototyping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    An automated environment is presented which aids the software engineers in developing data processing systems by using rapid prototyping techniques.The environment is being developed on VAX station.It can render good support to the specification of the requirements and the rapid creation of prototype.The goal,the methodology,the general structure of the environment and two sub-systems are discussed.

  12. Automated Analysis of Corpora Callosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Davies, Rhodri H.


    This report describes and evaluates the steps needed to perform modern model-based interpretation of the corpus callosum in MRI. The process is discussed from the initial landmark-free contours to full-fledged statistical models based on the Active Appearance Models framework. Topics treated incl...... include landmark placement, background modelling and multi-resolution analysis. Preliminary quantitative and qualitative validation in a cross-sectional study show that fully automated analysis and segmentation of the corpus callosum are feasible....

  13. Automated Scheduling Via Artificial Intelligence (United States)

    Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.


    Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.

  14. Automated Discovery of Inductive Theorems


    McCasland, Roy; Bundy, Alan; Serge, Autexier


    Inductive mathematical theorems have, as a rule, historically been quite difficult to prove – both for mathematics students and for auto- mated theorem provers. That said, there has been considerable progress over the past several years, within the automated reasoning community, towards proving some of these theorems. However, little work has been done thus far towards automatically discovering them. In this paper we present our methods of discovering (as well as proving) inductive theorems, ...

  15. Algorithms Could Automate Cancer Diagnosis (United States)

    Baky, A. A.; Winkler, D. G.


    Five new algorithms are a complete statistical procedure for quantifying cell abnormalities from digitized images. Procedure could be basis for automated detection and diagnosis of cancer. Objective of procedure is to assign each cell an atypia status index (ASI), which quantifies level of abnormality. It is possible that ASI values will be accurate and economical enough to allow diagnoses to be made quickly and accurately by computer processing of laboratory specimens extracted from patients.

  16. Automated Test Requirement Document Generation (United States)


    DIAGNOSTICS BASED ON THE PRINCIPLES OF ARTIFICIAL INTELIGENCE ", 1984 International Test Conference, 01Oct84, (A3, 3, Cs D3, E2, G2, H2, 13, J6, K) 425...j0O GLOSSARY OF ACRONYMS 0 ABBREVIATION DEFINITION AFSATCOM Air Force Satellite Communication Al Artificial Intelligence ASIC Application Specific...In-Test Equipment (BITE) and AI ( Artificial Intelligence) - Expert Systems - need to be fully applied before a completely automated process can be

  17. Adaptation: A Partially Automated Approach


    Manjing, Tham; Bukhsh, F.A.; Weigand, H.


    This paper showcases the possibility of creating an adaptive auditing system. Adaptation in an audit environment need human intervention at some point. Based on a case study this paper focuses on automation of adaptation process. It is divided into solution design and validation parts. The artifact design is developed around import procedures of M-company. An overview of the artefact is discussed in detail to fully describes the adaptation mechanism with automatic adjustment for compliance re...

  18. Personnel Aspects of Library Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Weber


    Full Text Available Personnel of an automation project is discussed in terms of talents needed in the design team, their qualifications and organization, the attitudes to be fostered, and the communication and documentation that is important for effective teamwork. Discussion is based on Stanford University's experience with Protect BALLOTS and includes comments on some specific problems which have personnel importance and may be faced in major design efforts.

  19. Home automation in the workplace. (United States)

    McCormack, J E; Tello, S F


    Environmental control units and home automation devices contribute to the independence and potential of individuals with disabilities, both at work and at home. Devices currently exist that can assist people with physical, cognitive, and sensory disabilities to control lighting, appliances, temperature, security, and telephone communications. This article highlights several possible applications for these technologies and discusses emerging technologies that will increase the benefits these devices offer people with disabilities.

  20. Systematic approach for deriving feasible mappings of parallel algorithms to parallel computing platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arkin, Ethem; Tekinerdogan, Bedir; Imre, Kayhan M.


    The need for high-performance computing together with the increasing trend from single processor to parallel computer architectures has leveraged the adoption of parallel computing. To benefit from parallel computing power, usually parallel algorithms are defined that can be mapped and executed o

  1. Automated bioacoustic identification of species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chesmore


    Full Text Available Research into the automated identification of animals by bioacoustics is becoming more widespread mainly due to difficulties in carrying out manual surveys. This paper describes automated recognition of insects (Orthoptera using time domain signal coding and artificial neural networks. Results of field recordings made in the UK in 2002 are presented which show that it is possible to accurately recognize 4 British Orthoptera species in natural conditions under high levels of interference. Work is under way to increase the number of species recognized.Pesquisas sobre a identificação automatizada de animais através da bioacústica estão se ampliando, principalmente em vista das dificuldades para realizar levantamentos diretos. Este artigo descreve o reconhecimento automático de insetos Orthoptera utilizando a codificação de sinal no domínio temporal e redes neurais artificiais. Resultados de registros sonoros feitos no campo no Reino Unido em 2002 são apresentados, mostrando ser possível reconhecer corretamente 4 espécies britânicas de Orthoptera em condições naturais com altos níveis de interferências. Estão em andamento trabalhos para aumentar o número de espécies identificadas.

  2. Experiences in Data-Parallel Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry W. Clark


    Full Text Available To efficiently parallelize a scientific application with a data-parallel compiler requires certain structural properties in the source program, and conversely, the absence of others. A recent parallelization effort of ours reinforced this observation and motivated this correspondence. Specifically, we have transformed a Fortran 77 version of GROMOS, a popular dusty-deck program for molecular dynamics, into Fortran D, a data-parallel dialect of Fortran. During this transformation we have encountered a number of difficulties that probably are neither limited to this particular application nor do they seem likely to be addressed by improved compiler technology in the near future. Our experience with GROMOS suggests a number of points to keep in mind when developing software that may at some time in its life cycle be parallelized with a data-parallel compiler. This note presents some guidelines for engineering data-parallel applications that are compatible with Fortran D or High Performance Fortran compilers.

  3. Parallels plane projection and its geometric features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU ChengHu; MA Ting; YANG Liao; QIN Biao


    A new equivalent map projection called the parallels plane projection is proposed in this paper. The transverse axis of the parallels plane projection is the expansion of the equator and its vertical axis equals half the length of the central meridian. On the parallels plane projection, meridians are projected as sine curves and parallels are a series of straight, parallel lines. No distortion of length occurs along the central meridian or on any parallels of this projection. Angular distortion and the proportion of length along meridians (except the central meridian) introduced by the projection transformation increase with increasing longitude and latitude. A potential application of the parallels plane projection is that it can provide an efficient projection transformation for global discrete grid systems.

  4. Industrial cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard


    The chapter deals with different paradigms andtheories of cultural development. The problem toexplain change and methods to analyse developmentin different cultures are presented and discussed.......The chapter deals with different paradigms andtheories of cultural development. The problem toexplain change and methods to analyse developmentin different cultures are presented and discussed....

  5. Automated Cache Performance Analysis And Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohror, Kathryn [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    While there is no lack of performance counter tools for coarse-grained measurement of cache activity, there is a critical lack of tools for relating data layout to cache behavior to application performance. Generally, any nontrivial optimizations are either not done at all, or are done ”by hand” requiring significant time and expertise. To the best of our knowledge no tool available to users measures the latency of memory reference instructions for partic- ular addresses and makes this information available to users in an easy-to-use and intuitive way. In this project, we worked to enable the Open|SpeedShop performance analysis tool to gather memory reference latency information for specific instructions and memory ad- dresses, and to gather and display this information in an easy-to-use and intuitive way to aid performance analysts in identifying problematic data structures in their codes. This tool was primarily designed for use in the supercomputer domain as well as grid, cluster, cloud-based parallel e-commerce, and engineering systems and middleware. Ultimately, we envision a tool to automate optimization of application cache layout and utilization in the Open|SpeedShop performance analysis tool. To commercialize this soft- ware, we worked to develop core capabilities for gathering enhanced memory usage per- formance data from applications and create and apply novel methods for automatic data structure layout optimizations, tailoring the overall approach to support existing supercom- puter and cluster programming models and constraints. In this Phase I project, we focused on infrastructure necessary to gather performance data and present it in an intuitive way to users. With the advent of enhanced Precise Event-Based Sampling (PEBS) counters on recent Intel processor architectures and equivalent technology on AMD processors, we are now in a position to access memory reference information for particular addresses. Prior to the introduction of PEBS counters

  6. Automatic generation of executable communication specifications from parallel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakin, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wu, Xing [NCSU; Mueller, Frank [NCSU


    Portable parallel benchmarks are widely used and highly effective for (a) the evaluation, analysis and procurement of high-performance computing (HPC) systems and (b) quantifying the potential benefits of porting applications for new hardware platforms. Yet, past techniques to synthetically parameterized hand-coded HPC benchmarks prove insufficient for today's rapidly-evolving scientific codes particularly when subject to multi-scale science modeling or when utilizing domain-specific libraries. To address these problems, this work contributes novel methods to automatically generate highly portable and customizable communication benchmarks from HPC applications. We utilize ScalaTrace, a lossless, yet scalable, parallel application tracing framework to collect selected aspects of the run-time behavior of HPC applications, including communication operations and execution time, while abstracting away the details of the computation proper. We subsequently generate benchmarks with identical run-time behavior from the collected traces. A unique feature of our approach is that we generate benchmarks in CONCEPTUAL, a domain-specific language that enables the expression of sophisticated communication patterns using a rich and easily understandable grammar yet compiles to ordinary C + MPI. Experimental results demonstrate that the generated benchmarks are able to preserve the run-time behavior - including both the communication pattern and the execution time - of the original applications. Such automated benchmark generation is particularly valuable for proprietary, export-controlled, or classified application codes: when supplied to a third party. Our auto-generated benchmarks ensure performance fidelity but without the risks associated with releasing the original code. This ability to automatically generate performance-accurate benchmarks from parallel applications is novel and without any precedence, to our knowledge.

  7. Modularized Parallel Neutron Instrument Simulation on the TeraGrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Meili [ORNL; Cobb, John W [ORNL; Hagen, Mark E [ORNL; Miller, Stephen D [ORNL; Lynch, Vickie E [ORNL


    In order to build a bridge between the TeraGrid (TG), a national scale cyberinfrastructure resource, and neutron science, the Neutron Science TeraGrid Gateway (NSTG) is focused on introducing productive HPC usage to the neutron science community, primarily the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Monte Carlo simulations are used as a powerful tool for instrument design and optimization at SNS. One of the successful efforts of a collaboration team composed of NSTG HPC experts and SNS instrument scientists is the development of a software facility named PSoNI, Parallelizing Simulations of Neutron Instruments. Parallelizing the traditional serial instrument simulation on TeraGrid resources, PSoNI quickly computes full instrument simulation at sufficient statistical levels in instrument de-sign. Upon SNS successful commissioning, to the end of 2007, three out of five commissioned instruments in SNS target station will be available for initial users. Advanced instrument study, proposal feasibility evalua-tion, and experiment planning are on the immediate schedule of SNS, which pose further requirements such as flexibility and high runtime efficiency on fast instrument simulation. PSoNI has been redesigned to meet the new challenges and a preliminary version is developed on TeraGrid. This paper explores the motivation and goals of the new design, and the improved software structure. Further, it describes the realized new fea-tures seen from MPI parallelized McStas running high resolution design simulations of the SEQUOIA and BSS instruments at SNS. A discussion regarding future work, which is targeted to do fast simulation for automated experiment adjustment and comparing models to data in analysis, is also presented.

  8. Self-testing in parallel (United States)

    McKague, Matthew


    Self-testing allows us to determine, through classical interaction only, whether some players in a non-local game share particular quantum states. Most work on self-testing has concentrated on developing tests for small states like one pair of maximally entangled qubits, or on tests where there is a separate player for each qubit, as in a graph state. Here we consider the case of testing many maximally entangled pairs of qubits shared between two players. Previously such a test was shown where testing is sequential, i.e., one pair is tested at a time. Here we consider the parallel case where all pairs are tested simultaneously, giving considerably more power to dishonest players. We derive sufficient conditions for a self-test for many maximally entangled pairs of qubits shared between two players and also two constructions for self-tests where all pairs are tested simultaneously.

  9. Parallel computing and quantum chromodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, K C


    The study of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) remains one of the most challenging topics in elementary particle physics. The lattice formulation of QCD, in which space-time is treated as a four- dimensional hypercubic grid of points, provides the means for a numerical solution from first principles but makes extreme demands upon computational performance. High Performance Computing (HPC) offers us the tantalising prospect of a verification of QCD through the precise reproduction of the known masses of the strongly interacting particles. It is also leading to the development of a phenomenological tool capable of disentangling strong interaction effects from weak interaction effects in the decays of one kind of quark into another, crucial for determining parameters of the standard model of particle physics. The 1980s saw the first attempts to apply parallel architecture computers to lattice QCD. The SIMD and MIMD machines used in these pioneering efforts were the ICL DAP and the Cosmic Cube, respectively. These wer...

  10. Quantum parallelism may be limited

    CERN Document Server

    Ozhigov, Yu I


    We consider quantum formalism limited by the classical simulating computer with the fixed memory. The memory is redistributed in the course of modeling by the variation of the set of classical states and the accuracy of the representation of amplitudes. This computational description completely preserves the conventional formalism and does not contradicts to experiments, but it makes impossible fast quantum algorithms. This description involves the slow down of quantum evolutions with the growth of the dimension of the minimal subspace containing entangled states, which arise in the evolution. This slow down is the single difference of the proposed formalism from the standard one; it is negligible for the systems from the usual experiments, including those in which many entangled particle participate, but grows rapidly in the attempt to realize the scalable quantum computations, which require the unlimited parallelism. The experimental verification of this version of quantum formalism is reduced to the fixati...

  11. Nanocapillary Adhesion between Parallel Plates. (United States)

    Cheng, Shengfeng; Robbins, Mark O


    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study capillary adhesion from a nanometer scale liquid bridge between two parallel flat solid surfaces. The capillary force, Fcap, and the meniscus shape of the bridge are computed as the separation between the solid surfaces, h, is varied. Macroscopic theory predicts the meniscus shape and the contribution of liquid/vapor interfacial tension to Fcap quite accurately for separations as small as two or three molecular diameters (1-2 nm). However, the total capillary force differs in sign and magnitude from macroscopic theory for h ≲ 5 nm (8-10 diameters) because of molecular layering that is not included in macroscopic theory. For these small separations, the pressure tensor in the fluid becomes anisotropic. The components in the plane of the surface vary smoothly and are consistent with theory based on the macroscopic surface tension. Capillary adhesion is affected by only the perpendicular component, which has strong oscillations as the molecular layering changes.

  12. Parallel network simulations with NEURON. (United States)

    Migliore, M; Cannia, C; Lytton, W W; Markram, Henry; Hines, M L


    The NEURON simulation environment has been extended to support parallel network simulations. Each processor integrates the equations for its subnet over an interval equal to the minimum (interprocessor) presynaptic spike generation to postsynaptic spike delivery connection delay. The performance of three published network models with very different spike patterns exhibits superlinear speedup on Beowulf clusters and demonstrates that spike communication overhead is often less than the benefit of an increased fraction of the entire problem fitting into high speed cache. On the EPFL IBM Blue Gene, almost linear speedup was obtained up to 100 processors. Increasing one model from 500 to 40,000 realistic cells exhibited almost linear speedup on 2,000 processors, with an integration time of 9.8 seconds and communication time of 1.3 seconds. The potential for speed-ups of several orders of magnitude makes practical the running of large network simulations that could otherwise not be explored.

  13. Parallel spinors on flat manifolds (United States)

    Sadowski, Michał


    Let p(M) be the dimension of the vector space of parallel spinors on a closed spin manifold M. We prove that every finite group G is the holonomy group of a closed flat spin manifold M(G) such that p(M(G))>0. If the holonomy group Hol(M) of M is cyclic, then we give an explicit formula for p(M) another than that given in [R.J. Miatello, R.A. Podesta, The spectrum of twisted Dirac operators on compact flat manifolds, Trans. Am. Math. Soc., in press]. We answer the question when p(M)>0 if Hol(M) is a cyclic group of prime order or dim⁡M≤4.

  14. Parallelization of Kinetic Theory Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Jim; Colbry, Dirk; Pickett, Rodney; Staber, Alec; Sagert, Irina; Strother, Terrance


    Numerical studies of shock waves in large scale systems via kinetic simulations with millions of particles are too computationally demanding to be processed in serial. In this work we focus on optimizing the parallel performance of a kinetic Monte Carlo code for astrophysical simulations such as core-collapse supernovae. Our goal is to attain a flexible program that scales well with the architecture of modern supercomputers. This approach requires a hybrid model of programming that combines a message passing interface (MPI) with a multithreading model (OpenMP) in C++. We report on our approach to implement the hybrid design into the kinetic code and show first results which demonstrate a significant gain in performance when many processors are applied.

  15. Parallel computing in enterprise modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsby, Michael E.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Shneider, Max S.; Vanderveen, Keith; Ray, Jaideep; Heath, Zach; Allan, Benjamin A.


    This report presents the results of our efforts to apply high-performance computing to entity-based simulations with a multi-use plugin for parallel computing. We use the term 'Entity-based simulation' to describe a class of simulation which includes both discrete event simulation and agent based simulation. What simulations of this class share, and what differs from more traditional models, is that the result sought is emergent from a large number of contributing entities. Logistic, economic and social simulations are members of this class where things or people are organized or self-organize to produce a solution. Entity-based problems never have an a priori ergodic principle that will greatly simplify calculations. Because the results of entity-based simulations can only be realized at scale, scalable computing is de rigueur for large problems. Having said that, the absence of a spatial organizing principal makes the decomposition of the problem onto processors problematic. In addition, practitioners in this domain commonly use the Java programming language which presents its own problems in a high-performance setting. The plugin we have developed, called the Parallel Particle Data Model, overcomes both of these obstacles and is now being used by two Sandia frameworks: the Decision Analysis Center, and the Seldon social simulation facility. While the ability to engage U.S.-sized problems is now available to the Decision Analysis Center, this plugin is central to the success of Seldon. Because Seldon relies on computationally intensive cognitive sub-models, this work is necessary to achieve the scale necessary for realistic results. With the recent upheavals in the financial markets, and the inscrutability of terrorist activity, this simulation domain will likely need a capability with ever greater fidelity. High-performance computing will play an important part in enabling that greater fidelity.

  16. Culture in whales and dolphins. (United States)

    Rendell, L; Whitehead, H


    Studies of animal culture have not normally included a consideration of cetaceans. However, with several long-term field studies now maturing, this situation should change. Animal culture is generally studied by either investigating transmission mechanisms experimentally, or observing patterns of behavioural variation in wild populations that cannot be explained by either genetic or environmental factors. Taking this second, ethnographic, approach, there is good evidence for cultural transmission in several cetacean species. However, only the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops) has been shown experimentally to possess sophisticated social learning abilities, including vocal and motor imitation; other species have not been studied. There is observational evidence for imitation and teaching in killer whales. For cetaceans and other large, wide-ranging animals, excessive reliance on experimental data for evidence of culture is not productive; we favour the ethnographic approach. The complex and stable vocal and behavioural cultures of sympatric groups of killer whales (Orcinus orca) appear to have no parallel outside humans, and represent an independent evolution of cultural faculties. The wide movements of cetaceans, the greater variability of the marine environment over large temporal scales relative to that on land, and the stable matrilineal social groups of some species are potentially important factors in the evolution of cetacean culture. There have been suggestions of gene-culture coevolution in cetaceans, and culture may be implicated in some unusual behavioural and life-history traits of whales and dolphins. We hope to stimulate discussion and research on culture in these animals.

  17. Integrated Task and Data Parallel Programming (United States)

    Grimshaw, A. S.


    This research investigates the combination of task and data parallel language constructs within a single programming language. There are an number of applications that exhibit properties which would be well served by such an integrated language. Examples include global climate models, aircraft design problems, and multidisciplinary design optimization problems. Our approach incorporates data parallel language constructs into an existing, object oriented, task parallel language. The language will support creation and manipulation of parallel classes and objects of both types (task parallel and data parallel). Ultimately, the language will allow data parallel and task parallel classes to be used either as building blocks or managers of parallel objects of either type, thus allowing the development of single and multi-paradigm parallel applications. 1995 Research Accomplishments In February I presented a paper at Frontiers 1995 describing the design of the data parallel language subset. During the spring I wrote and defended my dissertation proposal. Since that time I have developed a runtime model for the language subset. I have begun implementing the model and hand-coding simple examples which demonstrate the language subset. I have identified an astrophysical fluid flow application which will validate the data parallel language subset. 1996 Research Agenda Milestones for the coming year include implementing a significant portion of the data parallel language subset over the Legion system. Using simple hand-coded methods, I plan to demonstrate (1) concurrent task and data parallel objects and (2) task parallel objects managing both task and data parallel objects. My next steps will focus on constructing a compiler and implementing the fluid flow application with the language. Concurrently, I will conduct a search for a real-world application exhibiting both task and data parallelism within the same program. Additional 1995 Activities During the fall I collaborated

  18. Compiler Technology for Parallel Scientific Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Özturan


    Full Text Available There is a need for compiler technology that, given the source program, will generate efficient parallel codes for different architectures with minimal user involvement. Parallel computation is becoming indispensable in solving large-scale problems in science and engineering. Yet, the use of parallel computation is limited by the high costs of developing the needed software. To overcome this difficulty we advocate a comprehensive approach to the development of scalable architecture-independent software for scientific computation based on our experience with equational programming language (EPL. Our approach is based on a program decomposition, parallel code synthesis, and run-time support for parallel scientific computation. The program decomposition is guided by the source program annotations provided by the user. The synthesis of parallel code is based on configurations that describe the overall computation as a set of interacting components. Run-time support is provided by the compiler-generated code that redistributes computation and data during object program execution. The generated parallel code is optimized using techniques of data alignment, operator placement, wavefront determination, and memory optimization. In this article we discuss annotations, configurations, parallel code generation, and run-time support suitable for parallel programs written in the functional parallel programming language EPL and in Fortran.

  19. The ParaScope parallel programming environment (United States)

    Cooper, Keith D.; Hall, Mary W.; Hood, Robert T.; Kennedy, Ken; Mckinley, Kathryn S.; Mellor-Crummey, John M.; Torczon, Linda; Warren, Scott K.


    The ParaScope parallel programming environment, developed to support scientific programming of shared-memory multiprocessors, includes a collection of tools that use global program analysis to help users develop and debug parallel programs. This paper focuses on ParaScope's compilation system, its parallel program editor, and its parallel debugging system. The compilation system extends the traditional single-procedure compiler by providing a mechanism for managing the compilation of complete programs. Thus, ParaScope can support both traditional single-procedure optimization and optimization across procedure boundaries. The ParaScope editor brings both compiler analysis and user expertise to bear on program parallelization. It assists the knowledgeable user by displaying and managing analysis and by providing a variety of interactive program transformations that are effective in exposing parallelism. The debugging system detects and reports timing-dependent errors, called data races, in execution of parallel programs. The system combines static analysis, program instrumentation, and run-time reporting to provide a mechanical system for isolating errors in parallel program executions. Finally, we describe a new project to extend ParaScope to support programming in FORTRAN D, a machine-independent parallel programming language intended for use with both distributed-memory and shared-memory parallel computers.

  20. Fully Parallel MHD Stability Analysis Tool (United States)

    Svidzinski, Vladimir; Galkin, Sergei; Kim, Jin-Soo; Liu, Yueqiang


    Progress on full parallelization of the plasma stability code MARS will be reported. MARS calculates eigenmodes in 2D axisymmetric toroidal equilibria in MHD-kinetic plasma models. It is a powerful tool for studying MHD and MHD-kinetic instabilities and it is widely used by fusion community. Parallel version of MARS is intended for simulations on local parallel clusters. It will be an efficient tool for simulation of MHD instabilities with low, intermediate and high toroidal mode numbers within both fluid and kinetic plasma models, already implemented in MARS. Parallelization of the code includes parallelization of the construction of the matrix for the eigenvalue problem and parallelization of the inverse iterations algorithm, implemented in MARS for the solution of the formulated eigenvalue problem. Construction of the matrix is parallelized by distributing the load among processors assigned to different magnetic surfaces. Parallelization of the solution of the eigenvalue problem is made by repeating steps of the present MARS algorithm using parallel libraries and procedures. Results of MARS parallelization and of the development of a new fix boundary equilibrium code adapted for MARS input will be reported. Work is supported by the U.S. DOE SBIR program.