WorldWideScience

Sample records for automated nuclear waste

  1. Radioanalytical Chemistry for Automated Nuclear Waste Process Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay W. Grate; Timothy A. DeVol

    2006-07-20

    The objectives of our research were to develop the first automated radiochemical process analyzer including sample pretreatment methodoology, and to initiate work on new detection approaches, especially using modified diode detectors.

  2. Radioanalytical Chemistry for Automated Nuclear Waste Process Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of our research were to develop the first automated radiochemical process analyzer including sample pretreatment methodology, and to initiate work on new detection approaches, especially using modified diode detectors

  3. Automation of the chemical treatment plant of radioactive wastes at the RACSO Nuclear Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RACSO Nuclear Center has a chemical treatment plant which has been designed and built for the low and medium activity radioactive residual treatment. Considering the Radiological Security standards and the optimization principle in order to reduce the doses of the operator personnel, the chemical treatment plant automation development was carried out

  4. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This extract from the House of Commons Hansard publication for Wednesday 12th July 1995 considers the current debate on the desirability or otherwise of disposing of low level radioactive waste in landfill sites. It covers wastes generated both by the nuclear industry and by medical processes in local hospitals, and the transport of such waste from source to disposal site. The questions raised lead to a debate about plans to sell off commercially desirable aspects of the nuclear electric generation industry while leaving the costs associated with decommissioning of Magnox reactors as a liability on the public purse. (UK)

  5. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste is mounting at U.S. nuclear power plants at a rate of more than 2,000 metric tons a year. Pursuant to statute and anticipating that a geologic repository would be available in 1998, the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into disposal contracts with nuclear utilities. Now, however, DOE does not expect the repository to be ready before 2010. For this reason, DOE does not want to develop a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) by 1998. This book is concerned about how best to store the waste until a repository is available, congressional requesters asked GAO to review the alternatives of continued storage at utilities' reactor sites or transferring waste to an MRS facility, GAO assessed the likelihood of an MRSA facility operating by 1998, legal implications if DOE is not able to take delivery of wastes in 1998, propriety of using the Nuclear Waste Fund-from which DOE's waste program costs are paid-to pay utilities for on-site storage capacity added after 1998, ability of utilities to store their waste on-site until a repository is operating, and relative costs and safety of the two storage alternatives

  6. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-05-31

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC.

  7. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC

  8. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE estimates that disposing of radioactive waste from civilian nuclear power plants and its defense-related nuclear facilities could eventually end up costing $32 billion. To pay for this, DOE collects fees from utilities on electricity generated by nuclear power plants and makes payments from its defense appropriation. This report states that unless careful attention is given to its financial condition, the nuclear waste program is susceptible to future shortfalls. Without a fee increase, the civilian-waste part of the program may already be underfunded by at least $2.4 billion (in discounted 1988 dollars). Also, DOE has not paid its share of cost-about $480 million-nor has it disclosed this liability in its financial records. Indexing the civilian fee to the inflation rate would address one major cost uncertainty. However, while DOE intends to do this at an appropriate time, it does not use a realistic rate of inflation as its most probable scenario in assessing whether that time has arrived

  9. Automated radioanalytical system incorporating microwave-assisted sample preparation, chemical separation, and online radiometric detection for the monitoring of total 99Tc in nuclear waste processing streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Oleg B; O'Hara, Matthew J; Grate, Jay W

    2012-04-01

    An automated fluidic instrument is described that rapidly determines the total (99)Tc content of aged nuclear waste samples, where the matrix is chemically and radiologically complex and the existing speciation of the (99)Tc is variable. The monitor links microwave-assisted sample preparation with an automated anion exchange column separation and detection using a flow-through solid scintillator detector. The sample preparation steps acidify the sample, decompose organics, and convert all Tc species to the pertechnetate anion. The column-based anion exchange procedure separates the pertechnetate from the complex sample matrix, so that radiometric detection can provide accurate measurement of (99)Tc. We developed a preprogrammed spike addition procedure to automatically determine matrix-matched calibration. The overall measurement efficiency that is determined simultaneously provides a self-diagnostic parameter for the radiochemical separation and overall instrument function. Continuous, automated operation was demonstrated over the course of 54 h, which resulted in the analysis of 215 samples plus 54 hly spike-addition samples, with consistent overall measurement efficiency for the operation of the monitor. A sample can be processed and measured automatically in just 12.5 min with a detection limit of 23.5 Bq/mL of (99)Tc in low activity waste (0.495 mL sample volume), with better than 10% RSD precision at concentrations above the quantification limit. This rapid automated analysis method was developed to support nuclear waste processing operations planned for the Hanford nuclear site.

  10. Experience gained at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant with development and introduction of a unified automated system for accounting and control of radioactive substances and radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulka, S. K.; Rosnovskii, S. V.

    2014-02-01

    A unified automated system for accounting and control of radioactive substances and radioactive wastes was developed at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant. The system consists of several interconnected subsystems, which can be developed and put in operation in a stage-wise manner. As of the first quarter of 2013, the subsystems for accounting liquid and solid radioactive wastes, very low-active wastes, and tracers have been developed. The experience gained from the development and putting in use of these systems showed that this is an efficient, timely, and much needed software product.

  11. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy is awarding grants to the state of Nevada for the state's participation in DOE's program to investigate Yucca Mountain as a possible site for the disposal of civilian nuclear waste. This report has found that DOE's financial assistance budget request of $15 million for Nevada's fiscal year 1990 was not based on the amount the state requested but rather was derived by increasing Nevada's grant funds from the previous year in proportion to the increase that DOE requested for its own activities at the Nevada site. DOE's evaluations of Nevada's requests are performed too late to be used in DOE's budget formulation process because Nevada has been applying for financial assistance at about the same time that DOE submits its budget request to Congress

  12. Nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While evoking the effects of radioactivity, this publication issued by religious authorities first presents the different radioactive wastes (low level, low or medium level and short life, medium level and long life, high level and long life) and indicates their respective origins. It proposes a brief overview of solutions adopted for the storage of high level-long life radioactive wastes in different countries. It presents the French political and regulatory framework for such storage, indicates the envisaged solutions (deep geological storage, separation and transmutation, packaging and long duration surface or underground warehousing), discusses the content of the debate which took place before the adoption of the law of June 2006, and evokes the notion of reversibility. The next part addresses issues related to public information, and evokes public opinion regarding this storage issue. Some other issues are then discussed within the Church's perspective: the responsibility towards future generations, the transmission of a secured heritage to future generations, the research effort, dialog and transparency

  13. Automated Sorting of Transuranic Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurtliff, Rodney Marvin

    2001-03-01

    The HANDSS-55 Transuranic Waste Sorting Module is designed to sort out items found in 55-gallon drums of waste as determined by an operator. Innovative imaging techniques coupled with fast linear motor-based motion systems and a flexible end-effector system allow the operator to remove items from the waste stream by a touch of the finger. When all desired items are removed from the waste stream, the remaining objects are automatically moved to a repackaging port for removal from the glovebox/cell. The Transuranic Waste Sorting Module consists of 1) a high accuracy XYZ Stereo Measurement and Imaging system, 2) a vibrating/tilting sorting table, 3) an XY Deployment System, 4) a ZR Deployment System, 5) several user-selectable end-effectors, 6) a waste bag opening system, 7) control and instrumentation, 8) a noncompliant waste load-out area, and 9) a Human/Machine Interface (HMI). The system is modular in design to accommodate database management tools, additional load-out ports, and other enhancements. Manually sorting the contents of a 55-gallon drum takes about one day per drum. The HANDSS-55 Waste Sorting Module is designed to significantly increase the throughput of this sorting process by automating those functions that are strenuous and tiresome for an operator to perform. The Waste Sorting Module uses the inherent ability of an operator to identify the items that need to be segregated from the waste stream and then, under computer control, picks that item out of the waste and deposits it in the appropriate location. The operator identifies the object by locating the visual image on a large color display and touches the image on the display with his finger. The computer then determines the location of the object, and performing a highspeed image analysis determines its size and orientation, so that a robotic gripper can be deployed to pick it up. Following operator verification by voice or function key, the object is deposited into a specified location.

  14. Automation of nuclear material handling operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automated systems are more and more used in nuclear material handling operations for increasing safety and operation speed and decreasing the personnel exposure to radiations. Some applications of automation to waste or fuel storage overhead cranes are described, showing the evolution of the control philosophy and of the technology used in this field. The computing capabilities and the flexibility of microprocessors make them particularly powerful for applications. The use of multiple microprocessors in a master-slave configuration, mounted on the crane, leads to a rather simple and efficient system. Those systems are described, showing the use of the ''teach-in'' method for data input, bypassing the effects of possibly large tolerances on civil and mechanical works

  15. Technical study for the automation and control of processes of the chemical processing plant for liquid radioactive waste at Racso Nuclear Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to introduce the development of an automation and control system in a chemical processing plant for liquid radioactive waste of low and medium activity. The control system established for the chemical processing plant at RACSO Nuclear Center is described. It is an on-off sequential type system with feedback. This type of control has been chosen according to the volumes to be treated at the plant as processing is carried out by batches. The system will be governed by a programmable controller (PLC), modular, with a minimum of 24 digital inputs, 01 analog input, 16 digital outputs and 01 analog input. Digital inputs and outputs are specifically found at the level sensors of the tanks and at the solenoid-type electro valve control. Analog inputs and outputs have been considered at the pH control. The comprehensive system has been divided into three control bonds, The bonds considered for the operation of the plant are described, the plant has storing, fitting, processing and clarifying tanks. National Instruments' Lookout software has been used for simulation, constituting an important tool not only for a design phase but also for a practical one since this software will be used as SCADA system. Finally, the advantages and benefits of this automation system are analyzed, radiation doses received by occupationally exposed workers are reduced and reliability on the operation on the system is increased. (authors)

  16. Nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian Nuclear Association has specific views on the following aspects of waste management: a) public information and public participation programs should be encouraged; b) positive political leadership is essential; c) a national plan and policy are necessary; d) all hazardous materials should receive the same care as radioactive wastes; e) power plant construction need not be restricted as long as there is a commitment to nuclear waste management; f) R and D should be funded consistently for nuclear waste management and ancillary topics like alternative fuel cycles and reprocessing. (E.C.B.)

  17. Nuclear Waste and Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past years in almost all conferences on storage of nuclear waste, ethics has been considered as an important theme. But what is ethics? We will first give a sketch of this branch of philosophy. We will then give a short explanation of the three principal ethical theories. In the discussion about storage of nuclear waste, the ethical theory of utilitarianism is often implicitly invoked. In this system future generations weigh less heavily than the present generation, so that people of the future are not considered as much as those now living. We reject this form of reasoning. The discussion about nuclear waste is also sometimes pursued from ethical points of departure such as equality and justice. But many loose ends remain in these arguments, which gives rise to the question of whether the production and storage of nuclear waste is responsible

  18. Nuclear Waste and Ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damveld, Herman [Groningen (Netherlands)

    2003-10-01

    In the past years in almost all conferences on storage of nuclear waste, ethics has been considered as an important theme. But what is ethics? We will first give a sketch of this branch of philosophy. We will then give a short explanation of the three principal ethical theories. In the discussion about storage of nuclear waste, the ethical theory of utilitarianism is often implicitly invoked. In this system future generations weigh less heavily than the present generation, so that people of the future are not considered as much as those now living. We reject this form of reasoning. The discussion about nuclear waste is also sometimes pursued from ethical points of departure such as equality and justice. But many loose ends remain in these arguments, which gives rise to the question of whether the production and storage of nuclear waste is responsible.

  19. Cleaning up nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willem Verboom, associate professor of organic chemistry at the University of Twente, The Netherlands, considers some of the latest advances in separating highly radioactive components of nuclear waste. (author)

  20. High level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transformations involved in the nuclear fuels during the burn-up at the power nuclear reactors for burn-up levels of 33.000 MWd/th are considered. Graphs and data on the radioactivity variation with the cooling time and heat power of the irradiated fuel are presented. Likewise, the cycle of the fuel in light water reactors is presented and the alternatives for the nuclear waste management are discussed. A brief description of the management of the spent fuel as a high level nuclear waste is shown, explaining the reprocessing and giving data about the fission products and their radioactivities, which must be considered on the vitrification processes. On the final storage of the nuclear waste into depth geological burials, both alternatives are coincident. The countries supporting the reprocessing are indicated and the Spanish programm defined in the Plan Energetico Nacional (PEN) is shortly reviewed. (author) 8 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Bar-code automated waste tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bar-Code Automated Waste Tracking System was designed to be a site-Specific program with a general purpose application for transportability to other facilities. The system is user-friendly, totally automated, and incorporates the use of a drive-up window that is close to the areas dealing in container preparation, delivery, pickup, and disposal. The system features ''stop-and-go'' operation rather than a long, tedious, error-prone manual entry. The system is designed for automation but allows operators to concentrate on proper handling of waste while maintaining manual entry of data as a backup. A large wall plaque filled with bar-code labels is used to input specific details about any movement of waste

  2. Bar-code automated waste tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, T.E.

    1994-10-01

    The Bar-Code Automated Waste Tracking System was designed to be a site-Specific program with a general purpose application for transportability to other facilities. The system is user-friendly, totally automated, and incorporates the use of a drive-up window that is close to the areas dealing in container preparation, delivery, pickup, and disposal. The system features ``stop-and-go`` operation rather than a long, tedious, error-prone manual entry. The system is designed for automation but allows operators to concentrate on proper handling of waste while maintaining manual entry of data as a backup. A large wall plaque filled with bar-code labels is used to input specific details about any movement of waste.

  3. Environmental Hazards of Nuclear Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklin, Philip P.

    1974-01-01

    Present methods for storage of radioactive wastes produced at nuclear power facilities are described. Problems arising from present waste management are discussed and potential solutions explored. (JP)

  4. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  5. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981

  6. Encapsulation of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intermediate-level radioactive wastes produced in the day-to-day operation of a nuclear power plant may be incorporated into a thermosettable resin by mixing aqueous wastes with a vinyl ester resin, an unsaturated polyester resin, or a mixture of the two, and curing the resulting water-in-oil emulsion at temperatures below 1000C. The wastes may be either solutions or suspensions of inorganic or organic compounds derived from evaporation, flocculation, coagulation, filtration, ion exchange, or other treatment processes. (LL)

  7. Attitudes to nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a study of risk perception and attitudes with regard to nuclear waste. Two data sets are reported. In the first set, data were obtained from a survey of the general population, using an extensive questionnaire. The second set constituted a follow-up 7 years later, with a limited number of questions. The data showed that people considered the topic of nuclear waste risks to be very important and that they were not convinced that the technological problems had been solved. Experts associated with government agencies were moderately trusted, while those employed by the nuclear industry were much distrusted by some respondents, and very much trusted by others. Moral obligations to future generations were stressed. A large portion (more than 50 per cent) of the variances in risk perception could be explained by attitude to nuclear power, general risk sensitivity and trust in expertise. Most background variables, except gender, had little influence on risk perception and attitudes. The follow-up study showed that the attitude to nuclear power had become more positive over time, but that people still doubted that the problems of nuclear waste disposal had been solved. 49 refs

  8. Nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act by the Congress, December 20, 1982, in the waning hours of the 97th Congress, was a major milestone in the management of the Nation's spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The Congress -- and, subsequently, the President -- made a tough decision that this generation must bite the bullet and proceed with the development of a permanent waste disposal system for the protection of future generations. The Act was a result of several attempts by the Congress over a number of years to move to action on this important subject. President Reagan added his leadership to the task through his 1981 Nuclear Policy Statement. Today, the author proposes to briefly summarize some of the significant achievements concerning implementation of the NWPA, and to direct your attention to courses of action they have placed before the States and Indian Tribes for comment and about which they will formally seek Congressional direction

  9. Commercial nuclear-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is primarily concerned with nuclear waste generated by commercial power operations. It is clear, however, that the total generation of commercial nuclear waste does not tell the whole story, there are sizeable stockpiles of defense nuclear wastes which will impact areas such as total nuclide exposure to the biosphere and the overall economics of waste disposal. The effects of these other nuclear waste streams can be factored in as exogenous inputs. Their generation is essentially independent of nuclear power operations. The objective of this report is to assess the real-world problems associated with nuclear waste management and to design the analytical framework, as appropriate, for handling nuclear waste management issues in the International Nuclear Model. As such, some issues that are not inherently quantifiable, such as the development of environmental Impact Statements to satisfy the National Environmental Protection Act requirements, are only briefly mentioned, if at all

  10. Ceramics in nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikalla, T D; Mendel, J E [eds.

    1979-05-01

    Seventy-three papers are included, arranged under the following section headings: national programs for the disposal of radioactive wastes, waste from stability and characterization, glass processing, ceramic processing, ceramic and glass processing, leaching of waste materials, properties of nuclear waste forms, and immobilization of special radioactive wastes. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the papers. (DLC)

  11. Materials in Nuclear Waste Disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebak, Raul B.

    2014-03-01

    Commercial nuclear energy has been used for over 6 decades; however, to date, none of the 30+ countries with nuclear power has opened a repository for high-level waste (HLW). All countries with nuclear waste plan to dispose of it in metallic containers located in underground geologically stable repositories. Some countries also have liquid nuclear waste that needs to be reduced and vitrified before disposition. The five articles included in this topic offer a cross section of the importance of alloy selection to handle nuclear waste at the different stages of waste processing and disposal.

  12. Nuclear waste vs. democracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States the storage and disposal of high-level nuclear waste is a highly contentious issue because under current plans the public is subjected to unaccepted, involuntary risks. The proposed federal policy includes the forced siting of a repository and interim storage facilities in Nevada, and the transport of waste across the entire nation through large cities and within 2 mile of over 50 million people. At its destination in Nevada, the residents would face coexistence with a facility housing highly radioactive wastes that remain dangerous for many thousands of years. Scientific predictions about the performance and safety of these facilities is highly uncertain and the people foresee possibly catastrophic threats to their health, safety and economic well-being for generations to come. The public sees this currently proposed plan as one that seeks to maximise the profits of the commercial nuclear industry through imposing risk and sacrifice to communities who reap no benefit. And there is no evidence that this plan is actually a solution to the problem. The American public has never had the opportunity to participate in the nuclear waste debate and government plans are presented to people as being necessary and inevitable. To allow democracy into the decisions could be costly to the nuclear industry and it might thwart the government program, but that is the nature of democracy. If the utilities are established to provide a public service, and the government is founded on the principle of public representation, then the nuclear waste debate must conform to those requirements. What we see in this case is a continuing change of rule and law to accommodate a corporate power and the subrogation of national principle. The result of this situation has been that the public exercises its only option - which is obstructing the federal plan. Because the odds are so heavily stacked in favour of government and industry and average citizens have so little access

  13. Robotic control architecture development for automated nuclear material handling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is engaged in developing automated systems for handling materials for mixed waste treatment, nuclear pyrochemical processing, and weapon components disassembly. In support of these application areas there is an extensive robotic development program. This paper will describe the portion of this effort at LLNL devoted to control system architecture development, and review two applications currently being implemented which incorporate these technologies

  14. Risks from nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljenzin, J.O.; Rydberg, J. [Radiochemistry Consultant Group, Vaestra Froelunda (Sweden)

    1996-11-01

    The first part of this review discusses the importance of risk. If there is any relation between the emotional and rational risk perceptions (for example, it is believed that increased knowledge will decrease emotions), it will be a desirable goal for society, and the nuclear industry in particular, to improve the understanding by the laymen of the rational risks from nuclear energy. This review surveys various paths to a more common comprehension - perhaps a consensus - of the nuclear waste risks. The second part discusses radioactivity as a risk factor and concludes that it has no relation in itself to risk, but must be connected to exposure leading to a dose risk, i.e. a health detriment, which is commonly expressed in terms of cancer induction rate. Dose-effect relations are discussed in light of recent scientific debate. The third part of the report describes a number of hazard indexes for nuclear waste found in the literature and distinguishes between absolute and relative risk scales. The absolute risks as well as the relative risks have changed over time due to changes in radiological and metabolic data and by changes in the mode of calculation. To judge from the literature, the risk discussion is huge, even when it is limited to nuclear waste. It would be very difficult to make a comprehensive review and extract the essentials from that. Therefore, we have chosen to select some publications, out of the over 100, which we summarize rather comprehensively; in some cases we also include our remarks. 110 refs, 22 figs.

  15. Risks from nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this review discusses the importance of risk. If there is any relation between the emotional and rational risk perceptions (for example, it is believed that increased knowledge will decrease emotions), it will be a desirable goal for society, and the nuclear industry in particular, to improve the understanding by the laymen of the rational risks from nuclear energy. This review surveys various paths to a more common comprehension - perhaps a consensus - of the nuclear waste risks. The second part discusses radioactivity as a risk factor and concludes that it has no relation in itself to risk, but must be connected to exposure leading to a dose risk, i.e. a health detriment, which is commonly expressed in terms of cancer induction rate. Dose-effect relations are discussed in light of recent scientific debate. The third part of the report describes a number of hazard indexes for nuclear waste found in the literature and distinguishes between absolute and relative risk scales. The absolute risks as well as the relative risks have changed over time due to changes in radiological and metabolic data and by changes in the mode of calculation. To judge from the literature, the risk discussion is huge, even when it is limited to nuclear waste. It would be very difficult to make a comprehensive review and extract the essentials from that. Therefore, we have chosen to select some publications, out of the over 100, which we summarize rather comprehensively; in some cases we also include our remarks. 110 refs, 22 figs

  16. Nuclear waste: the political realities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The land dumping of nuclear waste has again come to the attention of anti-nuclear groups, environmentalists and the media, following the announcement of the proposed sites for intermediate-level nuclear waste at Billingham and Bedford. Opposition has already surfaced on a large scale, with public meetings in both areas and a revitalisation of the waste dumping network. This article explains some of the political realities in the nuclear debate, and suggests how we can tackle the issue of waste dumping, remembering that, even if the industry closes tomorrow, there are vast quantities of waste which must be safely and democratically dealt with. (author)

  17. Turning nuclear waste into glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegg, Ian L.

    2015-02-15

    Vitrification has emerged as the treatment option of choice for the most dangerous radioactive waste. But dealing with the nuclear waste legacy of the Cold War will require state-of-the-art facilities and advanced glass formulations.

  18. Intelligent Automated Nuclear Fuel Pellet Inspection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present time, nuclear pellet inspection is performed manually using naked eyes for judgment and decisionmaking on accepting or rejecting pellets. This current practice of pellet inspection is tedious and subject to inconsistencies and error. Furthermore, unnecessary re-fabrication of pellets is costly and the presence of low quality pellets in a fuel assembly is unacceptable. To improve the quality control in nuclear fuel fabrication plants, an automated pellet inspection system based on advanced techniques is needed. Such a system addresses the following concerns of the current manual inspection method: (1) the reliability of inspection due to typical human errors, (2) radiation exposure to the workers, and (3) speed of inspection and its economical impact. The goal of this research is to develop an automated nuclear fuel pellet inspection system which is based on pellet video (photographic) images and uses artificial intelligence techniques

  19. Public opinion and nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surveys and opinion polls regularly reinforce the belief that nuclear waste is one of the general public greatest fears. Their results reflect the way this theme is handled by the media, often in a negative or controversial light. Closer examination of these surveys, however, reveals that the apparently delicate situation of nuclear waste in public opinion deserves a more subtle, qualified approach. (author)

  20. Glasses for nuclear waste immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitrification of nuclear wastes is attractive because of its flexibility, the large number of elements which can be incorporated in the glass, its high corrosion durability and the reduced volume of the resulting waste form. Vitrification is a mature technology and has been used for high level nuclear waste (HLW) immobilisation for more than 40 years in France, Germany and Belgium, Russia, UK, Japan and the USA. Vitrification involves melting of waste materials with glass-forming additives so that the final vitreous product incorporates the waste contaminants in its macro- and micro-structure. Hazardous waste constituents are immobilised either by direct incorporation into the glass structure or by encapsulation when the final glassy material can be in form of a glass composite material (GCM). Both borosilicate and phosphate glasses are currently used to immobilise nuclear wastes, moreover in addition to relatively homogeneous glasses novel GCM are used to immobilise problematic waste streams. The spectrum of wastes which are currently vitrified increases from HLW to low and intermediate wastes (LILW) such as legacy wastes in Hanford, USA and nuclear power plant operational wastes in Russia and Korea. (authors)

  1. Environmental geotechnics and nuclear waste

    OpenAIRE

    Gens Solé, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of nuclear waste management and disposal relevant to the field of Envrronmental Geotechnics. Issues associated with storage and disposal of low-level and medium-level waste are discussed first. Subsequently, the paper focuses on the deep geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste. General strategies and features are presented as well as some considerations concerning suitable geological host media. The topics associated with the design and construction o...

  2. The problematic of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the frame of a project of modification of radioactive waste storage installations, and of refurbishing the Gentilly-2 nuclear plant (Quebec, Canada), the author first gives an overview and comments assessments of the volume and nature of nuclear wastes produced by Canadian nuclear power plants. He presents the Canadian program of nuclear waste management (history, Seaborn assessment Commission, mission of the SGDN-NWMO). He discusses the relationship between risk and dose, the risk duration, and the case of non radioactive wastes. He discusses energy challenges in terms of CO2 emissions and with respect to climate change, proposes an alternative scenario on a long term, compares nuclear energy and wind energy, and discusses the nuclear technology evolution

  3. Automated separation process for radioanalytical purposes at nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, L G; Vajda, N; Vodicska, M; Zagyvai, P; Solymosi, J

    1987-10-01

    Chemical separation processes have been developed to remove the matrix components and thus to determine fission products, especially radioiodine nuclides, in the primary coolant of WWER-type nuclear reactors. Special procedures have been elaborated to enrich long-lived nuclides in waste waters to be released and to separate and enrich caesium isotopes in the environment. All processes are based mainly on ion-exchange separations using amorphous zirconium phosphate. Automated equipment was constructed to meet the demands of the plant personnel for serial analysis.

  4. Aspects of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six areas of concern in nuclear waste management have been dealt with in a four-year Nordic research programme. They include work in two international projects, Hydrocoin dealing with modelling of groundwater flow in crystalline rock, and Biomovs, concerned with biosphere models. Geologic questions of importance to the prediction of future behaviour are examined. Waste quantities from the decommissioning of nuclear power stations are estimated, and total amounts of waste to be transported in the Nordic countries are evaluated. Waste amounts from a hypothetical reactor accident are also calculated. (au)

  5. Nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A deep repository for safe long-term storage of long-lived radioactive materials (waste) arising from nuclear fuel irradiation in reactors is a need generally accepted, whatever the strategy envisaged for further use of the irradiated fuel (e.g.: reprocessing and re-use of uranium and plutonium; no reprocessing and final disposal). To assess the impact on the environment of a waste repository, one is lead naturally to consider the impact of radiation on man and to define the radiotoxicity of the different isotopes. The toxicity of the materials stored in a repository is function of time and at a given time is the sum of the activities of each radionuclide multiplied by appropriate danger coefficients. This time dependent sum R, is a source of 'potential' radiotoxicity. It has been pointed out (in reference 1), that R does not measure 'risk', which has to take into account 'actual pathways and probability of radioactive release to the biosphere'. It is well understood that (e.g. in the case of spent PWR fuel) the main contributor to R are actinides, Pu being the main component (see table I). In the case of risk, the situation is by far more complex and dependent on the modeling of different geological environments. In the analysis made in reference 1 the predominant role of Tc-99, I-129 and Cs-135 has been pointed out. The same analysis also stresses that actinides will be by far less relevant with respect to the highly soluble and mobile fission products. (authors). 13 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  6. Nuclear wastes; Dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Here is made a general survey of the situation relative to radioactive wastes. The different kinds of radioactive wastes and the different way to store them are detailed. A comparative evaluation of the situation in France and in the world is made. The case of transport of radioactive wastes is tackled. (N.C.)

  7. Storage - Nuclear wastes are overflowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article highlights that the dismantling of French nuclear installations will generate huge volumes of radioactive wastes and that France may lack space to store them. The Cigeo project (underground storage) only concerns 0.2 per cent of the nuclear waste volume produced by France in 50 years. If storage solutions exist for less active wastes, they will soon be insufficient, notably because of the quantity of wastes produced by the dismantling of existing reactors and fuel processing plants. Different assessments of these volumes are evoked. In order to store them, the ANDRA made a second call for innovating projects which would enable a reduction of this volume by 20 to 30 per cent. The article also evokes projects selected after the first call for projects. They mainly focus on nuclear waste characterization which will result in a finer management of wastes regarding their storage destination. Cost issues and the opposition of anti-nuclear NGOs are still obstacles to the development of new sites

  8. Glasses and nuclear waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass is an amorphous solid material which behaves like an isotropic crystal. Atomic structure of glass lacks long-range order but possesses short and most probably medium range order. Compared to crystalline materials of the same composition glasses are metastable materials however crystallisation processes are kinetically impeded within times which typically exceed the age of universe. The physical and chemical durability of glasses combined with their high tolerance to compositional changes makes glasses irreplaceable when hazardous waste needs immobilisation for safe long-term storage, transportation and consequent disposal. Immobilisation of radioactive waste in glassy materials using vitrification has been used successfully for several decades. Nuclear waste vitrification is attractive because of its flexibility, the large number of elements which can be incorporated in the glass, its high corrosion durability and the reduced volume of the resulting wasteform. Vitrification involves melting of waste materials with glass-forming additives so that the final vitreous product incorporates the waste contaminants in its macro- and micro-structure. Hazardous waste constituents are immobilised either by direct incorporation into the glass structure or by encapsulation when the final glassy material can be in form of a glass composite material. Both borosilicate and phosphate glasses are currently used to immobilise nuclear wastes. In addition to relatively homogeneous glasses novel glass composite materials are used to immobilise problematic waste streams. (author)

  9. French people and nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 21, 2005, the French minister of industry gave to the author of this document, the mission to shade a sociological light on the radioactive wastes perception by French people. The objective of this study was to supply an additional information before the laying down in 2006 of the decisions about the management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes. This inquiry, carried out between April 2004 and March 2005, stresses on the knowledge and doubts of the questioned people, on the vision they have of radioactive wastes and of their hazards, and on their opinion about the actors in concern (experts, nuclear companies, government, anti-nuclear groups, public). The last two parts of the report consider the different ways of waste management under study today, and the differences between the opinion of people living close to the Bure site and the opinion of people living in other regions. (J.S.)

  10. Equity and nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the recommendations of the US National Academy of Sciences and the mandates of the 1987 Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act, the US Department of Energy has proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada as the site of the world's first permanent repository for high-level nuclear waste. The main justification for permanent disposal (as opposed to above-ground storage) is that it guarantees safety by means of waste isolation. This essay argues, however, that considerations of equity (safer for whom?) undercut the safety rationale. The article surveys some prima facie arguments for equity in the distribution of radwaste risks and then evaluates four objections that are based, respectively, on practicality, compensation for risks, scepticism about duties to future generations, and the uranium criterion. The conclusion is that, at least under existing regulations and policies, permanent waste disposal is highly questionable, in part, because it fails to distribute risk equitably or to compensate, in full, for this inequity

  11. Ethical aspects on Nuclear Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an ethical assessment of how we shall deal with nuclear waste, one of the chief questions that arises is how to initiate action while at the same time taking into consideration uncertainties which are unavoidable seen from a long-term perspective. By means of different formulation and by proceeding from various starting-points, a two edged objective is established vis-a-vis repository facilities: safety in operation combined with reparability, with controls not necessary, but not impossible. Prerequisites for the realization of this objective are the continued advancement of knowledge and refinement of the qualifications required to deal with nuclear waste. The ethical considerations above could be the bases for the future legislation in the field of nuclear energy waste. (author)

  12. Nuclear power and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gap between the relative perceptions in the area of nuclear waste is wide. The broad view of the industry is that the disposal of nuclear waste is not a serious technical problem, and that solutions are already available to provide safe disposal of all our waste. The broad view of those who oppose the industry is that radioactive waste is so unpleasant, and will remain lethal for so long, that no acceptable policy will ever be developed, and so production of such waste (except, oddly, the significant amounts arising from uses of radioactive materials in medicine, agriculture, industrial safety research, etc) should stop immediately. This booklet will not attempt to describe in great detail the technicalities of the United Kingdom nuclear industry's current approach to radioactive waste: such issues are described in detail in other publications, especially those by Nirex. It is our intention to outline some of the main issues involved, and to associate these issues with the divergence in perceptions of various parties. (author)

  13. Automation in electrical systems of nuclear fuel recycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper covers the automation aspects in substation as well as other plant areas of a typical Nuclear Fuel Recycle Facility. Automation done at equipment level viz. HV/LV switchgear, Transformer etc. as well as system level viz. UPS system, Ventilation system etc. have been described. Automation in electrical systems of nuclear fuel recycle facilities have resulted in remote operation, reduction in manpower, better process control and increased throughput of the plant. (author)

  14. The Public and Nuclear Waste Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinberg, Dorothy

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the public's negative attitude towards nuclear energy development. Explains the perceptions for the nuclear waste disposal problem, and the concern for the protection of the environment. (GA)

  15. The Geopolitics of Nuclear Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Eliot

    1991-01-01

    The controversy surrounding the potential storage of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is discussed. Arguments about the stability of the site and the groundwater situation are summarized. The role of the U.S. Department of Energy and other political considerations are described. (CW)

  16. Laser induced nuclear waste transmutation

    CERN Document Server

    Hirlimann, Charles

    2016-01-01

    When producing electricity that collects the mass energy that is available at the time of the induced disintegration of radioactive elements, other unstable elements are produced with half-life span durations ranging from less than one second to hundreds of thousands of years and which are considered as waste. Managing nuclear waste with a half-life of less than 30 years is an easy task, as our societies clearly know how to keep buildings safe for more than a century, the time it takes for the activity to be divided by a factor of 8. High-activity, long-lasting waste that can last for thousands of years or even longer, up to geological time laps, cannot be taken care of for such long durations. Therefore, these types of waste are socially unacceptable; nobody wants to leave a polluted planet to descendants.

  17. Remote automated material handling of radioactive waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To enhance personnel safety, improve productivity, and reduce costs, the design team incorporated a remote, automated stacker/retriever, automatic inspection, and automated guidance vehicle for material handling at the Enhanced Radioactive and Mixed Waste Storage Facility - Phase V (Phase V Storage Facility) on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The Phase V Storage Facility, scheduled to begin operation in mid-1997, is the first low-cost facility of its kind to use this technology for handling drums. Since 1970, the Hanford Site's suspect transuranic (TRU) wastes and, more recently, mixed wastes (both low-level and TRU) have been accumulating in storage awaiting treatment and disposal. Currently, the Hanford Site is only capable of onsite disposal of radioactive low-level waste (LLW). Nonradioactive hazardous wastes must be shipped off site for treatment. The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facilities will provide the primary treatment capability for solid-waste storage at the Hanford Site. The Phase V Storage Facility, which accommodates 27,000 drum equivalents of contact-handled waste, will provide the following critical functions for the efficient operation of the WRAP facilities: (1) Shipping/Receiving; (2) Head Space Gas Sampling; (3) Inventory Control; (4) Storage; (5) Automated/Manual Material Handling

  18. Laser induced nuclear waste transmutation

    OpenAIRE

    Hirlimann, Charles

    2007-01-01

    When producing electricity that collects the mass energy that is available at the time of the induced disintegration of radioactive elements, other unstable elements are produced with half-life span durations ranging from less than one second to hundreds of thousands of years and which are considered as waste. Managing nuclear waste with a half-life of less than 30 years is an easy task, as our societies clearly know how to keep buildings safe for more than a century, the time it takes for th...

  19. Nuclear waste: A cancer cure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a marriage of strange bedfellows, scientists at one of the country's most contaminated nuclear waste sites are collaborating with medical researchers to turn nuclear waste into an experimental therapy for cancer. Patients with Hodgkin's disease and brain, ovarian, and breast cancers may be able to receive the new radiatio-based treatments in the next five to ten years. Recently, scientists at the Hanford site found a way to chemically extract a pure form of the radioisotope yttrium-90 from strontium-90, a by-product of plutonium production. Yttrium-90 is being tested in clinical trials at medical centers around the country as a treatment for various types of cancers, and the initial results are encouraging. The advantage of yttrium-90 over other radioisotopes is its short half-life

  20. Nuclear waste immobilization. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United States defense nuclear wastes are presently in tank storage, largely as sludges comprising Fe, Mn, Ni, U and Na oxides and hydroxides, together with 0.5 to 5 percent of fission products and actinides (exclusive of uranium). The relative proportions of Al, Fe, Mn, Ni, U and Na in the sludges from different tanks vary considerably, except that (Fe + Al + Mn) are by far the major components and Fe is more abundant than Mn. Typical compositions of some calcined sludges from Savannah River are given. This paper briefly describes how the SYNROC process, utilizing straightforward technology, can be readily adapted to the problem of defense waste immobilization, yielding a dense, inert, ceramic waste-form, SYNROC-D. Two classes of processes are discussed - one designed to immobilize sludges containing normal amounts of sodium and the other designed for otherwise similar sludges which are, however, strongly depleted in sodium as a result of more efficient washing procedures

  1. Nuclear waste and hazardous waste in the public perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruetli, Pius; Seidl, Roman; Stauffacher, Michael [ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. for Environmental Decisions

    2015-07-01

    The disposal of nuclear waste has gained attention of the public for decades. Accordingly, nuclear waste has been a prominent issue in natural, engineer and social science for many years. Although bearing risks for todays and future generations hazardous waste in contrast is much less an issue of public concern. In 2011, we conducted a postal survey among Swiss Germans (N = 3.082) to learn more about, how nuclear waste is perceived against hazardous waste. We created a questionnaire with two versions, nuclear waste and hazardous waste, respectively. Each version included an identical part with well-known explanatory factors for risk perception on each of the waste types separately and additional questions directly comparing the two waste types. Results show that basically both waste types are perceived similarly in terms of risk/benefit, emotion, trust, knowledge and responsibility. However, in the direct comparison of the two waste types a complete different pattern can be observed: Respondents perceive nuclear waste as more long-living, more dangerous, less controllable and it, furthermore, creates more negative emotions. On the other hand, respondents feel more responsible for hazardous waste and indicate to have more knowledge about this waste type. Moreover, nuclear waste is perceived as more carefully managed. We conclude that mechanisms driving risk perception are similar for both waste types but an overarching negative image of nuclear waste prevails. We propose that hazardous waste should be given more attention in the public as well as in science which may have implications on further management strategies of hazardous waste.

  2. Nuclear waste and hazardous waste in the public perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disposal of nuclear waste has gained attention of the public for decades. Accordingly, nuclear waste has been a prominent issue in natural, engineer and social science for many years. Although bearing risks for todays and future generations hazardous waste in contrast is much less an issue of public concern. In 2011, we conducted a postal survey among Swiss Germans (N = 3.082) to learn more about, how nuclear waste is perceived against hazardous waste. We created a questionnaire with two versions, nuclear waste and hazardous waste, respectively. Each version included an identical part with well-known explanatory factors for risk perception on each of the waste types separately and additional questions directly comparing the two waste types. Results show that basically both waste types are perceived similarly in terms of risk/benefit, emotion, trust, knowledge and responsibility. However, in the direct comparison of the two waste types a complete different pattern can be observed: Respondents perceive nuclear waste as more long-living, more dangerous, less controllable and it, furthermore, creates more negative emotions. On the other hand, respondents feel more responsible for hazardous waste and indicate to have more knowledge about this waste type. Moreover, nuclear waste is perceived as more carefully managed. We conclude that mechanisms driving risk perception are similar for both waste types but an overarching negative image of nuclear waste prevails. We propose that hazardous waste should be given more attention in the public as well as in science which may have implications on further management strategies of hazardous waste.

  3. Nuclear wastes: fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on investigations of transuranics in soils and plants that have demonstrated the importance of valence state, complexation, competing elements, migration down the soil profile, and weathering cycles in governing transuranic, 129I and 99Tc availability to plants and, in the case of Pu, to the consuming animals. In the latter case, it was demonstrated, for the first time, that ingestion of plant tissues containing Pu may result in greater transfer across the gut compared to gavaging animals with inorganic Pu solutions, underscoring the importance of detailed studies of the soil, plant, and animal factors influencing uptake by the ingestion pathway. Further evidence of the importance of the ingestion pathway was provided in studies of foliar interception of airborne transuranic elements in which it was shown that Pu in particles in the respiratory size range were effectively intercepted and retained by plants, and significant quantities of intercepted Pu were transported to roots and seeds. Similar studies on the terrestrial ingestion pathway have been initiated with other actinides including, U, Am, Cm, and Np. Radioecological field studies were directed toward establishment of pertinent ingestion pathways and exposure levels through description of habitat types, population densities, and, in several instances, dosimetry, for major insects, reptiles, birds, and mammalian species. These studies were extended to agricultural ecosystems through definition of the uptake of long-lived nuclides and digestibility in cattle of several forage species. In studies on a pond ecosystem at the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, Pu and Am uptake rates were studied for major biotic components including organic floc, algae, fish, and ducks. The results indicated that assimilation of transuranics by the biota and export from the pond system were low compared to the total inventory

  4. Final disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry argues that high level radioactive waste can be safely disposed of in deep underground repositories. As yet, however, no such repositories are in use and the amount of spent nuclear fuel in ponds and dry storage is steadily increasing. Although the nuclear industry further argues that storage is a safe option for up to 50 years and has the merit of allowing the radioactivity of the fuel to decay to a more manageable level, the situation seems to be far from ideal. The real reasons for procrastination over deep disposal seem to have as much to do with politics as safe technology. The progress of different countries in finding a solution to the final disposal of high level waste is examined. In some, notably the countries of the former Soviet Union, cost is a barrier; in others, the problem has not yet been faced. In these countries undertaking serious research into deep disposal there has been a tendency, in the face of opposition from environmental groups, to retreat to sites close to existing nuclear installations and to set up rock laboratories to characterize them. These sites are not necessarily the best geologically, but the laboratories may end up being converted into actual repositories because of the considerable financial investment they represent. (UK)

  5. Final disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-10-01

    The nuclear industry argues that high level radioactive waste can be safely disposed of in deep underground repositories. As yet, however, no such repositories are in use and the amount of spent nuclear fuel in ponds and dry storage is steadily increasing. Although the nuclear industry further argues that storage is a safe option for up to 50 years and has the merit of allowing the radioactivity of the fuel to decay to a more manageable level, the situation seems to be far from ideal. The real reasons for procrastination over deep disposal seem to have as much to do with politics as safe technology. The progress of different countries in finding a solution to the final disposal of high level waste is examined. In some, notably the countries of the former Soviet Union, cost is a barrier; in others, the problem has not yet been faced. In these countries undertaking serious research into deep disposal there has been a tendency, in the face of opposition from environmental groups, to retreat to sites close to existing nuclear installations and to set up rock laboratories to characterize them. These sites are not necessarily the best geologically, but the laboratories may end up being converted into actual repositories because of the considerable financial investment they represent. (UK).

  6. Plasma filtering techniques for nuclear waste remediation

    CERN Document Server

    Gueroult, Renaud; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear waste cleanup is challenged by the handling of feed stocks that are both unknown and complex. Plasma filtering, operating on dissociated elements, offers advantages over chemical methods in processing such wastes. The costs incurred by plasma mass filtering for nuclear waste pretreatment, before ultimate disposal, are similar to those for chemical pretreatment. However, significant savings might be achieved in minimizing the waste mass. This advantage may be realized over a large range of chemical waste compositions, thereby addressing the heterogeneity of legacy nuclear waste.

  7. Nuclear waste management. Semiannual progress report, October 1983-March 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in the following studies on radioactive waste management is reported: defense waste technology; Nuclear Waste Materials Characterization Center; waste isolation; and supporting studies. 58 figures, 22 tables

  8. Robotic and nuclear safety for an automated/teleoperated glove box system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domning, E.E. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); McMahon, T.T.; Sievers, R.H. (Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a fully automated system to handle the processing of special nuclear materials (SNM). This work is performed in response to the new goals at the Department of Energy (DOE) for hazardous waste minimization and radiation dose reduction. This fully automated system, called the automated test bed (ATB), consists of an IBM gantry robot and automated processing equipment sealed within a glove box. While the ATB is a cold system, we are designing it as a prototype of the future hot system. We recognized that identification and application of safety requirements early in the design phase will lead to timely installation and approval of the hot system. This paper identifies these safety issues as well as the general safety requirements necessary for the safe operation of the ATB. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Automated system for handling tritiated mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a semi system for handling, characterizing, processing, sorting, and repackaging hazardous wastes containing tritium. The system combines an IBM-developed gantry robot with a special glove box enclosure designed to protect operators and minimize the potential release of tritium to the atmosphere. All hazardous waste handling and processing will be performed remotely, using the robot in a teleoperational mode for one-of-a-kind functions and in an autonomous mode for repetitive operations. Initially, this system will be used in conjunction with a portable gas system designed to capture any gaseous-phase tritium released into the glove box. This paper presents the objectives of this development program, provides background related to LLNL's robotics and waste handling program, describes the major system components, outlines system operation, and discusses current status and plans

  10. Nuclear waste management, reactor decommisioning, nuclear liability and public attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with several issues that are frequently raised by the public in any discussion of nuclear energy, and explores some aspects of public attitudes towards nuclear-related activities. The characteristics of the three types of waste associated with the nuclear fuel cycle, i.e. mine/mill tailings, reactor wastes and nuclear fuel wastes, are defined, and the methods currently being proposed for their safe handling and disposal are outlined. The activities associated with reactor decommissioning are also described, as well as the Canadian approach to nuclear liability. The costs associated with nuclear waste management, reactor decommissioning and nuclear liability are also discussed. Finally, the issue of public attitudes towards nuclear energy is addressed. It is concluded that a simple and comprehensive information program is needed to overcome many of the misconceptions that exist about nuclear energy and to provide the public with a more balanced information base on which to make decisions

  11. Questions concerning nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federal Republic of Germany has a technical concept for nuclear waste management which is convincing in the main elements of its structure. The orderly disposal of radioactive waste does not present a problem in terms of quantity in relation with comparable toxicity. The scientific-technical overall concept also corresponds to a conclusive, yet open-to-development legislative-administrative concept with a versatile and strict monitoring and control system. The German Atomic Energy Act (AtG) has proved its worth also in the main points of the 'disposal part'. When amending the Act, some changes have to be considered, one of them being: Stipulating the obligation to produce evidence of disposal provisions as an official precondition for licensing in section 7, subsection (2) AtG. (orig./HSCH)

  12. Southeastern Utah Nuclear Waste Transportation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bechtel Group Inc.

    1982-01-01

    This report is published as a product of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. The objective of this program is the development of terminal waste storage facilities in deep stable geologic formations for high-level nuclear waste, including spent fuel elements from commercial power reactors and transuranic nuclear waste for which the Federal Government is responsible. The initial purpose of this study was to analyze and compare possible transport modes and corridors connectin...

  13. Plasma filtering techniques for nuclear waste remediation

    OpenAIRE

    Gueroult, Renaud; Hobbs, David T.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear waste cleanup is challenged by the handling of feed stocks that are both unknown and complex. Plasma filtering, operating on dissociated elements, offers advantages over chemical methods in processing such wastes. The costs incurred by plasma mass filtering for nuclear waste pretreatment, before ultimate disposal, are similar to those for chemical pretreatment. However, significant savings might be achieved in minimizing the waste mass. This advantage may be realized over a large rang...

  14. Nuclear energy from radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global energy demand is increasing. Sound forecasts indicate that by the year 2020 almost eight thousand million people will be living on our planet, and generating their demand for energy will require conversion of about 20 thousand million tonnes of coal equivalents a year. Against this background scenario, a new concept for energy generation elaborated by nuclear scientists at CERN attracts particular interest. The concept describing a new nuclear energy source and technology intends to meet the following principal requirements: create a new energy source that can be exploited in compliance with extremely stringent safety requirements; reduce the amount of long-lived radioactive waste; substantially reduce the size of required radwaste repositories; use easily available natural fuels that will not need isotopic separation; prevent the risk of proliferation of radioactive materials; process and reduce unwanted actinides as are generated by the operation of current breeder reactors; achieve high efficiency both in terms of technology and economics. (orig./CB)

  15. Demonstration of automated robotic workcell for hazardous waste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated robotic workcell to classify hazardous waste stream items with previously unknown characteristics has been designed, tested and demonstrated The object attributes being quantified are radiation signature, metal content, and object orientation and volume. The multi sensor information is used to make segregation decisions plus do automatic grasping of objects. The work-cell control program uses an off-line programming system by Cimetrix Inc. as a server to do both simulation control as well as actual hardware control of the workcell. This paper will discuss the overall workcell layout, sensor specifications, workcell supervisory control, 2D vision based automated grasp planning and object classification algorithms

  16. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gombert, Dirk; Ebert, William; Marra, James; Jubin, Robert; Vienna, John [Idaho National laboratory, 2525 Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program is designed to demonstrate that a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline set of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Specific waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and expected performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms. (authors)

  17. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirk Gombert; William Ebert; James Marra; Robert Jubin; John Vienna

    2008-05-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program (GNEP) is designed to demonstrate a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle that can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness and availability may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms.

  18. Questioning nuclear waste substitution: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan

    2007-03-01

    This article looks at the ethical quandaries, and their social and political context, which emerge as a result of international nuclear waste substitution. In particular it addresses the dilemmas inherent within the proposed return of nuclear waste owned by Japanese nuclear companies and currently stored in the United Kingdom. The UK company responsible for this waste, British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), wish to substitute this high volume intermediate-level Japanese-owned radioactive waste for a much lower volume of much more highly radioactive waste. Special focus is given to ethical problems that they, and the UK government, have not wished to address as they move forward with waste substitution. The conclusion is that waste substitution can only be considered an ethical practice if a set of moderating conditions are observed by all parties. These conditions are listed and, as of yet, they are not being observed.

  19. Nuclear waste disposal: Gambling on Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the historical aspects of nuclear energy ,nuclear weapons usage, and development of the nuclear bureaucracy in the United States, and discusses the selection and siting of Yucca Mountain, Nevada for a federal nuclear waste repository. Litigation regarding the site selection and resulting battles in the political arena and in the Nevada State Legislature are also presented. Alternative radioactive waste disposal options, risk assessments of the Yucca Mountain site, and logistics regarding the transportation and storage of nuclear waste are also presented. This document also contains an extensive bibliography

  20. Nuclear waste hearings - a three ring circus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article is a personal commentary by Dr. H. Tammemagi on the hearings held on the deep geologic concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal. He condemns the anti-nuclear proponents of voicing opinions not based on fact while they accuse the nuclear proponents of not making decisions on a nuclear waste disposal facility based on enough facts. He uses the Mars and Venus analogy of a popular book to bring forth his point

  1. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the third joint annual report on the Cooperative German-American 'Brine Migration Tests' that are in progress at the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). This Government supported mine serves as an underground test facility for research and development (R and D)-work in the field of nuclear waste repository research and simulation experiments. The tests are designed to simulate a nuclear waste repository to measure the effects of heat and gamma radiation on brine migration, salt decrepitation, disassociation of brine, and gases collected. The thermal mechanical behavior of salt, such as room closure, stresses and changes of the properties of salt are measured and compared with predicted behavior. This document covers the following sections: Issues and test objectives: This section presents issues that are investigated by the Brine Migration Test, and the test objectives derived from these issues; test site: This section describes the test site location and geology in the Asse mine; test description: A description of the test configuration, procedures, equipment, and instrumentation is given in this section; actual test chronology: The actual history of the test, in terms of the dates at which major activities occured, is presented in this section. Test results: This section presents the test results observed to data and the planned future work that is needed to complete the test; conclusions and recommendations: This section summarizes the conclusions derived to date regarding the Brine Migration Test. Additional work that would be useful to resolve the issues is discussed. (orig.)

  2. Plasma filtering techniques for nuclear waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueroult, Renaud, E-mail: rgueroul@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Hobbs, David T. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • A detailed economic study on plasma mass filtering techniques is presented. • Comparison with chemical techniques shows similar costs for solid-waste pretreatment. • Significant savings potential is identified through superior waste minimization. - Abstract: Nuclear waste cleanup is challenged by the handling of feed stocks that are both unknown and complex. Plasma filtering, operating on dissociated elements, offers advantages over chemical methods in processing such wastes. The costs incurred by plasma mass filtering for nuclear waste pretreatment, before ultimate disposal, are similar to those for chemical pretreatment. However, significant savings might be achieved in minimizing the waste mass. This advantage may be realized over a large range of chemical waste compositions, thereby addressing the heterogeneity of legacy nuclear waste.

  3. Plasma filtering techniques for nuclear waste remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A detailed economic study on plasma mass filtering techniques is presented. • Comparison with chemical techniques shows similar costs for solid-waste pretreatment. • Significant savings potential is identified through superior waste minimization. - Abstract: Nuclear waste cleanup is challenged by the handling of feed stocks that are both unknown and complex. Plasma filtering, operating on dissociated elements, offers advantages over chemical methods in processing such wastes. The costs incurred by plasma mass filtering for nuclear waste pretreatment, before ultimate disposal, are similar to those for chemical pretreatment. However, significant savings might be achieved in minimizing the waste mass. This advantage may be realized over a large range of chemical waste compositions, thereby addressing the heterogeneity of legacy nuclear waste

  4. A sensor-based automation system for handling nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated system is being developed for handling large payloads of radioactive nuclear materials in an analytical laboratory. The automation system performs unpacking and repacking of payloads from shipping and storage containers, and delivery of the payloads to the stations in the laboratory. The system uses machine vision and force/torque sensing to provide sensor-based control of the automation system in order to enhance system safety, flexibility, and robustness, and achieve easy remote operation. The automation system also controls the operation of the laboratory measurement systems and the coordination of them with the robotic system. Particular attention has been given to system design features and analytical methods that provide an enhanced level of operational safety. Independent mechanical gripper interlock and tool release mechanisms were designed to prevent payload mishandling. An extensive Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the automation system was developed as a safety design analysis tool

  5. Transport and nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author assesses both past and future of nuclear waste disposal in Germany. The failure of the disposal concept is, he believes, mainly the fault of the Federal Government. On the basis of the Nuclear Energy Act, the government is obliged to ensure that ultimate-storage sites are established and operated. Up to the present, however, the government has failed - apart from the episode in Asse and Morsleben and espite existing feasible proposals in Konrad and Gorleben - to achieve this objective. This negative development is particularly evident from the projects which have had to be prematurely abandoned. The costs of such 'investment follies' meanwhile amount to several billion DM. At least 92% of the capacity in the intermediate-storage sites are at present unused. Following the closure of the ultimate-storage site in Morsleben, action must be taken to change over to long-term intermediate-storage of operational waste. The government has extensive intermediate-storage capacity at the intermediate-storage site Nord in Greifswald. There, the wate originally planned for storage in Morsleben could be intermediately stored at ERAM-rates. Nuclear waste transportation, too, could long ago have been resumed, in the author's view. For the purpose of improving the transport organisation, a new company was founded which represents exclusively the interests of the reprocessing firms at the nuclear power stations. The author's conclusion: The EVU have done their homework properly and implemented all necessary measures in order to be able to resume transport of fuel elements as soon as possible. The generating station operators favour a solution based upon agreement with the Federal Government. The EVU have already declared their willingness - in the event of unanimous agreement - to set up intermediate-storage sites near the power stations. The ponds in the generating stations, however, are unsuitable for use as intermediate-storage areas. If intermediate-storage areas for

  6. Safety aspects of nuclear power plant automation and robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question being considered in this report is the extent to which the following aims are promoted through the use of robotics and automatic plant systems: nuclear power is safe (nuclear power plants and related facilities will not be constructed or allowed to continue operating if they are not perceived as being safe); nuclear power is economic (in comparison to other forms of electricity production once the environmental costs have been fully considered and as part of a unified energy policy); nuclear power is conservative (using nuclear fuel does not waste natural resources, damage the atmosphere, or produce unmanageable waste). Refs, figs, tabs

  7. Nuclear waste in public acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vastchenko, Svetlana V. [Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research - Sosny / National Academy of Science, A.K.Krasin Str., 99, Minsk 220109 (Belarus)

    2003-07-01

    The existing problem on a faithful acceptance of nuclear information by population is connected, to a considerable extent, with a bad nuclear 'reputation' because of a great amount of misrepresented and false information from 'the greens'. In contrast to a bare style of professionals often neglecting an emotional perception, a loud voice of 'the greens' appeals both to the head, and to the heart of the audience. People pattern their behaviour weakly on problems of safe application of different irradiation sources in industry, conditions of life, medicine and everyday life. Radiation danger of some sources is often exaggerated (computers, nuclear technologies, radiation treatment) and the danger of the others is, on the contrary, underestimated (nuclear and roentgen methods of diagnostics and medical treatment). The majority of our citizens do not know which level of radiation is normal and safe, which ways radioactive substances intake into the organism of a human being and how to diminish the dose load on the organism by simple measures. Only specialists can be orientated themselves in a great number of radiation units. Low level of knowledge of the population and false conceptions are connected with the fact that they are mainly informed about nuclear technologies from mass media, where the voice of 'Greenpeace' is loudly sounded, but they often give misrepresented and false information doing it in the very emotional form. In contrast to them, scientists-professionals often ignore a sensitive part of apprehending of information and do not attach importance to it. As a rule, the style of specialists is of a serious academician character when they meet with the public. People preconception to nuclear waste and distrust to a positive information concerning nuclear technologies are explained, to a considerable extent, by a bivalent type of thinking when people operate by two opposite conceptions only, such as 'there is

  8. Nuclear waste and nuclear ethics. Societal and ethical aspects of retrievable storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the literature study on the title subject is to provide information to researchers, engineers, decision makers, administrators, and the public in the Netherlands on the subject of retrievable storage of nuclear waste, mainly from nuclear power plants. Conclusions and recommendations are formulated with respect to retrievability and ethics, sustainability, risk assessment, information transfer, environmental impacts, and discussions on radioactive waste storage. 170 refs

  9. Waste management and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present lecture deals with energy needs and nuclear power, the importance of waste and its relative place in the fuel cycle, the games of controversies over nuclear waste in the strategies of energy and finally with missions and functions of the IAEA for privileging the rational approach and facilitating the transfer of technology. (RW)

  10. Nuclear waste disposal educational forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In keeping with a mandate from the US Congress to provide opportunities for consumer education and information and to seek consumer input on national issues, the Department of Energy's Office of Consumer Affairs held a three-hour educational forum on the proposed nuclear waste disposal legislation. Nearly one hundred representatives of consumer, public interest, civic and environmental organizations were invited to attend. Consumer affairs professionals of utility companies across the country were also invited to attend the forum. The following six papers were presented: historical perspectives; status of legislation (Senate); status of legislation (House of Representatives); impact on the legislation on electric utilities; impact of the legislation on consumers; implementing the legislation. All six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base

  11. Managing Nuclear Waste: Options Considered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    2002-05-02

    Starting in the 1950s, U.S. scientists began to research ways to manage highly radioactive materials accumulating at power plants and other sites nationwide. Long-term surface storage of these materials poses significant potential health, safety, and environmental risks. Scientists studied a broad range of options for managing spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The options included leaving it where it is, disposing of it in various ways, and making it safer through advanced technologies. International scientific consensus holds that these materials should eventually be disposed of deep underground in what is called a geologic repository. In a recent special report, the National Academy of Sciences summarized the various studies and emphasized that geologic disposal is ultimately necessary.

  12. International Nuclear Waste Management Fact Book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Nuclear Waste Management Fact Book has been compiled in an effort to provide current data concerning fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R ampersand D programs, and key personnel in 24 countries, including the US, four multinational agencies and 21 nuclear societies. This publication succeeds the previously issued International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book (PNL-3594), which appeared annually for 13 years. While the title is different, there are no substantial changes in the content

  13. Nuclear fuel waste policy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1996 Policy Framework for Radioactive Waste established the approach in Canada for dealing with all radioactive waste, and defined the respective roles of Government and waste producers and owners. The Policy Framework sets the stage for the development of institutional and financial arrangements to implement long-term waste management solutions in a safe, environmentally sound, comprehensive, cost-effective and integrated manner. For nuclear fuel waste, a 10-year environmental review of the concept to bury nuclear fuel waste bundles at a depth of 500 m to 1000 m in stable rock of the Canadian Shield was completed in March 1998. The Review Panel found that while the concept was technically safe, it did not have the required level of public acceptability to be adopted at this time as Canada's approach for managing its nuclear fuel waste. The Panel recommended that a Waste Management Organization be established at arm's length from the nuclear industry, entirely funded by the waste producers and owners, and that it be subject to oversight by the Government. In its December 1998 Response to the Review Panel, the Government of Canada provided policy direction for the next steps towards developing Canada's approach for the long-term management of nuclear fuel waste. The Government chose to maintain the responsibility for long-term management of nuclear fuel waste close with the producers and owners of the waste. This is consistent with its 1996 Policy Framework for Radioactive Waste. This approach is also consistent with experience in many countries. In addition, the federal government identified the need for credible federal oversight. Cabinet directed the Minister of NRCan to consult with stakeholders, including the public, and return to ministers within 12 months with recommendations on means to implement federal oversight. (author)

  14. Nuclear Waste Management. Semiannual progress report, October 1984-March 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress reports are presented for the following studies on radioactive waste management: defense waste technology; nuclear waste materials characterization center; and supporting studies. 19 figs., 29 tabs

  15. Nuclear Waste Management. Semiannual progress report, October 1984-March 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, J.L.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1985-06-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following studies on radioactive waste management: defense waste technology; nuclear waste materials characterization center; and supporting studies. 19 figs., 29 tabs.

  16. Plasma Mass Filters For Nuclear Waste Reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2011-05-26

    Practical disposal of nuclear waste requires high-throughput separation techniques. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which contains the most active and mobile radioisotopes and produces most of the heat. We suggest that the fission products could be separated as a group from nuclear waste using plasma mass filters. Plasmabased processes are well suited to separating nuclear waste, because mass rather than chemical properties are used for separation. A single plasma stage can replace several stages of chemical separation, producing separate streams of bulk elements, fission products, and actinoids. The plasma mass filters may have lower cost and produce less auxiliary waste than chemical processing plants. Three rotating plasma configurations are considered that act as mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, the Ohkawa filter, and the asymmetric centrifugal trap.

  17. Plasma Mass Filters For Nuclear Waste Reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2011-05-25

    Practical disposal of nuclear waste requires high-throughput separation techniques. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which contains the most active and mobile radioisotopes and produces most of the heat. We suggest that the fission products could be separated as a group from nuclear waste using plasma mass filters. Plasmabased processes are well suited to separating nuclear waste, because mass rather than chemical properties are used for separation. A single plasma stage can replace several stages of chemical separation, producing separate streams of bulk elements, fission products, and actinoids. The plasma mass filters may have lower cost and produce less auxiliary waste than chemical processing plants. Three rotating plasma configurations are considered that act as mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, the Ohkawa filter, and the asymmetric centrifugal trap.

  18. Plasma Mass Filters For Nuclear Waste Reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Practical disposal of nuclear waste requires high-throughput separation techniques. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which contains the most active and mobile radioisotopes and produces most of the heat. We suggest that the fission products could be separated as a group from nuclear waste using plasma mass filters. Plasmabased processes are well suited to separating nuclear waste, because mass rather than chemical properties are used for separation. A single plasma stage can replace several stages of chemical separation, producing separate streams of bulk elements, fission products, and actinoids. The plasma mass filters may have lower cost and produce less auxiliary waste than chemical processing plants. Three rotating plasma configurations are considered that act as mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, the Ohkawa filter, and the asymmetric centrifugal trap.

  19. Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste: Nuclear Waste, Unit 1. Teacher Guide. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC.

    This guide is Unit 1 of the four-part series Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The goal of this unit is to help students establish the relevance of the topic of nuclear waste to their everyday lives and activities. Particular attention is…

  20. Prospects of nuclear waste management and radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The policy of radioactive waste management in the Slovak Republic is based on the principles defined by law on the National Nuclear Fund (NJF) and sets basic objectives: 1 Safe and reliable nuclear decommissioning; 2 The minimization of radioactive waste; 3. Selection of a suitable fuel cycle; 4 Safe storage of radioactive waste (RAW) 5 Security chain management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel (SNF); 6 Nuclear safety; 7 The application of a graduated approach; 8 Respect of the principle 'a polluter pays'; 9 Objective decision-making process; 10 Responsibility. In connection with the above objectives, it appears necessary to build required facilities that are listed in this article.

  1. Nuclear, energy, environment, wastes, society - NEEDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the seven projects based on partnerships between several bodies, companies and agencies (CNRS, CEA, Areva, EDF, IRSN, ANDRA, BRGM) on research programmes on nuclear systems and scenarios, on resources (mines, processes, economy), on the processing and packaging of radioactive wastes, on the behaviour of materials for storage, on the impact of nuclear activities on the environment, on the relationship between nuclear, risks and society, and on materials for nuclear energy

  2. Risk decisions and nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk concept is multidimensional, and much of its contents is lost in the conventional reduction to a unidimensional and quantifiable term. Eight major dimensions of the risk concept are discussed, among them the time factor and the lack-of-knowledge factor. The requirements of a rational discourse are discussed, in general and in relation to risk issues. It is concluded that no single method for the comparison and assessment of risks can be seen as the only rational method. Different methods can all be rational, although based on different values. Risk evaluations cannot be performed as expert assessments, divorced from the political decision process. Instead, risk evaluation must be seen as an essentially political process. Public participation is necessary in democratic decision-making on risks as well as on other issues. Important conclusions can be drawn for the management of nuclear waste, concerning specifications for the technical solution, the need for research on risk concepts, and the decision-making process. (orig.)

  3. Public policy issues in nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document aims to raise issues and to analyze them, not resolve them. The issues were: temporal equity, geographic and socioeconomic equity, implementation of a nuclear waste management system, and public involvement

  4. Public policy issues in nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nealey, S.M.; Radford, L.M.

    1978-10-01

    This document aims to raise issues and to analyze them, not resolve them. The issues were: temporal equity, geographic and socioeconomic equity, implementation of a nuclear waste management system, and public involvement.

  5. A federalist strategy for nuclear waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K N

    1980-05-16

    The federal government plans to rely on a policy of "consultation and concurrence" with state governments in developing nuclear waste repositories. The weaknesses of the concurrence approach are analyzed, and an alternative institutional framework for locating a waste repository is proposed: a siting jury that provides representation for state and local interests, while maintaining a high level of technical review. The proposal could be tested in the siting of away-from-reactor storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel.

  6. US charts plans for nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) passed in 1982 defines long-term federal programs to dispose of the leftovers from nuclear power generation. A succession of interacting multiple barriers, both natural and man-made, is to protect the public. Inside a mined underground repository will go waste packages. The geological formations surrounding the repository will be the final barrier. The article discussed site selections, salt sites, and subseabed disposal. (DP)

  7. World Nuclear Association position statement: Safe management of nuclear waste and used nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This WNA Position Statement summarises the worldwide nuclear industry's record, progress and plans in safely managing nuclear waste and used nuclear fuel. The global industry's safe waste management practices cover the entire nuclear fuel-cycle, from the mining of uranium to the long-term disposal of end products from nuclear power reactors. The Statement's aim is to provide, in clear and accurate terms, the nuclear industry's 'story' on a crucially important subject often clouded by misinformation. Inevitably, each country and each company employs a management strategy appropriate to a specific national and technical context. This Position Statement reflects a confident industry consensus that a common dedication to sound practices throughout the nuclear industry worldwide is continuing to enhance an already robust global record of safe management of nuclear waste and used nuclear fuel. This text focuses solely on modern civil programmes of nuclear-electricity generation. It does not deal with the substantial quantities of waste from military or early civil nuclear programmes. These wastes fall into the category of 'legacy activities' and are generally accepted as a responsibility of national governments. The clean-up of wastes resulting from 'legacy activities' should not be confused with the limited volume of end products that are routinely produced and safely managed by today's nuclear energy industry. On the significant subject of 'Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities', which is integral to modern civil nuclear power programmes, the WNA will offer a separate Position Statement covering the industry's safe management of nuclear waste in this context. The paper's conclusion is that the safe management of nuclear waste and used nuclear fuel is a widespread, well-demonstrated reality. This strong safety record reflects a high degree of nuclear industry expertise and of industry responsibility toward the well-being of current and future generations. Accumulating

  8. Nuclear Waste Primer: A Handbook for Citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Isabelle P.; Wiltshire, Susan D.

    This publication was developed with the intention of offering the nonexpert a concise, balanced introduction to nuclear waste. It outlines the dimensions of the problem, discussing the types and quantities of waste. Included are the sources, types, and hazards of radiation, and some of the history, major legislation, and current status of both…

  9. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT WASTE HEAT HORTICULTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study of the feasibility of using low grade (70 degrees F) waste heat from the condenser cooling water of the Vermont Yaknee nuclear plant for commercial food enhancement. The study addressed the possible impact of laws on the use of waste heat from ...

  10. Nuclear waste management: storage and disposal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term disposal of nuclear wastes must resolve difficulties arising chiefly from the potential for contamination of the environment and the risk of misuse. Alternatives available for storage and disposal of wastes are examined in this overview paper. Guidelines and criteria which may govern in the development of methods of disposal are discussed

  11. Overview assessment of nuclear-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After reviewing the environmental control technologies associated with Department of Energy nuclear waste management programs, we have identified the most urgent problems requiring further action or follow-up. They are in order of decreasing importance: (1) shallow land disposal technology development; (2) active uranium mill tailings piles; (3) uranium mine dewatering; (4) site decommissioning; (5) exhumation/treatment of transuranic waste at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; (6) uranium mine spoils; and (7) medical/institutional wastes. 7 figures, 33 tables

  12. Status of technology for nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the area of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes the successful development and application of specific management technologies have been demonstrated over the years. The major area in which technology remains to be effectively implemented is in the management of high-level wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. Research and development specifically directed at the management of high-level radioactive wastes in the USA and other countries is briefly reviewed in the article introduced

  13. Management of radioactive waste nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors give a survey of the sources, types and amounts of radioactive waste in LWR nuclear power stations (1,300 MWe). The amount of solid waste produced by a Novovorenezh-type PWR reactor (2 x 400 resp. 1 x 1,000 MWe) is given in a table. Treatment, solidification and final storage of radioactive waste are shortly discussed with special reference to the problems of final storage in the CSR. (HR)

  14. Natural analogues of nuclear waste glass corrosion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Ebert, W.L.; Luo, J.S.

    1999-01-06

    This report reviews and summarizes studies performed to characterize the products and processes involved in the corrosion of natural glasses. Studies are also reviewed and evaluated on how well the corrosion of natural glasses in natural environments serves as an analogue for the corrosion of high-level radioactive waste glasses in an engineered geologic disposal system. A wide range of natural and experimental corrosion studies has been performed on three major groups of natural glasses: tektite, obsidian, and basalt. Studies of the corrosion of natural glass attempt to characterize both the nature of alteration products and the reaction kinetics. Information available on natural glass was then compared to corresponding information on the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses, specifically to resolve two key questions: (1) whether one or more natural glasses behave similarly to nuclear waste glasses in laboratory tests, and (2) how these similarities can be used to support projections of the long-term corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The corrosion behavior of basaltic glasses was most similar to that of nuclear waste glasses, but the corrosion of tektite and obsidian glasses involves certain processes that also occur during the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The reactions and processes that control basalt glass dissolution are similar to those that are important in nuclear waste glass dissolution. The key reaction of the overall corrosion mechanism is network hydrolysis, which eventually breaks down the glass network structure that remains after the initial ion-exchange and diffusion processes. This review also highlights some unresolved issues related to the application of an analogue approach to predicting long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass corrosion, such as discrepancies between experimental and field-based estimates of kinetic parameters for basaltic glasses.

  15. Natural analogues of nuclear waste glass corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews and summarizes studies performed to characterize the products and processes involved in the corrosion of natural glasses. Studies are also reviewed and evaluated on how well the corrosion of natural glasses in natural environments serves as an analogue for the corrosion of high-level radioactive waste glasses in an engineered geologic disposal system. A wide range of natural and experimental corrosion studies has been performed on three major groups of natural glasses: tektite, obsidian, and basalt. Studies of the corrosion of natural glass attempt to characterize both the nature of alteration products and the reaction kinetics. Information available on natural glass was then compared to corresponding information on the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses, specifically to resolve two key questions: (1) whether one or more natural glasses behave similarly to nuclear waste glasses in laboratory tests, and (2) how these similarities can be used to support projections of the long-term corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The corrosion behavior of basaltic glasses was most similar to that of nuclear waste glasses, but the corrosion of tektite and obsidian glasses involves certain processes that also occur during the corrosion of nuclear waste glasses. The reactions and processes that control basalt glass dissolution are similar to those that are important in nuclear waste glass dissolution. The key reaction of the overall corrosion mechanism is network hydrolysis, which eventually breaks down the glass network structure that remains after the initial ion-exchange and diffusion processes. This review also highlights some unresolved issues related to the application of an analogue approach to predicting long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass corrosion, such as discrepancies between experimental and field-based estimates of kinetic parameters for basaltic glasses

  16. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, William J.

    2005-09-30

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, as well as the influence of solid-state radiation effects on aqueous dissolution kinetics, which may impact the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. This work provides the underpinning science to develop improved glass and ceramic waste forms for the immobilization and disposition of high-level tank waste, excess plutonium, plutonium residues and scrap, other actinides, and other nuclear waste streams. Furthermore, this work is developing develop predictive models for the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. Thus, the research performed under this project has significant implications for the immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW) and Nuclear Materials, two mission areas within the Office of Environmental Management (EM). With regard to the HLW mission, this research will lead to improved understanding of radiation-induced degradation mechanisms and their effects on dissolution kinetics, as well as development of predictive models for waste form performance. In the Nuclear Materials mission, this research will lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation effects on the chemical and structural properties of materials for the stabilization and long-term storage of plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, and other actinides. The research uses plutonium incorporation, ion-beam irradiation, and electron-beam irradiation to simulate the effects of alpha decay and beta decay on relevant glasses and ceramics. The research under this project has the potential to result in improved glass and ceramic materials for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, other actinides, and other radioactive materials.

  17. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, William J.

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, as well as the influence of solid-state radiation effects on aqueous dissolution kinetics, which may impact the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. This work provides the underpinning science to develop improved glass and ceramic waste forms for the immobilization and disposition of high-level tank waste, excess plutonium, plutonium residues and scrap, other actinides, and other nuclear waste streams. Furthermore, this work is developing develop predictive models for the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. Thus, the research performed under this project has significant implications for the immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW) and Nuclear Materials, two mission areas within the Office of Environmental Management (EM). With regard to the HLW mission, this research will lead to improved understanding of radiation-induced degradation mechanisms and their effects on dissolution kinetics, as well as development of predictive models for waste form performance. In the Nuclear Materials mission, this research will lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation effects on the chemical and structural properties of materials for the stabilization and long-term storage of plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, and other actinides. The research uses plutonium incorporation, ion-beam irradiation, and electron-beam irradiation to simulate the effects of alpha decay and beta decay on relevant glasses and ceramics. The research under this project has the potential to result in improved glass and ceramic materials for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, other actinides, and other radioactive materials.

  18. Social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear waste disposal is a two-faceted challenge: a scientific and technological endeavour, on the one hand, and confronted with social dimensions, on the other. In this paper I will sketch the respective social dimensions and will give a plea for interdisciplinary research approaches. Relevant social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal are concerning safety standards, the disposal 'philosophy', the process of determining the disposal site, and the operation of a waste disposal facility. Overall, cross-cutting issues of justice, responsibility, and fairness are of major importance in all of these fields.

  19. Social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Armin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear waste disposal is a two-faceted challenge: a scientific and technological endeavour, on the one hand, and confronted with social dimensions, on the other. In this paper I will sketch the respective social dimensions and will give a plea for interdisciplinary research approaches. Relevant social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal are concerning safety standards, the disposal 'philosophy', the process of determining the disposal site, and the operation of a waste disposal facility. Overall, cross-cutting issues of justice, responsibility, and fairness are of major importance in all of these fields.

  20. Nuclear waste package fabricated from concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the United States enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1983, the Department of Energy must design, site, build and operate permanent geologic repositories for high-level nuclear waste. The Department of Energy has recently selected three sites, one being the Hanford Site in the state of Washington. At this particular site, the repository will be located in basalt at a depth of approximately 3000 feet deep. The main concern of this site, is contamination of the groundwater by release of radionuclides from the waste package. The waste package basically has three components: the containment barrier (metal or concrete container, in this study concrete will be considered), the waste form, and other materials (such as packing material, emplacement hole liners, etc.). The containment barriers are the primary waste container structural materials and are intended to provide containment of the nuclear waste up to a thousand years after emplacement. After the containment barriers are breached by groundwater, the packing material (expanding sodium bentonite clay) is expected to provide the primary control of release of radionuclide into the immediate repository environment. The loading conditions on the concrete container (from emplacement to approximately 1000 years), will be twofold; (1) internal heat of the high-level waste which could be up to 4000C; (2) external hydrostatic pressure up to 1300 psi after the seepage of groundwater has occurred in the emplacement tunnel. A suggested container is a hollow plain concrete cylinder with both ends capped. 7 refs

  1. Nuclear waste incineration technology status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incinerators developed and/or used for radioactive waste combustion are discussed and suggestions are made for uses of incineration in radioactive waste management programs and for incinerators best suited for specific applications. Information on the amounts and types of radioactive wastes are included to indicate the scope of combustible wastes being generated and in existence. An analysis of recently developed radwaste incinerators is given to help those interested in choosing incinerators for specific applications. Operating information on US and foreign incinerators is also included to provide additional background information. Development needs are identified for extending incinerator applications and for establishing commercial acceptance

  2. Nuclear waste incineration technology status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Lehmkuhl, G.D.; Meile, L.J.

    1981-07-15

    The incinerators developed and/or used for radioactive waste combustion are discussed and suggestions are made for uses of incineration in radioactive waste management programs and for incinerators best suited for specific applications. Information on the amounts and types of radioactive wastes are included to indicate the scope of combustible wastes being generated and in existence. An analysis of recently developed radwaste incinerators is given to help those interested in choosing incinerators for specific applications. Operating information on US and foreign incinerators is also included to provide additional background information. Development needs are identified for extending incinerator applications and for establishing commercial acceptance.

  3. Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Newell J.

    As a result of the Reagan administration's commitment to nuclear energy as a significant future energy source and of attempts by the 97th Congress to grapple with legislative aspects of the problem, increased attention has focused recently on the problem of safely disposing of nuclear waste. These proceedings of the Third Symposium on Nuclear Waste Management of the Materials Research Society provide insight into the status of investigations on the subject as of late 1980. As with volumes 1 and 2 of this series, the 77 contributions are all short progress reports of ongoing research with the emphasis fittingly on materials science. Readers who wish extensive background material on the problems of nuclear-waste management and disposal, details of specific sites, or overviews of the programs of research in this country and abroad will have to look elsewhere.

  4. Nuclear waste management at DOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE is responsible for interim storage for some radioactive wastes and for the disposal for most of them. Of the wastes that have to be managed a significant part are a result of treatment systems and devices for cleaning gases. The long term waste management objectives place minimal reliance on surveillance and maintenance. Thus, the concerns about the chemical, thermal, and radiolytic degradation of wastes require technology for converting the wastes to forms acceptable for long term isolation. The strategy of the DOE airborne radioactive waste management program is to increase the service life and reliability of filters; to reduce filter wastes; and in anticipation of regulatory actions that would require further reductions in airborne radioactive releases from defense program facilities, to develop improved technology for additional collection, fixation, and long-term management of gaseous wastes. Available technology and practices are adequate to meet current health and safety standards. The program is aimed primarily at cost effective improvements, quality assurance, and the addition of new capability in areas where more restrictive standards seem likely to apply in the future

  5. Scientific basis for nuclear waste management XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 17th Materials Research Society Symposium on the Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management included 17 sessions, during which 120 papers were presented by scientists from 16 countries. The nuclear waste glass overview surveyed achievements to date and identified issues requiring further research. The objectives and limitations session noted the progress that has been made in developing a scientific basis for nuclear waste management, but questioned whether regulations calling for detailed predictions over a period of 10,000 years are either necessary or capable of being satisfied. The other papers presented at the Symposium described the progress of studies in a broad array of areas of nuclear waste science and technology. These areas included radiation effects and gas generation, ceramic materials, cementitious materials, actinides spent fuel, glass processing and properties, glass leaching, dissolution and alteration, natural and ancient analogues, transuranic wastes and special topics, sorption mechanisms, repository studies, geochemistry and hydrology, containers, and backfill materials. Several novel experimental techniques were described, as well as advances in modeling. An encouraging feature of the progress in modeling is that the agreement between calculated results based on models developed, refined and tested in the US and in other countries on one hand, and experimental data on the other, shows considerable improvement. This reflects greater understanding of the mechanisms involved in the release of radionuclides from the various components of the waste repository system, including the wasteforms themselves. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  6. Influences of microbiology on nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of microbial activity on the disposal of nuclear waste. The areas chosen for study include nutrient availability (both organic and inorganic), the effect of increased pH and potential gas generation from the waste. Microbes from various soil habitats could grow on a variety of cellulose-based substrates including simulant waste. Increased pH did not appear to greatly effect the growth of these microbes. Gas generation by microbes growing on a simulant waste was determined over an extended period under a variety of nutritional conditions. The simulant waste was a good substrate for microbes and adding inorganic nutrients did not significantly affect the final yield of gas; extrapolated to about 14.63 gas per tonne of waste. The experiments have highlighted a number of areas for further research and they are currently being addressed. (author)

  7. Determination of the Optimized Automation Rate considering Effects of Automation on Human Operators in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automation refers to the use of a device or a system to perform a function previously performed by a human operator. It is introduced to reduce the human errors and to enhance the performance in various industrial fields, including the nuclear industry. However, these positive effects are not always achieved in complex systems such as nuclear power plants (NPPs). An excessive introduction of automation can generate new roles for human operators and change activities in unexpected ways. As more automation systems are accepted, the ability of human operators to detect automation failures and resume manual control is diminished. This disadvantage of automation is called the Out-of-the- Loop (OOTL) problem. We should consider the positive and negative effects of automation at the same time to determine the appropriate level of the introduction of automation. Thus, in this paper, we suggest an estimation method to consider the positive and negative effects of automation at the same time to determine the appropriate introduction of automation. This concept is limited in that it does not consider the effects of automation on human operators. Thus, a new estimation method for automation rate was suggested to overcome this problem

  8. 10 CFR 1.18 - Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste. 1.18 Section 1.18 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Panels, Boards, and Committees § 1.18 Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste. The Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste (ACNW) provides advice to...

  9. Nuclear waste isolation activities report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Included are: a report from the Deputy Assistant Secretary, a summary of recent events, new literature, a list of upcoming waste management meetings, and background information on DOE's radwaste management programs

  10. Management of radioactive waste from nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste arises from the generation of nuclear energy and from the production of radioactive materials and their applications in industry, agriculture, research and medicine. The importance of safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. Technical expertise is a prerequisite for safe and cost-effective management of radioactive waste. A training course is considered an effective tool for providing technical expertise in various aspects of waste management. The IAEA, in co-operation with national authorities concerned with radioactive waste management, has organized and conducted a number of radioactive waste management training courses. The results of the courses conducted by the IAEA in 1991-1995 have been evaluated at consultants meetings held in December 1995 and May 1996. This guidance document for use by Member States in arranging national training courses on the management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste from nuclear applications has been prepared as the result of that effort. The report outlines the various requirements for the organization, conduct and evaluation of training courses in radioactive waste management and proposes an annotated outline of a reference training course

  11. Analysis of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An event tree is developed, outlining ways which radioactivity can be accidentally released from high level solidified wastes. Probabilities are assigned to appropriate events in the tree and the major contributors to dose to the general population are identified. All doses are computed on a per megawatt electric-year basis. Sensitivity relations between the expected dose and key characteristics of the solidified wasted are developed

  12. Intelligent control and automation technology for nuclear application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hee; Eom, Heung Sub; Kim, Ko Ryu; Lee, Jae Cheol; Choi, You Rak; Lee, Soo Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    Using recent technologies on a mobile robot and computer science, we developed an automatic inspection system for weld lines of the reactor pressure vessel. The ultrasonic inspection of the reactor pressure vessel is currently performed by commercialized robot manipulators. Since, however, the conventional fixed type robot manipulator is very huge, heavy and expensive, it needs long inspection time and is hard to handle and maintain. In order to resolve these problems, we developed a new inspection automation system using a small mobile robot crawling on the vertical wall. According to the conceptual design studied in the first year, we developed the inspection automation system including an underwater inspection robot, a laser position control subsystem and a main control subsystem. And we carried out underwater experiments on the reactor vessel mockup. After finishing this project successfully, we have a plan to commercialize our inspection system. Using this system, we can expect much reduction of the inspection time, performance enhancement, automatic management of inspection history, etc. In the economic point of view, we can also expect import substitution more than 5 million dollars. The established essential technologies for intelligent control and automation are expected to be synthetically applied to the automation of similar systems in nuclear power plants. 4 tabs., 37 figs., 6 refs. (Author).

  13. Operator-based metric for nuclear operations automation assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharias, G.L.; Miao, A.X.; Kalkan, A. [Charles River Analytics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Continuing advances in real-time computational capabilities will support enhanced levels of smart automation and AI-based decision-aiding systems in the nuclear power plant (NPP) control room of the future. To support development of these aids, we describe in this paper a research tool, and more specifically, a quantitative metric, to assess the impact of proposed automation/aiding concepts in a manner that can account for a number of interlinked factors in the control room environment. In particular, we describe a cognitive operator/plant model that serves as a framework for integrating the operator`s information-processing capabilities with his procedural knowledge, to provide insight as to how situations are assessed by the operator, decisions made, procedures executed, and communications conducted. Our focus is on the situation assessment (SA) behavior of the operator, the development of a quantitative metric reflecting overall operator awareness, and the use of this metric in evaluating automation/aiding options. We describe the results of a model-based simulation of a selected emergency scenario, and metric-based evaluation of a range of contemplated NPP control room automation/aiding options. The results demonstrate the feasibility of model-based analysis of contemplated control room enhancements, and highlight the need for empirical validation.

  14. Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste: The Nuclear Waste Policy Act, Unit 3. Teacher Guide. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC.

    This guide is Unit 3 of the four-part series, Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The goal of this unit is to identify the key elements of the United States' nuclear waste dilemma and introduce the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and the role of the…

  15. Improving automated load flexibility of nuclear power plants with ALFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In several German and Swiss Nuclear Power Plants with Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) the control of the reactor power was and will be improved in order to be able to support the energy transition with increasing volatile renewable energy in the grid by flexible load operation according to the need of the load dispatcher (power system stability). Especially regarding the mentioned German NPPs with a nominal electric power of approx. 1,500 MW, the general objectives are the main automated grid relevant operation modes. The new possibilities of digital I and C (as TELEPERM registered XS) enable the automation of the operating modes provided that manual support is no longer necessary. These possibilities were and will be implemented by AREVA within the ALFC-projects. Manifold adaption algorithms to the reactor physical variations during the nuclear load cycle enable a precise control of the axial power density distribution and of the reactivity management in the reactor core. Finally this is the basis for a highly automated load flexibility with the parallel respect and surveillance of the operational limits of a PWR.

  16. Improving automated load flexibility of nuclear power plants with ALFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Andreas [AREVA GmbH, Karlstein (Germany). Plant Control/Training; Klaus, Peter [E.ON NPP Isar 2, Essenbach (Germany). Plant Operation/Production Engineering

    2016-07-01

    In several German and Swiss Nuclear Power Plants with Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) the control of the reactor power was and will be improved in order to be able to support the energy transition with increasing volatile renewable energy in the grid by flexible load operation according to the need of the load dispatcher (power system stability). Especially regarding the mentioned German NPPs with a nominal electric power of approx. 1,500 MW, the general objectives are the main automated grid relevant operation modes. The new possibilities of digital I and C (as TELEPERM {sup registered} XS) enable the automation of the operating modes provided that manual support is no longer necessary. These possibilities were and will be implemented by AREVA within the ALFC-projects. Manifold adaption algorithms to the reactor physical variations during the nuclear load cycle enable a precise control of the axial power density distribution and of the reactivity management in the reactor core. Finally this is the basis for a highly automated load flexibility with the parallel respect and surveillance of the operational limits of a PWR.

  17. Trilingual vocabulary of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reference document is produced in cooperation with partners in the Union Latine, an international organization dedicated to promoting the Romance languages. In 1992 acting on a request submitted by the Montreal Environment Section of the Translation Bureau, the Terminology and Standardization Directorate published an in-house glossary containing 2500 entries on nuclear waste management. The glossary was produced by scanning bilingual terms in the reports submitted to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited by the Siting Process Task Force on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal. Because the scale of the nuclear waste management problem has grown considerably since then, the glossary needed to be expanded and revised. The Vocabulary contains some 1000 concepts for a total of approximately 3000 terms in each of the three languages, english, french and spanish. Special attention has been given to defining basic physical concepts, waste classifications and disposal methods

  18. Automated Monitoring System for Waste Disposal Sites and Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. E. Rawlinson

    2003-03-01

    A proposal submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science and Technology, Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) program to deploy an automated monitoring system for waste disposal sites and groundwater, herein referred to as the ''Automated Monitoring System,'' was funded in fiscal year (FY) 2002. This two-year project included three parts: (1) deployment of cellular telephone modems on existing dataloggers, (2) development of a data management system, and (3) development of Internet accessibility. The proposed concept was initially (in FY 2002) to deploy cellular telephone modems on existing dataloggers and partially develop the data management system at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This initial effort included both Bechtel Nevada (BN) and the Desert Research Institute (DRI). The following year (FY 2003), cellular modems were to be similarly deployed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the early data management system developed at the NTS was to be brought to those locations for site-specific development and use. Also in FY 2003, additional site-specific development of the complete system was to be conducted at the NTS. To complete the project, certain data, depending on site-specific conditions or restrictions involving distribution of data, were to made available through the Internet via the DRI/Western Region Climate Center (WRCC) WEABASE platform. If the complete project had been implemented, the system schematic would have looked like the figure on the following page.

  19. The local community and the nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this book social and political scientists discuss different aspects of the selection of a site for disposal of the Swedish nuclear waste. Special attention is given to the preliminary studies that have been performed at a few localities. The authors study the chain of events after a community is proposed for a site study. What powers are set in motion? How do different groups act in order to support or stop the study? Which is the role played by political parties, local environmentalist movements, media and experts? Why is there a forceful opposition in one community and not in another? Why does one local government invite the nuclear waste company to perform the study, while another refuses? The role of the local government has become crucial, since the nuclear waste company have chosen to perform studies only in municipalities that show a positive interest

  20. Next nuclear gamble: transportation and storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accidents during transport of nuclear waste are more threatening - though less likely - than a reactor meltdown because transportation accidents could occur in the middle of a populous city, affecting more people and property than a plant accident, according to the Council on Economic Priorities, a non-profit public service research organization. Transportation, as presently practiced, is unsafe. Shipping containers, called casks, are poorly designed and constructed, CEP says. The problem needs attention because the number of casks filled with nuclear waste on the nation's highways could increase a hundred times during the next 15 years under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, which calls for storage areas. Recommendations, both technical and regulatory, for reducing the risks are presented

  1. The Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, the fifth of a series of annual reports, reviews the progress that has been made in the research and development program for the safe management and disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The report summarizes activities over the past year in the following areas: public interaction; used fuel storage and transportation; immobilization of used fuel and fuel recycle waste; geoscience research related to deep underground disposal; environmental research; and environmental and safety assessment

  2. Promethean ethics and nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed safety standards for commercial nuclear waste management are examined and shown to be Promethean; that is, they are shown to be dominated by time and care for future generations. Some of the long-term environmental impact assessment methodologies being developed in commmercial waste management are examined. They are aimed at demonstrating repository isolation integrity over a 10,000-year period or 300 human generations, a truly Promethean period of examination unknown in other 20th Century technical analyses

  3. The Next Nuclear Gamble. Transportation and storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Next Nuclear Gamble examines risks, costs, and alternatives in handling irradiated nuclear fuel. The debate over nuclear power and the disposal of its high-level radioactive waste is now nearly four decades old. Ever larger quantities of commercial radioactive fuel continue to accumulate in reactor storage pools throughout the country and no permanent storage solution has yet been designated. As an interim solution, the government and utilities prefer that radioactive wastes be transported to temporary storage facilities and subsequently to a permanent depository. If this temporary and centralized storage system is implemented, however, the number of nuclear waste shipments on the highway will increase one hundredfold over the next fifteen years. The question directly addressed is whether nuclear transport is safe or represents the American public's domestic nuclear gamble. This Council on Economic Priorities study, directed by Marvin Resnikoff, shows on the basis of hundreds of government and industry reports, interviews and surveys, and original research, that transportation of nuclear materials as currently practiced is unsafe

  4. Southeastern Utah nuclear-waste-transportation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is published as a product of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. The objective of this program is the development of terminal waste storage facilities in deep stable geologic formations for high-level nuclear waste, including spent fuel elements from commercial power reactors and transuranic nuclear waste for which the Federal Government is responsible. The initial purpose of this study was to analyze and compare possible transport modes and corridors connecting each of four candidate sites in Utah with existing rail lines of the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad (D and RG) or the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway (ATSF). The primary use of these routes would be for shipping spent nuclear fuel and other nuclear wastes. During the study, the Gibson Dome area was recommended as the preferred location by the screening process evaluating the four Utah areas. Therefore, this report presents transportation routes to Gibson Dome examining order-of-magnitude capital costs of railroad and heavy haul routes, railroad and heavy haul truck operating costs and environmental factors. The scope of work did not include consideration of using public highways. Information on the other candidate sites and possible routes to them is also presented. 15 figures, 10 tables

  5. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, William J.; Corrales, L. Rene; Ness, Nancy J.; Williford, Ralph E.; Heinisch, Howard L.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; McGrail, B. Peter; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Song, Jakyoung; Park, Byeongwon; Jiang, Weilin; Begg, Bruce D.; Birtcher, R. B.; Chen, X.; Conradson, Steven D.

    2000-10-02

    Radiation effects from the decay of radionuclides may impact the long-term performance and stability of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. In an effort to address these concerns, the objective of this project was the development of fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, particularly on solid-state radiation effects and their influence on aqueous dissolution kinetics. This study has employed experimental, theoretical and computer simulation methods to obtain new results and insights into radiation damage processes and to initiate the development of predictive models. Consequently, the research that has been performed under this project has significant implications for the High-Level Waste and Nuclear Materials focus areas within the current DOE/EM mission. In the High-Level Waste (HLW) focus area, the results of this research could lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation-induced degradation mechanisms and their effects on dissolution kinetics, as well as development of predictive models for waste form performance. In the Nuclear Materials focus area, the results of this research could lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation effects on the chemical and structural properties of materials for the stabilization and long-term storage of plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, and other actinides. Ultimately, this research could result in improved glass and ceramic materials for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, other actinides, and other radioactive materials.

  6. Environment. How to store nuclear wastes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a trial is about to take place between the ANDRA (the French National Agency for the Management of Nuclear Wastes) and associations opposed to the Cigeo project of geological deposit of nuclear wastes in Bures, this article briefly recalls the objectives of Cigeo in terms of volumes of storage of high and intermediate activity-long life wastes, and the failure of the public debate process in 2013. It briefly discusses the assessment of the geothermal potential of the area which has been the motivation of the associations to obtain this trial. While providing a sketch of the Cigeo project, and briefly recalling that geological deposit is a rather spread technique in the world, the article briefly recalls the main steps of this industrial project, and outlines that its cost and financing are still a matter of discussion, notably because some costs cannot be precisely known for a site which is planned to be exploited during 125 years. It outlines that Cigeo still lacks a legal framework (it has been removed from the law on energy transition, and from a more recent bill project), and that there is for now no alternative for nuclear waste storage. The issue of wastes produced by the dismantling of nuclear installations is briefly evoked

  7. The role of automation and humans in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document is the result of a series of advisory and consultants meetings held within the framework of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation in 1989-1990. It provides a basis for assigning functions to men and machines and for achieving a desirable balance. It should be particularly useful to designers of of new systems, where a large number of assignment decisions will have to be identified, taken and documented. In addition, the methodology can be used by utilities for plant modifications and upgrades. The document may also be employed for examining existing assignments in a system since the principles on which the document is based are generally applicable. The document may be useful to those who develop requirement specifications for automation, to technology designers who design automated machines, and to researchers who intend to further refine the function assignment methodology. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. NRC nuclear waste geochemistry 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the meeting was to present results from NRC-sponsored research and to identify regulatory research issues which need to be addressed prior to licensing a high-level waste repository. Important summaries of technical issues and recommendations are included with each paper. The issue reflect areas of technical uncertainty addressed by the NRC Research program in geochemistry. The objectives of the NRC Research Program in geochemistry are to provide a technical basis for waste management rulemaking, to provide the NRC Waste Management Licensing Office with information that can be used to support sound licensing decisions, and to identify investigations that need to be conducted by DOE to support a license application. Individual papers were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  9. Nuclear waste management program. Summary document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document outlines the operational and research and development (R and D) activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Management (ETW) under the Assistant Secretary for Energy Technology, DOE. The national energy policy as it applies to waste management and spent fuel storage is presented first. The program strategy, structure, budget, management approach, and public participation programs are then identified. The next section describes program activities and outlines their status. Finally, the applicability of departmental policies to ETW programs is summarized, including field and regional activities, commercialization plans, the environmental and socioeconomic implications of waste management activities, and international programs

  10. Electrochemical treatment of alkaline nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large quantities of highly radioactive waste have been generated throughout the Department of Energy complex over the past 50 years as a result of the production of special nuclear materials for defense and space programs. These wastes have been stored in underground tanks. Some of the tanks have developed cracks that have allowed waste to leak out of the primary tank. Many of the tanks are operating beyond their design life. Processes are being developed to remove the waste from the storage tanks and permanently dispose of it in engineered wasteforms. The bulk of the radioactivity will be concentrated into approximately 1% of the total waste volume and vitrified. The highly radioactive borosilicate glass wasteform will be placed in the federal repository. The remaining waste, which still contains low concentrations of radioactivity, will be incorporated into a low-level wasteform (e.g., cement, glass, ceramic, polymer, etc.) and placed in a near surface facility at the DOE site. Electrochemical-based processes are being evaluated to destroy organic compounds that impact radionuclide separations processes, to destroy or to remove hazardous species in the waste such as nitrates, nitrites, hazardous metals, and radionuclides that can impact wasteform production and characteristics, recovery chemicals of value such as sodium hydroxide (caustic) that can be recycled. Major benefits of such processes include the destruction or removal of hazardous species, waste volume reduction and the recovery of valuable chemicals contained in the waste

  11. Chemical aspects of nuclear waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical aspects of the treatment of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes are discussed in overview. The role of chemistry and the chemical reactions in waste treatment are emphasized. Waste treatment methods encompass the chemistry of radioactive elements from every group of the periodic table. In most streams, the radioactive elements are present in relatively low concentrations and are often associated with moderately large amounts of process reagents, or materials. In general, it is desirable that waste treatment methods are based on chemistry that is selective for the concentration of radionuclides and does not require the addition of reagents that contribute significantly to the volume of the treated waste. Solvent extraction, ion exchange, and sorbent chemistry play a major role in waste treatment because of the high selectivity provided for many radionuclides. This paper deals with the chemistry of the onsite treatment methods that is typically used at nuclear installations and is not concerned with the chemistry of the various alternative materials proposed for long-term storage of nuclear wastes. The chemical aspects are discussed from a generic point of view in which the chemistry of important radionuclides is emphasized

  12. Cost estimates of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The costs caused by the management of the spent fuel produced by nuclear power plant units TVO I and TVO II during their 30 years' operational life are estimated in the report. The cost estimate is based, in regard to the spent fuel management, on TVO's plan according to which spent fuel is stored intermediately and finally disposed as such in Finland. As far as decommissioning is concerned, the estimate is based on deferred dismantlement, and for reactor waste's part, on final disposal at site at Olkiluoto. The report deals also with the development of nuclear waste management reserve during the years 1979...1982 and the effect of the reserve on electricity prices. The Ministry of Trade and Industry has approved the calculation basis 1.36 p/kWh for the year 1982. The effect of significant changes in nuclear waste management plans on the cost estimate has also been discussed. This kind of changes comprise reprocessing, significant increase in waste amounts when a new power plant unit is added into the waste management plan, untimely termination of plant operation and accident at the plant. The cost estimate at October 1982 price level is as follows: spent nuclear fuel transfer to interim storage and intermediate storing 873 million marks, transfer to final disposal site 127 million marks, and encapsulation and final disposal 1450 million marks; decommissioning of the power plant 520 million marks; final disposal of reactor waste 80 million marks. The sales estimate for TVO I and TVO II during the corresponding period of time is 240 TWh. Thus the price effect with 0% discount rate is 1.27 p/kWh. Decrease, when compared to the cost estimate on which the previous provision calculations were based, is due to the new, more precise cost estimates concerning intermediate storing and transportation of spent nuclear fuel

  13. Corrosion Engineers and Nuclear Waste Disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More and more articles appear in the press daily about the renaissance of nuclear energy. Even many former opponents of nuclear energy are now convinced that nuclear energy is more environmentally friendly than burning fossil fuels. Nuclear energy does not release carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and therefore does not contribute to the global warming problem. But nuclear energy produces spent fuel or nuclear waste. Spent fuel is radioactive and requires thousands of years of isolation from plants, animals and humans. Every country currently studying the option for disposing of high-level nuclear waste has selected deep geologic formations to be the primary barrier for accomplishing this isolation. It is postulated that by the very nature of these geological sites, they will contain the waste for long time, limiting the spread of radionuclides, for example, through water flow. The release of radionuclides to the environment can also be delayed by the construction of engineered barrier systems between the waste and the geologic formation. Corrosion engineers are participating in the design and the performance prediction of the engineered barriers. The principal engineered component in this multibarrier approach is the container for the waste. Beyond the metallic containers, other engineered barriers could be added to attenuate the impact of the emplacement environment on the containers. The containers will probably be concentric double walled vessels of dissimilar metals. Each vessel would have a specific function. For example, the inner container may be designed to shield radiation and provide structural support to facilitate the safe handling and emplacement operations. This inner container may be over-packed with a corrosion-resistant outer layer. The design of the different containers for nuclear waste would vary according to the nature of the geologic formation at the site of the repository. The most common host rocks for nuclear waste repositories in the world

  14. Nuclear Waste Management under Approaching Disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilg, Patrick; Gabbert, Silke; Weikard, Hans Peter

    2016-01-01

    This article compares different strategies for handling low- and medium-level nuclear waste buried in a retired potassium mine in Germany (Asse II) that faces significant risk of uncontrollable brine intrusion and, hence, long-term groundwater contamination. We survey the policy process that has

  15. Transmutation of Long-Lived Nuclear Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oigawa, Hiroyuki

    JAEA is conducting research and development on an Accelerator Driven System (ADS), aiming at reduction of burden for high-level radioactive wastes. To tackle technical challenges on ADS, JAEA is planning to build the Transmutation Experimental Facility as the Phase-2 program of J-PARC. Moreover, JAEA is considering the collaboration with the MYRRHA project proposed by Belgian Nuclear Research Center.

  16. THERMOCHEMICAL MODELING OF NUCLEAR WASTE GLASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of assessed and consistent phase equilibria and thermodynamic data for major glass constituents used to incorporate high-level nuclear waste is discussed in this paper. The initial research has included the binary Na{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O-Al{sub 2}O{sub ...

  17. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, January-March 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, A.M.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1980-06-01

    Reported are: high-level waste immobilization, alternative waste forms, nuclear waste materials characterization, TRU waste immobilization, TRU waste decontamination, krypton solidification, thermal outgassing, iodine-129 fixation, unsaturated zone transport, well-logging instrumentation development, mobile organic complexes of fission products, waste management system and safety studies, assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems, waste/rock interactions, engineered barriers, criteria for defining waste isolation, and spent fuel and pool component integrity. (DLC)

  18. Radioactive waste management and the nuclear renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Full text: For many years, nuclear supporters have been talking of a possible nuclear power renaissance. Today there are definite signs that this is finally beginning to happen. New plants are being built or planned in China, Japan, Korea, Finland, France and even the USA. Phase-out policies are being rethought in countries like Sweden, Belgium and Germany. Countries like Vietnam, Indonesia, the Baltic States and even Australia are choosing or debating initiating a nuclear programme. Support for these nuclear power developments may be strongly influenced by the progress of waste management programmes, especially final disposal. Conversely, the growing realisation of the potential global benefits of nuclear power may well lead to increased support, effort and funding for initiatives to ensure that all nations have access to safe and secure waste management facilities. This implies that large nuclear programmes must make progress with implementation of treatment, storage and disposal facilities for all of their radioactive wastes. For small nuclear programmes (and for countries with nuclear applications other than power generation) such facilities are also necessary. For economic and other reasons, these small programmes may not be able to implement all of the required national facilities. Multinational cooperation is needed. This can be realised by large countries providing back-end services such as reprocessing and disposal, or by small countries forming regional or international partnerships to implement shared facilities for storage and/or disposal. This paper will trace through the past decades the mutual interactions between programmes in nuclear power and in waste management. The relevant issues of concern for both include radiological safety, environmental impacts and, most topically, non-proliferation and security. Debates on these issues have strongly affected national efforts to implement power plants and repositories, and also influenced the

  19. The need for public education: Nuclear waste disposal programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry has made great technical strides in the quest for safe and efficient management and disposal of nuclear wastes. Public acceptance and cooperation, however, lag far behind. An extensive in-depth public information campaign must be instituted if the public is to deal with nuclear waste issues intelligently and reasonably rather than emotionally. Westinghouse has developed the Nuclear Waste Management Outreach Program, an objective seminar series, to make the necessary information both available and accessible. The program was initially designed as a broad-scoped nuclear waste management overview to give participants comprehensive information on all aspects of nuclear waste

  20. Nuclear waste issues: a perspectives document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J.J.; Smith, C.F.; Ciminese, F.J.

    1983-02-01

    This report contains the results of systematic survey of perspectives on the question of radioactive waste management. Sources of information for this review include the scientific literature, regulatory and government documents, pro-nuclear and anti-nuclear publications, and news media articles. In examining the sources of information, it has become evident that a major distinction can be made between the optimistic or positive viewpoints, and the pessimistic or negative ones. Consequently, these form the principal categories for presentation of the perspectives on the radioactive waste management problem have been further classified as relating to the following issue areas: the physical aspects of radiation, longevity, radiotoxicity, the quantity of radioactive wastes, and perceptual factors.

  1. Nuclear waste issues: a perspectives document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the results of systematic survey of perspectives on the question of radioactive waste management. Sources of information for this review include the scientific literature, regulatory and government documents, pro-nuclear and anti-nuclear publications, and news media articles. In examining the sources of information, it has become evident that a major distinction can be made between the optimistic or positive viewpoints, and the pessimistic or negative ones. Consequently, these form the principal categories for presentation of the perspectives on the radioactive waste management problem have been further classified as relating to the following issue areas: the physical aspects of radiation, longevity, radiotoxicity, the quantity of radioactive wastes, and perceptual factors

  2. Role of utility nuclear waste management group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Utility Nuclear Waste Management Group (UNWMG) is a group of 39 nuclear utilities which support a general program which is under the administration of Edison Electric Institute (EEI), but which actually operates quite separately. The function of the group is primarily to interact with Congress in the development of desired legislation, interact with NRC and EPA in the development of regulations, and interact with DOE in the carrying out of programs in which they are interested. The group is organized into four working groups. One devotes its efforts to high-level waste activities, one to low-level waste interests, one to spent fuel storage and reprocessing, and a fourth to public information. Each of these working groups has a number of task forces that are organized to respond to a particular need at the time. The activities of each group are discussed briefly

  3. Public values associated with nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the major findings from a study designed to assess public attitudes and values associated with nuclear waste disposal. The first objective was to obtain from selected individuals and organizations value and attitude information which would be useful to decision-makers charged with deciding the ultimate disposal of radioactive waste materials. A second research objective was to obtain information that could be structured and quantified for integration with technical data in a computer-assisted decision model. The third general objective of this research was to test several attitude-value measurement procedures for their relevance and applicability to nuclear waste disposal. The results presented in this report are based on questionnaire responses from 465 study participants

  4. Nuclear wastes and the evaluation of hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the volume and contents of wastes from the operation and the decommissioning of a 1000 MWe reactor and of wastes generated by spent fuel management. Official Dutch reports appear to remarkably underestimate nuclear waste problems. A comparison between the 'throw away' option and the 'full recycling' for spent fuel shows that recycling increases the waste volume with a factor of 15 to 40, spreads half of the longlive radionuclides over instable packing materials, enhances the accessibility of plutonium for abuse, increases the radiation exposure to workers and the public as a whole, and reduces in the long term the plutonium content of the waste only with a factor 5 to 7. In the analysis of long term risks of nuclear waste, the environmental dose commitment i.e. the total integrated population dose should be calculated. Individual risk estimates such as made in a Dutch risk analysis are highly insufficient. Referring to the same analysis uncertainties in human knowledge, the influence of human failure or intervention and assumptions about future social development, are discussed. (Auth.)

  5. Can shale safely host US nuclear waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    "Even as cleanup efforts after Japan’s Fukushima disaster offer a stark reminder of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stored at nuclear plants worldwide, the decision in 2009 to scrap Yucca Mountain as a permanent disposal site has dimmed hope for a repository for SNF and other high-level nuclear waste (HLW) in the United States anytime soon. About 70,000 metric tons of SNF are now in pool or dry cask storage at 75 sites across the United States [Government Accountability Office, 2012], and uncertainty about its fate is hobbling future development of nuclear power, increasing costs for utilities, and creating a liability for American taxpayers [Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, 2012].However, abandoning Yucca Mountain could also result in broadening geologic options for hosting America’s nuclear waste. Shales and other argillaceous formations (mudrocks, clays, and similar clay-rich media) have been absent from the U.S. repository program. In contrast, France, Switzerland, and Belgium are now planning repositories in argillaceous formations after extensive research in underground laboratories on the safety and feasibility of such an approach [Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, 2012; Nationale Genossenschaft für die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfälle (NAGRA), 2010; Organisme national des déchets radioactifs et des matières fissiles enrichies, 2011]. Other nations, notably Japan, Canada, and the United Kingdom, are studying argillaceous formations or may consider them in their siting programs [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2012; Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), (2011a); Powell et al., 2010]."

  6. Ethical Issues in Nuclear Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oughton, Deborah [Agricultural Univ. of Norway, Aas (Norway). Dept. of Chemistry and Biotechnology

    2001-07-01

    Nuclear experts claim that the health risks from radioactive waste disposal are low compared to other environmental hazards, yet the general public is sceptical of the industry's ability to guarantee acceptable safety standards. Many allude to what might be deemed morally relevant factors, such as potential harms to future generations, possibly catastrophic consequences and environmental effects. Industry has often tended to respond with a claim that the public has an irrational perception of radiation risks, particularly those from man-made rather than natural sources. From a philosophical point of view it is interesting to consider exactly how nuclear risks might differ from other hazards, not least to evaluate which ethically relevant factors could be used to defend the stringent demands made by society for nuclear waste disposal.

  7. Advanced waste forms from spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, J.P.; McPheeters, C.C.

    1995-12-31

    More than one hundred spent nuclear fuel types, having an aggregate mass of more than 5000 metric tons (2700 metric tons of heavy metal), are stored by the United States Department of Energy. This paper proposes a method for converting this wide variety of fuel types into two waste forms for geologic disposal. The method is based on a molten salt electrorefining technique that was developed for conditioning the sodium-bonded, metallic fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) for geologic disposal. The electrorefining method produces two stable, optionally actinide-free, high-level waste forms: an alloy formed from stainless steel, zirconium, and noble metal fission products, and a ceramic waste form containing the reactive metal fission products. Electrorefining and its accompanying head-end process are briefly described, and methods for isolating fission products and fabricating waste forms are discussed.

  8. Nuclear Waste under Mode 2 - Knowledge Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste, established in 1989, consists of academic scholars from the natural and technical sciences as well as the social and humanistic sciences. The council has attended to the contribution of knowledge and theoretical perspectives from social science and the humanities at several occasions and most recently in a special report from 2007: Straalande forskningsutsikter? En oeversikt om kaernavfallsfraagor inom samhaellsvetenskaplig forskning (Radiating Prospects for Research? An Overview of Nuclear Waste Issues in Social Scientific Research) (Bergquist). The report concludes that most of the research in Sweden has been made with the support of SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company), i.e. the company which has the main responsibility of finding a technical solution for a safe deposition of HLW in Sweden. Since 2004 SKB has conducted a special social scientific programme with a focus on local processes of decision making, local social economic factors and attitudes towards nuclear waste (even as international perspectives have also been highlighted in other projects).1 The programme has contributed to our knowledge about the history of nuclear power and nuclear waste. The significance of this programme notwithstanding, research that analyses the nuclear waste issue in a larger democratic and economic perspective is lacking. Furthermore, there is need for more theoretical perspectives on nuclear waste from both humanities and social science. What are the more general social and cultural conditions for the activities of the main actors on the national and international scene? One important example is the so-called 'Mode 2' theory on science and society. This idea was introduced in book published in 1994 (Gibbons), wherein a number social scientific scholars argue that contemporary research is moving from academic, investigator-initiated and discipline-based knowledge production (Mode 1 knowledge) to a 'context

  9. Disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1978, the governments of Canada and Ontario established the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management program. As of the time of the conference, the research performed by AECL was jointly funded by AECL and Ontario Hydro through the CANDU owners' group. Ontario Hydro have also done some of the research on disposal containers and vault seals. From 1978 to 1992, AECL's research and development on disposal cost about C$413 million, of which C$305 was from funds provided to AECL by the federal government, and C$77 million was from Ontario Hydro. The concept involves the construction of a waste vault 500 to 1000 metres deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Precambrian Shield. Used fuel (or possibly solidified reprocessing waste) would be sealed into containers (of copper, titanium or special steel) and emplaced (probably in boreholes) in the vault floor, surrounded by sealing material (buffer). Disposal rooms might be excavated on more than one level. Eventually all excavated openings in the rock would be backfilled and sealed. Research is organized under the following headings: disposal container, waste form, vault seals, geosphere, surface environment, total system, assessment of environmental effects. A federal Environmental Assessment Panel is assessing the concept (holding public hearings for the purpose) and will eventually make recommendations to assist the governments of Canada and Ontario in deciding whether to accept the concept, and how to manage nuclear fuel waste. 16 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  10. EUROSAFE forum 2013. Safe disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    The proceedings of the EUROSAFE forum 2013 - safe disposal of nuclear waste include contributions to the following topics: Nuclear installation safety - assessment; nuclear installation safety - research; waste and decommissioning - dismantling; radiation protection, 3nvironment and emergency preparedness; security of nuclear installations and materials.

  11. Management of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Code of Practice defines the minimum requirements for the design and operation of structures, systems and components important for the management of radioactive wastes from thermal neutron nuclear power plants. The topics covered include design and operation of gaseous, liquid and solid waste systems, waste transport, storage and disposal, decommissioning wastes and wastes from unplanned events

  12. The management of nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Select Committee of the Legislature of Ontario was established to examine the affairs of Ontario Hydro, the provincial electrical utility. The Committee's terms of reference included examination of the waste management program being carried out jointly by the Ontario provincial government and the Canadian federal government. Public hearings were held which included private citizens as well as officials of organizations in the nuclear field and independent experts. Recommendations were made concerning the future direction of the Canadian fuel waste management program. (O.T.)

  13. Titanium alloy corrosion in nuclear waste environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A corrosion study has been conducted on the titanium alloys Ti-50A, TiCode 12, and Ti-Pd to evaluate their suitability as a long lifetime (300 to 600 year) canister material for the isolation of nuclear wastes. TiCode 12, selected as the primary candidate material, is shown to be very resistant to environmental attack. Results of electrochemical, general corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking experiments are presented. These data, including those from severe overtests, have shown that TiCode 12 is a viable candidate material for long-term waste isolation. 17 figures

  14. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, A.M.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1980-04-01

    Progress and activities are reported on the following: high-level waste immobilization, alternative waste forms, nuclear waste materials characterization, TRU waste immobilization programs, TRU waste decontamination, krypton solidification, thermal outgassing, iodine-129 fixation, monitoring of unsaturated zone transport, well-logging instrumentation development, mobile organic complexes of fission products, waste management system and safety studies, assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems, waste/rock interactions technology, spent fuel and fuel pool integrity program, and engineered barriers. (DLC)

  15. Review of radiation effects in solid-nuclear-waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W.J.

    1981-09-01

    Radiation effects on the stability of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) forms are an important consideration in the development of technology to immobilize high-level radioactive waste because such effects may significantly affect the containment of the radioactive waste. Since the required containment times are long (10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 6/ years), an understanding of the long-term cumulative effects of radiation damage on the waste forms is essential. Radiation damage of nuclear waste forms can result in changes in volume, leach rate, stored energy, structure/microstructure, and mechanical properties. Any one or combination of these changes might significantly affect the long-term stability of the nuclear waste forms. This report defines the general radiation damage problem in nuclear waste forms, describes the simulation techniques currently available for accelerated testing of nuclear waste forms, and reviews the available data on radiation effects in both glass and ceramic (primarily crystalline) waste forms. 76 references.

  16. Melt processed multiphase ceramic waste forms for nuclear waste immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, Jake, E-mail: jake.amoroso@srs.gov [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Marra, James C. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Tang, Ming [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Lin, Ye; Chen, Fanglin [University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Su, Dong [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Brinkman, Kyle S. [Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We explored the feasibility of melt processing multiphase titanate-based ceramics. • Melt processing produced phases obtained by alternative processing methods. • Phases incorporated multiple lanthanides and transition metals. • Processing in reducing atmosphere suppressed un-desirable Cs–Mo coupling. • Cr partitions to and stabilizes the hollandite phase, which promotes Cs retention. - Abstract: Ceramic waste forms are promising hosts for nuclear waste immobilization as they have the potential for increased durability and waste loading compared with conventional borosilicate glass waste forms. Ceramics are generally processed using hot pressing, spark plasma sintering, and conventional solid-state reaction, however such methods can be prohibitively expensive or impractical at production scales. Recently, melt processing has been investigated as an alternative to solid-state sintering methods. Given that melter technology is currently in use for High Level Waste (HLW) vitrification in several countries, the technology readiness of melt processing appears to be advantageous over sintering methods. This work reports the development of candidate multi-phase ceramic compositions processed from a melt. Cr additions, developed to promote the formation and stability of a Cs containing hollandite phase were successfully incorporated into melt processed multi-phase ceramics. Control of the reduction–oxidation (Redox) conditions suppressed undesirable Cs–Mo containing phases, and additions of Al and Fe reduced the melting temperature.

  17. Melt processed multiphase ceramic waste forms for nuclear waste immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Jake; Marra, James C.; Tang, Ming; Lin, Ye; Chen, Fanglin; Su, Dong; Brinkman, Kyle S.

    2014-11-01

    Ceramic waste forms are promising hosts for nuclear waste immobilization as they have the potential for increased durability and waste loading compared with conventional borosilicate glass waste forms. Ceramics are generally processed using hot pressing, spark plasma sintering, and conventional solid-state reaction, however such methods can be prohibitively expensive or impractical at production scales. Recently, melt processing has been investigated as an alternative to solid-state sintering methods. Given that melter technology is currently in use for High Level Waste (HLW) vitrification in several countries, the technology readiness of melt processing appears to be advantageous over sintering methods. This work reports the development of candidate multi-phase ceramic compositions processed from a melt. Cr additions, developed to promote the formation and stability of a Cs containing hollandite phase were successfully incorporated into melt processed multi-phase ceramics. Control of the reduction-oxidation (Redox) conditions suppressed undesirable Cs-Mo containing phases, and additions of Al and Fe reduced the melting temperature.

  18. International nuclear waste management fact book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahms, C W; Patridge, M D; Widrig, J E

    1995-11-01

    The International Nuclear Waste Management Fact Book has been compiled to provide current data on fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs, and key personnel in 24 countries, including the US; four multinational agencies; and 20 nuclear societies. This document, which is in its second year of publication supersedes the previously issued International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book (PNL-3594), which appeared annually for 12 years. The content has been updated to reflect current information. The Fact Book is organized as follows: National summaries--a section for each country that summarizes nuclear policy, describes organizational relationships, and provides addresses and names of key personnel and information on facilities. International agencies--a section for each of the international agencies that has significant fuel cycle involvement and a list of nuclear societies. Glossary--a list of abbreviations/acronyms of organizations, facilities, and technical and other terms. The national summaries, in addition to the data described above, feature a small map for each country and some general information that is presented from the perspective of the Fact Book user in the US.

  19. International nuclear waste management fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Nuclear Waste Management Fact Book has been compiled to provide current data on fuel cycle and waste management facilities, R and D programs, and key personnel in 24 countries, including the US; four multinational agencies; and 20 nuclear societies. This document, which is in its second year of publication supersedes the previously issued International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book (PNL-3594), which appeared annually for 12 years. The content has been updated to reflect current information. The Fact Book is organized as follows: National summaries--a section for each country that summarizes nuclear policy, describes organizational relationships, and provides addresses and names of key personnel and information on facilities. International agencies--a section for each of the international agencies that has significant fuel cycle involvement and a list of nuclear societies. Glossary--a list of abbreviations/acronyms of organizations, facilities, and technical and other terms. The national summaries, in addition to the data described above, feature a small map for each country and some general information that is presented from the perspective of the Fact Book user in the US

  20. Design and operation of the combined technology automated waste characterization system - 59308

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design and operation of the Combined Technology Automated Waste Characterisation System (CTA-WCS) at JRC Ispra. The WCS was designed for the measurement of fission products and uranium and plutonium containing waste arising from nuclear fuel and nuclear materials processing and reactor operations. The WCS covers a range of activity including Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LLW and ILW). The system is designed to measure the waste in 200 and 400 (440) litre drums with a maximum drum weight of 1500 kg. Gamma-ray measurements of radio-nuclide content are performed by a gamma ray measurement station which functions as either a Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS) or Tomographic Segmented Gamma-ray Scanner (TSGS). Either of these two techniques may be employed to perform the functions of drum screening, non-destructive examination (NDE) and, where appropriate, final drum assay. Coupled to the gamma ray station is a surface dose-rate measurement station, which employs 6-shielded Geiger-Muller detectors. Active and passive neutron measurements are performed by an advanced, graphite lined Differential Die-away (DDA) system, which comprises the neutron measurement station. The DDA performs conventional passive neutron totals, coincidence, and multiplicity counting and active DDA total neutron counting. Data analysis is based on the use of a range of matrix calibrations, some determined by Monte Carlo analysis. Linking the gamma ray and neutron measurement stations is an automated roller conveyor with a 20 drum buffer capability and a weight measurement station. Drums are identified by bar code reading technology. Once loaded, the system performs automatic assay of up to 20 drums and then returns the drums to the buffer position on the conveyor. The first WCS of this type was supplied to the European Commission at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) Ispra in northern Italy and it was commissioned at the end of 2007. It is now in a phase of pilot operation

  1. Dissolution of tailored ceramic nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissolution experiments on polyphase, high alumina tailored ceramic nuclear waste forms developed for the chemical immobilization of Savannah River Plant nuclear waste are described. Three forms of leach tests have been adopted; bulk samples conforming to the Materials Characterization Center Static Leach Test (MCC-1), a powdered sample leach test, and a leach test performed on transmission electron microscope thin foil samples. From analysis of these tests the crystalline phases that preferentially dissolve on leaching and the product phases formed are identified and related to the tailoring and processing schemes used in forming the ceramics. The thin foil sample leaching enables the role of intergranular amorphous phases as short-circuit leaching paths in polyphase ceramics to be investigated

  2. Nuclear Materials: Reconsidering Wastes and Assets - 13193

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry, both in the commercial and the government sectors, has generated large quantities of material that span the spectrum of usefulness, from highly valuable ('assets') to worthless ('wastes'). In many cases, the decision parameters are clear. Transuranic waste and high level waste, for example, have no value, and is either in a final disposition path today, or - in the case of high level waste - awaiting a policy decision about final disposition. Other materials, though discardable, have intrinsic scientific or market value that may be hidden by the complexity, hazard, or cost of recovery. An informed decision process should acknowledge the asset value, or lack of value, of the complete inventory of materials, and the structure necessary to implement the range of possible options. It is important that informed decisions are made about the asset value for the variety of nuclear materials available. For example, there is a significant quantity of spent fuel available for recycle (an estimated $4 billion value in the Savannah River Site's (SRS) L area alone); in fact, SRS has already blended down more than 300 metric tons of uranium for commercial reactor use. Over 34 metric tons of surplus plutonium is also on a path to be used as commercial fuel. There are other radiological materials that are routinely handled at the site in large quantities that should be viewed as strategically important and / or commercially viable. In some cases, these materials are irreplaceable domestically, and failure to consider their recovery could jeopardize our technological leadership or national defense. The inventories of nuclear materials at SRS that have been characterized as 'waste' include isotopes of plutonium, uranium, americium, and helium. Although planning has been performed to establish the technical and regulatory bases for their discard and disposal, recovery of these materials is both economically attractive and in the national interest. (authors)

  3. Development of an automated core model for nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosteller, R.D.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to develop an automated package of computer codes that can model the steady-state behavior of nuclear-reactor cores of various designs. As an added benefit, data produced for steady-state analysis also can be used as input to the TRAC transient-analysis code for subsequent safety analysis of the reactor at any point in its operating lifetime. The basic capability to perform steady-state reactor-core analysis already existed in the combination of the HELIOS lattice-physics code and the NESTLE advanced nodal code. In this project, the automated package was completed by (1) obtaining cross-section libraries for HELIOS, (2) validating HELIOS by comparing its predictions to results from critical experiments and from the MCNP Monte Carlo code, (3) validating NESTLE by comparing its predictions to results from numerical benchmarks and to measured data from operating reactors, and (4) developing a linkage code to transform HELIOS output into NESTLE input.

  4. High speed automated microtomography of nuclear emulsions and recent application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tioukov, V.; Aleksandrov, A.; Consiglio, L. [INFN Napoli (Italy); De Lellis, G. [Universita di Napoli (Italy); Vladymyrov, M. [LPI Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-31

    The development of high-speed automatic scanning systems was the key-factor for massive and successful emulsions application for big neutrino experiments like OPERA. The emulsion detector simplicity, the unprecedented sub-micron spatial resolution and the unique ability to provide intrinsically 3-dimensional spatial information make it a perfect device for short-living particles study, where the event topology should be precisely reconstructed in a 10-100 um scale vertex region. Recently the exceptional technological progress in image processing and automation together with intensive R&D done by Italian and Japanese microscopy groups permit to increase the scanning speed to unbelievable few years ago m{sup 2}/day scale and so greatly extend the range of the possible applications for emulsion-based detectors to other fields like: medical imaging, directional dark matter search, nuclear physics, geological and industrial applications.

  5. Intelligent control and automation technology for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project intends to establish the basic technology of intelligent control and automation to be applied to the next generation nuclear plant. For that, the research status of those technologies is surveyed for various application areas at first. The characteristics and availability of those techniques such as neural network, fuzzy rule based control and reasoning, multimedia, real-time software and qualitative modelling are studied through a series of simulations and experiments. By integrating each technologies studied above, we developed a hierarchical, intelligent control system for an autonomous mobile robot as a test bed. The system is composed of several modules of software and hardware subsystems, which are implemented by use of the intelligent techniques. Through the analysis of the results and experiences, we investigated the feasibility of application of the basic technology to the next generation plant. (Author)

  6. High speed automated microtomography of nuclear emulsions and recent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tioukov, V.; Aleksandrov, A.; Consiglio, L.; De Lellis, G.; Vladymyrov, M.

    2015-12-01

    The development of high-speed automatic scanning systems was the key-factor for massive and successful emulsions application for big neutrino experiments like OPERA. The emulsion detector simplicity, the unprecedented sub-micron spatial resolution and the unique ability to provide intrinsically 3-dimensional spatial information make it a perfect device for short-living particles study, where the event topology should be precisely reconstructed in a 10-100 um scale vertex region. Recently the exceptional technological progress in image processing and automation together with intensive R&D done by Italian and Japanese microscopy groups permit to increase the scanning speed to unbelievable few years ago m2/day scale and so greatly extend the range of the possible applications for emulsion-based detectors to other fields like: medical imaging, directional dark matter search, nuclear physics, geological and industrial applications.

  7. Stakeholder involvement in Swedish nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Mark; Sundqvist, Goeran [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Section for Science and Technology Studies

    2006-09-15

    This report concerning Swedish nuclear waste management has been produced as part of a cross national research project: CARL - A Social Science Research Project into the Effects of Stakeholder involvement on Decision-Making in Radioactive Waste Management. Besides Sweden, the participating countries are Belgium, Canada, Finland, Slovenia and United Kingdom. A social science research team, working for three years, is in the first phase conducting research in their own countries in order to produce 6 country reports. During the next years the focus will shift to comparisons of stakeholder involvement practices in the participating countries. The report addresses current practices of Swedish nuclear waste management and their historical development. The main focus is on past, current and emerging patterns of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a deep repository for the final disposal of Sweden's spent nuclear fuel. The general questions attended to in the report are: Who are the main stakeholders, and how have they emerged and gained recognition as such? What are the issues currently subject to stakeholder involvement and how have these been decided upon? How is stakeholder involvement organized locally and nationally and how has this changed over time? How has stakeholder involvement gained acceptance as an activity of value in the siting of major waste facilities? The report have attempted to show the development of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a final repository for Sweden's spent nuclear fuel as resembling something other than a straightforward linear process of improvement and refinement. Stakeholder involvement has developed, over the past 15 years or so, into something more like a patchwork of different shapes and forms. Some of the forces that may well contribute to the further elaboration of the patchwork of stakeholder involvement have been pointed out, contingently modifying once more its overall colour and orientation. Questions

  8. Stakeholder involvement in Swedish nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report concerning Swedish nuclear waste management has been produced as part of a cross national research project: CARL - A Social Science Research Project into the Effects of Stakeholder involvement on Decision-Making in Radioactive Waste Management. Besides Sweden, the participating countries are Belgium, Canada, Finland, Slovenia and United Kingdom. A social science research team, working for three years, is in the first phase conducting research in their own countries in order to produce 6 country reports. During the next years the focus will shift to comparisons of stakeholder involvement practices in the participating countries. The report addresses current practices of Swedish nuclear waste management and their historical development. The main focus is on past, current and emerging patterns of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a deep repository for the final disposal of Sweden's spent nuclear fuel. The general questions attended to in the report are: Who are the main stakeholders, and how have they emerged and gained recognition as such? What are the issues currently subject to stakeholder involvement and how have these been decided upon? How is stakeholder involvement organized locally and nationally and how has this changed over time? How has stakeholder involvement gained acceptance as an activity of value in the siting of major waste facilities? The report have attempted to show the development of stakeholder involvement in the siting of a final repository for Sweden's spent nuclear fuel as resembling something other than a straightforward linear process of improvement and refinement. Stakeholder involvement has developed, over the past 15 years or so, into something more like a patchwork of different shapes and forms. Some of the forces that may well contribute to the further elaboration of the patchwork of stakeholder involvement have been pointed out, contingently modifying once more its overall colour and orientation. Questions have been

  9. The future of the civil nuclear industry: the challenge of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis first gives an overview of the nuclear waste processing and storage in France (reasons and future of this political choice, legal framework, storage means and sites, weaknesses of waste storage). Then it comments various aspects of the processing of foreign nuclear wastes in France: economy and media impact, law and contracts, waste transport, temporary storage in France

  10. Nuclear Waste, Risks and Sustainable Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Mikael [Swedish Society for Nature Conservation, Stockholm (Sweden); Swahn, Johan [Swedish NGO Office for Nuclear Waste Review (MKG), Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2006-09-15

    The proposed Swedish nuclear waste project is not in line with the three principles of sustainable development. In some aspects, it is not even compatible with Swedish law and ought therefore not to be given a permit under present circumstances. In our view, a number of measures need to be taken to improve the likelihood that the waste repository will promote and not further jeopardise sustainable development. One obvious measure would be to follow the recommendations concerning polluter pays principle put forward by the 2004 governmental committee. Further, it can be credible argued that the focus of the present disposal process has not been to find the best site and method from environmental point of view. If the precautionary principle is to be applied (and Swedish law is to be followed), alternative methods and sites have to be examined to see if they could provide better long-term safety. Concerning method, there are options that deserve much more attention such as so called 'deep boreholes'. In this approach the nuclear waste is placed in deep boreholes at depths of 2-4 km. Studies show that the long-term environmental safety and the possibility of hindering intentional intrusion may improve using the deep borehole method. Regarding localisation, one option would be to avoid siting the repository on the coast, but in what is called a 'recharge area'. In such an area groundwater on a regional scale travels downwards into the bedrock and it may take 50 000 years for a release of radioactivity to reach the surface, compared to less than 100 years with a coastal siting. Evidently, there may be better methods and sites than those now proposed by the Swedish nuclear industry. These options must be examined in detail before a decision is taken to implement the KBS method at a coastal site. If such methods or sites are found better they have to be used in the first place. Improvements are also necessary when it comes to public participation. We

  11. Internal Mainland Nuclear Power Liquid Waste Treatment Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU; Xin-feng; ZHANG; Zhen-tao; ZHENG; Wen-jun; WANG; Lei; YANG; Lin-yue; HUA; Xiao-hui; ZHENG; Yu; YANG; Yong-gang; WU; Yan

    2013-01-01

    Taohuajiang power station is the first internal mainland nuclear power station,and it adopts AP1000nuclear technology belongs to the Westinghouse Electric Corporation.To ensure the safety of the environment around the station and satisfy the radio liquid waste discharge standards,our team has researched the liquid waste treatment technology for the internal mainland nuclear power plant.According

  12. Alternative Approaches to Recycling Nuclear Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannum, William H.

    2007-04-01

    Nuclear power exists, and as the demand for non-fossil electricity generation increases, many more nuclear plants are being planned and built. The result is growing inventories of spent nuclear fuel containing plutonium that -- in principle, at least -- can be used to make nuclear explosives. There are countries and organizations that are believed to want nuclear weapons, posing a knotty proliferation problem that calls for realistic control of nuclear materials. Phasing out nuclear power and sequestering all dangerous materials in guarded storage or in geological formations would not be a realistic approach. Plutonium from commercial spent fuel is very hard to make into a weapon. However, a rogue nation could operate a power plant so as to produce plutonium with weapons-quality isotopics, and then chemically purify it. IAEA safeguards are designed to discourage this, but the only enforcement is referral to the United Nations General Assembly. The traditional reprocessing method, PUREX, produces plutonium that has the chemical purity needed for weapons. However, there are alternative approaches that produce only highly radioactive blends of fissionable materials and fission products. Recycle offers a market for spent nuclear fuel, promoting more rigorous accounting of these materials. Unlike PUREX, the new technologies permit the recycle and consumption of essentially all of the high-hazard transuranics, and will reduce the required isolation time for the waste to less than 500 years. Facilities for recovering recyclable materials from LWR spent fuel will be large and expensive. Only a very few such plants will be needed, leading to appropriate concentration of safeguards measures. Plants for recycling the spent fuel from fast burner reactors can be collocated with the power plants and share the safeguards.

  13. Waste Stream Analyses for Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. R. Soelberg

    2010-08-01

    A high-level study was performed in Fiscal Year 2009 for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) to provide information for a range of nuclear fuel cycle options (Wigeland 2009). At that time, some fuel cycle options could not be adequately evaluated since they were not well defined and lacked sufficient information. As a result, five families of these fuel cycle options are being studied during Fiscal Year 2010 by the Systems Analysis Campaign for the DOE NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. The quality and completeness of data available to date for the fuel cycle options is insufficient to perform quantitative radioactive waste analyses using recommended metrics. This study has been limited thus far to qualitative analyses of waste streams from the candidate fuel cycle options, because quantitative data for wastes from the front end, fuel fabrication, reactor core structure, and used fuel for these options is generally not yet available.

  14. Scientific Solutions to Nuclear Waste Environmental Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Bradley R.

    2014-01-30

    The Hidden Cost of Nuclear Weapons The Cold War arms race drove an intense plutonium production program in the U.S. This campaign produced approximately 100 tons of plutonium over 40 years. The epicenter of plutonium production in the United States was the Hanford site, a 586 square mile reservation owned by the Department of Energy and located on the Colombia River in Southeastern Washington. Plutonium synthesis relied on nuclear reactors to convert uranium to plutonium within the reactor fuel rods. After a sufficient amount of conversion occurred, the rods were removed from the reactor and allowed to cool. They were then dissolved in an acid bath and chemically processed to separate and purify plutonium from the rest of the constituents in the used reactor fuel. The acidic waste was then neutralized using sodium hydroxide and the resulting mixture of liquids and precipitates (small insoluble particles) was stored in huge underground waste tanks. The byproducts of the U.S. plutonium production campaign include over 53 million gallons of high-level radioactive waste stored in 177 large underground tanks at Hanford and another 34 million gallons stored at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. This legacy nuclear waste represents one of the largest environmental clean-up challenges facing the world today. The nuclear waste in the Hanford tanks is a mixture of liquids and precipitates that have settled into sludge. Some of these tanks are now over 60 years old and a small number of them are leaking radioactive waste into the ground and contaminating the environment. The solution to this nuclear waste challenge is to convert the mixture of solids and liquids into a durable material that won't disperse into the environment and create hazards to the biosphere. What makes this difficult is the fact that the radioactive half-lives of some of the radionuclides in the waste are thousands to millions of years long. (The half-life of a radioactive substance is the

  15. Nanoporous Glasses for Nuclear Waste Containment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Woignier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research is in progress to incorporate nuclear waste in new matrices with high structural stability, resistance to thermal shock, and high chemical durability. Interactions with water are important for materials used as a containment matrix for the radio nuclides. It is indispensable to improve their chemical durability to limit the possible release of radioactive chemical species, if the glass structure is attacked by corrosion. By associating high structural stability and high chemical durability, silica glass optimizes the properties of a suitable host matrix. According to an easy sintering stage, nanoporous glasses such as xerogels, aerogels, and composite gels are alternative ways to synthesize silica glass at relatively low temperatures (≈1,000–1,200°C. Nuclear wastes exist as aqueous salt solutions and we propose using the open pore structure of the nanoporous glass to enable migration of the solution throughout the solid volume. The loaded material is then sintered, thereby trapping the radioactive chemical species. The structure of the sintered materials (glass ceramics is that of nanocomposites: actinide phases (~100 nm embedded in a vitreous silica matrix. Our results showed a large improvement in the chemical durability of glass ceramic over conventional nuclear glass.

  16. Predicting the Lifetimes of Nuclear Waste Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Fraser

    2014-03-01

    As for many aspects of the disposal of nuclear waste, the greatest challenge we have in the study of container materials is the prediction of the long-term performance over periods of tens to hundreds of thousands of years. Various methods have been used for predicting the lifetime of containers for the disposal of high-level waste or spent fuel in deep geological repositories. Both mechanical and corrosion-related failure mechanisms need to be considered, although until recently the interactions of mechanical and corrosion degradation modes have not been considered in detail. Failure from mechanical degradation modes has tended to be treated through suitable container design. In comparison, the inevitable loss of container integrity due to corrosion has been treated by developing specific corrosion models. The most important aspect, however, is to be able to justify the long-term predictions by demonstrating a mechanistic understanding of the various degradation modes.

  17. A systems view of the nuclear waste dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnett, Timothy Charles

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear waste problem is defined and analyzed from a systems engineering viewpoint. Problem magnitude and systems context are discussed. Requirements for a waste repository are presented and the current progress of the repository is noted. The Department of Energy's waste disposal system including repository site selection, monitored retrievable storage facility, and waste transportation system is analyzed. A description of nuclear fuel reprocessing is given. The potential benefits ...

  18. Nuclear Waste Treatment Program: Annual report for FY 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To support DOE's attainment of its goals, Nuclear Waste Treatment Program (NWTP) is to provide technology necessary for the design and operation of nuclear waste treatment facilities by commercial enterprises as part of a licensed waste management system and problem-specific treatment approaches, waste form and treatment process adaptations, equipment designs, and trouble-shooting. This annual report describes progress during FY 1986 toward meeting these two objectives. 29 refs., 59 figs., 25 tabs

  19. Nuclear Waste Treatment Program: Annual report for FY 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkholder, H.C.; Brouns, R.A. (comps.); Powell, J.A. (ed.)

    1987-09-01

    To support DOE's attainment of its goals, Nuclear Waste Treatment Program (NWTP) is to provide technology necessary for the design and operation of nuclear waste treatment facilities by commercial enterprises as part of a licensed waste management system and problem-specific treatment approaches, waste form and treatment process adaptations, equipment designs, and trouble-shooting. This annual report describes progress during FY 1986 toward meeting these two objectives. 29 refs., 59 figs., 25 tabs.

  20. JYT - Publicly financed nuclear waste management research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear waste management research in Finland is funded both by the state and the utilities (represented in cooperation by the Nuclear Waste Commission of the Finnish power companies). A coordinated research programme (JYT) comprising the publicly financed waste management studies was started in 1989 and continues until 1993. The utilities continue to carry out a parallel research programme according to their main financial and operational responsibility for nuclear waste management. The research programme covers the following main topic areas: (1) Bedrock characteristics, groundwater and repository, (2) Release and transport of radionuclides, (3) Performance and safety assessment of repositories, and (4) Waste management technology and costs

  1. Nuclear wastes management; Gestion des dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document is the proceedings of the debate that took place at the French Senate on April 13, 2005 about the long-term French policy of radioactive wastes management. The different points tackled during the debate concern: the 3 axes of research of the 1991 law, the public acceptance about the implementation of repositories, the regional economic impact, the cost and financing, the lack of experience feedback, the reversibility or irreversibility of the storage, the share of nuclear energy in the sustainable development policy, the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) project, the privatization of Electricite de France (EdF) etc. (J.S.)

  2. See for yourself! : Enrolling the public in nuclear waste management

    OpenAIRE

    Soneryd, Linda; Johansson, Hanna Sofia

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores exhibitions of nuclear waste facilities and their use as a tool for enrolling the public in the Swedish nuclear waste programme. We argue that the planning process for the final disposal of nuclear waste has dual purposes. On one hand, the consultation meetings provide opportunities for dialogue among a broader set of actors – at least to some extent. The goal of the exhibitions, on the other hand, is to highlight the state of nuclear waste management today and the future ...

  3. Informing future societies about nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990 a working group of the NKS (the Nordic nuclear safety program) was formed and give the task of established a basis for a common Nordic view of the need for information conservation for nuclear waste repositories. The Group investigated what tipy of information should be conserved; in what form the information should be kept; the quality of the information; and the problems of future retrieval of information, including retrieval after very long periods of time. Topics covered include the following: scientific aspects including social context of scientific solutions; information management; systems for conservation and retrieval of information including the problems of prediction; archives, markers, archives vs. markers, and continuing processes in society; Archive media including paper documents, microfilm, digital media, media lifetimes; and finally conclusions and recommendations

  4. Automated waste canister docking and emplacement using a sensor-based intelligent controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensor-based intelligent control system is described that utilizes a multiple degree-of-freedom robotic system for the automated remote manipulation and precision docking of large payloads such as waste canisters. Computer vision and ultrasonic proximity sensing are used to control the automated precision docking of a large object with a passive target cavity. Real-time sensor processing and model-based analysis are used to control payload position to a precision of ± 0.5 millimeter

  5. Nuclear waste in the Pacific: perceptions of the risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation examines the problem of the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the Pacific region. There is a consensus of scientific opinion that the technical difficulties in waste disposal can be overcome. The most acceptable solution seems to be the multi-barrier approach for deep land-based geologic disposal. A questionnaire survey on the perception of nuclear and other hazards, conducted with student populations in Japan and Australia, and a survey of reporting of nuclear events in Pacific newspapers over the period 1946 to the 1980s, reveal that the image of nuclear weapons dominates public views on the risks associated with waste disposal in Australia, Japan, and the Pacific Islands. The problem of finding a suitable site for a nuclear waste disposal facility is to a large extent political. The capacity of anti-nuclear groups to influence waste disposal policies in Australia, Japan, and the Pacific Islands is examined. Current public attitudes toward nuclear waste disposal will delay the further development of activities connected with the nuclear fuel cycle, but this may change over time if the connection between commercial nuclear power and nuclear weapons can be severed more effectively. The most urgent problem in the region is the waste from the ambitious nuclear power programs of Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan

  6. Nuclear and radiological safety nuclear power nuclear fuel cycle and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear and Radiological Safety, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management and issued during the period of 1995-1996. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian or Spanish), but all these papers have abstracts in English

  7. Nuclear waste - where to go?; Atommuell - wohin?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornsiepen, Ulrich

    2015-07-01

    The question of the final di9sposal of nuclear waste is a problem of international importance. The solution of the problem is of increasing urgency; the discussion is controversial and implies a lot of emotions. In Germany there is consensus that the nuclear wastes have to be disposed within the country in deep geological formations. This kind of final disposal is predominantly a geological problem and has to be solved from the geological point of view. The geologist Ulrich Dornsiepen presents the problems of the final disposal in an objective way without ideology and generally understandable. Such a presentation is necessary since the public information and participation is demanded but the open geological questions and their scientific solutions are never explained for the public. [German] Die Frage der endgueltigen Lagerung von Atommuell ist ein Problem von nationaler Tragweite, dessen Loesung immer dringender wird, bisher aber sehr kontrovers diskutiert wird und mit vielen Emotionen verknuepft ist. Es besteht in Deutschland ein Konsens, diese Abfaelle innerhalb der Landesgrenzen dauerhaft in tief liegenden Gesteinsschichten abzulagern. Diese Art der Endlagerung ist aber in erster Linie ein geologisches Problem und so auch nur von geologischer Seite her zu loesen. Daher stellt der Geologe Ulrich Dornsiepen die Problematik der Endlagerung objektiv, ideologiefrei und allgemein verstaendlich dar. Ein solches Hoerbuch ist dringend noetig, da zwar die Information und Beteiligung breiter, betroffener Bevoelkerungsteile eingefordert, aber niemals versucht wird, die offenen geologischen Fragen und ihre wissenschaftliche Loesung verstaendlich zu machen.

  8. Nuclear waste repository in basalt: a design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conceptual design of a nuclear waste repository in basalt is described. Nuclear waste packages are placed in holes drilled into the floor of tunnels at a depth of 3700 ft. About 100 miles of tunnels are required to receive 35,000 packages. Five shafts bring waste packages, ventilation air, excavated rock, personnel, material, and services to and from the subsurface. The most important surface facility is the waste handling building, located over the waste handling shaft, where waste is received and packaged for storage. Two independent ventilation systems are provided to avoid potential contamination of spaces that do not contain nuclear waste. Because of the high temperatures at depth, an elaborate air chilling system is provided. Because the waste packages deliver a considerable amount of heat energy to the rock mass, particular attention is paid to heat transfer and thermal stress studies. 3 references, 31 figures, 3 tables

  9. For Sale: Nuclear Waste Sites--Anyone Buying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Don

    1992-01-01

    Explores why the United States Nuclear Waste Program has been unable to find a volunteer state to host either a nuclear waste repository or monitored retrieval storage facility. Discusses the Department of Energy's plans for Nevada's Yucca Mountain as a repository and state and tribal responses to the plan. (21 references) (MCO)

  10. Management of abnormal radioactive wastes at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As with any other industrial activity, a certain level of risk is associated with the operation of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities. That is, on occasions nuclear power plants or nuclear facilities may operate under conditions which were not specifically anticipated during the design and construction of the plant. These abnormal conditions and situations may cause the production of abnormal waste, which can differ in character or quantity from waste produced during normal routine operation of nuclear facilities. Abnormal waste can also occur during decontamination programmes, replacement of a reactor component, de-sludging of storage ponds, etc. The management of such kinds of waste involves the need to evaluate existing waste management systems in order to determine how abnormal wastes should best be handled and processed. There are no known publications on this subject, and the IAEA believes that the development and exchange of such information among its Member States would be useful for specialists working in the waste management area. The main objective of this report is to review existing waste management practices which can be applied to abnormal waste and provide assistance in the selection of appropriate technologies and processes that can be used when abnormal situations occur. Naturally, the subject of abnormal waste is complex and this report can only be considered as a guide for the management of abnormal waste. Refs, figs and tabs.

  11. Balancing automation and human action in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 130 participants, representing 28 Member States and 3 international organizations, reviewed recent developments and discussed directions for future efforts in the area of balancing automation and human control in NPPs. During the symposium, 41 papers and 12 posters were presented covering the wide spectrum of activities in the area. In recent years very rapid progress in the development of automation technology has produced drastic reductions in the cost of equipment. Care has to be taken to establish a reasonable balance in NPP design and operation between automation and human control so as to ensure both maximum safety and availability. Balancing problem was discussed for all tasks, i.e. operation, maintenance and testing, including all levels from information processing to full automation. Validation, verification and training aspects were specifically considered. The Proceedings of the Conference is divided into 8 sessions: invited papers (3 papers); conceptions and achievements in automation (7 papers); safety implication of automation (6 papers); computerized operator support, part 1 (5 papers), part 2 (6 papers); man-machine interaction (9 papers); human factors consideration in automation (9 papers); accident management in automation (8 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Can alchemy solve the nuclear waste problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One new technology being explored to deal with highly radioactive elements that remain dangerous for thousands of years is transmutation-a modern twist on the ancient idea of transforming one element into another. This modern version of transmutation is not a new concept: transmutation is the essence of nuclear reactions. The latest idea is to harness the process not to create an explosive chain reaction, as in a nuclear weapon, or even primarily to generate power, as in a nuclear power reactor, but to transform dangerous radionuclides into less harmful elements. Last year a Los Alamos team began looking into using a particle accelerator instead of a conventional nuclear reactor to drive the transmutation process. Accelerator transmutation is being pursued elsewhere as well. The Los Alamos project envisions using a linear accelerator to generate extremely high intensities of neutrons for transmutation. The most powerful medium-energy accelerator in the world is located at Los Alamos-the Meson Physics Facility. All major components have been demonstrated individually but have yet to be tested in an integrated unit; when built, these accelerators will produce very intense beams of fast-moving protons. The beams will be directed into heavy-metal targets of lead and bismuth, where each proton will knock-out more than 50 neutrons from the target atoms. The scheme calls for the target to be surrounded by a moderator of heavy water, which would slow the neutrons so they could more easily be captured by the waste products to be transmuted-the lightweight fission products and the heavy actinides. These substances would be carried in a molten salt solution in a separate loop through the moderator. Circulation of both the moderator and the salt loop would dissipate the heat generated by the fission process in what is essentially a subcritical reactor. The paper discusses the advantages of this process and summarizes related research

  13. Helium behaviour in nuclear waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiss, T.; Hiernaut, J.P.; Colle, J.Y.; Maugeri, E.; Raison, P.; Konings, R.; Rondinella, V.V. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Roudil, D.; Deschanel, X.; Peuget, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de VALRHO, B.P. 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2008-07-01

    Waste conditioning matrices like synthetic zirconolite (CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}) were fabricated and doped with either the short-lived alpha-emitters {sup 238}Pu or {sup 244}Cm, or with {sup 239}Pu to generate various amounts of helium and of alpha-damage. The samples were annealed in a Knudsen cell, and the helium desorption profiles interpreted in conjunction with parallel radiation damage and previous annealing behaviour studies. To understand the long term behaviour of spent nuclear fuel, UO{sub 2} samples doped with the alpha-emitters {sup 233}U, {sup 238}Pu have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), by XRD and by thermal desorption spectroscopy. The release of helium has been explained by the recrystallization of amorphized zirconolite on one hand and partially during alpha-damage recovery in the case of the spent fuel. This study mostly highlights the correlation between restructuring of damaged materials and gas release.

  14. Radiation effects in ceramic nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on alpha-decay event damage (a particle and recoil-nucleus) that results in atomic-scale disorder which causes changes in the molar volume, corrosion rate, stored energy, mechanical properties, and macrostructure of ceramics. These changes particularly of volume and corrosion rate, have critical implications for the long-term durability of nuclear waste forms, such as the polyphase. Ti-based ceramic Synroc. This paper reviews data on actinide-bearing (U and Th) phases of great age (>100 m.y.) found in nature and compares these results to observation on actinide-doped phases (Pu and Cm) of nearly equivalent α-decay doses. Of particular interest is evidence for annealing of radiation damage effects over geologic periods of time under ambient conditions

  15. Ice ages and nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an overview of Quaternary Ice Age and its potential consequences for nuclear waste disposal. Geological information on past climatic changes is shortly reviewed, based on the following records: geomorphological information, loessic deposits, deep-sea carbonate sediments, ice-core records, and continental calcite precipitates. Even though the present 'Great Ice Age' has lasted more that two million years, the present variation in cycles of about 100 000 years seems to have commenced only about 600 - 700 thousands years ago. According to the present understanding, southern Finland was during a major span of Weichsel free of continental ice sheet. However, the conditions may have been very cold, periglacial, when the continental ice sheet covered the Caledonian mountains and large areas of central Fennoscandia. The last glacial maximum of Weichsel glaciation was shorter than estimated earlier. Periglacial conditions are characterized by deep permafrost, reaching even the depth of nuclear waste disposal. Calculations of the advancement of permafrost indicate that the permafrost-front may reach the depth of about 500 meters in less than 10 000 years. The crust beneath the continental ice cover depresses, and rebounds when the ice sheet retreats. During the most intensive vertical movement of the crust, some crush zones may be activated and bedrock movements may take place along them. Due to the growth of ice sheets, ocean water table also depresses during glacial maximum, thus changing hydrogeological conditions in non-glaciated terrains. Increase in global ice volume is manifested in the stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios. Based on isotope signals, as well other hydrogeochemical interpretation methods, indications of the earlier glaciations have been recognized in present groundwaters. (orig.)

  16. Dismantlement and Radioactive Waste Management of DPRK Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One critical aspect of any denuclearization of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) involves dismantlement of its nuclear facilities and management of their associated radioactive wastes. The decommissioning problem for its two principal operational plutonium facilities at Yongbyun, the 5MWe nuclear reactor and the Radiochemical Laboratory reprocessing facility, alone present a formidable challenge. Dismantling those facilities will create radioactive waste in addition to existing inventories of spent fuel and reprocessing wastes. Negotiations with the DPRK, such as the Six Party Talks, need to appreciate the enormous scale of the radioactive waste management problem resulting from dismantlement. The two operating plutonium facilities, along with their legacy wastes, will result in anywhere from 50 to 100 metric tons of uranium spent fuel, as much as 500,000 liters of liquid high-level waste, as well as miscellaneous high-level waste sources from the Radiochemical Laboratory. A substantial quantity of intermediate-level waste will result from disposing 600 metric tons of graphite from the reactor, an undetermined quantity of chemical decladding liquid waste from reprocessing, and hundreds of tons of contaminated concrete and metal from facility dismantlement. Various facilities for dismantlement, decontamination, waste treatment and packaging, and storage will be needed. The shipment of spent fuel and liquid high level waste out of the DPRK is also likely to be required. Nuclear facility dismantlement and radioactive waste management in the DPRK are all the more difficult because of nuclear nonproliferation constraints, including the call by the United States for 'complete, verifiable and irreversible dismantlement,' or 'CVID.' It is desirable to accomplish dismantlement quickly, but many aspects of the radioactive waste management cannot be achieved without careful assessment, planning and preparation, sustained commitment, and long completion times

  17. The Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is presented of the status of the research and development program, under rsponsibility of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), for assessing the concept of nuclear fuel waste disposal deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. A passive multi-barrier concept has been adopted for disposal that combines the containment provided by the structural, hydraulic and geochemical characteristics of the rock mass with a series of engineered barriers. The conceptual disposal vault consists of an array of disposal rooms excavated in plutonic rock at a depth between 500 and 1000 m. Prior to disposal, the waste would be placed in cylindrical containers surrounded by a buffer, which is a mixture of bentonite cla and sand. The rooms would be backfilled with mixture of clay, and crushed granite or san. Bulkheads would seal the entrances. Closure would be achieved by backfilling the access tunnels in the same manner as the rooms and than backfilling the shafts with compacted clay and crushed granite separated by a series of supporting bulkheads. Very preliminary results from the case study indicate that the good rock provides the most effective barrier to movement of radionuclides to the surface. The most significant pathways through the geosphere involve diffusion through the good rock to the major fracture intersecting the vault, convection upward along the fracture, and discharge either at topographic lows or through a domestic water supply well used by the critical group. Long-lived non-sorbing radionuclides, available in the gaps between the fuel pellets and the fuel cladding or at the grain boundaries, contribute most to the radiological dose. With appropriate constraints on the location of the waste packages relative to the major fracture zones, radiological risk is expected to satisfy the regulatory criteria. (H.W.) 5 figs

  18. Annual Report 2014 / Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal. (KIT Scientific Reports ; 7709)

    OpenAIRE

    Geckeis, Horst; ALTMAIER, Marcus; Fanghänel, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Institut für Nukleare Entsorgung, Nukleare Sicherheitsforschung, Radiochemie, Geochemie, Endlagerung Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal, Nuclear Safety Research, Radiochemistry, Geochemistry, Waste Disposal

  19. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A.

    1981-09-01

    Reports and summaries are presented for the following: high-level waste process development; alternative waste forms; TMI zeolite vitrification demonstration program; nuclear waste materials characterization center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton implantation; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; NWVP off-gas analysis; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; verification instrument development; mobility of organic complexes of radionuclides in soils; handbook of methods to decrease the generation of low-level waste; waste management system studies; waste management safety studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology program; high-level waste form preparation; development of backfill materials; development of structural engineered barriers; disposal charge analysis; and analysis of spent fuel policy implementation.

  20. How do social systems treat and dispose nuclear waste? : -A comparison of general and radioactive wastes -

    OpenAIRE

    YUASA, Yoichi||ユアサ, ヨウイチ

    2013-01-01

    All countries that have nuclear reactors are confronted with the problem of treating or disposing radioactive waste. What factors decide which countries are successful at radioactive waste management? We propose an assumption that the method a country selects for treating or disposing radioactive waste depends on the way social systems function. From the perspective of social systems, we will compare the disposal of general waste to the disposal of radioactive waste. The social system for gen...

  1. Hydration process of nuclear-waste glass: an interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aging of simulated nuclear waste glass by contact with a controlled-temperature, humid atmosphere results in the formation of a double hydration layer penetrating the glass, as well as the formation of minerals on the glass surface. The hydration process can be described by Arrhenius behavior between 120 and 2400C. Results suggest that simulated aging reactions are necessary for demonstrating that nuclear waste forms can meet projected Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. 16 figures, 4 tables

  2. Micro-organisms and nuclear waste: a neglected problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper addresses the problem of bacteria in nuclear waste disposal. A description is given of how bacteria colonised the Three Mile Island Nuclear Reactor soon after meltdown, demonstrating the ability of some bacteria to operate under extreme conditions. Work is also described indicating that microbial corrosion of metal canisters can occur. Thus the author recommends that studies of nuclear waste disposal should take into account the interrelations between geology, geochemistry and microbiology. (U.K.)

  3. Canister design for deep borehole disposal of nuclear waste

    OpenAIRE

    Hoag, Christopher Ian.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to design a canister for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level waste in deep borehole repositories using currently available and proven oil, gas, and geothermal drilling technology. The canister is suitable for disposal of various waste forms, such as fuel assemblies and vitrified waste. The design addresses real and perceived hazards of transporting and placing high-level waste, in the form of spent reactor fuel, into a deep igneous rock env...

  4. PIME '98, proposal for opening contribution: Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Would a debate about an international nuclear waste repository help us win greater public acceptance for our disposal plans? My opening points will be: - International nuclear waste repositories can be accepted by the public only after the acceptance of national repositories. If there are no accepted national plans or existing national repositories, nobody is accepting any international repository in his or her own country; - The focus of gaining public acceptance should therefore be on the national programmes and on the technology itself, i.e. 'Deep disposal is a safe solution independent on the type of rock formations, crystalline, salt, clay etc.'; - The Finnish situation is quite clear. Our people are rather confident on the stability of our old crystalline granite bedrock. Finnish politicians and ordinary people are very much against accepting high-level waste or spent nuclear fuel of foreign origin to be disposed of in Finland. This was one of the reasons why the Finnish Nuclear Act was amended before Finland joined to EU, so that the import and export of nuclear waste are forbidden; - Our site selection programme in Finland is in a very sensitive phase. The Government has just confirmed the target, site selection at the end of year 2000, and the statutory Environmental Impact Assesment process has just been initiated in four candidate sites. Certain opponents try to frighten people by claiming that accepting the site and the deep disposal of our domestic waste means also definitely accepting the same for foreign waste, in any case for any nuclear waste from other EU countries; - So, all news on discussion about international nuclear waste repositories will create more suspicions against the Finnish nuclear authorities, waste company and utilities. Summary: The answer is no, the debate about international nuclear waste repository does not help us to win greater public acceptance for our disposal plans. (author)

  5. Development of automated information system for domestic waste logistics management (by the example of Apatity town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladik A. S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A software system for management information support of domestic waste logistics (by the example of Apatity town has been developed for management information support efficiency enhancement of domestic waste collection and transportation processes in the municipal systems subject to hygiene and sanitary norms and standards. The system is implemented as an interactive multilogic web-service. The system provides computational procedure execution of financial expenditure and ecological damage in the issue of domestic waste collection and transportation and environmental risk minimization on the basis of proposed algorithms for automated synthesis of adaptive journey routes in comparison with existing prototypes

  6. Nuclear-waste-package materials degradation modes and accelerated testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the materials degradation modes that may affect the long-term behavior of waste packages for the containment of nuclear waste. It recommends an approach to accelerated testing that can lead to the qualification of waste package materials in specific repository environments in times that are short relative to the time period over which the waste package is expected to provide containment. This report is not a testing plan but rather discusses the direction for research that might be considered in developing plans for accelerated testing of waste package materials and waste forms

  7. Effects on the environment of the dumping of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nationally and internationally accepted procedures and technologies are available for the safe handling and disposal of radioactive wastes. Authorized waste disposal practices are designed to ensure that there will be no significant impacts on man and his environment. 'Dumping' of nuclear wastes may result in the elimination of one or more of the multibarriers of protection inherent in an effective radioactive waste management system, thereby increasing the risk of radiological exposure to man and his environment. Quantitative assessments of the degree of environmental contamination and of the resulting hazards to man depend on the specific conditions surrounding the 'uncontrolled disposal' of radioactive waste. These include the nature and activity level of the waste, the physical form of the waste, the package that the waste is contained in and the characteristics of the dumping site. Depending on the scenario envisaged, the consequences of 'uncontrolled disposal' could vary from being insignificant to a situation where there is a significant hazard to an exposed population group. International transactions involving nuclear wastes are taking place between countries on the basis of bilateral agreements and under strict regulatory supervision so that radioactive wastes are transferred safely from one controlled area to another. Such transactions may increase in the future with increased international co-operation in sharing common waste repositories. No evidence exists that confirms that transboundary dumping of radioactive waste has occurred. Investigation of alleged dumping of radioactive wastes by the International Atomic Energy Agency has revealed that the 'suspect wastes' did not contain radioactive material. 2 tabs

  8. Radioactive waste: the poisoned legacy of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry produces a huge amount of radioactive waste from one end to the other of the nuclear cycle: i.e. from mining uranium to uranium enrichment through reactor operating, waste reprocessing and dismantling nuclear power plants. Nuclear power is now being 'sold' to political leaders and citizens as an effective way to deal with climate change and ensure security of energy supplies. Nonetheless, nuclear energy is not a viable solution and is thus a major obstacle to the development of clean energy for the future. In addition to safety and security issues, the nuclear industry is, above all, faced with the huge problem of how to deal with the waste it produces and for which it has no solution. This ought to put a brake on the nuclear industry, but instead, against all expectations, its development continues to gather pace. (author)

  9. Effects of beta/gamma radiation on nuclear waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    A key challenge in the disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) in glass waste forms is the development of models of long-term performance based on sound scientific understanding of relevant phenomena. Beta decay of fission products is one source of radiation that can impact the performance of HLW glasses through the interactions of the emitted {beta}-particles and g-rays with the atoms in the glass by ionization processes. Fused silica, alkali silicate glasses, alkali borosilicate glasses, and nuclear waste glasses are all susceptible to radiation effects from ionization. In simple glasses, defects (e.g., non-bridging oxygen and interstitial molecular oxygen) are observed experimentally. In more complex glasses, including nuclear waste glasses, similar defects are expected, and changes in microstructure, such as the formation of bubbles, have been reported. The current state of knowledge regarding the effects of {beta}/{gamma} radiation on the properties and microstructure of nuclear waste glasses are reviewed. (author)

  10. Effects of beta/gamma radiation on nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A key challenge in the disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) in glass waste forms is the development of models of long-term performance based on sound scientific understanding of relevant phenomena. Beta decay of fission products is one source of radiation that can impact the performance of HLW glasses through the interactions of the emitted β-particles and g-rays with the atoms in the glass by ionization processes. Fused silica, alkali silicate glasses, alkali borosilicate glasses, and nuclear waste glasses are all susceptible to radiation effects from ionization. In simple glasses, defects (e.g., non-bridging oxygen and interstitial molecular oxygen) are observed experimentally. In more complex glasses, including nuclear waste glasses, similar defects are expected, and changes in microstructure, such as the formation of bubbles, have been reported. The current state of knowledge regarding the effects of β/γ radiation on the properties and microstructure of nuclear waste glasses are reviewed. (author)

  11. Automation in inspection of PHWR fuel elements & bundles at Nuclear Fuel Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), Hyderabad, a constituent of Department of Atomic Energy, India manufactures fuel for all Indian nuclear power reactors. Currently NFC manufactures both 19 element & 37 element bundles for catering to the requirement of 220 MWe & 540 MWe PHWRs. In order to meet the growing needs for the Nuclear Fuel, NFC engaged in expansion of the production facilities. This calls for enhanced throughput at various inspection stages keeping in tandem with the production & for achieving this objective, NFC has chosen automation. This paper deals with automation of the inspection line at NFC. (author)

  12. Nuclear waste treatment program: Annual report for FY 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brouns, R.A.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1988-09-01

    Two of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) nuclear waste management-related goals are to ensure that waste management is not an obstacle to the further development of light-water reactors and the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle and to fulfill its institutional responsibility for providing safe storage and disposal of existing and future nuclear wastes. As part of its approach to achieving these goals, the Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology of DOE established what is now called the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program (NWTP) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory during the second half of FY 1982. To support DOE's attainment of its goals, the NWTP is to provide technology necessary for the design and operation of nuclear waste treatment facilities by commercial enterprises as part of a licensed waste management system and problem-specific treatment approaches, waste form and treatment process adaptations, equipment designs, and trouble-shooting assistance, as required to treat existing wastes. This annual report describes progress during FY 1987 towards meeting these two objectives. 24 refs., 59 figs., 24 tabs.

  13. Nuclear Waste Management Program summary document, FY 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, Sheldon

    1980-03-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Program Summary Document outlines the operational and research and development (R and D) activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Management (NEW) under the Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy, US Department of Energy (DOE). This document focuses on the current and planned activities in waste management for FY 1981. This Program Summary Document (PSD) was prepared in order to explain the Federal nuclear waste management and spent fuel storage programs to Congress and its committees and to interested members of the public, the private sector, and the research community. The national energy policy as it applies to waste management and spent fuel storage is presented first. The program strategy, structure, budget, management approach, and public participation programs are then identified. The next section describes program activities and outlines their status. Finally, the applicability of departmental policies to NEW programs is summarized, including field and regional activities, commercialization plans, and environmental and socioeconomic implications of waste management activities, and international programs. This Nuclear Waste Management Program Summary Document is meant to serve as a guide to the progress of R and D and other energy technology programs in radioactive waste management. The R and D objective is to provide the Nation with acceptable solutions to short- and long-term management problems for all forms of radioactive waste and spent fuel.

  14. Nuclear waste treatment program. Annual report for FY 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) nuclear waste management-related goals are: (1) to ensure that waste management is not an obstacle to the further deployment of light-water reactors (LWR) and the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle and (2) to fulfill its institutional responsibility for providing safe storage and disposal of existing and future nuclear wastes. As part of its approach to achieving these goals, the Office of Terminal Waste Disposal and Remedial Action of DOE established what is now called the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program (NWTP) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) during the second half of FY 1982. To support DOE's attainment of its goals, the NWTP is to provide (1) documented technology necessary for the design and operation of nuclear waste treatment facilities by commercial enterprises as part of a licensed waste management system and (2) problem-specific treatment approaches, waste form and treatment process adaptations, equipment designs, and trouble-shooting assistance, as required, to treat existing wastes. This annual report describes progress during FY 1985 toward meeting these two objectives. The detailed presentation is organized according to the task structure of the program

  15. Nuclear waste treatment program: Annual report for FY 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) nuclear waste management-related goals are to ensure that waste management is not an obstacle to the further development of light-water reactors and the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle and to fulfill its institutional responsibility for providing safe storage and disposal of existing and future nuclear wastes. As part of its approach to achieving these goals, the Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology of DOE established what is now called the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program (NWTP) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory during the second half of FY 1982. To support DOE's attainment of its goals, the NWTP is to provide technology necessary for the design and operation of nuclear waste treatment facilities by commercial enterprises as part of a licensed waste management system and problem-specific treatment approaches, waste form and treatment process adaptations, equipment designs, and trouble-shooting assistance, as required to treat existing wastes. This annual report describes progress during FY 1987 towards meeting these two objectives. 24 refs., 59 figs., 24 tabs

  16. Nuclear Waste Management Program summary document, FY 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Waste Management Program Summary Document outlines the operational and research and development (R and D) activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Management (NEW) under the Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy, US Department of Energy (DOE). This document focuses on the current and planned activities in waste management for FY 1981. This Program Summary Document (PSD) was prepared in order to explain the Federal nuclear waste management and spent fuel storage programs to Congress and its committees and to interested members of the public, the private sector, and the research community. The national energy policy as it applies to waste management and spent fuel storage is presented first. The program strategy, structure, budget, management approach, and public participation programs are then identified. The next section describes program activities and outlines their status. Finally, the applicability of departmental policies to NEW programs is summarized, including field and regional activities, commercialization plans, and environmental and socioeconomic implications of waste management activities, and international programs. This Nuclear Waste Management Program Summary Document is meant to serve as a guide to the progress of R and D and other energy technology programs in radioactive waste management. The R and D objective is to provide the Nation with acceptable solutions to short- and long-term management problems for all forms of radioactive waste and spent fuel

  17. Nuclear Waste Treatment Program. Annual report for FY 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) nuclear waste management-related goals are: (1) to ensure that waste management is not an obstacle to the further deployment of light-water reactors (LWR) and nuclear fuel cycle closure and (2) to fulfill its institutional responsibility for providing safe storage and disposal of existing and future nuclear wastes. As part of its approach to achieving those goals, the Office of Terminal Waste Disposal and Remedial Action of DOE established what is now called the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program (NWTP) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) during the second half of FY 1982. To support DOE's attainment of its goals, the NWTP has two objectives: (1) to provide documented technology necessary for the design and operation of nuclear waste treatment facilities by commercial enterprises as part of a licensed waste management system and (2) to provide problem-specific treatment approaches, waste form and treatment process adaptations, equipment designs, and trouble-shooting assistance, as required, to treat existing wastes. This annual report describes progress during FY 1984 toward meeting the two objectives. 31 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Nuclear waste treatment program. Annual report for FY 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, J.A. (ed.)

    1986-04-01

    Two of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) nuclear waste management-related goals are: (1) to ensure that waste management is not an obstacle to the further deployment of light-water reactors (LWR) and the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle and (2) to fulfill its institutional responsibility for providing safe storage and disposal of existing and future nuclear wastes. As part of its approach to achieving these goals, the Office of Terminal Waste Disposal and Remedial Action of DOE established what is now called the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program (NWTP) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) during the second half of FY 1982. To support DOE's attainment of its goals, the NWTP is to provide (1) documented technology necessary for the design and operation of nuclear waste treatment facilities by commercial enterprises as part of a licensed waste management system and (2) problem-specific treatment approaches, waste form and treatment process adaptations, equipment designs, and trouble-shooting assistance, as required, to treat existing wastes. This annual report describes progress during FY 1985 toward meeting these two objectives. The detailed presentation is organized according to the task structure of the program.

  19. Reference waste forms and packing material for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, Calif., has been given the task of designing and verifying the performance of waste packages for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. NNWSI is studying the suitability of the tuffaceous rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site, for the potential construction of a high-level nuclear waste repository. This report gives a summary description of the three waste forms for which LLNL is designing waste packages: spent fuel, either as intact assemblies or as consolidated fuel pins, reprocessed commercial high-level waste in the form of borosilicate glass, and reprocessed defense high-level waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility in Aiken, S.C. Reference packing material for use with the alternative waste package design for spent fuel is also described. 14 references, 8 figures, 20 tables

  20. Extended teamwork: team performance in highly automated nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) operation is in essence a teamwork task. The central control-room (CCR) operators are required to co-operate to achieve the operational goals, and they further depend on the assistance of the field operators and, at least in modern plants, on the assistance of the high-level automatic system. Future NPPs (e.g., advanced reactors) are foreseen to contain substantially higher automation levels, reduced staffing, and redefined roles of the remaining staff, as compared to the present situation. This paper suggests that in future plants, in which the autonomy and authority of the automatic system and of the field operators are increased, the transactions between the CCR operators and automatic system/field operators might most efficiently be conceptualized within the framework of co-operation, and thus teamwork. This framework has typically been restricted to conceptualizations of the transactions between the CCR operators, but in future settings, co-ordination, communication and mutual support between the CCR operators and the field operators/automatic system may be of increased importance for sustaining plant safety, as compared to the present situation. The paper further argues that human-system interfaces in future NPPs should be designed to support the activities of the extended team consisting of the CCR operators, the field operators, and the automatic system. The paper outlines an exploratory study aimed at generating ideas on how extended teamwork quality may be promoted. The study is currently foreseen to comprise two exemplary design solutions: a state-of-the art screen-based control-room (baseline condition) and a possible future control-room in which the activities of the field operators and the automatic system are explicitly represented on the human-system interface, where the authority and autonomy of these are increased, and the staffing level reduced, as compared to the baseline condition. The study will explore extended

  1. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Sodium Bearing Waste - Waste Incidental to Reprocessing Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Victor Levon

    2002-08-01

    U.S. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management, Section I.1.C, requires that all radioactive waste subject to Department of Energy Order 435.1 be managed as high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or low-level radioactive waste. Determining the radiological classification of the sodium-bearing waste currently in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm Facility inventory is important to its proper treatment and disposition. This report presents the technical basis for making the determination that the sodium-bearing waste is waste incidental to spent fuel reprocessing and should be managed as mixed transuranic waste. This report focuses on the radiological characteristics of the sodiumbearing waste. The report does not address characterization of the nonradiological, hazardous constituents of the waste in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act requirements.

  2. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, October through December 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1981-03-01

    Progress reports and summaries are presented under the following headings: high-level waste process development; alternative waste forms; nuclear waste materials characterization center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton solidification; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; mobility of organic complexes of radionuclides in soils; waste management system studies; waste management safety studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology; high level waste form preparation; development of backfill material; development of structural engineered barriers; ONWI disposal charge analysis; spent fuel and fuel component integrity program; analysis of spent fuel policy implementation; analysis of postulated criticality events in a storage array of spent LWR fuel; asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium tailings; liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings; multilayer barriers for sealing of uranium tailings; application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings; revegetation of inactive uranium tailing sites; verification instrument development.

  3. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, A.M.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1980-09-01

    The status of the following programs is reported: high-level waste immobilization; alternative waste forms; Nuclear Waste Materials Characterization Center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton solidification; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; mobility of organic complexes of fission products in soils; waste management system studies; waste management safety studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology; systems study on engineered barriers; criteria for defining waste isolation; spent fuel and fuel pool component integrity program; analysis of spent fuel policy implementation; asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium tailings; application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings; and development of backfill material.

  4. Cement-Based Materials for Nuclear Waste Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Cau-di-Coumes, Céline; Frizon, Fabien; Lorente, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    As the re-emergence of nuclear power as an acceptable energy source on an international basis continues, the need for safe and reliable ways to dispose of radioactive waste becomes ever more critical. The ultimate goal for designing a predisposal waste-management system depends on producing waste containers suitable for storage, transportation and permanent disposal. Cement-Based Materials for Nuclear-Waste Storage provides a roadmap for the use of cementation as an applied technique for the treatment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes.Coverage includes, but is not limited to, a comparison of cementation with other solidification techniques, advantages of calcium-silicate cements over other materials and a discussion of the long-term suitability and safety of waste packages as well as cement barriers. This book also: Discusses the formulation and production of cement waste forms for storing radioactive material Assesses the potential of emerging binders to improve the conditioning of problemati...

  5. Minerals as natural analogues for crystalline nuclear waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giere, R. [Purdue University West Lafayette, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Between the mining of uranium ore (mostly as uraninite) and the final disposal of nuclear waste, there are many processes and steps which together comprise the nuclear fuel cycle. Radioactive waste will be generated as long as nuclear reactors are in operation, but it is also produced by other means, e.g., during certain medical, scientific and industrial procedures. The most dangerous wastes are those resulting from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and from some processes in the production and dismantling of nuclear weapons. A large part of this highly radioactive waste is present as a liquid and thus, its safe isolation from the biosphere requires immobilization of the radionuclides in a durable matrix (waste form). This is a solid which must be resistant to heat, radiation and corrosion over a geologic time scale. Three main categories of waste forms have been developed for the immobilization of radioactive waste, namely glasses, crystalline and multibarrier waste forms. One of the key properties of a nuclear waste form is its chemical durability (or resistance to corrosion), because the waste form represents the primary barrier to radionuclide release. The sciences of mineralogy and petrology have both contributed significantly to the development, characterization and performance assessment of such waste forms. The most important goal of safe nuclear waste disposal is to ensure that practically no radioactive materials reach the biosphere and, ultimately, human beings. Therefore, the design of final repositories is based on an approach that places several obstacles, or barriers, between waste and biosphere, whereby each barrier has a specific role in preventing or delaying migration of radioactive material. This multibarrier concept is different for each type of waste but, for the option of geological disposal, it generally comprises the following five barriers: (1) waste form (contains the actual waste); (2) canister (surrounds waste form; composed of a

  6. Nuclear Waste Fund fee adequacy: An assessment: Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimated long-term impact of the costs and fees associated with disposal of defense high-level wastes (DHLW) in the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) repository system is assessed. It is assumed that the DHLW disposal fees paid will provide funds equivalent to the OCRWM costs for disposing of this waste, including interest on costs incurred before the payment of the fee(s) to cover these costs, and the appropriate share of the common costs of the OCRWM waste disposal system. The DHLW disposal fee payments into the Nuclear Waste Fund will be subject to Congressional appropriations. This report is based on the assumptions that the first repository will open in 2003 and the second repository in 2023. In addition, this analysis features an Improved Performance System (IPS), a major component of which is a proposed (but currently unauthorized) Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility that is assumed to open in 1998. The possibility of adverse developments in inflation and real interest rates should be considered in assessing the findings of this analysis which are based on a cash flow analysis that utilized methods very similar to those employed in previous fee adequacy studies. Revisions were made in the areas of system logistics, repository schedules, real interest rates, inflation rates, and the estimation of costs for design and evaluation work, transportation, and repositories in differing host rocks. The principal recommendation is that the ongoing disposal fee should remain at 1.0 mill per (net) kilowatt-hour (kWh) for 1987 based on the assumption that defense waste fees will be adequate to cover the defense share of the program costs

  7. Nuclear waste management; La gestion des dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H.

    2008-07-01

    The author gives an overview of the main issues related to the use of nuclear energy: the management and the environmental impact of wastes. After having outlined the different radiological consequences of different radionuclides, he proposes an approximate assessment of waste production which may depend on reactor technology, and which needs a distinction between low level, intermediate level, and high level wastes. He discusses the differences between primary energies and final energies, and how to consider nuclear energy and its wastes within this classification. Then, considering the deep geological storage, he describes how contamination may occur and the risks for the population as well as for the environment. After having evoked the use of breeder reactors and its separation-transmutation issues, the author briefly comments the nuclear waste financing issue

  8. Seismic safety in nuclear-waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seismic safety is one of the factors that must be considered in the disposal of nuclear waste in deep geologic media. This report reviews the data on damage to underground equipment and structures from earthquakes, the record of associated motions, and the conventional methods of seismic safety-analysis and engineering. Safety considerations may be divided into two classes: those during the operational life of a disposal facility, and those pertinent to the post-decommissioning life of the facility. Operational hazards may be mitigated by conventional construction practices and site selection criteria. Events that would materially affect the long-term integrity of a decommissioned facility appear to be highly unlikely and can be substantially avoided by conservative site selection and facility design. These events include substantial fault movement within the disposal facility and severe ground shaking in an earthquake epicentral region. Techniques need to be developed to address the question of long-term earthquake probability in relatively aseismic regions, and for discriminating between active and extinct faults in regions where earthquake activity does not result in surface ruptures

  9. Importance measures for nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several importance measures are identified for possible use in the performance assessment of a high-level nuclear waste repository. These importance measures are based on concepts of importance used in system reliability analysis, but the concepts are modified and adapted to the special characteristics of the repository and similar passive systems. In particular, the importance measures proposed here are based on risk (in comparison to traditional importance measures which are based on frequency of failure) and are intended to be more suitable to systems comprised of components whose behavior is most easily and naturally represented as continuous, rather than binary. These importance measures appear to be able to evaluate systems comprised of both continuous-behavior and binary-behavior components. Three separate examples are provided to illustrate the concepts and behavior of these importance measures. The first example demonstrates various formulations for the importance measures and their implementation for a simple radiation safety system comprised of a radiation source and three shields. The second example demonstrates use of these importance measures for a system comprised of components modeled with binary behavior and components modeled with continuous behavior. The third example investigates the use of these importance measures for a proposed repository system, using a total system model and code currently under development. Currently, these concepts and formulations of importance are undergoing further evaluation for a repository system to determine to what degree they provide useful insights and to determine which formulations are most useful

  10. Searching for acceptable solutions to nuclear-waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three lettes are presented here, all addressing the problem of nuclear waste disposal. Robert M. Bernero (former director of the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, US NRC) points out there are only 4 options for managing toxic and nuclear waste (recycling, outer space disposal; deep-ocean disposal, geologic disposal) and that the stragegy should prevent people from inadvertently stumbling onto the waste site. Robert Holden (director nuclear Waste Program, National Congress of American Indians) uses Yucca Mountain to illustrate problems and solutions that must be implemented if tribal people's concerns are to be respected. George E. Dials (Manager, Carlsbad Area Office, US DOE) focuses on a positive assessment of WIPP as part of the solution

  11. Public concerns of nuclear waste issues in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses opinions and comments from randomly selected 1837 general public and 454 professionals compiled and analyzed to obtain their concerns on nuclear waste issues in Taiwan. Results are presented. A public education and promotion program is suggested

  12. Delegated Democracy. The Siting of Swedish Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Hanna Sofia (Stockholm Univ., SCORE, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-12-15

    This paper aims to characterise Swedish democracy in connection with the disposal of Swedish nuclear waste. To this end, an analysis is performed to discern which democratic ideals that can be found within the nuclear waste issue. The study analyses various actors' views on democracy and expertise as well as their definitions of the nuclear waste issue, and discusses this from the perspective of democracy theory. Which definitions that become influential has democratic implications. In addition, various actors' possible attempts to help or hinder other actors from gaining influence over the nuclear waste issue in the four municipalities are studied. In connection with the case studies the aim of the paper can be narrowed to comprise the following questions: Which democratic ideals can be found within SKB's siting process during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process during the site investigations? Which democratic ideals were influential during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process?

  13. Nuclear waste management and problems arising from constitutional law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses the problems arising in the field of nuclear waste management on account of the constitutional law. Especially the difficulties emanating from the conflict between the provisions of section 9a of the Atomic Energy Act and the provisions of constitutional law are dealt with in detail, referring to the monography of H. Hofmann, 'legal aspects of nuclear waste management'. The author comes to the conclusion that the reqquirements laid down in section 9a-9c of the Atomic Energy Act are in agreement with the Basic law. There is, he says, no unreasonable risk for future generations, as the provisions of the nuclear law provide for sufficient safety of sites and equipment selected for the final storage of nuclear waste, ensuring that radioactive leakage is excluded over long periods of time. In the second part of his lecture, the author discusses the problem of competency and delegation of authority with regard to the reprocessing of radioactive waste. (BW)

  14. Delegated Democracy. The Siting of Swedish Nuclear Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to characterise Swedish democracy in connection with the disposal of Swedish nuclear waste. To this end, an analysis is performed to discern which democratic ideals that can be found within the nuclear waste issue. The study analyses various actors' views on democracy and expertise as well as their definitions of the nuclear waste issue, and discusses this from the perspective of democracy theory. Which definitions that become influential has democratic implications. In addition, various actors' possible attempts to help or hinder other actors from gaining influence over the nuclear waste issue in the four municipalities are studied. In connection with the case studies the aim of the paper can be narrowed to comprise the following questions: Which democratic ideals can be found within SKB's siting process during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process during the site investigations? Which democratic ideals were influential during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process?

  15. Application Research of Developed Drummed Nuclear Waste Neutron Counting System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The application researches such as variety of factors affecting the measurement, calibrating etc. are need before the drummed nuclear waste neutron counting system (WNC) can be really put into use after installed at the site.

  16. 75 FR 61228 - Board Meeting: Technical Lessons Gained From High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD Board Meeting: Technical Lessons Gained From High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Efforts Pursuant to its authority under section 5051 of Public Law 100-203, Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical...

  17. Iron Phosphate Glasses: An Alternative for Vitrifying Certain Nuclear Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitrification of nuclear waste in a glass is currently the preferred process for waste disposal. DOE currently approves only borosilicate (BS) type glasses for such purposes. However, many nuclear wastes, presently awaiting disposal, have complex and diverse chemical compositions, and often contain components that are poorly soluble or chemically incompatible in BS glasses. Such problematic wastes can be pre-processed and/or diluted to compensate for their incompatibility with a BS glass matrix, but both of these solutions increases the wasteform volume and the overall cost for vitrification. Direct vitrification using alternative glasses that utilize the major components already present in the waste is preferable, since it avoids pre-treating or diluting the waste, and, thus, minimizes the wasteform volume and overall cost

  18. Method for calcining nuclear waste solutions containing zirconium and halides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Billie J.

    1979-01-01

    A reduction in the quantity of gelatinous solids which are formed in aqueous zirconium-fluoride nuclear reprocessing waste solutions by calcium nitrate added to suppress halide volatility during calcination of the solution while further suppressing chloride volatility is achieved by increasing the aluminum to fluoride mole ratio in the waste solution prior to adding the calcium nitrate.

  19. Mobile fission and activation products in nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gathers 33 oral presentations that were made at this workshop dedicated to the mobility of some radionuclides in nuclear waste disposal. The workshop was organized into 6 sessions: 1) performance assessment, 2) speciation/interaction in aqueous media, 3) radioactive wastes, 4) redox processes at interfaces, 5) diffusion processes, and 6) retention processes

  20. Mobile fission and activation products in nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeki, H.; Evans, N.; Czervinski, K.; Bruggeman, Ch.; Poineau, F.; Breynaert, A.; Reiler, P.; Pablo, J. de; Pipon, Y.; Molnar, M.; Nishimura, T.; Kienzler, B.; Van Iseghem, P.; Crovisier, J.L.; Wieland, E.; Mace, N.; Pablo, J. de; Spahiu, K.; Cui, D.; Lida, Y.; Charlet, L.; Liu, X.; Sato, H.; Goutelard, F.; Savoye, S.; Glaus, M.; Poinssot, C.; Seby, F.; Sato, H.; Tournassat, Ch.; Montavon, G.; Rotenberg, B.; Spahiu, K.; Smith, G.; Marivoet, J.; Landais, P.; Bruno, J.; Johnson, H.; Umeki, L.; Geckeis, H.; Giffaut, E.; Grambow, B.; Dierckx, A

    2007-07-01

    This document gathers 33 oral presentations that were made at this workshop dedicated to the mobility of some radionuclides in nuclear waste disposal. The workshop was organized into 6 sessions: 1) performance assessment, 2) speciation/interaction in aqueous media, 3) radioactive wastes, 4) redox processes at interfaces, 5) diffusion processes, and 6) retention processes.

  1. Modeling transient heat transfer in nuclear waste repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaw-Yang; Yeh, Hund-Der

    2009-09-30

    The heat of high-level nuclear waste may be generated and released from a canister at final disposal sites. The waste heat may affect the engineering properties of waste canisters, buffers, and backfill material in the emplacement tunnel and the host rock. This study addresses the problem of the heat generated from the waste canister and analyzes the heat distribution between the buffer and the host rock, which is considered as a radial two-layer heat flux problem. A conceptual model is first constructed for the heat conduction in a nuclear waste repository and then mathematical equations are formulated for modeling heat flow distribution at repository sites. The Laplace transforms are employed to develop a solution for the temperature distributions in the buffer and the host rock in the Laplace domain, which is numerically inverted to the time-domain solution using the modified Crump method. The transient temperature distributions for both the single- and multi-borehole cases are simulated in the hypothetical geological repositories of nuclear waste. The results show that the temperature distributions in the thermal field are significantly affected by the decay heat of the waste canister, the thermal properties of the buffer and the host rock, the disposal spacing, and the thickness of the host rock at a nuclear waste repository. PMID:19376651

  2. Responsibility, fairness and credibility - ethical dilemmas concerning nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is written with the aim to stimulate discussion and studies on ethical aspects of nuclear waste management. It does not penetrate the technical details of the different stages of waste handling, but concentrates on questions such as our responsibility towards future generations etc

  3. Modeling transient heat transfer in nuclear waste repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaw-Yang; Yeh, Hund-Der

    2009-09-30

    The heat of high-level nuclear waste may be generated and released from a canister at final disposal sites. The waste heat may affect the engineering properties of waste canisters, buffers, and backfill material in the emplacement tunnel and the host rock. This study addresses the problem of the heat generated from the waste canister and analyzes the heat distribution between the buffer and the host rock, which is considered as a radial two-layer heat flux problem. A conceptual model is first constructed for the heat conduction in a nuclear waste repository and then mathematical equations are formulated for modeling heat flow distribution at repository sites. The Laplace transforms are employed to develop a solution for the temperature distributions in the buffer and the host rock in the Laplace domain, which is numerically inverted to the time-domain solution using the modified Crump method. The transient temperature distributions for both the single- and multi-borehole cases are simulated in the hypothetical geological repositories of nuclear waste. The results show that the temperature distributions in the thermal field are significantly affected by the decay heat of the waste canister, the thermal properties of the buffer and the host rock, the disposal spacing, and the thickness of the host rock at a nuclear waste repository.

  4. THE NOX SYSTEM IN HOMOGENEOUS AND HETEROGENEOUS NUCLEAR WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes advances of the above-mentioned EMSP project during the period July 1, 2001 - June 30, 2002. The project focuses on the effects of organic chemicals in stored nuclear waste and their impact on pretreatment and tank closure issues. Managing the tank wastes a...

  5. Process considerations for hot pressing ceramic nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spray calcined simulated ceramic nuclear waste powders were hot pressed in graphite, nickel-lined graphite and ZrO2-lined Al2O3 dies. Densification, initial off-gas, waste element retention and pellet-die interactions were evaluated. Indicated process considerations and limitations are discussed. 15 figures

  6. Nuclear waste repository in basalt: preconceptual design guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the basalt waste isolation program parallels the growing need for permanent, environmentally safe, and secure means to store nuclear wastes. The repository will be located within the Columbia Plateau basalt formations where these ends can be met and radiological waste can be stored. These wastes will be stored such that the wastes may be retrieved from storage for a period after placement. After the retrieval period, the storage locations will be prepared for terminal storage. The terminal storage requirements will include decommissioning provisions. The facility boundaries will encompass no more than several square miles of land which will be above a subsurface area where the geologic makeup is primarily deep basaltic rock. The repository will receive, from an encapsulation site(s), nuclear waste in the form of canisters (not more than 18.5 feet x 16 inches in diameter) and containers (55-gallon drums). Canisters will contain spent fuel (after an interim 5-year storage period), solidified high-level wastes (HLW), or intermediate-level wastes (ILW). The containers (drums) will package the low-level transuranic wastes (LL-TRU). The storage capacity of the repository will be expanded in a time-phased program which will require that subsurface development (repository expansion) be conducted concurrently with waste storage operations. The repository will be designed to store the nuclear waste generated within the predictable future and to allow for reasonable expansion. The development and assurance of safe waste isolation is of paramount importance. All activities will be dedicated to the protection of public health and the environment. The repository will be licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Extensive efforts will be made to assure selection of a suitable site which will provide adequate isolation

  7. Chemical digestion of low level nuclear solid waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for processing low level, light weight, bulky, combustible nuclear solid waste material comprising the steps of reacting said solid waste material with concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature within the range of 230 deg - 300 deg C and simultaneously, subsequently, or both simultaneously and subsequently contacting said waste with concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen oxides whereby carbonaceous material is oxidized to gaseous byproducts and a low volume residue. (author)

  8. Underlying chemistry research for the nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reviews the underlying chemistry research part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, carried out in the Research Chemistry Branch. This research is concerned with developing the basic chemical knowledge and under-standing required in other parts of the Program. There are four areas of underlying research: Waste Form Chemistry, Solute and Solution Chemistry, Rock-Water-Waste Interactions, and Abatement and Monitoring of Gas-Phase Radionuclides

  9. HEAVY METAL PARTITIONING IN A NUCLEAR WASTE TREATMENT PLANT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Wochele; Chr. Ludwig; H.-J. Lau; W. Heep

    2006-01-01

    The fate of different trace elements and radio nuclides in the new ZWILAG nuclear waste treatment plant(Switzerland) has been modelled, in order to predict and check the transport behaviour of the volatile species and their distribution in the plant. Calculations show that for active waste from medicine, industry, research (MIR waste) only Zn and Cs have stable gaseous species at 1200℃. The investigations confirm the efficiency of the examined flue gas cleaning system.

  10. Robotics and remote handling concepts for disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes preliminary remote handling and robotic concepts being developed as part of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Yucca Mountain Project. The DOE is currently evaluating the Yucca Mountain Nevada site for suitability as a possible underground geologic repository for the disposal of high level nuclear waste. The current advanced conceptual design calls for the disposal of more than 12,000 high level nuclear waste packages within a 225 km underground network of tunnels and emplacement drifts. Many of the waste packages may weigh as much as 66 tonnes and measure 1.8 m in diameter and 5.6 m long. The waste packages will emit significant levels of radiation and heat. Therefore, remote handling is a cornerstone of the repository design and operating concepts. This paper discusses potential applications areas for robotics and remote handling technologies within the subsurface repository. It also summarizes the findings of a preliminary technology survey which reviewed available robotic and remote handling technologies developed within the nuclear, mining, rail and industrial robotics and automation industries, and at national laboratories, universities, and related research institutions and government agencies

  11. Development of an automated system for the decentral fractioning of municipal wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Vesper

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a growing problem of the increasing amount of unsorted municipal wastes with the resulting consequences for the environment. The aim of this study was to present a new solutions of the system for the decentral fractioning of municipal wastes, which enable simplification and improvement of the process together with the reduction of total costs. Methods: The description of  the problem of the increasing amount of unsorted municipal wastes with the resulting consequences for the environment as well as an alternative solution for the decentral fractioning of such wastes was presented. The influence onto the environment as well as the efficiency of the costly mechanical sorting of wastes was queried. The nowadays used principles of sorted and unsorted waste disposal were elucidated and their advantages and disadvantages evaluated. Results and conclusions: Based on this evaluation an innovative and future oriented development of an automated system for the decentral fractioning of municipal wastes was presented. The new developed systems aim at the achievement of an easier, less costly and environment-friendlier process for the disposal of municipal wastes from apartment buildings.

  12. Nuclear waste/nuclear power: their futures are linked

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper briefly reviews current aspects of radioactive waste disposal techniques and transportation. Addressed are high-level and low-level radioactive wastes, interim spent fuel storage and transportation. The waste options being explored by DOE are listed. Problems of public acceptance will be more difficult to overcome than technical problems

  13. Using Single-Camera 3-D Imaging to Guide Material Handling Robots in a Nuclear Waste Package Closure System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reactors for generating energy and conducting research have been in operation for more than 50 years, and spent nuclear fuel and associated high-level waste have accumulated in temporary storage. Preparing this spent fuel and nuclear waste for safe and permanent storage in a geological repository involves developing a robotic packaging system--a system that can accommodate waste packages of various sizes and high levels of nuclear radiation. During repository operation, commercial and government-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste will be loaded into casks and shipped to the repository, where these materials will be transferred from the casks into a waste package, sealed, and placed into an underground facility. The waste packages range from 12 to 20 feet in height and four and a half to seven feet in diameter. Closure operations include sealing the waste package and all its associated functions, such as welding lids onto the container, filling the inner container with an inert gas, performing nondestructive examinations on welds, and conducting stress mitigation. The Idaho National Laboratory is designing and constructing a prototype Waste Package Closure System (WPCS). Control of the automated material handling is an important part of the overall design. Waste package lids, welding equipment, and other tools must be moved in and around the closure cell during the closure process. These objects are typically moved from tool racks to a specific position on the waste package to perform a specific function. Periodically, these objects are moved from a tool rack or the waste package to the adjacent glovebox for repair or maintenance. Locating and attaching to these objects with the remote handling system, a gantry robot, in a loosely fixtured environment is necessary for the operation of the closure cell. Reliably directing the remote handling system to pick and place the closure cell equipment within the cell is the major challenge

  14. Nuclear Waste Management, Nuclear Power, and Energy Choices Public Preferences, Perceptions, and Trust

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Hundreds of studies have investigated public perceptions and preferences about nuclear power, waste management, and technology. However there is clear lack of uniformity in the style, aims and methods applied.  Consequently, the body of results is inconsistent and it is difficult to isolate relevant patterns or interpretations. Nuclear Waste Management, Nuclear Power and Energy Choices: Public Preferences, Perceptions and Trust presents a theoretical base for public reactions then classifies and reviews the large body of surveys carried out over the past decade.   Particular focus is placed on residents within 50 miles US nuclear waste facilities due to the disproportionate presence of nuclear factors in their lives such as the legacy of nuclear waste disposal and job dependency. The motivations and reasons for their views such as fear, attraction to the economic benefits, trust of site managers and federal agencies, cultural views, personal history, and demographic attributes of the people are also conside...

  15. Microbial Effects on Nuclear Waste Packaging Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microorganisms may enhance corrosion of components of planned engineered barriers within the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM). Corrosion could occur either directly, through processes collectively known as Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC), or indirectly, by adversely affecting the composition of water or brines that come into direct contact with engineered barrier surfaces. Microorganisms of potential concern (bacteria, archea, and fungi) include both those indigenous to Yucca Mountain and those that infiltrate during repository construction and after waste emplacement. Specific aims of the experimental program to evaluate the potential of microorganisms to affect damage to engineered barrier materials include the following: Indirect Effects--(1) Determine the limiting factors to microbial growth and activity presently in the YM environment. (2) Assess these limiting factors to aid in determining the conditions and time during repository evolution when MIC might become operant. (3) Evaluate present bacterial densities, the composition of the YM microbial community, and determining bacterial densities if limiting factors are overcome. During a major portion of the regulatory period, environmental conditions that are presently extant become reestablished. Therefore, these studies ascertain whether biomass is sufficient to cause MIC during this period and provide a baseline for determining the types of bacterial activities that may be expected. (4) Assess biogenic environmental effects, including pH, alterations to nitrate concentration in groundwater, the generation of organic acids, and metal dissolution. These factors have been shown to be those most relevant to corrosion of engineered barriers. Direct Effects--(1) Characterize and quantify microbiological effects on candidate containment materials. These studies were carried out in a number of different approaches, using whole YM microbiological communities, a subset of YM

  16. Microbial Effects on Nuclear Waste Packaging Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J; Martin, S; Carrillo, C; Lian, T

    2005-07-22

    Microorganisms may enhance corrosion of components of planned engineered barriers within the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM). Corrosion could occur either directly, through processes collectively known as Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC), or indirectly, by adversely affecting the composition of water or brines that come into direct contact with engineered barrier surfaces. Microorganisms of potential concern (bacteria, archea, and fungi) include both those indigenous to Yucca Mountain and those that infiltrate during repository construction and after waste emplacement. Specific aims of the experimental program to evaluate the potential of microorganisms to affect damage to engineered barrier materials include the following: Indirect Effects--(1) Determine the limiting factors to microbial growth and activity presently in the YM environment. (2) Assess these limiting factors to aid in determining the conditions and time during repository evolution when MIC might become operant. (3) Evaluate present bacterial densities, the composition of the YM microbial community, and determining bacterial densities if limiting factors are overcome. During a major portion of the regulatory period, environmental conditions that are presently extant become reestablished. Therefore, these studies ascertain whether biomass is sufficient to cause MIC during this period and provide a baseline for determining the types of bacterial activities that may be expected. (4) Assess biogenic environmental effects, including pH, alterations to nitrate concentration in groundwater, the generation of organic acids, and metal dissolution. These factors have been shown to be those most relevant to corrosion of engineered barriers. Direct Effects--(1) Characterize and quantify microbiological effects on candidate containment materials. These studies were carried out in a number of different approaches, using whole YM microbiological communities, a subset of YM

  17. The waste management program at VUB-AZ: An integrated solution for nuclear biomedical waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1996 the University of Brussels and its Academic hospital (VUB-AZ) started a waste program for the nuclear biomedical waste management. This program, based on selective collection, measurement before decay, storage for decay of short-lived radionuclides, measurement after decay and eventual clearance as non-nuclear waste, has proved its effectiveness over the past 5 years. Effective characterisation for on-site storage for decay of short-lived radionuclides makes selective collection of waste streams mandatory and requires motivated and trained laboratory staff. Dynamic optimisation of this selective collection increases the efficiency of the storage for decay program. The accurate qualitative and quantitative measurement of nuclear biomedical waste before decay has several advantages such as verification of correct selective collection, optimisation of the decay period and possibility of clearance below the minimal detectable activity. Sealed waste packages are assessed for specific activity by an HPGe-detector or by a liquid scintillation counter. The WasteMan software allows a full trace-ability of all waste packages from production to either clearance or disposal. This waste storage program, including the complete measurement set-up and the necessary management software, is already installed in a second university, proving the general applicability of the whole concept for biomedical nuclear waste. Many hospitals and other biomedical centres however produce small quantities of nuclear waste for which investments in measurement equipment and decay rooms are not cost-effective. The installation of a regional centre for nuclear biomedical waste will be presented here as an alternative solution to this problem. (author)

  18. Fully automated system for Pu measurement by gamma spectrometry of alpha contaminated solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of a fully automated system developed at Comb/Mepis Laboratories which is based on the detection of specific gamma signatures of Pu isotopes for monitoring Pu content in 15-25 l containers of low density (0.1 g/cm3) wastes. The methodological approach is discussed; based on experimental data, an evaluation of the achievable performances (detection limit, precision, accuracy, etc.) is also given

  19. Nuclear waste management programme 1999 for the Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants; Olkiluodon ja Loviisan voimalaitosten ydinjaetehuollon ohjelma 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    A joint company Posiva Oy founded by nuclear energy producing Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) and Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) coordinates the research work of the companies on nuclear waste management in Finland. in Posiva`s Nuclear Waste Management Programme 1999, an account of the nuclear waste management measures of TVO and IVO is given as required by the sections 74 and 75 of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Degree. At first, nuclear waste management situation and the programme of activities are reported. The nuclear waste management research for the year 1999 and more generally for the years 1999-2003 is presented 3 refs.

  20. Treatment and final disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present background report to RD and D-programme 93 'Detailed R and D-programme 1993-1998' gives a detailed description of the state-of-the-art and future plans for safety assessments and supportive research. The technical development that is required for the construction of the encapsulation station and the deep repository for demonstration deposition is described. The report describes the need for performance and safety assessments occasioned by the above plans for activities. Against the background of the time schedule for safety reports etc., an account is given of the state-of-the-art, goals and planned work during the period with regard to the engineered barriers of spent nuclear fuel, canister material and buffer and backfill material. State-of-the-art, goals and planned work within the geosciences for groundwater movements, bedrock stability and geohydrological and rock mechanical calculation models are presented as well as the situation within the chemistry programme, with separate sections on groundwater and geochemistry, radionuclide chemistry and validation of processes in transport model and radionuclide migration. The study of such natural conditions as constitute analogues in certain respects to important chemical sorption and transport processes in a deep repository is presented. The state of knowledge concerning radionuclide transport in the biosphere and modelling of the same, as well as resulting doese to man, are described. R and D efforts associated with the development of technology that is required for repository construction, excavation of tunnels, deposition of waste and possibly necessary retrieval of canisters, as well as backfilling and sealing of the repository are presented

  1. High-level nuclear waste disposal: Ethical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popular skepticism about, and moral objections to, recent legislation providing for the management and permanent disposal of high-level radioactive wastes have derived their credibility from two major sources: government procrastination in enacting waste disposal program, reinforcing public perceptions of their unprecedented danger and the inflated rhetoric and pretensions to professional omnicompetence of influential scientists with nuclear expertise. Ethical considerations not only can but must provide a mediating framework for the resolution of such a polarized political controversy. Implicit in moral objections to proposals for permanent nuclear waste disposal are concerns about three ethical principles: fairness to individuals, equitable protection among diverse social groups, and informed consent through due process and participation

  2. Corrosion experience in calcination of liquid nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, C A

    1980-01-01

    The Waste Calcining Facility (WCF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory became operational in 1963. Since that time, approximately 13,337,137 litres (3,523,375 gallons) of liquid nuclear wastes, generated during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel materials, have been reduced to dry granular solids. The volume reduction is about seven or eight gallons of liquid waste to one gallon of dry granular solids. This paper covers some of the corrosion experiences encountered in over fifteen years of operating that calcination facility. 7 figures, 7 tables.

  3. Financial provision for future nuclear waste management in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main principle as regards nuclear waste management in Finland is that the operator that has produced nuclear waste is responsible for the management of all such nuclear waste. It has to take care of its waste (including that of decommissioning) until it has been disposed of in a manner accepted by the authorities. Spent nuclear fuel is considered to be nuclear waste subject to disposal into a final repository. According to the Nuclear Energy Act, all nuclear waste produced in Finland must be handled, stored and disposed of in Finland. The spent fuel and other nuclear wastes are stored at the power plant sites until they are disposed of. At the both two sites there already are the final repositories for low and intermediate level waste. The funding system is based on the principle that, if a nuclear facility would stop its operation and also stop to produce more waste, the money in the Fund and the securities given to the State would, together, always suffice to handle the situation and take care of the management of all the existing waste and dismantling and decommissioning of the plant. As the actual waste management measures would not be taken immediately, the interest accrued, in the meantime, by this existing capital is used to compensate for the inflation and cost escalation. The critical question is how the system takes into account the difficulty of arriving at reliable estimates. The Finnish funding system contains some built-in features to minimise the risk of the State having to contribute additional funds to carrying out these operations. The system continuously requires new updated estimates that must take into account the practical experience accumulating world-wide. The estimates must, however, always be based on technology currently available. Additionally, the law also requires that the uncertainty of available information about prices and costs shall be taken into account, in a reasonable manner, as raising the estimated liability. In the case

  4. Radiation effects in a model ceramic for nuclear waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J.

    2007-04-01

    The safe immobilization of nuclear waste in geological repositories is one of the major scientific challenges facing humanity today. Crystalline ceramics hold the promise of locking up actinides from nuclear fuel and excess weapons plutonium in their structure thereby isolating them from the environment. This paper presents the atomistic details of radiation damage in a model ceramic, zircon.

  5. Radiation Effects in a Model Ceramic for Nuclear Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devanathan, Ram; Weber, William J.

    2007-04-02

    The safe immobilization of nuclear waste in geological repositories is one of the major scientific challenges facing humanity today. Crystalline ceramics hold the promise of locking up actinides from nuclear fuel and excess weapons plutonium in their structure thereby isolating them from the environment. In this paper, we discuss the atomistic details of radiation damage in a model ceramic, zircon.

  6. Management of radioactive waste generated in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear medicine is a clinical specialty in which radioactive material is used in non-encapsulated form, for the diagnosis and treatment of patients. Nuclear medicine involves administering to a patient a radioactive substance, usually liquid, both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This process generates solid radioactive waste (syringes, vials, gloves) and liquid (mainly the patient's urine). (Author)

  7. Radioactive waste management of the nuclear medicine services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope applications in nuclear medicine services, for diagnosis and therapy, generate radioactive wastes. The general characteristics and the amount of wastes that are generated in each facility are function of the number of patients treated, the procedures adopted, and the radioisotopes used. The management of these wastes embraces every technical and administrative activity necessary to handle the wastes, from the moment of their generation, till their final disposal, must be planned before the nuclear medicine facility is commissioned, and aims at assuring people safety and environmental protection. The regulatory framework was established in 1985, when the National Commission on Nuclear Energy issued the regulation CNEN-NE-6.05 'Radioactive waste management in radioactive facilities'. Although the objective of that regulation was to set up the rules for the operation of a radioactive waste management system, many requirements were broadly or vaguely defined making it difficult to ascertain compliance in specific facilities. The objective of the present dissertation is to describe the radioactive waste management system in a nuclear medicine facility and provide guidance on how to comply with regulatory requirements. (author)

  8. Safety aspects of nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Edgecombe, D. S.; Compton, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    Safety issues involved in the disposal of nuclear wastes in space as a complement to mined geologic repositories are examined as part of an assessment of the feasibility of nuclear waste disposal in space. General safety guidelines for space disposal developed in the areas of radiation exposure and shielding, containment, accident environments, criticality, post-accident recovery, monitoring systems and isolation are presented for a nuclear waste disposal in space mission employing conventional space technology such as the Space Shuttle. The current reference concept under consideration by NASA and DOE is then examined in detail, with attention given to the waste source and mix, the waste form, waste processing and payload fabrication, shipping casks and ground transport vehicles, launch site operations and facilities, Shuttle-derived launch vehicle, orbit transfer vehicle, orbital operations and space destination, and the system safety aspects of the concept are discussed for each component. It is pointed out that future work remains in the development of an improved basis for the safety guidelines and the determination of the possible benefits and costs of the space disposal option for nuclear wastes.

  9. Balance between automation and human actions in nuclear power plant operation. Results of international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automation has long been an established feature of power plants. In some applications, the use of automation has been the significant factor which has enabled plant technology to progress to its current state. Societal demands for increased levels of safety have led to greater use of redundancy and diversity and this, in turn, has increased levels of automation. However, possibly the greatest contributory factor in increased automation has resulted from improvements in information technology. Much recent attention has been focused on the concept of inherently safe reactors, which may simplify safety system requirements and information and control system complexity. The allocation of tasks between man and machine may be one of the most critical activity in the design of new nuclear plants and major retro-fits and it therefore warrants a design approach which is commensurate in quality with the high levels of safety and production performance sought from nuclear plants. Facing this climate, in 1989 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) formed an advisory group from member countries with extensive experience in nuclear power plant automation. The task of this group was to advise on the appropriate balance between manual and automatic actions in plant operation

  10. Automated chemical monitoring in new projects of nuclear power plant units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanok, O. I.; Fedoseev, M. V.

    2013-07-01

    The development of automated chemical monitoring systems in nuclear power plant units for the past 30 years is briefly described. The modern level of facilities used to support the operation of automated chemical monitoring systems in Russia and abroad is shown. Hardware solutions suggested by the All-Russia Institute for Nuclear Power Plant Operation (which is the General Designer of automated process control systems for power units used in the AES-2006 and VVER-TOI Projects) are presented, including the structure of additional equipment for monitoring water chemistry (taking the Novovoronezh 2 nuclear power plant as an example). It is shown that the solutions proposed with respect to receiving and processing of input measurement signals and subsequent construction of standard control loops are unified in nature. Simultaneous receipt of information from different sources for ensuring that water chemistry is monitored in sufficient scope and with required promptness is one of the problems that have been solved successfully. It is pointed out that improved quality of automated chemical monitoring can be supported by organizing full engineering follow-up of the automated chemical monitoring system's equipment throughout its entire service life.

  11. Regulatory safety aspects of nuclear waste management operations in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Atomic Energy in India as part of its programme to harness the nuclear energy for generation of nuclear power has been operating a whole range of nuclear fuel cycle facilities including waste management plants for more than four decades. The waste management plants include three high level waste immobilisation plants, one in operation, one under commissioning and one more under construction. Atomic Energy Regulatory Board is mandated to review and authorise from the safety angle the siting, the design, the construction and the operation of the waste management plants. The regulatory procedures, which involve multi-tier review adopted for ensuring the safety of these facilities, are described in this paper. (author)

  12. Progress on Radiochemical Analysis for Nuclear Waste Management in Decommissioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Qiao, Jixin; Shi, Keliang;

    With the increaed numbers of nuclear facilities have been closed and are being or are going to be decommissioned, it is required to characterise the produced nuclear waste for its treatment by identification of the radionuclides and qualitatively determine them. Of the radionuclides related...... for determination of long-lived 94Nb in the nuclear waste; (2) development of a sensitive method for measurement of 237Np using AMS; (3) improvement of analytical method for determinaiton of 99Tc using ICP-MS; (4) improvement of method for 14C measurement using LSC; and (5) Characterization of steel samples from...

  13. Managing the high level waste nuclear regulatory commission licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the process for obtaining Nuclear Regulatory Commission permits for the high level waste storage facility is basically the same process commercial nuclear power plants followed to obtain construction permits and operating licenses for their facilities. Therefore, the experience from licensing commercial reactors can be applied to the high level waste facility. Proper management of the licensing process will be the key to the successful project. The management of the licensing process was categorized into four areas as follows: responsibility, organization, communication and documentation. Drawing on experience from nuclear power plant licensing and basic management principles, the management requirement for successfully accomplishing the project goals are discussed

  14. Management of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants (NPPs) results primarily from their large amounts. In NPPs more radioactive wastes arise than in all other plants of the nuclear fuel cycle, with the exception of uranium mills. Although the volume is great, NPP wastes are relatively low in activity and radiotoxicity and short in half-life. Several methods for treatment of NPP wastes are available that meet all the relevant requirements and they have attained high technical standards and are highly reliable. Consequently, the discharge of radionuclides with liquid and gaseous effluents and the resulting dose commitment to the general public are far below established limits. The quality of the conditioned wastes conforms to the requirements for ultimate disposal. The final disposal of NPP wastes has already been demonstrated successfully in several places and the feasibility of NPP decommissioning and management of the wastes arising in this process have been proved. The problems associated with the management of radioactive wastes from NPPs have been solved both scientifically and technically; there is no urgent need for improvement. This is why for new developments cost-benefit aspects must be considered, including the dose commitment to the operating staff and general aspects such as public acceptance and socio-ethical questions. Spectacular new developments are not to be expected in the near future. However, by continuous improvement of details and optimization of the whole system useful contributions can still be made to develop nuclear technology further. (author)

  15. Rietveld analysis of ceramic nuclear waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, T.J. [Univ. of South Australia, Ingle Farm (Australia); Mitamura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    Powder X-ray diffraction patterns were collected from three titanate waste forms - a calcine powder, a prototype ceramic without waste, and a ceramic containing 10 wt% JW-A simulated waste - and interpreted quantitatively using the Rietveld method. The calcine consisted of fluorite, pyrochlore, rutile, and amorphous material. The prototype waste form contained rutile, hollandite, zirconolite and perovskite. The phase constitution of the JW-A ceramic was freudenbergite, loveringite, hollandite, zirconolite, perovskite and baddeleyite. Procedures for the collection of X-ray data are described, as are assumptions inherent in the Rietveld approach. A selection of refined crystal data are presented.

  16. Responsible disposal of high level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States today are approximately 100 million gallons of high-level radioactive waste [HLW] containing more than 1 billion curies of radioactivity. This waste has been generated primarily from reprocessing operations used in the production of plutonium and tritium for defense needs. The waste is most often handled and stored in a liquid or semi-liquid form and placed in large underground tanks. Many of these tanks are now over a quarter of a century old and materials problems and concerns have arisen. This paper reports on what is now needed, a more effective means for not only storing this waste, but for permanently disposing of it

  17. Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m/sup 3/ brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs.

  18. Nuclear Waste Imaging and Spent Fuel Verification by Muon Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Jonkmans, G.; Anghel, V. N. P.; Jewett, C.; Thompson, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the use of cosmic ray muons to image the contents of shielded containers and detect high-Z special nuclear materials inside them. Cosmic ray muons are a naturally occurring form of radiation, are highly penetrating and exhibit large scattering angles on high Z materials. Specifically, we investigated how radiographic and tomographic techniques can be effective for non-invasive nuclear waste characterization and for nuclear material accountancy of spent fuel inside dry stor...

  19. The Swedish system for funding of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear activities in Sweden goes back to early 1950's. Research and development on spent fuel disposal in Sweden started in earnest with the report of the AKA-commission 1976, which outlined a complete system for the management of spent fuel and associated waste, including how to handle the costs. Components of the system, mentioned in the AKA-report, such as a sea transportation (MS Sigyn), a central spent fuel storage facility (CLAB) and a final repository for operational waste (SFR) have since been constructed and taken in operation. The research and planning for the additional facilities needed for a complete system is in an advanced stage. A nuclear waste fund has also been created, based on a special fee on nuclear power production. During the 1970's the nuclear power utilities established their own internal funds for future waste management expenses. These funds were transferred to the government-run financing system established in 1981 when the Swedish parliament passed the Act on the Financing of Future Expenses for Spent Nuclear Fuel etc. The fees to be paid into the Fund are to be based on the assumption that each reactor generates electricity for 25 years. These fees, plus the interest on the money already deposited in the Fund, must meet all expenses for handling spent fuel, dismantling facilities and for dealing with radioactive decommissioning waste. A guarantee shall compensate for the eventuality of a nuclear power plant being closed before the end of the 25-year earning period. The type of guarantee must be available until all nuclear waste has been placed in a repository and must cover contingencies for the waste programme. This guarantee will be used if expenses for future nuclear waste management become higher than expected, if these expenses have to be met earlier than expected, or if the actual amount in the Fund is lower than was estimated. The process of yearly cost calculations, review and determination of fees and guarantees is well

  20. Public concerns and choices regarding nuclear waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rankin, W.L.; Nealey, S.M.

    1981-06-01

    Survey research on nuclear power issues conducted in the late 1970's has determined that nuclear waste management is now considered to be one of the most important nuclear power issues both by the US public and by key leadership groups. The purpose of this research was to determine the importance placed on specific issues associated with high-level waste disposal. In addition, policy option choices were asked regarding the siting of both low-level and high-level nuclear waste repositories. A purposive sampling strategy was used to select six groups of respondents. Averaged across the six respondent groups, the leakage of liquid wastes from storage tanks was seen as the most important high-level waste issue. There was also general agreement that the issue regarding water entering the final repository and carrying radioactive wastes away was second in importance. Overall, the third most important issue was the corrosion of the metal containers used in the high-level waste repository. There was general agreement among groups that the fourth most important issue was reducing safety to cut costs. The fifth most important issue was radioactive waste transportation accidents. Overall, the issues ranked sixth and seventh were, respectively, workers' safety and earthquakes damaging the repository and releasing radioactivity. The eighth most important issue, overall, was regarding explosions in the repository from too much radioactivity, which is something that is not possible. There was general agreement across all six respondent groups that the two least important issues involved people accidentally digging into the site and the issue that the repository might cost too much and would therefore raise electricity bills. These data indicate that the concerns of nuclear waste technologists and other public groups do not always overlap.

  1. Public concerns and choices regarding nuclear-waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Survey research on nuclear power issues conducted in the late 1970's has determined that nuclear waste management is now considered to be one of the most important nuclear power issues both by the US public and by key leadership groups. The purpose of this research was to determine the importance placed on specific issues associated with high-level waste disposal. In addition, policy option choices were asked regarding the siting of both low-level and high-level nuclear waste repositories. A purposive sampling strategy was used to select six groups of respondents. Averaged across the six respondent groups, the leakage of liquid wastes from storage tanks was seen as the most important high-level waste issue. There was also general agreement that the issue regarding water entering the final repository and carrying radioactive wastes away was second in importance. Overall, the third most important issue was the corrosion of the metal containers used in the high-level waste repository. There was general agreement among groups that the fourth most important issue was reducing safety to cut costs. The fifth most important issue was radioactive waste transportation accidents. Overall, the issues ranked sixth and seventh were, respectively, workers' safety and earthquakes damaging the repository and releasing radioactivity. The eighth most important issue, overall, was regarding explosions in the repository from too much radioactivity, which is something that is not possible. There was general agreement across all six respondent groups that the two least important issues involved people accidentally digging into the site and the issue that the repository might cost too much and would therefore raise electricity bills. These data indicate that the concerns of nuclear waste technologists and other public groups do not always overlap

  2. Radioactive waste and nuclear power: a personal perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is given of all major sources of radioactive materials in this country, including spent fuel, high-level waste, TRU waste, low-level waste, mill tailings, remedial action programs, decontamination and decommissioning, and airborne waste. These materials are characterized in terms of location, volume, age, radioactivity, thermal power, physical properties, and chemical properties. The role of nuclear power in an oxidized and oxidizing world is discussed in terms of environmental benefits and the conservation of our limited supply of chemically reduced matter; i.e., material that can be oxidized or burned

  3. Waste management at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center the responsibility for waste management is concentrated in the Decontamination Department which serves to collect and transport all liquid waste and solid material from central areas in the center for further waste treatment, clean radioactive equipment for repair and re-use or for recycling of material, remove from the liquid effluents any radioactive and chemical pollutants as specified in legislation on the protection of waters, convert radioactive wastes into mechanically and chemically stable forms allowing them to be transported into a repository. (orig./RW)

  4. Sulphate in Liquid Nuclear Waste: from Production to Containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear industry produces a wide range of low and intermediate level liquid radioactive wastes which can include different radionuclides such as 90Sr. In La Hague reprocessing plant and in the nuclear research centers of CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique), the coprecipitation of strontium with barium sulphate is the technique used to treat selectively these contaminated streams with the best efficiency. After the decontamination process, low and intermediate level activity wastes incorporating significant quantities of sulphate are obtained. The challenge is to find a matrix easy to form and with a good chemical durability which is able to confine this kind of nuclear waste. The current process used to contain sulphate-rich nuclear wastes is bituminization. However, in order to improve properties of containment matrices and simplify the process, CEA has chosen to supervise researches on other materials such as cements or glasses. Indeed, cements are widely used for the immobilization of a variety of wastes (low and intermediate level wastes) and they may be an alternative matrix to bitumen. Even if Portland cement, which is extensively used in the nuclear industry, presents some disadvantages for the containment of sulphate-rich nuclear wastes (risk of swelling and cracking due to delayed ettringite formation), other cement systems, such as calcium sulfo-aluminate binders, may be valuable candidates. Another matrix to confine sulphate-rich waste could be the glass. One of the advantages of this material is that it could also immobilize sulphate containing high level nuclear waste which is present in some countries. This waste comes from the use of ferrous sulfamate as a reducing agent for the conversion of Pu4+ to Pu3+ in the partitioning stage of the actinides during reprocessing. Sulphate solubility in borosilicate glasses has already been studied in CEA at laboratory and pilot scales. At a pilot scale, low level liquid waste has been vitrified. A test was

  5. General and regulatory aspects of nuclear waste disposal in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Minister of Trade and Industry has recently appointed a committee to review the legislation in the nuclear energy field. The mandate of the committee includes the formulation of a law on nuclear waste management, which problem is also the subject of a current research and development programme. Licensing and control measures for nuclear installations already exist and these do include general safety measures relating to the management of nuclear waste. There are three types of licence - construction licence (including site approval), operating licence and fuel licence - given by the Ministry of Trade and Industry after consultation with various bodies, notably, the Institute of Radiation Protection. Conditions may be imposed on granting a licence, and periodic inspections are carried out during the operation of the installation. This licensing procedure, modified when necessary, could be applied to waste disposal facilities. (NEA)

  6. High Resolution Sensor for Nuclear Waste Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma ray spectrometers are an important tool in the characterization of radioactive waste. Important requirements for gamma ray spectrometers used in this application include good energy resolution, high detection efficiency, compact size, light weight, portability, and low power requirements. None of the available spectrometers satisfy all of these requirements. The goal of the Phase I research was to investigate lanthanum halide and related scintillators for nuclear waste clean-up. LaBr3:Ce remains a very promising scintillator with high light yield and fast response. CeBr3 is attractive because it is very similar to LaBr3:Ce in terms of scintillation properties and also has the advantage of much lower self-radioactivity, which may be important in some applications. CeBr3 also shows slightly higher light yield at higher temperatures than LaBr3 and may be easier to produce with high uniformity in large volume since it does not require any dopants. Among the mixed lanthanum halides, the light yield of LaBrxI3-x:Ce is lower and the difference in crystal structure of the binaries (LaBr3 and LaI3) makes it difficult to grow high quality crystals of the ternary as the iodine concentration is increased. On the other hand, LaBrxI3-x:Ce provides excellent performance. Its light output is high and it provides fast response. The crystal structures of the two binaries (LaBr3 and LaCl3) are very similar. Overall, its scintillation properties are very similar to those for LaBr3:Ce. While the gamma-ray stopping efficiency of LaBrxI3-x:Ce is lower than that for LaBr3:Ce (primarily because the density of LaCl3 is lower than that of LaBr3), it may be easier to grow large crystals of LaBrxI3-x:Ce than LaBr3:Ce since in some instances (for example, CdxZn1-xTe), the ternary compounds provide increased flexibility in the crystal lattice. Among the new dopants, Eu2+ and Pr3+, tried in LaBr3 host crystals, the Eu2+ doped samples exhibited low light output. This was mostly because a

  7. An automated boron management system for WWER-1000 nuclear reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisiya O. Tsiselskaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of creating a system of automated control with boron regulation for reactor WWER-1000 series. Using the boron regulation to control WWER-1000 allows to extend its maximum output operation period, ensuring the economic efficiency of the power unit, as well as to maintain the reactor facility within relevant safety limits that prevents from emergencies occurrence and development. The results of this problem solution, related to the process simulation, optimization and prediction, were used at further development of computer-integrated control system increasing the efficiency of decisions, taken by operational staff at reactor control.

  8. Nuclear Waste: Increasing Scale and Sociopolitical Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Porte, Todd R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the impact of radioactive waste management system on social and political development. The article also presents (1) types of information necessary to estimate the costs and consequences of radioactive waste management; and (2) an index of radioactive hazards to improve the basis for policy decisions. (HM)

  9. Economic evaluation of nuclear waste transportation casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described which allows the systematic economic evaluation of transportation cask designs which meet the requirements of the Test and Evaluation Facility (TEF) program. The heart of the method described is the Waste Management Transportation Model. This model uses a set of computer-based algorithms to assemble specific case information input, combine this input with the data base of transportation information maintained within the model, and calculate the cask types and quantities necessary, the cask utilization factors, and the total costs for each transport line specified. The model is capable of handling a large variety of transportation problems given the specific input related to each type. Three combinations of waste packaging facilities were examined. The first assumes all consolidation and packaging occurs at an existing hot cell. The second assumes all consolidation and packaging is done at the TEF site. The third combination assumes that spent fuels are consolidated at an existing hot cell while waste packaging occurs at the TEF site. Some of the general findings are: (1) defense high-level waste (DHLW) is generally lower in cost than SF as the prime waste form because of the fewer number of shipments required prior to the waste consolidation activity; (2) when DHLW is the prime waste form, it is beneficial to locate the packaging facility (PF) close to the TEF site because the packaged waste form is heavier, more costly to transport; (3) when SF is the prime waste form, it is beneficial to locate the PF close to the waste source to reduce the length of the transport links containing unconsolidated spent fuel assemblies; and (4) truck casks, and legal weight truck casks in particular, are generally superior to the rail casks on an economic basis

  10. Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste: The Waste Management System, Unit 4. Teacher Guide. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Washington, DC.

    This guide is Unit 4 of the four-part series, Science, Society, and America's Nuclear Waste, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The goal of this unit is to explain how transportation, a geologic repository, and the multi-purpose canister will work together to provide short-term and long-term…

  11. Addressing ethical considerations about nuclear fuel waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethical considerations will be important in making decisions about the long-term management of nuclear fuel waste. Public discussions of nuclear fuel waste management are dominated by questions related to values, fairness, rights and responsibilities. To address public concerns, it is important to demonstrate that ethical responsibilities associated with the current management of the waste are being fulfilled. It is also important to show that our responsibilities to future generations can be met, and that ethical principles will be applied to the implementation of disposal. Canada's nuclear fuel waste disposal concept, as put forward in an Environmental Impact Statement by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), is currently under public review by a Federal Environmental Assessment Panel. Following this review, recommendations will be made about the direction that Canada should take for the long-term management of this waste. This paper discusses the ethical principles that are seen to apply to geological disposal and illustrates how the Canadian approach to nuclear fuel waste management can meet the challenge of fulfilling these responsibilities. The author suggests that our ethical responsibilities require that adaptable technologies to site, design, construct, operate decommission and close disposal facilities should de developed. We cannot, and should not, present future generations from exercising control over what they inherit, nor control whether they modify or even reverse today's decisions if that is what they deem to be the right thing to do. (author)

  12. Alternate nuclear waste forms and interactions in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purposes of the conference on Alternate Nuclear Waste Forms and Interactions in Geologic Media were: First, to provide an opportunity for a review of the status of the research on some of the candidate alternative waste forms; second, to provide an opportunity for comparing the characteristics of alternate waste forms to those of glasses; and third, to stimulate increased interactions between those research groups that were engaged in a more basic approach to characterizing waste forms and those who were concerned with more applied aspects such as the processing of these materials. The motivating philosophy behind this third purpose of the conference was based on the idea that by operating from the soundest possible fundamental base for any of the candidate waste forms, hopefully any future unpleasant surprise - such as that alluded to earlier in the case of glass waste forms - could be avoided. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  13. Security risks in nuclear waste management: Exceptionalism, opaqueness and vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Beken, Tom; Dorn, Nicholas; Van Daele, Stijn

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses some potential security risks, concerning terrorism or more mundane forms of crime, such as fraud, in management of nuclear waste using a PEST scan (of political, economic, social and technical issues) and some insights of criminologists on crime prevention. Nuclear waste arises as spent fuel from ongoing energy generation or other nuclear operations, operational contamination or emissions, and decommissioning of obsolescent facilities. In international and EU political contexts, nuclear waste management is a sensitive issue, regulated specifically as part of the nuclear industry as well as in terms of hazardous waste policies. The industry involves state, commercial and mixed public-private bodies. The social and cultural dimensions--risk, uncertainty, and future generations--resonate more deeply here than in any other aspect of waste management. The paper argues that certain tendencies in regulation of the industry, claimed to be justified on security grounds, are decreasing transparency and veracity of reporting, opening up invisible spaces for management frauds, and in doing allowing a culture of impunity in which more serious criminal or terrorist risks could arise. What is needed is analysis of this 'exceptional' industry in terms of the normal cannons of risk assessment - a task that this paper begins.

  14. Security risks in nuclear waste management: Exceptionalism, opaqueness and vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Beken, Tom; Dorn, Nicholas; Van Daele, Stijn

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses some potential security risks, concerning terrorism or more mundane forms of crime, such as fraud, in management of nuclear waste using a PEST scan (of political, economic, social and technical issues) and some insights of criminologists on crime prevention. Nuclear waste arises as spent fuel from ongoing energy generation or other nuclear operations, operational contamination or emissions, and decommissioning of obsolescent facilities. In international and EU political contexts, nuclear waste management is a sensitive issue, regulated specifically as part of the nuclear industry as well as in terms of hazardous waste policies. The industry involves state, commercial and mixed public-private bodies. The social and cultural dimensions--risk, uncertainty, and future generations--resonate more deeply here than in any other aspect of waste management. The paper argues that certain tendencies in regulation of the industry, claimed to be justified on security grounds, are decreasing transparency and veracity of reporting, opening up invisible spaces for management frauds, and in doing allowing a culture of impunity in which more serious criminal or terrorist risks could arise. What is needed is analysis of this 'exceptional' industry in terms of the normal cannons of risk assessment - a task that this paper begins. PMID:20022419

  15. Nuclear Waste Imaging and Spent Fuel Verification by Muon Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Jonkmans, G; Jewett, C; Thompson, M

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the use of cosmic ray muons to image the contents of shielded containers and detect high-Z special nuclear materials inside them. Cosmic ray muons are a naturally occurring form of radiation, are highly penetrating and exhibit large scattering angles on high Z materials. Specifically, we investigated how radiographic and tomographic techniques can be effective for non-invasive nuclear waste characterization and for nuclear material accountancy of spent fuel inside dry storage containers. We show that the tracking of individual muons, as they enter and exit a structure, can potentially improve the accuracy and availability of data on nuclear waste and the contents of Dry Storage Containers (DSC) used for spent fuel storage at CANDU plants. This could be achieved in near real time, with the potential for unattended and remotely monitored operations. We show that the expected sensitivity, in the case of the DSC, exceeds the IAEA detection target for nuclear material accountancy.

  16. Nuclear Waste Fund fee adequacy: an assessment. Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal recommendation of this year's analysis is that the ongoing disposal fee should remain at 1.0 mill per kilowatt-hour (kWh) for 1985, based on the following findings: The current 1.0 mill per kWh fee is projected to produce revenues sufficient to offset estimated total system life-cycle costs for a reasonable range of program cost, nuclear generation, and economic environment forecases, as detailed later in this report. For the near term, program indebtedness due to 1983 appropriations cannot be repaid until payment of a substantial fraction of the utilities' $2.3 billion debt from the one-time fee is received. Many of the cost and revenue forecasts analyzed, particularly those for the US Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Mid Case generation forecast, show margins of revenues over costs. Future program cost increases due to general inflation or real price increases could be recovered by indexing the fee to the inflation rate or another cost index. These findings are based on a cash flow analysis that utilized methods very similar to those employed in previous fee adequacy studies. Refinements were made in the areas of system logistics, repository acceptance schedules, repository operating profiles, real interest rates, and treatment of real cost increases. Nuclear wastes produced from defense activities are not considered quantitatively in this report. Preliminary analyses have indicated that economies of co-emplacing defense and civilian wastes could be beneficial to both, but methods of allocating common costs appropriately will not be recommended until cost impacts have been determined more accurately

  17. Actinide separation chemistry in nuclear waste streams and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The separation of actinide elements from various waste materials, produced either in nuclear fuel cycles or in past nuclear weapons production, represents a significant issue facing developed countries. Improvements in the efficiencies of the separation processes can be expected to occur as a result of better knowledge of the elements in these complex matrices. The Nuclear Science Committee of the OECD/NEA has established a task force of experts in actinide separation chemistry to review current and developing separation techniques and chemical processes. The report consist of eight chapters. In Chapter 1 the importance of actinide separation chemistry in the fields of waste management and its background are summarized.In Chapter 2 the types of waste streams are classified according to their relative importance, by physical form and by source of actinides. The basic data of actinide chemical thermodynamics, such as oxidation states, hydrolysis, complexation, sorption, Gibbs energies of formation, and volatility, were collected and are presented in Chapter 3. Actinide analyses related to separation processes are also mentioned in this chapter. The state of the art of actinide separation chemistry is classified in three groups, including hydrometallurgy, pyrochemical process and process based on fields, and is described in Chapter 4 along with the relationship of kinetics to separations. In Chapter 5 basic chemistry research needs and the inherent limitation on separation processes are discussed. Prioritization of research and development is discussed in Chapter 6 in the context of several attributes of waste management problems. These attributes include: mass or volume of waste; concentration of the actinide in the waste; expected difficulty of treating the wastes; short-term hazard of the waste; long-term hazard of the waste; projected cost of treatment; amount of secondary waste. Based on the priority, recommendations were made for the direction of future research

  18. Fault tolerant strategies for automated operation of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces an automatic control system incorporating a number of verification, validation, and command generation tasks with-in a fault-tolerant architecture. The integrated system utilizes recent methods of artificial intelligence such as neural networks and fuzzy logic control. Furthermore, advanced signal processing and nonlinear control methods are also included in the design. The primary goal is to create an on-line capability to validate signals, analyze plant performance, and verify the consistency of commands before control decisions are finalized. The application of this approach to the automated startup of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) is performed using a validated nonlinear model. The simulation results show that the advanced concepts have the potential to improve plant availability andsafety

  19. Intelligent control and automation technology for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using recently established intelligent mobile robot theory and high technologies in computer science, we have designed an inspection automation system for welded parts of the reactor vessel, and we intend to establish basic technologies. The recent status of those technologies is surveyed for various application areas, and the characteristics and availability of those techniques such as intelligent mobile robot, digital computer control, intelligent user interface, realtime data processing, ultrasonic signal processing, intelligent user interface, intelligent defect recognition, are studied and examined at first. The high performance and compact size inspection system is designed, and if implemented, it is expected to be very efficient in economic point of view. In addition, the use of integrated SW system leads to the reduction of human errors. Through the analysis results and experiences, we investigated the further feasibility of basic technology applications to the various similar operation systems in NPP. (Author)

  20. 10 CFR 71.97 - Advance notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nuclear waste contained in the shipment, as specified in the regulations of DOT in 49 CFR 172.202 and 172... fuel and nuclear waste. 71.97 Section 71.97 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING... notification of shipment of irradiated reactor fuel and nuclear waste. (a) As specified in paragraphs (b),...

  1. Atmospheric corrosion in nuclear waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics were dealt with: storage of conditioned radioactive wastes in metallic containers, atmospheric corrosion effects, long-term behavior prediction, numerical modelling of surface corrosion effects under thermohygrometric fluctuations according ISO/DIS 9223

  2. Bayesian Control for Concentrating Mixed Nuclear Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, Robert L.; Smith, Clayton

    2013-01-01

    A control algorithm for batch processing of mixed waste is proposed based on conditional Gaussian Bayesian networks. The network is compiled during batch staging for real-time response to sensor input.

  3. Experience with applying the automated control system to maintenance at the Bohunice nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automated system of maintenance control at the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice uses experience gained with the maintenance of the A-1 nuclear power plant. With regard to the range of work operations, maintenance includes inspection, routine repair, overhaul of equipment and replacement. Also observed is the classification of equipment according to whether it may be repaired without reactor shutdown or whether the reactor will have to be shut down. At present the maintenance of the Jaslovske Bohunice nuclear power plant is being processed by an automated control system into five year variable plans of repairs, annual and monthly plans of repairs, plans of shut-downs and a schedule of unit shutdowns. The repair plan includes over 6000 items. (Z.M.)

  4. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended with appropriations acts appended

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 provides for the development of repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, to establish a program of research, development and demonstration regarding the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. Titles 1 and 2 cover these subjects. Also included in this Act are: Title 3: Other provisions relating to radioactive waste; Title 4: Nuclear waste negotiation; Title 5: Nuclear waste technical review board; and Title 6: High-level radioactive waste. An appendix contains excerpts from appropriations acts from fiscal year 1984--1994.

  5. Programme RAE: software that automates data acquisition in nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A software for automatic acquisition and storing of nuclear spectra was developed. This program is to be used in a system composed of a radiation detector, a Spectrum-ACE or ADCAM and the Maestro II emulation software. In this paper the operating mode is fully described and several examples are given. (author). 2 refs

  6. Computer Automation for Structural Design of Domestic Nuclear Shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural design of nuclear shelters is different according to the types of these shelters (domestic or public-above ground or underground – shallow buried or deeply buried-reinforced concrete or glass reinforced plastic or thin metal sheets... etc.). UK and USA performed a calculation using a manual method to calculate the structural design for any domestic nuclear shelter, which may protect the people in it from air blast, thermal and nuclear radiation (gamma rays emanating from fall-out). The manual calculation method is very complex which is very difficult to use, in the present work, a simplified method is prepared, this involves a visual basic computer program to calculate the structural designs for the different domestic nuclear shelters. The program aims to provide the missing time in the calculation processes to calculate the structural design for any domestic shelter through entering specifications data for any domestic shelter. The program will calculate the structural design in a very short time which will save the effort and time in comparison with the manual calculation. Also, the computer program gives more accurate results than the manual method

  7. Evaluation of the Finnish nuclear waste management programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to a request from Finland in November 1992, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) set up a Team of four experts (representatives from Belgium, Canada, Germany and Switzerland) to review the Finnish nuclear waste management programme within the auspices of IAEA's Waste Management programme (WATRP). During the early summer of 1993, the Team reviewed a large amount of documentation supplied by the Finnish industry, government and research organizations. The radioactive waste management programme areas within the Team's terms of reference included: (1) work being done in siting and building a conditional facility for spent nuclear fuel and siting and constructing a co-located repository, (2) the plans and activities for conditioning and disposing of the low and intermediate level waste from Finland's NPPs and (3) the plans for decommissioning Finland's reactors when that becomes necessary. The evaluation work and the recommendations of the Team are detailed in the report

  8. Thermodynamic model of natural, medieval and nuclear waste glass durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermodynamic model of glass durability based on hydration of structural units has been applied to natural glass, medieval window glasses, and glasses containing nuclear waste. The relative durability predicted from the calculated thermodynamics correlates directly with the experimentally observed release of structural silicon in the leaching solution in short-term laboratory tests. By choosing natural glasses and ancient glasses whose long-term performance is known, and which bracket the durability of waste glasses, the long-term stability of nuclear waste glasses can be interpolated among these materials. The current Savannah River defense waste glass formulation is as durable as natural basalt from the Hanford Reservation (106 years old). The thermodynamic hydration energy is shown to be related to the bond energetics of the glass. 69 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  9. NUCLEAR WASTE GLASSES CONTINUOUS MELTING AND BULK VITRIFICAITON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2008-03-24

    This contribution addresses various aspects of nuclear waste vitrification. Nuclear wastes have a variety of components and composition ranges. For each waste composition, the glass must be formulated to possess acceptable processing and product behavior defined in terms of physical and chemical properties that guarantee the glass can be easily made and resist environmental degradation. Glass formulation is facilitated by developing property-composition models, and the strategy of model development and application is reviewed. However, the large variability of waste compositions presents numerous additional challenges: insoluble solids and molten salts may segregate; foam may hinder heat transfer and slow down the process; molten salts may accumulate in container refractory walls; the glass on cooling may precipitate crystalline phases. These problems need targeted exploratory research. Examples of specific problems and their possible solutions are discussed.

  10. Solving the geologic issues in nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical problems with nuclear waste disposal are largely geological. If these are not solved, curtailment of nuclear power development may follow, resulting in loss of an important element in the national energy supply. Present knowledge and credible advances are capable of solving these problems provided a systems view is preserved and a national development plan is followed. This requires identification of the critical controllable elements and a systematic underground test program to prove those critical elements. Waste migration can be understood and controlled by considering the key elements in the system: the system geometry, the hydrology, and the waste-rock-water chemistry. The waste program should: (1) identify and attack the critical problems first; (2) provide tests and demonstration at real disposal sites; and (3) schedule elements with long lead-times for early start and timely completion

  11. Comparison of brines relevant to nuclear waste experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ionic compositions of 18 brines used in nuclear waste-related laboratory tests or obtained from field tests are described and compared. Also described are the origin of each brine, its predominant use for laboratory testing, and its relavancy for future testing. The brines include Brines A and B (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)/generic), Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) Composite Permian Brine P and Equilibrated Permian P No. 2, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)-Sandia High-Level Waste (HLW) package interactions test brines (flow and downhole), ERDA-6 brines (flow and downhole), WIPP Inclusions No. 1 and No. 2, Materials Characterization Center (MCC) brine, German quinare Brine Q, US Geological Survey bittern NBT-6a, saturated NaCl (200 and 1000C), and standard seawater

  12. Public meetings on nuclear waste management: their function and organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvernoy, E.G.; Marcus, A.A.; Overcast, T.; Schilling, A.H.

    1981-05-01

    This report focuses on public meetings as a vehicle for public participation in nuclear waste management. The nature of public meetings is reviewed and the functions served by meetings highlighted. The range of participants and their concerns are addressed, including a review of the participants from past nuclear waste management meetings. A sound understanding of the expected participants allows DOE to tailor elements of the meeting, such as notification, format, and agenda to accommodate the attendees. Finally, the report discusses the organization of public meetings on nuclear waste management in order to enhance the DOE's functions for such meetings. Possible structures are suggested for a variety of elements that are relevant prior to, during and after the public meeting. These suggestions are intended to supplement the DOE Public Participation Manual.

  13. Management of radioactive waste at Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish nuclear power program started in 1972. Today nine units are in operation, one is in the commissioning phase and two are under construction. The practical experiences in nuclear waste management correspond to about 40 reactor-years' operation. The paper describes the treatment methods presently in use at the various power plants and the corresponding storage facilities. Experiences from the operation are quoted and figures of the quantities of waste before and after treatment and of the activity content are given. The system used for measurements and registration is described. The responsibility for the management of radioactive wastes in Sweden, including disposal, has been given to the nuclear utilities. The organization of this work is also presented. (author)

  14. National briefing summaries: Nuclear fuel cycle and waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Bradley, D.J.; Fletcher, J.F.; Konzek, G.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Mitchell, S.J.; Molton, P.M.; Nightingale, R.E.

    1991-04-01

    Since 1976, the International Program Support Office (IPSO) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has collected and compiled publicly available information concerning foreign and international radioactive waste management programs. This National Briefing Summaries is a printout of an electronic database that has been compiled and is maintained by the IPSO staff. The database contains current information concerning the radioactive waste management programs (with supporting information on nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle) of most of the nations (except eastern European countries) that now have or are contemplating nuclear power, and of the multinational agencies that are active in radioactive waste management. Information in this document is included for three additional countries (China, Mexico, and USSR) compared to the prior issue. The database and this document were developed in response to needs of the US Department of Energy.

  15. National briefing summaries: Nuclear fuel cycle and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1976, the International Program Support Office (IPSO) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has collected and compiled publicly available information concerning foreign and international radioactive waste management programs. This National Briefing Summaries is a printout of an electronic database that has been compiled and is maintained by the IPSO staff. The database contains current information concerning the radioactive waste management programs (with supporting information on nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle) of most of the nations (except eastern European countries) that now have or are contemplating nuclear power, and of the multinational agencies that are active in radioactive waste management. Information in this document is included for three additional countries (China, Mexico, and USSR) compared to the prior issue. The database and this document were developed in response to needs of the US Department of Energy

  16. Public meetings on nuclear waste management: their function and organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report focuses on public meetings as a vehicle for public participation in nuclear waste management. The nature of public meetings is reviewed and the functions served by meetings highlighted. The range of participants and their concerns are addressed, including a review of the participants from past nuclear waste management meetings. A sound understanding of the expected participants allows DOE to tailor elements of the meeting, such as notification, format, and agenda to accommodate the attendees. Finally, the report discusses the organization of public meetings on nuclear waste management in order to enhance the DOE's functions for such meetings. Possible structures are suggested for a variety of elements that are relevant prior to, during and after the public meeting. These suggestions are intended to supplement the DOE Public Participation Manual

  17. Management of radioactive wastes at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design data and operating experience with waste management systems at nuclear power stations in Canada, France, the United Kingdom and the United States of America are described. Although the specific designs and operating practices vary between nations, the underlying philosophies are essentially identical, being based on the protection principles of ICRP. The operating experience with different waste management systems has been excellent in maintaining the radiation exposures in the environment well below the accepted dose standards.

  18. Analysis of some nuclear waste management options. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, L.E.; Ensminger, D.A.; Giuffre, M.S.; Koplik, C.M.; Oston, S.G.; Pollak, G.D.; Ross, B.I.

    1978-10-10

    This report describes risk analyses performed on that portion of a nuclear fuel cycle which begins following solidification of high-level waste. Risks associated with handling, interim storage and transportation of the waste are assessed, as well as the long term implications of disposal in deep mined cavities. The risk is expressed in terms of expected dose to the general population and peak dose to individuals in the population. This volume consists of appendices which provide technical details of the work performed.

  19. Case for retrievable high-level nuclear waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseboom, Eugene H., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Plans for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository have called for permanently closing and sealing the repository soon after it is filled. However, the hydrologic environment of the proposed site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, should allow the repository to be kept open and the waste retrievable indefinitely. This would allow direct monitoring of the repository and maintain the options for future generations to improve upon the disposal methods or use the uranium in the spent fuel as an energy resource.

  20. The waste originating from nuclear energy peaceful applications and its management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the waste originating from nuclear energy and its management. It approaches the following main topics: nature and classification of the wastes; security requirements to the waste management; state of the art related to the wastes derivates of the uses of the nuclear energy; wastes in the fuel cycle; wastes of the industrial, medical and research and development applications; costs of the waste management

  1. Monitoring methods for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.B.; Barnard, J.W.; Bird, G.A. [and others

    1997-11-01

    This report examines a variety of monitoring activities that would likely be involved in a nuclear fuel waste disposal project, during the various stages of its implementation. These activities would include geosphere, environmental, vault performance, radiological, safeguards, security and community socioeconomic and health monitoring. Geosphere monitoring would begin in the siting stage and would continue at least until the closure stage. It would include monitoring of regional and local seismic activity, and monitoring of physical, chemical and microbiological properties of groundwater in rock and overburden around and in the vault. Environmental monitoring would also begin in the siting stage, focusing initially on baseline studies of plants, animals, soil and meteorology, and later concentrating on monitoring for changes from these benchmarks in subsequent stages. Sampling designs would be developed to detect changes in levels of contaminants in biota, water and air, soil and sediments at and around the disposal facility. Vault performance monitoring would include monitoring of stress and deformation in the rock hosting the disposal vault, with particular emphasis on fracture propagation and dilation in the zone of damaged rock surrounding excavations. A vault component test area would allow long-term observation of containers in an environment similar to the working vault, providing information on container corrosion mechanisms and rates, and the physical, chemical and thermal performance of the surrounding sealing materials and rock. During the operation stage, radiological monitoring would focus on protecting workers from radiation fields and loose contamination, which could be inhaled or ingested. Operational zones would be established to delineate specific hazards to workers, and movement of personnel and materials between zones would be monitored with radiation detectors. External exposures to radiation fields would be monitored with dosimeters worn by

  2. Monitoring methods for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines a variety of monitoring activities that would likely be involved in a nuclear fuel waste disposal project, during the various stages of its implementation. These activities would include geosphere, environmental, vault performance, radiological, safeguards, security and community socioeconomic and health monitoring. Geosphere monitoring would begin in the siting stage and would continue at least until the closure stage. It would include monitoring of regional and local seismic activity, and monitoring of physical, chemical and microbiological properties of groundwater in rock and overburden around and in the vault. Environmental monitoring would also begin in the siting stage, focusing initially on baseline studies of plants, animals, soil and meteorology, and later concentrating on monitoring for changes from these benchmarks in subsequent stages. Sampling designs would be developed to detect changes in levels of contaminants in biota, water and air, soil and sediments at and around the disposal facility. Vault performance monitoring would include monitoring of stress and deformation in the rock hosting the disposal vault, with particular emphasis on fracture propagation and dilation in the zone of damaged rock surrounding excavations. A vault component test area would allow long-term observation of containers in an environment similar to the working vault, providing information on container corrosion mechanisms and rates, and the physical, chemical and thermal performance of the surrounding sealing materials and rock. During the operation stage, radiological monitoring would focus on protecting workers from radiation fields and loose contamination, which could be inhaled or ingested. Operational zones would be established to delineate specific hazards to workers, and movement of personnel and materials between zones would be monitored with radiation detectors. External exposures to radiation fields would be monitored with dosimeters worn by

  3. Preclosure analysis of conceptual waste package designs for a nuclear waste repository in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the selection and analysis of conceptual waste package developed by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project for possible disposal of high-level nuclear waste at a candidate site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The design requirements that the waste package must conform to are listed, as are several desirable design considerations. Illustrations of the reference and alternative designs are shown. Four austenitic stainless steels (316L SS, 321 SS, 304L SS and Incoloy 825 high nickel alloy) have been selected for candidate canister/overpack materials, and 1020 carbon steel has been selected as the reference metal for the borehole liners. A summary of the results of technical and ecnonmic analyses supporting the selection of the conceptual waste package designs is included. Postclosure containment and release rates are not analyzed in this report

  4. The waste management program VUB-AZ: An integrated solution for nuclear biomedical waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to escalating costs and the lack of acceptance of near-surface disposal facilities, the University of Brussels (VUB) and its Academic hospital (AZ) have developed an on-site waste storage program in collaboration with Canberra Europe. This programme is based on selective collection, measurement before decay, storage for decay of short-lived radionuclides, measurement after decay and eventual clearance as non-nuclear waste. It has proved its effectiveness over the past 5 years. Effective characterisation for on-site storage for decay of short-lived radionuclides makes selective collection of waste streams mandatory and requires motivated and trained laboratory staff. Dynamic optimisation of this selective collection increases the efficiency of the storage for decay programme. The accurate qualitative and quantitative measurement of nuclear biomedical waste before decay has several advantages such as verification of correct selective collection, optimisation of the decay period and possibility of clearance below the minimal detectable activity. In the research phase of the program several measurement techniques were investigated. The following measurement concept was selected. Closed PE drums containing low density solid waste materials contaminated with small amounts of β/γ-or pure β-emitting radionuclides are assessed for specific activity by the Canberra measurement unit for nuclear biomedical waste, based on a HPGe-detector. Liquid waste containing (β/γ-emitters are characterised by the same technique while for pure β-emitting liquid waste a Packard liquid scintillation counter is used. Measurement results are obtained by using the gamma-spectroscopy software Genie-2000. A user-friendly interface, based on Procount-2000 and optimised by Canberra for the characterisation of nuclear biomedical waste, has increased the sample throughput of the measurement concept. The MDA (minimal detectable activity) of different radionuclides obtained by the measurement

  5. Characterization of radioactive waste from nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different kinds of radioactive waste are generated as result of the operation of nuclear power reactors and in all cases the activity concentration of several radionuclides had to be determined in order to optimize resources, particularly when dealing with final disposal or long-term storage. This paper describes the three basic approaches usually employed for characterizing nuclear power reactor wastes, namely the direct methods, the semi-empirical methods and the analytical methods. For some radionuclides or kind of waste, the more suitable method or combination of methods applicable is indicated, stressing that these methods shall be developed and applied during the waste generation step, i.e. during the operation of the reactor. In addition, after remarking the long time span expected from waste generation to their final disposal, the importance of an appropriate record system is pointed out and some basic requirements that should be fulfilled for such system are presented. It is concluded that the tools for a proper characterization of nuclear reactor radioactive waste are available though such tools should be tailored to each specific reactor and their history. (author)

  6. Materials and wastes from power generation of nuclear origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In most countries, spent nuclear fuel is directly stored in pools and constitute the bulk of highly radioactive waste. In France, reprocessing separates spent fuel into three categories: uranium, plutonium, minor actinides and fission products. Hence, a vast amount of very diverse radioactive materials are stored in various sites and conditions, under two denominations: 'nuclear materials' (which can be or are partly recycled) and 'radioactive waste' which should be permanently disposed of. The production of highly radioactive and long-lived waste raise legitimate questions on the use of nuclear energy for power production and many people think that it's a sufficient reason for giving up this technique. Concerning existing radioactive waste, the alternative to deep disposal should be: a) dry storage of spent fuel and other existing waste in protected sites (bunkers or hills), and b) more active research on the possibilities to reduce both radioactivity and the lifetime of radioactive waste. (authors)

  7. Final disposal of high levels waste and spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreign and international activities on the final disposal of high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel have been reviewed. A considerable research effort is devoted to development of acceptable disposal options. The different technical concepts presently under study are described in the report. Numerous studies have been made in many countries of the potential risks to future generations from radioactive wastes in underground disposal repositories. In the report the safety assessment studies and existing performance criteria for geological disposal are briefly discussed. The studies that are being made in Canada, the United States, France and Switzerland are the most interesting for Sweden as these countries also are considering disposal into crystalline rocks. The overall time-tables in different countries for realisation of the final disposal are rather similar. Normally actual large-scale disposal operations for high-level wastes are not foreseen until after year 2000. In the United States the Congress recently passed the important Nuclear Waste Policy Act. It gives a rather firm timetable for site-selection and construction of nuclear waste disposal facilities. According to this act the first repository for disposal of commercial high-level waste must be in operation not later than in January 1998. (Author)

  8. Leaching of polyphase nuclear waste ceramics: microstructural and phase characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The leaching of complex polyphase nuclear waste ceramics is described in the context of the geochemically established dissolution behavior of the constituent phases. Static leach tests conducted on ceramic monoliths in deionized water, in simulated silicate, and in brine groundwaters, conforming to Materials Characterization Center standards and an accelerated, microscopic leach test, were used to identify the processes. Dissolution and formation of surface passivation layers are discussed in terms of hydrolysis and the adsorption of the metal hydroxocomplexes onto the monolith surface. The factors observed to affect dissolution are pertinent to the leaching of other polyphase nuclear waste ceramics. 11 figures, 1 table

  9. Technical summary: Nuclear Waste Vitrification Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelwright, E.J.; Bjorklund, W.J.; Browne, L.M.; Bryan, G.H.; Holton, L.K.; Irish, E.R.; Siemens, D.H.

    1979-05-01

    Six PWR fuel assemblies, containing 2.3 metric tons uranium from Point Beach, have been processed by a conventional Purex-type process. U and other chemicals were added to the dilute HLLW, and the waste was then vitrified to produce two canisters of glass. The on-stream efficiency of the waste preparation facility exceeded 90% for the first 3 weeks; the overall average was 62%. The only processing difficulty in the vitrification facility was a partial failure in the spray calciner nozzle. The Pu byproduct of waste preparation was purified by ion exchange and calcined to oxide; one can of oxide ruptured due to self-heating. 27 figures, 16 tables. (DLC)

  10. Technical summary: Nuclear Waste Vitrification Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six PWR fuel assemblies, containing 2.3 metric tons uranium from Point Beach, have been processed by a conventional Purex-type process. U and other chemicals were added to the dilute HLLW, and the waste was then vitrified to produce two canisters of glass. The on-stream efficiency of the waste preparation facility exceeded 90% for the first 3 weeks; the overall average was 62%. The only processing difficulty in the vitrification facility was a partial failure in the spray calciner nozzle. The Pu byproduct of waste preparation was purified by ion exchange and calcined to oxide; one can of oxide ruptured due to self-heating. 27 figures, 16 tables

  11. Comparison of glass and crystalline nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear waste forms may be divided into two broad categories: single phase glasses with minor crystalline components (e.g., borosilicate glasses) and crystalline waste forms, either single phase (e.g., monazite) or polyphase (e.g., SYNROC). This paper reviews the materials properties data that are available for each of these two types of waste forms. The principal data include: physical, thermal and mechanical properties, chemical durability; and radiation damage effects. Complete data are only available for borosilicate glasses and SYNROC; therefore, this comparison focuses on the performance assessment of borosilicate glass and SYNROC

  12. Radiochemical analysis for nuclear waste management in decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, X. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Radiation Research Div., Roskilde (Denmark))

    2010-07-15

    The NKS-B RadWaste project was launched from June 2009. The on-going decommissioning activities in Nordic countries and current requirements and problems on the radiochemical analysis of decommissioning waste were discussed and overviewed. The radiochemical analytical methods used for determination of various radionuclides in nuclear waste are reviewed, a book was written by the project partners Jukka Lehto and Xiaolin Hou on the chemistry and analysis of radionuclide to be published in 2010. A summary of the methods developed in Nordic laboratories is described in this report. The progresses on the development and optimization of analytical method in the Nordic labs under this project are presented. (author)

  13. Characteristics of candidate geologies for nuclear waste isolation: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basalt, granite, salt, shale, and tuff formations have been proposed as sites for geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The choice of site will affect the design of the waste package and the accompanying engineered barriers; thus, it is important to know the general properties of each type of repository rock in order to tailor an effective waste isolation system. In this document, the stratigraphy, chemical and mineral composition, hydrology, and physical properties of each rock type are summarized. Most of the data are site-specific and, in some cases, preliminary. More detailed analyses from other sources are expected to be available at a later date. 88 references

  14. Disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear research facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Maxeiner, H; Kolbe, E

    2003-01-01

    Swiss radioactive wastes originate from nuclear power plants (NPP) and from medicine (e.g. radiation sources), industry (e.g. fire detectors) and research (e.g. CERN, PSI). Their conditioning, characterisation and documentation has to meet the demands given by the Swiss regulatory authorities including all information needed for a safe disposal in future repositories. For NPP wastes, arisings as well as the processes responsible for the buildup of short and long lived radionuclides are well known, and the conditioning procedures are established. The radiological inventories are determined on a routinely basis using a combined system of measurements and calculational programs. For waste from research, the situation is more complicated. The wide spectrum of different installations combined with a poorly known history of primary and secondary radiation results in heterogeneous waste sorts with radiological inventories quite different from NPP waste and difficult to measure long lived radionuclides. In order to c...

  15. Collaboration, Automation, and Information Management at Hanford High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Tank Farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), operator of High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Tank Farms at the Hanford Site, is taking an over 20-year leap in technology, replacing systems that were monitored with clipboards and obsolete computer systems, as well as solving major operations and maintenance hurdles in the area of process automation and information management. While WRPS is fully compliant with procedures and regulations, the current systems are not integrated and do not share data efficiently, hampering how information is obtained and managed

  16. Collaboration, Automation, and Information Management at Hanford High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Tank Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurah, Mirwaise Y.; Roberts, Mark A.

    2013-12-12

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), operator of High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Tank Farms at the Hanford Site, is taking an over 20-year leap in technology, replacing systems that were monitored with clipboards and obsolete computer systems, as well as solving major operations and maintenance hurdles in the area of process automation and information management. While WRPS is fully compliant with procedures and regulations, the current systems are not integrated and do not share data efficiently, hampering how information is obtained and managed.

  17. Nuclear waste management. Quarterly progress report, January-March, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikalla, T.D.; Powell, J.A. (comp.)

    1981-06-01

    Reports and summaries are provided for the following programs: high-level waste process development; alternative waste forms; nuclear waste materials characterization center; TRU waste immobilization; TRU waste decontamination; krypton solidification; thermal outgassing; iodine-129 fixation; NWVP off-gas analysis; monitoring and physical characterization of unsaturated zone transport; well-logging instrumentation development; verification instrument development; mobility of organic complexes of radionuclide in soils; low-level waste generation reduction handbook; waste management system studies; assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems; waste/rock interactions technology program; high-level waste form preparation; development of backfill materials; development of structural engineered barriers; disposal charge analysis; analysis of spent fuel policy implementation; spent fuel and pool component integrity program; analysis of postulated criticality events in a storage array of spent LWR fuel; asphalt emulsion sealing of uranium mill tailings; liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings; multilayer barriers for sealing of uranium tailings; application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings; and revegetation of inactive uranium tailings sites.

  18. THE NOx SYSTEM in NUCLEAR WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the project was to develop comprehensive quantitative understanding of the radiation-induced chemistry of the NOX system in waste simulants. Similarly, since the tanks' wastes are highly heterogeneous systems, the effects of particulate matter on the radiolytic yields were to be determined. When translated to site-specific concerns, quantitative modeling of these processes can be developed once the fundamental phenomena are understood. The results were to be transferred to site operators as soon as the experimental observations are confirmed to be reliable. Interpretation of the results and conclusions to specific issues, especially safety concerns, at the sites was a major goal

  19. Nuclear Methods for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste: Problems, Perspextives, Cooperative Research - Proceedings of the International Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankhasayev, Zhanat B.; Kurmanov, Hans; Plendl, Mikhail Kh.

    1996-12-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * I. Review of Current Status of Nuclear Transmutation Projects * Accelerator-Driven Systems — Survey of the Research Programs in the World * The Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Waste Concept * Nuclear Waste Transmutation Program in the Czech Republic * Tentative Results of the ISTC Supported Study of the ADTT Plutonium Disposition * Recent Neutron Physics Investigations for the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle * Optimisation of Accelerator Systems for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste * Proton Linac of the Moscow Meson Factory for the ADTT Experiments * II. Computer Modeling of Nuclear Waste Transmutation Methods and Systems * Transmutation of Minor Actinides in Different Nuclear Facilities * Monte Carlo Modeling of Electro-nuclear Processes with Nonlinear Effects * Simulation of Hybrid Systems with a GEANT Based Program * Computer Study of 90Sr and 137Cs Transmutation by Proton Beam * Methods and Computer Codes for Burn-Up and Fast Transients Calculations in Subcritical Systems with External Sources * New Model of Calculation of Fission Product Yields for the ADTT Problem * Monte Carlo Simulation of Accelerator-Reactor Systems * III. Data Basis for Transmutation of Actinides and Fission Products * Nuclear Data in the Accelerator Driven Transmutation Problem * Nuclear Data to Study Radiation Damage, Activation, and Transmutation of Materials Irradiated by Particles of Intermediate and High Energies * Radium Institute Investigations on the Intermediate Energy Nuclear Data on Hybrid Nuclear Technologies * Nuclear Data Requirements in Intermediate Energy Range for Improvement of Calculations of ADTT Target Processes * IV. Experimental Studies and Projects * ADTT Experiments at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center * Neutron Multiplicity Distributions for GeV Proton Induced Spallation Reactions on Thin and Thick Targets of Pb and U * Solid State Nuclear Track Detector and

  20. Operation and acquisition automation of a nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to design the hardware and the software parts of data acquisition and its graphical analyses of a nuclear microprobe. Our realisation was built from a microprocessor 68020 and specialized co-processors on a VME bus. The more important demand was the amount of time required to collect the data and to perform the graphical analyses during the acquisition. To overcome this problem, we adapted a real time operating system and its kernel to our need, and built special graphical processes. (author)

  1. ELMIA Energy and Future 88. Conference E5. Nuclear power phaseout and storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference comprised lectures on the following subjects: - How to maintain availability, quality and safety during the phaseout period to the year 2010. - Demolition of nuclear power plants. - Storage of nuclear waste. - Estimate of risks in a long perspective. - Financing of the phaseout. Separate abstracts were prepared for four sections of this report. (O.S.)

  2. Nuclear power. Nuclear fuel cycle and waste management. 1990-2002. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Power, Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management, issued during the period 1990-2002. It gives a short abstract of these publications along with contents and their costs

  3. Nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle and waste management, 1980-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Power, Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management, issued during the period 1980-1993. It gives a short abstract of these publications along with contents and their costs in Austrian Schillings

  4. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, Christi D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from

  5. Siting Patterns of Nuclear Waste Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Barry D.; Shelley, Fred M.

    1988-01-01

    Provides an inventory of international radioactive waste-management policies and repository siting decisions for North America, Central and South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. This discussion stresses the important role of demographic, geologic, and political factors in siting decisions. (Author/BSR)

  6. International High Level Nuclear Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreschhoff, Gisela; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the radioactive waste management in Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the USSR. Indicates that scientists and statesmen should look beyond their own lifetimes into future centuries and millennia to conduct long-range plans essential to protection of future generations. (CC)

  7. THE NOX SYSTEM IN NUCLEAR WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collaborative program between ANL and PNNL is proposed to study the radiation, and radiation induced, chemistry of the NOx system in waste simulants. The study will develop a computer model providing predictive capabilities for future EM operations including the characterizatio...

  8. Inorganic ion exchangers for nuclear waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clearfield, A.; Bortun, A.; Bortun, L.; Behrens, E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a broad spectrum of inorganic ion exchangers that can be used for a range of applications and separations involving remediation of groundwater and tank wastes. The authors intend to scale-up the most promising exchangers, through partnership with AlliedSignal Inc., to provide samples for testing at various DOE sites. While much of the focus is on exchangers for removal of Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} from highly alkaline tank wastes, especially at Hanford, the authors have also synthesized exchangers for acid wastes, alkaline wastes, groundwater, and mercury, cobalt, and chromium removal. These exchangers are now available for use at DOE sites. Many of the ion exchangers described here are new, and others are improved versions of previously known exchangers. They are generally one of three types: (1) layered compounds, (2) framework or tunnel compounds, and (3) amorphous exchangers in which a gel exchanger is used to bind a fine powder into a bead for column use. Most of these exchangers can be regenerated and used again.

  9. Online sorting of recovered wood waste by automated XRF-technology. Part I: detection of preservative-treated wood waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasem Hasan, A; Schindler, John; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Townsend, Timothy G

    2011-04-01

    Waste wood is frequently contaminated with wood treatment preservatives including chromated copper arsenate (CCA) and alkaline copper quat (ACQ), both of which contain metals which contaminate recycled wood products. The objective of this research was to propose a design for online automated identification of As-based and Cu-based treated wood within the recovered wood waste stream utilizing an X-ray fluorescence (XRF) system, and to evaluate the detection parameters of such system. A full-scale detection unit was used for experimentation. Two main parameters (operational threshold (OT) and measurement time) were evaluated to optimize detection efficiencies. OTs of targeted metals, As and Cu, in wood were reduced to 0.02 and 0.05, respectively. The optimum minimum measurement time of 500 ms resulted in 98%, 91%, and 97% diversion of the As, Cu and Cr mass originally contained in wood, respectively. Comparisons with other detection methods show that XRF technology can potentially fulfill the need for cost-effective processing at large facilities (>30 tons per day) which require the removal of As-based preservatives from their wood waste stream. PMID:21186117

  10. Evolution of 99Tc Species in Cementitious Nuclear Waste Form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium (Tc) is produced in large quantities as a fission product during the irradiation of 235U-enriched fuel for commercial power production and plutonium genesis for nuclear weapons. The most abundant isotope of Tc present in the wastes is 99Tc because of its high fission yield (∼6%) and long half-life (2.13x105 years). During the Cold War era, generation of fissile 239Pu for use in America's atomic weapons arsenal yielded nearly 1900 kg of 99Tc at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Most of this 99Tc is present in fuel reprocessing wastes temporarily stored in underground tanks awaiting retrieval and permanent disposal. After the wastes are retrieved from the storage tanks, the bulk of the high-level waste (HLW) and lowactivity waste (LAW) stream is scheduled to be converted into a borosilicate glass waste form that will be disposed of in a shallow burial facility called the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the Hanford Site. Even with careful engineering controls, volatilization of a fraction of Tc during the vitrification of both radioactive waste streams is expected. Although this volatilized Tc can be captured in melter off-gas scrubbers and returned to the melter, some of the Tc is expected to become part of the secondary waste stream from the vitrification process. The off-gas scrubbers downstream from the melters will generate a high pH, sodium-ammonium carbonate solution containing the volatilized Tc and other fugitive species. Effective and cost-efficient disposal of Tc found in the off-gas scrubber solution remains difficult. A cementitious waste form (Cast Stone) is one of the nuclear waste form candidates being considered to solidify the secondary radioactive liquid waste that will be generated by the operation of the waste treatment plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site. Because Tc leachability from the waste form is closely related with Tc speciation or oxidation state in both the simulant and

  11. Radiation effects in nuclear waste materials. 1998 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W.J.; Corrales, L.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (US); Birtcher, R.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (US); Nastasi, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US)

    1998-06-01

    'The objective of this multidisciplinary, multi-institutional research effort is to develop a fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics at the atomic, microscopic, and macroscopic levels. The goal is to provide the underpinning science and models necessary to assess the performance of glasses and ceramics designed for the immobilization and disposal of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues, excess weapons plutonium, and other highly radioactive waste streams. A variety of experimental and computer simulation methods are employed in this effort. In general, research on glasses focuses on the electronic excitations due to ionizing radiation emitted from beta decay, since this is currently thought to be the principal mechanism for deleterious radiation effects in nuclear waste glasses. Research on ceramics focuses on defects and structural changes induced by the elastic interactions between alpha-decay particles and the atoms in the structure. Radiation effects can lead to changes in physical and chemical properties that may significantly impact long-term performance of nuclear waste materials. The current lack of fundamental understanding of radiation effects in nuclear waste materials makes it impossible to extrapolate the limited existing data bases to larger doses, lower dose rates, different temperature regimes, and different glass compositions or ceramic structures. This report summarizes work after almost 2 years of a 3-year project. Work to date has resulted in 9 publications. Highlights of the research over the past year are presented.'

  12. Radiation and Thermal Effects on Used Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, William J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Zhang, Yanwen [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2016-09-20

    This is the final report of the NEUP project “Radiation and Thermal Effects on Used Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Waste Forms.” This project started on July 1, 2012 and was successfully completed on June 30, 2016. This report provides an overview of the main achievements, results and findings through the duration of the project. Additional details can be found in the main body of this report and in the individual Quarterly Reports and associated Deliverables of this project, which have been uploaded in PICS-NE. The objective of this research was to advance understanding and develop validated models on the effects of self-radiation from beta and alpha decay on the response of used nuclear fuel and nuclear waste forms during high-temperature interim storage and long-term permanent disposition. To achieve this objective, model used-fuel materials and model waste form materials were identified, fabricated, and studied.

  13. Plan 95. Cost for the radioactive wastes from nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future cost for handling, storing and disposing of radioactive wastes from the Swedish nuclear power plants are calculated. Total future cost from 1996 are estimated to 44,7 billion SEK during 60 years. Up to 1995 10,1 billion SEK have been spent

  14. Effects of composition, solutions, and burial on nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last six months efforts in our laboratory have concentrated upon identifying the relative importance of a number of systems variables on the mechanisms and rates of surface attack of nuclear waste glasses. These studies have been conducted in collaboration with the Savannah River Laboratory and Pacific Northwest Laboratory in the US; SKBF/Project KBS and Studsvik Nuclear Laboratory in Sweden; Marcoule Nuclear Laboratory and the University of Montpellier in France. A preliminary investigation of a nuclear waste ceramic has recently been initiated as well in collaboration with Rockwell International. The systems variables under consideration in our studies include: (1) glass composition; (2) waste percentage; (3) waste type; (4) leachant composition; (5) cyclic corrosion; (6) flow rate; (7) simulated geologic environment; (8) in-situ burial tests; (9) effects of overpacks and backfill materials; and (10) quality control test procedures. Progress in each of these areas are briefly reviewed with references as to the title, authors, and location of more lengthy papers on reports presenting details of the studies. 16 figures, 2 tables

  15. State and local government regulation of nuclear waste transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), authorizes the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) to promulgate rules governing the safe transportation in commerce of hazardous materials, including nuclear waste. The HMTA further provides that any state or local government requirement is preempted and thus invalid if it is inconsistent with a DOT requirement issued pursuant to the HMTA

  16. Leaching of polyphase nuclear waste ceramics: microstructural and phase characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alumina-based ceramics are potential materials for storage of nuclear wastes. Static leach tests conducted on ceramic monoliths in deionized water, in simulated silicate, and in brine groundwaters, conforming to Materials Characterization Center standards and an accelerated, microscopic leach test, were used to identify the processes. Dissolution and formation of surface passivation layers are discussed. 40 refs

  17. The IAEA safety standards for radiation, waste and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a brief description of the standards for radiation, waste and nuclear safety established by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). It provides a historical overview of their development and also summarizes the standards' current preparation and review process. The final paragraphs offer an outlook on future developments. (author)

  18. Factor of radioactive waste on nuclear power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global warming phenomena and rising oil prices have brought the excitement of open space use of nuclear power. Arguments in favor of this technology range in terms of more environmentally friendly, energy diversification and cost efficiency has prompted the government to widen the choice of nuclear power be considered as a serious alternative. Despite the attractive factors to the use of these powers, there are also factors that stem from the continued development of nuclear power. These include the factor of safety, security, security of fuel supply, and public attention is often associated with radioactive waste management. This article attempts to debate specific to radioactive waste management factors that impact on public acceptance of a country's nuclear power program, especially in Malaysia. Starting from the absence of radioactive waste management policy to model uncertainty of the landfill and complications in selecting a repository site shows the basic infrastructure is still lacking. In addition, previous experience handling thorium waste has not reached a final settlement after several years of implementation. It reinforced the perception about the level of public confidence in the competence and attitude of local workers who are not very encouraging to pursue this advanced.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF INORGANIC ION EXCHANGERS FOR NUCLEAR WASTE REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research is concerned with the development of highly selective inorganic ion exchangers for the removal of primarily Cs+ and Sr2+ from nuclear tank waste and from groundwater. In this study, we will probe the, origins of selectivity through detailed structural studies and th...

  20. Managing nuclear waste: Social and economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research has focused on perceptions of risk dominant source of economic impacts due to siting a high level radioactive waste facility. This article addresses the social and economic considerations involved with the issue of risk perception and other types of negative imagery. Emphasis is placed on ways of measuring the potential for economic effects resulting from perceptions prior to construction and operation of a HLW facility. We describe the problems in arriving at defensible estimates of economic impacts. Our review has found that although legal and regulatory bases may soon allow inclusion of these impacts in EIS and for compensation purposes, credible scientific methods do not currently exist for predicting the existence or magnitude of changes in economic decision-making. Policy-makers should recognize the potential for perception-based economic impacts in determining the location and means of managing radioactive waste; but, they also need be cognizant of the current limitations of quantitative estimates of impacts in this area

  1. Innovative waste treatment and conditioning technologies at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this publication is to provide Member States with information on the most innovative technologies and strategies used in waste treatment and conditioning. At present, some of those technologies and strategies might not be widely implemented at nuclear power plants (NPP), but they have an important potential for their use as part of the long range NPP, utility, or national strategy. Thus, the target audience is those decision makers at the national and organizational level responsible for selecting waste processing technologies and strategies over a period of three to ten years. Countries and individual nuclear plants have limited financial resources which can be applied toward radioactive waste processing (treatment and conditioning). They are challenged to determine which of the many available technologies and strategies are best suited to meet national or local needs. This publication reduces the selection of processes for wastes generated by nuclear power plants to those technologies and strategies which are considered innovative. The report further identifies the key benefits which may derive from the adoption of those technologies, the different waste streams to which each technology is relevant, and the limitations of the technologies. The technologies and strategies identified have been evaluated to differentiate between (1) predominant technologies (those that are widely practiced in multiple countries or a large number of nuclear plants), and (2) innovative technologies (those which are not so widely used but are considered to offer benefits which make them suitable for broader application across the industry). Those which fall into the second category are the primary focus of this report. Many IAEA publications address the technical aspects of treatment and conditioning for radioactive wastes, covering research, technological advances, and safety issues. These studies and reports primarily target the research and technical staff of a

  2. Evaluation of the transport and resuspension of a simulated nuclear waste slurry: Nuclear Waste Treatment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Idaho conducted research on the transport and resuspension of a simulated high-level nuclear waste slurry. In the United States, the reference process for treating both defense and civilian HLLW is vitrification using the liquid-fed ceramic melter process. The non-Newtonian behavior of the slurry complicates the evaluation of the transport and resuspension characteristics of the slurry. The resuspension of a simulated (nonradioactive) melter feed slurry was evaluated using a slurry designated as WV-205. The simulated slurry was developed for the West Valley Demonstration Project and was used during a pilot-scale ceramic melter (PSCM) experiment conducted at PNL in July 1985 (PSCM-21). This study involved determining the transport characteristics of a fully suspended slurry and the resuspension characteristics of settled solids in a pilot-scale pipe loop. The goal was to predict the transport and resuspension of a full-scale system based on rheological data for a specific slurry. The rheological behavior of the slurry was evaluated using a concentric cylinder rotational viscometer, a capillary tube viscometer, and the pilot-scale pipe loop. The results obtained from the three approaches were compared. 40 refs., 74 figs., 15 tabs

  3. Evaluation of the transport and resuspension of a simulated nuclear waste slurry: Nuclear Waste Treatment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carleson, T.E.; Drown, D.C.; Hart, R.E.; Peterson, M.E.

    1987-09-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Idaho conducted research on the transport and resuspension of a simulated high-level nuclear waste slurry. In the United States, the reference process for treating both defense and civilian HLLW is vitrification using the liquid-fed ceramic melter process. The non-Newtonian behavior of the slurry complicates the evaluation of the transport and resuspension characteristics of the slurry. The resuspension of a simulated (nonradioactive) melter feed slurry was evaluated using a slurry designated as WV-205. The simulated slurry was developed for the West Valley Demonstration Project and was used during a pilot-scale ceramic melter (PSCM) experiment conducted at PNL in July 1985 (PSCM-21). This study involved determining the transport characteristics of a fully suspended slurry and the resuspension characteristics of settled solids in a pilot-scale pipe loop. The goal was to predict the transport and resuspension of a full-scale system based on rheological data for a specific slurry. The rheological behavior of the slurry was evaluated using a concentric cylinder rotational viscometer, a capillary tube viscometer, and the pilot-scale pipe loop. The results obtained from the three approaches were compared. 40 refs., 74 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Modelling and automation of the process of phosphate ion removal from waste waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lupa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate removal from waste waters has become an environmental necessity, since these phosphates stimulate the growth of aquatic plants and planktons and contribute to the eutrophication process in general. The physicochemical methods of phosphate ion removal are the most effective and reliable. This paper presents studies on the process of phosphate ion removal from waste waters resulting from the fertiliser industry’s use of the method of co-precipitation with iron salts and with calcium hydroxide as the neutralizing agent. The optimal process conditions were established as those that allow achievement of a maximum degree of separation of the phosphate ions. The precipitate resulting from the co-precipitation process was analysed for chemical composition and establishment of thermal and structural stability, and the aim was also to establish in which form the phosphate ions in the formed precipitate can be found. Based on these considerations, the experimental data obtained in the process of phosphate ion removal from waste waters were analysed mathematically and the equations for the dependence of the degree of phosphate separation and residual concentration versus the main parameters of the process were formulated. In this paper an automated scheme for the phosphate ion removal from waste waters by co-precipitation is presented.

  5. Taxation of nuclear waste in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Rozas Valdés, José Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Law 15/2012 established in Spain four new environmental taxes and extended the scope objective excise duties on mineral oils to tax the use of natural gas and coal as sources of electricity. One of the newly created taxes falls on all electric power producers, and has as tax base the turnover. The second one tax hydropower production, and the other two fall on the nuclear industry. So, there are two new taxes in Spain on the production of electricity from nuclear sources. The first one is a t...

  6. Progress on radiochemical analysis for nuclear waste management in decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, X. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Center for Nuclear Technologies (NuTech), Roskilde (Denmark))

    2012-01-15

    This report summarized the progress in the development and improvement of radioanalytical methods for decommissioning and waste management completed in the NKS-B RadWaste 2011 project. Based on the overview information of the analytical methods in Nordic laboratories and requirement from the nuclear industry provided in the first phase of the RadWaste project (2010), some methods were improved and developed. A method for efficiently separation of Nb from nuclear waste especially metals for measurement of long-lived 94Nb by gamma spectrometry was developed. By systematic investigation of behaviours of technetium in sample treatment and chromatographic separation process, an effective method was developed for the determination of low level 99Tc in waste samples. An AMS approachment was investigated to measure ultra low level 237Np using 242Pu for AMS normalization, the preliminary results show a high potential of this method. Some progress on characterization of waste for decommissioning of Danish DR3 is also presented. (Author)

  7. A review and overview of nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1984-12-31

    An understanding of the status and issues in the management of radioactive wastes is based on technical information on radioactivity, radiation, biological hazard of radiation exposure, radiation standards, and methods of protection. The fission process gives rise to radioactive fission products and neutron bombardment gives activation products. Radioactive wastes are classified according to source: defense, commercial, industrial, and institutional; and according to physical features: uranium mill tailings, high-level, transuranic, and low-level. The nuclear fuel cycle, which contributes a large fraction of annual radioactive waste, starts with uranium ore, includes nuclear reactor use for electrical power generation, and ends with ultimate disposal of residues. The relation of spent fuel storage and reprocessing is governed by technical, economic, and political considerations. Waste has been successfully solidified in glass and other forms and choices of the containers for the waste form are available. Methods of disposal of high-level waste that have been investigated are transmutation by neutron bombardment, shipment to Antartica, deep-hole insertion, subseabed placement, transfer by rocket to an orbit in space, and disposal in a mined cavity. The latter is the favored method. The choices of host geological media are salt, basalt, tuff, and granite.

  8. Toward an automated analysis of slow ions in nuclear track emulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Mamatkulov, K Z; Ambrozova, I; Artemenkov, D A; Bradnova, V; Kamanin, D V; Majling, L; Marey, A; Ploc, O; Rusakova, V V; Stanoeva, R; Turek, K; Zaitsev, A A; Zarubin, P I; Zarubina, I G

    2015-01-01

    Application of the nuclear track emulsion technique (NTE) in radioactivity and nuclear fission studies is discussed. It is suggested to use a HSP-1000 automated microscope for searching for a collinear cluster tri-partition of heavy nuclei implanted in NTE. Calibrations of $\\alpha $-particles and ion ranges in a novel NTE are carried out. Surface exposures of NTE samples to a ${}^{252}$Cf source started. Planar events containing fragments and long-range $\\alpha $-particles as well as fragment triples only are studied. NTE samples are calibrated by ions Kr and Xe of energy of 1.2 and 3 A MeV.

  9. The suitability of a supersulfated cement for nuclear waste immobilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, N.C., E-mail: nick.collier@sheffield.ac.uk [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Milestone, N.B. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Callaghan Innovation, 69 Gracefield Road, PO Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand); Gordon, L.E. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Geopolymer and Minerals Processing Group, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Ko, S.-C. [Holcim Technology Ltd, Hagenholzstrasse 85, CH-8050 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We investigate a supersulfated cement for use as a nuclear waste encapsulant. • High powder fineness requires a high water content to satisfy flow requirements. • Heat generation during hydration is similar to a control cement paste. • Typical hydration products are formed resulting in a high potential for waste ion immobilisation. • Paste pH and aluminium corrosion is less than in a control cement paste. - Abstract: Composite cements based on ordinary Portland cement are used in the UK as immobilisation matrices for low and intermediate level nuclear wastes. However, the high pore solution pH causes corrosion of some metallic wastes and undesirable expansive reactions, which has led to alternative cementing systems being examined. We have investigated the physical, chemical and microstructural properties of a supersulfated cement in order to determine its applicability for use in nuclear waste encapsulation. The hardened supersulfated cement paste appeared to have properties desirable for use in producing encapsulation matrices, but the high powder specific surface resulted in a matrix with high porosity. Ettringite and calcium silicate hydrate were the main phases formed in the hardened cement paste and anhydrite was present in excess. The maximum rate of heat output during hydration of the supersulfated cement paste was slightly higher than that of a 9:1 blastfurnace slag:ordinary Portland cement paste commonly used by the UK nuclear waste processing industry, although the total heat output of the supersulfated cement paste was lower. The pH was also significantly lower in the supersulfated cement paste. Aluminium hydroxide was formed on the surface of aluminium metal encapsulated in the cement paste and ettringite was detected between the aluminium hydroxide and the hardened cement paste.

  10. Public perception on nuclear energy and radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final destination of the waste generated in a nuclear power plant remains a big challenge. The question is not only the radiation emitted by the sources, in some cases for many years, but also the public acceptance of this theme. In many countries where a nuclear waste storage facility has to be built, the local population of the chosen site did not accept it at first, and the whole process had to restart including this variable. In the past, the population opinion was considered not relevant but several international experiences showed that in fact it can not be forgotten. Statistical data show that a significant fraction of the population of the world has many concerns about nuclear energy and its potential impacts. Although many experts state that it has environmental advantages, such as the absence of greenhouse gases emissions, the subject is still the target of never ending discussions. But it is a concrete fact that the sector is growing in many countries. The objective of this article is to summarize several experiences in many countries associated with nuclear energy, mainly those ones that involve nuclear storage facilities, and its acceptance by the public. This task can help CNEN in the studies associated with the RMBN project - Repository for Radioactive Waste with Low and Medium Levels of Radiation. (author)

  11. Development of an automated testing system for verification and validation of nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verification and validation of nuclear data is critical to the accuracy of both stochastic and deterministic particle transport codes. In order to effectively test a set of nuclear data, the data must be applied to a wide variety of transport problems. Performing this task in a timely, efficient manner is tedious. The nuclear data team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in collaboration with the University of Florida is developing a methodology to automate the process of nuclear data verification and validation. The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiment Project (ICSBEP) provides a set of criticality problems that may be used to evaluate nuclear data. This process tests a number of data libraries using cases from the ICSBEP benchmark set to demonstrate how automation of these tasks may reduce errors and increase efficiency. The process is driven by an integrated set of Python scripts. Material and geometry data may be read from an existing code input file to generate a standardized template or the template may be generated directly by the user The user specifies the desired precision and other vital problem parameters. The Python scripts generate input decks for multiple transport codes from these templates, run and monitor individual jobs, and parse the relevant output. This output can then be used to generate reports directly or can be stored into a database for later analysis. This methodology eases the burden on the user by reducing the amount of time and effort required for obtaining and compiling calculation results. (authors)

  12. Can Shale Safely Host U.S. Nuclear Waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, C. E.

    2013-07-01

    Even as cleanup efforts after Japan's Fukushima disaster offer a stark reminder of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stored at nuclear plants worldwide, the decision in 2009 to scrap Yucca Mountain as a permanent disposal site has dimmed hope for a repository for SNF and other high-level nuclear waste (HLW) in the United States anytime soon. About 70,000 metric tons of SNF are now in pool or dry cask storage at 75 sites across the United States [Government Accountability Office, 2012], and uncertainty about its fate is hobbling future development of nuclear power, increasing costs for utilities, and creating a liability for American taxpayers [Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future, 2012].

  13. Automation of statistical analysis in the WIPP hazardous waste facility permit for analytical results from characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One goal of characterizing, processing, and shipping waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is to make all activities as efficient as possible. Data management and repetitive calculations are a critical part of the process that can be automated, thereby increasing the accuracy and rate at which work is completed and reducing costs. This paper presents the tools developed to automate statistical analysis and other calculations required by the WIPP Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (HWFP). Statistical analyses are performed on the analytical results on gas samples from the headspace of waste containers and solid samples from the core of the waste container. The calculations include determining the number of samples, test for the shape of the distribution of the analytical results, mean, standard deviation, upper 90-percent confidence limit of the mean, and the minimum required Waste Acceptance Plan (WAP) sample size. The input data for these calculations are from the batch data reports for headspace gas analytical results and solids analysis, which must also be obtained and collated for proper use. The most challenging component of the statistical analysis, if performed manually, is the determination of the distribution shape; therefore, the distribution testing is typically performed using a certified software tool. All other calculations can be completed manually, with a spreadsheet, custom developed software, and/or certified software tool. Out of the options available, manually performing the calculations or using a spreadsheet are the least desirable. These methods rely heavily on the availability of an expert, such as a statistician, to perform the calculation. These methods are also more open to human error such as transcription or 'cut and paste' errors. A SAS program is in the process of being developed to perform the calculations. Due to the potential size of the data input files and the need to archive the data in an accessible format, the SAS

  14. Nuclear Waste Removal Using Particle Beams Incineration with Fast Neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Revol, Jean Pierre Charles

    1997-01-01

    The management of nuclear waste is one of the major obstacles to the acceptability of nuclear power as a main source of energy for the future. TARC, a new experiment at CERN, is testing the practicality of Carlo Rubbia's idea to make use of Adiabatic Resonance Crossing to transmute long-lived fission fragments into short-lived or stable nuclides. Spallation neutrons produced in a large Lead assembly have a high probability to be captured at the energies of cross-section resonances in elements such as 99Tc, 129I, etc. An accelerator-driven sub-critical device using Thorium (Energy Amplifier) would be very effective in eliminating TRansUranic elements which constitute the most dangerous part of nuclear waste while producing from it large amounts of energy. In addition, such a system could transform, at a high rate and little energetic cost, long-lived fission fragments into short-lived elements.

  15. Public scandal about the nuclear waste treatment industry. Der Atommuellskandal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    The events leading to the public scandal are summarized into three main items: (1) Accusation for taking bribe in the form of money and in kind. (2) Suspicion of false labelling of radioactive waste. (3) Suspicion of offense against the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The survey in hand is intended to prepare a sober judgement of the situation by: stating the facts and their significance in terms of safety; explaining the various types of radioactive wastes, their treatment and the quantities involved; explaining the legal provisions for transport of radioactive materials; discussing the problem of nuclear waste management in terms of quantity. The lesson to be drawn is that controls and further means of quality assurance are required to make the pathways of radioactive wastes are pellucid and verifiable. (orig./HSCH).

  16. Radioactive Waste Management in Non-Nuclear Countries - 13070

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubelka, Dragan; Trifunovic, Dejan [SORNS, Frankopanska 11, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2013-07-01

    This paper challenges internationally accepted concepts of dissemination of responsibilities between all stakeholders involved in national radioactive waste management infrastructure in the countries without nuclear power program. Mainly it concerns countries classified as class A and potentially B countries according to International Atomic Energy Agency. It will be shown that in such countries long term sustainability of national radioactive waste management infrastructure is very sensitive issue that can be addressed by involving regulatory body in more active way in the infrastructure. In that way countries can mitigate possible consequences on the very sensitive open market of radioactive waste management services, comprised mainly of radioactive waste generators, operators of end-life management facilities and regulatory body. (authors)

  17. Hydrogen production associated to the treatment of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exploitation of nuclear energy produces radioactive waste. However, many radioactive waste treatment processes can be adapted to generate hydrogen as a by-product, thereby helping to further decrease CO2 emissions through the use of hydrogen as an energy vector. Two examples are given: 1) the aggressive decontamination of metallic pieces, and 2) the electro-mediated oxidation of organic radioactive waste. Preliminary results obtained at the SCKxCEN in collaboration with the University of Liege indicate that hydrogen production can often be technically and economically combined with waste treatment, although the hydrogen production rate remains marginal with respect to large-scale water electrolysis. Further R and D work is needed in the field, but the resulting know-how would allow for an increase in the competitiveness of the electrolytic production of hydrogen in general (especially whenever membrane processes are being considered). (authors)

  18. Costs of nuclear waste glassmaking at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently developed reference schedules for processing high-level nuclear wastes into solid glass froms at Savannah River provide bases for economic evaluations of potential improvements of glass melter design and operation. Greater melter output is achieved through increases in capacity and attainment and possible higher glass waste loadings. The economic evaluation indicates only minor beneficial impacts on total waste disposal costs for melter outputs greater than current reference values. In contrast, cost impacts are detrimentally large for outputs less than reference values, providing important incentives for development to ensure the reference output. The limits on cost benefits for greater-than-reference output are not intrinsic to on melter feed specified to control radiation and heat loads of the product glass waste form. 14 ref., 3 figs., 1 tab

  19. Rock mechanics for hard rock nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mined geologic burial of high level nuclear waste is now the favored option for disposal. The US National Waste Terminal Storage Program designed to achieve this disposal includes an extensive rock mechanics component related to the design of the wastes repositories. The plan currently considers five candidate rock types. This paper deals with the three hard rocks among them: basalt, granite, and tuff. Their behavior is governed by geological discontinuities. Salt and shale, which exhibit behavior closer to that of a continuum, are not considered here. This paper discusses both the generic rock mechanics R and D, which are required for repository design, as well as examples of projects related to hard rock waste storage. The examples include programs in basalt (Hanford/Washington), in granitic rocks (Climax/Nevada Test Site, Idaho Springs/Colorado, Pinawa/Canada, Oracle/Arizona, and Stripa/Sweden), and in tuff

  20. Compositional threshold for nuclear waste glass durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooqi, Rahmatullah; Hrma, Pavel [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    The issue of major concern with the waste form, such as glass, is its chemical durability, I. e., the resistance to corrosion by aqueous media. A number of standard durability tests have been established for waste glasses, among which the product consistency test was selected as a criterion of HLW glass acceptability for the repository subsequently, a large PCT database has been collected containing over 1000 glasses. Such a database allows the development of models that relate PCT releases to glass is a strong function of composition, these models are used to formulate acceptable glasses in which the waste loading is maximized. Within the composition space of glasses, a distinct threshold appears to exist that separates 'good' glasses, I. e. these which are sufficiently durable, from 'bad' glasses of a low durability. According to Populate al., transition region between durable and less durable glasses lies around 2a m{sup -2} as determined by the 7-day PCT normalized B release. The objective of our research is to clarify the origin of this threshold by exploring the relationship between glass composition, glass structure and chemical durability around the threshold region. Our study is focused on the corrosion behavior of SiO{sub 2} - B{sub 2}O{sub 3} - Na{sub 2}O - Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} - Colleagues composition region. In particular, we try to identify the durability threshold separating durable from nondurable glasses in the composition space. So far we have explored the elemental releases of Na and B measured with the 7-day PCT.

  1. Risks from proposed nuclear waste dump unacceptable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author has a critical look at the proposal by Pangea Resources Australia Pty Ltd (PARPL) to establish in Australia a permanent underground disposal site for radioactive waste from around the world. In his opinion, the inevitable risk in the proposal stems from the magnitudes: 250,000 tonnes of enormously dangerous RADwaste in the northern hemisphere 20,000 km from its destined dump in Australia, where it must remain intact for at least 10,000 years. These magnitudes - of tonnage, lethality, distance of transport, and time - entail great inherent risk. He also argue that the job of the Australian scientists is to apply due diligence to PARPL proposal

  2. Disposal of nuclear wastes by transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of the feasibility of partition and transmutation (P-T) of actinides, 99Tc, and 129I in radioactive wastes. An incremental analysis was performed on a reference fuel cycle and a P-T fuel cycle. Short-term risks from fuel cycle operations and long-term risks from a repository were estimated for cases with and without P-T. Results show that P-T cannot be justified because of the small radiological benefits and substantially increased costs. 1 table

  3. Natural radiation, nuclear wastes and chemical pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doses from natural radiation to the population in the Nordic Countries are summarized and man made modifications of the natural radiation environment are discussed. An account is given of the radiological consequences of energy conservation by reduced ventilation. Risks from possible future releases of radioactivity from final repositories of spent nuclear fuel are compared to the risks from present natural radioactivity in the environment. The possibilities for comparison between chemical and radiological risks are discussed. (author) 13 refs

  4. Nuclear waste package materials testing report: basaltic and tuffaceous environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D.J.; Coles, D.G.; Hodges, F.N.; McVay, G.L.; Westerman, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    The disposal of high-level nuclear wastes in underground repositories in the continental United States requires the development of a waste package that will contain radionuclides for a time period commensurate with performance criteria, which may be up to 1000 years. This report addresses materials testing in support of a waste package for a basalt (Hanford, Washington) or a tuff (Nevada Test Site) repository. The materials investigated in this testing effort were: sodium and calcium bentonites and mixtures with sand or basalt as a backfill; iron and titanium-based alloys as structural barriers; and borosilicate waste glass PNL 76-68 as a waste form. The testing also incorporated site-specific rock media and ground waters: Reference Umtanum Entablature-1 basalt and reference basalt ground water, Bullfrog tuff and NTS J-13 well water. The results of the testing are discussed in four major categories: Backfill Materials: emphasizing water migration, radionuclide migration, physical property and long-term stability studies. Structural Barriers: emphasizing uniform corrosion, irradiation-corrosion, and environmental-mechanical testing. Waste Form Release Characteristics: emphasizing ground water, sample surface area/solution volume ratio, and gamma radiolysis effects. Component Compatibility: emphasizing solution/rock, glass/rock, glass/structural barrier, and glass/backfill interaction tests. This area also includes sensitivity testing to determine primary parameters to be studied, and the results of systems tests where more than two waste package components were combined during a single test.

  5. Nuclear waste package materials testing report: basaltic and tuffaceous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disposal of high-level nuclear wastes in underground repositories in the continental United States requires the development of a waste package that will contain radionuclides for a time period commensurate with performance criteria, which may be up to 1000 years. This report addresses materials testing in support of a waste package for a basalt (Hanford, Washington) or a tuff (Nevada Test Site) repository. The materials investigated in this testing effort were: sodium and calcium bentonites and mixtures with sand or basalt as a backfill; iron and titanium-based alloys as structural barriers; and borosilicate waste glass PNL 76-68 as a waste form. The testing also incorporated site-specific rock media and ground waters: Reference Umtanum Entablature-1 basalt and reference basalt ground water, Bullfrog tuff and NTS J-13 well water. The results of the testing are discussed in four major categories: Backfill Materials: emphasizing water migration, radionuclide migration, physical property and long-term stability studies. Structural Barriers: emphasizing uniform corrosion, irradiation-corrosion, and environmental-mechanical testing. Waste Form Release Characteristics: emphasizing ground water, sample surface area/solution volume ratio, and gamma radiolysis effects. Component Compatibility: emphasizing solution/rock, glass/rock, glass/structural barrier, and glass/backfill interaction tests. This area also includes sensitivity testing to determine primary parameters to be studied, and the results of systems tests where more than two waste package components were combined during a single test

  6. A proliferation of nuclear waste for the Southeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Robert; Smith, Stephen

    2007-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is being promoted as a program to bring about the expansion of worldwide nuclear energy. Here in the U.S. much of this proposed nuclear power expansion is slated to happen in the Southeast, including here in South Carolina. Under the GNEP plan, the United States and its nuclear partners would sell nuclear power plants to developing nations that agree not to pursue technologies that would aid nuclear weapons production, notably reprocessing and uranium enrichment. As part of the deal, the United States would take highly radioactive spent ("used") fuel rods to a reprocessing center in this country. Upon analysis of the proposal, it is clear that DOE lacks a credible plan for the safe management and disposal of radioactive wastes stemming from the GNEP program and that the high costs and possible public health and environmental impacts from the program pose significant risks, especially to this region. Given past failures to address waste problems before they were created, DOE's rush to invest major public funds for deployment of reprocessing should be suspended.

  7. Swedish Nuclear Waste Management from Theory to Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programme has evolved from a project of a few experts drawing up the outline of what today is a comprehensive programme of research, development, demonstration, design, construction and operation of facilities for radioactive waste management. The Swedish programme was greatly influenced at an early stage by political actions, which included placing the responsibility with the reactor owners to demonstrate safe disposal of spent nuclear fuel and also to fund a disposal programme. The response of the reactor owners was to immediately start the KBS project. Its third report in 1983 described the KBS-3 concept, which is still the basis for SKB's deep geological repository system. Thus, this year is the 25th anniversary of the creation of the well-known KBS-3 concept. The SKB programme for nuclear waste management is today divided in two sub programmes; LILW Programme and the Nuclear Fuel Programme. The LILW Programme is entering into a new phase with the imminent site investigations for the expansion of the SFR LILW repository, which is in operation since 1988, to accept also decommissioning waste. The expansion of SFR is driven by a government decision urging SKB to investigate when a licensing of a repository for decommissioning waste can be made

  8. Modeling of radiation effects on nuclear waste package materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology is developed for the assessment of radiation effects on nuclear waste package materials. An assessment of the current status of understanding with regard to waste package materials and their behavior in radiation environments is presented. The methodology is used to make prediction as to the chemically induced changes in the groundwater surrounding nuclear waste packages in a repository in tuff. The predictions indicate that mechanisms not currently being pursued by the Department of Energy may be a factor in the long-term performance of nuclear waste packages. The methodology embodies a physical model of the effects of radiation on aqueous solutions. Coupled to the physical model is a method for analyzing the complex nature of the physical model using adjoint sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity aid in both the physical understanding of the processes involved as well as aiding in eliminating portions of the model that have no bearing on the desired results. A computer implementation of the methodology is provided. 128 refs

  9. The suitability of a supersulfated cement for nuclear waste immobilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, N. C.; Milestone, N. B.; Gordon, L. E.; Ko, S.-C.

    2014-09-01

    Composite cements based on ordinary Portland cement are used in the UK as immobilisation matrices for low and intermediate level nuclear wastes. However, the high pore solution pH causes corrosion of some metallic wastes and undesirable expansive reactions, which has led to alternative cementing systems being examined. We have investigated the physical, chemical and microstructural properties of a supersulfated cement in order to determine its applicability for use in nuclear waste encapsulation. The hardened supersulfated cement paste appeared to have properties desirable for use in producing encapsulation matrices, but the high powder specific surface resulted in a matrix with high porosity. Ettringite and calcium silicate hydrate were the main phases formed in the hardened cement paste and anhydrite was present in excess. The maximum rate of heat output during hydration of the supersulfated cement paste was slightly higher than that of a 9:1 blastfurnace slag:ordinary Portland cement paste commonly used by the UK nuclear waste processing industry, although the total heat output of the supersulfated cement paste was lower. The pH was also significantly lower in the supersulfated cement paste. Aluminium hydroxide was formed on the surface of aluminium metal encapsulated in the cement paste and ettringite was detected between the aluminium hydroxide and the hardened cement paste.

  10. Groundwater chemistry of a nuclear waste reposoitory in granite bedrock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    This report concerns the prediction of the maximum dissolution rate for nuclear waste stored in the ground. That information is essential in judging the safety of a nuclear waste repository. With a limited groundwater flow, the maximum dissolution rate coincides with the maximum solubility. After considering the formation and composition of deep granite bedrock groundwater, the report discusses the maximum solubility in such groundwater of canister materials, matrix materials and waste elements. The parameters considered are pH, Eh and complex formation. The use of potential-pH (Pourbaix) diagrams is stressed; several appendixes are included to help in analyzing such diagrams. It is repeatedly found that desirable basic information on solution chemistry is lacking, and an international cooperative research effort is recommended. The report particularly stresses the lack of reliable data about complex formation and hydrolysis of the actinides. The Swedish Nuclear Fuel Safety (KBS) study has been used as a reference model. Notwithstanding the lack of reliable chemical data, particularly for the actinides and some fission products, a number of essential conclusions can be drawn about the waste handling model chosen by KBS. (1) Copper seems to be highly resistant to groundwater corrosion. (2) Lead and titanium are also resistant to groundwater, but inferior to copper. (3) Iron is not a suitable canister material. (4) Alumina (Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) is not a suitable canister material if groundwater pH goes up to or above 10. Alumina is superior to copper at pH < 9, if there is a risk of the groundwater becoming oxidizing. (5) The addition of vivianite (ferrous phosphate) to the clay backfill around the waste canisters improves the corrosion resistance of the metal canisters, and reduces the solubility of many important waste elements. This report does not treat the migration of dissolved species through the rock.

  11. Nuclear waste governance. An international comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnengraeber, Achim; Di Nucci, Maria Rosaria; Isidoro Losada, Ana Maria; Mez, Lutz; Schreurs, Miranda A. (eds.) [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    This volume examines the national plans that ten Euratom countries plus Switzerland and the United States are developing to address high-level radioactive waste storage and disposal. The chapters, which were written by 23 international experts, outline European and national regulations, technology choices, safety criteria, monitoring systems, compensation schemes, institutional structures, and approaches to public involvement. Key stakeholders, their values and interests are introduced, the responsibilities and authority of different actors considered, decision-making processes are analyzed as well as the factors influencing different national policy choices. The views and expectations of different communities regarding participatory decision making and compensation and the steps that have been or are being taken to promote dialogue and constructive problem-solving are also considered.

  12. Periglacial phenomena affecting nuclear waste disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niini, H.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Slow future changes in astronomic phenomena seem to make it likely that Finland nll suffer several cold periods during the next 100,000 years. The paper analyses the characteristics of the periglacial factors that are most likely to influence the long-term safety of high-level radioactive waste disposed of in bedrock. These factors and their influences have been divided into two categories, natural and human. It is concluded that the basically natural phenomena are theoretically better understood than the complicated phenomena caused by man. It is therefore important in future research into periglacial phenomena, as well as of the disposal problem, to emphasize not only the proper applications of the results of natural sciences, but especially the effects and control of mankind's own present and future activities.

  13. Graphite matrix materials for nuclear waste isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, W.C.

    1981-06-01

    At low temperatures, graphites are chemically inert to all but the strongest oxidizing agents. The raw materials from which artificial graphites are produced are plentiful and inexpensive. Morover, the physical properties of artificial graphites can be varied over a very wide range by the choice of raw materials and manufacturing processes. Manufacturing processes are reviewed herein, with primary emphasis on those processes which might be used to produce a graphite matrix for the waste forms. The approach, recommended herein, involves the low-temperature compaction of a finely ground powder produced from graphitized petroleum coke. The resultant compacts should have fairly good strength, low permeability to both liquids and gases, and anisotropic physical properties. In particular, the anisotropy of the thermal expansion coefficients and the thermal conductivity should be advantageous for this application. With two possible exceptions, the graphite matrix appears to be superior to the metal alloy matrices which have been recommended in prior studies. The two possible exceptions are the requirements on strength and permeability; both requirements will be strongly influenced by the containment design, including the choice of materials and the waste form, of the multibarrier package. Various methods for increasing the strength, and for decreasing the permeability of the matrix, are reviewed and discussed in the sections in Incorporation of Other Materials and Elimination of Porosity. However, it would be premature to recommend a particular process until the overall multi-barrier design is better defined. It is recommended that increased emphasis be placed on further development of the low-temperature compacted graphite matrix concept.

  14. Tranport of nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes transport volumes in 1986 which amounted to about 46.000 tons of radioactive substances accounting for 0.03% of the overall transport volume of dangerous goods; safety regulations - IAEA recommendation, Atomic Energy Law, Radiation Protection Ordinance, Law on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, and Ordinance on Dangerous Goods for all common carriers; protection regulations according to item 5, section 4 of the Atomic Energy Law; monitoring measures; taking over of nuclear transports by the German Federal Railways - shall reach the highest possible safety level. (HSCH)

  15. Waste Characterization Using Gamma Ray Spectrometry with Automated Efficiency Optimization - 13404

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosko, A.; Venkataraman, R.; Bronson, F.L.; Ilie, G.; Russ, W.R. [Canberra Industries, 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, CT 06450 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Gamma ray spectrometry using High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors is commonly employed in assaying radioactive waste streams from a variety of sources: nuclear power plants, Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, medical facilities, decontamination and decommissioning activities etc. The radioactive material is typically packaged in boxes or drums (for e.g. B-25 boxes or 208 liter drums) and assayed to identify and quantify radionuclides. Depending on the origin of the waste stream, the radionuclides could be special nuclear materials (SNM), fission products, or activation products. Efficiency calibration of the measurement geometry is a critical step in the achieving accurate quantification of radionuclide content. Due to the large size of the waste items, it is impractical and expensive to manufacture gamma ray standard sources for performing a measurement based calibration. For well over a decade, mathematical efficiency methods such as those in Canberra's In Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS) have been successfully employed in the efficiency calibration of gamma based waste assay systems. In the traditional ISOCS based calibrations, the user provides input data such as the dimensions of the waste item, the average density and fill height of the matrix, and matrix composition. As in measurement based calibrations, the user typically defines a homogeneous matrix with a uniform distribution of radioactivity. Actual waste containers can be quite nonuniform, however. Such simplifying assumptions in the efficiency calibration could lead to a large Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU), thus limiting the amount of waste that can be disposed of as intermediate or low activity level waste. To improve the accuracy of radionuclide quantification, and reduce the TMU, Canberra has developed the capability to optimize the efficiency calibration using the ISOCS method. The optimization is based on benchmarking the efficiency shape and magnitude to the data available

  16. State fund of decommissioning of nuclear installations and handling of spent nuclear fuels and nuclear wastes (Slovak Republic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    State Fund for Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations and Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuels and Nuclear Wastes was established by the Act 254/1994 of the National Council of the Slovak Republic as a special-purpose fund which concentrates financial resources intended for decommissioning of nuclear installations and for handling of spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes. The Act was amended in 2000, 2001 and 2002. The Fund is legal entity and independent from operator of nuclear installations Slovak Power Facilities Inc. The Fund is headed by Director, who is appointed and recalled by Minister of Economy of the Slovak Republic. Sources of the Fund are generated from: a) contributions by nuclear installation operators; b) penalties imposed by Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic upon natural persons and legal entities pursuant to separate regulation; c) bank credits; d) interest on Fund deposits in banks; e) grants from State Budget; f) other sources as provided by special regulation. Fund resources may be used for the following purposes: a) decommissioning of nuclear installations; b) handling of spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes after the termination of nuclear installation operation; c) handling of radioactive wastes whose originator is not known, including occasionally seized radioactive wastes and radioactive materials stemming from criminal activities whose originator is not known, as confirmed by Police Corps investigator or Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic; d) purchase of land for the establishment of nuclear fuel and nuclear waste repositories; e) research and development in the areas of decommissioning of nuclear installations and handling of nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes after the termination of the operation of nuclear installations; f) selection of localities, geological survey, preparation, design, construction, commissioning, operation and closure of repositories of spent nuclear fuels and radioactive wastes

  17. Review of the nuclear fuel waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress over the previous year in the nuclear fuel waste management program is reviewed. Universities, industry and consultants have become increasingly involved, and the work is being overseen by a Technical Advisory Committee. The program has also been investigated by Ontario's Porter Commission and Select Committe on Ontario Hydro Affairs. A public information program has been extended to cover most of the Canadian Shield region of Ontario. Ontario Hydro is studying spent fuel storage and transportation, while AECL is covering immobilization of spent fuel or processing wastes, geotechnical and geochemical research in the laboratory and in the field, design of disposal facilities, and environmental and safety assessments. (L.L.)

  18. Third Finnish-German seminar on nuclear waste management 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scope of the seminar was to provide an interdisciplinary forum for exchange of information and experiences in the field of nuclear waste management. The highlights of the seminar focused on the following topics: overall reviews, waste products, nearfield phenomena, site investigations, performance assessment and decommissioning. All together 20 papers were presented. Reviews, status reports and experimental studies dealt with general research programs and current research and development activities including regulatory aspects. Extensive discussions provided and opportunity to identify issues and options for further research

  19. Public involvement in adaptive phased management of nuclear waste facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartrand, D. [Royal Roads Univ., Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Donev, J. [Univ. of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    If a community is going to host a waste facility that community must be informed about nuclear waste disposal and willing to house the facility permanently. This talk will discuss the process for distributing information to primary and secondary stakeholders; investigate the accessibility and transparency of public information and assess the ability to dialogue between stakeholders when issues are raised in the context of adaptive phased management? We will also examine transparency in the process of managing conflict by looking at some of the issues at hand and how those issues are currently being managed through stakeholder engagement.

  20. A Comparison of Anti-Nuclear Antibody Quantification Using Automated Enzyme Immunoassays and Immunofluorescence Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Baronaite

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA have traditionally been evaluated using indirect fluorescence assays (IFA with HEp-2 cells. Quantitative immunoassays (EIA have replaced the use of HEp-2 cells in some laboratories. Here, we evaluated ANA in 400 consecutive and unselected routinely referred patients using IFA and automated EIA techniques. The IFA results generated by two independent laboratories were compared with the EIA results from antibodies against double-stranded DNA (dsDNA, from ANA screening, and from tests of the seven included subantigens. The final IFA and EIA results for 386 unique patients were compared. The majority of the results were the same between the two methods (n=325, 84%; however, 8% (n=30 yielded equivocal results (equivocal-negative and equivocal-positive and 8% (n=31 yielded divergent results (positive-negative. The results showed fairly good agreement, with Cohen’s kappa value of 0.30 (95% confidence interval (CI = 0.14–0.46, which decreased to 0.23 (95% CI = 0.06–0.40 when the results for dsDNA were omitted. The EIA method was less reliable for assessing nuclear and speckled reactivity patterns, whereas the IFA method presented difficulties detecting dsDNA and Ro activity. The automated EIA method was performed in a similar way to the conventional IFA method using HEp-2 cells; thus, automated EIA may be used as a screening test.

  1. A cellular automation model for the change of public attitude regarding nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cellular automation model was constructed to investigate how public opinion on nuclear energy in Japan depends upon the information environment and personal communication between people. From simulation with this model, the following become clear; (i) society is a highly non-linear system with a self-organizing potential: (ii) in a society composed of one type of constituent member with homogeneous characteristics, the trend of public opinion is substantially changed only when the effort to ameliorate public acceptance over a long period of time, by means such as education, persuasion and advertisement, exceeds a certain threshold, and (iii) in the case when the amount of information on nuclear risk released from the newsmedia is reduced continuously from now on, the acceptability of nuclear energy is significantly improved so far as the extent of the reduction exceeds a certain threshold. (author)

  2. Nuclear fuel waste disposal. Canada's consultative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past two decades, society has increasingly demanded more public participation and public input into decision-making by governments. Development of the Canadian concept for deep geological disposal of used nuclear fuel has proceeded in a manner that has taken account of the requirements for social acceptability as well as technical excellence. As the agency responsible for development of the disposal concept, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has devoted considerable effort to consultation with the various publics that have an interest in the concept. This evolutionary interactive and consultative process, which has been underway for some 14 years, has attempted to keep the public informed of the technical development of the concept and to invite feedback. This paper describes the major elements of this evolutionary process, which will continue throughout the concept assessment and review process currently in progress. (author)

  3. Progress in welding studies for Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the progress in the development of closure-welding technology for Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal containers. Titanium, copper and Inconel 625 are being investigated as candidate materials for fabrication of these containers. Gas-tungsten-arc welding, gas metal-arc-welding, resistance-heated diffusion bonding and electron beam welding have been evaluated as candidate closure welding processes. Characteristic weldment properties, relative merits of welding techniques, suitable weld joint configurations and fit-up tolerances, and welding parameter control ranges have been identified for various container designs. Furthermore, the automation requirements for candidate welding processes have been assessed. Progress in the development of a computer-controlled remote gas-shielded arc welding system is described

  4. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities: Decontamination, disassembly and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term 'decommissioning', as used within the nuclear industry, means the actions taken at the end of a facility's useful life to retire the facility from service in a manner that provides adequate protection for the health and safety of the decommissioning workers, the general public, and for the environment. These actions can range from merely closing down the facility and a minimal removal of radioactive material coupled with continuing maintenance and surveillance, to a complete removal of residual radioactivity in excess of levels acceptable for unrestricted use of the facility and its site. This latter condition, unrestricted use, is the ultimate goal of all decommissioning actions at retired nuclear facilities. The purpose of this report is to provide an information base on the considerations important to decommissioning, the methods available for decontamination and disassembly of a nuclear facility, the management of the resulting radioactive wastes, and the areas of decommissioning methodology where improvements might be made. Specific sections are devoted to each of these topics, and conclusions are presented concerning the present status of each topic. A summary of past decommissioning experience in Member States is presented in the Appendix. The report, with its discussions of necessary considerations, available operational methods, and waste management practices, together with supporting references, provides an appreciation of the activities that comprise decommissioning of nuclear facilities. It is anticipated that the information presented in the report should prove useful to persons concerned with the development of plans for the decommissioning of retired nuclear facilities

  5. Transmutation of nuclear waste in accelerator-driven systems

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Martínez, A

    2004-01-01

    Today more than ever energy is not only a cornerstone of human development, but also a key to the environmental sustainability of economic activity. In this context, the role of nuclear power may be emphasized in the years to come. Nevertheless, the problems of nuclear waste, safety and proliferation still remain to be solved. It is believed that the use of accelerator-driven systems (ADSs) for nuclear waste transmutation and energy production would address these problems in a simple, clean and economically viable, and therefore sustainable, manner. This thesis covers the major nuclear physics aspects of ADSs, in particular the spallation process and the core neutronics specific to this type of systems. The need for accurate nuclear data is described, together with a detailed analysis of the specific isotopes and energy ranges in which this data needs to be improved and the impact of their uncertainty. Preliminary experimental results for some of these isotopes, produced by the Neutron Time-of-Flight (n_TOF) ...

  6. Selion offers a unique system for treating liquid nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tusa, E.; Kurki, H. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    Studies on the treatment of liquid nuclear waste have been conducted actively in the IVO Group since the early 1980s. And the work has borne fruit: the CsTreat and SrTreat ion exchange products, developed by the IVO Group, were launched three years ago. The ion exchangers have already been in full use at a number of sites throughout the world. In addition, they are currently being tested at many nuclear research institutes and power plants in the USA, Japan and Europe

  7. Particle physics contribution to the elimination of nuclear waste

    CERN Document Server

    Revol, Jean Pierre Charles

    2000-01-01

    Progress in particle accelerator technology makes it possible to use a proton accelerator to eliminate nuclear waste efficiently. The Energy Amplifier (EA) proposed by C. Rubbia and his group is a subcritical system driven by a proton accelerator. It is particularly attractive for destroying, through fission, transuranic elements produced by present nuclear reactors. The EA could also transform efficiently and at minimal cost long-lived fission fragments using the concept of Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) recently tested at CERN with the TARC experiment. The ARC concept can be extended to several other application domains (radioactive isotopes production for medicine and industry, neutron research applications, etc.).

  8. Nuclear fuel reprocessing and high level waste disposal: informational hearings. Volume I. General overview, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presentations were made on the role of the NRC in reprocessing and waste management, management of commercial radioactive waste and reprocessing, statement by EPA on radioactive waste disposal and nuclear fuel reprocessing, description and history of West Valley reprocessing facility, the work of the Government Accounting Office on issues of nuclear fuel reprocessing and waste disposal; and perspective of the Western Interstate Nuclear Board. The supplemental testimony and materials submitted for the record are included

  9. Progress and challenges of nuclear power plant radioactive waste management in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the paper, the status of nuclear power plant radioactive waste management in China is analyzed. Challenges facing the nuclear power plant radioactive waste management are pointed out. And countermeasures for strengthening radioactive waste management are put forward, including further improving relevant codes and standards, improving radiation management system, strengthening the radioactive waste management of nuclear power plant fleet, encouraging technological innovation and combination of production, education and research. (authors)

  10. Institute of Energy and Climate Research IEK-6. Nuclear waste management and reactor safety report 2009/2010. Material science for nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinkenberg, M.; Neumeier, S.; Bosbach, D. (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    Due to the use of nuclear energy about 17.000 t (27.000 m{sup 3}) of high level waste and about 300.000 m{sup 3} of low and intermediated level waste will have accumulated in Germany until 2022. Research in the Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6), Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety Division focuses on fundamental and applied aspects of the safe management of nuclear waste - in particular the nuclear aspects. In principle, our research in Forschungszentrum Juelich is looking at the material science/solid state aspects of nuclear waste management. It is organized in several research areas: The long-term safety of nuclear waste disposal is a key issue when it comes to the final disposal of high level nuclear waste in a deep geological formation. We are contributing to the scientific basis for the safety case of a nuclear waste repository in Germany. In Juelich we are focusing on a fundamental understanding of near field processes within a waste repository system. The main research topics are spent fuel corrosion and the retention of radionuclides by secondary phases. In addition, innovative waste management strategies are investigated to facilitate a qualified decision on the best strategy for Germany. New ceramic waste forms for disposal in a deep geological formation are studied as well as the partitioning of long-lived actinides. These research areas are supported by our structure research group, which is using experimental and computational approaches to examine actinide containing compounds. Complementary to these basic science oriented activities, IEK-6 also works on rather applied aspects. The development of non-destructive methods for the characterisation of nuclear waste packages has a long tradition in Juelich. Current activities focus on improving the segmented gamma scanning technique and the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis. Furthermore, the waste treatment group is developing concepts for the safe management of nuclear

  11. Institute of Energy and Climate Research IEK-6. Nuclear waste management and reactor safety report 2009/2010. Material science for nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the use of nuclear energy about 17.000 t (27.000 m3) of high level waste and about 300.000 m3 of low and intermediated level waste will have accumulated in Germany until 2022. Research in the Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6), Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety Division focuses on fundamental and applied aspects of the safe management of nuclear waste - in particular the nuclear aspects. In principle, our research in Forschungszentrum Juelich is looking at the material science/solid state aspects of nuclear waste management. It is organized in several research areas: The long-term safety of nuclear waste disposal is a key issue when it comes to the final disposal of high level nuclear waste in a deep geological formation. We are contributing to the scientific basis for the safety case of a nuclear waste repository in Germany. In Juelich we are focusing on a fundamental understanding of near field processes within a waste repository system. The main research topics are spent fuel corrosion and the retention of radionuclides by secondary phases. In addition, innovative waste management strategies are investigated to facilitate a qualified decision on the best strategy for Germany. New ceramic waste forms for disposal in a deep geological formation are studied as well as the partitioning of long-lived actinides. These research areas are supported by our structure research group, which is using experimental and computational approaches to examine actinide containing compounds. Complementary to these basic science oriented activities, IEK-6 also works on rather applied aspects. The development of non-destructive methods for the characterisation of nuclear waste packages has a long tradition in Juelich. Current activities focus on improving the segmented gamma scanning technique and the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis. Furthermore, the waste treatment group is developing concepts for the safe management of nuclear graphite. Within

  12. Risk analysis and solving the nuclear waste siting problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of millions of dollars and countless human resources being expended on finding nuclear wastes sites, the search has proved extremely difficult for the nuclear industry. This may be due to the approach followed, rather than inadequacies in research or funding. A new approach to the problem, the reverse Dutch auction, is suggested. It retains some of the useful elements of the present system, but it also adds new ones. It allows natural market forces to set the level of compensation, rather than relying on close-door negotiations or theoretical calculations. Two flow charts show the pre-bid and post-bid steps of the reverse Duch auction system of Inhaber. It is assumed that a state wishes to site a waste facility somewhere in its boundaries. 22 refs., 3 figs

  13. Supported liquid inorganic membranes for nuclear waste separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhave, Ramesh R; DeBusk, Melanie M; DelCul, Guillermo D; Delmau, Laetitia H; Narula, Chaitanya K

    2015-04-07

    A system and method for the extraction of americium from radioactive waste solutions. The method includes the transfer of highly oxidized americium from an acidic aqueous feed solution through an immobilized liquid membrane to an organic receiving solvent, for example tributyl phosphate. The immobilized liquid membrane includes porous support and separating layers loaded with tributyl phosphate. The extracted solution is subsequently stripped of americium and recycled at the immobilized liquid membrane as neat tributyl phosphate for the continuous extraction of americium. The sequestered americium can be used as a nuclear fuel, a nuclear fuel component or a radiation source, and the remaining constituent elements in the aqueous feed solution can be stored in glassified waste forms substantially free of americium.

  14. Radiation and Thermal Ageing of Nuclear Waste Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, William J [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The radioactive decay of fission products and actinides incorporated into nuclear waste glass leads to self-heating and self-radiation effects that may affect the stability, structure and performance of the glass in a closed system. Short-lived fission products cause significant self-heating for the first 600 years. Alpha decay of the actinides leads to self-radiation damage that can be significant after a few hundred years, and over the long time periods of geologic disposal, the accumulation of helium and radiation damage from alpha decay may lead to swelling, microstructural evolution and changes in mechanical properties. Four decades of research on the behavior of nuclear waste glass are reviewed.

  15. Workshop on fundamental geochemistry needs for nuclear waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In their deliberations, workshop participants did not attempt to incorporate the constraints that the 1982 National Nuclear Waste Management Policy Act placed upon the site-specific investigations. In particular, there was no attempt to (1) identify the research areas that apply most strongly to a particular potential repository site, (2) identify the chronological time when the necessary data or knowledge could be available, or (3) include a sensitivity analysis to prioritize and limit data needs. The workshop participants felt these are the purview of the site-specific investigations; the purpose of the workshop was to discuss the generic geochemistry research needs for a nuclear waste repository among as broad spectrum of individual scientists as possible and to develop a consensus of what geochemical information is important and why

  16. Nuclear Waste Disposal in Space: BEP's Best Hope?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The best technology is worthless if it cannot find a market Beam energy propulsion (BEP) is a very promising technology, but faces major competition from less capable but fully developed conventional rockets. Rockets can easily handle projected markets for payloads into space. Without a new, huge demand for launch capability, BEP is unlikely to gain the resources it needs for development and application. Launching tens of thousands of tons of nuclear waste into space for safe and permanent disposal will provide that necessary demand while solving a major problem on earth. Several options exist to dispose of nuclear waste, including solar orbit, lunar orbit, soft lunar landing, launching outside the solar system, and launching into the sun

  17. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations, 1986--1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography contains information on the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) that was added to the DOE Energy Data Base from January 1986 through December 1987. It is a supplement to the first bibliography, Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations, 1977--1985 (DOE/TIC-3406), and includes all information in the preceding two updates, DOE/TIC-3406(Add.1) and DOE/TIC-3406(Add.2). The bibliography is categorized by principal NNWSI Project participant organizations. Participant-sponsored subcontractor reports, papers, and articles are included in the sponsoring organization's bibliography list and are listed in chronological order. The following indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, Report Number, Order Number Correlation, and Key Word in Context

  18. Survey on product properties of bituminized waste concentrates from reprocessing, nuclear installations and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a brief survey on the product properties after solidification with bitumen of waste concentrates from reprocessing plants, nuclear research installations and nuclear power plants. The leach behaviour of bitumen products in water and saturated salt solutions is described as well as the radiolytic and thermal stability of the products. The reports also contain some data on sedimentation of salts fixed in bitumen. (orig.)

  19. Public decision and opinion - Nuclear energy and nuclear waste put to the test of democracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the results of the opinion polls related to nuclear energy and nuclear waste, which were gathered in Western Europe as well as in the United States, are discussed here: can these converging results be of any help to decision-makers? Which lessons are to be learnt to consider new decision process which better meets the political realty at both the national and local levels? (authors)

  20. Nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle and waste management, 1986-1999. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with nuclear power and nuclear fuel cycle and waste management and issued during the period of 1986-1999. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered of importance have been included. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain papers in languages other than English, but all of these papers have abstracts in English

  1. Used nuclear materials at Savannah River Site: asset or waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry, both in the commercial and the government sectors, has generated large quantities of material that span the spectrum of usefulness, from highly valuable ''assets'' to worthless ''wastes''. In many cases, the decision parameters are clear. Transuranic waste and high level waste, for example, have no value, and is either in a final disposition path today, or - in the case of high level waste - awaiting a policy decision about final disposition. Other materials, though discardable, have intrinsic scientific or market value that may be hidden by the complexity, hazard, or cost of recovery. An informed decision process should acknowledge the asset value, or lack of value, of the complete inventory of materials, and the structure necessary to implement the range of possible options. It is important that informed decisions are made about the asset value for the variety of nuclear materials available. For example, there is a significant quantity of spent fuel available for recycle (an estimated $4 billion value in the Savannah River Site's (SRS) L area alone); in fact, SRS has already blended down more than 300 metric tons of uranium for commercial reactor use. Over 34 metric tons of surplus plutonium is also on a path to be used as commercial fuel. There are other radiological materials that are routinely handled at the site in large quantities that should be viewed as strategically important and / or commercially viable. In some cases, these materials are irreplaceable domestically, and failure to consider their recovery could jeopardize our technological leadership or national defense. The inventories of nuclear materials at SRS that have been characterized as ''waste'' include isotopes of plutonium, uranium, americium, and helium. Although planning has been performed to establish the technical and regulatory bases for their discard and disposal, recovery of these materials is both economically attractive and in the national interest.

  2. Delegated democracy. Siting selection for the Swedish nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study concerns the siting of the Swedish nuclear waste repository. Four cases are examined: the feasibility studies in Nykoeping and Tierp (cases 1 and 2), as well as three public consultation meetings with conservationist and environmental organisations, and two study visits to nuclear facilities in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar, which were held during what is called the site-investigation phase (cases 3 and 4). The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) began the search for a nuclear waste site in the 1970s. Since 1992 SKB has conducted feasibility studies in eight municipalities, including in the four municipalities mentioned above. At the present time more comprehensive site investigations are underway in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar, two municipalities that already host nuclear power plants as well as storages for nuclear waste. In addition to SKB and the municipalities involved in the site-selection process, politicians, opinion groups, concerned members of the public, and oversight bodies are important actors. The analysis of the cases employs the concepts of 'sub-politics', 'boundary work', and 'expertise', together with the four models of democracy 'representative democracy', participatory democracy', 'deliberative democracy', and 'technocracy'. The aim of the study is to describe the characteristics of Swedish democracy in relation to the disposal of Swedish nuclear waste. The main questions of the study are: Which democratic ideals can be found within SKB's siting process during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process during the site investigations? and Which democratic ideals were influential during the feasibility studies and in the consultation process? The study is based on qualitative methods, and the source materials consist of documents, interviews, and participant observations. In summary, the form of democracy that emerges in the four case studies can be described as delegated democracy. This means that a large

  3. Perceived risk, trust, and the politics of nuclear waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovic, P; Flynn, J H; Layman, M

    1991-12-13

    The Department of Energy's program for disposing of high-level radioactive wastes has been impeded by overwhelming political opposition fueled by public perceptions of risk. Analysis of these perceptions shows them to be deeply rooted in images of fear and dread that have been present since the discovery of radioactivity. The development and use of nuclear weapons linked these images to reality and the mishandling of radioactive wastes from the nation's military weapons facilities has contributed toward creating a profound state of distrust that cannot be erased quickly or easily. Postponing the permanent repository and employing dry-cask storage of wastes on site would provide the time necessary for difficult social and political issues to be resolved. PMID:17782210

  4. Nuclear Waste Glasses: Beautiful Simplicity of Complex Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R.

    2009-01-01

    The behavior of glasses with a large number of components, such as waste glasses, is not more complex than the behavior of simple glasses. On the contrary, the presence of many components restricts the composition region of these glasses in a way that allows approximating composition-property relationships by linear functions. This has far-reaching practical consequences for formulating nuclear waste glasses. On the other hand, processing high-level and low-activity waste glasses presents various problems, such as crystallization, foaming, and salt segre-gation in the melter. The need to decrease the settling of solids in the melter to an acceptable level and to maximize the rate of melting presents major challenges to processing technology. However, the most important property of the glass product is its chemical durability, a somewhat vague concept in lieu of the assessment of the glass resistance to aqueous attack while the radioactivity decays over tens of thousands of years.

  5. Framing ethical acceptability: a problem with nuclear waste in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Ethan T

    2012-06-01

    Ethical frameworks are often used in professional fields as a means of providing explicit ethical guidance for individuals and institutions when confronted with ethically important decisions. The notion of an ethical framework has received little critical attention, however, and the concept subsequently lends itself easily to misuse and ambiguous application. This is the case with the 'ethical framework' offered by Canada's Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), the crown-corporation which owns and is responsible for the long-term management of Canada's high-level nuclear fuel waste. It makes a very specific claim, namely that it is managing Canada's long-lived radioactive nuclear fuel waste in an ethically responsible manner. According to this organization, what it means to behave in an ethically responsible manner is to act and develop policy in accordance with its ethical framework. What, then, is its ethical framework, and can it be satisfied? In this paper I will show that the NWMO's ethical and social framework is deeply flawed in two respects: (a) it fails to meet the minimum requirements of a code of ethic or ethical framework by offering only questions, and no principles or rules of conduct; and (b) if posed as principles or rules of conduct, some of its questions are unsatisfiable. In particular, I will show that one of its claims, namely that it seek informed consent from individuals exposed to risk of harm from nuclear waste, cannot be satisfied as formulated. The result is that the NWMO's ethical framework is not, at present, ethically acceptable. PMID:21318321

  6. Potential applications of nanostructured materials in nuclear waste management.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braterman, Paul S. (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Phol, Phillip Isabio; Xu, Zhi-Ping (The University of North Texas, Denton, TX); Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Yang, Yi (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Bryan, Charles R.; Yu, Kui; Xu, Huifang (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Wang, Yifeng; Gao, Huizhen

    2003-09-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained from a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Investigation of Potential Applications of Self-Assembled Nanostructured Materials in Nuclear Waste Management'. The objectives of this project are to (1) provide a mechanistic understanding of the control of nanometer-scale structures on the ion sorption capability of materials and (2) develop appropriate engineering approaches to improving material properties based on such an understanding.

  7. Accelerator-driven transmutation of plutonium and nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultimate disposition of spent reactor fuel and processed high-level nuclear waste (HLW) has been a subject of much concern and little progress since the dawn of the nuclear era. In the United States today, the spent fuel from more than 110 commercial light water reactors continues to be stored onsite while highly toxic liquid HLW continues to be stored in tanks at several U.S. Department of Energy sites. The management policy that has been followed in the United States for the past 12 yr is defined by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 and its subsequent amendment of 1987. The NWPA requires the disposal of spent fuel assemblies in geologic waste repositories, the first of which will presumably be located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The pace of the process for implementing the Yucca Mountain repository discussed in a recent General Accounting Office (GAO) assessment, remains frustratingly slow. By GAO estimation, an operational permanent waste repository at Yucca Mountain could be delayed beyond the 2020 time frame. The approach to formulating an acceptable HLW disposal strategy has always involved serious consideration of nonproliferation issues. Most recently, the nuclear weapon build-down following the Cold War has stimulated the need for the United States and Russia to dispose of surplus plutonium. Consideration of this has motivated (a) a recognition that all plutonium is a proliferation hazard and (b) a renewed debate on the best approach to dispose of plutonium in general. From an international perspective, there is little agreement on the best strategy for the ultimate disposition of HLW and plutonium. This paper discusses the concept of transmutation of plutonium

  8. Representing value judgements in the evaluation options for nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report we show how the concept of Best Practical Environmental Option for nuclear waste management may be articulated using the methods of Multi-attribute Value Analysis. The concept of characteristic weights is introduced to represent differences of opinion on the relative importance of different factors that may reasonably be held, and show how these may be used to summarise information for decision-makers in a concise way. (author)

  9. Framing ethical acceptability: a problem with nuclear waste in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Ethan T

    2012-06-01

    Ethical frameworks are often used in professional fields as a means of providing explicit ethical guidance for individuals and institutions when confronted with ethically important decisions. The notion of an ethical framework has received little critical attention, however, and the concept subsequently lends itself easily to misuse and ambiguous application. This is the case with the 'ethical framework' offered by Canada's Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), the crown-corporation which owns and is responsible for the long-term management of Canada's high-level nuclear fuel waste. It makes a very specific claim, namely that it is managing Canada's long-lived radioactive nuclear fuel waste in an ethically responsible manner. According to this organization, what it means to behave in an ethically responsible manner is to act and develop policy in accordance with its ethical framework. What, then, is its ethical framework, and can it be satisfied? In this paper I will show that the NWMO's ethical and social framework is deeply flawed in two respects: (a) it fails to meet the minimum requirements of a code of ethic or ethical framework by offering only questions, and no principles or rules of conduct; and (b) if posed as principles or rules of conduct, some of its questions are unsatisfiable. In particular, I will show that one of its claims, namely that it seek informed consent from individuals exposed to risk of harm from nuclear waste, cannot be satisfied as formulated. The result is that the NWMO's ethical framework is not, at present, ethically acceptable.

  10. Radiation and transmutation effects relevant to solid nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation effects in insulating solids are discussed in a general way as an introduction to the quite sparse published work on radiation effects in candidate nuclear waste forms other than glasses. Likely effects of transmutation in crystals and the chemical mitigation strategy are discussed. It seems probable that radiation effects in solidified HLW will not be serious if the actinides can be wholly incorporated in such radiation-resistant phases as monazite or uraninite

  11. Tank waste remediation system nuclear criticality safety program management review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the results of an internal management review of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) criticality safety program, performed in advance of the DOE/RL assessment for closure of the TWRS Nuclear Criticality Safety Issue, March 1994. Resolution of the safety issue was identified as Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-40-12, due September 1999

  12. Fuel reprocessing and waste treatment at Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rapid development of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany has caused fuel reprocessing, waste solidification and final disposal to assume key functions in the country's atomic energy programme. An important basis for planning and construction of a large 1400t U/a reprocessing plant, scheduled for start-up around 1986, is the R and D work of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre and the experience gained from operating the pilot reprocessing plant WAK at the same site, reported in this paper. During the first five years of operation, since September 1971, the WAK plant, with a nominal capacity of 35 tU/a, has successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the Purex technology for reprocessing high-burnup LWR fuels. Substantial improvements have been achieved in fuel-handling techniques, head-end treatment, performance of high-activity extraction equipment, waste decrease by internal recycle, and iodine retention. Operating and maintenance experience has allowed continuing reduction of radiation doses to plant personnel to a level as low as 13% of the maximum permissible limits. Future work will include retention of 85Kr from dissolver off-gases and reprocessing of mixed-oxide fuels from the FRG's plutonium-recycle programme. The object of development work on fuel reprocessing technology is to minimize radioactive wastes and environment releases, and to increase operational safety and reliability. Based on experience gained by reprocessing campaigns with LWR fuels up to 37,000MWd/t and FBR fuel up to 61,000MWd/t in the MILLI facility, and by ''cold'' runs on the pilot-plant scale, progress is reported on (1) improved procedures for off-gas treatment and purification; (2) dissolution and solvent extraction of high-burnup fuels; and (3) application of ''salt-free'' procedures in U/Pu separation, Pu reoxidation and purification, absorbing construction material for criticality control. Based on this experience, the chemical flowsheet for a 5t/d LWR fuel

  13. Development of polyphase ceramics for the immobilization of high-level Defense nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains two major sections: Section I - An Improved Polyphase Ceramic for High-Level Defense Nucleation Waste reports the work conducted on titanium-silica based ceramics for immobilizing Savannah River Plant waste. Section II - Formulation and Processing of Alumina Based Ceramic Nuclear Waste Forms describes the work conducted on developing a generic alumina and alumina-silica based ceramic waste form capable of immobilizing any nuclear waste with a high aluminum content. Such wastes include the Savannah River Plant wastes, Hanford neutralized purex wastes, and Hanford N-Reactor acid wastes. The design approach and process technology in the two reports demonstrate how the generic high waste loaded ceramic form can be applied to a broad range of nuclear waste compositions. The individual sections are abstracted and indexed separately

  14. Rheological characterization of nuclear waste using falling-ball rheometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the rheological properties of saturated solutions containing solid particles is very important in nuclear waste management technology. For example, the nuclear waste in the Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks contains strong electrolyte solutions with a high concentration of solids. Previous attempt using rotational viscometers to determine the rheology has shown unusual thixotropic and shear thinning behaviors with a lack of reproducibility. Using falling-ball rheometry, the rheology of the undisturbed simulant may be determined with much better reproducibility. In this study, a well-mixed simulant which has similar chemical composition to the actual waste will be tested. Falling-ball size and density will be varied to get data in a wide range of shear rates. To determine the rheogram, several methods will be tried to match the observed data. Based on these tests, a rheogram can be determined from the model and its best-fit parameters. The simulant shows shear-thinning behavior and a yield stress. This would suggest a H-B model. But when fitting to one of the simulants which showed a very low yield stress, the predictions assuming no yield and assuming yield resulted in no improvement in the fit when assuming yield

  15. Geological safety aspects of nuclear waste disposalin in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management of nuclear waste from Finnish power companies is based on the final geological disposal of encapsulated spent fuel at a depth of several hundreds of metres in the crystalline bedrock. Permission for the licence requires that the safety of disposal is demonstrated in a safety case showing that processes, events and future scenarios possibly affecting the performance of the deep repository are appropriately understood. Many of the safety-related issues are geological in nature. The Precambrian bedrock of Finland has a long history, even if compared with the time span considered for nuclear waste disposal, but the northern location calls for a detailed study of the processes related to Quaternary glaciations. This was manifested in an extensive international permafrost study in northern Canada, coordinated by GTK. Hydrogeology and the common existence of saline waters deep in the bedrock have also been targets of extensive studies, because water chemistry affects the chemical stability of the repository near-field, as well as radionuclide transport. The Palmottu natural analogue study was one of the international high-priority natural analogue studies in which transport phenomena were explored in a natural geological system. Currently, deep biosphere processes are being investigated in support of the safety of nuclear waste disposal. (orig.)

  16. Geological safety aspects of nuclear waste disposalin in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen, L.; Hakkarainen, V.; Kaija, J.; Kuivamaki, A.; Lindberg, A.; Paananen, M.; Paulamaki, S.; Ruskeeniemi, T., e-mail: lasse.ahonen@gtk.fi

    2011-07-01

    The management of nuclear waste from Finnish power companies is based on the final geological disposal of encapsulated spent fuel at a depth of several hundreds of metres in the crystalline bedrock. Permission for the licence requires that the safety of disposal is demonstrated in a safety case showing that processes, events and future scenarios possibly affecting the performance of the deep repository are appropriately understood. Many of the safety-related issues are geological in nature. The Precambrian bedrock of Finland has a long history, even if compared with the time span considered for nuclear waste disposal, but the northern location calls for a detailed study of the processes related to Quaternary glaciations. This was manifested in an extensive international permafrost study in northern Canada, coordinated by GTK. Hydrogeology and the common existence of saline waters deep in the bedrock have also been targets of extensive studies, because water chemistry affects the chemical stability of the repository near-field, as well as radionuclide transport. The Palmottu natural analogue study was one of the international high-priority natural analogue studies in which transport phenomena were explored in a natural geological system. Currently, deep biosphere processes are being investigated in support of the safety of nuclear waste disposal. (orig.)

  17. Nuclear power plant waste heat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of using Vermont Yankee condenser effluent for commercial food growth enhancement was examined. It was concluded that for the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Station, commercial success, both for horticulture and aquaculture endeavors, could not be assured without additional research in both areas. This is due primarily to two problems. First, the particularly low heat quality of our condenser discharge, being nominally 72 +- 20F; and second, to the capital intensive support systems. The capital needed for the support systems include costs of pumps, piping and controls to move the heated water to growing facilities and the costs of large, efficient heat exchangers that may be necessary to avoid regulatory difficulties due to the 1958 Delaney Amendment to the U.S. Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act. Recommendations for further work include construction of a permanent aquaculture research laboratory and a test greenhouse complex based on a greenhouse wherein a variety of heating configurations would be installed and tested. One greenhouse would be heated with biogas from an adjacent anaerobic digester thermally boosted during winter months by Vermont Yankee condenser effluent. The aquaculture laboratory would initially be dedicated to the Atlantic salmon restoration program. It appears possible to raise fingerling salmon to smolt size within 7 months using water warmed to about 600F. The growth rate by this technique is increased by a factor of 2 to 3. A system concept has been developed which includes an aqua-laboratory, producing 25,000 salmon smolt annually, a 4-unit greenhouse test horticulture complex and an 18,000 square foot commercial fish-rearing facility producing 100,000 pounds of wet fish (brook trout) per year. The aqualab and horticulture test complex would form the initial phase of construction. The trout-rearing facility would be delayed pending results of laboratory studies confirming its commercial viability

  18. Nuclear power plant waste heat utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.; Huke, R.E.; Archer, J.C.; Price, D.R.; Jewell, W.J.; Hayes, T.D.; Witherby, H.R.

    1977-09-01

    The possibility of using Vermont Yankee condenser effluent for commercial food growth enhancement was examined. It was concluded that for the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Station, commercial success, both for horticulture and aquaculture endeavors, could not be assured without additional research in both areas. This is due primarily to two problems. First, the particularly low heat quality of our condenser discharge, being nominally 72 +- 2/sup 0/F; and second, to the capital intensive support systems. The capital needed for the support systems include costs of pumps, piping and controls to move the heated water to growing facilities and the costs of large, efficient heat exchangers that may be necessary to avoid regulatory difficulties due to the 1958 Delaney Amendment to the U.S. Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act. Recommendations for further work include construction of a permanent aquaculture research laboratory and a test greenhouse complex based on a greenhouse wherein a variety of heating configurations would be installed and tested. One greenhouse would be heated with biogas from an adjacent anaerobic digester thermally boosted during winter months by Vermont Yankee condenser effluent. The aquaculture laboratory would initially be dedicated to the Atlantic salmon restoration program. It appears possible to raise fingerling salmon to smolt size within 7 months using water warmed to about 60/sup 0/F. The growth rate by this technique is increased by a factor of 2 to 3. A system concept has been developed which includes an aqua-laboratory, producing 25,000 salmon smolt annually, a 4-unit greenhouse test horticulture complex and an 18,000 square foot commercial fish-rearing facility producing 100,000 pounds of wet fish (brook trout) per year. The aqualab and horticulture test complex would form the initial phase of construction. The trout-rearing facility would be delayed pending results of laboratory studies confirming its commercial viability.

  19. Conceivable new recycling of nuclear waste by nuclear power companies in their plants

    CERN Document Server

    Santilli, R M

    1997-01-01

    We outline the basic principles and the needed experiments for a conceivable new recycling of nuclear waste by the power plants themselves to avoid its transportation and storage to a (yet unknown) dumping area. Details are provided in an adjoining paper and in patents pending.

  20. Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office final progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office (NWPO) was formally established by Executive Policy in 1983 following passage of the federal Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Act). That Act provides for the systematic siting, construction, operation, and closure of high-level radioactive defense and research by-products and other forms of high-level radioactive waste from around the country which will be stored at such repositories. In 1985 the Nevada legislature formally established the NWPO as a distinct and statutorily authorized agency to provide support to the Governor and State Legislature on matters concerning the high-level nuclear waste programs. The NWPO utilized a small, central staff supplemented by contractual services for needed technical and specialized expertise in order to provide high quality oversight and monitoring of federal activities, to conduct necessary independent studies, and to avoid unnecessary duplication of efforts. This report summarizes the results of this ongoing program to ensure that risks to the environment and to human safety are minimized. It includes findings in the areas of hydrogeology, geology, quality assurance activities, repository engineering, legislature participation, socioeconomic affects, risk assessments, monitoring programs, public information dissemination, and transportation activities. The bulk of the reporting deals with the Yucca Mountain facility

  1. Review of concrete biodeterioration in relation to nuclear waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turick, Charles E; Berry, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Storage of radioactive waste in concrete structures is a means of containing wastes and related radionuclides generated from nuclear operations in many countries. Previous efforts related to microbial impacts on concrete structures that are used to contain radioactive waste showed that microbial activity can play a significant role in the process of concrete degradation and ultimately structural deterioration. This literature review examines the research in this field and is focused on specific parameters that are applicable to modeling and prediction of the fate of concrete structures used to store or dispose of radioactive waste. Rates of concrete biodegradation vary with the environmental conditions, illustrating a need to understand the bioavailability of key compounds involved in microbial activity. Specific parameters require pH and osmotic pressure to be within a certain range to allow for microbial growth as well as the availability and abundance of energy sources such as components involved in sulfur, iron and nitrogen oxidation. Carbon flow and availability are also factors to consider in predicting concrete biodegradation. The microbial contribution to degradation of the concrete structures containing radioactive waste is a constant possibility. The rate and degree of concrete biodegradation is dependent on numerous physical, chemical and biological parameters. Parameters to focus on for modeling activities and possible options for mitigation that would minimize concrete biodegradation are discussed and include key conditions that drive microbial activity on concrete surfaces. PMID:26397745

  2. Review of concrete biodeterioration in relation to nuclear waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turick, Charles E; Berry, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Storage of radioactive waste in concrete structures is a means of containing wastes and related radionuclides generated from nuclear operations in many countries. Previous efforts related to microbial impacts on concrete structures that are used to contain radioactive waste showed that microbial activity can play a significant role in the process of concrete degradation and ultimately structural deterioration. This literature review examines the research in this field and is focused on specific parameters that are applicable to modeling and prediction of the fate of concrete structures used to store or dispose of radioactive waste. Rates of concrete biodegradation vary with the environmental conditions, illustrating a need to understand the bioavailability of key compounds involved in microbial activity. Specific parameters require pH and osmotic pressure to be within a certain range to allow for microbial growth as well as the availability and abundance of energy sources such as components involved in sulfur, iron and nitrogen oxidation. Carbon flow and availability are also factors to consider in predicting concrete biodegradation. The microbial contribution to degradation of the concrete structures containing radioactive waste is a constant possibility. The rate and degree of concrete biodegradation is dependent on numerous physical, chemical and biological parameters. Parameters to focus on for modeling activities and possible options for mitigation that would minimize concrete biodegradation are discussed and include key conditions that drive microbial activity on concrete surfaces.

  3. Dynamic Analysis of Nuclear Waste Generation Based on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Transition Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, S. R. [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, W. I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    According to the recommendations submitted by the Public Engagement Commission on Spent Nuclear Fuel Management (PECOS), the government was advised to pick the site for an underground laboratory and interim storage facilities before the end of 2020 followed by the related research for permanent and underground disposal of spent fuel after 10 years. In the middle of the main issues, the factors of environmentally friendly and safe way to handle nuclear waste are inextricable from nuclear power generating nation to ensure the sustainability of nuclear power. For this purposes, the closed nuclear fuel cycle has been developed regarding deep geological disposal, pyroprocessing, and burner type sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) in Korea. Among two methods of an equilibrium model and a dynamic model generally used for screening nuclear fuel cycle system, the dynamic model is more appropriate to envisage country-specific environment with the transition phase in the long term and significant to estimate meaningful impacts based on the timedependent behavior of harmful wastes. This study aims at analyzing the spent nuclear fuel generation based on the long-term nuclear fuel cycle transition scenarios considered at up-to-date country specific conditions and comparing long term advantages of the developed nuclear fuel cycle option between once-through cycle and Pyro-SFR cycle. In this study, a dynamic analysis was carried out to estimate the long-term projection of nuclear electricity generation, installed capacity, spent nuclear fuel arising in different fuel cycle scenarios based on the up-to-date national energy plans.

  4. Consideration of nuclear criticality when disposing of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RECHARD,ROBERT P.; SANCHEZ,LAWRENCE C.; STOCKMAN,CHRISTINE T.; TRELLUE,HOLLY R.

    2000-04-01

    Based on general arguments presented in this report, nuclear criticality was eliminated from performance assessment calculations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a repository for waste contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radioisotopes, located in southeastern New Mexico. At the WIPP, the probability of criticality within the repository is low because mechanisms to concentrate the fissile radioisotopes dispersed throughout the waste are absent. In addition, following an inadvertent human intrusion into the repository (an event that must be considered because of safety regulations), the probability of nuclear criticality away from the repository is low because (1) the amount of fissile mass transported over 10,000 yr is predicted to be small, (2) often there are insufficient spaces in the advective pore space (e.g., macroscopic fractures) to provide sufficient thickness for precipitation of fissile material, and (3) there is no credible mechanism to counteract the natural tendency of the material to disperse during transport and instead concentrate fissile material in a small enough volume for it to form a critical concentration. Furthermore, before a criticality would have the potential to affect human health after closure of the repository--assuming that a criticality could occur--it would have to either (1) degrade the ability of the disposal system to contain nuclear waste or (2) produce significantly more radioisotopes than originally present. Neither of these situations can occur at the WIPP; thus, the consequences of a criticality are also low.

  5. Consideration of nuclear criticality when disposing of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on general arguments presented in this report, nuclear criticality was eliminated from performance assessment calculations for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a repository for waste contaminated with transuranic (TRU) radioisotopes, located in southeastern New Mexico. At the WIPP, the probability of criticality within the repository is low because mechanisms to concentrate the fissile radioisotopes dispersed throughout the waste are absent. In addition, following an inadvertent human intrusion into the repository (an event that must be considered because of safety regulations), the probability of nuclear criticality away from the repository is low because (1) the amount of fissile mass transported over 10,000 yr is predicted to be small, (2) often there are insufficient spaces in the advective pore space (e.g., macroscopic fractures) to provide sufficient thickness for precipitation of fissile material, and (3) there is no credible mechanism to counteract the natural tendency of the material to disperse during transport and instead concentrate fissile material in a small enough volume for it to form a critical concentration. Furthermore, before a criticality would have the potential to affect human health after closure of the repository--assuming that a criticality could occur--it would have to either (1) degrade the ability of the disposal system to contain nuclear waste or (2) produce significantly more radioisotopes than originally present. Neither of these situations can occur at the WIPP; thus, the consequences of a criticality are also low

  6. Annual Report 2011 : Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal. (KIT Scientific Reports ; 7617)

    OpenAIRE

    Geckeis, H.; Stumpf, T. [Hrsg.

    2012-01-01

    The R&D at the Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal, INE, (Institut für Nukleare Entsorgung) of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) focuses on (i) long term safety research for nuclear waste disposal, (ii) immobilization of high level radioactive waste (HLW), (iii) separation of minor actinides from HLW and (iv) radiation protection.

  7. Review of Concrete Biodeterioration in Relation to Buried Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turick, C; Berry, C.

    2012-10-15

    Long-term storage of low level radioactive material in below ground concrete disposal units (DUs) (Saltstone Disposal Facility) is a means of depositing wastes generated from nuclear operations of the U.S. Department of Energy. Based on the currently modeled degradation mechanisms, possible microbial induced effects on the structural integrity of buried low level wastes must be addressed. Previous international efforts related to microbial impacts on concrete structures that house low level radioactive waste showed that microbial activity can play a significant role in the process of concrete degradation and ultimately structural deterioration. This literature review examines the recent research in this field and is focused on specific parameters that are applicable to modeling and prediction of the fate of concrete vaults housing stored wastes and the wastes themselves. Rates of concrete biodegradation vary with the environmental conditions, illustrating a need to understand the bioavailability of key compounds involved in microbial activity. Specific parameters require pH and osmotic pressure to be within a certain range to allow for microbial growth as well as the availability and abundance of energy sources like components involved in sulfur, iron and nitrogen oxidation. Carbon flow and availability are also factors to consider in predicting concrete biodegradation. The results of this review suggest that microbial activity in Saltstone, (grouted low level radioactive waste) is unlikely due to very high pH and osmotic pressure. Biodegradation of the concrete vaults housing the radioactive waste however, is a possibility. The rate and degree of concrete biodegradation is dependent on numerous physical, chemical and biological parameters. Results from this review point to parameters to focus on for modeling activities and also, possible options for mitigation that would minimize concrete biodegradation. In addition, key chemical components that drive microbial

  8. Disposal of high level nuclear wastes: Thermodynamic equilibrium and environment ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RANA Mukhtar Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Contamination of soil, water or air, due to a failure of containment or disposal of high level nuclear wastes, can potentially cause serious hazards to the environment or human health. Essential elements of the environment and radioactivity dangers to it are illustrated. Issues of high level nuclear waste disposal are discussed with a focus on thermodynamic equilibrium and environment ethics. Major aspects of the issues are analyzed and described briefly to build a perception of risks involved and ethical implications. Nuclear waste containment repository should be as close as possible to thermodynamic equilibrium. A clear demonstration about safety aspects of nuclear waste management is required in gaining public and political confidence in any possible scheme of permanent disposal. Disposal of high level nuclear waste offers a spectrum of environment connected challenges and a long term future of nuclear power depends on the environment friendly solution of the problem of nuclear wastes.

  9. Radioactive waste management activities of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), which groups most of the developed countries of the world, are to promote high economic growth and a rising standard of living in Member countries while contributing to the economic development and the expansion of world trade on a multilateral basis. International co-operation in nuclear energy activities takes place through the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in which a total of 23 countries now participate: Australia, Canada, Japan, the United States, in addition to all the European Member countries of OECD. The Commission of the European Communities also takes part in the work of NEA. One of the primary objectives of the NEA is to promote co-operation between its Member governments on the safety and regulatory aspects of nuclear development. This is achieved by encouraging harmonization of governments' regulatory policies and practices in the nuclear field, with particular reference to the safety of nuclear installations, protection of many against ionizing radiations, radioactive waste management, and nuclear third party liability and insurance

  10. Automated local bright feature image analysis of nuclear proteindistribution identifies changes in tissue phenotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowles, David; Sudar, Damir; Bator, Carol; Bissell, Mina

    2006-02-01

    The organization of nuclear proteins is linked to cell and tissue phenotypes. When cells arrest proliferation, undergo apoptosis, or differentiate, the distribution of nuclear proteins changes. Conversely, forced alteration of the distribution of nuclear proteins modifies cell phenotype. Immunostaining and fluorescence microscopy have been critical for such findings. However, there is an increasing need for quantitative analysis of nuclear protein distribution to decipher epigenetic relationships between nuclear structure and cell phenotype, and to unravel the mechanisms linking nuclear structure and function. We have developed imaging methods to quantify the distribution of fluorescently-stained nuclear protein NuMA in different mammary phenotypes obtained using three-dimensional cell culture. Automated image segmentation of DAPI-stained nuclei was generated to isolate thousands of nuclei from three-dimensional confocal images. Prominent features of fluorescently-stained NuMA were detected using a novel local bright feature analysis technique, and their normalized spatial density calculated as a function of the distance from the nuclear perimeter to its center. The results revealed marked changes in the distribution of the density of NuMA bright features as non-neoplastic cells underwent phenotypically normal acinar morphogenesis. In contrast, we did not detect any reorganization of NuMA during the formation of tumor nodules by malignant cells. Importantly, the analysis also discriminated proliferating non-neoplastic cells from proliferating malignant cells, suggesting that these imaging methods are capable of identifying alterations linked not only to the proliferation status but also to the malignant character of cells. We believe that this quantitative analysis will have additional applications for classifying normal and pathological tissues.

  11. An automatically controlled system for waste transport in low level nuclear waste storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobe Steel has developed and manufactured a fully automatic remote-controlled system for the storage of up to 42 000 waste drum packages discharged from nuclear reprocessing facilities. The system includes two forklifts and an elevator both of which are controlled via a remote control center. The forklifts can transport up to 4 ton waste packages. The elevator can transport a forklift carrying a maximum weight package. The system also includes a rescue vehicle that can be manually operated at a distance from a remote station using ITV cameras. (author)

  12. Colloid formation during waste form reaction: implications for nuclear waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J. K.; Bradley, J.; Teetsov, A.; Bradley, C. R.; ten Brink, Marilyn Buchholtz

    1992-01-01

    Insoluble plutonium- and americium-bearing colloidal particles formed during simulated weathering of a high-level nuclear waste glass. Nearly 100 percent of the total plutonium and americium in test ground water was concentrated in these submicrometer particles. These results indicate that models of actinide mobility and repository integrity, which assume complete solubility of actinides in ground water, underestimate the potential for radionuclide release into the environment. A colloid-trapping mechanism may be necessary for a waste repository to meet long-term performance specifications.

  13. Online sorting of recovered wood waste by automated XRF-technology: part II. Sorting efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, A Rasem; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Townsend, Timothy

    2011-04-01

    Sorting of waste wood is an important process practiced at recycling facilities in order to detect and divert contaminants from recycled wood products. Contaminants of concern include arsenic, chromium and copper found in chemically preserved wood. The objective of this research was to evaluate the sorting efficiencies of both treated and untreated parts of the wood waste stream, and metal (As, Cr and Cu) mass recoveries by the use of automated X-ray fluorescence (XRF) systems. A full-scale system was used for experimentation. This unit consisted of an XRF-detection chamber mounted on the top of a conveyor and a pneumatic slide-way diverter which sorted wood into presumed treated and presumed untreated piles. A randomized block design was used to evaluate the operational conveyance parameters of the system, including wood feed rate and conveyor belt speed. Results indicated that online sorting efficiencies of waste wood by XRF technology were high based on number and weight of pieces (70-87% and 75-92% for treated wood and 66-97% and 68-96% for untreated wood, respectively). These sorting efficiencies achieved mass recovery for metals of 81-99% for As, 75-95% for Cu and 82-99% of Cr. The incorrect sorting of wood was attributed almost equally to deficiencies in the detection and conveyance/diversion systems. Even with its deficiencies, the system was capable of producing a recyclable portion that met residential soil quality levels established for Florida, for an infeed that contained 5% of treated wood. PMID:21194917

  14. Geological storage of nuclear wastes: Insights following the Fukushima crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geological storage of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) has been in the agenda of Japan for several years. Nevertheless, all the research can become meaningless without understanding the public feelings about the disposal. The events at Fukushima in 2011 altered the perception towards nuclear-waste storage in the country. This work investigates the attitude of young Japanese towards the construction of a repository following the Fukushima crisis, and examines how public perception changed after the event. A survey among 545 university students from different regions of Japan addressed three main variables: dread, trust and acceptance. The results suggest that the economy of the country is still the most concerning issue, but there was a dramatic increase of attention towards everything nuclear. Radiation leakage and food contamination are major concerns as well. The distrust towards the government deepened after Fukushima, although more than half of the respondents would accept the repository. In a clear phenomenon of NIMBY (not in my back yard), the acceptance drops to less than 20% if the repository is to be installed near the respondents' residency. Financial incentives would increase the acceptability of the siting, although only a substantial compensation might minimise the NIMBY in potential host communities. - Highlights: • Major factors influencing the attitude towards nuclear waste disposal were examined. • The opinion of the Japanese youth before and after the Fukushima events was compared. • Unemployment and earthquakes are now at the upper end of the thought of dread. • The government and scientists are highly distrusted by the Japanese youth. • People might still accept the repository though the NIMBY phenomenon remains high

  15. Hanford: A Conversation About Nuclear Waste and Cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author takes us on a journey through a world of facts, values, conflicts, and choices facing the most complex environmental cleanup project in the United States, the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Starting with the top-secret Manhattan Project, Hanford was used to create tons of plutonium for nuclear weapons. Hundreds of tons of waste remain. In an easy-to-read, illustrated text, Gephart crafts the story of Hanford becoming the world's first nuclear weapons site to release large amounts of contaminants into the environment. This was at a time when radiation biology was in its infancy, industry practiced unbridled waste dumping, and the public trusted what it was told. The plutonium market stalled with the end of the Cold War. Public accountability and environmental compliance ushered in a new cleanup mission. Today, Hanford is driven by remediation choices whose outcomes remain uncertain. It's a story whose epilogue will be written by future generations. This book is an information resource, written for the general reader as well as the technically trained person wanting an overview of Hanford and cleanup issues facing the nuclear weapons complex. Each chapter is a topical mini-series. It's an idea guide that encourages readers to be informed consumers of Hanford news, to recognize that knowledge, high ethical standards, and social values are at the heart of coping with Hanford's past and charting its future. Hanford history is a window into many environmental conflicts facing our nation; it's about building upon success and learning from failure. And therein lies a key lesson, when powerful interests are involved, no generation is above pretense. Roy E. Gephart is a geohydrologist and senior program manager at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington. He has 30 years experience in environmental studies and the nuclear waste industry

  16. Civil nuclear and responsibilities related to radioactive wastes. The 'cumbersome' wastes of the civil nuclear; The Parliament and the management of wastes from the civil nuclear; The Swiss legal framework related to the shutting down of nuclear power stations and to the management of radioactive wastes; Economic theory and management of radioactive wastes: to dare the conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents the contributions to a research seminar organised by the European Centre of research on Risk, Collective Accident and Disasters Law (CERDACC) on the following theme: civil nuclear and responsibilities related to radioactive wastes. Three main thematic issues have been addressed: the French legal framework for waste processing, the comparison with the Swiss case, and the controversy about the exposure of societies to waste-induced risks. The first contribution addressed the cumbersome wastes of the civil nuclear industry: characterization and management solutions, the hypothesis of reversibility of the storage of radioactive wastes. The second one comments the commitment of the French Parliament in the management of wastes of the civil nuclear industry: role of Parliamentary Office of assessment of scientific and technological choices (OPECST) to guide law elaboration, assessment by the Parliament of the management of nuclear wastes (history and evolution of legal arrangements). The next contribution describes the Swiss legal framework for the shutting down of nuclear power stations (decision and decommissioning) and for the management of radioactive wastes (removal, financing). The last contribution discusses the risk related to nuclear waste management for citizen and comments how economists address this issue

  17. Two citizen task forces and the challenge of the evolving nuclear waste siting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siting any nuclear waste facility is problematic in today's climate of distrust toward nuclear agencies and fear of nuclear waste. This study compares and contrasts the siting and public participation processes as two citizen task forces dealt with their difficult responsibilities. 10 refs., 3 tabs

  18. Two citizen task forces and the challenge of the evolving nuclear waste siting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelle, E.B.

    1990-01-01

    Siting any nuclear waste facility is problematic in today's climate of distrust toward nuclear agencies and fear of nuclear waste. This study compares and contrasts the siting and public participation processes as two citizen task forces dealt with their difficult responsibilities. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. The nuclear waste disaster. A view behind the curtain of the presumably clean nuclear power; Das Atommuell-Desaster. Blicke hinter die Kulissen der angeblich sauberen Atomenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Julia; Simon, Armin; Stay, Jochen (comps.)

    2015-04-15

    The brochure on the nuclear waste disaster - a view behind the curtain of the presumably clean nuclear power discusses the following topics: Thuringia and Saxony - radiating landscapes, Gronau - 100.000 tons for eternity, Gundremmingen - nuclear waste records and castor shortage, Brunsbuettel - castor storage facility without licensing, Juelich the pebble bed drama, Karlsruhe - the hall is filled, Obrigheim - radioactive waste for cooking pots, Asse - the ticking bomb, final repositories - an illusion without solution, stop the waste production, Germany - endless nuclear waste.

  20. Seismic design of low-level nuclear waste repositories and toxic waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Identification of the elements of typical hazardous waste facilities (HFWs) that are the major contributors to the risk are focussed on as the elements which require additional considerations in the design and construction of low-level nuclear waste management repositories and HWFs. From a recent study of six typical HWFs it was determined that the factors that contribute most to the human and environmental risk fall into four basic categories: geologic and seismological conditions at each HWF; engineered structures at each HWF; environmental conditions at each HWF; and nature of the material being released. In selecting and carrying out the six case studies, three groups of hazardous waste facilities were examined: generator industries which treat or temporarily store their own wastes; generator facilities which dispose of their own hazardous wastes on site; and industries in the waste treatment and disposal business. The case studies have a diversity of geologic setting, nearby settlement patterns, and environments. Two sites are above a regional aquifer, two are near a bay important to regional fishing, one is in rural hills, and one is in a desert, although not isolated from nearby towns and a groundwater/surface-water system. From the results developed in the study, it was concluded that the effect of seismic activity on hazardous facilities poses a significant risk to the population. Fifteen reasons are given for this conclusion

  1. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. Achieving the objective of modeling the performance of a disposal scenario requires describing processes involved in waste form degradation and radionuclide release at the subcontinuum scale, beginning with mechanistic descriptions of chemical reactions and chemical kinetics at the atomic scale, and upscaling into effective, validated constitutive models for input to high-fidelity continuum scale codes for coupled multiphysics simulations of release and transport. Verification and validation (V&V) is required throughout the system to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M&S codes and capabilities, including at the subcontiunuum scale and the constitutive models they inform or generate. This Report outlines the nature of the V&V challenge at the subcontinuum scale, an approach to incorporate V&V concepts into subcontinuum scale modeling and simulation (M&S), and a plan to incrementally incorporate effective V&V into subcontinuum scale M&S destined for use in the NEAMS Waste IPSC work flow to meet requirements of quantitative confidence in the constitutive models informed by subcontinuum scale phenomena.

  2. Management research evolution of high activity nuclear wastes. Volume 1: civil wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In France, the 30 December 1991 law is applied properly, but programs orientation have to take in account the conception changes in the downstream nuclear fuel cycle. Transmutation researches have increased, and previous works for underground storage have followed the previsions, but the acceleration of technical progress and the fast evolution of the economical environment modify the bases of this law, with the question of the possible incomplete fuel cycle settling from the ores to the reprocessing and the nuclear wastes. The long term storage modalities and the delayed reprocessing have to be studied. (A.B.)

  3. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: engineered barriers alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste involves emplacing the waste in a vault excavated at a depth of 500 to 1000 m in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The solid waste would be isolated from the biosphere by a multibarrier system consisting of engineered barriers, including long-lived containers and clay and cement-based sealing materials, and the natural barrier provided by the massive geological formation. The technical feasibility of this concept and its impact on the environment and human health are being documented in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), which will be submitted for review under the federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process. This report, one of nine EIS primary references, describes the various alternative designs and materials for engineered barriers that have been considered during the development of the Canadian disposal concept and summarizes engineered barrier concepts being evaluated in other countries. The basis for the selection of a reference engineered barrier system for the EIS is presented. This reference system involves placing used CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) fuel bundles in titanium containers, which would then be emplaced in boreholes drilled in the floor of disposal rooms. Clay-based sealing materials would be used to fill both the space between the containers and the rock and the remaining excavations. In the section on waste forms, the properties of both used-fuel bundles and solidified high-level wastes, which would be produced by treating wastes resulting from the reprocessing of used fuel, are discussed. Methods of solidifying the wastes and the chemical durability of the solidified waste under disposal conditions are reviewed. Various alternative container designs are reviewed, ranging from preliminary conceptual designs to designs that have received extensive prototype testing. Results of structural performance, welding and inspection studies are also summarized. The corrosion of

  4. Environmental Justice, Place and Nuclear Fuel Waste Management in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Richard G. [Univ. of Guelph (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Murphy, Brenda L. [Wilfrid Launer Univ., Brantford (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the basis of a Nuclear Fuel Waste management strategy for Canada, taking into account the unique legal tenets (Aboriginal rights; federal - provincial jurisdiction) and the orientation that the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) has taken to date. The focus of the paper are grounded in notions of environmental justice. Bullard's definition provides a useful guideline: 'the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, colour, national origin or income with respect to the development, implementation and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations and policies'. The overriding concern is to work towards a process that is inclusive and just. Prior to developing a specific strategy to site a NFW disposal facility, we maintain that the NWMO needs to first address three fundamental issues: Expand its mandate to include the future of nuclear energy in Canada; Provide an inclusive role for First Nations (Aboriginal people) in all stages of the process; Adhere to the requirement of specifying an economic region and deal more overtly with the transportation of NF.

  5. Environmental Justice, Place and Nuclear Fuel Waste Management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the basis of a Nuclear Fuel Waste management strategy for Canada, taking into account the unique legal tenets (Aboriginal rights; federal - provincial jurisdiction) and the orientation that the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) has taken to date. The focus of the paper are grounded in notions of environmental justice. Bullard's definition provides a useful guideline: 'the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, colour, national origin or income with respect to the development, implementation and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations and policies'. The overriding concern is to work towards a process that is inclusive and just. Prior to developing a specific strategy to site a NFW disposal facility, we maintain that the NWMO needs to first address three fundamental issues: Expand its mandate to include the future of nuclear energy in Canada; Provide an inclusive role for First Nations (Aboriginal people) in all stages of the process; Adhere to the requirement of specifying an economic region and deal more overtly with the transportation of NF

  6. Membrane systems to treat gaseous and nuclear industry waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membranes are creating a revolution in the world separation technology. The applications of the membrane systems are recognised in water purification, removal of undesired waste constituents from the aqueous, organic liquids and gaseous streams. The systems named reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration and electrodialysis are well known and have found applications in the above fields. Membranes have been known to common man for use only in filtration systems at the laboratory scale. Recent developments in gas separations have found applications in CO/sub 2/, So/sub 2), H/sub 2/S and NH/sub 3/ stripping from the industrial and also nuclear gaseous effluents to save the environment from pollution and retain radioactivity in house. The supported liquid membrane based systems have been applied to recover metals from the industrial and radioactive liquid wastes. The status of the technology to treat the gaseous and liquid effluents have been described with the contributions for the development of immobilised liquid systems for the removal of some metal ions, which are present as radionuclides in the liquid wastes. Application of reverse osmosis to reduce the waste volume and the undesired radionuclides like /sup 54/Mn, /sup 58/Co, /sup 60/Co, /sup 124/Sb, /sup 110/Ag, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs have also been discussed. Membranes systems for gas purification have also been discussed to treat industrial effluents. (author)

  7. Strontium and Actinide Separations from High Level Nuclear Waste Solutions using Monosodium Titanate - Actual Waste Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T.B.; Barnes, M.J.; Hobbs,D.T.; Walker, D.D.; Fondeur, F.F.; Norato, M.A.; Pulmano, R.L.; Fink, S.D.

    2005-11-01

    Pretreatment processes at the Savannah River Site will separate {sup 90}Sr, alpha-emitting and radionuclides (i.e., actinides) and {sup 137}Cs prior to disposal of the high-level nuclear waste. Separation of {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides occurs by ion exchange/adsorption using an inorganic material, monosodium titanate (MST). Previously reported testing with simulants indicates that the MST exhibits high selectivity for strontium and actinides in high ionic strength and strongly alkaline salt solutions. This paper provides a summary of data acquired to measure the performance of MST to remove strontium and actinides from actual waste solutions. These tests evaluated the effects of ionic strength, mixing, elevated alpha activities, and multiple contacts of the waste with MST. Tests also provided confirmation that MST performs well at much larger laboratory scales (300-700 times larger) and exhibits little affinity for desorption of strontium and plutonium during washing.

  8. Pyrochlore as nuclear waste form. Actinide uptake and chemical stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkeldei, Sarah Charlotte

    2015-07-01

    Radioactive waste is generated by many different technical and scientific applications. For the past decades, different waste disposal strategies have been considered. Several questions on the waste disposal strategy remain unanswered, particularly regarding the long-term radiotoxicity of minor actinides (Am, Cm, Np), plutonium and uranium. These radionuclides mainly arise from high level nuclear waste (HLW), specific waste streams or dismantled nuclear weapons. Although many countries have opted for the direct disposal of spent fuel, from a scientific and technical point of view it is imperative to pursue alternative waste management strategies. Apart from the vitrification, especially for trivalent actinides and Pu, crystalline ceramic waste forms are considered. In contrast to glasses, crystalline waste forms, which are chemically and physically highly stable, allow the retention of radionuclides on well-defined lattice positions within the crystal structure. Besides polyphase ceramics such as SYNROC, single phase ceramics are considered as tailor made host phases to embed a specific radionuclide or a specific group. Among oxidic single phase ceramics pyrochlores are known to have a high potential for this application. This work examines ZrO{sub 2} based pyrochlores as potential nuclear waste forms, which are known to show a high aqueous stability and a high tolerance towards radiation damage. This work contributes to (1) understand the phase stability field of pyrochlore and consequences of non-stoichiometry which leads to pyrochlores with mixed cationic sites. Mixed cationic occupancies are likely to occur in actinide-bearing pyrochlores. (2) The structural uptake of radionuclides themselves was studied. (3) The chemical stability and the effect of phase transition from pyrochlore to defect fluorite were probed. This phase transition is important, as it is the result of radiation damage in ZrO{sub 2} based pyrochlores. ZrO{sub 2} - Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} pellets

  9. National briefing summaries: Nuclear fuel cycle and waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Silviera, D.J.

    1988-12-01

    The National Briefing Summaries is a compilation of publicly available information concerning the nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management strategies and programs of 21 nations, including the United States and three international agencies that have publicized their activities in this field. It presents available highlight information with references that may be used by the reader for additional information. The information in this document is compiled primarily for use by the US Department of Energy and other US federal agencies and their contractors to provide summary information on radioactive waste management activities in other countries. This document provides an awareness to managers and technical staff of what is occurring in other countries with regard to strategies, activities, and facilities. The information may be useful in program planning to improve and benefit United States' programs through foreign information exchange. Benefits to foreign exchange may be derived through a number of exchange activities.

  10. Determination of acceptable risk criteria for nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial phase of the work performed during FY 1977 consisted of performing a ''scoping'' study to define issues, determine an optimal methodology for their resolution, and compile a data base for acceptable risk criteria development. The issues, spanning technical, psychological, and ethical dimensions, were categorized in seven major areas: (1) unplanned or accidental events, (2) present vs future risks, (3) institutional controls and retrievability, (4) dose-response mechanism and uncertainty, (5) spatial distribution of exposed populations, (6) different types of nuclear wastes, and (7) public perception. The optimum methodology for developing ARC was determined to be multi-attribute decision analysis encompassing numerous specific techniques for choosing, from among several alternatives, the optimal course of action when the alternatives are constrained to meet specified attributes. The data base developed during the study comprises existing regulations and guidelines, maximum permissible dose, natural geologic hazards, nonradioactive hazardous waste practices, bioethical perspectives, and data from an opinion survey

  11. Determination of acceptable risk criteria for nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J.J.

    1977-10-21

    The initial phase of the work performed during FY 1977 consisted of performing a ''scoping'' study to define issues, determine an optimal methodology for their resolution, and compile a data base for acceptable risk criteria development. The issues, spanning technical, psychological, and ethical dimensions, were categorized in seven major areas: (1) unplanned or accidental events, (2) present vs future risks, (3) institutional controls and retrievability, (4) dose-response mechanism and uncertainty, (5) spatial distribution of exposed populations, (6) different types of nuclear wastes, and (7) public perception. The optimum methodology for developing ARC was determined to be multi-attribute decision analysis encompassing numerous specific techniques for choosing, from among several alternatives, the optimal course of action when the alternatives are constrained to meet specified attributes. The data base developed during the study comprises existing regulations and guidelines, maximum permissible dose, natural geologic hazards, nonradioactive hazardous waste practices, bioethical perspectives, and data from an opinion survey.

  12. Bioprocessing applications in the management of nuclear and chemical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Department of Defense (DOD), and other federal agencies already face profound challenges in finding strategies that manage budgets and priorities while bringing their sites and facilities into compliance with current statues and regulations and with agency policies and orders. While it is often agreed that current technology can be used to address most waste management and environmental restoration needs, it is also argued by many that the costs of implementing current technology will be too high unless the standards and schedules for compliance are relaxed. Since this is socially unacceptable, efforts to improve the efficiency of existing technologies and to develop new technologies should be pursued. A sizable research, development, and demonstration effort can be easily justified if the potential for reducing costs can be shown. Bioprocessing systems for the treatment of nuclear and chemically hazardous wastes offer such promise

  13. Procedural development for nuclear waste canister impact testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double containment requirements for transporting nuclear waste in glass form are costly and may not be necessary for some waste forms. To allow single containment, a procedure for examining particle size distribution and the amount of respirable particles generated under accident conditions was needed. A statistically designed experiment was conducted to examine the effects of glass temperature, fill rate and canister drop orientation upon the amount of sub-ten micron particles generated under simulated accident conditions. Measuring such small particles is somewhat inaccurate because of material loss in handling. By assuming a lognormal particle size distribution, the amount of sub-ten micron particles was estimated from the results for the larger measurable particles. Analyses revealed no temperature or fill rate effect but indicated that the amount of respirable particles is affected by drop orientation. This led to identification of a worst case drop orientation to be used in qualification testing. 4 refs., 2 figs

  14. Bioprocessing applications in the management of nuclear and chemical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The projected requirements for waste management and environmental restoration activities within the United States will probably cost tens of billions of dollars annually during the next two decades. Expenditures of this magnitude clearly have the potential to affect the international competitiveness of many US industries and the continued operation of many federal facilities. It is argued that the costs of implementing current technology will be too high unless the standards and schedules for compliance are relaxed. Since this is socially unacceptable, efforts to improve the efficiency of existing technologies and to develop new technologies should be pursued. A sizable research, development, and demonstration effort can be easily justified if the potential for reducing costs can be shown. Bioprocessing systems for the treatment of nuclear and chemically hazardous wastes offer such promise. 11 refs

  15. National briefing summaries: Nuclear fuel cycle and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Briefing Summaries is a compilation of publicly available information concerning the nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management strategies and programs of 21 nations, including the United States and three international agencies that have publicized their activities in this field. It presents available highlight information with references that may be used by the reader for additional information. The information in this document is compiled primarily for use by the US Department of Energy and other US federal agencies and their contractors to provide summary information on radioactive waste management activities in other countries. This document provides an awareness to managers and technical staff of what is occurring in other countries with regard to strategies, activities, and facilities. The information may be useful in program planning to improve and benefit United States' programs through foreign information exchange. Benefits to foreign exchange may be derived through a number of exchange activities

  16. The waste originating from nuclear energy peaceful applications and its management; Os rejeitos provenientes de aplicacoes pacificas da energia nuclear e o seu gerenciamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de [E-mail: jairalbo at ax.apc.org (Brazil)] [and others

    1997-05-01

    This work presents the waste originating from nuclear energy and its management. It approaches the following main topics: nature and classification of the wastes; security requirements to the waste management; state of the art related to the wastes derivates of the uses of the nuclear energy; wastes in the fuel cycle; wastes of the industrial, medical and research and development applications; costs of the waste management.

  17. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's Socioeconomic Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following recommendations have been abstracted from the body of this report. The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation's Socioeconomic Program Plan for the Establishment of Mined Geologic Repositories to Isolate Nuclear Waste should be modified to: (1) encourage active public participation in the decision-making processes leading to repository site selection; (2) clearly define mechanisms for incorporating the concerns of local residents, state and local governments, and other potentially interested parties into the early stages of the site selection process. In addition, the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation should carefully review the overall role that these persons and groups, including local pressure groups organized in the face of potential repository development, will play in the siting process; (3) place significantly greater emphasis on using primary socioeconomic data during the site selection process, reversing the current overemphasis on secondary data collection, description of socioeconomic conditions at potential locations, and development of analytical methodologies; (4) include additional approaches to solving socioeconomic problems. For example, a reluctance to acknowledge that solutions to socioeconomic problems need to be found jointly with interested parties is evident in the plan; (5) recognize that mitigation mechanisms other than compensation and incentives may be effective; (6) as soon as potential sites are identified, the US Department of Energy (DOE) should begin discussing impact mitigation agreements with local officials and other interested parties; and (7) comply fully with the pertinent provisions of NWPA

  18. Waste disposal[1997 Scientific Report of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-07-01

    The primary mission of the Waste Disposal programme at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is to propose, develop, and assess solutions for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. In Belgium, deep geological burial in clay is the primary option for the disposal of High-Level Waste and spent nuclear fuel. The main achievements during 1997 in the following domains are described: performance assessment, characterization of the geosphere, characterization of the waste, migration processes, underground infrastructure.

  19. Environmental Impact Statement on the concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    This report describes the many fundamental issues relating to the strategy being proposed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the long-term management of nuclear fuel waste. It discusses the need for a method for disposal of nuclear fuel waste that would permanently protect human health and the natural environment and that would not unfairly burden future generations. It also describes the background and mandate of the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program in Canada.

  20. Environmental Impact Statement on the concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the many fundamental issues relating to the strategy being proposed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the long-term management of nuclear fuel waste. It discusses the need for a method for disposal of nuclear fuel waste that would permanently protect human health and the natural environment and that would not unfairly burden future generations. It also describes the background and mandate of the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program in Canada.