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Sample records for automated microfluidic reactor

  1. RNA-protein binding kinetics in an automated microfluidic reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgeway, William K; Seitaridou, Effrosyni; Phillips, Rob; Williamson, James R

    2009-11-01

    Microfluidic chips can automate biochemical assays on the nanoliter scale, which is of considerable utility for RNA-protein binding reactions that would otherwise require large quantities of proteins. Unfortunately, complex reactions involving multiple reactants cannot be prepared in current microfluidic mixer designs, nor is investigation of long-time scale reactions possible. Here, a microfluidic 'Riboreactor' has been designed and constructed to facilitate the study of kinetics of RNA-protein complex formation over long time scales. With computer automation, the reactor can prepare binding reactions from any combination of eight reagents, and is optimized to monitor long reaction times. By integrating a two-photon microscope into the microfluidic platform, 5-nl reactions can be observed for longer than 1000 s with single-molecule sensitivity and negligible photobleaching. Using the Riboreactor, RNA-protein binding reactions with a fragment of the bacterial 30S ribosome were prepared in a fully automated fashion and binding rates were consistent with rates obtained from conventional assays. The microfluidic chip successfully combines automation, low sample consumption, ultra-sensitive fluorescence detection and a high degree of reproducibility. The chip should be able to probe complex reaction networks describing the assembly of large multicomponent RNPs such as the ribosome.

  2. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Mitrovski, Svetlana M.

    2011-03-22

    A microfluidic electrochemical reactor includes an electrode and one or more microfluidic channels on the electrode, where the microfluidic channels are covered with a membrane containing a gas permeable polymer. The distance between the electrode and the membrane is less than 500 micrometers. The microfluidic electrochemical reactor can provide for increased reaction rates in electrochemical reactions using a gaseous reactant, as compared to conventional electrochemical cells. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors can be incorporated into devices for applications such as fuel cells, electrochemical analysis, microfluidic actuation, pH gradient formation.

  3. Scaling behavior of optimally structured catalytic microfluidic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Fridolin; Bruus, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    In this study of catalytic microfluidic reactors we show that, when optimally structured, these reactors share underlying scaling properties. The scaling is predicted theoretically and verified numerically. Furthermore, we show how to increase the reaction rate significantly by distributing the...

  4. Automated reactor records evaluation framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The only truly reliable method for core physics code validation is comparison against experimental data – and for power nuclear reactors, the only reasonably acquirable kind of experimental data are the reactor records. However, the amount of the data coming from the reactor operation is often so vast that it can be discouraging for the code developers to use it properly. Thus, the validation package is further reduced because the data is hard to use. This paper presents an elaborate, fully automated framework, which was designed and implemented in our institute, for reactor records processing and its use for core physics code validation. The workflow, implemented as a Web 2.0 application, provides a practical and painless solution for use of reactor records data for code development and validation. (author)

  5. A Droplet Microfluidic Platform for Automating Genetic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gach, Philip C; Shih, Steve C C; Sustarich, Jess; Keasling, Jay D; Hillson, Nathan J; Adams, Paul D; Singh, Anup K

    2016-05-20

    We present a water-in-oil droplet microfluidic platform for transformation, culture and expression of recombinant proteins in multiple host organisms including bacteria, yeast and fungi. The platform consists of a hybrid digital microfluidic/channel-based droplet chip with integrated temperature control to allow complete automation and integration of plasmid addition, heat-shock transformation, addition of selection medium, culture, and protein expression. The microfluidic format permitted significant reduction in consumption (100-fold) of expensive reagents such as DNA and enzymes compared to the benchtop method. The chip contains a channel to continuously replenish oil to the culture chamber to provide a fresh supply of oxygen to the cells for long-term (∼5 days) cell culture. The flow channel also replenished oil lost to evaporation and increased the number of droplets that could be processed and cultured. The platform was validated by transforming several plasmids into Escherichia coli including plasmids containing genes for fluorescent proteins GFP, BFP and RFP; plasmids with selectable markers for ampicillin or kanamycin resistance; and a Golden Gate DNA assembly reaction. We also demonstrate the applicability of this platform for transformation in widely used eukaryotic organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. Duration and temperatures of the microfluidic heat-shock procedures were optimized to yield transformation efficiencies comparable to those obtained by benchtop methods with a throughput up to 6 droplets/min. The proposed platform offers potential for automation of molecular biology experiments significantly reducing cost, time and variability while improving throughput. PMID:26830031

  6. Digital microfluidics for automated hanging drop cell spheroid culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijian, Andrew P; Garrell, Robin L

    2015-06-01

    Cell spheroids are multicellular aggregates, grown in vitro, that mimic the three-dimensional morphology of physiological tissues. Although there are numerous benefits to using spheroids in cell-based assays, the adoption of spheroids in routine biomedical research has been limited, in part, by the tedious workflow associated with spheroid formation and analysis. Here we describe a digital microfluidic platform that has been developed to automate liquid-handling protocols for the formation, maintenance, and analysis of multicellular spheroids in hanging drop culture. We show that droplets of liquid can be added to and extracted from through-holes, or "wells," and fabricated in the bottom plate of a digital microfluidic device, enabling the formation and assaying of hanging drops. Using this digital microfluidic platform, spheroids of mouse mesenchymal stem cells were formed and maintained in situ for 72 h, exhibiting good viability (>90%) and size uniformity (% coefficient of variation digital microfluidic platform provides a viable tool for automating cell spheroid culture and analysis. PMID:25510471

  7. A Droplet Microfluidic Platform for Automating Genetic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gach, Philip C; Shih, Steve C C; Sustarich, Jess; Keasling, Jay D; Hillson, Nathan J; Adams, Paul D; Singh, Anup K

    2016-05-20

    We present a water-in-oil droplet microfluidic platform for transformation, culture and expression of recombinant proteins in multiple host organisms including bacteria, yeast and fungi. The platform consists of a hybrid digital microfluidic/channel-based droplet chip with integrated temperature control to allow complete automation and integration of plasmid addition, heat-shock transformation, addition of selection medium, culture, and protein expression. The microfluidic format permitted significant reduction in consumption (100-fold) of expensive reagents such as DNA and enzymes compared to the benchtop method. The chip contains a channel to continuously replenish oil to the culture chamber to provide a fresh supply of oxygen to the cells for long-term (∼5 days) cell culture. The flow channel also replenished oil lost to evaporation and increased the number of droplets that could be processed and cultured. The platform was validated by transforming several plasmids into Escherichia coli including plasmids containing genes for fluorescent proteins GFP, BFP and RFP; plasmids with selectable markers for ampicillin or kanamycin resistance; and a Golden Gate DNA assembly reaction. We also demonstrate the applicability of this platform for transformation in widely used eukaryotic organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. Duration and temperatures of the microfluidic heat-shock procedures were optimized to yield transformation efficiencies comparable to those obtained by benchtop methods with a throughput up to 6 droplets/min. The proposed platform offers potential for automation of molecular biology experiments significantly reducing cost, time and variability while improving throughput.

  8. Synthesis and Manipulation of Semiconductor Nanocrystals inMicrofluidic Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Emory Ming-Yue

    2006-12-19

    Microfluidic reactors are investigated as a mechanism tocontrol the growth of semiconductor nanocrystals and characterize thestructural evolution of colloidal quantum dots. Due to their shortdiffusion lengths, low thermal masses, and predictable fluid dynamics,microfluidic devices can be used to quickly and reproducibly alterreaction conditions such as concentration, temperature, and reactiontime, while allowing for rapid reagent mixing and productcharacterization. These features are particularly useful for colloidalnanocrystal reactions, which scale poorly and are difficult to controland characterize in bulk fluids. To demonstrate the capabilities ofnanoparticle microreactors, a size series of spherical CdSe nanocrystalswas synthesized at high temperature in a continuous-flow, microfabricatedglass reactor. Nanocrystal diameters are reproducibly controlled bysystematically altering reaction parameters such as the temperature,concentration, and reaction time. Microreactors with finer control overtemperature and reagent mixing were designed to synthesize nanoparticlesof different shapes, such as rods, tetrapods, and hollow shells. The twomajor challenges observed with continuous flow reactors are thedeposition of particles on channel walls and the broad distribution ofresidence times that result from laminar flow. To alleviate theseproblems, I designed and fabricated liquid-liquid segmented flowmicroreactors in which the reaction precursors are encapsulated inflowing droplets suspended in an immiscible carrier fluid. The synthesisof CdSe nanocrystals in such microreactors exhibited reduced depositionand residence time distributions while enabling the rapid screening aseries of samples isolated in nL droplets. Microfluidic reactors werealso designed to modify the composition of existing nanocrystals andcharacterize the kinetics of such reactions. The millisecond kinetics ofthe CdSe-to-Ag2Se nanocrystal cation exchange reaction are measured insitu with micro

  9. The past, present and potential for microfluidic reactor technology in chemical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira, Katherine S; Casadevall i Solvas, Xavier; Wootton, Robert C R; deMello, Andrew J

    2013-11-01

    The past two decades have seen far-reaching progress in the development of microfluidic systems for use in the chemical and biological sciences. Here we assess the utility of microfluidic reactor technology as a tool in chemical synthesis in both academic research and industrial applications. We highlight the successes and failures of past research in the field and provide a catalogue of chemistries performed in a microfluidic reactor. We then assess the current roadblocks hindering the widespread use of microfluidic reactors from the perspectives of both synthetic chemistry and industrial application. Finally, we set out seven challenges that we hope will inspire future research in this field.

  10. Transport in a Microfluidic Catalytic Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H G; Chung, J; Grigoropoulos, C P; Greif, R; Havstad, M; Morse, J D

    2003-04-30

    A study of the heat and mass transfer, flow, and thermodynamics of the reacting flow in a catalytic microreactor is presented. Methanol reforming is utilized in the fuel processing system driving a micro-scale proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Understanding the flow and thermal transport phenomena as well as the reaction mechanisms is essential for improving the efficiency of the reforming process as well as the quality of the processed fuel. Numerical studies have been carried out to characterize the transport in a silicon microfabricated reactor system. On the basis of these results, optimized conditions for fuel processing are determined.

  11. Reactor pressure vessel stud management automation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adoption of hydraulic tensioner technology as the standard for bolting and unbolting the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) head 35 yr ago represented an incredible commitment to new technology, but the existing technology was so primitive as to be clearly unacceptable. Today, a variety of approaches for improvement make the decision more difficult. Automation in existing installations must meet complex physical, logistic, and financial parameters while addressing the demands of reduced exposure, reduced critical path, and extended plant life. There are two generic approaches to providing automated RPV stud engagement and disengagement: the multiple stud tensioner and automated individual tools. A variation of the latter would include the handling system. Each has its benefits and liabilities

  12. Synthesis and Manipulation of Semiconductor Nanocrystals inMicrofluidic Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Emory Ming-Yue [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Microfluidic reactors are investigated as a mechanism tocontrol the growth of semiconductor nanocrystals and characterize thestructural evolution of colloidal quantum dots. Due to their shortdiffusion lengths, low thermal masses, and predictable fluid dynamics,microfluidic devices can be used to quickly and reproducibly alterreaction conditions such as concentration, temperature, and reactiontime, while allowing for rapid reagent mixing and productcharacterization. These features are particularly useful for colloidalnanocrystal reactions, which scale poorly and are difficult to controland characterize in bulk fluids. To demonstrate the capabilities ofnanoparticle microreactors, a size series of spherical CdSe nanocrystalswas synthesized at high temperature in a continuous-flow, microfabricatedglass reactor. Nanocrystal diameters are reproducibly controlled bysystematically altering reaction parameters such as the temperature,concentration, and reaction time. Microreactors with finer control overtemperature and reagent mixing were designed to synthesize nanoparticlesof different shapes, such as rods, tetrapods, and hollow shells. The twomajor challenges observed with continuous flow reactors are thedeposition of particles on channel walls and the broad distribution ofresidence times that result from laminar flow. To alleviate theseproblems, I designed and fabricated liquid-liquid segmented flowmicroreactors in which the reaction precursors are encapsulated inflowing droplets suspended in an immiscible carrier fluid. The synthesisof CdSe nanocrystals in such microreactors exhibited reduced depositionand residence time distributions while enabling the rapid screening aseries of samples isolated in nL droplets. Microfluidic reactors werealso designed to modify the composition of existing nanocrystals andcharacterize the kinetics of such reactions. The millisecond kinetics ofthe CdSe-to-Ag2Se nanocrystal cation exchange reaction are measured insitu with micro

  13. Grafting of antibodies inside integrated microfluidic-microoptic devices by means of automated microcontact printing

    OpenAIRE

    Bou Chakra, Elie; Hannes, Benjamin; Vieillard, Julien; Mansfield, Colin D.; Mazurczyk, Radoslav; Bouchard, Aude; Potempa, Jan; Krawczyk, Stanislas; Cabrera, Michel

    2009-01-01

    A novel approach to integrating biochip and microfluidic devices is reported in which microcontact printing is a key fabrication technique. The process is performed using an automated microcontact printer that has been developed as an application-specific tool. As proof-of-concept the instrument is used to consecutively and selectively graft patterns of antibodies at the bottom of a glass channel for use in microfluidic immunoassays. Importantly, feature collapse due to over compression of th...

  14. Automated Long-Term Monitoring of Parallel Microfluidic Operations Applying a Machine Vision-Assisted Positioning Method

    OpenAIRE

    Hon Ming Yip; John C. S. Li; Kai Xie; Xin Cui; Agrim Prasad; Qiannan Gao; Chi Chiu Leung; Lam, Raymond H. W.

    2014-01-01

    As microfluidics has been applied extensively in many cell and biochemical applications, monitoring the related processes is an important requirement. In this work, we design and fabricate a high-throughput microfluidic device which contains 32 microchambers to perform automated parallel microfluidic operations and monitoring on an automated stage of a microscope. Images are captured at multiple spots on the device during the operations for monitoring samples in microchambers in parallel; yet...

  15. Automated microfluidic DNA/RNA extraction with both disposable and reusable components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated microfluidic nucleic extraction system was fabricated with a multilayer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) structure that consists of sample wells, microvalves, a micropump and a disposable microfluidic silica cartridge. Both the microvalves and micropump structures were fabricated in a single layer and are operated pneumatically using a 100 µm PDMS membrane. To fabricate the disposable microfluidic silica cartridge, two-cavity structures were made in a PDMS replica to fit the stacked silica membranes. A handheld controller for the microvalves and pumps was developed to enable system automation. With purified ribonucleic acid (RNA), whole blood and E. coli samples, the automated microfluidic nucleic acid extraction system was validated with a guanidine-based solid phase extraction procedure. An extraction efficiency of ∼90% for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ∼54% for RNA was obtained in 12 min from whole blood and E. coli samples, respectively. In addition, the same quantity and quality of extracted DNA was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. The PCR also presented the appropriate amplification and melting profiles. Automated, programmable fluid control and physical separation of the reusable components and the disposable components significantly decrease the assay time and manufacturing cost and increase the flexibility and compatibility of the system with downstream components

  16. Microfluidic Reactors for the Controlled Synthesis of Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Emine Yegan

    Nanoparticles have attracted a lot of attention in the past few decades due to their unique, size-dependent properties. In order to use these nanoparticles in devices or sensors effectively, it is important to maintain uniform properties throughout the system; therefore nanoparticles need to have uniform sizes -- or monodisperse. In order to achieve monodispersity, an extreme control over the reaction conditions is required during their synthesis. These reaction conditions such as temperature, concentration of reagents, residence times, etc. affect the structure of nanoparticles dramatically; therefore when the conditions vary locally in the reaction vessel, different sized nanoparticles form, causing polydispersity. In widely-used batch wise synthesis techniques, large sized reaction vessels are used to mix and heat reagents. In these types of systems, it is very hard to avoid thermal gradients and to achieve rapid mixing times as well as to control residence times. Also it is not possible to make rapid changes in the reaction parameters during the synthesis. The other drawback of conventional methods is that it is not possible to separate the nucleation of nanoparticles from their growth; this leads to combined nucleation and growth and subsequently results in polydisperse size distributions. Microfluidics is an alternative method by which the limitations of conventional techniques can be addressed. Due to the small size, it is possible to control temperature and concentration of reagents precisely as well as to make rapid changes in mixing ratios of reagents or temperature of the reaction zones. There have been several microfluidic reactors -- (microreactors) in literature that were designed to improve the size distribution of nanoparticles. In this work, two novel microfluidic systems were developed for achieving controlled synthesis of nanoparticles. The first microreactor was made out of a chemically robust polymer, polyurethane, and it was used for low

  17. Microeddies as microfluidic elements: Reactors and cell traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Barry R.

    2003-07-01

    Microfluidic applications generally seek to control fluids, reagents, and objects at the microscale, and the development of individual components to either mimic traditional processes or to realize novel processes remains important to development in the field. This work focuses on microscopic acoustic streaming eddies as hydrodynamic microreactors and traps for microscopic objects including motile cells. Four microeddies were created around a stationary cylinder (radius 406 mum) by oscillating the surrounding fluid (audible frequency). Concentration images measured using Raman spectroscopy show that eddies act as hydrodynamic "vessels" for reagents dosed from the cylinder (an electrode), and the oscillation amplitude and reagent dosing rate quantitatively controlled the eddy composition. These "vessels" were used to quantify the antioxidant properties of vitamin C against an electrogenerated oxidant. Material balances over the eddy yield a reactor model identical to a two-input CSTR (i.e., perfect backmixing model); and the mean reactor residence time, Damkohler number, and reagent feed ratio are quantitatively related to eddy properties. The CSTR model fit to data for a range of reactor conversions gives the homogeneous rate constant for vitamin C oxidation, showing that the composition of microeddy reactors can be controlled quantitatively. The cylinder and oscillating fluid were incorporated into microscale channels to provide a route to integration with more conventional microfluidic applications. Detailed flow measurements describe the three-dimensional acoustic streaming flow structure, and theory relates measured flow features to frequency and geometry through simple scaling. These channel-based microeddies show an impressive ability to trap microscopic objects at fixed positions in three-dimensions. Microeddies formed in a microchannel (425 mum depth) collect and trap motile phytoplankton (P. micans) and microspheres (˜20--0 mum diameter). The trap

  18. Automation of a fixed-bed continuous–flow reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Alcántara, R.; Canoira, L.; R. Conde; Fernández-Sánchez, J. M.; Navarro, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of a laboratory plant with a fixed-bed continuous-flow reactor, fully automated and controlled from a personal computer. The automated variables include two gas flows, one liquid flow, six temperatures, two pressures, one circulation of a cooling liquid, and 10 electrovalves. An adaptive-predictive control system was used. The chemical process chosen to run the automated reactor was the conversion of methanol to gasoline over a ZSM-5 catalyst. Thi...

  19. Automated centrifugal-microfluidic platform for DNA purification using laser burst valve and coriolis effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min-Seong; Yoo, Jae-Chern

    2015-04-01

    We report a fully automated DNA purification platform with a micropored membrane in the channel utilizing centrifugal microfluidics on a lab-on-a-disc (LOD). The microfluidic flow in the LOD, into which the reagents are injected for DNA purification, is controlled by a single motor and laser burst valve. The sample and reagents pass successively through the micropored membrane in the channel when each laser burst valve is opened. The Coriolis effect is used by rotating the LOD bi-directionally to increase the purity of the DNA, thereby preventing the mixing of the waste and elution solutions. The total process from the lysed sample injection into the LOD to obtaining the purified DNA was finished within 7 min with only one manual step. The experimental result for Salmonella shows that the proposed microfluidic platform is comparable to the existing devices in terms of the purity and yield of DNA.

  20. Automated Microfluidic Platform for Serial Polymerase Chain Reaction and High-Resolution Melting Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weidong; Bean, Brian; Corey, Scott; Coursey, Johnathan S; Hasson, Kenton C; Inoue, Hiroshi; Isano, Taisuke; Kanderian, Sami; Lane, Ben; Liang, Hongye; Murphy, Brian; Owen, Greg; Shinoda, Nobuhiko; Zeng, Shulin; Knight, Ivor T

    2016-06-01

    We report the development of an automated genetic analyzer for human sample testing based on microfluidic rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA). The integrated DNA microfluidic cartridge was used on a platform designed with a robotic pipettor system that works by sequentially picking up different test solutions from a 384-well plate, mixing them in the tips, and delivering mixed fluids to the DNA cartridge. A novel image feedback flow control system based on a Canon 5D Mark II digital camera was developed for controlling fluid movement through a complex microfluidic branching network without the use of valves. The same camera was used for measuring the high-resolution melt curve of DNA amplicons that were generated in the microfluidic chip. Owing to fast heating and cooling as well as sensitive temperature measurement in the microfluidic channels, the time frame for PCR and HRMA was dramatically reduced from hours to minutes. Preliminary testing results demonstrated that rapid serial PCR and HRMA are possible while still achieving high data quality that is suitable for human sample testing. PMID:25827436

  1. In situ molecular imaging of hydrated biofilm in a microfluidic reactor by ToF-SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Xin; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Zhaoying; Yang, Li; Liu, Bingwen; Zhu, Zihua; Tucker, Abigail E.; Chrisler, William B.; Hill, Eric A.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Lin, Yuehe; Liu, Songqin; Marshall, Matthew J.

    2014-02-26

    The first results of using a novel single channel microfluidic reactor to enable Shewanella biofilm growth and in situ characterization using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) in the hydrated environment are presented. The new microfluidic interface allows direct probing of the liquid surface using ToF-SIMS, a vacuum surface technique. The detection window is an aperture of 2 m in diameter on a thin silicon nitride (SiN) membrane and it allows direct detection of the liquid surface. Surface tension of the liquid flowing inside the microchannel holds the liquid within the aperture. ToF-SIMS depth profiling was used to drill through the SiN membrane and the biofilm grown on the substrate. In situ 2D imaging of the biofilm in hydrated state was acquired, providing spatial distribution of the chemical compounds in the biofilm system. This data was compared with a medium filled microfluidic reactor devoid of biofilm and dried biofilm samples deposited on clean silicon wafers. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was used to investigate these observations. Our results show that imaging biofilms in the hydrated environment using ToF-SIMS is possible using the unique microfluidic reactor. Moreover, characteristic biofilm fatty acids fragments were observed in the hydrated biofilm grown in the microfluidic channel, illustrating the advantage of imaging biofilm in its native environment.

  2. A microfluidics-based technique for automated and rapid labeling of cells for flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patibandla, Phani K.; Estrada, Rosendo; Kannan, Manasaa; Sethu, Palaniappan

    2014-03-01

    Flow cytometry is a powerful technique capable of simultaneous multi-parametric analysis of heterogeneous cell populations for research and clinical applications. In recent years, the flow cytometer has been miniaturized and made portable for application in clinical- and resource-limited settings. The sample preparation procedure, i.e. labeling of cells with antibodies conjugated to fluorescent labels, is a time consuming (˜45 min) and labor-intensive procedure. Microfluidics provides enabling technologies to accomplish rapid and automated sample preparation. Using an integrated microfluidic device consisting of a labeling and washing module, we demonstrate a new protocol that can eliminate sample handling and accomplish sample and reagent metering, high-efficiency mixing, labeling and washing in rapid automated fashion. The labeling module consists of a long microfluidic channel with an integrated chaotic mixer. Samples and reagents are precisely metered into this device to accomplish rapid and high-efficiency mixing. The mixed sample and reagents are collected in a holding syringe and held for up to 8 min following which the mixture is introduced into an inertial washing module to obtain ‘analysis-ready’ samples. The washing module consists of a high aspect ratio channel capable of focusing cells to equilibrium positions close to the channel walls. By introducing the cells and labeling reagents in a narrow stream at the center of the channel flanked on both sides by a wash buffer, the elution of cells into the wash buffer away from the free unbound antibodies is accomplished. After initial calibration experiments to determine appropriate ‘holding time’ to allow antibody binding, both modules were used in conjunction to label MOLT-3 cells (T lymphoblast cell line) with three different antibodies simultaneously. Results confirm no significant difference in mean fluorescence intensity values for all three antibodies labels (p < 0.01) between the

  3. Development of automated high throughput single molecular microfluidic detection platform for signal transduction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Po-Jung; Baghbani Kordmahale, Sina; Chou, Chao-Kai; Yamaguchi, Hirohito; Hung, Mien-Chie; Kameoka, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Signal transductions including multiple protein post-translational modifications (PTM), protein-protein interactions (PPI), and protein-nucleic acid interaction (PNI) play critical roles for cell proliferation and differentiation that are directly related to the cancer biology. Traditional methods, like mass spectrometry, immunoprecipitation, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy require a large amount of sample and long processing time. "microchannel for multiple-parameter analysis of proteins in single-complex (mMAPS)"we proposed can reduce the process time and sample volume because this system is composed by microfluidic channels, fluorescence microscopy, and computerized data analysis. In this paper, we will present an automated mMAPS including integrated microfluidic device, automated stage and electrical relay for high-throughput clinical screening. Based on this result, we estimated that this automated detection system will be able to screen approximately 150 patient samples in a 24-hour period, providing a practical application to analyze tissue samples in a clinical setting.

  4. Student-Fabricated Microfluidic Devices as Flow Reactors for Organic and Inorganic Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Z. Vivian; Edelman, Kate R.; Swanson, Benjamin P.

    2015-01-01

    Flow synthesis in microfluidic devices has been rapidly adapted in the pharmaceutical industry and in many research laboratories. Yet, the cost of commercial flow reactors is a major factor limiting the dissemination of this technology in the undergraduate curriculum. Here, we present a laboratory activity where students design and fabricate…

  5. Microfluidic reactors for visible-light photocatalytic water purification assisted with thermolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ning; Tan, Furui; Wan, Li; Wu, Mengchun; Zhang, Xuming

    2014-01-01

    Photocatalytic water purification using visible light is under intense research in the hope to use sunlight efficiently, but the conventional bulk reactors are slow and complicated. This paper presents an integrated microfluidic planar reactor for visible-light photocatalysis with the merits of fine flow control, short reaction time, small sample volume, and long photocatalyst durability. One additional feature is that it enables one to use both the light and the heat energy of the light sour...

  6. Automated and miniaturized detection of biological threats with a centrifugal microfluidic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, D.; van Oordt, T.; Strohmeier, O.; Roth, G.; Drexler, J.; Eberhard, M.; Niedrig, M.; Patel, P.; Zgaga-Griesz, A.; Bessler, W.; Weidmann, M.; Hufert, F.; Zengerle, R.; von Stetten, F.

    2012-06-01

    The world's growing mobility, mass tourism, and the threat of terrorism increase the risk of the fast spread of infectious microorganisms and toxins. Today's procedures for pathogen detection involve complex stationary devices, and are often too time consuming for a rapid and effective response. Therefore a robust and mobile diagnostic system is required. We present a microstructured LabDisk which performs complex biochemical analyses together with a mobile centrifugal microfluidic device which processes the LabDisk. This portable system will allow fully automated and rapid detection of biological threats at the point-of-need.

  7. Development of tokamak reactor automated design code 'TRADE'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes Tokamak Reactor Automated Design Code ''TRADE'' which has been developed in order to assess the impact of the design choices on reactor systems and to find out the optimum design concept through wide parameter range. The optimum design concept is realized by finding out the optimum compromise between the plasma performance, the torus structure and the coil systems. Furthermore, TRADE code is for producing an input data set into TORSAC which had already been developed for a sensitivity analysis. (author)

  8. An automated boron management system for WWER-1000 nuclear reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisiya O. Tsiselskaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of creating a system of automated control with boron regulation for reactor WWER-1000 series. Using the boron regulation to control WWER-1000 allows to extend its maximum output operation period, ensuring the economic efficiency of the power unit, as well as to maintain the reactor facility within relevant safety limits that prevents from emergencies occurrence and development. The results of this problem solution, related to the process simulation, optimization and prediction, were used at further development of computer-integrated control system increasing the efficiency of decisions, taken by operational staff at reactor control.

  9. Sol-gel-derived Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Enzymatic Reactor for Microfluidic Peptide Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU, Hui-Ling; YANG, Peng-Yuan; FAN, Guo-Rong; TIAN, Yu-Ping; LU, Hao-Jie; JIN, Hong

    2006-01-01

    The silica-based poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic enzymatic reactor was reported along with its analytical features in coupling with MALDI TOF and ESI MS. Microfluidic chip was fabricated using PDMS casting and O2-plasma techniques, and used for the preparation of enzymatic reactor. Plasma oxidation for PDMS enabled the channel wall of microfluidics to present a layer of silanol (SiOH) groups. These SiOH groups as anchors onto the microchannel wall were linked covalently with the hydroxy groups of trypsin-encapsulated sol matrix. As a result, the leakage of sol-gel matrix from the microchannel was effectively prevented. On-line protein analysis was performed with the microfluidic enzymatic reactor by attachment of stainless steel tubing electrode and replaceable tip. The success of trypsin encapsulation was investigated by capillary electrophoresis (CE) detection, and MALDI TOF and ESI MS analysis. The lab-made device provided excellent extent of digestion even at the fast flow rate of 7.0 μL/min with very short residence time of ca. 2 s. In addition, the encapsulated trypsin exhibits increased stability even after continuous use. These features are the most requisite for high-throughput protein identification.

  10. Optimal Homogenization of Perfusion Flows in Microfluidic Bio-Reactors: A Numerical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Fridolin; Dufva, Martin; Bruus, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in small-scale bio-reactors has increased dramatically. To ensure homogeneous conditions within the complete area of perfused microfluidic bio-reactors, we develop a general design of a continually feed bio-reactor with uniform perfusion flow. This is achieved...... by introducing a specific type of perfusion inlet to the reaction area. The geometry of these inlets are found using the methods of topology optimization and shape optimization. The results are compared with two different analytic models, from which a general parametric description of the design is obtained...... and tested numerically. Such a parametric description will generally be beneficial for the design of a broad range of microfluidic bioreactors used for, e. g., cell culturing and analysis and in feeding bio-arrays....

  11. A microfluidic device for the automated electrical readout of low-density glass-slide microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-González, María; Salvador, J Pablo; Bonilla, Diana; Marco, M Pilar; Fernández-Sánchez, César; Baldi, Antoni

    2015-12-15

    Microarrays are a powerful platform for rapid and multiplexed analysis in a wide range of research fields. Electrical readout systems have emerged as an alternative to conventional optical methods for microarray analysis thanks to its potential advantages like low-cost, low-power and easy miniaturization of the required instrumentation. In this work an automated electrical readout system for low-cost glass-slide microarrays is described. The system enables the simultaneous conductimetric detection of up to 36 biorecognition events by incorporating an array of interdigitated electrode transducers. A polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic structure has been designed that creates microwells over the transducers and incorporates the microfluidic channels required for filling and draining them with readout and cleaning solutions, thus making the readout process fully automated. Since the capture biomolecules are not immobilized on the transducer surface this readout system is reusable, in contrast to previously reported electrochemical microarrays. A low-density microarray based on a competitive enzymatic immunoassay for atrazine detection was used to test the performance of the readout system. The electrical assay shows a detection limit of 0.22±0.03 μg L(-1) similar to that obtained with fluorescent detection and allows the direct determination of the pesticide in polluted water samples. These results proved that an electrical readout system such as the one presented in this work is a reliable and cost-effective alternative to fluorescence scanners for the analysis of low-density microarrays.

  12. Towards microfluidic reactors for in situ synchrotron infrared studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverwood, I. P.; Al-Rifai, N.; Cao, E.; Nelson, D. J.; Chutia, A.; Wells, P. P.; Nolan, S. P.; Frogley, M. D.; Cinque, G.; Gavriilidis, A.; Catlow, C. R. A.

    2016-02-01

    Anodically bonded etched silicon microfluidic devices that allow infrared spectroscopic measurement of solutions are reported. These extend spatially well-resolved in situ infrared measurement to higher temperatures and pressures than previously reported, making them useful for effectively time-resolved measurement of realistic catalytic processes. A data processing technique necessary for the mitigation of interference fringes caused by multiple reflections of the probe beam is also described.

  13. Optimal homogenization of perfusion flows in microfluidic bio-reactors; a numerical study

    CERN Document Server

    Okkels, Fridolin; Bruus, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    To ensure homogeneous conditions within the complete area of perfused microfluidic bio-reactors, we develop a general design of a continuously feed bio-reactor with uniform perfusion flow. This is achieved by introducing a specific type of perfusion inlet to the reaction area. The geometry of these inlets are found using the methods of topology optimization and shape optimization. The results are compared with two different analytic models, from which a general parametric description of the design is obtained and tested numerically. Such a parametric description will generally be beneficial for the design of a broad range of microfluidic bioreactors used for e.g. cell culturing and analysis, and in feeding bio-arrays.

  14. Development of an automated digestion and droplet deposition microfluidic chip for MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeonghoon; Musyimi, Harrison K; Soper, Steven A; Murray, Kermit K

    2008-07-01

    An automated proteolytic digestion bioreactor and droplet deposition system was constructed with a plastic microfluidic device for off-line interfacing to matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The microfluidic chips were fabricated in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), using a micromilling machine and incorporated a bioreactor, which was 100 microm wide, 100 microm deep, and possessed a 4 cm effective channel length (400 nL volume). The chip was operated by pressure-driven flow and mounted on a robotic fraction collector system. The PMMA bioreactor contained surface immobilized trypsin, which was covalently attached to the UV-modified PMMA surface using coupling reagents N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and hydroxysulfosuccinimide (sulfo-NHS). The digested peptides were mixed with a MALDI matrix on-chip and deposited as discrete spots on MALDI targets. The bioreactor provided efficient digestion of a test protein, cytochrome c, at a flow rate of 1 microL/min, producing a reaction time of approximately 24 s to give adequate sequence coverage for protein identification. Other proteins were also evaluated using this solid-phase bioreactor. The efficiency of digestion was evaluated by monitoring the sequence coverage, which was 64%, 35%, 58%, and 47% for cytochrome c, bovine serum albumin (BSA), myoglobin, and phosphorylase b, respectively. PMID:18479934

  15. Development of an automated core model for nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosteller, R.D.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to develop an automated package of computer codes that can model the steady-state behavior of nuclear-reactor cores of various designs. As an added benefit, data produced for steady-state analysis also can be used as input to the TRAC transient-analysis code for subsequent safety analysis of the reactor at any point in its operating lifetime. The basic capability to perform steady-state reactor-core analysis already existed in the combination of the HELIOS lattice-physics code and the NESTLE advanced nodal code. In this project, the automated package was completed by (1) obtaining cross-section libraries for HELIOS, (2) validating HELIOS by comparing its predictions to results from critical experiments and from the MCNP Monte Carlo code, (3) validating NESTLE by comparing its predictions to results from numerical benchmarks and to measured data from operating reactors, and (4) developing a linkage code to transform HELIOS output into NESTLE input.

  16. Automated Chemotactic Sorting and Single-cell Cultivation of Microbes using Droplet Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Libing; Chen, Dong-Wei; Liu, Shuang-Jiang; Du, Wenbin

    2016-04-01

    We report a microfluidic device for automated sorting and cultivation of chemotactic microbes from pure cultures or mixtures. The device consists of two parts: in the first part, a concentration gradient of the chemoeffector was built across the channel for inducing chemotaxis of motile cells; in the second part, chemotactic cells from the sample were separated, and mixed with culture media to form nanoliter droplets for encapsulation, cultivation, enumeration, and recovery of single cells. Chemotactic responses were assessed by imaging and statistical analysis of droplets based on Poisson distribution. An automated procedure was developed for rapid enumeration of droplets with cell growth, following with scale-up cultivation on agar plates. The performance of the device was evaluated by the chemotaxis assays of Escherichia coli (E. coli) RP437 and E. coli RP1616. Moreover, enrichment and isolation of non-labelled Comamonas testosteroni CNB-1 from its 1:10 mixture with E. coli RP437 was demonstrated. The enrichment factor reached 36.7 for CNB-1, based on its distinctive chemotaxis toward 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. We believe that this device can be widely used in chemotaxis studies without necessarily relying on fluorescent labelling, and isolation of functional microbial species from various environments.

  17. Automated Ex Situ Assays of Amyloid Formation on a Microfluidic Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Kadi-Liis; Yates, Emma V; Müller, Thomas; Saunier, Séverine; Dobson, Christopher M; Knowles, Tuomas P J

    2016-02-01

    Increasingly prevalent neurodegenerative diseases are associated with the formation of nanoscale amyloid aggregates from normally soluble peptides and proteins. A widely used strategy for following the aggregation process and defining its kinetics involves the use of extrinsic dyes that undergo a spectral shift when bound to β-sheet-rich aggregates. An attractive route to carry out such studies is to perform ex situ assays, where the dye molecules are not present in the reaction mixture, but instead are only introduced into aliquots taken from the reaction at regular time intervals to avoid the possibility that the dye molecules interfere with the aggregation process. However, such ex situ measurements are time-consuming to perform, require large sample volumes, and do not provide for real-time observation of aggregation phenomena. To overcome these limitations, here we have designed and fabricated microfluidic devices that offer continuous and automated real-time ex situ tracking of the protein aggregation process. This device allows us to improve the time resolution of ex situ aggregation assays relative to conventional assays by more than one order of magnitude. The availability of an automated system for tracking the progress of protein aggregation reactions without the presence of marker molecules in the reaction mixtures opens up the possibility of routine noninvasive study of protein aggregation phenomena. PMID:26840721

  18. μMORE: A microfluidic magnetic oscillation reactor for accelerated parameter optimization in biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jussen, Daniel; Soltner, Helmut; Stute, Birgit; Wiechert, Wolfgang; von Lieres, Eric; Pohl, Martina

    2016-08-10

    Enzymatic parameter determination is an essential step in biocatalytic process development. Therefore higher throughput in miniaturized devices is urgently needed. An ideal microfluidic device should combine easy immobilization and retention of a minimal amount of biocatalyst with a well-mixed reaction volume. Together, all criteria are hardly met by current tools. Here we describe a microfluidic reactor (μMORE) which employs magnetic particles for both enzyme immobilization and efficient mixing using two permanent magnets placed in rotating cylinders next to the a glass chip reactor. The chip geometry and agitation speed was optimized by investigation of the mixing and retention characteristics using simulation and dye distribution analysis. Subsequently, the μMORE was successfully applied to determine critical biocatalytic process parameters in a parallelized manner for the carboligation of benzaldehyde and acetaldehyde to (S)-2-hydroxy-1-phenylpropan-1-one with less than 5μg of benzoylformate decarboxylase from Pseudomonas putida immobilized on magnetic beads. Here, one run of the device in six parallelized glass reactors took only 2-3h for an immobilized enzyme with very low activity (∼2U/mg). The optimized parameter set was finally tested in a 10mL enzyme membrane reactor, demonstrating that the μMORE provides a solid data base for biocatalytic process optimization. PMID:27288595

  19. Microprocessor-based integration of microfluidic control for the implementation of automated sensor monitoring and multithreaded optimization algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezra, Elishai; Maor, Idan; Bavli, Danny; Shalom, Itai; Levy, Gahl; Prill, Sebastian; Jaeger, Magnus S; Nahmias, Yaakov

    2015-08-01

    Microfluidic applications range from combinatorial synthesis to high throughput screening, with platforms integrating analog perfusion components, digitally controlled micro-valves and a range of sensors that demand a variety of communication protocols. Currently, discrete control units are used to regulate and monitor each component, resulting in scattered control interfaces that limit data integration and synchronization. Here, we present a microprocessor-based control unit, utilizing the MS Gadgeteer open framework that integrates all aspects of microfluidics through a high-current electronic circuit that supports and synchronizes digital and analog signals for perfusion components, pressure elements, and arbitrary sensor communication protocols using a plug-and-play interface. The control unit supports an integrated touch screen and TCP/IP interface that provides local and remote control of flow and data acquisition. To establish the ability of our control unit to integrate and synchronize complex microfluidic circuits we developed an equi-pressure combinatorial mixer. We demonstrate the generation of complex perfusion sequences, allowing the automated sampling, washing, and calibrating of an electrochemical lactate sensor continuously monitoring hepatocyte viability following exposure to the pesticide rotenone. Importantly, integration of an optical sensor allowed us to implement automated optimization protocols that require different computational challenges including: prioritized data structures in a genetic algorithm, distributed computational efforts in multiple-hill climbing searches and real-time realization of probabilistic models in simulated annealing. Our system offers a comprehensive solution for establishing optimization protocols and perfusion sequences in complex microfluidic circuits. PMID:26227212

  20. Microprocessor-based integration of microfluidic control for the implementation of automated sensor monitoring and multithreaded optimization algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezra, Elishai; Maor, Idan; Bavli, Danny; Shalom, Itai; Levy, Gahl; Prill, Sebastian; Jaeger, Magnus S; Nahmias, Yaakov

    2015-08-01

    Microfluidic applications range from combinatorial synthesis to high throughput screening, with platforms integrating analog perfusion components, digitally controlled micro-valves and a range of sensors that demand a variety of communication protocols. Currently, discrete control units are used to regulate and monitor each component, resulting in scattered control interfaces that limit data integration and synchronization. Here, we present a microprocessor-based control unit, utilizing the MS Gadgeteer open framework that integrates all aspects of microfluidics through a high-current electronic circuit that supports and synchronizes digital and analog signals for perfusion components, pressure elements, and arbitrary sensor communication protocols using a plug-and-play interface. The control unit supports an integrated touch screen and TCP/IP interface that provides local and remote control of flow and data acquisition. To establish the ability of our control unit to integrate and synchronize complex microfluidic circuits we developed an equi-pressure combinatorial mixer. We demonstrate the generation of complex perfusion sequences, allowing the automated sampling, washing, and calibrating of an electrochemical lactate sensor continuously monitoring hepatocyte viability following exposure to the pesticide rotenone. Importantly, integration of an optical sensor allowed us to implement automated optimization protocols that require different computational challenges including: prioritized data structures in a genetic algorithm, distributed computational efforts in multiple-hill climbing searches and real-time realization of probabilistic models in simulated annealing. Our system offers a comprehensive solution for establishing optimization protocols and perfusion sequences in complex microfluidic circuits.

  1. Design Features Of Microfluidic Reactor For [18F]FDG Radiopharmaceutical Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J. H.; Lee, B. N.; Nam, K. R.; Attla, G. A.; Lee, K. C.; Cjai, J. S.

    2011-06-01

    Microfluidic reactor exhibits advantages for radiopharmaceutical synthesis. Microfluidic chips can reduce the time for radiosynthesis using tiny quantities of chemical compounds. It also has a good heat transfer, performance and provides an integrated system including synthesis, separation, and purification. These advantages make FDG production. So we have designed a microreactor chip which included the whole chemical processing; water evaporation, solvent exchange, radiofluorination and so on. It was designed by using a commercial 3D CAD modeling program CATIA V5, heat transfer performance was analyzed by ANSYS, and CFX was used for analyzing fluid performance. This paper described the design of FDG synthesis system on a microchip, the relevant locations of its parts, both heat and fluid performance efficiency analysis.

  2. Automated microfluidic platform of bead-based electrochemical immunosensor integrated with bioreactor for continual monitoring of cell secreted biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, Reza; Shaegh, Seyed Ali Mousavi; Ghaderi, Masoumeh; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Shin, Su Ryon; Aleman, Julio; Massa, Solange; Kim, Duckjin; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-04-01

    There is an increasing interest in developing microfluidic bioreactors and organs-on-a-chip platforms combined with sensing capabilities for continual monitoring of cell-secreted biomarkers. Conventional approaches such as ELISA and mass spectroscopy cannot satisfy the needs of continual monitoring as they are labor-intensive and not easily integrable with low-volume bioreactors. This paper reports on the development of an automated microfluidic bead-based electrochemical immunosensor for in-line measurement of cell-secreted biomarkers. For the operation of the multi-use immunosensor, disposable magnetic microbeads were used to immobilize biomarker-recognition molecules. Microvalves were further integrated in the microfluidic immunosensor chip to achieve programmable operations of the immunoassay including bead loading and unloading, binding, washing, and electrochemical sensing. The platform allowed convenient integration of the immunosensor with liver-on-chips to carry out continual quantification of biomarkers secreted from hepatocytes. Transferrin and albumin productions were monitored during a 5-day hepatotoxicity assessment in which human primary hepatocytes cultured in the bioreactor were treated with acetaminophen. Taken together, our unique microfluidic immunosensor provides a new platform for in-line detection of biomarkers in low volumes and long-term in vitro assessments of cellular functions in microfluidic bioreactors and organs-on-chips.

  3. An automated microfluidic multiplexer for fast delivery of C. elegans populations from multiwells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Ghorashian

    Full Text Available Automated biosorter platforms, including recently developed microfluidic devices, enable and accelerate high-throughput and/or high-resolution bioassays on small animal models. However, time-consuming delivery of different organism populations to these systems introduces a major bottleneck to executing large-scale screens. Current population delivery strategies rely on suction from conventional well plates through tubing periodically exposed to air, leading to certain disadvantages: 1 bubble introduction to the sample, interfering with analysis in the downstream system, 2 substantial time drain from added bubble-cleaning steps, and 3 the need for complex mechanical systems to manipulate well plate position. To address these concerns, we developed a multiwell-format microfluidic platform that can deliver multiple distinct animal populations from on-chip wells using multiplexed valve control. This Population Delivery Chip could operate autonomously as part of a relatively simple setup that did not require any of the major mechanical moving parts typical of plate-handling systems to address a given well. We demonstrated automatic serial delivery of 16 distinct C. elegans worm populations to a single outlet without introducing any bubbles to the samples, causing cross-contamination, or damaging the animals. The device achieved delivery of more than 90% of the population preloaded into a given well in 4.7 seconds; an order of magnitude faster than delivery modalities in current use. This platform could potentially handle other similarly sized model organisms, such as zebrafish and drosophila larvae or cellular micro-colonies. The device's architecture and microchannel dimensions allow simple expansion for processing larger numbers of populations.

  4. Mass Spectrometry-Based Monitoring of Millisecond Protein-Ligand Binding Dynamics Using an Automated Microfluidic Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Yongzheng; Katipamula, Shanta; Trader, Cameron D.; Orton, Daniel J.; Geng, Tao; Baker, Erin Shammel; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2016-03-24

    Characterizing protein-ligand binding dynamics is crucial for understanding protein function and developing new therapeutic agents. We have developed a novel microfluidic platform that features rapid mixing of protein and ligand solutions, variable incubation times, and on-chip electrospray ionization to perform label-free, solution-based monitoring of protein-ligand binding dynamics. This platform offers many advantages including automated processing, rapid mixing, and low sample consumption.

  5. Automated scoping methodology for liquid metal natural circulation small reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Hyung M.; Suh, Kune Y., E-mail: kysuh@snu.ac.kr

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Automated scoping methodology for natural circulation small modular reactor is developed. • In-house code is developed to carry out system analysis and core geometry generation during scoping. • Adjustment relations are obtained to correct the critical core geometry out of diffusion theory. • Optimized design specification is found using objective function value. • Convex hull volume is utilized to quantify the impact of different constraints on the scope range. - Abstract: A novel scoping method is proposed that can automatically generate design variable range of the natural circulation driven liquid metal cooled small reactor. From performance requirements based upon Generation IV system roadmap, appropriate structure materials are selected and engineering constraints are compiled based upon literature. Utilizing ASME codes and standards, appropriate geometric sizing criteria on constituting components are developed to ensure integrity of the system during its lifetime. In-house one dimensional thermo-hydraulic system analysis code is developed based upon momentum integral model and finite element methods to deal with non-uniform descritization of temperature nodes for convection and thermal diffusion equation of liquid metal coolant. In order to quickly generate critical core dimensions out of given unit cell information, an adjustment relation that relates the critical geometry estimated from one-group diffusion and that from MCNP code is constructed and utilized throughout the process. For the selected unit cell dimension ranges, burnup calculations are carried out to check the cores can generate energy over the reactor lifetime. Utilizing random method, sizing criteria, and in-house analysis codes, an automated scoping methodology is developed. The methodology is applied to nitride fueled integral type lead cooled natural circulation reactor concept to generate design scopes which satisfies given constraints. Three dimensional convex

  6. Nanoengineering a library of metallic nanostructures using a single microfluidic reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián, Víctor; Jensen, Klavs F

    2016-08-18

    Microfluidic synthesis in a microfabricated reactor enables fast and facile synthesis of a wide library of metallic nanostructures: monometallic, bimetallic, anisotropic growth and heterostructures. Specific nanostructures are realized by selection of flow pattern and synthesis parameters. The technique is shown to have advantages over conventional batch technologies. Not only does it allow faster scalable synthesis, but also realization of nanostructures hitherto not reported such as Pt-Ru, Pt-Ni and Pt-Co nanodendrites, Pt-Pd heterostructures, Ag-Pd core-shell NPs, Au-Pd nanodumbbells and Au-Pd nanosheets. PMID:27500728

  7. Automation of daphtoxkit-F biotest using a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yushi; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2015-12-01

    An increased rigor in water quality monitoring is not only a legal requirement, but is also critical to ensure timely chemical hazard emergency responses and protection of human and animal health. Bioindication is a method that applies very sensitive living organisms to detect environmental changes using their natural responses. Although bioindicators do not deliver information on an exact type or intensity of toxicants present in water samples, they do provide an overall snapshot and early-warning information about presence of harmful and dangerous parameters. Despite the advantages of biotests performed on sentinel organisms, their wider application is limited by the nonexistence of high-throughput laboratory automation systems. As a result majority of biotests used in ecotoxicology require time-consuming and laborious manual procedures. In this work, we present development of a miniaturized Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) platform for automation and enhancement of acute ecotoxicity test based on immobilization of a freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna (Daphtoxkit-FTM). Daphnids' immobilization in response to sudden changes in environment parameters is fast, unambiguous, and easy to record optically. We also for the first time demonstrate that LOC system enables studies of sub-lethal ecotoxic effects using behavioral responses of Daphnia magna as sentinels of water pollution. The system working principle incorporated a high definition (HD) time-resolved video data analysis to dynamically assess impact of the reference toxicant on swimming behavior of D. magna. Our system design combined: (i) microfluidic device for caging of Daphnia sp.; (ii) mechatronic interface for fluidic actuation; (iii) video data acquisition; and (iv) algorithms for animal movement tracking and analysis.

  8. Development of an Automated Microfluidic System for DNA Collection, Amplification, and Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, Bethany S.; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.

    2002-12-01

    This project was focused on developing and testing automated routines for a microfluidic Pathogen Detection System. The basic pathogen detection routine has three primary components; cell concentration, DNA amplification, and detection. In cell concentration, magnetic beads are held in a flow cell by an electromagnet. Sample liquid is passed through the flow cell and bacterial cells attach to the beads. These beads are then released into a small volume of fluid and delivered to the peltier device for cell lysis and DNA amplification. The cells are lysed during initial heating in the peltier device, and the released DNA is amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or strand displacement amplification (SDA). Once amplified, the DNA is then delivered to a laser induced fluorescence detection unit in which the sample is detected. These three components create a flexible platform that can be used for pathogen detection in liquid and sediment samples. Future developments of the system will include on-line DNA detection during DNA amplification and improved capture and release methods for the magnetic beads during cell concentration.

  9. Microfluidic reactor for continuous cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, Astrid; Magdanz, Veronika; Rasch, Detlev; Demming, Stefanie; Aliasghar Zadeh, Shobeir; Segura, Rodrigo; Kähler, Christian; Radespiel, Rolf; Büttgenbach, Stephanus; Franco-Lara, Ezequiel; Krull, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    A diffusion-based microreactor system operated with a reaction volume of 8 μL is presented and characterized to intensify the process understanding in microscale cultivations. Its potential as screening tool for biological processes is evaluated. The advantage of the designed microbioreactor is the use for the continuous cultivation mode by integrating online measurement technique for dissolved oxygen (DO) and optical density (OD). A further advantage is the broaden application for biological systems. The bioreactor geometry was chosen to achieve homogeneous flow during continuous process operation. The device consisted of a microstructured top layer made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), which was designed and fabricated using UV-depth and soft lithography assembled with a glass bottom. CFD simulation data used for geometry design were verified via microparticle-image-velocimetry (μPIV). In the used microreactor geometry no concentration gradients occurred along the entire reaction volume because of rapid diffusive mixing, the homogeneous medium flow inside the growth chamber of the microreactor could be realized. Undesirable bubble formation before and during operation was reduced by using degassed medium as well as moistened and moderate incident air flow above the gas permeable PDMS membrane. Because of this a passive oxygen supply of the culture medium in the device is ensured by diffusion through the PDMS membrane. The oxygen supply itself was monitored online via integrated DO sensors based on a fluorescent dye complex. An adequate overall volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient K(L)a as well as mechanical stability of the device were accomplished for a membrane thickness of 300 μm. Experimental investigations considering measurements of OD (online) and several metabolite concentrations (offline) in a modified Verduyn medium. The used model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae DSM 2155 tended to strong reactor wall growth resembling a biofilm. PMID:20945484

  10. Microfluidic reactors for visible-light photocatalytic water purification assisted with thermolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Tan, Furui; Wan, Li; Wu, Mengchun; Zhang, Xuming

    2014-09-01

    Photocatalytic water purification using visible light is under intense research in the hope to use sunlight efficiently, but the conventional bulk reactors are slow and complicated. This paper presents an integrated microfluidic planar reactor for visible-light photocatalysis with the merits of fine flow control, short reaction time, small sample volume, and long photocatalyst durability. One additional feature is that it enables one to use both the light and the heat energy of the light source simultaneously. The reactor consists of a BiVO4-coated glass as the substrate, a blank glass slide as the cover, and a UV-curable adhesive layer as the spacer and sealant. A blue light emitting diode panel (footprint 10 mm × 10 mm) is mounted on the microreactor to provide uniform irradiation over the whole reactor chamber, ensuring optimal utilization of the photons and easy adjustments of the light intensity and the reaction temperature. This microreactor may provide a versatile platform for studying the photocatalysis under combined conditions such as different temperatures, different light intensities, and different flow rates. Moreover, the microreactor demonstrates significant photodegradation with a reaction time of about 10 s, much shorter than typically a few hours using the bulk reactors, showing its potential as a rapid kit for characterization of photocatalyst performance. PMID:25584117

  11. Microfluidic reactor synthesis and photocatalytic behavior of Cu@Cu{sub 2}O nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Lei, E-mail: xulei_kmust@aliyun.com [National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Srinivasakannan, C. [Chemical Engineering Program, The Petroleum Institute, PO Box 253, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Peng, Jinhui, E-mail: jhpeng@kmust.edu.cn [National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Yan, Mi [Faculty of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Zhang, Di [Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Zhang, Libo [National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The Cu@Cu{sub 2}O nanocomposites were synthesized in microfluidic reactor followed by oxidation process. • The Cu@Cu{sub 2}O composite particle is on nanoscale exhibiting an open bicontinuous structure. • The amount of Cu{sub 2}O can be controlled by varying drying temperature. • The binary Cu@Cu{sub 2}O–H{sub 2}O{sub 2} systems exhibit an excellent photocatalyst for degradation methylene blue under UV irradiation. - Abstract: The Cu@Cu{sub 2}O nanocomposites were synthesized by solution-phase synthesis of Cu nanoparticles in microfluidic reactor at room temperature, followed by controlling the oxidation process. The size, morphology, elemental compositions, and the chemical composition on the surface of Cu@Cu{sub 2}O nanocomposite were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Experimental results demonstrated that the surface of the Cu nanoparticles was oxidized to Cu{sub 2}O which serves as the shell of nanoparticle. The amount of Cu{sub 2}O can be controlled by varying the drying temperature. Additionally the binary Cu@Cu{sub 2}O nanocomposite along with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} exhibited its potential as an excellent photocatalyst for degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV irradiation.

  12. Fault tolerant strategies for automated operation of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces an automatic control system incorporating a number of verification, validation, and command generation tasks with-in a fault-tolerant architecture. The integrated system utilizes recent methods of artificial intelligence such as neural networks and fuzzy logic control. Furthermore, advanced signal processing and nonlinear control methods are also included in the design. The primary goal is to create an on-line capability to validate signals, analyze plant performance, and verify the consistency of commands before control decisions are finalized. The application of this approach to the automated startup of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) is performed using a validated nonlinear model. The simulation results show that the advanced concepts have the potential to improve plant availability andsafety

  13. Automated generation of burnup chain for reactor analysis applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the development of an automated generation of a new burnup chain for reactor analysis applications. The JENDL FP Decay Data File 2011 and Fission Yields Data File 2011 were used as the data sources. The nuclides in the new chain are determined by restrictions of the half-life and cumulative yield of fission products or from a given list. Then, decay modes, branching ratios and fission yields are recalculated taking into account intermediate reactions. The new burnup chain is output according to the format for the SRAC code system. Verification was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the new burnup chain. The results show that the new burnup chain reproduces well the results of a reference one with 193 fission products used in SRAC. Further development and applications are being planned with the burnup chain code. (author)

  14. CRDIAC: Coupled Reactor Depletion Instrument with Automated Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven K. Logan

    2012-08-01

    When modeling the behavior of a nuclear reactor over time, it is important to understand how the isotopes in the reactor will change, or transmute, over that time. This is especially important in the reactor fuel itself. Many nuclear physics modeling codes model how particles interact in the system, but do not model this over time. Thus, another code is used in conjunction with the nuclear physics code to accomplish this. In our code, Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) codes and the Multi Reactor Transmutation Analysis Utility (MRTAU) were chosen as the codes to use. In this way, MCNP would produce the reaction rates in the different isotopes present and MRTAU would use cross sections generated from these reaction rates to determine how the mass of each isotope is lost or gained. Between these two codes, the information must be altered and edited for use. For this, a Python 2.7 script was developed to aid the user in getting the information in the correct forms. This newly developed methodology was called the Coupled Reactor Depletion Instrument with Automated Controls (CRDIAC). As is the case in any newly developed methodology for modeling of physical phenomena, CRDIAC needed to be verified against similar methodology and validated against data taken from an experiment, in our case AFIP-3. AFIP-3 was a reduced enrichment plate type fuel tested in the ATR. We verified our methodology against the MCNP Coupled with ORIGEN2 (MCWO) method and validated our work against the Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) data. When compared to MCWO, the difference in concentration of U-235 throughout Cycle 144A was about 1%. When compared to the PIE data, the average bias for end of life U-235 concentration was about 2%. These results from CRDIAC therefore agree with the MCWO and PIE data, validating and verifying CRDIAC. CRDIAC provides an alternative to using ORIGEN-based methodology, which is useful because CRDIAC's depletion code, MRTAU, uses every available isotope in its

  15. Toward Microfluidic Reactors for Cell-Free Protein Synthesis at the Point-of-Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Andrea C; Shankles, Peter G; Foster, Carmen M; Doktycz, Mitchel J; Retterer, Scott T

    2016-02-10

    Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) is a powerful technology that allows for optimization of protein production without maintenance of a living system. Integrated within micro and nanofluidic architectures, CFPS can be optimized for point-of-care use. Here, the development of a microfluidic bioreactor designed to facilitate the production of a single-dose of a therapeutic protein, in a small footprint device at the point-of-care, is described. This new design builds on the use of a long, serpentine channel bioreactor and is enhanced by integrating a nanofabricated membrane to allow exchange of materials between parallel "reactor" and "feeder" channels. This engineered membrane facilitates the exchange of metabolites, energy, and inhibitory species, and can be altered by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and atomic layer deposition to tune the exchange rate of small molecules. This allows for extended reaction times and improved yields. Further, the reaction product and higher molecular weight components of the transcription/translation machinery in the reactor channel can be retained. It has been shown that the microscale bioreactor design produces higher protein yields than conventional tube-based batch formats, and that product yields can be dramatically improved by facilitating small molecule exchange within the dual-channel bioreactor. PMID:26690885

  16. Automated microfluidic sample-preparation platform for high-throughput structural investigation of proteins by small-angle X-ray scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafleur, Josiane P.; Snakenborg, Detlef; Nielsen, Søren Skou;

    2011-01-01

    A new microfluidic sample-preparation system is presented for the structural investigation of proteins using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) at synchrotrons. The system includes hardware and software features for precise fluidic control, sample mixing by diffusion, automated X-ray exposure co...

  17. Integrating Electrochemical Detection with Centrifugal Microfluidics for Real-Time and Fully Automated Sample Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Sune Zoëga; Kwasny, Dorota; Amato, Letizia;

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a robust, stable and low-noise experimental set-up for performing electrochemical detection on a centrifugal microfluidic platform. By using a low-noise electronic component (electrical slip-ring) it is possible to achieve continuous, on-line monitoring of electrochemical experime......Here we present a robust, stable and low-noise experimental set-up for performing electrochemical detection on a centrifugal microfluidic platform. By using a low-noise electronic component (electrical slip-ring) it is possible to achieve continuous, on-line monitoring of electrochemical...

  18. Automated Forensic Animal Family Identification by Nested PCR and Melt Curve Analysis on an Off-the-Shelf Thermocycler Augmented with a Centrifugal Microfluidic Disk Segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Mark; Naue, Jana; Zengerle, Roland; von Stetten, Felix; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Nested PCR remains a labor-intensive and error-prone biomolecular analysis. Laboratory workflow automation by precise control of minute liquid volumes in centrifugal microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip systems holds great potential for such applications. However, the majority of these systems require costly custom-made processing devices. Our idea is to augment a standard laboratory device, here a centrifugal real-time PCR thermocycler, with inbuilt liquid handling capabilities for automation. We have developed a microfluidic disk segment enabling an automated nested real-time PCR assay for identification of common European animal groups adapted to forensic standards. For the first time we utilize a novel combination of fluidic elements, including pre-storage of reagents, to automate the assay at constant rotational frequency of an off-the-shelf thermocycler. It provides a universal duplex pre-amplification of short fragments of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and cytochrome b genes, animal-group-specific main-amplifications, and melting curve analysis for differentiation. The system was characterized with respect to assay sensitivity, specificity, risk of cross-contamination, and detection of minor components in mixtures. 92.2% of the performed tests were recognized as fluidically failure-free sample handling and used for evaluation. Altogether, augmentation of the standard real-time thermocycler with a self-contained centrifugal microfluidic disk segment resulted in an accelerated and automated analysis reducing hands-on time, and circumventing the risk of contamination associated with regular nested PCR protocols.

  19. Real-time direct cell concentration and viability determination using a fully automated microfluidic platform for standalone process monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues de Sousa Nunes, Pedro André; Kjaerulff, S.; Dufva, Martin;

    2015-01-01

    and thereby ensure optimal cell production, by prolonging the fermentation cycle and increasing the bioreactor output. In this work, we report on the development of a fully automated microfluidic system capable of extracting samples directly from a bioreactor, diluting the sample, staining the cells......The industrial production of cells has a large unmet need for greater process monitoring, in addition to the standard temperature, pH and oxygen concentration determination. Monitoring the cell health by a vast range of fluorescence cell-based assays can greatly improve the feedback control......, and determining the total cell and dead cells concentrations, within a time frame of 10.3 min. The platform consists of custom made stepper motor actuated peristaltic pumps and valves, fluidic interconnections, sample to waste liquid management and image cytometry-based detection. The total concentration of cells...

  20. A fully automated hot-wall multiplasma-monochamber reactor for thin film deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Roca i Cabarrocas, P.; Chevrier, J. B.; Huc, J.; Lloret, A.; Parey, J.Y.; Schmitt, J.P.M.

    1997-01-01

    We present a study on the development and the evaluation of a fully automated radio-frequency glow discharge system devoted to the deposition of amorphous thin film semiconductors and insulators. The following aspects were carefully addressed in the design of the reactor: (1) cross contamination by dopants and unstable gases, (2) capability of a fully automated operation, (3) precise control of the discharge parameters, particularly the substrate temperature, and (4) high chemical purity. The...

  1. Characterisation of an Adhesive-free Packaging System for Polymeric Microfluidic Biochemical Devices and Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Reichen, M.; Super, A.; Davies, M J; Macown, R. J.; O'Sullivan, B; Kirk, T. V.; Marques, M. P. C.; Dimov, N.; Szita, N

    2014-01-01

    The development of microfluidic devices is an iterative process that involves series of improvements, which can be costly and time consuming. We present a packaging system which makes use of an accessible rapid prototyping method, and facilitates the rapid and reliable implementation of polymeric microfluidic device designs. The packaging system uses a modular design and is based on an adhesive-free connection of a reusable and stiff polymeric interface plate with a disposable, soft microflui...

  2. Automated high-throughput dense matrix protein folding screen using a liquid handling robot combined with microfluidic capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Philip; Winters, Dwight; Walker, Kenneth W

    2016-04-01

    Modern molecular genetics technology has made it possible to swiftly sequence, clone and mass-produce recombinant DNA for the purpose of expressing heterologous genes of interest; however, recombinant protein production systems have struggled to keep pace. Mammalian expression systems are typically favored for their ability to produce and secrete proteins in their native state, but bacterial systems benefit from rapid cell line development and robust growth. The primary drawback to prokaryotic expression systems are that recombinant proteins are generally not secreted at high levels or correctly folded, and are often insoluble, necessitating post-expression protein folding to obtain the active product. In order to harness the advantages of prokaryotic expression, high-throughput methods for executing protein folding screens and the subsequent analytics to identify lead conditions are required. Both of these tasks can be accomplished using a Biomek 3000 liquid handling robot to prepare the folding screen and to subsequently prepare the reactions for assessment using Caliper microfluidic capillary electrophoresis. By augmenting a protein folding screen with automation, the primary disadvantage of Escherichia coli expression has been mitigated, namely the labor intensive identification of the required protein folding conditions. Furthermore, a rigorous, quantitative method for identifying optimal protein folding buffer aids in the rapid development of an optimal production process. PMID:26678961

  3. Synthesis of [18F]FMISO in a flow-through microfluidic reactor: Development and clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The PET radiotracer [18F]FMISO has been used in the clinic to image hypoxia in tumors. The aim of the present study was to optimize the radiochemical parameters for the preparation of [18F]FMISO using a microfluidic reaction system. The main parameters evaluated were (1) precursor concentration, (2) reaction temperature, and (3) flow rate through the microfluidic reactor. Optimized conditions were then applied to the batch production of [18F]FMISO for clinical research use. Methods: For the determination of optimal reaction conditions within a flow-through microreactor synthesizer, 5–400 μL the precursor and dried [18F]fluoride solutions in acetonitrile were simultaneously pushed through the temperature-controlled reactor (60–180 °C) with defined flow rates (20–120 μL/min). Radiochemical incorporation yields to form the intermediate species were determined using radio-TLC. Hydrolysis to remove the protecting group was performed following standard vial chemistry to afford [18F]FMISO. Results: Optimum reaction parameters for the microfluidic set-up were determined as follows: 4 mg/mL of precursor, 170 °C, and 100 μL/min pump rate per reactant (200 μL/min reaction overall flow rate) to prepare the radiolabeled intermediate. The optimum hydrolysis condition was determined to be 2 N HCl for 5 min at 100 °C. Large-scale batch production using the optimized conditions gave the final, ready for human injection [18F]FMISO product in 28.4 ± 3.0% radiochemical yield, specific activity of 119 ± 26 GBq/μmol, and > 99% radiochemical and chemical purity at the end of synthesis (n = 4). Conclusion: By using the NanoTek microfluidic synthesis system, [18F]FMISO was successfully prepared with good specific activity and high radiochemical purity for human use. The product generated from large-scale batch production using flow chemistry is currently being used in clinical research

  4. INITIATORS AND TRIGGERING CONDITIONS FOR ADAPTIVE AUTOMATION IN ADVANCED SMALL MODULAR REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katya L Le Blanc; Johanna h Oxstrand

    2014-04-01

    It is anticipated that Advanced Small Modular Reactors (AdvSMRs) will employ high degrees of automation. High levels of automation can enhance system performance, but often at the cost of reduced human performance. Automation can lead to human out-of the loop issues, unbalanced workload, complacency, and other problems if it is not designed properly. Researchers have proposed adaptive automation (defined as dynamic or flexible allocation of functions) as a way to get the benefits of higher levels of automation without the human performance costs. Adaptive automation has the potential to balance operator workload and enhance operator situation awareness by allocating functions to the operators in a way that is sensitive to overall workload and capabilities at the time of operation. However, there still a number of questions regarding how to effectively design adaptive automation to achieve that potential. One of those questions is related to how to initiate (or trigger) a shift in automation in order to provide maximal sensitivity to operator needs without introducing undesirable consequences (such as unpredictable mode changes). Several triggering mechanisms for shifts in adaptive automation have been proposed including: operator initiated, critical events, performance-based, physiological measurement, model-based, and hybrid methods. As part of a larger project to develop design guidance for human-automation collaboration in AdvSMRs, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory have investigated the effectiveness and applicability of each of these triggering mechanisms in the context of AdvSMR. Researchers reviewed the empirical literature on adaptive automation and assessed each triggering mechanism based on the human-system performance consequences of employing that mechanism. Researchers also assessed the practicality and feasibility of using the mechanism in the context of an AdvSMR control room. Results indicate that there are tradeoffs associated with each

  5. Microfluidic characteristics of a multi-holed baffle plate micro-reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a larger project aiming at development of a miniaturized hydrogen generator for small mobile/onboard fuel cell applications, a series of experiments was conducted on a novel micro-reactor to examine the effectiveness of its design in promoting the mixing of reactant agents. The reactor is essentially a tubular vessel fitted with a multi-holed baffle plate mounted on a central tube. The mixing phenomenon within the micro-reactor was studied using the micro-PIV (micro-particle image velocimetry) flow visualization technique. Experiments were conducted on a 1:1 scale replica of the reactor. Results indicate that the application of the multi-holed baffle plate considerably improves the mixing performance of the reactor when compared with a simpler co-axial jet tubular reactor. However, the geometrical characteristics of the baffle plate and central tube are found to have dramatic impacts upon the flow structure and mixing patterns within the reactor. Hence, the optimization of the reactor geometry is required to achieve the desirable mixing performance. For the range of Reynolds numbers studied here, the optimum reactor geometry is achieved when the central tube and baffle holes are of similar diameters and baffle holes are located half way between the stream-wise axis and the reactor wall

  6. Selective Synthesis of Human Milk Fat-Style Structured Triglycerides from Microalgal Oil in a Microfluidic Reactor Packed with Immobilized Lipase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Xi; Wang, Xu-Dong; Dong, Tao; Zhao, Xing-Yu; Zhu, Dan; Mei, Yi-Yuan; Wu, Guo-Hua

    2016-11-01

    Human milk fat-style structured triacylglycerols were produced from microalgal oil in a continuous microfluidic reactor packed with immobilized lipase for the first time. A remarkably high conversion efficiency was demonstrated in the microreactor with reaction time being reduced by 8 times, Michaelis constant decreased 10 times, the lipase reuse times increased 2.25-fold compared to those in a batch reactor. In addition, the content of palmitic acid at sn-2 position (89.0%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids at sn-1, 3 positions (81.3%) are slightly improved compared to the product in a batch reactor. The increase of melting points (1.7 degrees C) and decrease of crystallizing point (3 degrees C) implied higher quality product was produced using the microfluidic technology. The main cost can be reduced from $212.3 to $14.6 per batch with the microreactor. Overall, the microfluidic bioconversion technology is promising for modified functional lipids production allowing for cost-effective approach to produce high-value microalgal coproducts.

  7. Selective synthesis of human milk fat-style structured triglycerides from microalgal oil in a microfluidic reactor packed with immobilized lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Xi; Wang, Xu-Dong; Dong, Tao; Zhao, Xing-Yu; Zhu, Dan; Mei, Yi-Yuan; Wu, Guo-Hua

    2016-11-01

    Human milk fat-style structured triacylglycerols were produced from microalgal oil in a continuous microfluidic reactor packed with immobilized lipase for the first time. A remarkably high conversion efficiency was demonstrated in the microreactor with reaction time being reduced by 8 times, Michaelis constant decreased 10 times, the lipase reuse times increased 2.25-fold compared to those in a batch reactor. In addition, the content of palmitic acid at sn-2 position (89.0%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids at sn-1, 3 positions (81.3%) are slightly improved compared to the product in a batch reactor. The increase of melting points (1.7°C) and decrease of crystallizing point (3°C) implied higher quality product was produced using the microfluidic technology. The main cost can be reduced from $212.3 to $14.6 per batch with the microreactor. Overall, the microfluidic bioconversion technology is promising for modified functional lipids production allowing for cost-effective approach to produce high-value microalgal coproducts.

  8. Selective synthesis of human milk fat-style structured triglycerides from microalgal oil in a microfluidic reactor packed with immobilized lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Xi; Wang, Xu-Dong; Dong, Tao; Zhao, Xing-Yu; Zhu, Dan; Mei, Yi-Yuan; Wu, Guo-Hua

    2016-11-01

    Human milk fat-style structured triacylglycerols were produced from microalgal oil in a continuous microfluidic reactor packed with immobilized lipase for the first time. A remarkably high conversion efficiency was demonstrated in the microreactor with reaction time being reduced by 8 times, Michaelis constant decreased 10 times, the lipase reuse times increased 2.25-fold compared to those in a batch reactor. In addition, the content of palmitic acid at sn-2 position (89.0%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids at sn-1, 3 positions (81.3%) are slightly improved compared to the product in a batch reactor. The increase of melting points (1.7°C) and decrease of crystallizing point (3°C) implied higher quality product was produced using the microfluidic technology. The main cost can be reduced from $212.3 to $14.6 per batch with the microreactor. Overall, the microfluidic bioconversion technology is promising for modified functional lipids production allowing for cost-effective approach to produce high-value microalgal coproducts. PMID:27566521

  9. Elimination of water pathogens with solar radiation using an automated sequential batch CPC reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polo-Lopez, M.I., E-mail: mpolo@psa.es [Plataforma Solar de Almeria - CIEMAT, PO Box 22, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Fernandez-Ibanez, P., E-mail: pilar.fernandez@psa.es [Plataforma Solar de Almeria - CIEMAT, PO Box 22, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Ubomba-Jaswa, E., E-mail: euniceubombajaswa@yahoo.com [Natural Resources and the Environment, CSIR, PO Box 395, Pretoria (South Africa); Navntoft, C., E-mail: christian.navntoft@solarmate.com.ar [Instituto de Investigacion e Ingenieria Ambiental, Universidad Nacional de San Martin (3iA-UNSAM), Peatonal Belgrano 3563, B1650ANQ San Martin (Argentina); Universidad Tecnologica Nacional - Facultad Regional Buenos Aires - Departamento de Ingenieria Civil - Laboratorio de Estudios sobre Energia Solar, (UTN-FRBA-LESES), Mozart 2300, (1407) Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires, Republica Argentina (Argentina); Garcia-Fernandez, I., E-mail: irene.garcia@psa.es [Plataforma Solar de Almeria - CIEMAT, PO Box 22, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Dunlop, P.S.M., E-mail: psm.dunlop@ulster.ac.uk [Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Schmid, M. [Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Byrne, J.A., E-mail: j.byrne@ulster.ac.uk [Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2 (Ireland); and others

    2011-11-30

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) of water is a well-known, effective treatment process which is practiced at household level in many developing countries. However, this process is limited by the small volume treated and there is no indication of treatment efficacy for the user. Low cost glass tube reactors, together with compound parabolic collector (CPC) technology, have been shown to significantly increase the efficiency of solar disinfection. However, these reactors still require user input to control each batch SODIS process and there is no feedback that the process is complete. Automatic operation of the batch SODIS process, controlled by UVA-radiation sensors, can provide information on the status of the process, can ensure the required UVA dose to achieve complete disinfection is received and reduces user work-load through automatic sequential batch processing. In this work, an enhanced CPC photo-reactor with a concentration factor of 1.89 was developed. The apparatus was automated to achieve exposure to a pre-determined UVA dose. Treated water was automatically dispensed into a reservoir tank. The reactor was tested using Escherichia coli as a model pathogen in natural well water. A 6-log inactivation of E. coli was achieved following exposure to the minimum uninterrupted lethal UVA dose. The enhanced reactor decreased the exposure time required to achieve the lethal UVA dose, in comparison to a CPC system with a concentration factor of 1.0. Doubling the lethal UVA dose prevented the need for a period of post-exposure dark inactivation and reduced the overall treatment time. Using this reactor, SODIS can be automatically carried out at an affordable cost, with reduced exposure time and minimal user input.

  10. Gold Nanoparticle Assembly Microfluidic Reactor for Efficient On-line Proteolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y; Xue, Y.; Ji, J; Chen, X; Kong, J.; Yang, P.; Girault, H H

    2007-01-01

    A microchip reactor coated with a gold nanoparticle network entrapping trypsin was designed for the efficient on-line proteolysis of low level proteins and complex extracts originating from mouse macrophages. The nanostructured surface coating was assembled via a layer-bylayer electrostatic binding of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and gold nanoparticles. The assembly process was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance. The contro...

  11. Effects of Levels of Automation for Advanced Small Modular Reactors: Impacts on Performance, Workload, and Situation Awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanna Oxstrand; Katya Le Blanc

    2014-07-01

    The Human-Automation Collaboration (HAC) research effort is a part of the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) program conducted at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The DOE AdvSMR program focuses on plant design and management, reduction of capital costs as well as plant operations and maintenance costs (O&M), and factory production costs benefits.

  12. Automated thermochemolysis reactor for detection of Bacillus anthracis endospores by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dan [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Rands, Anthony D.; Losee, Scott C. [Torion Technologies, American Fork, UT 84003 (United States); Holt, Brian C. [Department of Statistics, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Williams, John R. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Lammert, Stephen A. [Torion Technologies, American Fork, UT 84003 (United States); Robison, Richard A. [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Tolley, H. Dennis [Department of Statistics, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Lee, Milton L., E-mail: milton_lee@byu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)

    2013-05-02

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •An automated sample preparation system for Bacillus anthracis endospores was developed. •A thermochemolysis method was applied to produce and derivatize biomarkers for Bacillus anthracis detection. •The autoreactor controlled the precise delivery of reagents, and TCM reaction times and temperatures. •Solid phase microextraction was used to extract biomarkers, and GC–MS was used for final identification. •This autoreactor was successfully applied to the identification of Bacillus anthracis endospores. -- Abstract: An automated sample preparation system was developed and tested for the rapid detection of Bacillus anthracis endospores by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) for eventual use in the field. This reactor is capable of automatically processing suspected bio-threat agents to release and derivatize unique chemical biomarkers by thermochemolysis (TCM). The system automatically controls the movement of sample vials from one position to another, crimping of septum caps onto the vials, precise delivery of reagents, and TCM reaction times and temperatures. The specific operations of introduction of sample vials, solid phase microextraction (SPME) sampling, injection into the GC–MS system, and ejection of used vials from the system were performed manually in this study, although they can be integrated into the automated system. Manual SPME sampling is performed by following visual and audible signal prompts for inserting the fiber into and retracting it from the sampling port. A rotating carousel design allows for simultaneous sample collection, reaction, biomarker extraction and analysis of sequential samples. Dipicolinic acid methyl ester (DPAME), 3-methyl-2-butenoic acid methyl ester (a fragment of anthrose) and two methylated sugars were used to compare the performance of the autoreactor with manual TCM. Statistical algorithms were used to construct reliable bacterial endospore signatures, and 24

  13. Automated thermochemolysis reactor for detection of Bacillus anthracis endospores by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •An automated sample preparation system for Bacillus anthracis endospores was developed. •A thermochemolysis method was applied to produce and derivatize biomarkers for Bacillus anthracis detection. •The autoreactor controlled the precise delivery of reagents, and TCM reaction times and temperatures. •Solid phase microextraction was used to extract biomarkers, and GC–MS was used for final identification. •This autoreactor was successfully applied to the identification of Bacillus anthracis endospores. -- Abstract: An automated sample preparation system was developed and tested for the rapid detection of Bacillus anthracis endospores by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) for eventual use in the field. This reactor is capable of automatically processing suspected bio-threat agents to release and derivatize unique chemical biomarkers by thermochemolysis (TCM). The system automatically controls the movement of sample vials from one position to another, crimping of septum caps onto the vials, precise delivery of reagents, and TCM reaction times and temperatures. The specific operations of introduction of sample vials, solid phase microextraction (SPME) sampling, injection into the GC–MS system, and ejection of used vials from the system were performed manually in this study, although they can be integrated into the automated system. Manual SPME sampling is performed by following visual and audible signal prompts for inserting the fiber into and retracting it from the sampling port. A rotating carousel design allows for simultaneous sample collection, reaction, biomarker extraction and analysis of sequential samples. Dipicolinic acid methyl ester (DPAME), 3-methyl-2-butenoic acid methyl ester (a fragment of anthrose) and two methylated sugars were used to compare the performance of the autoreactor with manual TCM. Statistical algorithms were used to construct reliable bacterial endospore signatures, and 24

  14. Advanced automation concepts applied to Experimental Breeder Reactor-II startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major objective of this work is to demonstrate through simulations that advanced liquid-metal reactor plants can be operated from low power by computer control. Development of an automatic control system with this objective will help resolve specific issues and provide proof through demonstration that automatic control for plant startup is feasible. This paper presents an advanced control system design for startup of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-2 (EBR-2) located at Idaho Falls, Idaho. The design incorporates recent methods in nonlinear control with advanced diagnostics techniques such as neural networks to form an integrated architecture. The preliminary evaluations are obtained in a simulated environment by a low-order, valid nonlinear model. Within the framework of phase 1 research, the design includes an inverse dynamics controller, a fuzzy controller, and an artificial neural network controller. These three nonlinear control modules are designed to follow the EBR-2 startup trajectories in a multi-input/output regime. They are coordinated by a supervisory routine to yield a fault-tolerant, parallel operation. The control system operates in three modes: manual, semiautomatic, and fully automatic control. The simulation results of the EBR-2 startup transients proved the effectiveness of the advanced concepts. The work presented in this paper is a preliminary feasibility analysis and does not constitute a final design of an automated startup control system for EBR-2. 14 refs., 43 figs

  15. Development of online, continuous heavy metals detection and monitoring sensors based on microfluidic plasma reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Majeed, Wameath Sh

    This research is dedicated to develop a fully integrated system for heavy metals determination in water samples based on micro fluidic plasma atomizers. Several configurations of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) atomizer are designed, fabricated and tested toward this target. Finally, a combination of annular and rectangular DBD atomizers has been utilized to develop a scheme for heavy metals determination. The present thesis has combined both theoretical and experimental investigations to fulfil the requirements. Several mathematical studies are implemented to explore the optimal design parameters for best system performance. On the other hand, expanded experimental explorations are conducted to assess the proposed operational approaches. The experiments were designed according to a central composite rotatable design; hence, an empirical model has been produced for each studied case. Moreover, several statistical approaches are adopted to analyse the system performance and to deduce the optimal operational parameters.. The introduction of the examined analyte to the plasma atomizer has been achieved by applying chemical schemes, where the element in the sample has been derivitized by using different kinds of reducing agents to produce vapour species (e.g. hydrides) for a group of nine elements examined in this research individually and simultaneously. Moreover, other derivatization schemes based on photochemical vapour generation assisted by ultrasound irradiation are also investigated. Generally speaking, the detection limits achieved in this research for the examined set of elements (by applying hydroborate scheme) are found to be acceptable in accordance with the standard limits in drinking water. The results of copper compared with the data from other technologies in the literature, showed a competitive detection limit obtained from applying the developed scheme, with an advantage of conducting simultaneous, fully automated, insitu, online- real time

  16. A Novel Strategy for Detection and Enumeration of Circulating Rare Cell Populations in Metastatic Cancer Patients Using Automated Microfluidic Filtration and Multiplex Immunoassay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Jesus M Magbanua

    Full Text Available Size selection via filtration offers an antigen-independent approach for the enrichment of rare cell populations in blood of cancer patients. We evaluated the performance of a novel approach for multiplex rare cell detection in blood samples from metastatic breast (n = 19 and lung cancer patients (n = 21, and healthy controls (n = 30 using an automated microfluidic filtration and multiplex immunoassay strategy. Captured cells were enumerated after sequential staining for specific markers to identify circulating tumor cells (CTCs, circulating mesenchymal cells (CMCs, putative circulating stem cells (CSCs, and circulating endothelial cells (CECs. Preclinical validation experiments using cancer cells spiked into healthy blood demonstrated high recovery rate (mean = 85% and reproducibility of the assay. In clinical studies, CTCs and CMCs were detected in 35% and 58% of cancer patients, respectively, and were largely absent from healthy controls (3%, p = 0.001. Mean levels of CTCs were significantly higher in breast than in lung cancer patients (p = 0.03. Fifty-three percent (53% of cancer patients harbored putative CSCs, while none were detectable in healthy controls (p<0.0001. In contrast, CECs were observed in both cancer and control groups. Direct comparison of CellSearch® vs. our microfluidic filter method revealed moderate correlation (R2 = 0.46, kappa = 0.47. Serial blood analysis in breast cancer patients demonstrated the feasibility of monitoring circulating rare cell populations over time. Simultaneous assessment of CTCs, CMCs, CSCs and CECs may provide new tools to study mechanisms of disease progression and treatment response/resistance.

  17. Evaluation of microfluidics reactor technology on the kinetics of virus inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Mark R; Chen, Dayue; Emery, Warren R; Lambooy, Peter K; Nolting, Juliana; Quertinmont, Michelle T; Shamlou, Parviz A

    2008-04-15

    Mammalian cell lines constitute an important part in the manufacture of therapeutic proteins. However, their susceptibility to virus contamination is a potential risk to patient safety and productivity, and has led to the development of a repertoire of virus inactivation techniques. From a process development viewpoint, the challenge is to demonstrate the required log reduction in virus content without a significant loss in product titer or quality. The balance between the two is dictated by the kinetics of virus inactivation and protein degradation, both of which are critically affected by process parameters. In this study we describe a commercially available microchannel reactor (MCR) and demonstrate how it can be used to evaluate the impact of temperature on the kinetics of virus inactivation and protein product degradation. Virus spiking experiments are reported using Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus and REOvirus, into buffers in the absence and presence of a therapeutic protein currently under development at Lilly. The results demonstrate that the MCR is an ideal platform for evaluation of fast reactive systems and reactions that are particularly sensitive to small changes to process conditions. These conditions include heat inactivation of a virus in a mammalian cell culture process stream used in the manufacture of therapeutic proteins and antibodies.

  18. Yeast Replicator: A High-Throughput Multiplexed Microfluidics Platform for Automated Measurements of Single-Cell Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model organism for replicative aging studies; however, conventional lifespan measurement platforms have several limitations. Here, we present a microfluidics platform that facilitates simultaneous lifespan and gene expression measurements of aging yeast cells. Our multiplexed high-throughput platform offers the capability to perform independent lifespan experiments using different yeast strains or growth media. Using this platform in minimal media environments containing glucose, we measured the full lifespan of individual yeast cells in wild-type and canonical gene deletion backgrounds. Compared to glucose, in galactose we observed a 16.8% decrease in replicative lifespan accompanied by an ∼2-fold increase in single-cell oxidative stress levels reported by PSOD1-mCherry. Using PGAL1-YFP to measure the activity of the bistable galactose network, we saw that OFF and ON cells are similar in their lifespan. Our work shows that aging cells are committed to a single phenotypic state throughout their lifespan.

  19. Synthesis of 1 nm Pd Nanoparticles in a Microfluidic Reactor: Insights from in Situ X ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy and Small-Angle X ray Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karim, Ayman M.; Al Hasan, Naila M.; Ivanov, Sergei A.; Siefert, Soenke; Kelly, Ryan T.; Hallfors, Nicholas G.; Benavidez, Angelica D.; Kovarik, Libor; Jenkins, Aaron; Winans, R. E.; Datye, Abhaya K.

    2015-06-11

    In this paper we show that the temporal separation of nucleation and growth is not a necessary condition for the colloidal synthesis of monodisperse nanoparticles. The synthesis mechanism of Pd nanoparticles was determined by in situ XAFS and SAXS in a microfluidic reactor capable of millisecond up to an hour time resolution. The SAXS results showed two autocatalytic growth phases, a fast growth phase followed by a very slow growth phase. The steady increase in the number of particles throughout the two growth phases indicates the synthesis is limited by slow continuous nucleation. The transition from fast to slow growth was caused by rapid increase in bonding with the capping agent as shown by XAFS. Based on this fundamental understanding of the synthesis mechanism, we show that 1 nm monodisperse Pd nanoparticles can be synthesized at low temperature using a strong binding capping agent such as trioctylphosphine (TOP).

  20. Reconfigurable microfluidic platform in ice

    OpenAIRE

    Varejka, M.

    2008-01-01

    Microfluidic devices are popular tools in the biotechnology industry where they provide smaller reagent requirements, high speed of analysis and the possibility for automation. The aim of the project is to make a flexible biocompatible microfluidic platform adapted to different specific applications, mainly analytical and separations which parameters and configuration can be changed multiple times by changing corresponding computer programme. The current project has been sup...

  1. Automated system for neutron activation analysis determination of short lived isotopes at The DOW Chemical Company's TRIGA research reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieman, J. J.; Rigot, W. L.; Romick, J. D.; Quinn, T. J.; Kocher, C. W.

    1994-12-01

    An automated neutron activation analysis (NAA) system for the determination of short lived isotopes was constructed at The DOW Chemical Company's TRIGA Research Reactor in 1993. The NAA group of the Analytical Sciences Laboratory uses the reactor for thousands of analyses each year and therefore automation is important to achieve and maintain high throughput and precision (productivity). This project is complementary to automation of the long-lived counting facilities (see Romick et al., these Proceedings). Canberra/Nuclear Data Systems DEC-based software and electronics modules and an I/O mounting board are the basic commercial components. A Fortran program on a VAX computer controls I/O via ethernet to an Acquisition Interface Module (AIM). The AIM controls the γ spectrometer modules and is interfaced to a Remote Parallel Interface (RPI) module which controls the pneumatic transfer apparatus with TTL signals to the I/O mounting board. Near-infrared sensors are used to monitor key points in the transfer system. Spectra are acquired by a single HPGe detector mounted on a sliding rail to allow flexible and more reproducible counting geometries than with manual sample handling. The maximum sample size is 8 ml in a heat-sealed two dram vial. The sample vial is nested into a "rabbit" vial for irradiation which can be automatically removed prior to spectrum collection. The system was designed to be used by the reactor operator at the control console without the aid of an additional experimenter. Applications include the determination of selenium and silver in coal and water, fluorine in tetra-fluoro ethylene (TFE) coated membranes, aluminum and titanium in composite materials and trace fluorine in non-chlorinated cleaning solvents. Variable dead time software allows analysis for 77mSe despite high dead times from 16N encountered in samples.

  2. Automated pose estimation of objects using multiple ID devices for handling and maintenance task in nuclear fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a method for the automated estimation of three-dimensional pose (position and orientation) of objects by autonomous robots, using multiple identification (ID) devices. Our goal is to estimate the object pose for assembly or maintenance tasks in a real nuclear fusion reactor system, with autonomous robots cooperating in a virtual assembly system. The method estimates the three-dimensional pose for autonomous robots. This paper discusses a method of motion generation for ID acquisition using the sensory data acquired by the measurement system attached to the robots and from the environment. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed method. (author)

  3. Modular microfluidic system for biological sample preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Klint A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Ness, Kevin Dean

    2015-09-29

    A reconfigurable modular microfluidic system for preparation of a biological sample including a series of reconfigurable modules for automated sample preparation adapted to selectively include a) a microfluidic acoustic focusing filter module, b) a dielectrophoresis bacteria filter module, c) a dielectrophoresis virus filter module, d) an isotachophoresis nucleic acid filter module, e) a lyses module, and f) an isotachophoresis-based nucleic acid filter.

  4. Microfluidic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2012-08-21

    Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field.

  5. Microfluidic Radiometal Labeling Systems for Biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, D E; Kenis, P J. A.

    2011-12-29

    In a typical labeling procedure with radiometals, such as Cu-64 and Ga-68; a very large (~ 100-fold) excess of the non-radioactive reactant (precursor) is used to promote rapid and efficient incorporation of the radioisotope into the PET imaging agent. In order to achieve high specific activities, careful control of reaction conditions and extensive chromatographic purifications are required in order to separate the labeled compounds from the cold precursors. Here we propose a microfluidic approach to overcome these problems, and achieve high specific activities in a more convenient, semi-automated fashion and faster time frame. Microfluidic reactors, consisting of a network of micron-sized channels (typical dimensions in the range 10 - 300¼m), filters, separation columns, electrodes and reaction loops/chambers etched onto a solid substrate, are now emerging as an extremely useful technology for the intensification and miniaturization of chemical processes. The ability to manipulate, process and analyze reagent concentrations and reaction interfaces in both space and time within the channel network of a microreactor provides the fine level of reaction control that is desirable in PET radiochemistry practice. These factors can bring radiometal labeling, specifically the preparation of radio-labeled biomolecules such as antibodies, much closer to their theoretical maximum specific activities.

  6. Determination of oxygen potentials and O/M ratios of oxide nuclear reactor fuels by means of an automated solid state galvanic cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated version of the electromotive force (emf) cell for the determination of oxygen activities and oxygen to metal ratios of oxide nuclear reactor fuel, irradiated or not, is reported together with some measurements. 9 figs., 17 refs. In appendix a method is described for preparing suitable electrolyte crucibles

  7. Contact method or automated immersion technique: possible application and limitations of ultrasonic testing in the fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tritium breeding blanket is the most important component of a thermonuclear reactor combining the protective function against plasma impact and heat exchange. The breeding blanket concept is based on the use of helium as coolant and beryllium pebbles as neutron multiplier. As structural material the low-activation ferritic-martensitic steel EUROFER (9Cr-W-V-T) is used. For quality assurance the components of the breeding blankets are tested using different non-destructive testing methods. The contact methodology applies the testing equipment VEO in combination of the 10 MHz array-wheel sensor of the ultrasonic phased array series. Immersion testing is performed using the automated facility KC 200 from GE Inspection technologies.

  8. Controllable preparation of particles with microfluidics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangsheng Luo; Le Du; Yujun Wang; Yangcheng Lu; Jianhong Xu

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews recent development and achievements in controllable preparation of nanoparticles,micron spherical and non-spherical particles,using microfluidics.A variety of synthesis strategies are presented and compared,including single-phase and multiphase microflows.The main structures of microfluidic devices and the fundamental principles of microflows for particle preparation are summarized and identified.The controllability of particle size,size distribution,crystal structure,morphology,physical and chemical properties,is examined in terms of the special features of microfluidic reactors.An outlook on opinions and predictions concerning the future development of powder technology with microfluidics is specially provided.

  9. Automated Work Packages Prototype: Initial Design, Development, and Evaluation. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the Automated Work Packages (AWP) project is to demonstrate how to enhance work quality, cost management, and nuclear safety through the use of advanced technology. The work described in this report is part of the digital architecture for a highly automated plant project of the technical program plan for advanced instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies. This report addresses the DOE Milestone M2LW-15IN0603112: Describe the outcomes of field evaluations/demonstrations of the AWP prototype system and plant surveillance and communication framework requirements at host utilities. A brief background to the need for AWP research is provided, then two human factors field evaluation studies are described. These studies focus on the user experience of conducting a task (in this case a preventive maintenance and a surveillance test) while using an AWP system. The remaining part of the report describes an II&C effort to provide real time status updates to the technician by wireless transfer of equipment indications and a dynamic user interface.

  10. Automated Work Packages Prototype: Initial Design, Development, and Evaluation. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxstrand, Johanna Helene [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Al Rashdan, Ahmad [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Le Blanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bly, Aaron Douglas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The goal of the Automated Work Packages (AWP) project is to demonstrate how to enhance work quality, cost management, and nuclear safety through the use of advanced technology. The work described in this report is part of the digital architecture for a highly automated plant project of the technical program plan for advanced instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies. This report addresses the DOE Milestone M2LW-15IN0603112: Describe the outcomes of field evaluations/demonstrations of the AWP prototype system and plant surveillance and communication framework requirements at host utilities. A brief background to the need for AWP research is provided, then two human factors field evaluation studies are described. These studies focus on the user experience of conducting a task (in this case a preventive maintenance and a surveillance test) while using an AWP system. The remaining part of the report describes an II&C effort to provide real time status updates to the technician by wireless transfer of equipment indications and a dynamic user interface.

  11. : microfluidic micropipette

    OpenAIRE

    Preira, Pascal; Valignat, Marie-Pierre; Bico, José; Théodoly, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    International audience We report how cell rheology measurements can be performed by monitoring the deformation of a cell in a microfluidic constriction, provided that friction and fluid leaks effects between the cell and the walls of the microchannels are correctly taken into account. Indeed, the mismatch between the rounded shapes of cells and the angular cross-section of standard microfluidic channels hampers efficient obstruction of the channel by an incoming cell. Moreover, friction fo...

  12. Automated three dimensional depletion capability for the Pennsylvania State University research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the new depletion calculation capability for the Pennsylvania State Univ. research reactor (PSBR). The calculation scheme employs the general purpose Monte Carlo code MCNP4C coupled with the versatile nuclear depletion code ORIGEN2.2 via the recently developed interface code, TRIGSIM. The main functions of the TRIGSIM code are automatic generation of MCNP and ORIGEN inputs from one TRIGSIM input and interfacing the data exchange between the two codes. The PSBR core loading 1, core loading 2 and core loading 3 were modeled using TRIGSIM code. The excess reactivity results from the core calculations have shown reasonable agreement compared to the measured excess reactivity from the operational log book. (authors)

  13. Implementation of automated, on-line fatigue monitoring in a boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A workstation-based, on-line fatigue monitoring system for tracking fatigue usage applied to a Japanese operating boiling water reactor (BWR), Tsuruga Unit 1, is described. The system uses the influence function approach and rainflow cycle counting methodology, operates on a workstation computer, and determines component stresses using temperature, pressure, and flow rate data that are made available via signal taps from previously existing plant sensors. Using plant-unique influence functions developed specifically for the feedwater nozzle location, the system calculates stresses as a function of time and computes the fatigue usage. The analysis method used to compute fatigue usage complies with MITI Code Notification number-sign 501. Fatigue values are saved automatically on files at times defined by the user for use at a later time. Of particular note, this paper describes some of the details involved with implementing such a system from the utility perspective. Utility installation details, as well as why such a system was chosen for implementation are presented. Fatigue results for an entire fuel cycle are presented and compared to assumed design basis events to confirm that actual plant thermal duty is significantly less severe than originally estimated in the design basis stress report. Although the system is specifically set up to address fatigue duty for the feedwater nozzle location, a generic shell structure was implemented so that any other components could be added at a future time without software modifications. As a result, the system provides the technical basis to more accurately evaluate actual reactor conditions as well as the justification for plant life extension

  14. New design targets and new automated technology for the production of radionuclides with high specificity radioactivity in nuclear research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerasimov, A.S.; Kiselev, G.V. [State Russian Center of the Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics

    1997-10-01

    Current demands of industry require the application of radionuclides with high specific radioactivity under low consumption of neutrons. To provide this aim staff of ITEP Reactor Department investigated the different type AEs of start targets for the production of the main radionuclides; Co-60, Ir-192 and others. In first turn the targets of Co and Ir without the block-effect of neutron flux (with low absorption of neutrons) were investigated. The following principal results were received for example for Ir-192: block effect is equal 0.086 for diameter of Ir target mm and is equal 0.615 for diameter Ir target 0.5mm. It means average neutron flux for Ir target diameter 0.5mm and therefore the production of Ir-192 will be at 10 times more than for diameter 6.0mm. To provide the automated technology of the manufacture of radioactive sources with radionuclides with high specific radioactivity it was proposed that the compound targets for the irradiation of ones and for the management with the irradiated targets. Different types of compound targets were analyzed. (authors)

  15. Microfluidic electrocapture technology in protein and peptide analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Astorga-Wells, Juan

    2004-01-01

    After sequencing the genomes of several organisms, science in the postgenomic era now aims at a thorough study of the proteins present in a given tissue or organism. Since this task requires an enormous analytical effort, integrated microfluidic systems are envisioned as the solution to automated high throughput analysis of biomolecules. This thesis is focused on a microfluidic methodology and device that present several advantages over present technologies. The microfluidic...

  16. Design of Topologies for Interpreting Assays on Digital Microfluidic Biochips

    OpenAIRE

    Grissom, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, digital microfluidic biochips have emerged as a viable candidate for the automation and miniaturization of biochemistry; however, digital microfluidic designs in previous works typically suffer from two short-comings: 1.) they are unable to respond to live feedback and errors; 2.) they are application-specific, rather than programmable. In the early years of digital microfluidic research, the synthesis problems of scheduling, placement and routing were performed offline (b...

  17. Theoretical microfluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruus, Henrik

    introducing microfluidics, the governing equations for mass, momentum and energy, and some basic flow solutions, the following 14 chapters treat hydraulic resistance/compliance, diffusion/dispersion, time-dependent flow, capillarity, electro- and magneto-hydrodynamics, thermal transport, two-phase flow...

  18. Microfluidic-Based Robotic Sampling System for Radioactive Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack D. Law; Julia L. Tripp; Tara E. Smith; Veronica J. Rutledge; Troy G. Garn; John Svoboda; Larry Macaluso

    2014-02-01

    A novel microfluidic based robotic sampling system has been developed for sampling and analysis of liquid solutions in nuclear processes. This system couples the use of a microfluidic sample chip with a robotic system designed to allow remote, automated sampling of process solutions in-cell and facilitates direct coupling of the microfluidic sample chip with analytical instrumentation. This system provides the capability for near real time analysis, reduces analytical waste, and minimizes the potential for personnel exposure associated with traditional sampling methods. A prototype sampling system was designed, built and tested. System testing demonstrated operability of the microfluidic based sample system and identified system modifications to optimize performance.

  19. Nanoliter-scale protein crystallization and screening with a microfluidic droplet robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Zhu, Li-Na; Guo, Rui; Cui, Heng-Jun; Ye, Sheng; Fang, Qun

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale screening of hundreds or even thousands of crystallization conditions while with low sample consumption is in urgent need, in current structural biology research. Here we describe a fully-automated droplet robot for nanoliter-scale crystallization screening that combines the advantages of both automated robotics technique for protein crystallization screening and the droplet-based microfluidic technique. A semi-contact dispensing method was developed to achieve flexible, programmable and reliable liquid-handling operations for nanoliter-scale protein crystallization experiments. We applied the droplet robot in large-scale screening of crystallization conditions of five soluble proteins and one membrane protein with 35-96 different crystallization conditions, study of volume effects on protein crystallization, and determination of phase diagrams of two proteins. The volume for each droplet reactor is only ca. 4-8 nL. The protein consumption significantly reduces 50-500 fold compared with current crystallization stations.

  20. Microfluidic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Lin, Jeffrey Chun-Hui (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Described herein are particular embodiments relating to a microfluidic device that may be utilized for cell sensing, counting, and/or sorting. Particular aspects relate to a microfabricated device that is capable of differentiating single cell types from dense cell populations. One particular embodiment relates a device and methods of using the same for sensing, counting, and/or sorting leukocytes from whole, undiluted blood samples.

  1. Design and Testing of Digital Microfluidic Biochips

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yang

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive methodology for automated design, test and diagnosis, and use of robust, low-cost, and manufacturable digital microfluidic systems. It focuses on the development of a comprehensive CAD optimization framework for digital microfluidic biochips that unifies different design problems. With the increase in system complexity and integration levels, biochip designers can utilize the design methods described in this book to evaluate different design alternatives, and carry out design-space exploration to obtain the best design point. Describes practical design automation tools that address different design problems (e.g., synthesis, droplet routing, control-pin mapping, testing and diagnosis, and error recovery) in a unified manner; Applies test pattern generation and error-recovery techniques for digital microfluidics-based biochips; Uses real bioassays as evaluation examples, e.g., multiplexed in vitro human physiological fluids diagnostics, PCR, protein crystallization.  

  2. Microfluidic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utz, Marcel; Begley, Matthew R; Haj-Hariri, Hossein

    2011-11-21

    The propagation of pressure waves in fluidic channels with elastic covers is discussed in view of applications to flow control in microfluidic devices. A theory is presented which describes pressure waves in the fluid that are coupled to bending waves in the elastic cover. At low frequencies, the lateral bending of the cover dominates over longitudinal bending, leading to propagating, non-dispersive longitudinal pressure waves in the channel. The theory addresses effects due to both the finite viscosity and compressibility of the fluid. The coupled waves propagate without dispersion, as long as the wave length is larger than the channel width. It is shown that in channels of typical microfluidic dimensions, wave velocities in the range of a few 10 m s(-1) result if the channels are covered by films of a compliant material such as PDMS. The application of this principle to design microfluidic band pass filters based on standing waves is discussed. Characteristic frequencies in the range of a few kHz are readily achieved with quality factors above 30. PMID:21966667

  3. Microfluidic-integrated DNA nanobiosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, M I Haque; Hassan, Shabir; Qurashi, Ahsanulhaq; Khanday, Firdous Ahmad

    2016-11-15

    Over the last few decades, an increased demand has emerged for integrating biosensors with microfluidic- and nanofluidic-based lab-on-chip (LOC) devices for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics, in the medical industry and environmental monitoring of pathogenic threat agents. Such a merger of microfluidics with biosensing technologies allows for the precise control of volumes, as low as one nanolitre and the integration of various types of bioassays on a single miniaturized platform. This integration offers several favorable advantages, such as low reagent consumption, automation of sample preparation, reduction in processing time, low cost analysis, minimal handling of hazardous materials, high detection accuracy, portability and disposability. This review provides a synopsis of the most recent developments in the microfluidic-integrated biosensing field by delineating the fundamental theory of microfluidics, fabrication techniques and a detailed account of the various transduction methods that are employed. Lastly, the review discusses state-of-the-art DNA biosensors with a focus on optical DNA biosensors.

  4. Microfluidic-integrated DNA nanobiosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, M I Haque; Hassan, Shabir; Qurashi, Ahsanulhaq; Khanday, Firdous Ahmad

    2016-11-15

    Over the last few decades, an increased demand has emerged for integrating biosensors with microfluidic- and nanofluidic-based lab-on-chip (LOC) devices for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics, in the medical industry and environmental monitoring of pathogenic threat agents. Such a merger of microfluidics with biosensing technologies allows for the precise control of volumes, as low as one nanolitre and the integration of various types of bioassays on a single miniaturized platform. This integration offers several favorable advantages, such as low reagent consumption, automation of sample preparation, reduction in processing time, low cost analysis, minimal handling of hazardous materials, high detection accuracy, portability and disposability. This review provides a synopsis of the most recent developments in the microfluidic-integrated biosensing field by delineating the fundamental theory of microfluidics, fabrication techniques and a detailed account of the various transduction methods that are employed. Lastly, the review discusses state-of-the-art DNA biosensors with a focus on optical DNA biosensors. PMID:27179566

  5. Visual interface for the automation of the instrumented pendulum of Charpy tests used in the surveillance program of reactors vessel of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inside the Programs of Surveillance of the nuclear power stations periodic information is required on the state that keep the materials with those that builds the vessel of the reactor. This information is obtained through some samples or test tubes that are introduced inside the core of the reactor and it is observed if its physical characteristics remain after having been subjected to the radiation changes and temperature. The rehearsal with the instrumented Charpy pendulum offers information on the behavior of fracture dynamics of a material. In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) it has an instrumented Charpy pendulum. The operation of this instrument is manual, having inconveniences to carry out rehearsals with radioactive material, handling of high and low temperatures, to fulfill the normative ones for the realization of the rehearsals, etc. In this work the development of a computational program is presented (virtual instrument), for the automation of the instrumented pendulum. The system has modules like: Card of data acquisition, signal processing, positioning system, tempered system, pneumatic system, compute programs like it is the visual interface for the operation of the instrumented Charpy pendulum and the acquisition of impact signals. This system shows that given the characteristics of the nuclear industry with radioactive environments, the virtual instrumentation and the automation of processes can contribute to diminish the risks to the personnel occupationally exposed. (Author)

  6. Kinetics of Reduction Reaction in Micro-Fluidized Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINYin-he; GUOZhan—cheng; TANGHui—qing; REN Shan; LIJing—wei

    2012-01-01

    Micro-fluidized bed reactor is a new research method for the reduction of iron ore fines. The reactor is op- erated as a differential reactor to ensure a constant gas concentration and temperature within the reactor volume. In order to understand the dynamic process of the reduction reaction in micro-fluidized bed, a series of kinetic experi- ments were designed. In the micro fluidized bed, the use of shrinking core model describes the dynamic behavior of reduction of iron ore. And the apparent activation energy is calculated in the range of 700--850 ~C while the initial atmosphere is 100% content of CO.

  7. Automation of the radiation protection monitoring system in the RP-10 reactor; Automatizacion del sistema de monitoraje de radioproteccion en el reactor RP-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anaya G, Olgger; Castillo Y, Walter; Ovalle S, Edgar [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru)

    2002-07-01

    During the reactor operation, it is necessary to carry out the radiological control in the different places of the reactor, in periodic form and to take a registration of these values. For it the radioprotection official, makes every certain periods, settled down in the procedures, to verify and to carry out the registration of those values in manual form of each one of the radiation monitors. For this reason it was carried out the design and implementation of an automatic monitoring system of radioprotection in the reactor. In the development it has been considered the installation of a acquisition data system for 27 radiation gamma monitors of the type Geiger Mueller, installed inside the different places of the reactor and in the laboratories where they are manipulated radioactive material, using as hardware the FieldPoint for the possessing and digitalization of the signs which are correspondents using the communication protocol RS-232 to a PC in which has settled a program in graphic environment that has been developed using the tools of the programming software LabWindows/CVI. Then, these same signs are sent 'on line' to another PC that is in the Emergency Center of Coordination to 500 m of the reactor, by means of a system of radiofrequency communication. (author)

  8. Dynamics of Microvalve Operations in Integrated Microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan T. H. Lau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatic microvalves are widely used key components for automating liquid manipulation and flow control in microfluidics for more than one decade. Due to their robust operations and the ease of fabrication, tremendous microfluidic systems have been developed with the multiple microvalves for higher throughput and extended functionalities. Therefore, operation performance of the microvalves in the integrated microfluidic devices is crucial to the related applications, in fields such as micro-flows, cell analyses, drug discovery, and physical/chemical detections. It has been reported that operation performance of the microvalves are highly sensitive to the device configuration and pressurization scheme. This implies the further development of integrated microfluidics with a larger number of the valves may suffer the problems of undetermined microvalve behaviors during operations, which can become an unavoidable hurdle in the device design and optimization processes. Herein, we characterize responses of the individual microvalves for different operation configurations, e.g., membrane thicknesses and driving pressures. We investigate also the effects in microfluidics integrated with the more valves, through experiments, modeling and simulations. We show that dynamics of the microvalves is indeed influenced by the configurations, levels of design complexity and positions in the devices. Overall, taken dynamics of the microvalve responses into considerations, this work provides insights and guidelines for better designs of integrated microfluidics for the future applications requiring higher throughput and improved operation performance.

  9. Recent Advances in Applications of Droplet Microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lung Chou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Droplet-based microfluidics is a colloidal and interfacial system that has rapidly progressed in the past decade because of the advantages of low fabrication costs, small sample volumes, reduced analysis durations, high-throughput analysis with exceptional sensitivity, enhanced operational flexibility, and facile automation. This technology has emerged as a new tool for many recently used applications in molecular detection, imaging, drug delivery, diagnostics, cell biology and other fields. Herein, we review recent applications of droplet microfluidics proposed since 2013.

  10. Detection methods for centrifugal microfluidic platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Robert; Amato, Letizia; Boisen, Anja

    2016-02-15

    Centrifugal microfluidics has attracted much interest from academia as well as industry, since it potentially offers solutions for affordable, user-friendly and portable biosensing. A wide range of so-called fluidic unit operations, e.g. mixing, metering, liquid routing, and particle separation, have been developed and allow automation and integration of complex assay protocols in lab-on-a-disc systems. Besides liquid handling, the detection strategy for reading out the assay is crucial for developing a fully integrated system. In this review, we focus on biosensors and readout methods for the centrifugal microfluidics platform and cover optical as well as mechanical and electrical detection principles.

  11. Design of microfluidic bioreactors using topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Fridolin; Bruus, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    We address the design of optimal reactors for supporting biological cultures using the method of topology optimization. For some years this method have been used to design various optimal microfluidic devices.1-4 We apply this method to distribute optimally biologic cultures within a flow of nutr...

  12. Digital Microfluidics Sample Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Michael G.; Srinivasan, Vijay; Eckhardt, Allen; Paik, Philip Y.; Sudarsan, Arjun; Shenderov, Alex; Hua, Zhishan; Pamula, Vamsee K.

    2010-01-01

    Three innovations address the needs of the medical world with regard to microfluidic manipulation and testing of physiological samples in ways that can benefit point-of-care needs for patients such as premature infants, for which drawing of blood for continuous tests can be life-threatening in their own right, and for expedited results. A chip with sample injection elements, reservoirs (and waste), droplet formation structures, fluidic pathways, mixing areas, and optical detection sites, was fabricated to test the various components of the microfluidic platform, both individually and in integrated fashion. The droplet control system permits a user to control droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. Also, the programming system allows a user to develop software routines for controlling droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. A chip is incorporated into the system with a controller, a detector, input and output devices, and software. A novel filler fluid formulation is used for the transport of droplets with high protein concentrations. Novel assemblies for detection of photons from an on-chip droplet are present, as well as novel systems for conducting various assays, such as immunoassays and PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The lab-on-a-chip (a.k.a., lab-on-a-printed-circuit board) processes physiological samples and comprises a system for automated, multi-analyte measurements using sub-microliter samples of human serum. The invention also relates to a diagnostic chip and system including the chip that performs many of the routine operations of a central labbased chemistry analyzer, integrating, for example, colorimetric assays (e.g., for proteins), chemiluminescence/fluorescence assays (e.g., for enzymes, electrolytes, and gases), and/or conductometric assays (e.g., for hematocrit on plasma and whole blood) on a single chip platform.

  13. Microfluidics-Based PCR for Fusion Transcript Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The microfluidic technology allows the production of network of submillimeter-size fluidic channels and reservoirs in a variety of material systems. The microfluidic-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows automated multiplexing of multiple samples and multiple assays simultaneously within a network of microfluidic channels and chambers that are co-ordinated in controlled fashion by the valves. The individual PCR reaction is performed in nanoliter volume, which allows testing on samples with limited DNA and RNA. The microfluidics devices are used in various types of PCR such as digital PCR and single molecular emulsion PCR for genotyping, gene expression, and miRNA expression. In this chapter, the use of a microfluidics-based PCR for simultaneous screening of 14 known fusion transcripts in patients with leukemia is described.

  14. An automated microreactor for semi-continuous biosensor measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffi, Nina; Beggah, Siham; Truffer, Frederic; Geiser, Martial; van Lintel, Harald; Renaud, Philippe; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2016-04-21

    Living bacteria or yeast cells are frequently used as bioreporters for the detection of specific chemical analytes or conditions of sample toxicity. In particular, bacteria or yeast equipped with synthetic gene circuitry that allows the production of a reliable non-cognate signal (e.g., fluorescent protein or bioluminescence) in response to a defined target make robust and flexible analytical platforms. We report here how bacterial cells expressing a fluorescence reporter ("bactosensors"), which are mostly used for batch sample analysis, can be deployed for automated semi-continuous target analysis in a single concise biochip. Escherichia coli-based bactosensor cells were continuously grown in a 13 or 50 nanoliter-volume reactor on a two-layered polydimethylsiloxane-on-glass microfluidic chip. Physiologically active cells were directed from the nl-reactor to a dedicated sample exposure area, where they were concentrated and reacted in 40 minutes with the target chemical by localized emission of the fluorescent reporter signal. We demonstrate the functioning of the bactosensor-chip by the automated detection of 50 μgarsenite-As l(-1) in water on consecutive days and after a one-week constant operation. Best induction of the bactosensors of 6-9-fold to 50 μg l(-1) was found at an apparent dilution rate of 0.12 h(-1) in the 50 nl microreactor. The bactosensor chip principle could be widely applicable to construct automated monitoring devices for a variety of targets in different environments. PMID:27001545

  15. Microfluidic sieve valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quake, Stephen R; Marcus, Joshua S; Hansen, Carl L

    2015-01-13

    Sieve valves for use in microfluidic device are provided. The valves are useful for impeding the flow of particles, such as chromatography beads or cells, in a microfluidic channel while allowing liquid solution to pass through the valve. The valves find particular use in making microfluidic chromatography modules.

  16. Microfluidic Dye Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders; Balslev, Søren; Gersborg-Hansen, Morten;

    2006-01-01

    A technology for miniaturized, polymer based lasers, suitable for integration with planar waveguides and microfluidic networks is presented. The microfluidic dye laser device consists of a microfluidic channel with an embedded optical resonator. The devices are fabricated in a thin polymer film...

  17. Direct current insulator based dielectrophoresis (DC-iDEP) microfluidic chip for blood plasma separation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) integrated microfluidics has been a powerful tool for new developments in analytical chemistry. These microfluidic systems enable the miniaturization, integration and automation of complex biochemical assays through the reduction of reagent use and enabling portability.Cell and particle separation in microfluidic systems has recently gained significant attention in many sample preparations for clinical procedures. Direct-current insulator-based dielectrophoresis (DC-iDEP) ...

  18. In situ microfluidic dialysis for biological small-angle X-ray scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Magda; Skou, Soren; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam;

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the demand for low sample consumption and automated sample changing capabilities at synchrotron small-angle X-ray (solution) scattering (SAXS) beamlines, X-ray microfluidics is receiving continuously increasing attention. Here, a remote-controlled microfluidic device is presented for sim...

  19. Plasmonic nanoshell synthesis in microfluidic composite foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraiswamy, Suhanya; Khan, Saif A

    2010-09-01

    The availability of robust, scalable, and automated nanoparticle manufacturing processes is crucial for the viability of emerging nanotechnologies. Metallic nanoparticles of diverse shape and composition are commonly manufactured by solution-phase colloidal chemistry methods, where rapid reaction kinetics and physical processes such as mixing are inextricably coupled, and scale-up often poses insurmountable problems. Here we present the first continuous flow process to synthesize thin gold "nanoshells" and "nanoislands" on colloidal silica surfaces, which are nanoparticle motifs of considerable interest in plasmonics-based applications. We assemble an ordered, flowing composite foam lattice in a simple microfluidic device, where the lattice cells are alternately aqueous drops containing reagents for nanoparticle synthesis or gas bubbles. Microfluidic foam generation enables precisely controlled reagent dispensing and mixing, and the ordered foam structure facilitates compartmentalized nanoparticle growth. This is a general method for aqueous colloidal synthesis, enabling continuous, inherently digital, scalable, and automated production processes for plasmonic nanomaterials.

  20. Miniaturization and microfluidics

    OpenAIRE

    Foret, F; Smejkal, P.; Macka, M.

    2013-01-01

    While miniaturization is a prerequisite of achieving portability in LC systems, microfluidics represents a qualitative step toward chip-based LC systems. This short chapter provides an excursion into the microfluidics for separations with a brief overview of some of the commercial systems. It is worth stressing that, while the development and introduction of new microfluidic instrumentation is just at its beginning, the miniaturized technology is being used quite often in commercial sys...

  1. Microfluidics in biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov Dimitri; Barry Richard

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Microfluidics enables biotechnological processes to proceed on a scale (microns) at which physical processes such as osmotic movement, electrophoretic-motility and surface interactions become enhanced. At the microscale sample volumes and assay times are reduced, and procedural costs are lowered. The versatility of microfluidic devices allows interfacing with current methods and technologies. Microfluidics has been applied to DNA analysis methods and shown to accelerate DNA microarra...

  2. Tunable Microfluidic Dye Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Helbo, Bjarne; Kutter, Jörg Peter;

    2003-01-01

    We present a tunable microfluidic dye laser fabricated in SU-8. The tunability is enabled by integrating a microfluidic diffusion mixer with an existing microfluidic dye laser design by Helbo et al. By controlling the relative flows in the mixer between a dye solution and a solvent......, the concentration of dye in the laser cavity can be adjusted, allowing the wavelength to be tuned. Wavelength tuning controlled by the dye concentration was demonstrated with macroscopic dye lasers already in 1971, but this principle only becomes practically applicable by the use of microfluidic mixing...

  3. Opto-Microfluidic Immunosensors: From Colorimetric to Plasmonic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Long He

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Optical detection has long been the most popular technique in immunosensing. Recent developments in the synthesis of luminescent probes and the fabrication of novel nanostructures enable more sensitive and efficient optical detection, which can be miniaturized and integrated with microfluidics to realize compact lab-on-a-chip immunosensors. These immunosensors are portable, economical and automated, but their sensitivity is not compromised. This review focuses on the incorporation and implementation of optical detection and microfluidics in immunosensors; it introduces the working principles of each optical detection technique and how it can be exploited in immunosensing. The recent progress in various opto-microfluidic immunosensor designs is described. Instead of being comprehensive to include all opto-microfluidic platforms, the report centers on the designs that are promising for point-of-care immunosensing diagnostics, in which ease of use, stability and cost-effective fabrication are emphasized.

  4. Microfluidic viscometers for shear rheology of complex fluids and biofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Siddhartha; Wang, William S; Vanapalli, Siva A

    2016-07-01

    The rich diversity of man-made complex fluids and naturally occurring biofluids is opening up new opportunities for investigating their flow behavior and characterizing their rheological properties. Steady shear viscosity is undoubtedly the most widely characterized material property of these fluids. Although widely adopted, macroscale rheometers are limited by sample volumes, access to high shear rates, hydrodynamic instabilities, and interfacial artifacts. Currently, microfluidic devices are capable of handling low sample volumes, providing precision control of flow and channel geometry, enabling a high degree of multiplexing and automation, and integrating flow visualization and optical techniques. These intrinsic advantages of microfluidics have made it especially suitable for the steady shear rheology of complex fluids. In this paper, we review the use of microfluidics for conducting shear viscometry of complex fluids and biofluids with a focus on viscosity curves as a function of shear rate. We discuss the physical principles underlying different microfluidic viscometers, their unique features and limits of operation. This compilation of technological options will potentially serve in promoting the benefits of microfluidic viscometry along with evincing further interest and research in this area. We intend that this review will aid researchers handling and studying complex fluids in selecting and adopting microfluidic viscometers based on their needs. We conclude with challenges and future directions in microfluidic rheometry of complex fluids and biofluids. PMID:27478521

  5. Centrifugal microfluidic platforms: advanced unit operations and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmeier, O; Keller, M; Schwemmer, F; Zehnle, S; Mark, D; von Stetten, F; Zengerle, R; Paust, N

    2015-10-01

    Centrifugal microfluidics has evolved into a mature technology. Several major diagnostic companies either have products on the market or are currently evaluating centrifugal microfluidics for product development. The fields of application are widespread and include clinical chemistry, immunodiagnostics and protein analysis, cell handling, molecular diagnostics, as well as food, water, and soil analysis. Nevertheless, new fluidic functions and applications that expand the possibilities of centrifugal microfluidics are being introduced at a high pace. In this review, we first present an up-to-date comprehensive overview of centrifugal microfluidic unit operations. Then, we introduce the term "process chain" to review how these unit operations can be combined for the automation of laboratory workflows. Such aggregation of basic functionalities enables efficient fluidic design at a higher level of integration. Furthermore, we analyze how novel, ground-breaking unit operations may foster the integration of more complex applications. Among these are the storage of pneumatic energy to realize complex switching sequences or to pump liquids radially inward, as well as the complete pre-storage and release of reagents. In this context, centrifugal microfluidics provides major advantages over other microfluidic actuation principles: the pulse-free inertial liquid propulsion provided by centrifugal microfluidics allows for closed fluidic systems that are free of any interfaces to external pumps. Processed volumes are easily scalable from nanoliters to milliliters. Volume forces can be adjusted by rotation and thus, even for very small volumes, surface forces may easily be overcome in the centrifugal gravity field which enables the efficient separation of nanoliter volumes from channels, chambers or sensor matrixes as well as the removal of any disturbing bubbles. In summary, centrifugal microfluidics takes advantage of a comprehensive set of fluidic unit operations such as

  6. Design of Fault-Tolerant and Dynamically-Reconfigurable Microfluidic Biochips

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Fei

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidics-based biochips are soon expected to revolutionize clinical diagnosis, DNA sequencing, and other laboratory procedures involving molecular biology. Most microfluidic biochips are based on the principle of continuous fluid flow and they rely on permanently-etched microchannels, micropumps, and microvalves. We focus here on the automated design of "digital" droplet-based microfluidic biochips. In contrast to continuous-flow systems, digital microfluidics offers dynamic reconfigurability; groups of cells in a microfluidics array can be reconfigured to change their functionality during the concurrent execution of a set of bioassays. We present a simulated annealing-based technique for module placement in such biochips. The placement procedure not only addresses chip area, but it also considers fault tolerance, which allows a microfluidic module to be relocated elsewhere in the system when a single cell is detected to be faulty. Simulation results are presented for a case study involving the polymeras...

  7. High content screening in microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Raymond; Paliwal, Saurabh; Levchenko, Andre

    2011-01-01

    Importance of the field Miniaturization is key to advancing the state-of-the-art in high content screening (HCS), in order to enable dramatic cost savings through reduced usage of expensive biochemical reagents and to enable large-scale screening on primary cells. Microfluidic technology offers the potential to enable HCS to be performed with an unprecedented degree of miniaturization. Areas covered in this review This perspective highlights a real-world example from the authors’ work of HCS assays implemented in a highly miniaturized microfluidic format. Advantages of this technology are discussed, including cost savings, high throughput screening on primary cells, improved accuracy, the ability to study complex time-varying stimuli, and ease of automation, integration, and scaling. What the reader will gain The reader will understand the capabilities of a new microfluidics-based platform for HCS, and the advantages it provides over conventional plate-based HCS. Take home message Microfluidics technology will drive significant advancements and broader usage and applicability of HCS in drug discovery. PMID:21852997

  8. A self-contained, programmable microfluidic cell culture system with real-time microscopy access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte-Pedersen, Peder; Hemmingsen, Mette; Sabourin, David;

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing microfluidics is a promising way for increasing the throughput and automation of cell biology research. We present a complete self-contained system for automated cell culture and experiments with real-time optical read-out. The system offers a high degree of user-friendliness, stability...

  9. An end-to-end microfluidic platform for engineering life supporting microbes in space exploration missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — HJ Science & Technology proposes a programmable, low-cost, and compact microfluidic platform capable of running automated end-to-end processes and optimization...

  10. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, William G.; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S.; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  11. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Steven J; Gariboldi, Maria Isabella; Patrick, William G; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics. PMID:27525809

  12. Microfluidics and microbial engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Songzi; Cheng, Danhui; Sun, Fei; Hsing, I-Ming

    2016-02-01

    The combination of microbial engineering and microfluidics is synergistic in nature. For example, microfluidics is benefiting from the outcome of microbial engineering and many reported point-of-care microfluidic devices employ engineered microbes as functional parts for the microsystems. In addition, microbial engineering is facilitated by various microfluidic techniques, due to their inherent strength in high-throughput screening and miniaturization. In this review article, we firstly examine the applications of engineered microbes for toxicity detection, biosensing, and motion generation in microfluidic platforms. Secondly, we look into how microfluidic technologies facilitate the upstream and downstream processes of microbial engineering, including DNA recombination, transformation, target microbe selection, mutant characterization, and microbial function analysis. Thirdly, we highlight an emerging concept in microbial engineering, namely, microbial consortium engineering, where the behavior of a multicultural microbial community rather than that of a single cell/species is delineated. Integrating the disciplines of microfluidics and microbial engineering opens up many new opportunities, for example in diagnostics, engineering of microbial motors, development of portable devices for genetics, high throughput characterization of genetic mutants, isolation and identification of rare/unculturable microbial species, single-cell analysis with high spatio-temporal resolution, and exploration of natural microbial communities.

  13. Advances in inspection automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Walter H.; Mair, H. Douglas; Jansen, Dion; Lombardi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    This new session at QNDE reflects the growing interest in inspection automation. Our paper describes a newly developed platform that makes the complex NDE automation possible without the need for software programmers. Inspection tasks that are tedious, error-prone or impossible for humans to perform can now be automated using a form of drag and drop visual scripting. Our work attempts to rectify the problem that NDE is not keeping pace with the rest of factory automation. Outside of NDE, robots routinely and autonomously machine parts, assemble components, weld structures and report progress to corporate databases. By contrast, components arriving in the NDT department typically require manual part handling, calibrations and analysis. The automation examples in this paper cover the development of robotic thickness gauging and the use of adaptive contour following on the NRU reactor inspection at Chalk River.

  14. Fluorine-18 chemistry in micro-reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Shuiyu; Chun, Joong-Hyun; Pike, Victor W.

    2010-01-01

    Recent applications of micro-reactor (microfluidics) technology to radiofluorination chemistry within our laboratory are presented, based on use of either a simple T-shaped glass micro-reactor or a more advanced microfluidics instrument. The topics include reaction optimization and radioligand production, in particular the study of the radiofluorination of diaryliodonium salts, [18F]fluoride ion exchange with xenon difluoride, esterification with [18F]2-fluoroethyl tosylate, and the syntheses...

  15. Nanomaterials meet microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumera, Martin

    2011-05-28

    Nanomaterials and lab-on-a-chip platforms have undergone enormous development during the past decade. Here, we present an overview of how microfluidics benefited from the use of nanomaterials for the enhanced separation and detection of analytes. We also discuss how nanomaterials benefit from microfluidics in terms of synthesis and in terms of the simulation of environments for nanomotors and nanorobots. In our opinion, the "marriage" of nanomaterials and microfluidics is highly beneficial and is expected to solve vital challenges in related fields.

  16. Microfluidics: A Groundbreaking Technology for PET Tracer Production?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Wängler

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of microfluidics to Positron Emission Tomography (PET tracer synthesis has attracted increasing interest within the last decade. The technical advantages of microfluidics, in particular the high surface to volume ratio and resulting fast thermal heating and cooling rates of reagents can lead to reduced reaction times, increased synthesis yields and reduced by-products. In addition automated reaction optimization, reduced consumption of expensive reagents and a path towards a reduced system footprint have been successfully demonstrated. The processing of radioactivity levels required for routine production, use of microfluidic-produced PET tracer doses in preclinical and clinical imaging as well as feasibility studies on autoradiolytic decomposition have all given promising results. However, the number of microfluidic synthesizers utilized for commercial routine production of PET tracers is very limited. This study reviews the state of the art in microfluidic PET tracer synthesis, highlighting critical design aspects, strengths, weaknesses and presenting several characteristics of the diverse PET market space which are thought to have a significant impact on research, development and engineering of microfluidic devices in this field. Furthermore, the topics of batch- and single-dose production, cyclotron to quality control integration as well as centralized versus de-centralized market distribution models are addressed.

  17. Microfluidic chemical reaction circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-cheng; Sui, Guodong; Elizarov, Arkadij; Kolb, Hartmuth C.; Huang, Jiang; Heath, James R.; Phelps, Michael E.; Quake, Stephen R.; Tseng, Hsian-rong; Wyatt, Paul; Daridon, Antoine

    2012-06-26

    New microfluidic devices, useful for carrying out chemical reactions, are provided. The devices are adapted for on-chip solvent exchange, chemical processes requiring multiple chemical reactions, and rapid concentration of reagents.

  18. Punch Card Programmable Microfluidics

    CERN Document Server

    Korir, George

    2014-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes a series of operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series ...

  19. Microfluidic CARS cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Han-Wei; Bao, Ning; Le, Thuc T.; Lu, Chang; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2008-01-01

    Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) flow cytometry was demonstrated by combining a laser-scanning CARS microscope with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based microfluidic device. Line-scanning across the hydrodynamically focused core stream was performed for detection of flowing objects. Parameters were optimized by utilizing polystyrene beads as flowing particles. Population measurements of adipocytes isolated from mouse fat tissues demonstrated the viability of microfluidic CARS cytom...

  20. Microfluidic isotachophoresis: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Smejkal, P.; Bottenus, D.; Breadmore, M.C.; Van Guijt, R.M.; Ivory, C. F.; Foret, F; Macka, M.

    2013-01-01

    Electromigration methods including CE and ITP are attractive for incorporation in microfluidic devices because they are relatively easily adaptable to miniaturization. After its popularity in the 1970s, ITP has made a comeback in microfluidic format (-ITP, micro-ITP) driven by the advantages of the steady-state boundary, the self-focusing effect, and the ability to aid in preconcentrating analytes in the sample while removing matrix components. In this review, we provide an overview of the de...

  1. Punch Card Programmable Microfluidics

    OpenAIRE

    George Korir; Manu Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external component...

  2. Microfluidic biolector-microfluidic bioprocess control in microtiter plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Matthias; Buchenauer, Andreas; Schnakenberg, Uwe; Mokwa, Wilfried; Diederichs, Sylvia; Mertens, Alan; Müller, Carsten; Kensy, Frank; Büchs, Jochen

    2010-10-15

    In industrial-scale biotechnological processes, the active control of the pH-value combined with the controlled feeding of substrate solutions (fed-batch) is the standard strategy to cultivate both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. On the contrary, for small-scale cultivations, much simpler batch experiments with no process control are performed. This lack of process control often hinders researchers to scale-up and scale-down fermentation experiments, because the microbial metabolism and thereby the growth and production kinetics drastically changes depending on the cultivation strategy applied. While small-scale batches are typically performed highly parallel and in high throughput, large-scale cultivations demand sophisticated equipment for process control which is in most cases costly and difficult to handle. Currently, there is no technical system on the market that realizes simple process control in high throughput. The novel concept of a microfermentation system described in this work combines a fiber-optic online-monitoring device for microtiter plates (MTPs)--the BioLector technology--together with microfluidic control of cultivation processes in volumes below 1 mL. In the microfluidic chip, a micropump is integrated to realize distinct substrate flow rates during fed-batch cultivation in microscale. Hence, a cultivation system with several distinct advantages could be established: (1) high information output on a microscale; (2) many experiments can be performed in parallel and be automated using MTPs; (3) this system is user-friendly and can easily be transferred to a disposable single-use system. This article elucidates this new concept and illustrates applications in fermentations of Escherichia coli under pH-controlled and fed-batch conditions in shaken MTPs. PMID:20517981

  3. Active pneumatic control of centrifugal microfluidic flows for lab-on-a-chip applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clime, Liviu; Brassard, Daniel; Geissler, Matthias; Veres, Teodor

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports a novel method of controlling liquid motion on a centrifugal microfluidic platform based on the integration of a regulated pressure pump and a programmable electromechanical valving system. We demonstrate accurate control over the displacement of liquids within the system by pressurizing simultaneously multiple ports of the microfluidic device while the platform is rotating at high speed. Compared to classical centrifugal microfluidic platforms where liquids are solely driven by centrifugal and capillary forces, the method presented herein adds a new degree of freedom for fluidic manipulation, which represents a paradigm change in centrifugal microfluidics. We first demonstrate how various core microfluidic functions such as valving, switching, and reverse pumping (i.e., against the centrifugal field) can be easily achieved by programming the pressures applied at dedicated access ports of the microfluidic device. We then show, for the first time, that the combination of centrifugal force and active pneumatic pumping offers the possibility of mixing fluids rapidly (~0.1 s) and efficiently based on the creation of air bubbles at the bottom of a microfluidic reservoir. Finally, the suitability of the developed platform for performing complex bioanalytical assays in an automated fashion is demonstrated in a DNA harvesting experiment where recovery rates of about 70% were systematically achieved. The proposed concept offers the interesting prospect to decouple basic microfluidic functions from specific material properties, channel dimensions and fabrication tolerances, surface treatments, or on-chip active components, thus promoting integration of complex assays on simple and low-cost microfluidic cartridges.

  4. MEMS in microfluidic channels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, Carol Iris Hill; Okandan, Murat; Michalske, Terry A.; Sounart, Thomas L.; Matzke, Carolyn M.

    2004-03-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) comprise a new class of devices that include various forms of sensors and actuators. Recent studies have shown that microscale cantilever structures are able to detect a wide range of chemicals, biomolecules or even single bacterial cells. In this approach, cantilever deflection replaces optical fluorescence detection thereby eliminating complex chemical tagging steps that are difficult to achieve with chip-based architectures. A key challenge to utilizing this new detection scheme is the incorporation of functionalized MEMS structures within complex microfluidic channel architectures. The ability to accomplish this integration is currently limited by the processing approaches used to seal lids on pre-etched microfluidic channels. This report describes Sandia's first construction of MEMS instrumented microfluidic chips, which were fabricated by combining our leading capabilities in MEMS processing with our low-temperature photolithographic method for fabricating microfluidic channels. We have explored in-situ cantilevers and other similar passive MEMS devices as a new approach to directly sense fluid transport, and have successfully monitored local flow rates and viscosities within microfluidic channels. Actuated MEMS structures have also been incorporated into microfluidic channels, and the electrical requirements for actuation in liquids have been quantified with an elegant theory. Electrostatic actuation in water has been accomplished, and a novel technique for monitoring local electrical conductivities has been invented.

  5. On-chip automation of cell-free protein synthesis: new opportunities due to a novel reaction mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgi, V; Georgi, L; Blechert, M; Bergmeister, M; Zwanzig, M; Wüstenhagen, D A; Bier, F F; Jung, E; Kubick, S

    2016-01-21

    Many pharmaceuticals are proteins or their development is based on proteins. Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) is an innovative alternative to conventional cell based systems which enables the production of proteins with complex and even new characteristics. However, the short lifetime, low protein production and expensive reagent costs are still limitations of CFPS. Novel automated microfluidic systems might allow continuous, controllable and resource conserving CFPS. The presented microfluidic TRITT platform (TRITT for Transcription - RNA Immobilization & Transfer - Translation) addresses the individual biochemical requirements of the transcription and the translation step of CFPS in separate compartments, and combines the reaction steps by quasi-continuous transfer of RNA templates to enable automated CFPS. In detail, specific RNA templates with 5' and 3' hairpin structures for stabilization against nucleases were immobilized during in vitro transcription by newly designed and optimized hybridization oligonucleotides coupled to magnetizable particles. Transcription compatibility and reusability for immobilization of these functionalized particles was successfully proven. mRNA transfer was realized on-chip by magnetic actuated particle transfer, RNA elution and fluid flow to the in vitro translation compartment. The applicability of the microfluidic TRITT platform for the production of the cytotoxic protein Pierisin with simultaneous incorporation of a non-canonical amino acid for fluorescence labeling was demonstrated. The new reaction mode (TRITT mode) is a modified linked mode that fulfills the precondition for an automated modular reactor system. By continual transfer of new mRNA, the novel procedure overcomes problems caused by nuclease digestion and hydrolysis of mRNA during TL in standard CFPS reactions. PMID:26554896

  6. Fluid-Particle and Fluid-Structure Interactions in Inertial Microfluidics

    OpenAIRE

    Amini, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    Due to the potential to miniaturize, integrate and automate sample preparation and analysis, lab-on-chips have witnessed a massive growth in research and development in the past two decades. The ability to accurately control and manipulate particles and fluid flow in microsystems is one of the main challenges of microfluidics to reach these goals. Inertial microfluidics, which exploits the flow non-linearities induced in finite Reynolds number flow regime, has been studied and employed as a p...

  7. Unconventional microfluidics: expanding the discipline

    OpenAIRE

    Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Mao, Xiaole; Stratton, Zackary S.; Huang, Tony Jun

    2013-01-01

    Since its inception, the discipline of microfluidics has been harnessed for innovations in the biomedicine/chemistry fields—and to great effect. This success has had the natural side-effect of stereotyping microfluidics as a platform for medical diagnostics and miniaturized lab processes. But microfluidics has more to offer. And very recently, some researchers have successfully applied microfluidics to fields outside its traditional domains. In this Focus article, we highlight notable example...

  8. Microfluidic Exosome Analysis toward Liquid Biopsy for Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mei; Zeng, Yong

    2016-08-01

    Assessment of a tumor's molecular makeup using biofluid samples, known as liquid biopsy, is a prominent research topic in precision medicine for cancer, due to its noninvasive property allowing repeat sampling for monitoring molecular changes of tumors over time. Circulating exosomes recently have been recognized as promising tumor surrogates because they deliver enriched biomarkers, such as proteins, RNAs, and DNA. However, purification and characterization of these exosomes are technically challenging. Microfluidic lab-on-a-chip technology effectively addresses these challenges owing to its inherent advantages in integration and automation of multiple functional modules, enhancing sensing performance, and expediting analysis processes. In this article, we review the state-of-the-art development of microfluidic technologies for exosome isolation and molecular characterization with emphasis on their applications toward liquid biopsy-based analysis of cancer. Finally, we share our perspectives on current challenges and future directions of microfluidic exosome analysis. PMID:27215792

  9. Enzyme-Immobilized Microfluidic Process Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Maeda

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Microreaction technology, which is an interdisciplinary science and engineering area, has been the focus of different fields of research in the past few years. Several microreactors have been developed. Enzymes are a type of catalyst, which are useful in the production of substance in an environmentally friendly way, and they also have high potential for analytical applications. However, not many enzymatic processes have been commercialized, because of problems in stability of the enzymes, cost, and efficiency of the reactions. Thus, there have been demands for innovation in process engineering, particularly for enzymatic reactions, and microreaction devices represent important tools for the development of enzyme processes. In this review, we summarize the recent advances of microchannel reaction technologies especially for enzyme immobilized microreactors. We discuss the manufacturing process of microreaction devices and the advantages of microreactors compared to conventional reaction devices. Fundamental techniques for enzyme immobilized microreactors and important applications of this multidisciplinary technology are also included in our topics.

  10. Macromolecular Crystal Growth by Means of Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderWoerd, Mark; Ferree, Darren; Spearing, Scott; Monaco, Lisa; Molho, Josh; Spaid, Michael; Brasseur, Mike; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have performed a feasibility study in which we show that chip-based, microfluidic (LabChip(TM)) technology is suitable for protein crystal growth. This technology allows for accurate and reliable dispensing and mixing of very small volumes while minimizing bubble formation in the crystallization mixture. The amount of (protein) solution remaining after completion of an experiment is minimal, which makes this technique efficient and attractive for use with proteins, which are difficult or expensive to obtain. The nature of LabChip(TM) technology renders it highly amenable to automation. Protein crystals obtained in our initial feasibility studies were of excellent quality as determined by X-ray diffraction. Subsequent to the feasibility study, we designed and produced the first LabChip(TM) device specifically for protein crystallization in batch mode. It can reliably dispense and mix from a range of solution constituents into two independent growth wells. We are currently testing this design to prove its efficacy for protein crystallization optimization experiments. In the near future we will expand our design to incorporate up to 10 growth wells per LabChip(TM) device. Upon completion, additional crystallization techniques such as vapor diffusion and liquid-liquid diffusion will be accommodated. Macromolecular crystallization using microfluidic technology is envisioned as a fully automated system, which will use the 'tele-science' concept of remote operation and will be developed into a research facility for the International Space Station as well as on the ground.

  11. A Smartphone Controlled Handheld Microfluidic Liquid Handling System

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Baichen; Guan, Allan; Dong, Quan; Ruan, Kangcheng; Hu, Ronggui; Li, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip technologies have made it possible to manipulate small volume liquids with unprecedented resolution, automation and integration. However, most current microfluidic systems still rely on bulky off-chip infrastructures such as compressed pressure sources, syringe pumps and computers to achieve complex liquid manipulation functions. Here, we present a handheld automated microfluidic liquid handling system controlled by a smartphone, which is enabled by combining elastomeric on-chip valves and a compact pneumatic system. As a demonstration, we show that the system can automatically perform all the liquid handling steps of a bead-based sandwich immunoassay on a multi-layer PDMS chip without any human intervention. The footprint of the system is 6 by 10.5 by 16.5cm, and the total weight is 829g including battery. Powered by a 12.8V 1500mAh Li battery, the system consumed 2.2W on average during the immunoassay and lasted for 8.7 hrs. This handheld microfluidic liquid handling platform...

  12. Microfluidics for medical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, van den, T.J.T.P.; Segerink, Loes

    2015-01-01

    Lab-on-a-chip devices for point of care diagnostics have been present in clinics for several years now. Alongside their continual development, research is underway to bring the organs and tissue on-a-chip to the patient, amongst other medical applications of microfluidics. This book provides the reader with a comprehensive review of the latest developments in the application of microfluidics to medicine and is divided into three main sections. The first part of the book discusses the state-of...

  13. Microfluidic Flame Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, Gregory S. (Inventor); Fisher, David J. (Inventor); Mungas, Christopher (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Propellants flow through specialized mechanical hardware that is designed for effective and safe ignition and sustained combustion of the propellants. By integrating a micro-fluidic porous media element between a propellant feed source and the combustion chamber, an effective and reliable propellant injector head may be implemented that is capable of withstanding transient combustion and detonation waves that commonly occur during an ignition event. The micro-fluidic porous media element is of specified porosity or porosity gradient selected to be appropriate for a given propellant. Additionally the propellant injector head design integrates a spark ignition mechanism that withstands extremely hot running conditions without noticeable spark mechanism degradation.

  14. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  15. Surfactants in microfluidics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Michler

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of microfluidic techniques in the last two decades has revolutionized chemical and biological research. This technology has enabled scientists in a manifold of research fields to analyze and synthesize specimens with hither to unreached speed and precision. The number of applic

  16. Basic Microfluidics Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2015-01-01

    ,000 m−1, which is a huge difference and has a large impact on flow behavior. In this chapter the basic microfluidic theory will be presented, enabling the reader to gain a comprehensive understanding of how liquids behave at the microscale, enough to be able to engage in design of micro systems...

  17. Microfluidics for medical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den Albert; Segerink, Loes

    2015-01-01

    Lab-on-a-chip devices for point of care diagnostics have been present in clinics for several years now. Alongside their continual development, research is underway to bring the organs and tissue on-a-chip to the patient, amongst other medical applications of microfluidics. This book provides the re

  18. Enzyme detection by microfluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic-implemented methods of detecting an enzyme, in particular a DNA-modifying enzyme, are provided, as well as methods for detecting a cell, or a microorganism expressing said enzyme. The enzyme is detected by providing a nucleic acid substrate, which is specifically targeted...... by that enzyme...

  19. Microfluidic Device for Automated High-Throughput Protein Crystallization Screening by Osmotic Dewatering%基于渗透脱水的自动化蛋白质结晶高通量筛选芯片

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗娅慧; 李刚; 陈强; 赵建龙

    2012-01-01

    构建了一种基于渗透脱水模式的自动进样微流控结晶芯片.该芯片通过真空预脱气将包含蛋白质和结晶剂的液滴自动分配至结晶微腔阵列中,然后利用集成的一排包含不同浓度盐溶液的透析管道,通过渗透脱水方式经一层聚二甲基硅氧烷(PDMS)膜实现液滴的逐渐浓缩,使之趋于过饱和状态,进而形成结晶.此芯片可一次筛选较宽范围的过饱和状态,实现蛋白质结晶的快速优化.利用模式蛋白溶菌酶的结晶实验验证了该芯片的性能.%A self-dispensing and osmosis-based microfluidic crystallization device was reported. This device automatically dispenses droplets containing protein and precipitant into an array of crystallization chambers by pre-degassing, and then gradually concentrates these droplets at different rates by osmotic dewatering through a polydimethylsiboxane(PDMS) membrane using a row of integrated dialysis channels filled with different concentration of salt solution. This concentration process drives the protein/precipitant mixture into supersaturated , thus tending toward the crystallization state. This device allows for screening a wide range of supersatura-tion in one trial for rapid optimization of protein crystallization. The feasibility of this crystallization device is demonstrated using the model proteins of lysozyme.

  20. PREFACE: Nano- and microfluidics Nano- and microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Karin

    2011-05-01

    The field of nano- and microfluidics emerged at the end of the 1990s parallel to the demand for smaller and smaller containers and channels for chemical, biochemical and medical applications such as blood and DNS analysis [1], gene sequencing or proteomics [2, 3]. Since then, new journals and conferences have been launched and meanwhile, about two decades later, a variety of microfluidic applications are on the market. Briefly, 'the small flow becomes mainstream' [4]. Nevertheless, research in nano- and microfluidics is more than downsizing the spatial dimensions. For liquids on the nanoscale, surface and interface phenomena grow in importance and may even dominate the behavior in some systems. The studies collected in this special issue all concentrate on these type of systems and were part ot the priority programme SPP1164 'Nano- and Microfluidics' of the German Science Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG). The priority programme was initiated in 2002 by Hendrik Kuhlmann and myself and was launched in 2004. Friction between a moving liquid and a solid wall may, for instance, play an important role so that the usual assumption of a no-slip boundary condition is no longer valid. Likewise, the dynamic deformations of soft objects like polymers, vesicles or capsules in flow arise from the subtle interplay between the (visco-)elasticity of the object and the viscous stresses in the surrounding fluid and, potentially, the presence of structures confining the flow like channels. Consequently, new theories were developed ( see articles in this issue by Münch and Wagner, Falk and Mecke, Bonthuis et al, Finken et al, Almenar and Rauscher, Straube) and experiments were set up to unambiguously demonstrate deviations from bulk, or 'macro', behavior (see articles in this issue by Wolff et al, Vinogradova and Belyaev, Hahn et al, Seemann et al, Grüner and Huber, Müller-Buschbaum et al, Gutsche et al, Braunmüller et al, Laube et al, Brücker, Nottebrock et al

  1. Home Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I briefly discuss the importance of home automation system. Going in to the details I briefly present a real time designed and implemented software and hardware oriented house automation research project, capable of automating house's electricity and providing a security system to detect the presence of unexpected behavior.

  2. Whole-Teflon microfluidic chips

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Kangning; Dai, Wen; Zhou, Jianhua; Su, Jing; Wu, Hongkai

    2011-01-01

    Although microfluidics has shown exciting potential, its broad applications are significantly limited by drawbacks of the materials used to make them. In this work, we present a convenient strategy for fabricating whole-Teflon microfluidic chips with integrated valves that show outstanding inertness to various chemicals and extreme resistance against all solvents. Compared with other microfluidic materials [e.g., poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)] the whole-Teflon chip has a few more advantages, ...

  3. Magnetic separation in microfluidic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Smistrup, Kristian; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Bruus, Henrik; Tang, Peter Torben; Kruhne, Ulrich Willi Walter

    2007-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis presents theory, modeling, design, fabrication, experiments and results for microfluidic magnetic separators. A model for magnetic bead movement in a microfluidic channel is presented, and the limits of the model are discussed. The effective magnetic field gradient is defined, and it is argued that it is a good measure, when comparing the performance of magnetic bead separators. It is described how numeric modelling is used to aid the design of microfluidic magnetic separati...

  4. Visual interface for the automation of the instrumented pendulum of Charpy tests used in the surveillance program of reactors vessel of nuclear power plants; Interfase visual para la automatizacion del pendulo instrumentado de pruebas Charpy utilizado en el programa de vigilancia de la vasija de reactores de centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas S, A.S.; Sainz M, E.; Ruiz E, J.A. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km.36.5, Mpio. de Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: asrs@nuclear.inin.mx; esm@nuclear.inin.mx; jare@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    Inside the Programs of Surveillance of the nuclear power stations periodic information is required on the state that keep the materials with those that builds the vessel of the reactor. This information is obtained through some samples or test tubes that are introduced inside the core of the reactor and it is observed if its physical characteristics remain after having been subjected to the radiation changes and temperature. The rehearsal with the instrumented Charpy pendulum offers information on the behavior of fracture dynamics of a material. In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) it has an instrumented Charpy pendulum. The operation of this instrument is manual, having inconveniences to carry out rehearsals with radioactive material, handling of high and low temperatures, to fulfill the normative ones for the realization of the rehearsals, etc. In this work the development of a computational program is presented (virtual instrument), for the automation of the instrumented pendulum. The system has modules like: Card of data acquisition, signal processing, positioning system, tempered system, pneumatic system, compute programs like it is the visual interface for the operation of the instrumented Charpy pendulum and the acquisition of impact signals. This system shows that given the characteristics of the nuclear industry with radioactive environments, the virtual instrumentation and the automation of processes can contribute to diminish the risks to the personnel occupationally exposed. (Author)

  5. Microfluidic colloid filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkhorst, John; Beckmann, Torsten; Go, Dennis; Kuehne, Alexander J. C.; Wessling, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    Filtration of natural and colloidal matter is an essential process in today’s water treatment processes. The colloidal matter is retained with the help of micro- and nanoporous synthetic membranes. Colloids are retained in a “cake layer” - often coined fouling layer. Membrane fouling is the most substantial problem in membrane filtration: colloidal and natural matter build-up leads to an increasing resistance and thus decreasing water transport rate through the membrane. Theoretical models exist to describe macroscopically the hydrodynamic resistance of such transport and rejection phenomena; however, visualization of the various phenomena occurring during colloid retention is extremely demanding. Here we present a microfluidics based methodology to follow filter cake build up as well as transport phenomena occuring inside of the fouling layer. The microfluidic colloidal filtration methodology enables the study of complex colloidal jamming, crystallization and melting processes as well as translocation at the single particle level.

  6. The Microfluidic Jukebox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Say Hwa; Maes, Florine; Semin, Benoît; Vrignon, Jérémy; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2014-04-01

    Music is a form of art interweaving people of all walks of life. Through subtle changes in frequencies, a succession of musical notes forms a melody which is capable of mesmerizing the minds of people. With the advances in technology, we are now able to generate music electronically without relying solely on physical instruments. Here, we demonstrate a musical interpretation of droplet-based microfluidics as a form of novel electronic musical instruments. Using the interplay of electric field and hydrodynamics in microfluidic devices, well controlled frequency patterns corresponding to musical tracks are generated in real time. This high-speed modulation of droplet frequency (and therefore of droplet sizes) may also provide solutions that reconciles high-throughput droplet production and the control of individual droplet at production which is needed for many biochemical or material synthesis applications.

  7. Microfluidic redox battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Goulet, Marc-Antoni; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-07-01

    A miniaturized microfluidic battery is proposed, which is the first membraneless redox battery demonstrated to date. This unique concept capitalizes on dual-pass flow-through porous electrodes combined with stratified, co-laminar flow to generate electrical power on-chip. The fluidic design is symmetric to allow for both charging and discharging operations in forward, reverse, and recirculation modes. The proof-of-concept device fabricated using low-cost materials integrated in a microfluidic chip is shown to produce competitive power levels when operated on a vanadium redox electrolyte. A complete charge/discharge cycle is performed to demonstrate its operation as a rechargeable battery, which is an important step towards providing sustainable power to lab-on-a-chip and microelectronic applications. PMID:23712370

  8. Microfluidic redox battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Goulet, Marc-Antoni; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-07-01

    A miniaturized microfluidic battery is proposed, which is the first membraneless redox battery demonstrated to date. This unique concept capitalizes on dual-pass flow-through porous electrodes combined with stratified, co-laminar flow to generate electrical power on-chip. The fluidic design is symmetric to allow for both charging and discharging operations in forward, reverse, and recirculation modes. The proof-of-concept device fabricated using low-cost materials integrated in a microfluidic chip is shown to produce competitive power levels when operated on a vanadium redox electrolyte. A complete charge/discharge cycle is performed to demonstrate its operation as a rechargeable battery, which is an important step towards providing sustainable power to lab-on-a-chip and microelectronic applications.

  9. Monitoring programmed cell death of living plant tissues in microfluidics using electrochemical and optical techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina; Heiskanen, Arto; Svensson, Birte;

    Programmed cell death (PCD) in plants can influence the outcome of yield and quality of crops through its important role in seed germination and the defence process against pathogens. The main scope of the project is to apply microfluidic cell culture for the measurement of electrochemically...... or optically detectable events during PCD in barley aleurone layer, a cell model for living plant tissues, for a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of PCD in plants. Microfluidic cell culture enables in vitro experiments to approach in vivo conditions. The major advantage of electrochemical...... sensors and detection systems is that they can be miniaturized, multiplexed and automated without losing their performance making them suitable for integration with microfluidic devices1,2. Combining microfluidics with electrochemical and optical detection allows implementation of a wide range of assays...

  10. Animal microsurgery using microfluidics

    OpenAIRE

    Stirman, Jeffrey N.; Harker, Bethany; Lu, Hang; Crane, Matthew M.

    2013-01-01

    Small multicellular genetic organisms form a central part of modern biological research. Using these small organisms provides significant advantages in genetic tractability, manipulation, lifespan and cost. Although the small size is generally advantageous, it can make procedures such as surgeries both time consuming and labor intensive. Over the past few years there have been dramatic improvements in microfluidic technologies that enable significant improvements in microsurgery and interroga...

  11. Microfluidics in radiopharmaceutical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased demand for molecular imaging tracers useful in assessing and monitoring diseases has stimulated research towards more efficient and flexible radiosynthetic routes, including newer technologies. The traditional vessel-based approach suffers from limitations concerning flexibility, reagent mass needed, hardware requirements, large number of connections and valves, repetitive cleaning procedures and overall big footprint to be shielded from radiation. For these reasons, several research groups have started to investigate the application of the fast growing field of microfluidic chemistry to radiosynthetic procedures. After the first report in 2004, many scientific papers have been published and demonstrated the potential for increased process yields, reduced reagent use, improved flexibility and general ease of setup. This review will address definitions occurring in microfluidics as well as analyze the different approaches under two macro-categories: microvessel and microchannel. In this perspective, several works will be collected, involving the use of positron emitting species (11C, 18F, 64Cu) and the fewer examples of gamma emitting radionuclides (99mTc, 125/131I). New directions in microfluidic research applied to PET radiochemistry, future developments and challenges are also discussed. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted

  12. Droplet Microfluidics for Artificial Lipid Bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punnamaraju, Srikoundinya; Steckl, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    Droplet interface bilayer is a versatile approach that allows formation of artificial lipid bilayer membrane at the interface of two lipid monolayer coated aqueous droplets in a lipid filled oil medium. Versatility exists in the form of voltage control of DIB area, ability of forming networks of DIBs, volume control of droplets and lipid-oil, and ease of reformation. Significant effect of voltage on the area and capacitance of DIB as well as DIB networks are characterized using simultaneous optical and electrical recordings. Mechanisms behind voltage-induced effects on DIBs are investigated. Photo induced effect on the DIB membrane porosity is obtained by incorporating UVC-sensitive photo-polymerizable lipids in DIB. Photo-induced effects can be extended for in-vitro studies of triggered release of encapsulated contents across membranes. A droplet based low voltage digital microfluidic platform is developed to automate DIB formation, which could potentially be used for forming arrays of lipid bilayer membranes.

  13. The upcoming 3D-printing revolution in microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Nirveek; Urrios, Arturo; Kang, Shawn; Folch, Albert

    2016-05-21

    In the last two decades, the vast majority of microfluidic systems have been built in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) by soft lithography, a technique based on PDMS micromolding. A long list of key PDMS properties have contributed to the success of soft lithography: PDMS is biocompatible, elastomeric, transparent, gas-permeable, water-impermeable, fairly inexpensive, copyright-free, and rapidly prototyped with high precision using simple procedures. However, the fabrication process typically involves substantial human labor, which tends to make PDMS devices difficult to disseminate outside of research labs, and the layered molding limits the 3D complexity of the devices that can be produced. 3D-printing has recently attracted attention as a way to fabricate microfluidic systems due to its automated, assembly-free 3D fabrication, rapidly decreasing costs, and fast-improving resolution and throughput. Resins with properties approaching those of PDMS are being developed. Here we review past and recent efforts in 3D-printing of microfluidic systems. We compare the salient features of PDMS molding with those of 3D-printing and we give an overview of the critical barriers that have prevented the adoption of 3D-printing by microfluidic developers, namely resolution, throughput, and resin biocompatibility. We also evaluate the various forces that are persuading researchers to abandon PDMS molding in favor of 3D-printing in growing numbers. PMID:27101171

  14. The upcoming 3D-printing revolution in microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Nirveek; Urrios, Arturo; Kang, Shawn; Folch, Albert

    2016-05-21

    In the last two decades, the vast majority of microfluidic systems have been built in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) by soft lithography, a technique based on PDMS micromolding. A long list of key PDMS properties have contributed to the success of soft lithography: PDMS is biocompatible, elastomeric, transparent, gas-permeable, water-impermeable, fairly inexpensive, copyright-free, and rapidly prototyped with high precision using simple procedures. However, the fabrication process typically involves substantial human labor, which tends to make PDMS devices difficult to disseminate outside of research labs, and the layered molding limits the 3D complexity of the devices that can be produced. 3D-printing has recently attracted attention as a way to fabricate microfluidic systems due to its automated, assembly-free 3D fabrication, rapidly decreasing costs, and fast-improving resolution and throughput. Resins with properties approaching those of PDMS are being developed. Here we review past and recent efforts in 3D-printing of microfluidic systems. We compare the salient features of PDMS molding with those of 3D-printing and we give an overview of the critical barriers that have prevented the adoption of 3D-printing by microfluidic developers, namely resolution, throughput, and resin biocompatibility. We also evaluate the various forces that are persuading researchers to abandon PDMS molding in favor of 3D-printing in growing numbers.

  15. Centrifugal microfluidics for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkin, Robert; Park, Jiwoon; Siegrist, Jonathan; Amasia, Mary; Lee, Beom Seok; Park, Jong-Myeon; Kim, Jintae; Kim, Hanshin; Madou, Marc; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung

    2010-07-21

    The centrifugal microfluidic platform has been a focus of academic and industrial research efforts for almost 40 years. Primarily targeting biomedical applications, a range of assays have been adapted on the system; however, the platform has found limited commercial success as a research or clinical tool. Nonetheless, new developments in centrifugal microfluidic technologies have the potential to establish wide-spread utilization of the platform. This paper presents an in-depth review of the centrifugal microfluidic platform, while highlighting recent progress in the field and outlining the potential for future applications. An overview of centrifugal microfluidic technologies is presented, including descriptions of advantages of the platform as a microfluidic handling system and the principles behind centrifugal fluidic manipulation. The paper also discusses a history of significant centrifugal microfluidic platform developments with an explanation of the evolution of the platform as it pertains to academia and industry. Lastly, we review the few centrifugal microfluidic-based sample-to-answer analysis systems shown to date and examine the challenges to be tackled before the centrifugal platform can be more broadly accepted as a new diagnostic platform. In particular, fully integrated, easy to operate, inexpensive and accurate microfluidic tools in the area of in vitro nucleic acid diagnostics are discussed.

  16. Path to Low Cost Microfluidics

    CERN Document Server

    Govyadinov, Alexander N; Kornilovitch, Pavel; Markel, David

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes a novel concept for a low cost microfluidic platform utilizing materials and processes used in low cost thermal inkjet printing. The concept re-purposes the jetting elements to create pumps, mixers, and valves all necessary components for the transport of fluids in a broad range of microfluidic applications.

  17. Microfluidic System for Solution Array Based Bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dougherty, G M; Tok, J B; Pannu, S S; Rose, K A

    2006-02-10

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate new enabling technology for multiplex biodetection systems that are flexible, miniaturizable, highly automated, low cost, and high performance. It builds on prior successes at LLNL with particle-based solution arrays, such as those used in the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) successfully field deployed to multiple locations nationwide. We report the development of a multiplex solution array immunoassay based upon engineered metallic nanorod particles. Nanobarcodes{reg_sign} particles are fabricated by sequential electrodeposition of dissimilar metals within porous alumina templates, yielding optically encoded striping patterns that can be read using standard laboratory microscope optics and PC-based image processing software. The addition of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) coatings and target-specific antibodies allows each encoded class of nanorod particles to be directed against a different antigen target. A prototype assay panel directed against bacterial, viral, and soluble protein targets demonstrates simultaneous detection at sensitivities comparable to state of the art immunoassays, with minimal cross-reactivity. Studies have been performed to characterize the colloidal properties (zeta potential) of the suspended nanorod particles as a function of pH, the ionic strength of the suspending solution, and surface functionalization state. Additional studies have produced means for the non-contact manipulation of the particles, including the insertion of magnetic nickel stripes within the encoding pattern, and control via externally applied electromagnetic fields. Using the results of these studies, the novel Nanobarcodes{reg_sign} based assay was implemented in a prototype automated system with the sample processing functions and optical readout performed on a microfluidic card. The unique physical properties of the nanorod particles enable the development of integrated microfluidic systems for

  18. Acoustofluidics 1: Governing equations in microfluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruus, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Governing equations for microfluidics and basic flow solutions are presented. Equivalent circuit modeling for determining flow rates in microfluidic networks is introduced.......Governing equations for microfluidics and basic flow solutions are presented. Equivalent circuit modeling for determining flow rates in microfluidic networks is introduced....

  19. Microfluidic Technology in Vascular Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. van der Meer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular cell biology is an area of research with great biomedical relevance. Vascular dysfunction is involved in major diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. However, when studying vascular cell biology in the laboratory, it is difficult to mimic the dynamic, three-dimensional microenvironment that is found in vivo. Microfluidic technology offers unique possibilities to overcome this difficulty. In this review, an overview of the recent applications of microfluidic technology in the field of vascular biological research will be given. Examples of how microfluidics can be used to generate shear stresses, growth factor gradients, cocultures, and migration assays will be provided. The use of microfluidic devices in studying three-dimensional models of vascular tissue will be discussed. It is concluded that microfluidic technology offers great possibilities to systematically study vascular cell biology with setups that more closely mimic the in vivo situation than those that are generated with conventional methods.

  20. MICROFLUIDIC COMPONENT CAPABLE OF SELF-SEALING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A microfluidic component (100) for building a microfluidic system is provided. The microfluidic component (100) can be mounted on a microf luidic breadboard (202) in a manner that allows it to be connected to other microfluidic components (204, 206) without the requirement of additional devices....... The microfluidic component (100) comprises at least one flexible tube piece (102) for transporting a fluid. The microfluidic component (100) also comprises means for applying and maintaining pressure (104) between the flexible tube piece (102) and a tube piece (208, 210) housed in another microfluidic...

  1. Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems using a PDMS/polymer tape composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungkyu; Surapaneni, Rajesh; Gale, Bruce K

    2009-05-01

    Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems using a combination of double-sided tape and PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) is introduced. PDMS is typically difficult to bond using adhesive tapes due to its hydrophobic nature and low surface energy. For this reason, PDMS is not compatible with the xurography method, which uses a knife plotter and various adhesive coated polymer tapes. To solve these problems, a PDMS/tape composite was developed and demonstrated in microfluidic applications. The PDMS/tape composite was created by spinning it to make a thin layer of PDMS over double-sided tape. Then the PDMS/tape composite was patterned to create channels using xurography, and bonded to a PDMS slab. After removing the backing paper from the tape, a complete microfluidic system could be created by placing the construct onto nearly any substrate; including glass, plastic or metal-coated glass/silicon substrates. The bond strength was shown to be sufficient for the pressures that occur in typical microfluidic channels used for chemical or biological analysis. This method was demonstrated in three applications: standard microfluidic channels and reactors, a microfluidic system with an integrated membrane, and an electrochemical biosensor. The PDMS/tape composite rapid prototyping technique provides a fast and cost effective fabrication method and can provide easy integration of microfluidic channels with sensors and other components without the need for a cleanroom facility.

  2. Studies on spectroscopy of glycerol in THz range using microfluidic chip-integrated micropump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bo; Han, Xue; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Cunlin

    2014-11-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is a detection method of biological molecules with label-free, non-ionizing, non-intrusive, no pollution and real-time monitoring. But owing to the strong THz absorption by water, it is mainly used in the solid state detection of biological molecules. In this paper, we present a microfluidic chip technique for detecting biological liquid samples using the transmission type of THz-TDS system. The microfluidic channel of the microfluidic chip is fabricated in the quartz glass using Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technology and sealed with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) diaphragm. The length, width and depth of the microfluidic channel are 25mm, 100μm and 50μm, respectively. The diameter of THz detection zone in the microfluidic channel is 4mm. The thicknesses of quartz glass and PDMS diaphragm are 1mm and 250μm, individually. Another one of the same quartz glass is used to bond with the PDMS for the rigidity and air tightness of the microfluidic chip. In order to realize the automation of sampling and improve the control precise of fluid, a micropump, which comprises PDMS diaphragm, pump chamber, diffuser and nozzle and flat vibration motor, is integrated on the microfluidic chip. The diffuser and nozzle are fabricated on both sides of the pump chamber, which is covered with PDMS diaphragm. The flat vibration motor is stuck on the PDMS diaphragm as the actuator. We study the terahertz absorption spectroscopy characteristics of glycerol with the concentration of 98% in the microfluidic chip by the aid of the THz-TDS system, and the feasibility of the microfluidic chip for the detection of liquid samples is proved.

  3. Automated activation-analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated delayed neutron counting and instrumental neutron activation analysis system has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Omega West Reactor (OWR) to analyze samples for uranium and 31 additional elements with a maximum throughput of 400 samples per day. The system and its mode of operation for a large reconnaissance survey are described

  4. Microfluidic Scintillation Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Microfluidic scintillation detectors are devices of recent introduction for the detection of high energy particles, developed within the EP-DT group at CERN. Most of the interest for such technology comes from the use of liquid scintillators, which entails the possibility of changing the active material in the detector, leading to an increased radiation resistance. This feature, together with the high spatial resolution and low thickness deriving from the microfabrication techniques used to manufacture such devices, is desirable not only in instrumentation for high energy physics experiments but also in medical detectors such as beam monitors for hadron therapy.

  5. Spatial manipulation with microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eLin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical gradients convey information through space, time, and concentration, and are ultimately capable of spatially resolving distinct cellular phenotypes, such as differentiation, proliferation, and migration. How these gradients develop, evolve, and function during development, homeostasis, and various disease states is a subject of intense interest across a variety of disciplines. Microfluidic technologies have become essential tools for investigating gradient sensing in vitro due to their ability to precisely manipulate fluids on demand in well controlled environments at cellular length scales. This minireview will highlight their utility for studying gradient sensing along with relevant applications to biology.

  6. Microfluidic Cell Culture Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Shuichi (Inventor); Cabrera, Lourdes Marcella (Inventor); Heo, Yun Seok (Inventor); Smith, Gary Daniel (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic devices for cell culturing and methods for using the same are disclosed. One device includes a substrate and membrane. The substrate includes a reservoir in fluid communication with a passage. A bio-compatible fluid may be added to the reservoir and passage. The reservoir is configured to receive and retain at least a portion of a cell mass. The membrane acts as a barrier to evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid from the passage. A cover fluid may be added to cover the bio-compatible fluid to prevent evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid.

  7. Usability and Applicability of Microfluidic Cell Culture Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Mette

    , these devices still lack general implementation into biological research laboratories. In this project, the usability and applicability of microfluidic cell culture systems have been investigated. The tested systems display good properties regarding optics and compatibility with standard laboratory equipment......Microfluidic cell culture has been a research area with great attention the last decade due to its potential to mimic the in vivo cellular environment more closely compared to what is possible by conventional cell culture methods. Many exciting and complex devices have been presented providing...... possibilities for, for example, precise control of the chemical environment, 3D cultures, controlled co-culture of different cell types or automated, individual control of up to 96 cell culture chambers in one integrated system. Despite the great new opportunities to perform novel experimental designs...

  8. Microfluidics for High-Throughput Quantitative Studies of Early Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levario, Thomas J; Lim, Bomyi; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y; Lu, Hang

    2016-07-11

    Developmental biology has traditionally relied on qualitative analyses; recently, however, as in other fields of biology, researchers have become increasingly interested in acquiring quantitative knowledge about embryogenesis. Advances in fluorescence microscopy are enabling high-content imaging in live specimens. At the same time, microfluidics and automation technologies are increasing experimental throughput for studies of multicellular models of development. Furthermore, computer vision methods for processing and analyzing bioimage data are now leading the way toward quantitative biology. Here, we review advances in the areas of fluorescence microscopy, microfluidics, and data analysis that are instrumental to performing high-content, high-throughput studies in biology and specifically in development. We discuss a case study of how these techniques have allowed quantitative analysis and modeling of pattern formation in the Drosophila embryo. PMID:26928208

  9. Library Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakne, B. N.; Giri, V. V; Waghmode, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    New technologies library provides several new materials, media and mode of storing and communicating the information. Library Automation reduces the drudgery of repeated manual efforts in library routine. By use of library automation collection, Storage, Administration, Processing, Preservation and communication etc.

  10. Electro-Microfluidic Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, G. L.; Galambos, P. C.

    2002-06-01

    There are many examples of electro-microfluidic products that require cost effective packaging solutions. Industry has responded to a demand for products such as drop ejectors, chemical sensors, and biological sensors. Drop ejectors have consumer applications such as ink jet printing and scientific applications such as patterning self-assembled monolayers or ejecting picoliters of expensive analytes/reagents for chemical analysis. Drop ejectors can be used to perform chemical analysis, combinatorial chemistry, drug manufacture, drug discovery, drug delivery, and DNA sequencing. Chemical and biological micro-sensors can sniff the ambient environment for traces of dangerous materials such as explosives, toxins, or pathogens. Other biological sensors can be used to improve world health by providing timely diagnostics and applying corrective measures to the human body. Electro-microfluidic packaging can easily represent over fifty percent of the product cost and, as with Integrated Circuits (IC), the industry should evolve to standard packaging solutions. Standard packaging schemes will minimize cost and bring products to market sooner.

  11. Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Kjeang, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries represent a special type of electrochemical power generators that can be miniaturized and integrated in a microfluidic chip. Summarizing the initial ten years of research and development in this emerging field, this SpringerBrief is the first book dedicated to microfluidic fuel cell and battery technology for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Written at a critical juncture, where strategically applied research is urgently required to seize impending technology opportunities for commercial, analytical, and educational utility, the intention is

  12. A microfluidic toolbox for the development of in-situ product removal strategies in biocatalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heintz, Søren; Mitic, Aleksandar; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer;

    2016-01-01

    A microfluidic toolbox for accelerated development of biocatalytic processes has great potential. This is especially the case for the development of advanced biocatalytic process concepts, where reactors and product separation methods are closely linked together to intensify the process performan...... biocatalytic processes, which in many cases have proven too difficult in conventional batch equipment.......A microfluidic toolbox for accelerated development of biocatalytic processes has great potential. This is especially the case for the development of advanced biocatalytic process concepts, where reactors and product separation methods are closely linked together to intensify the process performance......, e.g., by the use of in-situ product removal (ISPR).This review provides a general overview of currently available tools in a microfluidic toolbox and how this toolbox can be applied to the development of advanced biocatalytic process concepts. Emphasis is placed on describing the possibilities...

  13. Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogerton, John

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet describes how reactors work; discusses reactor design; describes research, teaching, and materials testing reactors; production reactors; reactors for electric power generation; reactors for supply heat; reactors for propulsion; reactors for space; reactor safety; and reactors of tomorrow. The appendix discusses characteristics of U.S. civilian power reactor concepts and lists some of the U.S. reactor power projects, with location, type, capacity, owner, and startup date.

  14. Process automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process automation technology has been pursued in the chemical processing industries and to a very limited extent in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Its effective use has been restricted in the past by the lack of diverse and reliable process instrumentation and the unavailability of sophisticated software designed for process control. The Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility was developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in part to demonstrate new concepts for control of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A demonstration of fuel reprocessing equipment automation using advanced instrumentation and a modern, microprocessor-based control system is nearing completion in the facility. This facility provides for the synergistic testing of all chemical process features of a prototypical fuel reprocessing plant that can be attained with unirradiated uranium-bearing feed materials. The unique equipment and mission of the IET facility make it an ideal test bed for automation studies. This effort will provide for the demonstration of the plant automation concept and for the development of techniques for similar applications in a full-scale plant. A set of preliminary recommendations for implementing process automation has been compiled. Some of these concepts are not generally recognized or accepted. The automation work now under way in the IET facility should be useful to others in helping avoid costly mistakes because of the underutilization or misapplication of process automation. 6 figs

  15. Hardware/software co-design and optimization for cyberphysical integration in digital microfluidic biochips

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Yan; Ho, Tsung-Yi

    2015-01-01

    This book describes a comprehensive framework for hardware/software co-design, optimization, and use of robust, low-cost, and cyberphysical digital microfluidic systems. Readers with a background in electronic design automation will find this book to be a valuable reference for leveraging conventional VLSI CAD techniques for emerging technologies, e.g., biochips or bioMEMS. Readers from the circuit/system design community will benefit from methods presented to extend design and testing techniques from microelectronics to mixed-technology microsystems. For readers from the microfluidics domain,

  16. Computational Fluid Dynamics at work - Design and Optimization of Microfluidic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krühne, Ulrich; Bodla, Vijaya Krishna; Møllenbach, Jacob;

    2012-01-01

    are grown. In the last case study a biocatalytic microfluidic reactor design is presented in which the material characteristics of substrates and products of the catalytic reaction can be investigated. As model system the transaminase catalyzed formation of methylbenzylamine (MBA) from acetophenone...

  17. Automation of nonlinear calculations in the theory of fusion reactor; Automatisation des calculs non lineaires dans la theorie des reacteurs a fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braffort, P.; Chaigne, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    1) Introduction: The difficulties of the formulation of the equations of phenomena occurring during the operation of a fusion reactor are underlined. 2) The possibilities presented by analog computation of the solution of nonlinear differential equations are enumerated. The accuracy and limitations of this method are discussed. 3) The analog solution in the stationary problem of the measurement of the discharge confinement is given and comparison with experimental results. 4) The analog solution of the dynamic problem of the evolution of the discharge current in a simple case is given and it is compared with experimental data. 5) The analog solution of the motion of an isolated ion in the electromagnetic field is given. A spatial field simulator used for this problem (bidimensional problem) is described. 6) The analog solution of the preceding problem for a tridimensional case for particular geometrical configurations using simultaneously 2 field simulators is given. 7) A method of computation derived from Monte Carlo method for the study of dynamic of plasma is described. 8) Conclusion: the essential differences between the analog computation of fission reactors and fusion reactors are analysed. In particular the theory of control of a fusion reactor as described by SCHULTZ is discussed and the results of linearized formulations are compared with those of nonlinear simulation. (author)Fren. [French] 1) Introduction. On souligne les difficultes que presente la mise en equation des phenomenes mis en jeu lors du fonctionnement d'un reacteur a fusion. On selectionne un certain nombre d'equations generalement utilisees et on montre les impossibilites analytiques auxquelles on se heurte alors. 2) On rappelle les possibilites du calcul analogique pour la resolution des systemes differentiels non lineaires et on indique la precision de la methode ainsi que ses limitations. 3) On decrit esolution analogique du probleme statique de la mesure du confinement de la

  18. Solvent resistant microfluidic DNA synthesizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyi; Castrataro, Piero; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Quake, Stephen R

    2007-01-01

    We fabricated a microfluidic DNA synthesizer out of perfluoropolyether (PFPE), an elastomer with excellent chemical compatibility which makes it possible to perform organic chemical reactions, and synthesized 20-mer oligonucleotides on chip. PMID:17180201

  19. Microfluidic Multichannel Flow Cytometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a "Microfluidic Multichannel Flow Cytometer." Several novel concepts are integrated to produce the final design, which is compatible with...

  20. Passive microfluidic array card and reader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugan, Lawrence Christopher (Modesto, CA); Coleman, Matthew A. (Oakland, CA)

    2011-08-09

    A microfluidic array card and reader system for analyzing a sample. The microfluidic array card includes a sample loading section for loading the sample onto the microfluidic array card, a multiplicity of array windows, and a transport section or sections for transporting the sample from the sample loading section to the array windows. The microfluidic array card reader includes a housing, a receiving section for receiving the microfluidic array card, a viewing section, and a light source that directs light to the array window of the microfluidic array card and to the viewing section.

  1. Microfluidics - Sorting particles with light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, J.

    2004-01-01

    Microfluidic systems have great potential to perform complex chemical and biological processing and analysis on a single disposable chip. That goal is now a step closer with the demonstration of an efficient all-optical particle sorter.......Microfluidic systems have great potential to perform complex chemical and biological processing and analysis on a single disposable chip. That goal is now a step closer with the demonstration of an efficient all-optical particle sorter....

  2. A microfluidic microprocessor: controlling biomimetic containers and cells using hybrid integrated circuit/microfluidic chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issadore, David; Franke, Thomas; Brown, Keith A; Westervelt, Robert M

    2010-11-01

    We present an integrated platform for performing biological and chemical experiments on a chip based on standard CMOS technology. We have developed a hybrid integrated circuit (IC)/microfluidic chip that can simultaneously control thousands of living cells and pL volumes of fluid, enabling a wide variety of chemical and biological tasks. Taking inspiration from cellular biology, phospholipid bilayer vesicles are used as robust picolitre containers for reagents on the chip. The hybrid chip can be programmed to trap, move, and porate individual living cells and vesicles and fuse and deform vesicles using electric fields. The IC spatially patterns electric fields in a microfluidic chamber using 128 × 256 (32,768) 11 × 11 μm(2) metal pixels, each of which can be individually driven with a radio frequency (RF) voltage. The chip's basic functions can be combined in series to perform complex biological and chemical tasks and can be performed in parallel on the chip's many pixels for high-throughput operations. The hybrid chip operates in two distinct modes, defined by the frequency of the RF voltage applied to the pixels: Voltages at MHz frequencies are used to trap, move, and deform objects using dielectrophoresis and voltages at frequencies below 1 kHz are used for electroporation and electrofusion. This work represents an important step towards miniaturizing the complex chemical and biological experiments used for diagnostics and research onto automated and inexpensive chips.

  3. Digital Microfluidic Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Alphonsus H C; Li, Bingyu Betty; Chamberlain, M Dean; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2015-01-01

    Digital microfluidics (DMF) is a droplet-based liquid-handling technology that has recently become popular for cell culture and analysis. In DMF, picoliter- to microliter-sized droplets are manipulated on a planar surface using electric fields, thus enabling software-reconfigurable operations on individual droplets, such as move, merge, split, and dispense from reservoirs. Using this technique, multistep cell-based processes can be carried out using simple and compact instrumentation, making DMF an attractive platform for eventual integration into routine biology workflows. In this review, we summarize the state-of-the-art in DMF cell culture, and describe design considerations, types of DMF cell culture, and cell-based applications of DMF. PMID:26643019

  4. Recent Results of the Investigation of a Microfluidic Sampling Chip and Sampling System for Hot Cell Aqueous Processing Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia Tripp; Jack Law; Tara Smith

    2013-10-01

    A Fuel Cycle Research and Development project has investigated an innovative sampling method that could evolve into the next generation sampling and analysis system for metallic elements present in aqueous processing streams. Initially sampling technologies were evaluated and microfluidics sampling chip technology was selected and tested. A conceptual design for a fully automated microcapillary-based system was completed and a robotic automated sampling system was fabricated. The mechanical and sampling operation of the completed sampling system was investigated. In addition, the production of a less expensive, mass produced sampling chip was investigated to avoid chip reuse thus increasing sampling reproducibility/accuracy. The microfluidic-based robotic sampling system’s mechanical elements were tested to ensure analytical reproducibility and the optimum robotic handling of microfluidic sampling chips.

  5. Rapid laser prototyping of valves for microfluidic autonomous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capillary forces in microfluidics provide a simple yet elegant means to direct liquids through flow channel networks. The ability to manipulate the flow in a truly automated manner has proven more problematic. The majority of valves require some form of flow control devices, which are manually, mechanically or electrically driven. Most demonstrated capillary systems have been manufactured by photolithography, which, despite its high precision and repeatability, can be labour intensive, requires a clean room environment and the use of fixed photomasks, limiting thereby the agility of the manufacturing process to readily examine alternative designs. In this paper, we describe a robust and rapid CO2 laser manufacturing process and demonstrate a range of capillary-driven microfluidic valve structures embedded within a microfluidic network. The manufacturing process described allows for advanced control and manipulation of fluids such that flow can be halted, triggered and delayed based on simple geometrical alterations to a given microchannel. The rapid prototyping methodology has been employed with PMMA substrates and a complete device has been created, ready for use, within 2–3 h. We believe that this agile manufacturing process can be applied to produce a range of complex autonomous fluidic platforms and allows subsequent designs to be rapidly explored. (paper)

  6. Rapid laser prototyping of valves for microfluidic autonomous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, M. I.; Abraham, E.; Y Desmulliez, M. P.

    2013-03-01

    Capillary forces in microfluidics provide a simple yet elegant means to direct liquids through flow channel networks. The ability to manipulate the flow in a truly automated manner has proven more problematic. The majority of valves require some form of flow control devices, which are manually, mechanically or electrically driven. Most demonstrated capillary systems have been manufactured by photolithography, which, despite its high precision and repeatability, can be labour intensive, requires a clean room environment and the use of fixed photomasks, limiting thereby the agility of the manufacturing process to readily examine alternative designs. In this paper, we describe a robust and rapid CO2 laser manufacturing process and demonstrate a range of capillary-driven microfluidic valve structures embedded within a microfluidic network. The manufacturing process described allows for advanced control and manipulation of fluids such that flow can be halted, triggered and delayed based on simple geometrical alterations to a given microchannel. The rapid prototyping methodology has been employed with PMMA substrates and a complete device has been created, ready for use, within 2-3 h. We believe that this agile manufacturing process can be applied to produce a range of complex autonomous fluidic platforms and allows subsequent designs to be rapidly explored.

  7. Microfluidic partitioning of the extracellular space around single cardiac myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Norbert; Smith, Godfrey L; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2007-02-01

    This paper describes the partitioning of the extracellular space around an electrically activated single cardiac myocyte, constrained within a microfluidic device. Central to this new method is the production of a hydrophobic gap-structure, which divides the extracellular space into two distinct microfluidic pools. The content of these pools was controlled using a pair of concentric automated pipets (subsequently called "dual superfusion pipet"), each providing the ability to dispense (i.e., the source, inner pipet) and aspirate (the sink, outer pipet) a buffer solution (perfusate) into each of the two pools. For rapid solution switching around the cell, additional dual superfusion pipets were inserted into the microchannel for defined time periods using a piezostepper, enabling us to add a test solution, such as a drug. Three distinct areas of the cell were manipulated, namely, the microfluidic environment, the cellular membrane, and the intracellular space. Planar integrated microelectrodes enabled the electrical stimulation of the cardiomyocyte and the recording of the evoked action potential. The device was mounted on an inverted microscope to allow simultaneous sarcomere length and epifluorescence measurements during evoked electrical activity, including, for example, the response of the stimulated end of the cardiac myocyte in comparison with the untreated cell end.

  8. Applications of Microfluidics for Molecular Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Jayamohan, Harikrishnan; Sant, Himanshu J.; Bruce K. Gale

    2012-01-01

    Diagnostic assays implemented in microfluidic devices have developed rapidly over the past decade and are expected to become commonplace in the next few years. Hundreds of microfluidics-based approaches towards clinical diagnostics and pathogen detection have been reported with a general theme of rapid and customizable assays that are potentially cost-effective. This chapter reviews microfluidics in molecular diagnostics based on application areas with a concise review of microfluidics in gen...

  9. Automated Cell-Cutting for Cell Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Akihiko; Tanikawa, Tamio; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Takahashi, Seiya; Ohba, Kohtaro

    We develop an automated cell-cutting technique for cell cloning. Animal cells softened by the cytochalasin treatment are injected into a microfluidic chip. The microfluidic chip contains two orthogonal channels: one microchannel is wide, used to transport cells, and generates the cutting flow; the other is thin and used for aspiration, fixing, and stretching of the cell. The injected cell is aspirated and stretched in the thin microchannel. Simultaneously, the volumes of the cell before and after aspiration are calculated; the volumes are used to calculate the fluid flow required to aspirate half the volume of the cell into the thin microchannel. Finally, we apply a high-speed flow in the orthogonal microchannel to bisect the cell. This paper reports the cutting process, the cutting system, and the results of the experiment.

  10. Recent Progress of Microfluidics in Translational Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zongbin; Han, Xin; Qin, Lidong

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidics, featuring microfabricated structures, is a technology for manipulating fluids at the micrometer scale. The small dimension and flexibility of microfluidic systems are ideal for mimicking molecular and cellular microenvironment, and show great potential in translational research and development. Here, the recent progress of microfluidics in biological and biomedical applications, including molecular analysis, cellular analysis, and chip-based material delivery and biomimetic des...

  11. Spintronic microfluidic platform for biomedical and environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, F. A.; Martins, V. C.; Fonseca, L. P.; Germano, J.; Sousa, L. A.; Piedade, M. S.; Freitas, P. P.

    2010-09-01

    Faster, more sensitive and easy to operate biosensing devices still are a need at important areas such as biomedical diagnostics, food control and environmental monitoring. Recently, spintronic-devices have emerged as a promising alternative to the existent technologies [1-3]. A number of advantages, namely high sensitivity, easy integration, miniaturization, scalability, robustness and low cost make these devices potentially capable of responding to the existent technological need. In parallel, the field of microfluidics has shown great advances [4]. Microfluidic systems allow the analysis of small sample volumes (from micro- down to pico-liters), often by automate sample processing with the ability to integrate several steps into a single device (analyte amplification, concentration, separation and/or labeling), all in a reduced assay time (minutes to hours) and affordable cost. The merging of these two technologies, magnetoresistive biochips and microfluidics, will enable the development of highly competitive devices. This work reports the integration of a magnetoresistive biochip with a microfluidic system inside a portable and autonomous electronic platform aiming for a fully integrated device. A microfluidic structure fabricated in polydimethylsiloxane with dimensions of W: 0.5mm, H: 0.1mm, L: 10mm, associated to a mechanical system to align and seal the channel by pressure is presented (Fig. 1) [5]. The goal is to perform sample loading and transportation over the chip and simultaneously control the stringency and uniformity of the wash-out process. The biochip output is acquired by an electronic microsystem incorporating the circuitry to control, address and read-out the 30 spin-valve sensors sequentially (Fig. 1) [2]. This platform is being applied to the detection of water-borne microbial pathogens (e.g. Salmonella and Escherichia coli) and genetic diseases diagnosis (e.g. cystic fibrosis) through DNA hybridization assays. Open chamber measurements were

  12. Microfluidic sorting of microtissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschke, D G; Resto, P; Schumacher, N; Cox, B; Tallavajhula, A; Vivekanandan, A; Eliceiri, K W; Williams, J C; Ogle, B M

    2012-03-01

    Increasingly, invitro culture of adherent cell types utilizes three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds or aggregate culture strategies to mimic tissue-like, microenvironmental conditions. In parallel, new flow cytometry-based technologies are emerging to accurately analyze the composition and function of these microtissues (i.e., large particles) in a non-invasive and high-throughput way. Lacking, however, is an accessible platform that can be used to effectively sort or purify large particles based on analysis parameters. Here we describe a microfluidic-based, electromechanical approach to sort large particles. Specifically, sheath-less asymmetric curving channels were employed to separate and hydrodynamically focus particles to be analyzed and subsequently sorted. This design was developed and characterized based on wall shear stress, tortuosity of the flow path, vorticity of the fluid in the channel, sorting efficiency and enrichment ratio. The large particle sorting device was capable of purifying fluorescently labelled embryoid bodies (EBs) from unlabelled EBs with an efficiency of 87.3% ± 13.5%, and enrichment ratio of 12.2 ± 8.4 (n = 8), while preserving cell viability, differentiation potential, and long-term function. PMID:22505992

  13. Microfluidic stretchable RF electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2010-12-01

    Stretchable electronics is a revolutionary technology that will potentially create a world of radically different electronic devices and systems that open up an entirely new spectrum of possibilities. This article proposes a microfluidic based solution for stretchable radio frequency (RF) electronics, using hybrid integration of active circuits assembled on flex foils and liquid alloy passive structures embedded in elastic substrates, e.g. polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). This concept was employed to implement a 900 MHz stretchable RF radiation sensor, consisting of a large area elastic antenna and a cluster of conventional rigid components for RF power detection. The integrated radiation sensor except the power supply was fully embedded in a thin elastomeric substrate. Good electrical performance of the standalone stretchable antenna as well as the RF power detection sub-module was verified by experiments. The sensor successfully detected the RF radiation over 5 m distance in the system demonstration. Experiments on two-dimensional (2D) stretching up to 15%, folding and twisting of the demonstrated sensor were also carried out. Despite the integrated device was severely deformed, no failure in RF radiation sensing was observed in the tests. This technique illuminates a promising route of realizing stretchable and foldable large area integrated RF electronics that are of great interest to a variety of applications like wearable computing, health monitoring, medical diagnostics, and curvilinear electronics.

  14. A Digitally Controllable Polymer-Based Microfluidic Mixing Module Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond H. W. Lam

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated digitally controllable microfluidic system for continuous solution supply with a real-time concentration control. This system contains multiple independently operating mixing modules, each integrated with two vortex micropumps, two Tesla valves and a micromixer. The interior surface of the system is made of biocompatible materials using a polymer micro-fabrication process and thus its operation can be applied to chemicals and bio-reagents. In each module, pumping of fluid is achieved by the vortex micropump working with the rotation of a micro-impeller. The downstream fluid mixing is based on mechanical vibrations driven by a lead zirconate titanate ceramic diaphragm actuator located below the mixing chamber. We have conducted experiments to prove that the addition of the micro-pillar structures to the mixing chamber further improves the mixing performance. We also developed a computer-controlled automated driver system to control the real-time fluid mixing and concentration regulation with the mixing module array. This research demonstrates the integration of digitally controllable polymer-based microfluidic modules as a fully functional system, which has great potential in the automation of many bio-fluid handling processes in bio-related applications.

  15. An integratable microfluidic cartridge for forensic swab samples lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianing; Brooks, Carla; Estes, Matthew D; Hurth, Cedric M; Zenhausern, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    Fully automated rapid forensic DNA analysis requires integrating several multistep processes onto a single microfluidic platform, including substrate lysis, extraction of DNA from the released lysate solution, multiplexed PCR amplification of STR loci, separation of PCR products by capillary electrophoresis, and analysis for allelic peak calling. Over the past several years, most of the rapid DNA analysis systems developed started with the reference swab sample lysate and involved an off-chip lysis of collected substrates. As a result of advancement in technology and chemistry, addition of a microfluidic module for swab sample lysis has been achieved in a few of the rapid DNA analysis systems. However, recent reports on integrated rapid DNA analysis systems with swab-in and answer-out capability lack any quantitative and qualitative characterization of the swab-in sample lysis module, which is important for downstream forensic sample processing. Maximal collection and subsequent recovery of the biological material from the crime scene is one of the first and critical steps in forensic DNA technology. Herein we present the design, fabrication and characterization of an integratable swab lysis cartridge module and the test results obtained from different types of commonly used forensic swab samples, including buccal, saliva, and blood swab samples, demonstrating the compatibility with different downstream DNA extraction chemistries. This swab lysis cartridge module is easy to operate, compatible with both forensic and microfluidic requirements, and ready to be integrated with our existing automated rapid forensic DNA analysis system. Following the characterization of the swab lysis module, an integrated run from buccal swab sample-in to the microchip CE electropherogram-out was demonstrated on the integrated prototype instrument. Therefore, in this study, we demonstrate that this swab lysis cartridge module is: (1) functionally, comparable with routine benchtop lysis

  16. Microfluidic Technologies for Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kuk Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic technologies have shown powerful abilities for reducing cost, time, and labor, and at the same time, for increasing accuracy, throughput, and performance in the analysis of biological and biochemical samples compared with the conventional, macroscale instruments. Synthetic biology is an emerging field of biology and has drawn much attraction due to its potential to create novel, functional biological parts and systems for special purposes. Since it is believed that the development of synthetic biology can be accelerated through the use of microfluidic technology, in this review work we focus our discussion on the latest microfluidic technologies that can provide unprecedented means in synthetic biology for dynamic profiling of gene expression/regulation with high resolution, highly sensitive on-chip and off-chip detection of metabolites, and whole-cell analysis.

  17. Magnetic separation in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smistrup, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis presents theory, modeling, design, fabrication, experiments and results for microfluidic magnetic separators. A model for magnetic bead movement in a microfluidic channel is presented, and the limits of the model are discussed. The effective magnetic field gradient is defined......, and it is argued that it is a good measure, when comparing the performance of magnetic bead separators. It is described how numeric modelling is used to aid the design of microfluidic magnetic separation systems. An example of a design optimization study is given. A robust fabrication scheme has been developed...... for fabrication of silicon based systems. This fabrication scheme is explained, and it is shown how, it is applied with variations for several designs of magnetic separators. An experimental setup for magnetic separation experiments has been developed. It has been coupled with an image analysis program...

  18. A low-cost, manufacturable method for fabricating capillary and optical fiber interconnects for microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Daniel M; Nevill, J Tanner; Pettigrew, Kenneth I; Votaw, Gregory; Kung, Pang-Jen; Crenshaw, Hugh C

    2008-04-01

    Microfluidic chips require connections to larger macroscopic components, such as light sources, light detectors, and reagent reservoirs. In this article, we present novel methods for integrating capillaries, optical fibers, and wires with the channels of microfluidic chips. The method consists of forming planar interconnect channels in microfluidic chips and inserting capillaries, optical fibers, or wires into these channels. UV light is manually directed onto the ends of the interconnects using a microscope. UV-curable glue is then allowed to wick to the end of the capillaries, fibers, or wires, where it is cured to form rigid, liquid-tight connections. In a variant of this technique, used with light-guiding capillaries and optical fibers, the UV light is directed into the capillaries or fibers, and the UV-glue is cured by the cone of light emerging from the end of each capillary or fiber. This technique is fully self-aligned, greatly improves both the quality and the manufacturability of the interconnects, and has the potential to enable the fabrication of interconnects in a fully automated fashion. Using these methods, including a semi-automated implementation of the second technique, over 10,000 interconnects have been formed in almost 2000 microfluidic chips made of a variety of rigid materials. The resulting interconnects withstand pressures up to at least 800psi, have unswept volumes estimated to be less than 10 femtoliters, and have dead volumes defined only by the length of the capillary. PMID:18369517

  19. Automating Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John

    2007-01-01

    In past years, higher education's financial management side has been riddled with manual processes and aging mainframe applications. This article discusses schools which had taken advantage of an array of technologies that automate billing, payment processing, and refund processing in the case of overpayment. The investments are well worth it:…

  20. Microfluidic 3D Helix Mixers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgette B. Salieb-Beugelaar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric microfluidic systems are well suited for miniaturized devices with complex functionality, and rapid prototyping methods for 3D microfluidic structures are increasingly used. Mixing at the microscale and performing chemical reactions at the microscale are important applications of such systems and we therefore explored feasibility, mixing characteristics and the ability to control a chemical reaction in helical 3D channels produced by the emerging thread template method. Mixing at the microscale is challenging because channel size reduction for improving solute diffusion comes at the price of a reduced Reynolds number that induces a strictly laminar flow regime and abolishes turbulence that would be desired for improved mixing. Microfluidic 3D helix mixers were rapidly prototyped in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS using low-surface energy polymeric threads, twisted to form 2-channel and 3-channel helices. Structure and flow characteristics were assessed experimentally by microscopy, hydraulic measurements and chromogenic reaction, and were modeled by computational fluid dynamics. We found that helical 3D microfluidic systems produced by thread templating allow rapid prototyping, can be used for mixing and for controlled chemical reaction with two or three reaction partners at the microscale. Compared to the conventional T-shaped microfluidic system used as a control device, enhanced mixing and faster chemical reaction was found to occur due to the combination of diffusive mixing in small channels and flow folding due to the 3D helix shape. Thus, microfluidic 3D helix mixers can be rapidly prototyped using the thread template method and are an attractive and competitive method for fluid mixing and chemical reactions at the microscale.

  1. Microfluidic devices for droplet injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Donald; Akartuna, Ilke; Weitz, David

    2012-02-01

    As picoliter-scale reaction vessels, microfluidic water-in-oil emulsions have found application for high-throughput, large-sample number analyses. Often, the biological or chemical system under investigation needs to be encapsulated into droplets to prevent cross contamination prior to the introduction of reaction reagents. Previous techniques of picoinjection or droplet synchronization and merging enable the addition of reagents to individual droplets, but present limitations on what can be added to each droplet. We present microfluidic devices that couple the strengths of picoinjection and droplet merging, allowing us to selectively add precise volume to our droplet reactions.

  2. Osteocyte culture in microfluidic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Chao; Fan, Beiyuan; Chen, Deyong; Liu, Chao; Wei, Yuanchen; Huo, Bo; You, Lidan; Wang, Junbo; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a microfluidic device (poly-dimethylsiloxane micro channels bonded with glass slides) enabling culture of MLO-Y4 osteocyte like cells. In this study, on-chip collagen coating, cell seeding and culture, as well as staining were demonstrated in a tubing-free manner where gravity was used as the driving force for liquid transportation. MLO-Y4 cells were cultured in microfluidic channels with and without collagen coating where cellular images in a time sequence were taken and ...

  3. A novel approach to determine the efficacy of patterned surfaces for biofouling control in relation to its microfluidic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Partha; Nasabi, Mahyar; Lopez, Francisco Javier Tovar; Jayasuriya, Niranjali; Bhattacharya, Satinath; Deighton, Margaret; Mitchell, Arnan; Bhuiyan, Muhammed Ali

    2013-01-01

    Biofouling, the unwanted growth of sessile microorganisms on submerged surfaces, presents a serious problem for underwater structures. While biofouling can be controlled to various degrees with different microstructure-based patterned surfaces, understanding of the underlying mechanism is still imprecise. Researchers have long speculated that microtopographies might influence near-surface microfluidic conditions, thus microhydrodynamically preventing the settlement of microorganisms. It is therefore very important to identify the microfluidic environment developed on patterned surfaces and its relation with the antifouling behaviour of those surfaces. This study considered the wall shear stress distribution pattern as a significant aspect of this microfluidic environment. In this study, patterned surfaces with microwell arrays were assessed experimentally with a real-time biofilm development monitoring system using a novel microchannel-based flow cell reactor. Finally, computational fluid dynamics simulations were carried out to show how the microfluidic conditions were affecting the initial settlement of microorganisms.

  4. Comprehensive study of an optical fiber plasmonic microsensor in a microfluidic device

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the last decade, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has become a very sensitive technique for real-time detection of chemical and biochemical targets in many application areas. Considering the important needs for analyzing biomolecular reactions through automated and miniaturized components, optical fiber sensors based on the SPR effects are presently considered as an alternative in the development of microsensors. In the present work, a microfluidic system associated with...

  5. Comprehensive study of an optical fiber plasmonic microsensor in a microfluidic device

    OpenAIRE

    Makiabadi, T.; Le Nader, V.; Kanso, M.; Louarn, G.

    2011-01-01

    International audience In the last decade, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has become a very sensitive technique for real-time detection of chemical and biochemical targets in many application areas. Considering the important needs for analyzing biomolecular reactions through automated and miniaturized components, optical fiber sensors based on the SPR effects are presently considered as an alternative in the development of microsensors. In the present work, a microfluidic system associate...

  6. Actuation of a Hyperelastic PDMS Membrane Suspended inside a Microfluidic Channel: From Computer Simulation to Microfabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Ribe, Jonas Myren

    2012-01-01

    This Master-project was done in the Department of Physics at NTNU in the spring of 2012. The project develops micro- and nanofabrication processes useful for lab-on-a-chip systems. These systems aim to scale down and automate lab processes primarily in the fields of biomedicine and chemistry.A hyperelastic membrane suspended inside a microfluidic channel was the starting point of the project. The membrane was made from poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and structured through physical and chemical...

  7. Fabrication of plastic microfluidic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter M.; Matson, Dean W.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Hammerstrom, D. J.

    1998-09-01

    Plastic components have many advantages, including ease of fabrication, low cost, chemical inertness, lightweight, and disposability. We report on the fabrication of three plastics-based microfluidic components: a motherboard, a dialysis unit, and a metal sensor. Microchannels, headers, and interconnects were produced in thin sheets (>=50 microns) of polyimide, PMMA, polyethylene, and polycarbonate using a direct-write excimer laser micromachining system. Machined sheets were laminated by thermal and adhesive bonding to form leak-tight microfluidic components. The microfluidic motherboard borrowed the `functionality on a chip' concept from the electronics industry and was the heart of a complex microfluidic analytical device. The motherboard platform was designed to be tightly integrated and self-contained (i.e., liquid flows are all confined within machined microchannels), reducing the need for tubing with fluid distribution and connectivity. This concept greatly facilitated system integration and miniaturization. As fabricated, the motherboard consisted of three fluid reservoirs connected to micropumps by microchannels. The fluids could either be pumped independently or mixed in microchannels prior to being directed to exterior analytical components via outlet ports. The microdialysis device was intended to separate electrolytic solutes from low volume samples prior to mass spectrometric analysis. The device consisted of a dialysis membrane laminated between opposed serpentine microchannels containing the sample fluid and a buffer solution. The laminated metal sensor consisted of fluid reservoirs, micro-flow channels, micropumps, mixing channels, reaction channels, and detector circuitry.

  8. A microfluidic device with pillars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides a microfluidic device for mixing liquid reagents, the device comprises, a chip forming at least one reaction chamber between a bottom and a top and extending between an inlet and an outlet. To enable manufacturing from less rigid materials, the device comprises pillars...

  9. Optical detection in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2009-01-01

    Optical detection schemes continue to be favoured for measurements in microfluidic systems. A selection of the latest progress mainly within the last two years is critically reviewed. Emphasis is on integrated solutions, such as planar waveguides, coupling schemes to the outside world, evanescent...

  10. Mixing in a Microfluid Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Deryabin, Mikhail

    Mixing of fluids in microchannels cannot rely on turbulence since the flow takes place at extremly low Reynolds numbers. Various active and passive devices have been developed to induce mixing in microfluid flow devices. We describe here a model of an active mixer where a transverse periodic flow...

  11. Topology optimization of microfluidic mixers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Gersborg, Allan Roulund; Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the application of the topology optimization method as a general and systematic approach for microfluidic mixer design. The mixing process is modeled as convection dominated transport in low Reynolds number incompressible flow. The mixer performance is maximized by altering...

  12. Osteocyte culture in microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chao; Fan, Beiyuan; Chen, Deyong; Liu, Chao; Wei, Yuanchen; Huo, Bo; You, Lidan; Wang, Junbo; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a microfluidic device (poly-dimethylsiloxane micro channels bonded with glass slides) enabling culture of MLO-Y4 osteocyte like cells. In this study, on-chip collagen coating, cell seeding and culture, as well as staining were demonstrated in a tubing-free manner where gravity was used as the driving force for liquid transportation. MLO-Y4 cells were cultured in microfluidic channels with and without collagen coating where cellular images in a time sequence were taken and analyzed, confirming the positive effect of collagen coating on phenotype maintaining of MLO-Y4 cells. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen based proliferation assay was used to study cellular proliferation, revealing a higher proliferation rate of MLO-Y4 cells seeded in microfluidic channels without collagen coating compared to the substrates coated with collagen. Furthermore, the effects of channel dimensions (variations in width and height) on the viability of MLO-Y4 cells were explored based on the Calcein-AM and propidium iodide based live/dead assay and the Hoechst 33258 based apoptosis assay, locating the correlation between the decrease in channel width or height and the decrease in cell viability. As a platform technology, this microfluidic device may function as a new cell culture model enabling studies of osteocytes. PMID:25713691

  13. Automation Security

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzoev, Dr. Timur

    2014-01-01

    Web-based Automated Process Control systems are a new type of applications that use the Internet to control industrial processes with the access to the real-time data. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks contain computers and applications that perform key functions in providing essential services and commodities (e.g., electricity, natural gas, gasoline, water, waste treatment, transportation) to all Americans. As such, they are part of the nation s critical infrastructu...

  14. Breeder reactor fuel fabrication system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant progress has been made in the design and development of remotely operated breeder reactor fuel fabrication and support systems (e.g., analytical chemistry). These activities are focused by the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) Program sponsored by the Department of Energy to provide: a reliable supply of fuel pins to support US liquid metal cooled breeder reactors and at the same time demonstrate the fabrication of mixed uranium/plutonium fuel by remotely operated and automated methods

  15. Mail-order microfluidics: evaluation of stereolithography for the production of microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Anthony K; Lee, Wonjae; Folch, Albert

    2014-04-01

    The vast majority of microfluidic devices are developed in PDMS by molding ("soft lithography") because PDMS is an inexpensive material, has physicochemical properties that are well suited for biomedical and physical sciences applications, and design cycle lengths are generally adequate for prototype development. However, PDMS molding is tediously slow and thus cannot provide the high- or medium-volume production required for the commercialization of devices. While high-throughput plastic molding techniques (e.g. injection molding) exist, the exorbitant cost of the molds and/or the equipment can be a serious obstacle for device commercialization, especially for small startups. High-volume production is not required to reach niche markets such as clinical trials, biomedical research supplies, customized research equipment, and classroom projects. Crucially, both PDMS and plastic molding are layer-by-layer techniques where each layer is produced as a result of physicochemical processes not specified in the initial photomask(s) and where the final device requires assembly by bonding, all resulting in a cost that is very hard to predict at the start of the project. By contrast, stereolithography (SL) is an automated fabrication technique that allows for the production of quasi-arbitrary 3D shapes in a single polymeric material at medium-volume throughputs (ranging from a single part to hundreds of parts). Importantly, SL devices can be designed between several groups using CAD tools, conveniently ordered by mail, and their cost precisely predicted via a web interface. Here we evaluate the resolution of an SL mail-order service and the main causes of resolution loss; the optical clarity of the devices and how to address the lack of clarity for imaging in the channels; and the future role that SL could play in the commercialization of microfluidic devices.

  16. Microfluidic Droplet Dehydration for Concentrating Processes in Biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Shelley

    2014-03-01

    Droplets in microfluidic devices have proven useful as picoliter reactors for biochemical processing operations such as polymerase chain reaction, protein crystallization, and the study of enzyme kinetics. Although droplets are typically considered to be self-contained, constant volume reactors, there can be significant transport between the dispersed and continuous phases depending on solubility and other factors. In the present talk, we show that water droplets trapped within a microfluidic device for tens of hours slowly dehydrate, concentrating the contents encapsulated within. We use this slow dehydration along with control of the initial droplet composition to influence gellation, crystallization, and phase separation processes. By examining these concentrating processes in many trapped drops at once we gain insight into the stochastic nature of the events. In one example, we show that dehydration rate impacts the probability of forming a specific crystal habit in a crystallizing amino acid. In another example, we phase separate a common aqueous two-phase system within droplets and use the ensuing two phases to separate DNA from an initial mixture. We further influence wetting conditions between the two aqueous polymer phases and the continuous oil, promoting complete de-wetting and physical separation of the polymer phases. Thus, controlled dehydration of droplets allows for concentration, separation, and purification of important biomolecules on a chip.

  17. Applications of Microfluidics in Stem Cell Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qiucen; Austin, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell research can significantly benefit from recent advances of microfluidics technology. In a rationally designed microfluidics device, analyses of stem cells can be done in a much deeper and wider way than in a conventional tissue culture dish. Miniaturization makes analyses operated in a high-throughput fashion, while controls of fluids help to reconstruct the physiological environments. Through integration with present characterization tools like fluorescent microscope, microfluidics...

  18. Microfluidics for optics and quantitative cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, James Kyle

    2008-01-01

    Microfluidics is a quickly expanding field with numerous applications. The advent of rapid-prototyping and soft- lithography allow for easy and inexpensive fabrication of microfluidic devices. Fluid manipulation on the microscale allows for new functionalities of devices and components not available on the macroscale. Fluid flows on the microscale are laminar with chemical mixing defined strictly by diffusion allowing us to design microfluidic devices with precise control of fluid flow and ch...

  19. Corrosion and microfluidics in hot water microsystems

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Mimmi

    2013-01-01

    This thesis addresses some important issues when designing microfluidic systems for hot pressurized water. The properties and behavior of water at elevated temperatures and in micro scale is briefly reviewed, and opportunities and possible problems of using hot pressurized water in microfluidic devices are brought up. Experimental work was focused on corrosion resistance for commonly used microsystem materials in hot pressurized water, and the microfluidic behavior for hot pressurized water. ...

  20. Integrated lenses in polystyrene microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2013-04-01

    This paper reports a new method for integrating microlenses into microfluidic devices for improved observation. Two demonstration microfluidic devices were provided which were fabricated using this new technique. The integrated microlenses were fabricated using a free-surface thermo-compression molding method on a polystyrene (PS) sheet which was then bonded on top of microfluidic channels as a cover plate, with the convex microlenses providing a magnified image of the channel for the easier observation of the flow in the microchannels. This approach for fabricating the integrated microlens in microfluidic devices is rapid, low cost and without the requirement of cleanroom facilities. © 2013 IEEE.

  1. Microfluidics in amino acid analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumera, Martin

    2007-07-01

    Microfluidic devices have been widely used to derivatize, separate, and detect amino acids employing many different strategies. Virtually zero-dead volume interconnections and fast mass transfer in small volume microchannels enable dramatic increases in on-chip derivatization reaction speed, while only minute amounts of sample and reagent are needed. Due to short channel path, fast subsecond separations can be carried out. With sophisticated miniaturized detectors, the whole analytical process can be integrated on one platform. This article reviews developments of lab-on-chip technology in amino acid analysis, it shows important design features such as sample preconcentration, precolumn and postcolumn amino acid derivatization, and unlabeled and labeled amino acid detection with focus on advanced designs. The review also describes important biomedical and space exploration applications of amino acid analysis on microfluidic devices. PMID:17542043

  2. The microfluidic Kelvin water dropper

    CERN Document Server

    Marin, Alvaro G; García-Sánchez, Pablo; Shui, Lingling; Xie, Yanbo; Fontelos, Marco A; Eijkel, Jan C T; Berg, Albert van den; Lohse, Detlef

    2013-01-01

    The so-called "Kelvin water dropper" is a simple experiment demonstrating the spontaneous appearance of induced free charge in droplets emitted through a tube. As Lord Kelvin explained, water droplets spontaneously acquire a net charge during detachment from a faucet due to the presence of electrical fields in their surrounding created by any metallic object. In his experiment, two streams of droplets are allowed to drip from separated nozzles into separated buckets, which are at the same time interconnected through the dripping needles. In this paper we build a microfluidic water dropper and demonstrate that the droplets get charged and break-up due to electrohydrodynamic instabilities. A comparison with recent simulations shows the dependence of the acquired charge in the droplets on different parameters of the system. The phenomenon opens a door to cheap and accessible transformation of pneumatic pressure into electrical energy and to an enhanced control in microfluidic and biophysical manipulation of caps...

  3. Next generation PCR microfluidic system

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Angela; Curtin, Damian; McGuire, David; Witherbee, Bryan; Barrett, Brian; Kinahan, David; Sayers, Michael; Sirr, Noel; Hou, Xiaona; Aguanno, Mauro; King, Damien; McCarthy, Conor; Chawke, Brian; Doolan, David; O'Doherty, Sinead

    2010-01-01

    Stokes Bio, founded in 2005, develops innovative microfluidic technologies. In 2008 in collaboration with Monsanto, an application driven development for a high-throughput instrument in the detection and characterisation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in agricultural crops was initiated. Stokes technology is designed to generate aqueous nanolitre scale droplets of reagents and samples, wrapped in a carrier fluid from standard microtitre plates and to mix them using Stokes ...

  4. Multidimensional bioseparation with modular microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirica, Gabriela S.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2013-08-27

    A multidimensional chemical separation and analysis system is described including a prototyping platform and modular microfluidic components capable of rapid and convenient assembly, alteration and disassembly of numerous candidate separation systems. Partial or total computer control of the separation system is possible. Single or multiple alternative processing trains can be tested, optimized and/or run in parallel. Examples related to the separation and analysis of human bodily fluids are given.

  5. Self-assembly via microfluidics

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei; Sánchez, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The self-assembly of amphiphilic building blocks has attracted extensive interest in myriad fields in recent years, due to their great potential in the nanoscale design of functional hybrid materials. Microfluidic techniques provide an intriguing method to control kinetic aspects of the self-assembly of molecular amphiphiles by the facile adjustment of the hydrodynamics of the fluids. Up to now, there have been several reports about one-step direct self-assembly of different building blocks w...

  6. Integrating plasmonic diagnostics and microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Lifang; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Hong; Zhou, Xiaodong; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    Plasmonics is generally divided into two categories: surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of electromagnetic modes propagating along a (noble) metal/dielectric interface and localized SPRs (LSPRs) on nanoscopic metallic structures (particles, rods, shells, holes, etc.). Both optical transducer concepts can be combined with and integrated in microfluidic devices for biomolecular analyte detections, with the benefits of small foot-print for point-of-care detection, low-cost for one-time disposal, and ease of being integrated into an array format. The key technologies in such integration include the plasmonic chip, microfluidic channel fabrication, surface bio-functionalization, and selection of the detection scheme, which are selected according to the specifics of the targeting analytes. This paper demonstrates a few examples of the many versions of how to combine plasmonics and integrated microfluidics, using different plasmonic generation mechanisms for different analyte detections. One example is a DNA sensor array using a gold film as substrate and surface plasmon fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy as the transduction method. This is then compared to grating-coupled SPR for poly(ethylene glycol) thiol interaction detected by angle interrogation, gold nanohole based LSPR chip for biotin-strepavidin detection by wavelength shift, and gold nanoholes/nanopillars for the detection of prostate specific antigen by quantum dot labels excited by the LSPR. Our experimental results exemplified that the plasmonic integrated microfluidics is a promising tool for understanding the biomolecular interactions and molecular recognition process as well as biosensing, especially for on-site or point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:26392832

  7. Microfluidic continuous-flow radiosynthesis of [18F]FPEB suitable for human PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Steven H.; Yokell, Daniel L.; Jackson, Raul N.; Rice, Peter A.; Callahan, Ronald; Johnson, Keith A.; Alagille, David; Tamagnan, Gilles; Collier, Thomas Lee; Vasdev, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of fluorine-18 labeled 3-fluoro-5-[(pyridin-3-yl)ethynyl] benzonitrile ([18F]FPEB) for imaging metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype type 5 (mGluR5) was achieved with a commercial continuous-flow microfluidics device. This work represents the first positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceutical that is suitable for human use with this technology. We also describe a validated synthesis of [18F]FPEB with a commercial reactor-based system. PMID:25431646

  8. Droplet microfluidic technology for single-cell high-throughput screening

    OpenAIRE

    Brouzes, Eric; Medkova, Martina; Savenelli, Neal; Marran, Dave; Twardowski, Mariusz; Hutchison, J. Brian; Rothberg, Jonathan M.; Link, Darren R; Perrimon, Norbert; Samuels, Michael L

    2009-01-01

    We present a droplet-based microfluidic technology that enables high-throughput screening of single mammalian cells. This integrated platform allows for the encapsulation of single cells and reagents in independent aqueous microdroplets (1 pL to 10 nL volumes) dispersed in an immiscible carrier oil and enables the digital manipulation of these reactors at a very high-throughput. Here, we validate a full droplet screening workflow by conducting a droplet-based cytotoxicity screen. To perform t...

  9. Microfluidic Devices for Blood Fractionation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chwee Teck Lim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood, a complex biological fluid, comprises 45% cellular components suspended in protein rich plasma. These different hematologic components perform distinct functions in vivo and thus the ability to efficiently fractionate blood into its individual components has innumerable applications in both clinical diagnosis and biological research. Yet, processing blood is not trivial. In the past decade, a flurry of new microfluidic based technologies has emerged to address this compelling problem. Microfluidics is an attractive solution for this application leveraging its numerous advantages to process clinical blood samples. This paper reviews the various microfluidic approaches realized to successfully fractionate one or more blood components. Techniques to separate plasma from hematologic cellular components as well as isolating blood cells of interest including certain rare cells are discussed. Comparisons based on common separation metrics including efficiency (sensitivity, purity (selectivity, and throughput will be presented. Finally, we will provide insights into the challenges associated with blood-based separation systems towards realizing true point-of-care (POC devices and provide future perspectives.

  10. Automated Budget System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  11. Microfluidic-Based Sample Chips for Radioactive Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripp, J. L.; Law, J. D.; Smith, T. E.; Rutledge, V. J.; Bauer, W. F.; Ball, R. D.; Hahn, P. A.

    2014-02-01

    Historical nuclear fuel cycle process sampling techniques required sample volumes ranging in the tens of milliliters. The radiation levels experienced by analytical personnel and equipment, in addition to the waste volumes generated from analysis of these samples, have been significant. These sample volumes also impacted accountability inventories of required analytes during process operations. To mitigate radiation dose and other issues associated with the historically larger sample volumes, a microcapillary sample chip was chosen for further investigation. The ability to obtain microliter volume samples coupled with a remote automated means of sample loading, tracking, and transporting to the analytical instrument would greatly improve analytical efficiency while reducing both personnel exposure and radioactive waste volumes. Sample chip testing was completed to determine the accuracy, repeatability, and issues associated with the use of microfluidic sample chips used to supply µL sample volumes of lanthanide analytes dissolved in nitric acid for introduction to an analytical instrument for elemental analysis.

  12. Macromolecular Crystallization with Microfluidic Free-Interface Diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segelke, B

    2005-02-24

    Fluidigm released the Topaz 1.96 and 4.96 crystallization chips in the fall of 2004. Topaz 1.96 and 4.96 are the latest evolution of Fluidigm's microfluidics crystallization technologies that enable ultra low volume rapid screening for macromolecular crystallization. Topaz 1.96 and 4.96 are similar to each other but represent a major redesign of the Topaz system and have of substantially improved ease of automation and ease of use, improved efficiency and even further reduced amount of material needed. With the release of the new Topaz system, Fluidigm continues to set the standard in low volume crystallization screening which is having an increasing impact in the field of structural genomics, and structural biology more generally. In to the future we are likely to see further optimization and increased utility of the Topaz crystallization system, but we are also likely to see further innovation and the emergence of competing technologies.

  13. N Reactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The last of Hanfordqaodmasdkwaspemas7ajkqlsmdqpakldnzsdflss nine plutonium production reactors to be built was the N Reactor.This reactor was called a dual purpose...

  14. Materials for microfluidic chip fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kangning; Zhou, Jianhua; Wu, Hongkai

    2013-11-19

    Through manipulating fluids using microfabricated channel and chamber structures, microfluidics is a powerful tool to realize high sensitive, high speed, high throughput, and low cost analysis. In addition, the method can establish a well-controlled microenivroment for manipulating fluids and particles. It also has rapid growing implementations in both sophisticated chemical/biological analysis and low-cost point-of-care assays. Some unique phenomena emerge at the micrometer scale. For example, reactions are completed in a shorter amount of time as the travel distances of mass and heat are relatively small; the flows are usually laminar; and the capillary effect becomes dominant owing to large surface-to-volume ratios. In the meantime, the surface properties of the device material are greatly amplified, which can lead to either unique functions or problems that we would not encounter at the macroscale. Also, each material inherently corresponds with specific microfabrication strategies and certain native properties of the device. Therefore, the material for making the device plays a dominating role in microfluidic technologies. In this Account, we address the evolution of materials used for fabricating microfluidic chips, and discuss the application-oriented pros and cons of different materials. This Account generally follows the order of the materials introduced to microfluidics. Glass and silicon, the first generation microfluidic device materials, are perfect for capillary electrophoresis and solvent-involved applications but expensive for microfabriaction. Elastomers enable low-cost rapid prototyping and high density integration of valves on chip, allowing complicated and parallel fluid manipulation and in-channel cell culture. Plastics, as competitive alternatives to elastomers, are also rapid and inexpensive to microfabricate. Their broad variety provides flexible choices for different needs. For example, some thermosets support in-situ fabrication of

  15. Centrifugal microfluidic platform for radiochemistry: potentialities for the chemical analysis of nuclear spent fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchet, Anthony; Taniga, Vélan; Descroix, Stéphanie; Malaquin, Laurent; Goutelard, Florence; Mariet, Clarisse

    2013-11-15

    The use of a centrifugal microfluidic platform is for the first time reported as an alternative to classical chromatographic procedures for radiochemistry. The original design of the microfluidic platform has been thought to fasten and simplify the prototyping process with the use of a circular platform integrating four rectangular microchips made of thermoplastic. The microchips, dedicated to anion-exchange chromatographic separations, integrate a localized monolithic stationary phase as well as injection and collection reservoirs. The results presented here were obtained with a simplified simulated nuclear spent fuel sample composed of non-radioactive isotopes of Europium and Uranium, in proportion usually found for uranium oxide nuclear spent fuel. While keeping the analytical results consistent with the conventional procedure (extraction yield for Europium of ≈97%), the use of the centrifugal microfluidic platform allowed to reduce the volume of liquid needed by a factor of ≈250. Thanks to their unique "easy-to-use" features, centrifugal microfluidic platforms are potential successful candidates for the downscaling of chromatographic separation of radioactive samples (automation, multiplexing, easy integration in glove-boxes environment and low cost of maintenance).

  16. Three-Dimensionally Printed Microfluidic Cross-flow System for Ultrafiltration/Nanofiltration Membrane Performance Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrip, Nathaniel C; Arnusch, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Minimization and management of membrane fouling is a formidable challenge in diverse industrial processes and other practices that utilize membrane technology. Understanding the fouling process could lead to optimization and higher efficiency of membrane based filtration. Here we show the design and fabrication of an automated three-dimensionally (3-D) printed microfluidic cross-flow filtration system that can test up to 4 membranes in parallel. The microfluidic cells were printed using multi-material photopolymer 3-D printing technology, which used a transparent hard polymer for the microfluidic cell body and incorporated a thin rubber-like polymer layer, which prevents leakages during operation. The performance of ultrafiltration (UF), and nanofiltration (NF) membranes were tested and membrane fouling could be observed with a model foulant bovine serum albumin (BSA). Feed solutions containing BSA showed flux decline of the membrane. This protocol may be extended to measure fouling or biofouling with many other organic, inorganic or microbial containing solutions. The microfluidic design is especially advantageous for testing materials that are costly or only available in small quantities, for example polysaccharides, proteins, or lipids due to the small surface area of the membrane being tested. This modular system may also be easily expanded for high throughput testing of membranes. PMID:26968008

  17. Integrating Electronics and Microfluidics on Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, Mahiar M; Ainla, Alar; Güder, Firat; Christodouleas, Dionysios C; Fernández-Abedul, M Teresa; Whitesides, George M

    2016-07-01

    Paper microfluidics and printed electronics have developed independently, and are incompatible in many aspects. Monolithic integration of microfluidics and electronics on paper is demonstrated. This integration makes it possible to print 2D and 3D fluidic, electrofluidic, and electrical components on paper, and to fabricate devices using them.

  18. Opportunities for microfluidic technologies in synthetic biology

    OpenAIRE

    Gulati, Shelly; Rouilly, Vincent; Niu, Xize; Chappell, James; Kitney, Richard I.; Edel, Joshua B.; Paul S Freemont; deMello, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce microfluidics technologies as a key foundational technology for synthetic biology experimentation. Recent advances in the field of microfluidics are reviewed and the potential of such a technological platform to support the rapid development of synthetic biology solutions is discussed.

  19. Detection methods for centrifugal microfluidic platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burger, Robert; Amato, Letizia; Boisen, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Centrifugal microfluidics has attracted much interest from academia as well as industry, since it potentially offers solutions for affordable, user-friendly and portable biosensing. A wide range of so-called fluidic unit operations, e.g. mixing, metering, liquid routing, and particle separation...... for the centrifugal microfluidics platform and cover optical as well as mechanical and electrical detection principles....

  20. Principles, Techniques, and Applications of Tissue Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Lawrence A.; Kartalov, Emil P.; Shibata, Darryl; Taylor, Clive

    2011-01-01

    The principle of tissue microfluidics and its resultant techniques has been applied to cell analysis. Building microfluidics to suit a particular tissue sample would allow the rapid, reliable, inexpensive, highly parallelized, selective extraction of chosen regions of tissue for purposes of further biochemical analysis. Furthermore, the applicability of the techniques ranges beyond the described pathology application. For example, they would also allow the posing and successful answering of new sets of questions in many areas of fundamental research. The proposed integration of microfluidic techniques and tissue slice samples is called "tissue microfluidics" because it molds the microfluidic architectures in accordance with each particular structure of each specific tissue sample. Thus, microfluidics can be built around the tissues, following the tissue structure, or alternatively, the microfluidics can be adapted to the specific geometry of particular tissues. By contrast, the traditional approach is that microfluidic devices are structured in accordance with engineering considerations, while the biological components in applied devices are forced to comply with these engineering presets.

  1. Manipulation of microfluidic droplets by electrorheological fluid

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Menying

    2009-09-01

    Microfluidics, especially droplet microfluidics, attracts more and more researchers from diverse fields, because it requires fewer materials and less time, produces less waste and has the potential of highly integrated and computer-controlled reaction processes for chemistry and biology. Electrorheological fluid, especially giant electrorheological fluid (GERF), which is considered as a kind of smart material, has been applied to the microfluidic systems to achieve active and precise control of fluid by electrical signal. In this review article, we will introduce recent results of microfluidic droplet manipulation, GERF and some pertinent achievements by introducing GERF into microfluidic system: digital generation, manipulation of "smart droplets" and droplet manipulation by GERF. Once it is combined with real-time detection, integrated chip with multiple functions can be realized. © 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  2. Automated radiosynthesis of [18F]ciprofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We transferred the previously published manual synthesis of [18F]ciprofloxacin (decay-corrected RCY: 5.5±1.0%) to an automated synthesis module (TRACERlabTM FXFDG, GE Healthcare) and observed a strong decrease in RCY (0.4±0.4%). When replacing the standard 15-mL glassy carbon reactor of the synthesis module with a 3-mL V-shaped borosilicate glass reactor a considerable improvement in RCY was observed. [18F]Ciprofloxacin was obtained in a RCY of 2.7±1.4% (n=23) with a specific activity at EOS of 1.4±0.5 GBq/µmol in a synthesis time of 160 min. - Highlights: • Automated synthesis of [18F]ciprofloxacin in a TRACERlabTM FXFDG (GE Healthcare) synthesis module was developed. • Dependence of radiochemical yield on reactor type was observed. • 3-mL V-shaped borosilicate glass reactor gave higher radiochemical yield as compared with standard 15-mL glassy carbon reactor. • V-shaped borosilicate glass reactor might also give higher radiochemical yield for other [18F]radiotracers than [18F]ciprofloxacin

  3. Kinetic ELISA in Microfluidic Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Dutta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe the kinetic ELISA of Blue Tongue and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease viral antibodies in microfluidic channels by monitoring the rate of generation of the enzyme reaction product under static conditions. It has been shown that this format of the immunoassay allows very reliable quantitation of the target species using inexpensive glass microchips and a standard epifluorescence microscope system coupled to a CCD camera. For the viral antibodies assayed here, the limit of detection (LOD for the analyte concentration in our microchips was established to be 3–5 times lower than that obtained on commercial microwell plates using a fiftieth of the sample volume and less than a third of the incubation time. Our analyses further show that when compared to the end-point ELISA format, the kinetic mode of this assay yields an improvement in the LOD by over an order of magnitude in microfluidic devices. This benefit is primarily realized as the observed variation in the background fluorescence (signal at the start of the enzyme reaction period was significantly larger than that in the rate of signal generation upon repeating these assays in different microchannels/microchips. Because the kinetic ELISA results depend only on the latter quantity, the noise level in them was substantially lower compared to that in its end-point counterpart in which the absolute fluorescence measurements are of greater significance. While a similar benefit was also recorded through implementation of kinetic ELISAs on the microwell platform, the improvement in LOD registered in that system was not as significant as was observed in the case of microfluidic assays.

  4. Development of a PMMA Electrochemical Microfluidic Device for Carcinoembryonic Antigen Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Anh, Nguyen; Van Trung, Hoang; Tien, Bui Quang; Binh, Nguyen Hai; Ha, Cao Hong; Le Huy, Nguyen; Loc, Nguyen Thai; Thu, Vu Thi; Lam, Tran Dai

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microfluidic device fabricated by an inexpensive CO2 laser etching system was developed for detection of carcino-embryonic antigens (CEA). The device was capable of working in continuous mode and was designed with the aid of numerical simulation. The detection of target CEA was based on immuno-assay via magnetic particles and electrochemical sensing. The as-prepared microfluidic can be used to detect CEA at the relatively low concentration of 150 pg mL-1. The device could be reused many times, since the capture and removal of magnetic particles in the assay could be manipulated by an external magnetic field. The proposed approach appears to be suitable for high-throughput and automated analysis of large biomolecules such as tumor markers and pathogens.

  5. Microfluidic in-channel multi-electrode platform for neurotransmitter sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, A.; Mathault, J.; Reitz, A.; Boisvert, M.; Tessier, F.; Greener, J.; Miled, A.

    2016-03-01

    In this project we present a microfluidic platform with in-channel micro-electrodes for in situ screening of bio/chemical samples through a lab-on-chip system. We used a novel method to incorporate electrochemical sensors array (16x20) connected to a PCB, which opens the way for imaging applications. A 200 μm height microfluidic channel was bonded to electrochemical sensors. The micro-channel contains 3 inlets used to introduce phosphate buffer saline (PBS), ferrocynide and neurotransmitters. The flow rate was controlled through automated micro-pumps. A multiplexer was used to scan electrodes and perform individual cyclic voltammograms by a custom potentiostat. The behavior of the system was linear in terms of variation of current versus concentration. It was used to detect the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine and glutamate.

  6. Droplet-based Biosensing for Lab-on-a-Chip, Open Microfluidics Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dak, Piyush; Ebrahimi, Aida; Swaminathan, Vikhram; Duarte-Guevara, Carlos; Bashir, Rashid; Alam, Muhammad A

    2016-01-01

    Low cost, portable sensors can transform health care by bringing easily available diagnostic devices to low and middle income population, particularly in developing countries. Sample preparation, analyte handling and labeling are primary cost concerns for traditional lab-based diagnostic systems. Lab-on-a-chip (LoC) platforms based on droplet-based microfluidics promise to integrate and automate these complex and expensive laboratory procedures onto a single chip; the cost will be further reduced if label-free biosensors could be integrated onto the LoC platforms. Here, we review some recent developments of label-free, droplet-based biosensors, compatible with "open" digital microfluidic systems. These low-cost droplet-based biosensors overcome some of the fundamental limitations of the classical sensors, enabling timely diagnosis. We identify the key challenges that must be addressed to make these sensors commercially viable and summarize a number of promising research directions.

  7. Microfluidic isolation of leukocytes from whole blood for phenotype and gene expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethu, Palaniappan; Moldawer, Lyle L; Mindrinos, Michael N; Scumpia, Philip O; Tannahill, Cynthia L; Wilhelmy, Julie; Efron, Philip A; Brownstein, Bernard H; Tompkins, Ronald G; Toner, Mehmet

    2006-08-01

    Technologies that enable the isolation of cell subtypes from small samples of complex populations will greatly facilitate the implementation of proteomics and genomics to human diseases. Transcriptome analysis of blood requires the depletion of contaminating erythrocytes. We report an automated microfluidic device to rapidly deplete erythrocytes from whole blood via deionized water lysis and to collect enriched leukocytes for phenotype and genomic analyses. Starting with blood from healthy subjects, we demonstrate the utility of this microfluidic cassette and lysis protocol to prepare unstimulated leukocytes, and leukocytes stimulated ex vivo with Staphylococcal enterotoxin B, which mimics some of the cellular effects seen in patients with severe bacterial infections. Microarrays are used to assess the global gene expression response to enterotoxin B. The results demonstrate that this system can isolate unactivated leukocytes from small blood samples without any significant loss, which permits more information to be obtained from subsequent analysis, and will be readily applicable to clinical settings.

  8. Modular microfluidic cartridge-based universal diagnostic system for global health applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Holger; Klemm, Richard; Dietze, William; White, Wallace; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Freyberg, Susanne; Moche, Christian; Dailey, Peter; Gärtner, Claudia

    2016-03-01

    Current microfluidics-enabled point-of-care diagnostic systems are typically designed specifically for one assay type, e.g. a molecular diagnostic assay for a single disease of a class of diseases. This approach often leads to high development cost and a significant training requirement for users of different instruments. We have developed an open platform diagnostic system which allows to run molecular, immunological and clinical assays on a single instrument platform with a standardized microfluidic cartridge architecture in an automated sample-in answer-out fashion. As examples, a molecular diagnostic assay for tuberculosis, an immunoassay for HIV p24 and a clinical chemistry assay for ALT liver function have been developed and results of their pre-clinical validation are presented.

  9. Droplet-based Biosensing for Lab-on-a-Chip, Open Microfluidics Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush Dak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Low cost, portable sensors can transform health care by bringing easily available diagnostic devices to low and middle income population, particularly in developing countries. Sample preparation, analyte handling and labeling are primary cost concerns for traditional lab-based diagnostic systems. Lab-on-a-chip (LoC platforms based on droplet-based microfluidics promise to integrate and automate these complex and expensive laboratory procedures onto a single chip; the cost will be further reduced if label-free biosensors could be integrated onto the LoC platforms. Here, we review some recent developments of label-free, droplet-based biosensors, compatible with “open” digital microfluidic systems. These low-cost droplet-based biosensors overcome some of the fundamental limitations of the classical sensors, enabling timely diagnosis. We identify the key challenges that must be addressed to make these sensors commercially viable and summarize a number of promising research directions.

  10. Microfluidic Reactors for the Controlled Synthesis of Monodisperse Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Erdem, Emine Yegan

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles have attracted a lot of attention in the past few decades due to their unique, size-dependent properties. In order to use these nanoparticles in devices or sensors effectively, it is important to maintain uniform properties throughout the system; therefore nanoparticles need to have uniform sizes - or monodisperse. In order to achieve monodispersity, an extreme control over the reaction conditions is required during their synthesis. These reaction conditions such as temperature,...

  11. Droplets Formation and Merging in Two-Phase Flow Microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Gu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Two-phase flow microfluidics is emerging as a popular technology for a wide range of applications involving high throughput such as encapsulation, chemical synthesis and biochemical assays. Within this platform, the formation and merging of droplets inside an immiscible carrier fluid are two key procedures: (i the emulsification step should lead to a very well controlled drop size (distribution; and (ii the use of droplet as micro-reactors requires a reliable merging. A novel trend within this field is the use of additional active means of control besides the commonly used hydrodynamic manipulation. Electric fields are especially suitable for this, due to quantitative control over the amplitude and time dependence of the signals, and the flexibility in designing micro-electrode geometries. With this, the formation and merging of droplets can be achieved on-demand and with high precision. In this review on two-phase flow microfluidics, particular emphasis is given on these aspects. Also recent innovations in microfabrication technologies used for this purpose will be discussed.

  12. PR-PR: Cross-Platform Laboratory Automation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linshiz, G; Stawski, N; Goyal, G; Bi, CH; Poust, S; Sharma, M; Mutalik, V; Keasling, JD; Hillson, NJ

    2014-08-01

    To enable protocol standardization, sharing, and efficient implementation across laboratory automation platforms, we have further developed the PR-PR open-source high-level biology-friendly robot programming language as a cross-platform laboratory automation system. Beyond liquid-handling robotics, PR-PR now supports microfluidic and microscopy platforms, as well as protocol translation into human languages, such as English. While the same set of basic PR-PR commands and features are available for each supported platform, the underlying optimization and translation modules vary from platform to platform. Here, we describe these further developments to PR-PR, and demonstrate the experimental implementation and validation of PR-PR protocols for combinatorial modified Golden Gate DNA assembly across liquid-handling robotic, microfluidic, and manual platforms. To further test PR-PR cross-platform performance, we then implement and assess PR-PR protocols for Kunkel DNA mutagenesis and hierarchical Gibson DNA assembly for microfluidic and manual platforms.

  13. PR-PR: cross-platform laboratory automation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linshiz, Gregory; Stawski, Nina; Goyal, Garima; Bi, Changhao; Poust, Sean; Sharma, Monica; Mutalik, Vivek; Keasling, Jay D; Hillson, Nathan J

    2014-08-15

    To enable protocol standardization, sharing, and efficient implementation across laboratory automation platforms, we have further developed the PR-PR open-source high-level biology-friendly robot programming language as a cross-platform laboratory automation system. Beyond liquid-handling robotics, PR-PR now supports microfluidic and microscopy platforms, as well as protocol translation into human languages, such as English. While the same set of basic PR-PR commands and features are available for each supported platform, the underlying optimization and translation modules vary from platform to platform. Here, we describe these further developments to PR-PR, and demonstrate the experimental implementation and validation of PR-PR protocols for combinatorial modified Golden Gate DNA assembly across liquid-handling robotic, microfluidic, and manual platforms. To further test PR-PR cross-platform performance, we then implement and assess PR-PR protocols for Kunkel DNA mutagenesis and hierarchical Gibson DNA assembly for microfluidic and manual platforms.

  14. Laser Ablation of Polymer Microfluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Kevin

    2004-03-01

    Microfluidic technology is ideal for processing precious samples of limited volumes. Some of the most important classes of biological samples are both high in sample complexity and low in concentration. Combining the elements of sample pre-concentration, chemical separation and high sensitivity detection with chemical identification is essential for realizing a functional microfluidic based analysis system. Direct write UV laser ablation has been used to rapidly fabricate microfluidic devices capable of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-MS. These chip-LC/MS devices use bio-compatible, solvent resistant and flexible polymer materials such as polyimide. A novel microfluidic to rotary valve interface enables, leak free, high pressure fluid switching between multiple ports of the microfluidic chip-LC/MS device. Electrospray tips with outer dimension of 50 um and inner of 15 um are formed by ablating the polymer material concentrically around a multilayer laminated channel structure. Biological samples of digested proteins were used to evaluate the performance of these microfluidic devices. Liquid chromatography separation and similar sample pretreatments have been performed using polymeric microfluidic devices with on-chip separation channels. Mass spectrometry was performed using an Agilent Technologies 1100 series ion trap mass spectrometer. Low fmol amounts of protein samples were positively and routinely identified by searching the MS/MS spectral data against protein databases. The sensitivity and separation performance of the chip-LC devices has been found to be comparable to state of the art nano-electrospray systems.

  15. Simplified prototyping of perfusable polystyrene microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Reginald; Ahn, Byungwook; R. Myers, David; Qiu, Yongzhi; Sakurai, Yumiko; Moot, Robert; Mihevc, Emma; Trent Spencer, H.; Doering, Christopher; A. Lam, Wilbur

    2014-01-01

    Cell culture in microfluidic systems has primarily been conducted in devices comprised of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) or other elastomers. As polystyrene (PS) is the most characterized and commonly used substrate material for cell culture, microfluidic cell culture would ideally be conducted in PS-based microsystems that also enable tight control of perfusion and hydrodynamic conditions, which are especially important for culture of vascular cell types. Here, we report a simple method to prototype perfusable PS microfluidics for endothelial cell culture under flow that can be fabricated using standard lithography and wet laboratory equipment to enable stable perfusion at shear stresses up to 300 dyn/cm2 and pumping pressures up to 26 kPa for at least 100 h. This technique can also be extended to fabricate perfusable hybrid PS-PDMS microfluidics of which one application is for increased efficiency of viral transduction in non-adherent suspension cells by leveraging the high surface area to volume ratio of microfluidics and adhesion molecules that are optimized for PS substrates. These biologically compatible microfluidic devices can be made more accessible to biological-based laboratories through the outsourcing of lithography to various available microfluidic foundries. PMID:25379106

  16. Self-contained microfluidic systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd-Moss, Mitchell; Baratchi, Sara; Di Venere, Martina; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2016-08-16

    Microfluidic systems enable rapid diagnosis, screening and monitoring of diseases and health conditions using small amounts of biological samples and reagents. Despite these remarkable features, conventional microfluidic systems rely on bulky expensive external equipment, which hinders their utility as powerful analysis tools outside of research laboratories. 'Self-contained' microfluidic systems, which contain all necessary components to facilitate a complete assay, have been developed to address this limitation. In this review, we provide an in-depth overview of self-contained microfluidic systems. We categorise these systems based on their operating mechanisms into three major groups: passive, hand-powered and active. Several examples are provided to discuss the structure, capabilities and shortcomings of each group. In particular, we discuss the self-contained microfluidic systems enabled by active mechanisms, due to their unique capability for running multi-step and highly controllable diagnostic assays. Integration of self-contained microfluidic systems with the image acquisition and processing capabilities of smartphones, especially those equipped with accessory optical components, enables highly sensitive and quantitative assays, which are discussed. Finally, the future trends and possible solutions to expand the versatility of self-contained, stand-alone microfluidic platforms are outlined. PMID:27425637

  17. Single cell analysis of yeast replicative aging using a new generation of microfluidic device.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    Full Text Available A major limitation to yeast aging study has been the inability to track mother cells and observe molecular markers during the aging process. The traditional lifespan assay relies on manual micro-manipulation to remove daughter cells from the mother, which is laborious, time consuming, and does not allow long term tracking with high resolution microscopy. Recently, we have developed a microfluidic system capable of retaining mother cells in the microfluidic chambers while removing daughter cells automatically, making it possible to observe fluorescent reporters in single cells throughout their lifespan. Here we report the development of a new generation of microfluidic device that overcomes several limitations of the previous system, making it easier to fabricate and operate, and allowing functions not possible with the previous design. The basic unit of the device consists of microfluidic channels with pensile columns that can physically trap the mother cells while allowing the removal of daughter cells automatically by the flow of the fresh media. The whole microfluidic device contains multiple independent units operating in parallel, allowing simultaneous analysis of multiple strains. Using this system, we have reproduced the lifespan curves for the known long and short-lived mutants, demonstrating the power of the device for automated lifespan measurement. Following fluorescent reporters in single mother cells throughout their lifespan, we discovered a surprising change of expression of the translation elongation factor TEF2 during aging, suggesting altered translational control in aged mother cells. Utilizing the capability of the new device to trap mother-daughter pairs, we analyzed mother-daughter inheritance and found age dependent asymmetric partitioning of a general stress response reporter between mother and daughter cells.

  18. Preliminary Framework for Human-Automation Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oxstrand, Johanna Helene [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Le Blanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary Alexander [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s Advanced Reactor Technologies Program sponsors research, development and deployment activities through its Next Generation Nuclear Plant, Advanced Reactor Concepts, and Advanced Small Modular Reactor (aSMR) Programs to promote safety, technical, economical, and environmental advancements of innovative Generation IV nuclear energy technologies. The Human Automation Collaboration (HAC) Research Project is located under the aSMR Program, which identifies developing advanced instrumentation and controls and human-machine interfaces as one of four key research areas. It is expected that the new nuclear power plant designs will employ technology significantly more advanced than the analog systems in the existing reactor fleet as well as utilizing automation to a greater extent. Moving towards more advanced technology and more automation does not necessary imply more efficient and safer operation of the plant. Instead, a number of concerns about how these technologies will affect human performance and the overall safety of the plant need to be addressed. More specifically, it is important to investigate how the operator and the automation work as a team to ensure effective and safe plant operation, also known as the human-automation collaboration (HAC). The focus of the HAC research is to understand how various characteristics of automation (such as its reliability, processes, and modes) effect an operator’s use and awareness of plant conditions. In other words, the research team investigates how to best design the collaboration between the operators and the automated systems in a manner that has the greatest positive impact on overall plant performance and reliability. This report addresses the Department of Energy milestone M4AT-15IN2302054, Complete Preliminary Framework for Human-Automation Collaboration, by discussing the two phased development of a preliminary HAC framework. The framework developed in the first phase was used as the

  19. Preliminary Framework for Human-Automation Collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's Advanced Reactor Technologies Program sponsors research, development and deployment activities through its Next Generation Nuclear Plant, Advanced Reactor Concepts, and Advanced Small Modular Reactor (aSMR) Programs to promote safety, technical, economical, and environmental advancements of innovative Generation IV nuclear energy technologies. The Human Automation Collaboration (HAC) Research Project is located under the aSMR Program, which identifies developing advanced instrumentation and controls and human-machine interfaces as one of four key research areas. It is expected that the new nuclear power plant designs will employ technology significantly more advanced than the analog systems in the existing reactor fleet as well as utilizing automation to a greater extent. Moving towards more advanced technology and more automation does not necessary imply more efficient and safer operation of the plant. Instead, a number of concerns about how these technologies will affect human performance and the overall safety of the plant need to be addressed. More specifically, it is important to investigate how the operator and the automation work as a team to ensure effective and safe plant operation, also known as the human-automation collaboration (HAC). The focus of the HAC research is to understand how various characteristics of automation (such as its reliability, processes, and modes) effect an operator's use and awareness of plant conditions. In other words, the research team investigates how to best design the collaboration between the operators and the automated systems in a manner that has the greatest positive impact on overall plant performance and reliability. This report addresses the Department of Energy milestone M4AT-15IN2302054, Complete Preliminary Framework for Human-Automation Collaboration, by discussing the two phased development of a preliminary HAC framework. The framework developed in the first phase was used as

  20. Microfluidic Systems for Pathogen Sensing: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ertl

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid pathogen sensing remains a pressing issue today since conventional identification methodsare tedious, cost intensive and time consuming, typically requiring from 48 to 72 h. In turn, chip based technologies, such as microarrays and microfluidic biochips, offer real alternatives capable of filling this technological gap. In particular microfluidic biochips make the development of fast, sensitive and portable diagnostic tools possible, thus promising rapid and accurate detection of a variety of pathogens. This paper will provide a broad overview of the novel achievements in the field of pathogen sensing by focusing on methods and devices that compliment microfluidics.

  1. Radiolabeling of [18F]altanserin — a microfluidic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Our aim was the optimization of radiochemical parameters for the microfluidic preparation of [18F]altanserin. The four main parameters evaluated were (1) precursor concentration, (2) reaction temperature, (3) bolus flow rate through the microreactor and (4) bolus volume. Methods: For the determination of optimal reaction conditions within a flow-through microreactor synthesizer, 5–400 μL of precursor and dried [18F]fluoride solution were simultaneously pushed through the temperature-controlled reactor (180–220 °C) with defined bolus flow rates of 10–60 μL/min. Radiochemical incorporation yields (RCIYs) were examined using a thin layer chromatography (TLC) set-up and radio- high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: Optimum reaction parameters for the microfluidic set-up were determined as following: 220 °C, 5–10 μL/min pump rate per reactant (10–20 μL/min reaction overall flow rate) and 2 mg/mL precursor concentration in the reaction mixture. Applying these optimized conditions, RCIYs of 53.7 ± 7.9 were observed for scaled-up preparations. A positive “bolus effect” was observed: applying higher reaction volume resulted in increased RCIYs. Conclusion: This study proved that the reaction bolus volume is an essential parameter influencing the RCIY of [18F]altanserin. A possible explanation is the inhomogeneous distribution within the reaction volume probably caused by diffusion at the bolus interface. This important finding should be considered an important variable for the evaluation of all novel radiotracers labeled using a flow-through reactor device.

  2. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2001-04-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  3. Manufacturing and automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Córdoba Nieto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents concepts and definitions from different sources concerning automation. The work approaches automation by virtue of the author’s experience in manufacturing production; why and how automation prolects are embarked upon is considered. Technological reflection regarding the progressive advances or stages of automation in the production area is stressed. Coriat and Freyssenet’s thoughts about and approaches to the problem of automation and its current state are taken and examined, especially that referring to the problem’s relationship with reconciling the level of automation with the flexibility and productivity demanded by competitive, worldwide manufacturing.

  4. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  5. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  6. Microfluidic Analytical Separator for Proteomics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SHOT proposes an innovative microfluidic device designed to effect a 2-dimensional resolution of a mixture of proteins based on isoelectric point (pI) and molecular...

  7. Multiplex single particle analysis in microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannhauser, D; Romeo, G; Causa, F; De Santo, I; Netti, P A

    2014-10-21

    A straightforward way to measure separated micrometric sized particles in microfluidic flow is reported. The light scattering profile (LSP) of each single particle is fully characterized by using a CMOS-camera based small angle light scattering (SALS) apparatus, ranging from 2° up to 30°. To ensure controlled particle passage through the incident laser, a viscoelastic 3D alignment effect by viscoelastic induced particle migration has been implemented in a simple and cost-effective microfluidic device. Different polystyrene particle sizes are measured in microfluidic flows and the obtained scattering signatures are matched with the Lorenz-Mie based scattering theory. The results confirm the possibility of using this apparatus for real multiplex particle analyses in microfluidic particle flows.

  8. Microfluidic Analytical Separator for Proteomics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a microfluidic device designed to effect a 2-dimensional resolution of a mixture of proteins based on isoelectric point (pI) and...

  9. 3D-printed microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Reza; Knowlton, Stephanie; Hart, Alexander; Yenilmez, Bekir; Ghaderinezhad, Fariba; Katebifar, Sara; Messina, Michael; Khademhosseini, Ali; Tasoglu, Savas

    2016-06-20

    Microfluidics is a flourishing field, enabling a wide range of biochemical and clinical applications such as cancer screening, micro-physiological system engineering, high-throughput drug testing, and point-of-care diagnostics. However, fabrication of microfluidic devices is often complicated, time consuming, and requires expensive equipment and sophisticated cleanroom facilities. Three-dimensional (3D) printing presents a promising alternative to traditional techniques such as lithography and PDMS-glass bonding, not only by enabling rapid design iterations in the development stage, but also by reducing the costs associated with institutional infrastructure, equipment installation, maintenance, and physical space. With the recent advancements in 3D printing technologies, highly complex microfluidic devices can be fabricated via single-step, rapid, and cost-effective protocols, making microfluidics more accessible to users. In this review, we discuss a broad range of approaches for the application of 3D printing technology to fabrication of micro-scale lab-on-a-chip devices.

  10. Microfluidics for High School Chemistry Students

    OpenAIRE

    Hemling, Melissa; Crooks, John A.; Oliver, Piercen M.; Brenner, Katie; Gilbertson, Jennifer; Lisensky, George C.; Weibel, Douglas B.

    2014-01-01

    We present a laboratory experiment that introduces high school chemistry students to microfluidics while teaching fundamental properties of acid–base chemistry. The procedure enables students to create microfluidic systems using nonspecialized equipment that is available in high school classrooms and reagents that are safe, inexpensive, and commercially available. The experiment is designed to ignite creativity and confidence about experimental design in a high school chemistry class. This ex...

  11. Integrated microfluidic device for droplet manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Basova, E.

    2013-01-01

    Droplets based microfluidic systems have a big potential for the miniaturization of processes for bioanalysis. In the form of droplets, reagents are used in discrete volume, enabling high-throughput chemical reactions as well as single-cell encapsulation. Microreactors of this type can be manipulated and applied in bio-testing. In this work we present a platform for droplet generation and manipulation by using dielectrophoresis force. This platform is an integrated microfluidic device wit...

  12. INTEGRATED MICROFLUIDIC DEVICE FOR DROPLET MANIPULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Basova Evgenia; Drs Jakub; Zemanek Jiri; Hurak Zdenek; Foret František

    2013-01-01

    Droplets based microfluidic systems have a big potential for the miniaturization of processes for bioanalysis. In the form of droplets, reagents are used in discrete volume, enabling high-throughput chemical reactions as well as single-cell encapsulation. Microreactors of this type can be manipulated and applied in bio-testing. In this work we present a platform for droplet generation and manipulation by using dielectrophoresis force. This platform is an integrated microfluidic device wit...

  13. Uniform yeast cell assembly via microfluidics

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Ya-Wen; He, Peng; Marquez, Samantha M.; Cheng, Zhengdong

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the use of microfluidic approaches for the fabrication of yeastosomes (yeast-celloidosomes) based on self-assembly of yeast cells onto liquid-solid or liquid-gas interfaces. Precise control over fluidic flows in droplet- and bubble-forming microfluidic devices allows production of monodispersed, size-selected templates. The general strategy to organize and assemble living cells is to tune electrostatic attractions between the template (gel or gas core) and the cells via sur...

  14. Microfluidic actuation of insulating liquid droplets in a parallel-plate device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In droplet-based microfluidics, the simultaneous movement and manipulation of dielectric and aqueous droplets on a single platform is important. The actuation forces on both dielectric and aqueous droplets can be calculated with an electromechanical model using an equivalent RC circuit. This model predicts that dielectric droplet actuation can be made compatible with electrowetting-based water droplet manipulation if the oil droplet is immersed in water. Operations such as transporting, splitting, merging, and dispensing of dielectric droplets at voltages less than 100 V are demonstrated in a parallel-plate structure. Such capability opens the way to fully automated assembly line formation of single-emulsion droplets.

  15. Natural discharge after pulse and cooperative electrodes to enhance droplet velocity in digital microfluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Tianlan; Dong, Cheng; Gao, Jie; Jia, Yanwei; Mak, Pui-In, E-mail: pimak@umac.mo; Vai, Mang-I; Martins, Rui P. [State Key Laboratory of Analog and Mixed-Signal VLSI and FST-ECE, University of Macau, Macao (China)

    2014-04-15

    Digital Microfluidics (DMF) is a promising technology for biological/chemical micro-reactions due to its distinct droplet manageability via electronic automation, but the limited velocity of droplet transportation has hindered DMF from utilization in high throughput applications. In this paper, by adaptively fitting the actuation voltages to the dynamic motions of droplet movement under real-time feedback monitoring, two control-engaged electrode-driving techniques: Natural Discharge after Pulse (NDAP) and Cooperative Electrodes (CE) are proposed. They together lead to, for the first time, enhanced droplet velocity with lower root mean square voltage value.

  16. Autonomous and 3D real-time multi-beam manipulation in a microfluidic environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perch-Nielsen, I.; Rodrigo, P.J.; Alonzo, C.A.;

    2006-01-01

    The Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method of optical 3D manipulation has previously been used for controlled spatial manipulation of live biological specimen in real-time. These biological experiments were carried out over a time-span of several hours while an operator intermittently optimized...... the optical system. Here we present GPC-based optical micromanipulation in a microfluidic system where trapping experiments are computer-automated and thereby capable of running with only limited supervision. The system is able to dynamically detect living yeast cells using a computer-interfaced CCD camera...

  17. Microfluidic Devices in Advanced Caenorhabditis elegans Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muniesh Muthaiyan Shanmugam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of model organisms is very important in view of their potential for application to human therapeutic uses. One such model organism is the nematode worm, Caenorhabditis elegans. As a nematode, C. elegans have ~65% similarity with human disease genes and, therefore, studies on C. elegans can be translated to human, as well as, C. elegans can be used in the study of different types of parasitic worms that infect other living organisms. In the past decade, many efforts have been undertaken to establish interdisciplinary research collaborations between biologists, physicists and engineers in order to develop microfluidic devices to study the biology of C. elegans. Microfluidic devices with the power to manipulate and detect bio-samples, regents or biomolecules in micro-scale environments can well fulfill the requirement to handle worms under proper laboratory conditions, thereby significantly increasing research productivity and knowledge. The recent development of different kinds of microfluidic devices with ultra-high throughput platforms has enabled researchers to carry out worm population studies. Microfluidic devices primarily comprises of chambers, channels and valves, wherein worms can be cultured, immobilized, imaged, etc. Microfluidic devices have been adapted to study various worm behaviors, including that deepen our understanding of neuromuscular connectivity and functions. This review will provide a clear account of the vital involvement of microfluidic devices in worm biology.

  18. A Review of Biomedical Centrifugal Microfluidic Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Tang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Centrifugal microfluidic or lab-on-a-disc platforms have many advantages over other microfluidic systems. These advantages include a minimal amount of instrumentation, the efficient removal of any disturbing bubbles or residual volumes, and inherently available density-based sample transportation and separation. Centrifugal microfluidic devices applied to biomedical analysis and point-of-care diagnostics have been extensively promoted recently. This paper presents an up-to-date overview of these devices. The development of biomedical centrifugal microfluidic platforms essentially covers two categories: (i unit operations that perform specific functionalities, and (ii systems that aim to address certain biomedical applications. With the aim to provide a comprehensive representation of current development in this field, this review summarizes progress in both categories. The advanced unit operations implemented for biological processing include mixing, valving, switching, metering and sequential loading. Depending on the type of sample to be used in the system, biomedical applications are classified into four groups: nucleic acid analysis, blood analysis, immunoassays, and other biomedical applications. Our overview of advanced unit operations also includes the basic concepts and mechanisms involved in centrifugal microfluidics, while on the other hand an outline on reported applications clarifies how an assembly of unit operations enables efficient implementation of various types of complex assays. Lastly, challenges and potential for future development of biomedical centrifugal microfluidic devices are discussed.

  19. Microfluidic Devices in Advanced Caenorhabditis elegans Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthaiyan Shanmugam, Muniesh; Subhra Santra, Tuhin

    2016-01-01

    The study of model organisms is very important in view of their potential for application to human therapeutic uses. One such model organism is the nematode worm, Caenorhabditis elegans. As a nematode, C. elegans have ~65% similarity with human disease genes and, therefore, studies on C. elegans can be translated to human, as well as, C. elegans can be used in the study of different types of parasitic worms that infect other living organisms. In the past decade, many efforts have been undertaken to establish interdisciplinary research collaborations between biologists, physicists and engineers in order to develop microfluidic devices to study the biology of C. elegans. Microfluidic devices with the power to manipulate and detect bio-samples, regents or biomolecules in micro-scale environments can well fulfill the requirement to handle worms under proper laboratory conditions, thereby significantly increasing research productivity and knowledge. The recent development of different kinds of microfluidic devices with ultra-high throughput platforms has enabled researchers to carry out worm population studies. Microfluidic devices primarily comprises of chambers, channels and valves, wherein worms can be cultured, immobilized, imaged, etc. Microfluidic devices have been adapted to study various worm behaviors, including that deepen our understanding of neuromuscular connectivity and functions. This review will provide a clear account of the vital involvement of microfluidic devices in worm biology. PMID:27490525

  20. Surface Sensitive Microfluidic Optomechanical Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kyu Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The microfluidic optomechanical resonator (uFOMR) based on a thin-walled glass capillary supports high Q-factor (>1000) mechanical modes in the presence of liquids. In this Letter, the sensitivity of the uFOMR to the surface change is studied by layer-by-layer removal of SiO2 molecules from the uFOMR inner surface using various concentrations of hydrofluoric acid solutions. A frequency downshift is observed with a sensitivity of 1.2 Hz/(pg/mm2), which translates to a surface density detection limit of 83 pg/mm2. This work opens a door to using the optomechanical mode for detection and characterization of molecules present near the resonator surface.

  1. Bistable diverter valve in microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesař, V.; Bandalusena, H. C. H.

    2011-05-01

    Bistable diverter valves are useful for a large number of no-moving-part flow control applications, and there is a considerable interest in using them also in microfluidics, especially for handling small pressure-driven flows. However, with decreasing Reynolds number, the Coanda effect—on which the flow diverting effect depends—becomes less effective. Authors performed a study, involving flow visualisation, PIV experiments, measurements of the flow rates, and numerical flowfield computations, aimed at clarifying behaviour of a typical fluidic valve at low Reynolds numbers. A typical fluidic valve originally developed for high Re operation was demonstrated to be useful, though with progressively limited efficiency, down to surprisingly low Re values as small as Re = 800. Also observed was a previously not reported discontinuation in the otherwise monotonic decrease in performance at Re between 1,500 and 2,000.

  2. Sampling by Fluidics and Microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tesař

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Selecting one from several available fluid samples is a procedure often performed especially in chemical engineering. It is usually done by an array of valves sequentially opened and closed. Not generally known is an advantageous alternative: fluidic sampling units without moving parts. In the absence of complete pipe closure, cross-contamination between samples cannot be ruled out. This is eliminated by arranging for small protective flows that clear the cavities and remove any contaminated fluid. Although this complicates the overall circuit layout, fluidic sampling units with these "guard" flows were successfully built and tested. Recent interest in microchemistry leads to additional problems due very low operating Reynolds numbers. This necessitated the design of microfluidic sampling units based on new operating principles.

  3. Microfluidic Sample Preparation for Immunoassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visuri, S; Benett, W; Bettencourt, K; Chang, J; Fisher, K; Hamilton, J; Krulevitch, P; Park, C; Stockton, C; Tarte, L; Wang, A; Wilson, T

    2001-08-09

    Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are developing means to collect and identify fluid-based biological pathogens in the forms of proteins, viruses, and bacteria. to support detection instruments, they are developing a flexible fluidic sample preparation unit. The overall goal of this Microfluidic Module is to input a fluid sample, containing background particulates and potentially target compounds, and deliver a processed sample for detection. They are developing techniques for sample purification, mixing, and filtration that would be useful to many applications including immunologic and nucleic acid assays. Many of these fluidic functions are accomplished with acoustic radiation pressure or dielectrophoresis. They are integrating these technologies into packaged systems with pumps and valves to control fluid flow through the fluidic circuit.

  4. Configuration Management Automation (CMA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Configuration Management Automation (CMA) will provide an automated, integrated enterprise solution to support CM of FAA NAS and Non-NAS assets and investments. CMA...

  5. Workflow automation architecture standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshofsky, R.P.; Rohen, W.T. [Boeing Computer Services Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-11-14

    This document presents an architectural standard for application of workflow automation technology. The standard includes a functional architecture, process for developing an automated workflow system for a work group, functional and collateral specifications for workflow automation, and results of a proof of concept prototype.

  6. Research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article proposes an overview of research reactors, i.e. nuclear reactors of less than 100 MW. Generally, these reactors are used as neutron generators for basic research in matter sciences and for technological research as a support to power reactors. The author proposes an overview of the general design of research reactors in terms of core size, of number of fissions, of neutron flow, of neutron space distribution. He outlines that this design is a compromise between a compact enough core, a sufficient experiment volume, and high enough power densities without affecting neutron performance or its experimental use. The author evokes the safety framework (same regulations as for power reactors, more constraining measures after Fukushima, international bodies). He presents the main characteristics and operation of the two families which represent almost all research reactors; firstly, heavy water reactors (photos, drawings and figures illustrate different examples); and secondly light water moderated and cooled reactors with a distinction between open core pool reactors like Melusine and Triton, pool reactors with containment, experimental fast breeder reactors (Rapsodie, the Russian BOR 60, the Chinese CEFR). The author describes the main uses of research reactors: basic research, applied and technological research, safety tests, production of radio-isotopes for medicine and industry, analysis of elements present under the form of traces at very low concentrations, non destructive testing, doping of silicon mono-crystalline ingots. The author then discusses the relationship between research reactors and non proliferation, and finally evokes perspectives (decrease of the number of research reactors in the world, the Jules Horowitz project)

  7. Reactor physics and reactor computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathematical methods and computer calculations for nuclear and thermonuclear reactor kinetics, reactor physics, neutron transport theory, core lattice parameters, waste treatment by transmutation, breeding, nuclear and thermonuclear fuels are the main interests of the conference

  8. Rapid microfluidic thermal cycler for nucleic acid amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Vafai, Kambiz

    2015-10-27

    A system for thermal cycling a material to be thermal cycled including a microfluidic heat exchanger; a porous medium in the microfluidic heat exchanger; a microfluidic thermal cycling chamber containing the material to be thermal cycled, the microfluidic thermal cycling chamber operatively connected to the microfluidic heat exchanger; a working fluid at first temperature; a first system for transmitting the working fluid at first temperature to the microfluidic heat exchanger; a working fluid at a second temperature, a second system for transmitting the working fluid at second temperature to the microfluidic heat exchanger; a pump for flowing the working fluid at the first temperature from the first system to the microfluidic heat exchanger and through the porous medium; and flowing the working fluid at the second temperature from the second system to the heat exchanger and through the porous medium.

  9. Shoe-String Automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, M.L.

    2001-07-30

    Faced with a downsizing organization, serious budget reductions and retirement of key metrology personnel, maintaining capabilities to provide necessary services to our customers was becoming increasingly difficult. It appeared that the only solution was to automate some of our more personnel-intensive processes; however, it was crucial that the most personnel-intensive candidate process be automated, at the lowest price possible and with the lowest risk of failure. This discussion relates factors in the selection of the Standard Leak Calibration System for automation, the methods of automation used to provide the lowest-cost solution and the benefits realized as a result of the automation.

  10. Investigating the fluid dynamics of rapid processes within microfluidic devices using bright-field microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirbodaghi, Tohid; Vigolo, Daniele; Akbari, Samin; deMello, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    The widespread application of microfluidic devices in the biological and chemical sciences requires the implementation of complex designs and geometries, which in turn leads to atypical fluid dynamic phenomena. Accordingly, a complete understanding of fluid dynamics in such systems is key in the facile engineering of novel and efficient analytical tools. Herein, we present an accurate approach for studying the fluid dynamics of rapid processes within microfluidic devices using bright-field microscopy with white light illumination and a standard high-speed camera. Specifically, we combine Ghost Particle Velocimetry and the detection of moving objects in automated video surveillance to track submicron size tracing particles via cross correlation between the speckle patterns of successive images. The efficacy of the presented technique is demonstrated by measuring the flow field over a square pillar (80 μm × 80 μm) in a 200 μm wide microchannel at high volumetric flow rates. Experimental results are in excellent agreement with those obtained via computational fluid dynamics simulations. The method is subsequently used to study the dynamics of droplet generation at a flow focusing microfluidic geometry. A unique feature of the presented technique is the ability to perform velocimetry analysis of high-speed phenomena, which is not possible using micron-resolution particle image velocimetry (μPIV) approaches based on confocal or fluorescence microscopy. PMID:25812165

  11. Integrating microfluidics and lensless imaging for point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sangjun; Keles, Hasan Onur; Ozcan, Aydogan; Khademhosseini, Ali; Haeggstrom, Edward; Kuritzkes, Daniel; Demirci, Utkan

    2009-07-15

    We demonstrate an integrated platform that merges a microfluidic chip with lensless imaging to target CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts for HIV point-of-care testing at resource-limited settings. The chips were designed and fabricated simply with a laser cutter without using expensive cleanroom equipment. To capture CD4(+) T-lymphocytes from blood, anti-CD4 antibody was immobilized on only one side of the microfluidic chip. These captured cells were detected through an optically clear chip using a charge coupled device (CCD) sensor by lensless shadow imaging techniques. Gray scale image of the captured cells in a 24 mm x 4 mm x 50 microm microfluidic chip was obtained by the lensless imaging platform. The automatic cell counting software enumerated the captured cells in 3s. Captured cells were also imaged with a fluorescence microscope and manually counted to characterize functionality of the integrated platform. The integrated platform achieved 70.2+/-6.5% capture efficiency, 88.8+/-5.4% capture specificity for CD4(+) T-lymphocytes, 96+/-1.6% CCD efficiency, and 83.5+/-2.4% overall platform performance (n=9 devices) compared to the gold standard, i.e. flow cytometry count. The integrated system gives a CD4 count from blood within 10 min. The integrated platform points a promising direction for point-of-care testing (POCT) to rapidly capture, image and count subpopulations of cells from blood samples in an automated matter. PMID:19467854

  12. 3D-printing of transparent bio-microfluidic devices in PEG-DA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrios, Arturo; Parra-Cabrera, Cesar; Bhattacharjee, Nirveek; Gonzalez-Suarez, Alan M; Rigat-Brugarolas, Luis G; Nallapatti, Umashree; Samitier, Josep; DeForest, Cole A; Posas, Francesc; Garcia-Cordero, José L; Folch, Albert

    2016-06-21

    The vast majority of microfluidic systems are molded in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) by soft lithography due to the favorable properties of PDMS: biocompatible, elastomeric, transparent, gas-permeable, inexpensive, and copyright-free. However, PDMS molding involves tedious manual labor, which makes PDMS devices prone to assembly failures and difficult to disseminate to research and clinical settings. Furthermore, the fabrication procedures limit the 3D complexity of the devices to layered designs. Stereolithography (SL), a form of 3D-printing, has recently attracted attention as a way to customize the fabrication of biomedical devices due to its automated, assembly-free 3D fabrication, rapidly decreasing costs, and fast-improving resolution and throughput. However, existing SL resins are not biocompatible and patterning transparent resins at high resolution remains difficult. Here we report procedures for the preparation and patterning of a transparent resin based on low-MW poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (MW 250) (PEG-DA-250). The 3D-printed devices are highly transparent and cells can be cultured on PEG-DA-250 prints for several days. This biocompatible SL resin and printing process solves some of the main drawbacks of 3D-printed microfluidic devices: biocompatibility and transparency. In addition, it should also enable the production of non-microfluidic biomedical devices. PMID:27217203

  13. Fast and sensitive detection of an anthrax biomarker using SERS-based solenoid microfluidic sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Rongke; Ko, Juhui; Cha, Kiweon; Jeon, Jun Ho; Rhie, Gi-eun; Choi, Jonghoon; deMello, Andrew J; Choo, Jaebum

    2015-10-15

    We report the application of a fully automated surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based solenoid-embedded microfluidic device to the quantitative and sensitive detection of anthrax biomarker poly-γ-D-glutamic acid (PGA) in solution. Analysis is based on the competitive reaction between PGA and PGA-conjugated gold nanoparticles with anti-PGA-immobilized magnetic beads within a microfluidic environment. Magnetic immunocomplexes are trapped by yoke-type solenoids embedded within the device, and their SERS signals were directly measured and analyzed. To improve the accuracy of measurement process, external standard values for PGA-free serum were also measured through use of a control channel. This additional measurement greatly improves the reliability of the assay by minimizing the influence of extraneous experimental variables. The limit of detection (LOD) of PGA in serum, determined by our SERS-based microfluidic sensor, is estimated to be 100 pg/mL. We believe that the defined method represents a valuable analytical tool for the detection of anthrax-related aqueous samples.

  14. Microfluidic sorting and multimodal typing of cancer cells in self-assembled magnetic arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Antoine-Emmanuel; Saias, Laure; Psychari, Eleni; Minc, Nicolas; Simon, Damien; Bidard, François-Clément; Mathiot, Claire; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Fraisier, Vincent; Salamero, Jean; Saada, Véronique; Farace, Françoise; Vielh, Philippe; Malaquin, Laurent; Viovy, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-01

    We propose a unique method for cell sorting, “Ephesia,” using columns of biofunctionalized superparamagnetic beads self-assembled in a microfluidic channel onto an array of magnetic traps prepared by microcontact printing. It combines the advantages of microfluidic cell sorting, notably the application of a well controlled, flow-activated interaction between cells and beads, and those of immunomagnetic sorting, notably the use of batch-prepared, well characterized antibody-bearing beads. On cell lines mixtures, we demonstrated a capture yield better than 94%, and the possibility to cultivate in situ the captured cells. A second series of experiments involved clinical samples—blood, pleural effusion, and fine needle aspirates— issued from healthy donors and patients with B-cell hematological malignant tumors (leukemia and lymphoma). The immunophenotype and morphology of B-lymphocytes were analyzed directly in the microfluidic chamber, and compared with conventional flow cytometry and visual cytology data, in a blind test. Immunophenotyping results using Ephesia were fully consistent with those obtained by flow cytometry. We obtained in situ high resolution confocal three-dimensional images of the cell nuclei, showing intranuclear details consistent with conventional cytological staining. Ephesia thus provides a powerful approach to cell capture and typing allowing fully automated high resolution and quantitative immunophenotyping and morphological analysis. It requires at least 10 times smaller sample volume and cell numbers than cytometry, potentially increasing the range of indications and the success rate of microbiopsy-based diagnosis, and reducing analysis time and cost. PMID:20679245

  15. Microfluidic sorting and multimodal typing of cancer cells in self-assembled magnetic arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Antoine-Emmanuel; Saias, Laure; Psychari, Eleni; Minc, Nicolas; Simon, Damien; Bidard, François-Clément; Mathiot, Claire; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Fraisier, Vincent; Salamero, Jean; Saada, Véronique; Farace, Françoise; Vielh, Philippe; Malaquin, Laurent; Viovy, Jean-Louis

    2010-08-17

    We propose a unique method for cell sorting, "Ephesia," using columns of biofunctionalized superparamagnetic beads self-assembled in a microfluidic channel onto an array of magnetic traps prepared by microcontact printing. It combines the advantages of microfluidic cell sorting, notably the application of a well controlled, flow-activated interaction between cells and beads, and those of immunomagnetic sorting, notably the use of batch-prepared, well characterized antibody-bearing beads. On cell lines mixtures, we demonstrated a capture yield better than 94%, and the possibility to cultivate in situ the captured cells. A second series of experiments involved clinical samples--blood, pleural effusion, and fine needle aspirates--issued from healthy donors and patients with B-cell hematological malignant tumors (leukemia and lymphoma). The immunophenotype and morphology of B-lymphocytes were analyzed directly in the microfluidic chamber, and compared with conventional flow cytometry and visual cytology data, in a blind test. Immunophenotyping results using Ephesia were fully consistent with those obtained by flow cytometry. We obtained in situ high resolution confocal three-dimensional images of the cell nuclei, showing intranuclear details consistent with conventional cytological staining. Ephesia thus provides a powerful approach to cell capture and typing allowing fully automated high resolution and quantitative immunophenotyping and morphological analysis. It requires at least 10 times smaller sample volume and cell numbers than cytometry, potentially increasing the range of indications and the success rate of microbiopsy-based diagnosis, and reducing analysis time and cost. PMID:20679245

  16. Slanted channel microfluidic chip for 3D fluorescence imaging of cells in flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannadh, Veerendra Kalyan; Mackenzie, Mark D; Pal, Parama; Kar, Ajoy K; Gorthi, Sai Siva

    2016-09-19

    Three-dimensional cellular imaging techniques have become indispensable tools in biological research and medical diagnostics. Conventional 3D imaging approaches employ focal stack collection to image different planes of the cell. In this work, we present the design and fabrication of a slanted channel microfluidic chip for 3D fluorescence imaging of cells in flow. The approach employs slanted microfluidic channels fabricated in glass using ultrafast laser inscription. The slanted nature of the microfluidic channels ensures that samples come into and go out of focus, as they pass through the microscope imaging field of view. This novel approach enables the collection of focal stacks in a straight-forward and automated manner, even with off-the-shelf microscopes that are not equipped with any motorized translation/rotation sample stages. The presented approach not only simplifies conventional focal stack collection, but also enhances the capabilities of a regular widefield fluorescence microscope to match the features of a sophisticated confocal microscope. We demonstrate the retrieval of sectioned slices of microspheres and cells, with the use of computational algorithms to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the collected raw images. The retrieved sectioned images have been used to visualize fluorescent microspheres and bovine sperm cell nucleus in 3D while using a regular widefield fluorescence microscope. We have been able to achieve sectioning of approximately 200 slices per cell, which corresponds to a spatial translation of ∼ 15 nm per slice along the optical axis of the microscope.

  17. Microfluidics: an enabling technology for the life sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Zengerle, R.; Koltay, P.; Ducrée, Jens

    2004-01-01

    During the last year we have investigated existing and future markets, products and technologies for microfluidics in the life sciences. Within this paper we present some of the findings and discuss a major trend identified within this project: the development of microfluidic platforms for flexible design of application specific integrated microfluidic systems. We discuss two platforms in detail which are currently under development in our lab: microfluidics on a rotating CD ("Lab-CD") as wel...

  18. Superhydrophobic Surface Coatings for Microfluidics and MEMs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branson, Eric D.; Singh, Seema [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA; Houston, Jack E.; van Swol, Frank B.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2006-11-01

    Low solid interfacial energy and fractally rough surface topography confer to Lotus plants superhydrophobic (SH) properties like high contact angles, rolling and bouncing of liquid droplets, and self-cleaning of particle contaminants. This project exploits the porous fractal structure of a novel, synthetic SH surface for aerosol collection, its self-cleaning properties for particle concentration, and its slippery nature 3 to enhance the performance of fluidic and MEMS devices. We propose to understand fundamentally the conditions needed to cause liquid droplets to roll rather than flow/slide on a surface and how this %22rolling transition%22 influences the boundary condition describing fluid flow in a pipe or micro-channel. Rolling of droplets is important for aerosol collection strategies because it allows trapped particles to be concentrated and transported in liquid droplets with no need for a pre-defined/micromachined fluidic architecture. The fluid/solid boundary condition is important because it governs flow resistance and rheology and establishes the fluid velocity profile. Although many research groups are exploring SH surfaces, our team is the first to unambiguously determine their effects on fluid flow and rheology. SH surfaces could impact all future SNL designs of collectors, fluidic devices, MEMS, and NEMS. Interfaced with inertial focusing aerosol collectors, SH surfaces would allow size-specific particle populations to be collected, concentrated, and transported to a fluidic interface without loss. In microfluidic systems, we expect to reduce the energy/power required to pump fluids and actuate MEMS. Plug-like (rather than parabolic) velocity profiles can greatly improve resolution of chip-based separations and enable unprecedented control of concentration profiles and residence times in fluidic-based micro-reactors. Patterned SH/hydrophilic channels could induce mixing in microchannels and enable development of microflow control elements

  19. Vacuum pressure generation via microfabricated converging-diverging nozzles for operation of automated pneumatic logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoforidis, Theodore; Werner, Erik M; Hui, Elliot E; Eddington, David T

    2016-08-01

    Microfluidic devices with integrated pneumatic logic enable automated fluid handling without requiring external control instruments. These chips offer the additional advantage that they may be powered by vacuum and do not require an electricity source. This work describes a microfluidic converging-diverging (CD) nozzle optimized to generate vacuum at low input pressures, making it suitable for microfluidic applications including powering integrated pneumatic logic. It was found that efficient vacuum pressure was generated for high aspect ratios of the CD nozzle constriction (or throat) width to height and diverging angle of 3.6(o). In specific, for an inlet pressure of 42.2 psia (290.8 kPa) and a volumetric flow rate of approximately 1700 sccm, a vacuum pressure of 8.03 psia (55.3 kPa) was generated. To demonstrate the capabilities of our converging - diverging nozzle device, we connected it to a vacuum powered peristaltic pump driven by integrated pneumatic logic and obtained tunable flow rates from 0 to 130 μL/min. Finally, we demonstrate a proof of concept system for use where electricity and vacuum pressure are not readily available by powering a CD nozzle with a bicycle tire pump and pressure regulator. This system is able to produce a stable vacuum sufficient to drive pneumatic logic, and could be applied to power automated microfluidics in limited resource settings.

  20. Vacuum pressure generation via microfabricated converging-diverging nozzles for operation of automated pneumatic logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoforidis, Theodore; Werner, Erik M; Hui, Elliot E; Eddington, David T

    2016-08-01

    Microfluidic devices with integrated pneumatic logic enable automated fluid handling without requiring external control instruments. These chips offer the additional advantage that they may be powered by vacuum and do not require an electricity source. This work describes a microfluidic converging-diverging (CD) nozzle optimized to generate vacuum at low input pressures, making it suitable for microfluidic applications including powering integrated pneumatic logic. It was found that efficient vacuum pressure was generated for high aspect ratios of the CD nozzle constriction (or throat) width to height and diverging angle of 3.6(o). In specific, for an inlet pressure of 42.2 psia (290.8 kPa) and a volumetric flow rate of approximately 1700 sccm, a vacuum pressure of 8.03 psia (55.3 kPa) was generated. To demonstrate the capabilities of our converging - diverging nozzle device, we connected it to a vacuum powered peristaltic pump driven by integrated pneumatic logic and obtained tunable flow rates from 0 to 130 μL/min. Finally, we demonstrate a proof of concept system for use where electricity and vacuum pressure are not readily available by powering a CD nozzle with a bicycle tire pump and pressure regulator. This system is able to produce a stable vacuum sufficient to drive pneumatic logic, and could be applied to power automated microfluidics in limited resource settings. PMID:27469475

  1. Controlling two-phase flow in microfluidic systems using electrowetting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Hao

    2011-01-01

    Electrowetting (EW)-based digital microfluidic systems (DMF) and droplet-based two-phase flow microfluidic systems (TPF) with closed channels are the most widely used microfluidic platforms. In general, these two approaches have been considered independently. However, integrating the two technologie

  2. Isolation of cancer cells by "in situ" microfluidic biofunctionalization protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vitis, Stefania; Matarise, Giuseppina; Pardeo, Francesca;

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is the development of a microfluidic immunosensor for the immobilization of cancer cells and their separation from healthy cells by using "in situ" microfluidic biofunctionalization protocols. These protocols allow to link antibodies on microfluidic device surfaces and can be...

  3. Control of WWER-440 nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The V-1 reactor control systems are described. The data acquisition and processing system fulfils four main functions, ie., reactor start-up and power increase to 10% of the rated power, automatic power control within 3% and 110% of the rated power, reactivity compensation, and reactor protection. The automatic control system ensures constant steam pressure maintained with an accuracy of +-0.05 MPa. Reactivity compensation and spatial power distribution is mainly safeguarded by boric acid control. The V-1 reactor protection system has four levels of accident protection depending on the gravity of the failure. The philosophy of automation of the V-1 reactor control and protection system is based on autonomous automatic controlers and on the direct control of the individual sets and technological equipment. In conclusion, development trends are briefly outlined of control and protection systems of light water reactor power plants. (Z.M.)

  4. Mechanically activated artificial cell by using microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kenneth K Y; Lee, Lap Man; Liu, Allen P

    2016-01-01

    All living organisms sense mechanical forces. Engineering mechanosensitive artificial cell through bottom-up in vitro reconstitution offers a way to understand how mixtures of macromolecules assemble and organize into a complex system that responds to forces. We use stable double emulsion droplets (aqueous/oil/aqueous) to prototype mechanosensitive artificial cells. In order to demonstrate mechanosensation in artificial cells, we develop a novel microfluidic device that is capable of trapping double emulsions into designated chambers, followed by compression and aspiration in a parallel manner. The microfluidic device is fabricated using multilayer soft lithography technology, and consists of a control layer and a deformable flow channel. Deflections of the PDMS membrane above the main microfluidic flow channels and trapping chamber array are independently regulated pneumatically by two sets of integrated microfluidic valves. We successfully compress and aspirate the double emulsions, which result in transient increase and permanent decrease in oil thickness, respectively. Finally, we demonstrate the influx of calcium ions as a response of our mechanically activated artificial cell through thinning of oil. The development of a microfluidic device to mechanically activate artificial cells creates new opportunities in force-activated synthetic biology.

  5. Valve Concepts for Microfluidic Cell Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grabowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present various pneumatically actuated microfluidic valves to enable user-defined fluid management within a microfluidic chip. To identify a feasible valve design, certain valve concepts are simulated in ANSYS to investigate the pressure dependent opening and closing characteristics of each design. The results are verified in a series of tests. Both the microfluidic layer and the pneumatic layer are realized by means of soft-lithographic techniques. In this way, a network of channels is fabricated in photoresist as a molding master. By casting these masters with PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane we get polymeric replicas containing the channel network. After a plasma-enhanced bonding process, the two layers are irreversibly bonded to each other. The bonding is tight for pressures up to 2 bar. The valves are integrated into a microfluidic cell handling system that is designed to manipulate cells in the presence of a liquid reagent (e.g. PEG – polyethylene glycol, for cell fusion. For this purpose a user-defined fluid management system is developed. The first test series with human cell lines show that the microfluidic chip is suitable for accumulating cells within a reaction chamber, where they can be flushed by a liquid medium.

  6. Mechanically activated artificial cell by using microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kenneth K. Y.; Lee, Lap Man; Liu, Allen P.

    2016-01-01

    All living organisms sense mechanical forces. Engineering mechanosensitive artificial cell through bottom-up in vitro reconstitution offers a way to understand how mixtures of macromolecules assemble and organize into a complex system that responds to forces. We use stable double emulsion droplets (aqueous/oil/aqueous) to prototype mechanosensitive artificial cells. In order to demonstrate mechanosensation in artificial cells, we develop a novel microfluidic device that is capable of trapping double emulsions into designated chambers, followed by compression and aspiration in a parallel manner. The microfluidic device is fabricated using multilayer soft lithography technology, and consists of a control layer and a deformable flow channel. Deflections of the PDMS membrane above the main microfluidic flow channels and trapping chamber array are independently regulated pneumatically by two sets of integrated microfluidic valves. We successfully compress and aspirate the double emulsions, which result in transient increase and permanent decrease in oil thickness, respectively. Finally, we demonstrate the influx of calcium ions as a response of our mechanically activated artificial cell through thinning of oil. The development of a microfluidic device to mechanically activate artificial cells creates new opportunities in force-activated synthetic biology. PMID:27610921

  7. Material Biocompatibility for PCR Microfluidic Chips

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2010-04-23

    As part of the current miniaturization trend, biological reactions and processes are being adapted to microfluidics devices. PCR is the primary method employed in DNA amplification, its miniaturization is central to efforts to develop portable devices for diagnostics and testing purposes. A problem is the PCR-inhibitory effect due to interaction between PCR reagents and the surrounding environment, which effect is increased in high-surface-are-to-volume ration microfluidics. In this study, we evaluated the biocompatibility of various common materials employed in the fabrication of microfluidic chips, including silicon, several kinds of silicon oxide, glasses, plastics, wax, and adhesives. Two-temperature PCR was performed with these materials to determine their PCR-inhibitory effect. In most of the cases, addition of bovine serum albumin effectively improved the reaction yield. We also studied the individual PCR components from the standpoint of adsorption. Most of the materials did not inhibit the DNA, whereas they did show noticeable interaction with the DNA polymerase. Our test, instead of using microfluidic devices, can be easily conducted in common PCR tubes using a standard bench thermocycler. Our data supports an overview of the means by which the materials most bio-friendly to microfluidics can be selected.

  8. Microfluidic CODES: a scalable multiplexed electronic sensor for orthogonal detection of particles in microfluidic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruxiu; Wang, Ningquan; Kamili, Farhan; Sarioglu, A Fatih

    2016-04-21

    Numerous biophysical and biochemical assays rely on spatial manipulation of particles/cells as they are processed on lab-on-a-chip devices. Analysis of spatially distributed particles on these devices typically requires microscopy negating the cost and size advantages of microfluidic assays. In this paper, we introduce a scalable electronic sensor technology, called microfluidic CODES, that utilizes resistive pulse sensing to orthogonally detect particles in multiple microfluidic channels from a single electrical output. Combining the techniques from telecommunications and microfluidics, we route three coplanar electrodes on a glass substrate to create multiple Coulter counters producing distinct orthogonal digital codes when they detect particles. We specifically design a digital code set using the mathematical principles of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) telecommunication networks and can decode signals from different microfluidic channels with >90% accuracy through computation even if these signals overlap. As a proof of principle, we use this technology to detect human ovarian cancer cells in four different microfluidic channels fabricated using soft lithography. Microfluidic CODES offers a simple, all-electronic interface that is well suited to create integrated, low-cost lab-on-a-chip devices for cell- or particle-based assays in resource-limited settings.

  9. Microfluidics in the selection of affinity reagents for the detection of cancer: paving a way towards future diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Lien-Yu; Wang, Chih-Hung; Fu, Chien-Yu; Gopinathan, Priya; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2016-08-01

    Microfluidic technologies have miniaturized a variety of biomedical applications, and these chip-based systems have several significant advantages over their large-scale counterparts. Recently, this technology has been used for automating labor-intensive and time-consuming screening processes, whereby affinity reagents, including aptamers, peptides, antibodies, polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and a variety of small molecules, are used to probe for molecular biomarkers. When compared to conventional methods, the microfluidic approaches are faster, more compact, require considerably smaller quantities of samples and reagents, and can be automated. Furthermore, they allow for more precise control of reaction conditions (e.g., pH, temperature, and shearing forces) such that more efficient screening can be performed. A variety of affinity reagents for targeting cancer cells or cancer biomarkers are now available and will likely replace conventional antibodies. In this review article, the selection of affinity reagents for cancer cells or cancer biomarkers on microfluidic platforms is reviewed with the aim of highlighting the utility of such approaches in cancer diagnostics. PMID:27381813

  10. Microfluidics of soft granular gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Ryan; Bhattacharjee, Tapomoy; Sawyer, W. Gregory; Angelini, Thomas E.

    Microfluidic methods for encapsulating cells and particles typically involve drop making with two immiscible fluids. The main materials constraint in this approach is surface tension, creating inherent instability between the two fluids. We can eliminate this instability by using miscible inner and outer phases. This is achieved by using granular micro gels which are chemically miscible but physically do not mix. These microgels are yield stress materials, so they flow as solid plugs far from shear gradients, and fluidize where gradients are generated - near an injection nozzle for example. We have found that tuning the yield stress of the material by varying polymer concentration, device performance can be controlled. The solid like behavior of the gel allows us to produces infinitely stable jets that maintain their integrity and configuration over long distances and times. These properties can be combined and manipulated to produce discrete particulate bunches of an inner phase, flowing inside of an outer phase, well enough even to print a Morse code message suspended within flow chambers about a millimeter in diameter moving at millimeters a second.

  11. Droplet Microfluidics for Virus Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotem, Assaf; Cockrell, Shelley; Guo, Mira; Pipas, James; Weitz, David

    2012-02-01

    The ability to detect, isolate, and characterize an infectious agent is important for diagnosing and curing infectious diseases. Detecting new viral diseases is a challenge because the number of virus particles is often low and/or localized to a small subset of cells. Even if a new virus is detected, it is difficult to isolate it from clinical or environmental samples where multiple viruses are present each with very different properties. Isolation is crucial for whole genome sequencing because reconstructing a genome from fragments of many different genomes is practically impossible. We present a Droplet Microfluidics platform that can detect, isolate and sequence single viral genomes from complex samples containing mixtures of many viruses. We use metagenomic information about the sample of mixed viruses to select a short genomic sequence whose genome we are interested in characterizing. We then encapsulate single virions from the same sample in picoliter volume droplets and screen for successful PCR amplification of the sequence of interest. The selected drops are pooled and their contents sequenced to reconstruct the genome of interest. This method provides a general tool for detecting, isolating and sequencing genetic elements in clinical and environmental samples.

  12. An electric stimulation system for electrokinetic particle manipulation in microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-de la Fuente, M. S.; Moncada-Hernandez, H.; Perez-Gonzalez, V. H.; Lapizco-Encinas, B. H.; Martinez-Chapa, S. O.

    2013-03-01

    Microfluidic devices have grown significantly in the number of applications. Microfabrication techniques have evolved considerably; however, electric stimulation systems for microdevices have not advanced at the same pace. Electric stimulation of micro-fluidic devices is an important element in particle manipulation research. A flexible stimulation instrument is desired to perform configurable, repeatable, automated, and reliable experiments by allowing users to select the stimulation parameters. The instrument presented here is a configurable and programmable stimulation system for electrokinetic-driven microfluidic devices; it consists of a processor, a memory system, and a user interface to deliver several types of waveforms and stimulation patterns. It has been designed to be a flexible, highly configurable, low power instrument capable of delivering sine, triangle, and sawtooth waveforms with one single frequency or two superimposed frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 40 kHz, and an output voltage of up to 30 Vpp. A specific stimulation pattern can be delivered over a single time period or as a sequence of different signals for different time periods. This stimulation system can be applied as a research tool where manipulation of particles suspended in liquid media is involved, such as biology, medicine, environment, embryology, and genetics. This system has the potential to lead to new schemes for laboratory procedures by allowing application specific and user defined electric stimulation. The development of this device is a step towards portable and programmable instrumentation for electric stimulation on electrokinetic-based microfluidic devices, which are meant to be integrated with lab-on-a-chip devices.

  13. Micro-fluidic module for blood cell separation for gene expression radiobiological assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in molecular techniques have improved discovery of biomarkers associated with radiation exposure. Gene expression techniques have been demonstrated as effective tools for biodosimetry, and different assay platforms with different chemistries are now available. One of the main challenges is to integrate the sample preparation processing of these assays into micro-fluidic platforms to be fully automated for point-of-care medical countermeasures in the case of a radiological event. Most of these assays follow the same workflow processing that comprises first the collection of blood samples followed by cellular and molecular sample preparation. The sample preparation is based on the specific reagents of the assay system and depends also on the different subsets of cells population and the type of biomarkers of interest. In this article, the authors present a module for isolation of white blood cells from peripheral blood as a prerequisite for automation of gene expression assays on a micro-fluidic cartridge. For each sample condition, the gene expression platform can be adapted to suit the requirements of the selected assay chemistry (authors)

  14. About Small Streams and Shiny Rocks: Macromolecular Crystal Growth in Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderWoerd, Mark; Ferree, Darren; Spearing, Scott; Monaco, Lisa; Molho, Josh; Spaid, Michael; Brasseur, Mike; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We are developing a novel technique with which we have grown diffraction quality protein crystals in very small volumes, utilizing chip-based, microfluidic ("LabChip") technology. With this technology volumes smaller than achievable with any laboratory pipette can be dispensed with high accuracy. We have performed a feasibility study in which we crystallized several proteins with the aid of a LabChip device. The protein crystals are of excellent quality as shown by X-ray diffraction. The advantages of this new technology include improved accuracy of dispensing for small volumes, complete mixing of solution constituents without bubble formation, highly repeatable recipe and growth condition replication, and easy automation of the method. We have designed a first LabChip device specifically for protein crystallization in batch mode and can reliably dispense and mix from a range of solution constituents. We are currently testing this design. Upon completion additional crystallization techniques, such as vapor diffusion and liquid-liquid diffusion will be accommodated. Macromolecular crystallization using microfluidic technology is envisioned as a fully automated system, which will use the 'tele-science' concept of remote operation and will be developed into a research facility aboard the International Space Station.

  15. Microfluidic serpentine antennas with designed mechanical tunability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, YongAn; Wang, Yezhou; Xiao, Lin; Liu, Huimin; Dong, Wentao; Yin, Zhouping

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes the design and characterization of microfluidic serpentine antennas with reversible stretchability and designed mechanical frequency modulation (FM). The microfluidic antennas are designed based on the Poisson's ratio of the elastomer in which the liquid alloy antenna is embedded, to controllably decrease, stabilize or increase its resonance frequency when being stretched. Finite element modelling was used in combination with experimental verification to investigate the effects of substrate dimensions and antenna aspect ratios on the FM sensitivity to uniaxial stretching. It could be designed within the range of -1.2 to 0.6 GHz per 100% stretch. When the aspect ratio of the serpentine antenna is between 1.0 and 1.5, the resonance frequency is stable under stretching, bending, and twisting. The presented microfluidic serpentine antenna design could be utilized in the field of wireless mobile communication for the design of wearable electronics, with a stable resonance frequency under dynamic applied strain up to 50%.

  16. Microfluidic Pumps Containing Teflon [Trademark] AF Diaphragms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Peter; White, Victor; Grunthaner, Frank; Ikeda, Mike; Mathies, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    Microfluidic pumps and valves based on pneumatically actuated diaphragms made of Teflon AF polymers are being developed for incorporation into laboratory-on-a-chip devices that must perform well over temperature ranges wider than those of prior diaphragm-based microfluidic pumps and valves. Other potential applications include implanted biomedical microfluidic devices, wherein the biocompatability of Teflon AF polymers would be highly advantageous. These pumps and valves have been demonstrated to function stably after cycling through temperatures from -125 to 120 C. These pumps and valves are intended to be successors to similar prior pumps and valves containing diaphragms made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) [commonly known as silicone rubber]. The PDMS-containing valves ae designed to function stably only within the temperature range from 5 to 80 C. Undesirably, PDMS membranes are somwehat porous and retain water. PDMS is especially unsuitable for use at temperatures below 0 C because the formation of ice crystals increases porosity and introduces microshear.

  17. Droplets and Bubbles in Microfluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Shelley Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Precise, tunable emulsions and foams produced in microfluidic geometries have found wide application in biochemical analysis and materials synthesis and characterization. Superb control of the volume, uniformity, and generation rate of droplets and bubbles arises from unique features of the microscale behavior of fluid interfaces. Fluid interfaces confined within microfluidic channels behave quite differently than their counterparts in unbounded flows. Confinement inhibits capillary instabilities so that breakup occurs by largely quasi-static mechanisms. The three-dimensional flow near confined interfaces in rectangular geometries and feedback effects from resistance changes in the entire microfluidic network play important roles in regulating the interfacial deformation. Timescales for transport of surfactants and particles to interfaces compete with flow timescales at the microscale, providing further opportunity for tuning the interfacial coverage and properties of individual droplets and bubbles.

  18. Bridging Flows: Microfluidic End‐User Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabourin, David

    . A second practical challenge users face stems from the peripheral equipment, e.g. pumps, required to drive microfluidic devices. This equipment is often costly and bulky and results in limitations and restrictions on microfluidic device operation, such as the number of channels or devices which can...... be actuated or microscopic observation. To address the above issues interconnection and pumping solutions were developed. Methods for creating multiple, aligned, parallel and planar interconnections well suited to microscopy are described. Both reusable, non‐integrated, and permanent, integrated...... interconnection solutions are presented. The construction of twelve and eight channel miniaturized, mechanically actuated peristaltic pumps is also described. The small footprint of the pumps allows their placement adjacent to microfluidic devices and on microscope stages. The reusable, non...

  19. Planar microfluidics - liquid handling without walls

    CERN Document Server

    Rathgeber, A; Kutschera, H J; Wixforth, A

    2001-01-01

    The miniaturization and integration of electronic circuitry has not only made the enormous increase in performance of semiconductor devices possible but also spawned a myriad of new products and applications ranging from a cellular phone to a personal computer. Similarly, the miniaturization and integration of chemical and biological processes will revolutionize life sciences. Drug design and diagnostics in the genomic era require reliable and cost effective high throughput technologies which can be integrated and allow for a massive parallelization. Microfluidics is the core technology to realize such miniaturized laboratories with feature sizes on a submillimeter scale. Here, we report on a novel microfluidic technology meeting the basic requirements for a microfluidic processor analogous to those of its electronic counterpart: Cost effective production, modular design, high speed, scalability and programmability.

  20. Uniform yeast cell assembly via microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Wen; He, Peng; Marquez, Samantha M; Cheng, Zhengdong

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports the use of microfluidic approaches for the fabrication of yeastosomes (yeast-celloidosomes) based on self-assembly of yeast cells onto liquid-solid or liquid-gas interfaces. Precise control over fluidic flows in droplet- and bubble-forming microfluidic devices allows production of monodispersed, size-selected templates. The general strategy to organize and assemble living cells is to tune electrostatic attractions between the template (gel or gas core) and the cells via surface charging. Layer-by-Layer (LbL) polyelectrolyte deposition was employed to invert or enhance charges of solid surfaces. We demonstrated the ability to produce high-quality, monolayer-shelled yeastosome structures under proper conditions when sufficient electrostatic driving forces are present. The combination of microfluidic fabrication with cell self-assembly enables a versatile platform for designing synthetic hierarchy bio-structures. PMID:22655026

  1. A perspective on microfluidic biofuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Kjeang, Erik

    2010-01-01

    This review article presents how microfluidic technologies and biological materials are paired to assist in the development of low cost, green energy fuel cell systems. Miniaturized biological fuel cells, employing enzymes or microorganisms as biocatalysts in an environmentally benign configuration, can become an attractive candidate for small-scale power source applications such as biological sensors, implantable medical devices, and portable electronics. State-of-the-art biofuel cell technologies are reviewed with emphasis on microfabrication compatibility and microfluidic fuel cell designs. Integrated microfluidic biofuel cell prototypes are examined with comparisons of their performance achievements and fabrication methods. The technical challenges for further developments and the potential research opportunities for practical cell designs are discussed.

  2. Temperature Sensing in Modular Microfluidic Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisna C. Bhargava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A discrete microfluidic element with integrated thermal sensor was fabricated and demonstrated as an effective probe for process monitoring and prototyping. Elements were constructed using stereolithography and market-available glass-bodied thermistors within the modular, standardized framework of previous discrete microfluidic elements demonstrated in the literature. Flow rate-dependent response due to sensor self-heating and microchannel heating and cooling was characterized and shown to be linear in typical laboratory conditions. An acid-base neutralization reaction was performed in a continuous flow setting to demonstrate applicability in process management: the ratio of solution flow rates was varied to locate the equivalence point in a titration, closely matching expected results. This element potentially enables complex, three-dimensional microfluidic architectures with real-time temperature feedback and flow rate sensing, without application specificity or restriction to planar channel routing formats.

  3. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole reactor building is accommodated in a shaft and is sealed level with the earth's surface by a building ceiling, which provides protection against penetration due to external effects. The building ceiling is supported on walls of the reactor building, which line the shaft and transfer the vertical components of forces to the foundations. The thickness of the walls is designed to withstand horizontal pressure waves in the floor. The building ceiling has an opening above the reactor, which must be closed by cover plates. Operating equipment for the reactor can be situated above the building ceiling. (orig./HP)

  4. Microfluidic chip-capillary electrophoresis devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fung, Ying Sing; Du, Fuying; Guo, Wenpeng; Ma, Tongmei; Nie, Zhou; Sun, Hui; Wu, Ruige; Zhao, Wenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and microfluidic chip (MC) devices are relatively mature technologies, but this book demonstrates how they can be integrated into a single, revolutionary device that can provide on-site analysis of samples when laboratory services are unavailable. By introducing the combination of CE and MC technology, Microfluidic Chip-Capillary Electrophoresis Devices broadens the scope of chemical analysis, particularly in the biomedical, food, and environmental sciences.The book gives an overview of the development of MC and CE technology as well as technology that now allows

  5. Integrated Microfluidic Sensor System with Magnetostrictive Resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Cai

    2011-12-08

    The present embodiments describe a method that integrates a magnetostrictive sensor with driving and detecting elements into a microfluidic chip to detect a chemical, biochemical or biomedical species. These embodiments may also measure the properties of a fluid such as viscosity, pH values. The whole system can be referred to lab-on-a-chip (LOC) or micro-total-analysis-systems (.mu.TAS). In particular, this present embodiments include three units, including a microfluidics unit, a magnetostrictive sensor, and driving/detecting elements. An analyzer may also be provided to analyze an electrical signal associated with a feature of a target specimen.

  6. Microfluidic Assessment of Frying Oil Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Xie, Shaorong; Ge, Ji; Xu, Zhensong; Wu, Zhizheng; Ru, Changhai; Luo, Jun; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring the quality of frying oil is important for the health of consumers. This paper reports a microfluidic technique for rapidly quantifying the degradation of frying oil. The microfluidic device generates monodispersed water-in-oil droplets and exploits viscosity and interfacial tension changes of frying oil samples over their frying/degradation process. The measured parameters were correlated to the total polar material percentage that is widely used in the food industry. The results reveal that the steady-state length of droplets can be used for unambiguously assessing frying oil quality degradation. PMID:27312884

  7. Microfluidic fuel cells for energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, M; Jänis, J; Sánchez, S

    2016-08-01

    Sustainable energy generation is of recent interest due to a growing energy demand across the globe and increasing environmental issues caused by conventional non-renewable means of power generation. In the context of microsystems, portable electronics and lab-on-a-chip based (bio)chemical sensors would essentially require fully integrated, reliable means of power generation. Microfluidic-based fuel cells can offer unique advantages compared to conventional fuel cells such as high surface area-to-volume ratio, ease of integration, cost effectiveness and portability. Here, we summarize recent developments which utilize the potential of microfluidic devices for energy generation. PMID:27367869

  8. Droplet actuation in an electrified microfluidic network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehking, Jonathan D; Kumar, Ranganathan

    2015-02-01

    This work demonstrates that liquid droplet emulsions in a microchannel can be deformed, decelerated and/or pinned by applying a suitable electrical potential. By concentrating a potential gradient at the corners, we show that different droplets can be passively binned by size and on demand in a branched microfluidic device. The deformation, deceleration, squeezing and release of droplets in a three-dimensional numerical simulation are qualitatively verified by experiments in a PDMS microfluidic device. The forces required for pinning or binning a droplet provide a delicate balance between hydrodynamics and the electric field, and are obtained using appropriate non-dimensional parameters. PMID:25435073

  9. Physics and applications of microfluidics in biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, David J; Mensing, Glennys A; Walker, Glenn M

    2002-01-01

    Fluid flow at the microscale exhibits unique phenomena that can be leveraged to fabricate devices and components capable of performing functions useful for biological studies. The physics of importance to microfluidics are reviewed. Common methods of fabricating microfluidic devices and systems are described. Components, including valves, mixers, and pumps, capable of controlling fluid flow by utilizing the physics of the microscale are presented. Techniques for sensing flow characteristics are described and examples of devices and systems that perform bioanalysis are presented. The focus of this review is microscale phenomena and the use of the physics of the scale to create devices and systems that provide functionality useful to the life sciences.

  10. Diffusion dynamics in microfluidic dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Balslev, Søren; Mortensen, Niels Asger;

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the bleaching dynamics that occur in opto-fluidic dye lasers, where the liquid laser dye in a channel is locally bleached due to optical pumping. Our studies suggest that for micro-fluidic devices, the dye bleaching may be compensated through diffusion of dye molecules alone....... By relying on diffusion rather than convection to generate the necessary dye replenishment, our observation potentially allows for a significant simplification of opto-fluidic dye laser device layouts, omitting the need for cumbersome and costly external fluidic handling or on-chip micro-fluidic pumping...

  11. Microfluidic Assessment of Frying Oil Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Xie, Shaorong; Ge, Ji; Xu, Zhensong; Wu, Zhizheng; Ru, Changhai; Luo, Jun; Sun, Yu

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring the quality of frying oil is important for the health of consumers. This paper reports a microfluidic technique for rapidly quantifying the degradation of frying oil. The microfluidic device generates monodispersed water-in-oil droplets and exploits viscosity and interfacial tension changes of frying oil samples over their frying/degradation process. The measured parameters were correlated to the total polar material percentage that is widely used in the food industry. The results reveal that the steady-state length of droplets can be used for unambiguously assessing frying oil quality degradation.

  12. A network-flow based valve-switching aware binding algorithm for flow-based microfluidic biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tseng, Kai-Han; You, Sheng-Chi; Minhass, Wajid Hassan;

    2013-01-01

    biochip needs more chip-integrated micro-valves, i.e., the basic unit of fluid-handling functionality, to manipulate the fluid flow for biochemical applications. Moreover, frequent switching of micro-valves results in decreased reliability. To minimize the valve-switching activities, we develop a network-flow...... based resource binding algorithm based on breadth-first search (BFS) and minimum cost maximum flow (MCMF) in architectural-level synthesis. The experimental results show that our methodology not only makes significant reduction of valve-switching activities but also diminishes the application completion......Designs of flow-based microfluidic biochips are receiving much attention recently because they replace conventional biological automation paradigm and are able to integrate different biochemical analysis functions on a chip. However, as the design complexity increases, a flow-based microfluidic...

  13. A microBio reactor for hydrogen production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volponi, Joanne V.; Walker, Andrew William

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore the potential of developing a microfluidic reactor capable of enzymatically converting glucose and other carbohydrates to hydrogen. This aggressive project was motivated by work in enzymatic hydrogen production done by Woodward et al. at OWL. The work reported here demonstrated that hydrogen could be produced from the enzymatic oxidation of glucose. Attempts at immobilizing the enzymes resulted in reduced hydrogen production rates, probably due to buffer compatibility issues. A novel in-line sensor was also developed to monitor hydrogen production in real time at levels below 1 ppm. Finally, a theoretical design for the microfluidic reactor was developed but never produced due to the low production rates of hydrogen from the immobilized enzymes. However, this work demonstrated the potential of mimicking biological systems to create energy on the microscale.

  14. Microfluidics' great promise for Biology - Microfluidics as a new engine for the molecular sciences

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2010-06-04

    History of the Life Sciences Origins of life Discoveries and instrumentation The power of genetic variation Diagnostics based on DNA/ protein variation Genomic scanning providers DNA sequencing companies Microfluidics story Commercial products available P

  15. Expanding Imaging Capabilities for Microfluidics: Applicability of Darkfield Internal Reflection Illumination (DIRI) to Observations in Microfluidics

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshihiro Kawano; Chino Otsuka; James Sanzo; Christopher Higgins; Tatsuo Nirei; Tobias Schilling; Takuji Ishikawa

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidics is used increasingly for engineering and biomedical applications due to recent advances in microfabrication technologies. Visualization of bubbles, tracer particles, and cells in a microfluidic device is important for designing a device and analyzing results. However, with conventional methods, it is difficult to observe the channel geometry and such particles simultaneously. To overcome this limitation, we developed a Darkfield Internal Reflection Illumination (DIRI) system tha...

  16. A nanoliter-scale open chemical reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galas, Jean-Christophe; Haghiri-Gosnet, Anne-Marie; Estévez-Torres, André

    2013-02-01

    An open chemical reactor is a container that exchanges matter with the exterior. Well-mixed open chemical reactors, called continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR), have been instrumental for investigating the dynamics of out-of-equilibrium chemical processes, such as oscillations, bistability, and chaos. Here, we introduce a microfluidic CSTR, called μCSTR, that reduces reagent consumption by six orders of magnitude. It consists of an annular reactor with four inlets and one outlet fabricated in PDMS using multi-layer soft lithography. A monolithic peristaltic pump feeds fresh reagents into the reactor through the inlets. After each injection the content of the reactor is continuously mixed with a second peristaltic pump. The efficiency of the μCSTR is experimentally characterized using a bromate, sulfite, ferrocyanide pH oscillator. Simulations accounting for the digital injection process are in agreement with experimental results. The low consumption of the μCSTR will be advantageous for investigating out-of-equilibrium dynamics of chemical processes involving biomolecules. These studies have been scarce so far because a miniaturized version of a CSTR was not available.

  17. Fault-tolerant digital microfluidic biochips compilation and synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Pop, Paul; Stuart, Elena; Madsen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This book describes for researchers in the fields of compiler technology, design and test, and electronic design automation the new area of digital microfluidic biochips (DMBs), and thus offers a new application area for their methods.  The authors present a routing-based model of operation execution, along with several associated compilation approaches, which progressively relax the assumption that operations execute inside fixed rectangular modules.  Since operations can experience transient faults during the execution of a bioassay, the authors show how to use both offline (design time) and online (runtime) recovery strategies. The book also presents methods for the synthesis of fault-tolerant application-specific DMB architectures. ·         Presents the current models used for the research on compilation and synthesis techniques of DMBs in a tutorial fashion; ·         Includes a set of “benchmarks”, which are presented in great detail and includes the source code of most of the t...

  18. A microfluidic method for dopamine uptake measurements in dopaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Shamsi, Mohtashim H; Krastev, Dimitar L; Dryden, Michael D M; Leung, Yen; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2016-02-01

    Dopamine (DA) is a classical neurotransmitter and dysfunction in its synaptic handling underlies many neurological disorders, including addiction, depression, and neurodegeneration. A key to understanding DA dysfunction is the accurate measurement of dopamine uptake by dopaminergic neurons. Current methods that allow for the analysis of dopamine uptake rely on standard multiwell-plate based ELISA, or on carbon-fibre microelectrodes used in in vivo recording techniques. The former suffers from challenges associated with automation and analyte degradation, while the latter has low throughput and is not ideal for laboratory screening. In response to these challenges, we introduce a digital microfluidic platform to evaluate dopamine homeostasis in in vitro neuron culture. The method features voltammetric dopamine sensors with limit of detection of 30 nM integrated with cell culture sites for multi-day neuron culture and differentiation. We demonstrate the utility of the new technique for DA uptake assays featuring in-line culture and analysis, with a determination of uptake of approximately ∼32 fmol in 10 min per virtual microwell (each containing ∼200 differentiated SH-SY5Y cells). We propose that future generations of this technique will be useful for drug discovery for neurodegenerative disease as well as for a wide range of applications that would benefit from integrated cell culture and electroanalysis. PMID:26725686

  19. Production of RAFT imprinted smart hydrogel particles in a continuous flow micro-reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Carla; Freitas, Ana; Kadhirvel, Porkodi; Dias, Rolando; Costa, Mário

    2014-01-01

    Feasibility of the production of RAFT imprinted smart hydrogel particles in continuous flow micro-reactor is here showed. Microfluidic continuous operation was combined with RAFT polymerization and molecular imprinting tecniques involving selected template molecules. New strategies for the production of advanced materials with tailored properties are thus developed. Particles syntetized in the continuous flow micro-reactor (set-up scheme depicted in the graphical abstract) were purified and c...

  20. Automate functional testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kalindri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, software engineers are increasingly turning to the option of automating functional tests, but not always have successful in this endeavor. Reasons range from low planning until over cost in the process. Some principles that can guide teams in automating these tests are described in this article.

  1. Automation in Warehouse Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg, R.; Verriet, J.

    2012-01-01

    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and support

  2. Work and Programmable Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Paul W.

    A new industrial era based on electronics and the microprocessor has arrived, an era that is being called intelligent automation. Intelligent automation, in the form of robots, replaces workers, and the new products, using microelectronic devices, require significantly less labor to produce than the goods they replace. The microprocessor thus…

  3. Library Automation Style Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord Bros., Liverpool, NY.

    This library automation style guide lists specific terms and names often used in the library automation industry. The terms and/or acronyms are listed alphabetically and each is followed by a brief definition. The guide refers to the "Chicago Manual of Style" for general rules, and a notes section is included for the convenience of individual…

  4. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  5. Application of membrane technology in microfluidic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Jorrit

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the application of membrane technology in microfluidic systems. The word ‘microfluidic’ refers to the research field that develops methods and devices to control, manipulate, and analyze flows in sub‐millimeter dimensions. General advantages of this miniaturization strategy inc

  6. Nanostructures for all-polymer microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matschuk, Maria; Bruus, Henrik; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2010-01-01

    antistiction coating was found to improve the replication fidelity (shape and depth) of nanoscale features substantially. Arrays of holes of 50 nm diameter/35 nm depth and 100 nm/100 nm diameter, respectively, were mass-produced in cyclic olefin copolymer (Topas 5013) by injection molding. Polymer microfluidic...

  7. Inventions Utilizing Microfluidics and Colloidal Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, David W.; Gong, Tieying; Oakey, John; Terray, Alexander V.; Wu, David T.

    2009-01-01

    Several related inventions pertain to families of devices that utilize microfluidics and/or colloidal particles to obtain useful physical effects. The families of devices can be summarized as follows: (1) Microfluidic pumps and/or valves wherein colloidal-size particles driven by electrical, magnetic, or optical fields serve as the principal moving parts that propel and/or direct the affected flows. (2) Devices that are similar to the aforementioned pumps and/or valves except that they are used to manipulate light instead of fluids. The colloidal particles in these devices are substantially constrained to move in a plane and are driven to spatially order them into arrays that function, variously, as waveguides, filters, or switches for optical signals. (3) Devices wherein the ultra-laminar nature of microfluidic flows is exploited to effect separation, sorting, or filtering of colloidal particles or biological cells in suspension. (4) Devices wherein a combination of confinement and applied electrical and/or optical fields forces the colloidal particles to become arranged into three-dimensional crystal lattices. Control of the colloidal crystalline structures could be exploited to control diffraction of light. (5) Microfluidic devices, incorporating fluid waveguides, wherein switching of flows among different paths would be accompanied by switching of optical signals.

  8. Micromechanical photothermal analyser of microfluidic samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a micromechanical photothermal analyser of microfluidic samples comprising an oblong micro-channel extending longitudinally from a support element, the micro-channel is made from at least two materials with different thermal expansion coefficients, wherein the...

  9. Wax-bonding 3D microfluidic chips

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Xiuqing

    2013-10-10

    We report a simple, low-cost and detachable microfluidic chip incorporating easily accessible paper, glass slides or other polymer films as the chip materials along with adhesive wax as the recycling bonding material. We use a laser to cut through the paper or film to form patterns and then sandwich the paper and film between glass sheets or polymer membranes . The hot-melt adhesive wax can realize bridge bonding between various materials, for example, paper, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) film, glass sheets, or metal plate. The bonding process is reversible and the wax is reusable through a melting and cooling process. With this process, a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip is achievable by vacuating and venting the chip in a hot-water bath. To study the biocompatibility and applicability of the wax-based microfluidic chip, we tested the PCR compatibility with the chip materials first. Then we applied the wax-paper based microfluidic chip to HeLa cell electroporation (EP ). Subsequently, a prototype of a 5-layer 3D chip was fabricated by multilayer wax bonding. To check the sealing ability and the durability of the chip, green fluorescence protein (GFP) recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria were cultured, with which the chemotaxis of E. coli was studied in order to determine the influence of antibiotic ciprofloxacin concentration on the E. coli migration.

  10. Biocatalytic process development using microfluidic miniaturized systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krühne, Ulrich; Heintz, Søren; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer;

    2014-01-01

    The increasing interest in biocatalytic processes means there is a clear need for a new systematic development paradigm which encompasses both protein engineering and process engineering. This paper argues that through the use of a new microfluidic platform, data can be collected more rapidly and...

  11. Designing Polymeric Microfluidic Platforms for Biomedical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedarethinam, Indumathi

    Micro- and Nanotechnology have the potential to offer a smart solution for diagnostics and academia research with rapid, low cost, robust analysis systems to facilitate biological analyses. New, high throughput microfluidic platforms have the potential to surpass in performance the conventional a...

  12. Microfluidic desalination techniques and their potential applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, S.H.; Berg, van den A.; Odijk, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this review we discuss recent developments in the emerging research field of miniaturized desalination. Traditionally desalination is performed to convert salt water into potable water and research is focused on improving performance of large-scale desalination plants. Microfluidic desalination o

  13. Understanding cell passage through constricted microfluidic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartas-Ayala, Marco A.; Karnik, Rohit

    2012-11-01

    Recently, several microfluidic platforms have been proposed to characterize cells based on their behaviour during cell passage through constricted channels. Variables like transit time have been analyzed in disease states like sickle cell anemia, malaria and sepsis. Nevertheless, it is hard to make direct comparisons between different platforms and cell types. We present experimental results of the relationship between solid deformable particle properties, i.e. stiffness and relative particle size, and flow properties, i.e. particle's velocity. We measured the hydrodynamic variables during the flow of HL-60 cells, a white myeloid cell type, in narrow microfluidic square channels using a microfluidic differential manometer. We measured the flow force required to move cells of different sizes through microchannels and quantified friction forces opposing cell passage. We determined the non-dimensional parameters that influence the flow of cells and we used them to obtain a non dimensional expression that can be used to predict the forces needed to drive cells through microchannels. We found that the friction force needed to flow HL-60 through a microfluidic channel is the sum of two parts. The first part is a static friction force that is proportional to the force needed to keep the force compressed. The second part is a factor that is proportional to the cell velocity, hence a dynamic term, and slightly sensitive to the compressive force. We thank CONACYT (Mexican Science and Technology Council) for supporting this project, grant 205899.

  14. Calculational-theoretical studies of the system of local automated regulators and lateral ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of engineering synthesis of the systems for nuclear reactor local automated power regulation and radial-azimuthal energy distribution stabilization operating according to lateral ionization chamber signals are described. Results of calculational-theoretical investigations into the system efficiency and peculiarities of its reaction to some perturbations typical of the RBMK type reactors are considered

  15. Automation in immunohematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Meenu; Kaur, Ravneet; Gupta, Ekta

    2012-07-01

    There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process.

  16. Automation in Immunohematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Bajpai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process.

  17. Automation in immunohematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Meenu; Kaur, Ravneet; Gupta, Ekta

    2012-07-01

    There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process. PMID:22988378

  18. Automation in Warehouse Development

    CERN Document Server

    Verriet, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and supports the quality of picking processes. Secondly, the development of models to simulate and analyse warehouse designs and their components facilitates the challenging task of developing warehouses that take into account each customer’s individual requirements and logistic processes. Automation in Warehouse Development addresses both types of automation from the innovative perspective of applied science. In particular, it describes the outcomes of the Falcon project, a joint endeavour by a consortium of industrial and academic partners. The results include a model-based approach to automate warehouse control design, analysis models for warehouse design, concepts for robotic item handling and computer vision, and auton...

  19. Automated model building

    CERN Document Server

    Caferra, Ricardo; Peltier, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    This is the first book on automated model building, a discipline of automated deduction that is of growing importance Although models and their construction are important per se, automated model building has appeared as a natural enrichment of automated deduction, especially in the attempt to capture the human way of reasoning The book provides an historical overview of the field of automated deduction, and presents the foundations of different existing approaches to model construction, in particular those developed by the authors Finite and infinite model building techniques are presented The main emphasis is on calculi-based methods, and relevant practical results are provided The book is of interest to researchers and graduate students in computer science, computational logic and artificial intelligence It can also be used as a textbook in advanced undergraduate courses

  20. Digital microfluidic operations on micro-electrode dot array architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G; Teng, D; Fan, S-K

    2011-12-01

    As digital microfluidics-based biochips find more applications, their complexity is expected to increase significantly owing to the trend of multiple and concurrent assays on the chip. There is a pressing need to deliver a top-down design methodology that the biochip designer can leverage the same level of computer-aided design support as the semi-conductor industry now does. Moreover, as microelectronics fabrication technology is scaling up and integrated device performance is improving, it is expected that these microfluidic biochips will be integrated with microelectronic components in next-generation system-on-chip designs. This study presents the analysis and experiments of digital microfluidic operations on a novel electrowetting-on-dielectric-based 'micro-electrode dot array architecture' that fosters a development path for hierarchical top-down design approach for digital microfluidics. The proposed architecture allows dynamic configurations and activations of identical basic microfluidic unit called 'micro-electrode cells' to design microfluidic components, layouts, routing, microfluidic operations and applications of the biochip hierarchically. Fundamental microfluidic operations have been successfully performed by the architecture. In addition, this novel architecture demonstrates a number of advantages and flexibilities over the conventional digital microfluidics in performing advanced microfluidic operations. PMID:22149873

  1. Compact Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyl's Gauge Principle of 1929 has been used to establish Weyl's Quantum Principle (WQP) that requires that the Weyl scale factor should be unity. It has been shown that the WQP requires the following: quantum mechanics must be used to determine system states; the electrostatic potential must be non-singular and quantified; interactions between particles with different electric charges (i.e. electron and proton) do not obey Newton's Third Law at sub-nuclear separations, and nuclear particles may be much different than expected using the standard model. The above WQP requirements lead to a potential fusion reactor wherein deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei. Because the deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei at temperatures and energies lower than specified by the standard model there is no harmful radiation as a byproduct of this fusion process. Therefore, a reactor using this reaction does not need any shielding to contain such radiation. The energy released from each reaction and the absence of shielding makes the deuterium-plus-deuterium-to-helium (DDH) reactor very compact when compared to other reactors, both fission and fusion types. Moreover, the potential energy output per reactor weight and the absence of harmful radiation makes the DDH reactor an ideal candidate for space power. The logic is summarized by which the WQP requires the above conditions that make the prediction of DDH possible. The details of the DDH reaction will be presented along with the specifics of why the DDH reactor may be made to cause two deuterium nuclei to preferentially fuse to a helium nucleus. The presentation will also indicate the calculations needed to predict the reactor temperature as a function of fuel loading, reactor size, and desired output and will include the progress achieved to date

  2. Interconnection blocks: a method for providing reusable, rapid, multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabourin, David; Snakenborg, Detlef; Dufva, Hans Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method is presented for creating 'interconnection blocks' that are re-usable and provide multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections. Interconnection blocks made from polydimethylsiloxane allow rapid testing of microfluidic chips and unobstructed microfluidic...

  3. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H.L.

    1960-09-20

    A nuclear reactor is described comprising fissionable material dispersed in graphite blocks, helium filling the voids of the blocks and the spaces therebetween, and means other than the helium in thermal conductive contact with the graphite for removing heat.

  4. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  5. Chemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  6. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.R.

    1962-07-24

    A fluidized bed nuclear reactor and a method of operating such a reactor are described. In the design means are provided for flowing a liquid moderator upwardly through the center of a bed of pellets of a nentron-fissionable material at such a rate as to obtain particulate fluidization while constraining the lower pontion of the bed into a conical shape. A smooth circulation of particles rising in the center and falling at the outside of the bed is thereby established. (AEC)

  7. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce neutron embrittlement of the pressue vessel of an LWR, blanked off elements are fitted at the edge of the reactor core, with the same dimensions as the fuel elements. They are parallel to each other, and to the edge of the reactor taking the place of fuel rods, and are plates of neutron-absorbing material (stainless steel, boron steel, borated Al). (HP)

  8. Operation placement for application-specific digital microfluidic biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alistar, Mirela; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic-based biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers, and are able to integrate onchip all the necessary functions for biochemical analysis using microfluidics. The digital microfluidic biochips are based on the manipulation of liquids not as a continuous flow, but as ......Microfluidic-based biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers, and are able to integrate onchip all the necessary functions for biochemical analysis using microfluidics. The digital microfluidic biochips are based on the manipulation of liquids not as a continuous flow...... work assumes that the biochip architecture is given, and consider a rectangular shape for the electrode array. However, non-regular application-specific architectures are common in practice. In this paper, we are interested in determining a placement of operations for application-specific biochips...

  9. Chef infrastructure automation cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Marschall, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Chef Infrastructure Automation Cookbook contains practical recipes on everything you will need to automate your infrastructure using Chef. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to automate your server and cloud infrastructure.The book first shows you the simplest way to achieve a certain task. Then it explains every step in detail, so that you can build your knowledge about how things work. Eventually, the book shows you additional things to consider for each approach. That way, you can learn step-by-step and build profound knowledge on how to go about your configuration management

  10. Integrated microfluidic platforms for investigating neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Joon

    This dissertation describes the development and application of integrated microfluidics-based assay platforms to study neuronal activities in the nervous system in-vitro. The assay platforms were fabricated using soft lithography and micro/nano fabrication including microfluidics, surface patterning, and nanomaterial synthesis. The use of integrated microfluidics-based assay platform allows culturing and manipulating many types of neuronal tissues in precisely controlled microenvironment. Furthermore, they provide organized multi-cellular in-vitro model, long-term monitoring with live cell imaging, and compatibility with molecular biology techniques and electrophysiology experiment. In this dissertation, the integrated microfluidics-based assay platforms are developed for investigation of neuronal activities such as local protein synthesis, impairment of axonal transport by chemical/physical variants, growth cone path finding under chemical/physical cues, and synaptic transmission in neuronal circuit. Chapter 1 describes the motivation, objectives, and scope for developing in-vitro platform to study various neuronal activities. Chapter 2 introduces microfluidic culture platform for biochemical assay with large-scale neuronal tissues that are utilized as model system in neuroscience research. Chapter 3 focuses on the investigation of impaired axonal transport by beta-Amyloid and oxidative stress. The platform allows to control neuronal processes and to quantify mitochondrial movement in various regions of axons away from applied drugs. Chapter 4 demonstrates the development of microfluidics-based growth cone turning assay to elucidate the mechanism underlying axon guidance under soluble factors and shear flow. Using this platform, the behaviors of growth cone of mammalian neurons are verified under the gradient of inhibitory molecules and also shear flow in well-controlled manner. In Chapter 5, I combine in-vitro multicellular model with microfabricated MEA

  11. Controlling two-phase flow in microfluidic systems using electrowetting

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Hao

    2011-01-01

    Electrowetting (EW)-based digital microfluidic systems (DMF) and droplet-based two-phase flow microfluidic systems (TPF) with closed channels are the most widely used microfluidic platforms. In general, these two approaches have been considered independently. However, integrating the two technologies into one allows to combine the advantages of both worlds: (i) high throughput (from TPF) and (ii) precise control over each individual drop (from EW). Thus the aim of this thesis was to investiga...

  12. Compilation and Synthesis for Fault-Tolerant Digital Microfluidic Biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alistar, Mirela

    Microfluidic-based biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers, by integrating all the necessary functions for biochemical analysis using microfluidics. The digital microfluidic biochips (DMBs) manipulate discrete amounts of fluids of nanoliter volume, named droplets, on an array...... of electrodes to perform operations such as dispensing, transport, mixing, split, dilution and detection. Researchers have proposed compilation approaches, which, starting from a biochemical application and a biochip architecture, determine the allocation, resource binding, scheduling, placement and routing...

  13. Redundancy Optimization for Error Recovery in Digital Microfluidic Biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alistar, Mirela; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    . Researchers have proposed approaches for the synthesis of digital microfluidic biochips, which, starting from a biochemical application and a given biochip architecture, determine the allocation, resource binding, scheduling, placement and routing of the operations in the application. During the execution......Microfluidic-based biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers, and are able to integrate all the necessary functions for biochemical analysis. The digital microfluidic biochips are based on the manipulation of liquids not as a continuous flow, but as discrete droplets...

  14. Teflon films for chemically-inert microfluidic valves and pumps

    OpenAIRE

    Grover, William H.; von Muhlen, Marcio G.; Scott R. Manalis

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple method for fabricating chemically-inert Teflon microfluidic valves and pumps in glass microfluidic devices. These structures are modeled after monolithic membrane valves and pumps that utilize a featureless polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane sandwiched between two etched glass wafers. The limited chemical compatibility of PDMS has necessitated research into alternative materials for microfluidic devices. Previous work has shown that spin-coated amorphous fluoropolymers a...

  15. Ultrasonic Handling of Living Cells in Microfluidic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Svennebring, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Microfluidic chips have become a powerful tool in research where biological cells are processed and/or analyzed. One method for contactless cell manipulation in microfluidic chips that has gained an increasing amount of attention the last decade is ultrasonic standing wave (USW) technology. This Thesis explores the biocompatibility of USW technology applied to microfluidic chips, and presents a novel USW-based method for serial processing and accurate characterization of living cells. The bio...

  16. Review: Microfluidic Applications in Metabolomics and Metabolic Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Kraly, James R.; Holcomb, Ryan E.; Guan, Qian; Charles S. Henry

    2009-01-01

    Metabolomics is an emerging area of research focused on measuring small molecules in biological samples. There are a number of different types of metabolomics, ranging from global profiling of all metabolites in a single sample to measurement of a selected group of analytes. Microfluidics and related technologies have been used in this research area with good success. The aim of this review article is to summarize the use of microfluidics in metabolomics. Direct application of microfluidics t...

  17. Liposome production by microfluidics: potential and limiting factors

    OpenAIRE

    Dario Carugo; Elisabetta Bottaro; Joshua Owen; Eleanor Stride; Claudio Nastruzzi

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of microfluidic techniques for the production of nanoscale lipid-based vesicular systems. In particular we focus on the key issues associated with the microfluidic production of liposomes. These include, but are not limited to, the role of lipid formulation, lipid concentration, residual amount of solvent, production method (including microchannel architecture), and drug loading in determining liposome characteristics. Furthermore, we propose microfluidic archi...

  18. The Potential Impact of Droplet Microfluidics in Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Thomas; Kreutz, Jason; Chiu, Daniel T.

    2013-01-01

    Droplet microfluidics, which involves micrometer-sized emulsion droplets on a microfabricated platform, is an active research endeavor that evolved out of the larger field of microfluidics. Recently, this subfield of microfluidics has started to attract greater interest because researchers have been able to demonstrate applications of droplets as miniaturized laboratories for biological measurements. This perspective explores the recent developments and the potential future biological applica...

  19. Development of an automatic reactor inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using recent technologies on a mobile robot computer science, we developed an automatic inspection system for weld lines of the reactor vessel. The ultrasonic inspection of the reactor pressure vessel is currently performed by commercialized robot manipulators. Since, however, the conventional fixed type robot manipulator is very huge, heavy and expensive, it needs long inspection time and is hard to handle and maintain. In order to resolve these problems, we developed a new automatic inspection system using a small mobile robot crawling on the vertical wall of the reactor vessel. According to our conceptual design, we developed the reactor inspection system including an underwater inspection robot, a laser position control subsystem, an ultrasonic data acquisition/analysis subsystem and a main control subsystem. We successfully carried out underwater experiments on the reactor vessel mockup, and real reactor ready for Ulchine nuclear power plant unit 6 at Dusan Heavy Industry in Korea. After this project, we have a plan to commercialize our inspection system. Using this system, we can expect much reduction of the inspection time, performance enhancement, automatic management of inspection history, etc. In the economic point of view, we can also expect import substitution more than 4 million dollars. The established essential technologies for intelligent control and automation are expected to be synthetically applied to the automation of similar systems in nuclear power plants

  20. Structure and fabrication details of an integrated modularized microfluidic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingchang Tian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article contains schemes, original experimental data and figures for an integrated modularized microfluidic system described in “An integrated microfluidic system for bovine DNA purification and digital PCR detection [1]”. In this data article, we described the structure and fabrication of the integrated modularized microfluidic system. This microfluidic system was applied to isolate DNA from ovine tissue lysate and detect the bovine DNA with digital PCR (dPCR. The DNA extraction efficiency of the microdevice was compared with the efficiency of benchtop protocol.

  1. Microfabrication and Applications of Opto-Microfluidic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiying Zhang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of research activities on opto-microfluidic sensors carried out by the research groups in Canada is presented. After a brief introduction of this exciting research field, detailed discussion is focused on different techniques for the fabrication of opto-microfluidic sensors, and various applications of these devices for bioanalysis, chemical detection, and optical measurement. Our current research on femtosecond laser microfabrication of optofluidic devices is introduced and some experimental results are elaborated. The research on opto-microfluidics provides highly sensitive opto-microfluidic sensors for practical applications with significant advantages of portability, efficiency, sensitivity, versatility, and low cost.

  2. Novel Polymer Microfluidics Technology for In Situ Planetary Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Los Gatos Research proposes to develop a novel microfluidic device that combines rigid monolithic porous polymer based micro-capillary electrochromatography...

  3. I-94 Automation FAQs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — In order to increase efficiency, reduce operating costs and streamline the admissions process, U.S. Customs and Border Protection has automated Form I-94 at air and...

  4. Hydrometeorological Automated Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of Hydrologic Development of the National Weather Service operates HADS, the Hydrometeorological Automated Data System. This data set contains the last...

  5. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven

    2016-01-01

    This edited book comprises papers about the impacts, benefits and challenges of connected and automated cars. It is the third volume of the LNMOB series dealing with Road Vehicle Automation. The book comprises contributions from researchers, industry practitioners and policy makers, covering perspectives from the U.S., Europe and Japan. It is based on the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015 which was jointly organized by the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in July 2015. The topical spectrum includes, but is not limited to, public sector activities, human factors, ethical and business aspects, energy and technological perspectives, vehicle systems and transportation infrastructure. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  6. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation 2

    2015-01-01

    This paper collection is the second volume of the LNMOB series on Road Vehicle Automation. The book contains a comprehensive review of current technical, socio-economic, and legal perspectives written by experts coming from public authorities, companies and universities in the U.S., Europe and Japan. It originates from the Automated Vehicle Symposium 2014, which was jointly organized by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Burlingame, CA, in July 2014. The contributions discuss the challenges arising from the integration of highly automated and self-driving vehicles into the transportation system, with a focus on human factors and different deployment scenarios. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  7. Disassembly automation automated systems with cognitive abilities

    CERN Document Server

    Vongbunyong, Supachai

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a number of aspects to be considered in the development of disassembly automation, including the mechanical system, vision system and intelligent planner. The implementation of cognitive robotics increases the flexibility and degree of autonomy of the disassembly system. Disassembly, as a step in the treatment of end-of-life products, can allow the recovery of embodied value left within disposed products, as well as the appropriate separation of potentially-hazardous components. In the end-of-life treatment industry, disassembly has largely been limited to manual labor, which is expensive in developed countries. Automation is one possible solution for economic feasibility. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  8. Instant Sikuli test automation

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to follow style using the Starter guide approach.This book is aimed at automation and testing professionals who want to use Sikuli to automate GUI. Some Python programming experience is assumed.

  9. Automated security management

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Shaer, Ehab; Xie, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    In this contributed volume, leading international researchers explore configuration modeling and checking, vulnerability and risk assessment, configuration analysis, and diagnostics and discovery. The authors equip readers to understand automated security management systems and techniques that increase overall network assurability and usability. These constantly changing networks defend against cyber attacks by integrating hundreds of security devices such as firewalls, IPSec gateways, IDS/IPS, authentication servers, authorization/RBAC servers, and crypto systems. Automated Security Managemen

  10. Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.

  11. An easy-to-use microfluidic interconnection system to create quick and reversibly interfaced simple microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfreundt, Andrea; Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Dimaki, Maria;

    2015-01-01

    The presented microfluidic interconnection system provides an alternative for the individual interfacing of simple microfluidic devices fabricated in polymers such as polymethylmethacrylate, polycarbonate and cyclic olefin polymer. A modification of the device inlet enables the direct attachment...... pressures above 250 psi and therefore supports applications with high flow rates or highly viscous fluids. The ease of incorporation, configuration, fabrication and use make this interconnection system ideal for the rapid prototyping of simple microfluidic devices or other integrated systems that require...

  12. Intelligent control and automation technology for nuclear application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hee; Eom, Heung Sub; Kim, Ko Ryu; Lee, Jae Cheol; Choi, You Rak; Lee, Soo Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    Using recent technologies on a mobile robot and computer science, we developed an automatic inspection system for weld lines of the reactor pressure vessel. The ultrasonic inspection of the reactor pressure vessel is currently performed by commercialized robot manipulators. Since, however, the conventional fixed type robot manipulator is very huge, heavy and expensive, it needs long inspection time and is hard to handle and maintain. In order to resolve these problems, we developed a new inspection automation system using a small mobile robot crawling on the vertical wall. According to the conceptual design studied in the first year, we developed the inspection automation system including an underwater inspection robot, a laser position control subsystem and a main control subsystem. And we carried out underwater experiments on the reactor vessel mockup. After finishing this project successfully, we have a plan to commercialize our inspection system. Using this system, we can expect much reduction of the inspection time, performance enhancement, automatic management of inspection history, etc. In the economic point of view, we can also expect import substitution more than 5 million dollars. The established essential technologies for intelligent control and automation are expected to be synthetically applied to the automation of similar systems in nuclear power plants. 4 tabs., 37 figs., 6 refs. (Author).

  13. Advances in microfluidics in combating infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Andy; Pavesi, Andrea; Yazdi, Saeed Rismani; Lim, Chwee Teck; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi

    2016-01-01

    One of the important pursuits in science and engineering research today is to develop low-cost and user-friendly technologies to improve the health of people. Over the past decade, research efforts in microfluidics have been made to develop methods that can facilitate low-cost diagnosis of infectious diseases, especially in resource-poor settings. Here, we provide an overview of the recent advances in microfluidic devices for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics for infectious diseases and emphasis is placed on malaria, sepsis and AIDS/HIV. Other infectious diseases such as SARS, tuberculosis, and dengue are also briefly discussed. These infectious diseases are chosen as they contribute the most to disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The current state of research in this area is evaluated and projection toward future applications and accompanying challenges are also discussed. PMID:26854743

  14. Dry-Mass Sensing for Microfluidics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, T; Knowles, T P J

    2014-01-01

    We present an approach for interfacing an electromechanical sensor with a microfluidic device for the accurate quantification of the dry mass of analytes within microchannels. We show that depositing solutes onto the active surface of a quartz crystal microbalance by means of an on-chip microfluidic spray nozzle and subsequent solvent removal provides the basis for the real-time determination of dry solute mass. Moreover, this detection scheme does not suffer from the decrease in the sensor quality factor and the viscous drag present if the measurement is performed in a liquid environment, yet allows solutions to be analysed. We demonstrate the sensitivity and reliability of our approach by controlled deposition of nanogram levels of salt and protein from a micrometer-sized channel.

  15. Microfluidic route to generation of celloidosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundabala, Venkata; Martinez-Escobar, Sergio; Marquez, Samantha; Marquez, Manuel; Fernandez-Nieves, Alberto; Microfluidics Team

    2013-03-01

    Here we present a microfluidic method to generate alginate particles with a liquid core and a shell with yeast cells encapsulated in it. This particular class of celloidosomes with cells embedded into the thin shell region at the surface, allows for easy access of oxygen to the cells improving their viability. The liquid core opens the possibility of encapsulating multiple types of cells into the core and the shell. The microfluidic method involving double emulsion technology employed here ensures robust control over the size of the particles and density of the encapsulated cells. The study has shown that the stability of the inner core is very much dependent on the viscosity of the oil used for collecting the emulsion.

  16. Microfluidic Scintillation Detectors for High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Maoddi, Pietro; Mapelli, Alessandro

    This thesis deals with the development and study of microfluidic scintillation detectors, a technology of recent introduction for the detection of high energy particles. Most of the interest for such devices comes from the use of a liquid scintillator, which entails the possibility of changing the active material in the detector, leading to increased radiation resistance. A first part of the thesis focuses on the work performed in terms of design and modelling studies of novel prototype devices, hinting to new possibilities and applications. In this framework, the simulations performed to validate selected designs and the main technological choices made in view of their fabrication are addressed. The second part of this thesis deals with the microfabrication of several prototype devices. Two different materials were studied for the manufacturing of microfluidic scintillation detectors, namely the SU-8 photosensitive epoxy and monocrystalline silicon. For what concerns the former, an original fabrication appro...

  17. Cavity optomechanics on a microfluidic resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kyu Hyun; Lee, Wonsuk; Liu, Jing; Tomes, Matthew; Fan, Xudong; Carmon, Tal

    2012-01-01

    Light pressure is known to excite or cool vibrations in microresonators for sensing quantum-optomechanical effects and we now show that it can be explored for investigations with liquids. Currently, optical resonances are utilized to detect analytes in liquids. However, optomechanical oscillations have never been excited when devices were immersed in liquid. This is because replacing the surrounding air with water inherently increases the acoustical impedance and the associated acoustical-radiation losses. Here we fabricate a hollow optomechanical bubble resonator with water inside, and use light pressure to excite 8 MHz - 140 MHz vibrations with 1 mW optical-threshold power and >2000 mechanical Q, constituting the first time that any microfluidic system is optomechanically actuated. Bridging between optomechanics and microfluidics will enable recently developed capillaries and on-chip bubbles to vibrate via optical excitation; and allow optomechanics with non-solid material phases including bio-analytes, sup...

  18. Electrodes for Microfluidic Integrated Optoelectronic Tweezers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Wei Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on two types of electrodes that enable the integration of optoelectronic tweezers (OETs with multilayer poly(dimethylsilane- (PDMS- based microfluidic devices. Both types of electrodes, Au-mesh and single-walled carbon nanotube- (SWNT- embedded PDMS thin film, are optically transparent, electrically conductive, and can be mechanically deformed and provide interfaces to form strong covalent bonding between an OET device and PDMS through standard oxygen plasma treatment. Au-mesh electrodes provide high electrical conductivity and high transparency but are lack of flexibility and allow only small deformation. On the other hand, SWNT-embedded PDMS thin film electrodes provide not only electrical conductivity but also optical transparency and can undergo large mechanical deformation repeatedly without failure. This enables, for the first time, microfluidic integrated OET with on-chip valve and pump functions, which is a critical step for OET-based platforms to conduct more complex and multistep biological and biochemical analyses.

  19. Microfluidic Pumping by Micromolar Salt Concentrations

    CERN Document Server

    Niu, Ran; Brown, Aidan T; Rempfer, Georg; Botin, Denis; Holm, Christian; Palberg, Thomas; de Graaf, Joost

    2016-01-01

    A colloidal ion-exchange-resin-based microfluidic pump is introduced and experimentally characterized. It operates in almost deionized water for periods exceeding 24h and effects fluid flows of um/s over hundreds of um. This fluid flow displays a far-field, power-law decay which is characteristic of two-dimensional (2D) flow when the system is strongly confined in the vertical direction, and of three-dimensional (3D) flow when the system is less confined. Using theory and numerical calculations we show that our observations are consistent with electroosmotic pumping driven by umol/L ionic impurities in the sample cell, revealing the surprising impact of trace amounts of charge carriers. In addition, we explain how the power-law decay of the fluid flow can be understood on the basis of the confinement imposed by the sample cell. These two insights should benefit the design of a new class of microfluidic pumps.

  20. Tuning fluidic resistance via liquid crystal microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    Flow of molecularly ordered fluids, like liquid crystals, is inherently coupled with the average local orientation of the molecules, or the director. The anisotropic coupling-typically absent in isotropic fluids-bestows unique functionalities to the flowing matrix. In this work, we harness this anisotropy to pattern different pathways to tunable fluidic resistance within microfluidic devices. We use a nematic liquid crystalline material flowing in microchannels to demonstrate passive and active modulation of the flow resistance. While appropriate surface anchoring conditions-which imprint distinct fluidic resistances within microchannels under similar hydrodynamic parameters-act as passive cues, an external field, e.g., temperature, is used to actively modulate the flow resistance in the microfluidic device. We apply this simple concept to fabricate basic fluidic circuits, which can be hierarchically extended to create complex resistance networks, without any additional design or morphological patterning of the microchannels. PMID:24256819

  1. Cell Culture Microfluidic Biochips: Experimental Throughput Maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minhass, Wajid Hassan; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan;

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidic biochips offer a promising alternative to a conventional biochemical laboratory, integrating all necessary functionalities on-chip in order to perform biochemical applications. Researchers have started to propose computer-aided design tools for the synthesis of such biochips. Our foc...... metaheuristic for experimental design generation for the cell culture microfluidic biochips, and we have evaluated our approach using multiple experimental setups....... in this paper is on the optimization of how a biochemical application is performed on a biochip. In this paper, we consider cell culture biochips, where several cell colonies are exposed to soluble compounds and monitored in real-time to determine the right combination of factors that leads to the desired...

  2. Bonding PMMA microfluidics using commercial microwave ovens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a novel low-cost, rapid substrate-bonding technique is successfully applied to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) microfluidics bonding for the first time. This technique uses a thin intermediate metallic microwave susceptor layer at the interface of the bonding site (microchannels) which produces localized heating required for bonding during microwave irradiation. The metallic susceptor pattern is designed using a multiphysics simulation model developed in ANSYS Multiphysics software (high-frequency structural simulation (HFSS) coupled with ANSYS-Thermal). In our experiments, the required microwave energy for bonding is delivered using a relatively inexpensive, widely accessible commercial microwave oven. Using this technique, simple PMMA microfluidics prototypes are successfully bonded and sealed in less than 35 seconds with a minimum measured bond strength of 1.375 MPa. (paper)

  3. Microfluidic device for unidirectional axon growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malishev, E.; Pimashkin, A.; Gladkov, A.; Pigareva, Y.; Bukatin, A.; Kazantsev, V.; Mukhina, I.; Dubina, M.

    2015-11-01

    In order to better understand the communication and connectivity development of neuron networks, we designed microfluidic devices with several chambers for growing dissociated neuronal cultures from mice fetal hippocampus (E18). The chambers were connected with microchannels providing unidirectional axonal growth between “Source” and “Target” neural sub-networks. Experiments were performed in a hippocampal cultures plated in a poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic chip, aligned with a 60 microelectrode array (MEA). Axonal growth through microchannels was observed with brightfield, phase-contrast and fluorescence microscopy, and after 7 days in vitro electrical activity was recorded. Visual inspection and spike propagation analysis showed the predominant axonal growth in microchannels in a direction from “Source” to “Target”.

  4. Microfluidic electroporation for cellular analysis and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Tao; Lu, Chang

    2013-10-01

    Electroporation is a simple yet powerful technique for breaching the cell membrane barrier. The applications of electroporation can be generally divided into two categories: the release of intracellular proteins, nucleic acids and other metabolites for analysis and the delivery of exogenous reagents such as genes, drugs and nanoparticles with therapeutic purposes or for cellular manipulation. In this review, we go over the basic physics associated with cell electroporation and highlight recent technological advances on microfluidic platforms for conducting electroporation. Within the context of its working mechanism, we summarize the accumulated knowledge on how the parameters of electroporation affect its performance for various tasks. We discuss various strategies and designs for conducting electroporation at the microscale and then focus on analysis of intracellular contents and delivery of exogenous agents as two major applications of the technique. Finally, an outlook for future applications of microfluidic electroporation in increasingly diverse utilities is presented.

  5. Cell-based bioassays in microfluidic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itle, Laura J.; Zguris, Jeanna C.; Pishko, Michael V.

    2004-12-01

    The development of cell-based bioassays for high throughput drug screening or the sensing of biotoxins is contingent on the development of whole cell sensors for specific changes in intracellular conditions and the integration of those systems into sample delivery devices. Here we show the feasibility of using a 5-(and-6)-carboxy SNARF-1, acetoxymethyl ester, acetate, a fluorescent dye capable of responding to changes in intracellular pH, as a detection method for the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide. We used photolithography to entrap cells with this dye within poly(ethylene) glyocol diacrylate hydrogels in microfluidic channels. After 18 hours of exposure to lipopolysaccharide, we were able to see visible changes in the fluorescent pattern. This work shows the feasibility of using whole cell based biosensors within microfluidic networks to detect cellular changes in response to exogenous agents.

  6. Microfluidic preparation of [18F]FE-SUPPY and [18F]FE-SUPPY:2 - comparison with conventional radiosyntheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Recently, first applications of microfluidic principles for radiosyntheses of positron emission tomography compounds were presented, but direct comparisons with conventional methods were still missing. Therefore, our aims were (1) the set-up of a microfluidic procedure for the preparation of the recently developed adenosine A3-receptor tracers [18F]FE-SUPPY [5-(2-[18F]fluoroethyl)2,4-diethyl-3-(ethylsulfanylcarbonyl) -6-phenylpyridine-5-carboxylate] and [18F]FE-SUPPY:2 [5-ethyl-2,4-diethyl-3-((2-[18F]fluoroethyl)sulfanylcarbonyl) -6-phenylpyridine-5-carboxylate] and (2) the direct comparison of reaction conditions and radiochemical yields of the no-carrier-added nucleophilic substitution with [18F]fluoride between microfluidic and conventional methods. Methods: For the determination of optimal reaction conditions within an Advion NanoTek synthesizer, 5-50 μl of precursor and dried [18F]fluoride solution were simultaneously pushed through the temperature-controlled reactor (26oC-180oC) with defined reactant bolus flow rates (10-50 μl/min). Radiochemical incorporation yields (RCIYs) and overall radiochemical yields for large-scale preparations were compared with data from conventional batch-mode syntheses. Results: Optimal reaction parameters for the microfluidic set-up were determined as follows: 170oC, 30-μl/min pump rate per reactant (reaction overall flow rate of 60 μl/min) and 5-mg/ml precursor concentration in the reaction mixture. Applying these optimized conditions, we observed a significant increase in RCIY from 88.2% to 94.1% (P18F]FE-SUPPY and that from 42.5% to 95.5% (P18F]FE-SUPPY:2 using microfluidic instead of conventional heating. Precursor consumption was decreased from 7.5 and 10 mg to 1 mg per large-scale synthesis for both title compounds, respectively. Conclusion: The direct comparison of radiosyntheses data applying a conventional method and a microfluidic approach revealed a significant increase of RCIY using the microfluidic

  7. Microfluidic device capable of sensing ultrafast chemiluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Teck; Ko, Seok Oh; Lee, Ji Hoon

    2009-05-15

    Based on the principle of liquid core waveguide, a novel microfluidic device with micro-scale detection window capable of sensing flashlight emitted from rapid 1,1'-oxalyldi-4-methylimidazole (OD4MI) chemiluminescence (CL) reaction was fabricated. Light emitted from OD4MI CL reaction occurring in the micro-dimensional pentagonal detection window (length of each line segment: 900.0 microm, depth: 50.0 microm) of the microfluidic device with two inlets and one outlet was so bright that it was possible to take an image every 1/30 s at the optimal focusing distance (60 cm) using a commercial digital camera. Peaks obtained using a flow injection analysis (FIA) system with the micro-scale detection window and OD4MI CL detection show excellent resolution and reproducibility without any band-broadening observed in analytical devices having additional reaction channel(s) to measure light generated from slow CL reaction. Maximum height (H(max)) and area (A) of peak, reproducibility and sensitivity observed in the FIA system with the microfluidic device and OD4MI CL detection depends on (1) the mole ratio between bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) oxalate and 4-methyl imidazole yielding OD4MI, (2) the flow rate to mix OD4MI, H(2)O(2) and 1-AP in the detection window of the microfluidic device, and (3) H(2)O(2) concentration. We obtained linear calibration curves with wide dynamic ranges using H(max) and A. The detection limit of 1-AP determined with H(max) and A was as low as 0.05 fmole/injection (signal/background=3.0). PMID:19269463

  8. Active liquid degassing in microfluidic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, J. Mikael; Gazin, Muriel; Laakso, Sanna; Haraldsson, Tommy; Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi; Mäki, Minna; Goossens, Herman; van der Wijngaart, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for efficient air bubble removal in microfluidic applications. Air bubbles are extracted from a liquid chamber into a vacuum chamber through a semipermeable membrane, consisting of PDMS coated with amorphous Teflon (R) AF 1600. Whereas air is efficiently extracted through the membrane, water loss is greatly reduced by the Teflon even at elevated temperatures. We present the water loss and permeability change with the amount of added Teflon AF to the membrane. Also, we demo...

  9. Microfluidics apparatus and methods for use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, John P.; Wiggins, Thomas; Ghosh, Madhushree; Bottomley, Lawrence A.; Seminara, Salvatore; Hu, Zhiyu; Seeley, Timothy; Kossek, Sebastian

    2005-08-09

    A microfluidics device includes a plurality of interaction cells and fluid control means including i) means for providing to the interaction cells a preparation fluid, and ii) means for providing to the interaction cells a sample fluid, wherein each interaction cell receives a different sample fluid. A plurality of microcantilevers may be disposed in each of the interaction cells, wherein each of the plurality of microcantilevers configured to deflect in response to an interaction involving a component of the sample fluid.

  10. Microfluidic immunomagnetic separation for enhanced bacterial detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoyland, James; Kunstmann-Olsen, Casper; Ahmed, Shakil;

    A combined lab-on-a-chip approach combining immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and flow cytometry was developed for the enrichment and detection of salmonella contamination in food samples. Immunomagnetic beads were immobilized in chips consisting of long fractal meanders while contaminated samples ...... to obtain maximum capturing efficiency. The effects of channel volume, path length and number of bends of microfluidic chip on IMS efficiency were also determined....

  11. Fluid control structures in microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathies, Richard A.; Grover, William H.; Skelley, Alison; Lagally, Eric; Liu, Chung N.

    2008-11-04

    Methods and apparatus for implementing microfluidic analysis devices are provided. A monolithic elastomer membrane associated with an integrated pneumatic manifold allows the placement and actuation of a variety of fluid control structures, such as structures for pumping, isolating, mixing, routing, merging, splitting, preparing, and storing volumes of fluid. The fluid control structures can be used to implement a variety of sample introduction, preparation, processing, and storage techniques.

  12. Electrodes for Microfluidic Integrated Optoelectronic Tweezers

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo-Wei Huang; Sabbir Sattar; Zhong, Jiang F.; Cheng-Hsu Chou; Hsiung-Kuang Tsai; Pei-Yu Chiou

    2011-01-01

    We report on two types of electrodes that enable the integration of optoelectronic tweezers (OETs) with multilayer poly(dimethylsilane)- (PDMS-) based microfluidic devices. Both types of electrodes, Au-mesh and single-walled carbon nanotube- (SWNT-) embedded PDMS thin film, are optically transparent, electrically conductive, and can be mechanically deformed and provide interfaces to form strong covalent bonding between an OET device and PDMS through standard oxygen plasma treatment. Au-mesh ...

  13. Biofunctionalization of PDMS-based microfluidic systems

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Bergoi Ibarlucea, Cesar Fernández-Sánchez, Stefanie Demming, Stephanus Büttgenbach & Andreu Llobera ### Abstract Three simple approaches for the selective immobilization of biomolecules on the surface of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic systems that do not require any specific instrumentation, are described and compared. They are based in the introduction of hydroxyl groups on the PDMS surface by direct adsorption of either polyethylene glycol (PEG) or polyvinyl...

  14. Retinal synaptic regeneration via microfluidic guiding channels

    OpenAIRE

    Ping-Jung Su; Zongbin Liu; Kai Zhang; Xin Han; Yuki Saito; Xiaojun Xia; Kenji Yokoi; Haifa Shen; Lidong Qin

    2015-01-01

    In vitro culture of dissociated retinal neurons is an important model for investigating retinal synaptic regeneration (RSR) and exploring potentials in artificial retina. Here, retinal precursor cells were cultured in a microfluidic chip with multiple arrays of microchannels in order to reconstruct the retinal neuronal synapse. The cultured retinal cells were physically connected through microchannels. Activation of electric signal transduction by the cells through the microchannels was demon...

  15. Fluid control structures in microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathies, Richard A. (Inventor); Grover, William H. (Inventor); Skelley, Alison (Inventor); Lagally, Eric (Inventor); Liu, Chung N. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for implementing microfluidic analysis devices are provided. A monolithic elastomer membrane associated with an integrated pneumatic manifold allows the placement and actuation of a variety of fluid control structures, such as structures for pumping, isolating, mixing, routing, merging, splitting, preparing, and storing volumes of fluid. The fluid control structures can be used to implement a variety of sample introduction, preparation, processing, and storage techniques.

  16. Optimization of microfluidic microsphere-trap arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiaoxiao; Sarder, Pinaki; Li, Zhenyu; Nehorai, Arye

    2013-01-01

    Microarray devices are powerful for detecting and analyzing biological targets. However, the potential of these devices may not be fully realized due to the lack of optimization of their design and implementation. In this work, we consider a microsphere-trap array device by employing microfluidic techniques and a hydrodynamic trapping mechanism. We design a novel geometric structure of the trap array in the device, and develop a comprehensive and robust framework to optimize the values of the...

  17. Multiplexed microfluidic approach for nucleic acid enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Langevin, Stanley Alan; Bent, Zachary; Renzi, Ronald F.; Ferko, Scott M.; Van De Vreugde, James L.; Lane, Todd; Patel, Kamlesh; Branda, Steven

    2016-04-26

    A system for enhancing a nucleic acid sample may include a one pump, a denaturing chamber; a microfluidic hydroxyapatite chromatography device configured for performing hydroxyapatite chromatography on the nucleic acid sample, a sample collector, and tubing connecting the pump with the denaturing chamber, the hydroxyapatite chromatography device and the sample collector such that the pump may be used to move the nucleic acid sample from the denaturing chamber to the hydroxyapatite chromatography device and then to the sample collector.

  18. Microfluidic Approaches to Bacterial Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Deung Park

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial biofilms—aggregations of bacterial cells and extracellular polymeric substrates (EPS—are an important subject of research in the fields of biology and medical science. Under aquatic conditions, bacterial cells form biofilms as a mechanism for improving survival and dispersion. In this review, we discuss bacterial biofilm development as a structurally and dynamically complex biological system and propose microfluidic approaches for the study of bacterial biofilms. Biofilms develop through a series of steps as bacteria interact with their environment. Gene expression and environmental conditions, including surface properties, hydrodynamic conditions, quorum sensing signals, and the characteristics of the medium, can have positive or negative influences on bacterial biofilm formation. The influences of each factor and the combined effects of multiple factors may be addressed using microfluidic approaches, which provide a promising means for controlling the hydrodynamic conditions, establishing stable chemical gradients, performing measurement in a high-throughput manner, providing real-time monitoring, and providing in vivo-like in vitro culture devices. An increased understanding of biofilms derived from microfluidic approaches may be relevant to improving our understanding of the contributions of determinants to bacterial biofilm development.

  19. Wearable tactile sensor based on flexible microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Joo Chuan; Yu, Jiahao; Koh, Zhao Ming; Wang, Zhiping; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2016-08-16

    In this work, we develop a liquid-based thin film microfluidic tactile sensor of high flexibility, robustness and sensitivity. The microfluidic elastomeric structure comprises a pressure sensitive region and parallel arcs that interface with screen-printed electrodes. The microfluidic sensor is functionalized with a highly conductive metallic liquid, eutectic gallium indium (eGaIn). Microdeformation on the pressure sensor results in fluid displacement which corresponds to a change in electrical resistance. By emulating parallel electrical circuitry in our microchannel design, we reduced the overall electrical resistance of the sensor, therefore enhancing its device sensitivity. Correspondingly, we report a device workable within a range of 4 to 100 kPa and sensitivity of up to 0.05 kPa(-1). We further demonstrate its robustness in withstanding >2500 repeated loading and unloading cycles. Finally, as a proof of concept, we demonstrate that the sensors may be multiplexed to detect forces at multiple regions of the hand. In particular, our sensors registered unique electronic signatures in object grasping, which could provide better assessment of finger dexterity. PMID:27438370

  20. Graphene-based microfluidics for serial crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Shuo; Wang, Yuxi; Kolewe, Kristopher W; Srajer, Vukica; Henning, Robert; Schiffman, Jessica D; Dimitrakopoulos, Christos; Perry, Sarah L

    2016-08-01

    Microfluidic strategies to enable the growth and subsequent serial crystallographic analysis of micro-crystals have the potential to facilitate both structural characterization and dynamic structural studies of protein targets that have been resistant to single-crystal strategies. However, adapting microfluidic crystallization platforms for micro-crystallography requires a dramatic decrease in the overall device thickness. We report a robust strategy for the straightforward incorporation of single-layer graphene into ultra-thin microfluidic devices. This architecture allows for a total material thickness of only ∼1 μm, facilitating on-chip X-ray diffraction analysis while creating a sample environment that is stable against significant water loss over several weeks. We demonstrate excellent signal-to-noise in our X-ray diffraction measurements using a 1.5 μs polychromatic X-ray exposure, and validate our approach via on-chip structure determination using hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) as a model system. Although this work is focused on the use of graphene for protein crystallography, we anticipate that this technology should find utility in a wide range of both X-ray and other lab on a chip applications. PMID:27241728

  1. Ultrafast velocity-mapping in microfluidic setups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NMR in combination with designated rf coils has proven to be a powerful tool for the investigation of microfluidic setups, e.g. microreactors, micromixers and fluid drops, since it has the potential to reveal both spectroscopic, spatial and velocity information non-invasively. Despite the high spatial resolution NMR offers, the temporal resolution of NMR imaging and velocity mapping experiments in microfluidics has been low so far, because the application of ultrafast NMR velocity mapping methods to microfluidics has failed. These methods are based on multi-echo generation give rise to problems concerning magnetic field inhomogeneities (EPI), rf field inhomogeneities (PGSE-RARE) and velocity/acceleration limitations (EPI and PGSE-RARE). In this work, we exploit the advantages of the FLIESSEN (Flow Imaging Employing a Single Shot ENcoding) pulse sequence, a new ultrafast RARE-based imaging and velocity mapping method. An adjusted phase encoding strategy and a frequent update of velocity encoding during the multi-echo train makes FLIESSEN highly resilient to field inhomogeneities and velocity/acceleration effects. The performance of this technique is demonstrated on acetone flow in a microstructured phantom. Using FLIESSEN and a surface rf coil, high-fidelity 2D velocity maps were acquired within seconds.

  2. Wearable tactile sensor based on flexible microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Joo Chuan; Yu, Jiahao; Koh, Zhao Ming; Wang, Zhiping; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2016-08-16

    In this work, we develop a liquid-based thin film microfluidic tactile sensor of high flexibility, robustness and sensitivity. The microfluidic elastomeric structure comprises a pressure sensitive region and parallel arcs that interface with screen-printed electrodes. The microfluidic sensor is functionalized with a highly conductive metallic liquid, eutectic gallium indium (eGaIn). Microdeformation on the pressure sensor results in fluid displacement which corresponds to a change in electrical resistance. By emulating parallel electrical circuitry in our microchannel design, we reduced the overall electrical resistance of the sensor, therefore enhancing its device sensitivity. Correspondingly, we report a device workable within a range of 4 to 100 kPa and sensitivity of up to 0.05 kPa(-1). We further demonstrate its robustness in withstanding >2500 repeated loading and unloading cycles. Finally, as a proof of concept, we demonstrate that the sensors may be multiplexed to detect forces at multiple regions of the hand. In particular, our sensors registered unique electronic signatures in object grasping, which could provide better assessment of finger dexterity.

  3. Logic control of microfluidics with smart colloid

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Limu

    2010-01-01

    We report the successful realization of a microfluidic chip with switching and corresponding inverting functionalities. The chips are identical logic control components incorporating a type of smart colloid, giant electrorheological fluid (GERF), which possesses reversible characteristics via a liquid-solid phase transition under external electric field. Two pairs of electrodes embedded on the sides of two microfluidic channels serve as signal input and output, respectively. One, located in the GERF micro-channel is used to control the flow status of GERF, while another one in the ither micro-fluidic channel is used to detect the signal generated with a passing-by droplet (defined as a signal droplet). Switching of the GERF from the suspended state (off-state) to the flowing state (on-state) or vice versa in the micro-channel is controlled by the appearance of signal droplets whenever they pass through the detection electrode. The output on-off signals can be easily demonstrated, clearly matching with GERF flow status. Our results show that such a logic switch is also a logic IF gate, while its inverter functions as a NOT gate. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010.

  4. A Review on Mixing in Microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmo Kang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale mixing is of uttermost importance in bio- and chemical analyses using micro TAS (total analysis systems or lab-on-chips. Many microfluidic applications involve chemical reactions where, most often, the fluid diffusivity is very low so that without the help of chaotic advection the reaction time can be extremely long. In this article, we will review various kinds of mixers developed for use in microfluidic devices. Our review starts by defining the terminology necessary to understand the fundamental concept of mixing and by introducing quantities for evaluating the mixing performance, such as mixing index and residence time. In particular, we will review the concept of chaotic advection and the mathematical terms, Poincare section and Lyapunov exponent. Since these concepts are developed from nonlinear dynamical systems, they should play important roles in devising microfluidic devices with enhanced mixing performance. Following, we review the various designs of mixers that are employed in applications. We will classify the designs in terms of the driving forces, including mechanical, electrical and magnetic forces, used to control fluid flow upon mixing. The advantages and disadvantages of each design will also be addressed. Finally, we will briefly touch on the expected future development regarding mixer design and related issues for the further enhancement of mixing performance.

  5. Beyond isolated cells: microfluidic transport of large tissue for pancreatic cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ronnie; Murphy, Rachel G.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2015-03-01

    For cancer diagnoses, core biopsies (CBs) obtained from patients using coring needles (CNs) are traditionally visualized and assessed on microscope slides by pathologists after samples are processed and sectioned. A fundamental gain in optical information (i.e., diagnosis/staging) may be achieved when whole, unsectioned CBs (L = 5-20, D = 0.5-2.0 mm) are analyzed in 3D. This approach preserves CBs for traditional pathology and maximizes the diagnostic potential of patient samples. To bridge CNs/CBs with imaging, our group developed a microfluidic device that performs biospecimen preparation on unsectioned CBs for pathology. The ultimate goal is an automated and rapid point-of-care system that aids pathologists by processing tissue for advanced 3D imaging platforms. An inherent, but essential device feature is the microfluidic transport of CBs, which has not been previously investigated. Early experiments demonstrated proof-of-concept: pancreas CBs (D = 0.3-2.0 mm) of set lengths were transported in straight/curved microchannels, but dimensional tolerance and flow rates were variable, and preservation of CB integrity was uncontrolled. A second study used metal cylinder substitutes (L = 10, D = 1 mm) in microchannels to understand the transport mechanism. However, CBs are imperfectly shaped, rough, porous and viscoelastic. In this study, fresh/formalin-fixed porcine and human pancreas CBs were deposited into our device through a custom interface using clinical CNs. CB integrity (i.e., sample viability) may be assessed at every stage using an optomechanical metric: physical breaks were determined when specimen intensity profile data deviated beyond xavg + 2σ. Flow rates for human CBs were determined for several CNs, and microfluidic transport of fresh and formalin-fixed CBs was analyzed.

  6. Novel microfluidic system for online monitoring of biofilm dynamics by electrical impedance spectroscopy and amperometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchmann, Julia; Sachsenheimer, Kai; Schwartz, Thomas; Rapp, Bastian E.

    2016-03-01

    Biofilm formation is ubiquitous in nature where microorganisms attach to surfaces and form highly adapted and protected communities. In technical and industrial systems like drinking water supply, food production or shipping industry biofilms are a major cause of product contamination, biofouling, and biocorrosion. Therefore, understanding of biofilm formation and means of preventing biofilm formation is important to develop novel biofilm treatment strategies. A system allowing directly online detection and monitoring biofilm formation is necessary. However, until today, there are little to none technical systems featuring a non-destructive real-time characterization of biofilm formation in a highthroughput manner. This paper presents such a microfluidic system based on electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and amperomertic current measurement. The sensor consists of four modules, each housing 24 independent electrodes within 12 microfluidic channels. Attached biomass on the electrodes is monitored as increased inhibition in charge transfer by EIS and a change in metabolic activity is measured as change in produced electric current by amperometry. This modular sensor system is highly adaptable and suitable for a broad range of microbiological applications. Among others, biofilm formation processes can be characterized online, biofilm manipulation like inactivation or destabilization can be monitored in real-time and gene expression can be analyzed in parallel. The use of different electrode designs allows effective biofilm studies during all biofilm phases. The whole system was recently extended by an integrated pneumatic microfluidic pump which enables easy handling procedures. Further developments of this pumping module will allow a fully- automated computer-controlled valving and pumping.

  7. Improving automated load flexibility of nuclear power plants with ALFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In several German and Swiss Nuclear Power Plants with Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) the control of the reactor power was and will be improved in order to be able to support the energy transition with increasing volatile renewable energy in the grid by flexible load operation according to the need of the load dispatcher (power system stability). Especially regarding the mentioned German NPPs with a nominal electric power of approx. 1,500 MW, the general objectives are the main automated grid relevant operation modes. The new possibilities of digital I and C (as TELEPERM registered XS) enable the automation of the operating modes provided that manual support is no longer necessary. These possibilities were and will be implemented by AREVA within the ALFC-projects. Manifold adaption algorithms to the reactor physical variations during the nuclear load cycle enable a precise control of the axial power density distribution and of the reactivity management in the reactor core. Finally this is the basis for a highly automated load flexibility with the parallel respect and surveillance of the operational limits of a PWR.

  8. Improving automated load flexibility of nuclear power plants with ALFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Andreas [AREVA GmbH, Karlstein (Germany). Plant Control/Training; Klaus, Peter [E.ON NPP Isar 2, Essenbach (Germany). Plant Operation/Production Engineering

    2016-07-01

    In several German and Swiss Nuclear Power Plants with Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) the control of the reactor power was and will be improved in order to be able to support the energy transition with increasing volatile renewable energy in the grid by flexible load operation according to the need of the load dispatcher (power system stability). Especially regarding the mentioned German NPPs with a nominal electric power of approx. 1,500 MW, the general objectives are the main automated grid relevant operation modes. The new possibilities of digital I and C (as TELEPERM {sup registered} XS) enable the automation of the operating modes provided that manual support is no longer necessary. These possibilities were and will be implemented by AREVA within the ALFC-projects. Manifold adaption algorithms to the reactor physical variations during the nuclear load cycle enable a precise control of the axial power density distribution and of the reactivity management in the reactor core. Finally this is the basis for a highly automated load flexibility with the parallel respect and surveillance of the operational limits of a PWR.

  9. Pulsatile microfluidics as an analytical tool for determining the dynamic characteristics of microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Søren; Olesen, Laurits Højgaard; Bruus, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of all fluid dynamic time scales is needed to fully understand and hence exploit the capabilities of fluid flow in microfluidic systems. We propose the use of harmonically oscillating microfluidics as an analytical tool for the deduction of these time scales. Furthermore, we...... suggest the use of system-level equivalent circuit theory as an adequate theory of the behavior of the system. A novel pressure source capable of operation in the desired frequency range is presented for this generic analysis. As a proof of concept, we study the fairly complex system of water...

  10. A Microfluidic Love-Wave Biosensing Device for PSA Detection Based on an Aptamer Beacon Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A label-free and selective aptamer beacon-based Love-wave biosensing device was developed for prostate specific antigen (PSA detection. The device consists of the following parts: LiTaO3 substrate with SiO2 film as wave guide layer, two set of inter-digital transducers (IDT, gold film for immobilization of the biorecongniton layer and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microfluidic channels. DNA aptamer, or “artificial antibody”, was used as the specific biorecognition probe for PSA capture. Some nucleotides were added to the 3'-end of the aptamer to form a duplex with the 3'-end, turning the aptamer into an aptamer-beacon. Taking advantage of the selective target-induced assembly changes arising from the “aptamer beacon”, highly selective and specific detection of PSA was achieved. Furthermore, PDMS microfluidic channels were designed and fabricated to realize automated quantitative sample injection. After optimization of the experimental conditions, the established device showed good performance for PSA detection between 10 ng/mL to 1 μg/mL, with a detection limit of 10 ng/mL. The proposed sensor might be a promising alternative for point of care diagnostics.

  11. Building bio-assays with magnetic particles on a digital microfluidic platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalj, Tadej; Pérez-Ruiz, Elena; Lammertyn, Jeroen

    2015-09-25

    Digital microfluidics (DMF) has emerged as a promising liquid handling technology for a variety of applications, demonstrating great potential both in terms of miniaturization and automation. DMF is based on the manipulation of discrete, independently controllable liquid droplets, which makes it highly reconfigurable and reprogrammable. One of its most exclusive advantages, compared to microchannel-based microfluidics, is its ability to precisely handle solid nano- and microsized objects, such as magnetic particles. Magnetic particles have become very popular in the last decade, since their high surface-to-volume ratio and the possibility to magnetically separate them from the matrix make them perfect suitable as a solid support for bio-assay development. The potential of magnetic particles in DMF-based bio-assays has been demonstrated for various applications. In this review we discuss the latest developments of magnetic particle-based DMF bio-assays with the aim to present, identify and analyze the trends in the field. We also discuss the state-of-the art of device integration, current status of commercialization and issues that still need to be addressed. With this paper we intend to stimulate researchers to exploit and unveil the potential of these exciting tools, which will shape the future of modern biochemistry, microbiology and biomedical diagnostics.

  12. Microfluidic co-culture platform to quantify chemotaxis of primary stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatárová, Z; Abbuehl, J P; Maerkl, S; Huelsken, J

    2016-05-21

    Functional analysis of primary tissue-specific stem cells is hampered by their rarity. Here we describe a greatly miniaturized microfluidic device for the multiplexed, quantitative analysis of the chemotactic properties of primary, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). The device was integrated within a fully customized platform that both increased the viability of stem cells ex vivo and simplified manipulation during multidimensional acquisition. Since primary stem cells can be isolated only in limited number, we optimized the design for efficient cell trapping from low volume and low concentration cell suspensions. Using nanoliter volumes and automated microfluidic controls for pulsed medium supply, our platform is able to create stable gradients of chemoattractant secreted from mammalian producer cells within the device, as was visualized by a secreted NeonGreen fluorescent reporter. The design was functionally validated by a CXCL/CXCR ligand/receptor combination resulting in preferential migration of primary, non-passaged MSC. Stable gradient formation prolonged assay duration and resulted in enhanced response rates for slowly migrating stem cells. Time-lapse video microscopy facilitated determining a number of migratory properties based on single cell analysis. Jackknife-resampling revealed that our assay requires only 120 cells to obtain statistically significant results, enabling new approaches in the research on rare primary stem cells. Compartmentalization of the device not only facilitated such quantitative measurements but will also permit future, high-throughput functional screens. PMID:27137768

  13. Quality control of next-generation sequencing library through an integrative digital microfluidic platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaitrong, Numrin; Kim, Hanyoup; Renzi, Ronald F; Bartsch, Michael S; Meagher, Robert J; Patel, Kamlesh D

    2012-12-01

    We have developed an automated quality control (QC) platform for next-generation sequencing (NGS) library characterization by integrating a droplet-based digital microfluidic (DMF) system with a capillary-based reagent delivery unit and a quantitative CE module. Using an in-plane capillary-DMF interface, a prepared sample droplet was actuated into position between the ground electrode and the inlet of the separation capillary to complete the circuit for an electrokinetic injection. Using a DNA ladder as an internal standard, the CE module with a compact LIF detector was capable of detecting dsDNA in the range of 5-100 pg/μL, suitable for the amount of DNA required by the Illumina Genome Analyzer sequencing platform. This DMF-CE platform consumes tenfold less sample volume than the current Agilent BioAnalyzer QC technique, preserving precious sample while providing necessary sensitivity and accuracy for optimal sequencing performance. The ability of this microfluidic system to validate NGS library preparation was demonstrated by examining the effects of limited-cycle PCR amplification on the size distribution and the yield of Illumina-compatible libraries, demonstrating that as few as ten cycles of PCR bias the size distribution of the library toward undesirable larger fragments.

  14. Acoustic micro-vortexing of fluids, particles and cells in disposable microfluidic chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranmanesh, Ida; Ohlin, Mathias; Ramachandraiah, Harisha; Ye, Simon; Russom, Aman; Wiklund, Martin

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate an acoustic platform for micro-vortexing in disposable polymer microfluidic chips with small-volume (20 μl) reaction chambers. The described method is demonstrated for a variety of standard vortexing functions, including mixing of fluids, re-suspension of a pellet of magnetic beads collected by a magnet placed on the chip, and lysis of cells for DNA extraction. The device is based on a modified Langevin-type ultrasonic transducer with an exponential horn for efficient coupling into the microfluidic chip, which is actuated by a low-cost fixed-frequency electronic driver board. The transducer is optimized by numerical modelling, and different demonstrated vortexing functions are realized by actuating the transducer for varying times; from fractions of a second for fluid mixing, to half a minute for cell lysis and DNA extraction. The platform can be operated during 1 min below physiological temperatures with the help of a PC fan, a Peltier element and an aluminum heat sink acting as the chip holder. As a proof of principle for sample preparation applications, we demonstrate on-chip cell lysis and DNA extraction within 25 s. The method is of interest for automating and chip-integrating sample preparation procedures in various biological assays. PMID:27444649

  15. A Microfluidic Love-Wave Biosensing Device for PSA Detection Based on an Aptamer Beacon Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Li, Shuangming; Cao, Kang; Wang, Pengjuan; Su, Yan; Zhu, Xinhua; Wan, Ying

    2015-06-11

    A label-free and selective aptamer beacon-based Love-wave biosensing device was developed for prostate specific antigen (PSA) detection. The device consists of the following parts: LiTaO3 substrate with SiO2 film as wave guide layer, two set of inter-digital transducers (IDT), gold film for immobilization of the biorecongniton layer and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels. DNA aptamer, or "artificial antibody", was used as the specific biorecognition probe for PSA capture. Some nucleotides were added to the 3'-end of the aptamer to form a duplex with the 3'-end, turning the aptamer into an aptamer-beacon. Taking advantage of the selective target-induced assembly changes arising from the "aptamer beacon", highly selective and specific detection of PSA was achieved. Furthermore, PDMS microfluidic channels were designed and fabricated to realize automated quantitative sample injection. After optimization of the experimental conditions, the established device showed good performance for PSA detection between 10 ng/mL to 1 μg/mL, with a detection limit of 10 ng/mL. The proposed sensor might be a promising alternative for point of care diagnostics.

  16. Integrated Microfluidic Lectin Barcode Platform for High-Performance Focused Glycomic Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yuqin; Zeng, Yun; Zeng, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is one of the key processes that play essential roles in biological functions and dysfunctions. However, progress in glycomics has considerably lagged behind genomics and proteomics, due in part to the enormous challenges in analysis of glycans. Here we present a new integrated and automated microfluidic lectin barcode platform to substantially improve the performance of lectin array for focused glycomic profiling. The chip design and flow control were optimized to promote the lectin-glycan binding kinetics and speed of lectin microarray. Moreover, we established an on-chip lectin assay which employs a very simple blocking method to effectively suppress the undesired background due to lectin binding of antibodies. Using this technology, we demonstrated focused differential profiling of tissue-specific glycosylation changes of a biomarker, CA125 protein purified from ovarian cancer cell line and different tissues from ovarian cancer patients in a fast, reproducible, and high-throughput fashion. Highly sensitive CA125 detection was also demonstrated with a detection limit much lower than the clinical cutoff value for cancer diagnosis. This microfluidic platform holds the potential to integrate with sample preparation functions to construct a fully integrated "sample-to-answer" microsystem for focused differential glycomic analysis. Thus, our technology should present a powerful tool in support of rapid advance in glycobiology and glyco-biomarker development. PMID:26831207

  17. Microfluidic very large scale integration (VLSI) modeling, simulation, testing, compilation and physical synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art techniques for the modeling, simulation, testing, compilation and physical synthesis of mVLSI biochips. The authors describe a top-down modeling and synthesis methodology for the mVLSI biochips, inspired by microelectronics VLSI methodologies. They introduce a modeling framework for the components and the biochip architecture, and a high-level microfluidic protocol language. Coverage includes a topology graph-based model for the biochip architecture, and a sequencing graph to model for biochemical application, showing how the application model can be obtained from the protocol language. The techniques described facilitate programmability and automation, enabling developers in the emerging, large biochip market. · Presents the current models used for the research on compilation and synthesis techniques of mVLSI biochips in a tutorial fashion; · Includes a set of "benchmarks", that are presented in great detail and includes the source code of several of the techniques p...

  18. Microfluidic platform combining droplets and magnetic tweezers: application to HER2 expression in cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Davide; Champ, Jérôme; Teste, Bruno; Serra, Marco; Malaquin, Laurent; Viovy, Jean-Louis; de Cremoux, Patricia; Descroix, Stephanie

    2016-05-01

    The development of precision medicine, together with the multiplication of targeted therapies and associated molecular biomarkers, call for major progress in genetic analysis methods, allowing increased multiplexing and the implementation of more complex decision trees, without cost increase or loss of robustness. We present a platform combining droplet microfluidics and magnetic tweezers, performing RNA purification, reverse transcription and amplification in a fully automated and programmable way, in droplets of 250nL directly sampled from a microtiter-plate. This platform decreases sample consumption about 100 fold as compared to current robotized platforms and it reduces human manipulations and contamination risk. The platform’s performance was first evaluated on cell lines, showing robust operation on RNA quantities corresponding to less than one cell, and then clinically validated with a cohort of 21 breast cancer samples, for the determination of their HER2 expression status, in a blind comparison with an established routine clinical analysis.

  19. Implementation of Microfluidic Chip Electrophoresis for the Detection of B-cell Clonality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazan M

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A clonal population of B-cells is defined as those cells arising from the mitotic division of a single somatic cell with the same rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes. This gives rise to DNA markers for each individual lymphoid cell and its progenies and enables us to study clonality in different B-cell malignancies using multiplex polymerase chain reaction - PCR. The BIOMED-2 protocol has been implemented for clonality detection in lymphoproliferative diseases and exploits multiplex PCR reaction, subsequently analyzed by heteroduplex analysis (HDA using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE. With the advent of miniaturization and automation of molecular biology methods, lab-on-chip technologies were developed and replace partially the conventional approaches. We tested device for microfluidic chip, which is used for B-cells clonality analysis, using a PCR reaction for three subregions called frameworks (FR of the immunoglobulin heavy locus (IGH gene.

  20. Recent progress in preparation and application of microfluidic chip electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since its discovery in 1990, microfluidic chip electrophoresis (MCE) has allowed the development of applications with small size, fast analysis, low cost, high integration density and automatic level, which are easy to carry and have made commercialization efficient. MCE has been widely used in the areas of environmental protection, biochemistry, medicine and health, clinical testing, judicial expertise, food sanitation, pharmaceutical checking, drug testing, agrochemistry, biomedical engineering and life science. As one of the foremost fields in the research of capillary electrophoresis, MCE is the ultimate frontier to develop the miniaturized, integrated, automated all-in-one instruments needed in modern analytical chemistry. By adopting the advanced technologies of micro-machining, lasers and microelectronics, and the latest research achievements in analytical chemistry and biochemistry, the sampling, separation and detection systems of commonly used capillary electrophoresis are integrated with high densities onto glass, quartz, silicon or polymer wafers to form the MCE, which can finish the analysis of multi-step operations such as injection, enrichment, reaction, derivatization, separation, and collection of samples in a portable, efficient and super high speed manner. With reference to the different technological achievements in this area, the latest developments in MCE are reviewed in this article. The preparation mechanisms, surface modifications, and properties of different materials in MCE are compared, and the different sampling, separation and detection systems in MCE are summarized. The performance of MCE in analysis of fluorescent substance, metallic ion, sugar, medicine, nucleic acid, DNA, amino acid, polypeptide and protein is discussed, and the future direction of development is forecast. (topical review)

  1. Sonochemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogate, Parag R; Patil, Pankaj N

    2016-10-01

    Sonochemical reactors are based on the generation of cavitational events using ultrasound and offer immense potential for the intensification of physical and chemical processing applications. The present work presents a critical analysis of the underlying mechanisms for intensification, available reactor configurations and overview of the different applications exploited successfully, though mostly at laboratory scales. Guidelines have also been presented for optimum selection of the important operating parameters (frequency and intensity of irradiation, temperature and liquid physicochemical properties) as well as the geometric parameters (type of reactor configuration and the number/position of the transducers) so as to maximize the process intensification benefits. The key areas for future work so as to transform the successful technique at laboratory/pilot scale into commercial technology have also been discussed. Overall, it has been established that there is immense potential for sonochemical reactors for process intensification leading to greener processing and economic benefits. Combined efforts from a wide range of disciplines such as material science, physics, chemistry and chemical engineers are required to harness the benefits at commercial scale operation.

  2. A microfluidic AFM cantilever based dispensing and aspiration platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oorschot, R.; Perez Garza, H.H.; Derks, R.J.S.; Staufer, U.; Ghatkesar, M.K.

    2015-01-01

    We present the development of a microfluidic AFM (atomic force microscope) cantilever-based platform to enable the local dispensing and aspiration of liquid with volumes in the pico-to-femtoliter range. The platform consists of a basic AFM measurement system, microfluidic AFM chip, fluidic interface

  3. Optical manipulation with two beam traps in microfluidic polymer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury Arvelo, Maria; Matteucci, Marco; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl;

    2015-01-01

    An optical trapping system with two opposing laser beams, also known as the optical stretcher, are naturally constructed inside a microfluidic lab-on-chip system. We present and compare two approaches to combine a simple microfluidic system with either waveguides directly written in the microflui...

  4. Microfluidics and Microfabrication in a Chemical Engineering Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Shivaun D.

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidics, the manipulation of fluids in channels with micron dimensions, has emerged as an exciting new field that impacts the broad area of nano/microtechnology. This is an important area to train the next generation of chemical engineers. This paper describes an experiment where students are given a problem to design a microfluidic mixer…

  5. A microfluidic device based on an evaporation-driven micropump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nie, C.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Mandamparambil, R.; Toonder, J.M.J. den

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a microfluidic device ultimately to be applied as a wearable sweat sensor. We show proof-of-principle of the microfluidic functions of the device, namely fluid collection and continuous fluid flow pumping. A filter-paper based layer, that eventually will form the interface

  6. Flow control in microfluidic chips : Material choice and smart design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrauwer, P.; Emmelkamp, J.; Bolt, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a model and experiments to validate it for the design of bubble free chambers and channels in microfluidic chips. When handling liquids in a microfluidic chip problems may arise with entrapping air or liquid. These air and liquid bubbles deteriorate the efficiency of the process

  7. High-throughput injection with microfluidics using picoinjectors

    OpenAIRE

    Abate, Adam R.; Hung, Tony; Mary, Pascaline; Agresti, Jeremy J.; Weitz, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Adding reagents to drops is one of the most important functions in droplet-based microfluidic systems; however, a robust technique to accomplish this does not exist. Here, we introduce the picoinjector, a robust device to add controlled volumes of reagent using electro-microfluidics at kilohertz rates. It can also perform multiple injections for serial and combinatorial additions.

  8. Formation and Transport of Bubbles in Microfluidic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Steijn, V.

    2010-01-01

    Precise manipulation of minute volumes of fluids is at the heart of microfluidics and opens up an exciting route to miniaturize processes in the areas of chemistry, biology and medicine. An attractive way to transport small fluid samples through the channels of microfluidic devices is by enclosing t

  9. A fully automated in vitro diagnostic system based on magnetic tunnel junction arrays and superparamagnetic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jie; Chen, Si; Qiu, Yuqin; Zhang, Suohui; Shi, Stone; Gao, Yunhua

    2012-04-01

    A fully automated in vitro diagnostic (IVD) system for diagnosing acute myocardial infarction was developed using high sensitivity MTJ array as sensors and nano-magnetic particles as tags. On the chip is an array of 12 × 106 MTJ devices integrated onto a 3 metal layer CMOS circuit. The array is divided into 48 detection areas, therefore 48 different types of bio targets can be analyzed simultaneously if needed. The chip is assembled with a micro-fluidic cartridge which contains all the reagents necessary for completing the assaying process. Integrated with electrical, mechanical and micro-fluidic pumping devices and with the reaction protocol programed in a microprocessor, the system only requires a simple one-step analyte application procedure to operate and yields results of the three major AMI bio-markers (cTnI, MYO, CK-MB) in 15 mins.

  10. Single-mode and tunable microfluidic dye lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, A.; Balslev, S.; Gersborg-Hansen, M.; Bilenberg, B.; Rasmussen, T.; Nilsson, D.

    2006-08-01

    We present a technology for miniaturized, chip-based liquid dye lasers, which may be integrated with microfluidic networks and planar waveguides without addition of further process steps. The microfluidic dye lasers consist of a microfluidic channel with an embedded optical resonator. The lasers are operated with Rhodamine 6G laser dye dissolved in a suitable solvent, such as ethanol or ethylene glycol, and optically pumped at 532 nm with a pulsed, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser. Both vertically and laterally emitting devices are realized. A vertically emitting Fabry-Perot microcavity laser is integrated with a microfluidic mixer, to demonstrate realtime wavelength tunability. Two major challenges of this technology are addressed: lasing threshold and fluidic handling. Low threshold, in-plane emission and integration with polymer waveguides and microfluidic networks is demonstrated with distributed feed-back lasers. The challenge of fluidic handling is addressed by hybridization with mini-dispensers, and by applying capillary filling of the laser devices.

  11. Microfluidic production of multiple emulsions and functional microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Yong; Choi, Tae Min; Shim, Tae Soup; Frijns, Raoul A M; Kim, Shin-Hyun

    2016-09-21

    Recent advances in microfluidics have enabled the controlled production of multiple-emulsion drops with onion-like topology. The multiple-emulsion drops possess an intrinsic core-shell geometry, which makes them useful as templates to create microcapsules with a solid membrane. High flexibility in the selection of materials and hierarchical order, achieved by microfluidic technologies, has provided versatility in the membrane properties and microcapsule functions. The microcapsules are now designed not just for storage and release of encapsulants but for sensing microenvironments, developing structural colours, and many other uses. This article reviews the current state of the art in the microfluidic-based production of multiple-emulsion drops and functional microcapsules. The three main sections of this paper discuss distinct microfluidic techniques developed for the generation of multiple emulsions, four representative methods used for solid membrane formation, and various applications of functional microcapsules. Finally, we outline the current limitations and future perspectives of microfluidics and microcapsules. PMID:27470590

  12. Biologically Inspired Electronic, Photovoltaic and Microfluidic Devices Based on Aqueous Soft Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyung Jun

    molecules. To reduce the fabrication cost without efficiency loss, we found an inexpensive replacement of the expensive Pt counter-electrode with copper coated with carbon materials. Biologically derived photoactive molecules, such as Chlorophyll and Photosystem II, were successfully operated in the aqueous gel of such HGPVs. As a proof of demonstration of biomimetic structures, a light driven biomimetic reactor was developed by using hydrogel media with embedded photocatalytic TiO2 nanoparticles. Uniform supply of the reactants and extraction of the products was accomplished via a microfluidic channel network, broadly similar to the vein structure of live leaves. The dyes were transported in the gel between the microchannels and degraded by photocatalytic oxidation by the illuminated TiO2 particles. Quantitative analysis of the photocatalytic degradation rate of the injected dyes revealed that the microvascular reactor has high quantum efficiency per catalyst mass. Numerical modeling was performed to explore how a soluble reagent could be supplied rapidly and efficiently through microfluidic channel networks embedded in hydrogels. The computational model takes into account the fluid transport in porous media and the solute convection and diffusion, to simulate the solute distribution and outflux with time in microfluidic hydrogel media. The effect of the channel dimensions and shapes on mass transport rapidity and efficiency was quantitatively evaluated. Experimental data proved the validity of the time dependent concentration profile calculated by the simulation. Lastly, a microfluidic hydrogel solar cell with biomimetic regeneration functionality was demonstrated as a result of the above experimental and modeling studies. A new concept of open and replenishable photovoltaics was constructed on the basis of dye-sensitized solar cells. Photovoltaic reagents, dyes and redox electrolytes, were uniformly delivered via microfluidic networks embedded in a hydrogel, resulting in

  13. A miniature quantitative PCR device for directly monitoring a sample processing on a microfluidic rapid DNA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurth, Cedric; Yang, Jianing; Barrett, Matthew; Brooks, Carla; Nordquist, Alan; Smith, Stanley; Zenhausern, Frederic

    2014-12-01

    We report a microfluidic device and measurement method to perform real-time PCR (or qPCR) in a miniaturized configuration for on-chip implementation using reaction volumes of less than 20 μL. The qPCR bioreactor is designed as a module to be embedded in an automated sample-in/profile-out system for rapid DNA biometrics or human identification. The PCR mixture is excited with a 505 nm diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) and the fluorescence build-up is measured using optical fibers directly embedded to the sidewalls of the microfluidic qPCR bioreactor. We discuss manufacturing and operating parameters necessary to adjust the internal surface conditions and temperature profiles of the bioreactor and to optimize the yield and quality of the PCR reaction for the amplification of 62 bp hTERT intron fragments using the commercial Quantifiler® kit (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA) commonly accepted for genotyping analysis. We designed a microfluidic device suitable for continuously processing a specimen by efficiently mixing the reagents from the kit to a set volume of DNA template on chip. Our approach relies on a calibration curve for the specific device using control DNA. We successfully applied this method to determine the concentration of genomic DNA extracted from a buccal swab on separate microfluidic devices which are operated upstream the qPCR device and perform buccal swab lysis and buccal DNA extraction. A precise correlation between the amount determined on chip and that obtained using a commercial cycler is demonstrated.

  14. Materials Testing and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Wayne D.; Zweigoron, Ronald B.

    1980-07-01

    The advent of automation in materials testing has been in large part responsible for recent radical changes in the materials testing field: Tests virtually impossible to perform without a computer have become more straightforward to conduct. In addition, standardized tests may be performed with enhanced efficiency and repeatability. A typical automated system is described in terms of its primary subsystems — an analog station, a digital computer, and a processor interface. The processor interface links the analog functions with the digital computer; it includes data acquisition, command function generation, and test control functions. Features of automated testing are described with emphasis on calculated variable control, control of a variable that is computed by the processor and cannot be read directly from a transducer. Three calculated variable tests are described: a yield surface probe test, a thermomechanical fatigue test, and a constant-stress-intensity range crack-growth test. Future developments are discussed.

  15. Educational laboratory based on a multifunctional analyzer of a reactor of a nuclear power plant with a water-moderated water-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors presents an educational laboratory Safety and Control of a Nuclear Power Facility established by the Department of Automation for students and specialists of the nuclear power industry in the field of control, protection, and safe exploitation of reactor facilities at operating, constructing, and designing nuclear power plants with water-moderated water-cooled reactors

  16. Microfluidics @ the Beach: Introduction of Microfluidics Technology to the ChE Curriculum at Cal State Long Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Roger C.; Bhatia, Hina; Venkatraman, Rahul; Jang, Larry K.

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidics involves the study of the behavior of fluids at microscale, fluid manipulations, and the design of the devices that can effectively perform such manipulations. We are developing two new elective courses to include microfluidics in our curriculum at CSULB. Herein, we present the results of the first course, Microfabrication and…

  17. Automating the CMS DAQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.; et al.

    2014-01-01

    We present the automation mechanisms that have been added to the Data Acquisition and Run Control systems of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment during Run 1 of the LHC, ranging from the automation of routine tasks to automatic error recovery and context-sensitive guidance to the operator. These mechanisms helped CMS to maintain a data taking efficiency above 90% and to even improve it to 95% towards the end of Run 1, despite an increase in the occurrence of single-event upsets in sub-detector electronics at high LHC luminosity.

  18. Automated phantom assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an automated phantom assay system developed for assaying phantoms spiked with minute quantities of radionuclides. The system includes a computer-controlled linear-translation table that positions the phantom at exact distances from a spectrometer. A multichannel analyzer (MCA) interfaces with a computer to collect gamma spectral data. Signals transmitted between the controller and MCA synchronize data collection and phantom positioning. Measured data are then stored on disk for subsequent analysis. The automated system allows continuous unattended operation and ensures reproducible results

  19. Automated gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowry, Curtis D.; Blair, Dianna S.; Rodacy, Philip J.; Reber, Stephen D.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and process for the continuous, near real-time monitoring of low-level concentrations of organic compounds in a liquid, and, more particularly, a water stream. A small liquid volume of flow from a liquid process stream containing organic compounds is diverted by an automated process to a heated vaporization capillary where the liquid volume is vaporized to a gas that flows to an automated gas chromatograph separation column to chromatographically separate the organic compounds. Organic compounds are detected and the information transmitted to a control system for use in process control. Concentrations of organic compounds less than one part per million are detected in less than one minute.

  20. A revolutionary graphitisation system: Fully automated, compact and simple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wacker, L., E-mail: wacker@phys.ethz.c [Ion Beam Physics, Paul Scherrer Institute and ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Nemec, M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Bourquin, J. [Ion Beam Physics, Paul Scherrer Institute and ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-04-15

    A new graphitisation system, directly coupled to an elemental analyser, has been developed for convenient, fast and efficient sample preparations for radiocarbon measurement by means of accelerator mass spectrometry. We demonstrate an alternative to the cryogenic transport of CO{sub 2} into the graphitisation reactors with liquid nitrogen, which is used by others. Instead, the CO{sub 2} coming from an EA is absorbed on a single column filled with zeolite. The CO{sub 2} can then be easily released by heating the zeolite trap and transferred to the reactor by gas expansion. The system is simple and fully automated for sample combustion and graphitisation.

  1. Microfluidic lab-on-a-chip derivatization for gaseous carbonyl analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiaobing; Lewis, Alastair C; Ródenas-García, Milagros

    2013-06-28

    We present a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip derivatization technique for the analysis of gaseous carbonyl compounds using O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine (PFBHA) as the derivatizing reagent. The novel microfluidic lab-on-a-chip derivatization technique has been developed to measure nmol per mole (ppbv) mixing ratios of gaseous carbonyl compounds, which are of particular importance to atmospheric chemistry. The technique utilised a planar glass microreactor comprising three inlets and one outlet, gas and fluid splitting and combining channels, mixing junctions, and a 2.0m long, 620μm internal diameter reaction microchannel. The microreactor integrated three functions, providing: (1) a gas and liquid mixer and reactor, (2) reagent heating, and (3) sample pre-concentration. The concentration of derivatization solution, the volumetric flow rates of the incoming gas sample and PFBHA solution, and the temperature of the microreactor were optimised to achieve a near real-time measurement. The enhanced phase contact area-to-volume ratio and the high heat transfer rate in the microreactor resulted in a fast and high efficiency derivatization reaction, generating an effluent stream which was ready for direct introduction to GC-MS. Good linearity was observed for eight carbonyl compounds over the measurement ranges of 1-500ppbv when they were derivatized under optimal reaction conditions. The method detection limits (MDLs) were below 0.10nmolmol(-1) for most carbonyls in this study, which is below or close to their typical concentrations in clean ambient air. The performance of the technique was assessed by applying the methodology to the quantification of glyoxal (GLY) and methylglyoxal (MGLY) formed during isoprene photo-oxidation in an outdoor photoreactor chamber (EUPHORE). Good agreements between GLY and MGLY measurements were obtained comparing this new technique with Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR), which provides support for the potential effectiveness of

  2. Assessing Pretreatment Reactor Scaling Through Empirical Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lischeske, James J.; Crawford, Nathan C.; Kuhn, Erik; Nagle, Nicholas J.; Schell, Daniel J.; Tucker, Melvin P.; McMillan, James D.; Wolfrum, Edward J.

    2016-12-01

    Pretreatment is a critical step in the biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. Due to the complexity of the physicochemical transformations involved, predictively scaling up technology from bench- to pilot-scale is difficult. This study examines how pretreatment effectiveness under nominally similar reaction conditions is influenced by pretreatment reactor design and scale using four different pretreatment reaction systems ranging from a 3 g batch reactor to a 10 dry-ton/d continuous reactor. The reactor systems examined were an Automated Solvent Extractor (ASE), Steam Explosion Reactor (SER), ZipperClave(R) reactor (ZCR), and Large Continuous Horizontal-Screw Reactor (LHR). To our knowledge, this is the first such study performed on pretreatment reactors across a range of reaction conditions (time and temperature) and at different reactor scales. The comparative pretreatment performance results obtained for each reactor system were used to develop response surface models for total xylose yield after pretreatment and total sugar yield after pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Near- and very-near-optimal regions were defined as the set of conditions that the model identified as producing yields within one and two standard deviations of the optimum yield. Optimal conditions identified in the smallest-scale system (the ASE) were within the near-optimal region of the largest scale reactor system evaluated. A reaction severity factor modeling approach was shown to inadequately describe the optimal conditions in the ASE, incorrectly identifying a large set of sub-optimal conditions (as defined by the RSM) as optimal. The maximum total sugar yields for the ASE and LHR were 95%, while 89% was the optimum observed in the ZipperClave. The optimum condition identified using the automated and less costly to operate ASE system was within the very-near-optimal space for the total xylose yield of both the ZCR and the LHR, and was

  3. Interfacial microfluidic transport on micropatterned superhydrophobic textile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Siyuan; Jiang, Jia; Pan, Tingrui

    2013-05-21

    Textile-enabled interfacial microfluidics, utilizing fibrous hydrophilic yarns (e.g., cotton) to guide biological reagent flows, has been extended to various biochemical analyses recently. The restricted capillary-driving mechanism, however, persists as a major challenge for continuous and facilitated biofluidic transport. In this paper, we have first introduced a novel interfacial microfluidic transport principle to drive three-dimensional liquid flows on a micropatterned superhydrophobic textile (MST) platform in a more autonomous and controllable manner. Specifically, the MST system utilizes the surface tension-induced Laplace pressure to facilitate the liquid motion along the hydrophilic yarn, in addition to the capillarity present in the fibrous structure. The fabrication of MST is simply accomplished by stitching hydrophilic cotton yarn into a superhydrophobic fabric substrate (contact angle 140 ± 3°), from which well-controlled wetting patterns are established for interfacial microfluidic operations. The geometric configurations of the stitched micropatterns, e.g., the lengths and diameters of the yarn and bundled arrangement, can all influence the transport process, which is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Two operation modes, discrete and continuous transport, are also presented in detail. In addition, the gravitational effect as well as the droplet removal process have been also considered and quantitatively analysed during the transport process. As a demonstration, an MST design has been implemented on an artificial skin surface to collect and remove sweat in a highly efficient and facilitated means. The results have illustrated that the novel interfacial transport on the textile platform can be potentially extended to a variety of biofluidic collection and removal applications.

  4. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reactor container has a suppression chamber partitioned by concrete side walls, a reactor pedestal and a diaphragm floor. A plurality of partitioning walls are disposed in circumferential direction each at an interval inside the suppression chamber, so that independent chambers in a state being divided into plurality are formed inside the suppression chamber. The partition walls are formed from the bottom portion of the suppression chamber up to the diaphragm floor to isolate pool water in a divided state. Operation platforms are formed above the suppression chamber and connected to an access port. Upon conducting maintenance, inspection or repairing, a pump is disposed in the independent chamber to transfer pool water therein to one or a plurality of other independent chambers to make it vacant. (I.N.)

  5. Active micromachines: Microfluidics powered by mesoscale turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Thampi, Sumesh P; Shendruk, Tyler N; Golestanian, Ramin; Yeomans, Julia M

    2016-01-01

    Dense active matter, from bacterial suspensions and microtubule bundles driven by motor proteins to cellular monolayers and synthetic Janus particles, is characterised by mesoscale turbulence, the emergence of chaotic flow structures. By immersing an ordered array of symmetric rotors in an active fluid, we introduce a microfluidic system that exploits spontaneous symmetry breaking in mesoscale turbulence to generate work. The lattice of rotors self-organises into a spin-state where neighbouring discs continuously rotate in permanent alternating directions due to combined hydrodynamic and elastic effects. Our virtual prototype demonstrates a new research direction for the design of micromachines powered by the nematohydrodynamic properties of active turbulence.

  6. Simulation of Droplet Trains in Microfluidic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Behzad, Mehran Djalali; Ejtehadi, Mohammad Reza

    2009-01-01

    In this work we show that in a microfluidic network and in low Reynolds numbers a system can be irreversible because of hysteresis effects.The network, which is employed in our simulations, is taken from recent experiments. The network consists of one loop connected to input and output pipes. A train of droplets enter the system at a uniform rate, but they may leave it in different patterns, e.g. periodic or even chaotic. The out put pattern depends on the time interval among the incoming droplets as well as the network geometry and for some parameters the system is not reversible.

  7. Active micromachines: Microfluidics powered by mesoscale turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thampi, Sumesh P.; Doostmohammadi, Amin; Shendruk, Tyler N.; Golestanian, Ramin; Yeomans, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Dense active matter, from bacterial suspensions and microtubule bundles driven by motor proteins to cellular monolayers and synthetic Janus particles, is characterized by mesoscale turbulence, which is the emergence of chaotic flow structures. By immersing an ordered array of symmetric rotors in an active fluid, we introduce a microfluidic system that exploits spontaneous symmetry breaking in mesoscale turbulence to generate work. The lattice of rotors self-organizes into a spin state where neighboring discs continuously rotate in permanent alternating directions due to combined hydrodynamic and elastic effects. Our virtual prototype demonstrates a new research direction for the design of micromachines powered by the nematohydrodynamic properties of active turbulence. PMID:27419229

  8. Microfluidics: The future of microdissection TESE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Raheel; Badamjav, Odgerel; Murphy, Kristin E; Patel, Darshan P; Son, Jiyoung; Gale, Bruce K; Carrell, Douglas T; Hotaling, James M

    2016-06-01

    Non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is a severe form of infertility accounting for 10% of infertile men. Microdissection testicular sperm extraction (microTESE) includes a set of clinical protocols from which viable sperm are collected from patients (suffering from NOA), for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Clinical protocols associated with the processing of a microTESE sample are inefficient and significantly reduce the success of obtaining a viable sperm population. In this review we highlight the sources of these inefficiencies and how these sources can possibly be removed by microfluidic technology and single-cell Raman spectroscopy. PMID:27104311

  9. Scintillation particle detection based on microfluidics

    CERN Document Server

    Mapelli, A; Renaud, P; Gorini, B; Trivino, N Vico; Jiguet, S; Vandelli, W; Haguenauer, M

    2010-01-01

    A novel type of particle detector based on scintillation, with precise spatial resolution and high radiation hardness, is being studied. It consists of a single microfluidic channel filled with a liquid scintillator and is designed to define an array of scintillating waveguides each independently coupled to a photodetector. Prototype detectors built using an SU-8 epoxy resin have been tested with electrons from a radioactive source. The experimental results show a light yield compatible with the theoretical expectations and confirm the validity of the approach. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Active micromachines: Microfluidics powered by mesoscale turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thampi, Sumesh P; Doostmohammadi, Amin; Shendruk, Tyler N; Golestanian, Ramin; Yeomans, Julia M

    2016-07-01

    Dense active matter, from bacterial suspensions and microtubule bundles driven by motor proteins to cellular monolayers and synthetic Janus particles, is characterized by mesoscale turbulence, which is the emergence of chaotic flow structures. By immersing an ordered array of symmetric rotors in an active fluid, we introduce a microfluidic system that exploits spontaneous symmetry breaking in mesoscale turbulence to generate work. The lattice of rotors self-organizes into a spin state where neighboring discs continuously rotate in permanent alternating directions due to combined hydrodynamic and elastic effects. Our virtual prototype demonstrates a new research direction for the design of micromachines powered by the nematohydrodynamic properties of active turbulence. PMID:27419229

  11. Structural Optimization of non-Newtonian Microfluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg; Okkels, Fridolin

    2011-01-01

    We present results for topology optimization of a non-Newtonian rectifier described with a differential constitutive model. The results are novel in the sense that a differential constitutive model has not been combined with topology optimization previously. We find that it is necessary to apply...... a filter on the design variables based on a Helmholtz-type differential equation and we try to vary the filter length throughout the optimization in order to ensure compatibility with a convex interpolation between the inverse permeability and the design variables, which is popular within topology...... optimization of fluids. We test the method on a microfluidic rectifier and find solutions topologically different from experimentally realized designs....

  12. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.B.

    1960-01-01

    A reactor is described which comprises a tank, a plurality of coaxial steel sleeves in the tank, a mass of water in the tank, and wire grids in abutting relationship within a plurality of elongated parallel channels within the steel sleeves, the wire being provided with a plurality of bends in the same plane forming adjacent parallel sections between bends, and the sections of adjacent grids being normally disposed relative to each other.

  13. Automated solvent concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J. S.; Stuart, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    Designed for automated drug identification system (AUDRI), device increases concentration by 100. Sample is first filtered, removing particulate contaminants and reducing water content of sample. Sample is extracted from filtered residue by specific solvent. Concentrator provides input material to analysis subsystem.

  14. Protokoller til Home Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kristian Ellebæk

    2008-01-01

    computer, der kan skifte mellem foruddefinerede indstillinger. Nogle gange kan computeren fjernstyres over internettet, så man kan se hjemmets status fra en computer eller måske endda fra en mobiltelefon. Mens nævnte anvendelser er klassiske indenfor home automation, er yderligere funktionalitet dukket op...

  15. ELECTROPNEUMATIC AUTOMATION EDUCATIONAL LABORATORY

    OpenAIRE

    Dolgorukov, S. O.; National Aviation University; Roman, B. V.; National Aviation University

    2013-01-01

    The article reflects current situation in education regarding mechatronics learning difficulties. Com-plex of laboratory test benches on electropneumatic automation are considered as a tool in advancing through technical science. Course of laboratory works developed to meet the requirement of efficient and reliable way of practical skills acquisition is regarded the simplest way for students to learn the ba-sics of mechatronics.

  16. Building Automation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    A number of different automation systems for use in monitoring and controlling building equipment are described in this brochure. The system functions include--(1) collection of information, (2) processing and display of data at a central panel, and (3) taking corrective action by sounding alarms, making adjustments, or automatically starting and…

  17. Test Construction: Automated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2014-01-01

    Optimal test construction deals with automated assembly of tests for educational and psychological measurement. Items are selected from an item bank to meet a predefined set of test specifications. Several models for optimal test construction are presented, and two algorithms for optimal test assemb

  18. Test Construction: Automated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2016-01-01

    Optimal test construction deals with automated assembly of tests for educational and psychological measurement. Items are selected from an item bank to meet a predefined set of test specifications. Several models for optimal test construction are presented, and two algorithms for optimal test assemb

  19. Automated Web Applications Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan CĂPRIŢĂ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Unit tests are a vital part of several software development practicesand processes such as Test-First Programming, Extreme Programming andTest-Driven Development. This article shortly presents the software quality andtesting concepts as well as an introduction to an automated unit testingframework for PHP web based applications.

  20. Automated Student Model Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedinger, Kenneth R.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth A.; Stamper, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Student modeling plays a critical role in developing and improving instruction and instructional technologies. We present a technique for automated improvement of student models that leverages the DataShop repository, crowd sourcing, and a version of the Learning Factors Analysis algorithm. We demonstrate this method on eleven educational…