WorldWideScience

Sample records for automated gain control

  1. Gaining control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enden, van der E.; Laan, van der R.

    2008-01-01

    The article reports on the efforts of companies to find a solution for tax risk management, tax accounting and being in control. In trying to find a solution, companies work towards an integrated tax control framework (TCF), a tax risk management and control environment embedded in the internal cont

  2. Digital automatic gain control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzdy, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Performance analysis, used to evaluated fitness of several circuits to digital automatic gain control (AGC), indicates that digital integrator employing coherent amplitude detector (CAD) is best device suited for application. Circuit reduces gain error to half that of conventional analog AGC while making it possible to automatically modify response of receiver to match incoming signal conditions.

  3. Advanced automated gain adjustments for in-vivo ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshavegh, Ramin; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Martins, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Automatic gain adjustments are necessary on the state-of-the-art ultrasound scanners to obtain optimal scan quality, while reducing the unnecessary user interactions with the scanner. However, when large anechoic regions exist in the scan plane, the sudden and drastic variation of attenuations...... in the scanned media complicates the gain compensation. This paper presents an advanced and automated gain adjustment method that precisely compensate for the gains on scans and dynamically adapts to the drastic attenuation variations between different media. The proposed algorithm makes use of several...

  4. Commutated automatic gain control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The commutated automatic gain control (AGC) system was designed and built for the prototype Loran-C receiver is discussed. The current version of the prototype receiver, the Mini L-80, was tested initially in 1980. The receiver uses a super jolt microcomputer to control a memory aided phase loop (MAPLL). The microcomputer also controls the input/output, latitude/longitude conversion, and the recently added AGC system. The AGC control adjusts the level of each station signal, such that the early portion of each envelope rise is about at the same amplitude in the receiver envelope detector.

  5. Automating quantum experiment control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kelly E.; Amini, Jason M.; Doret, S. Charles; Mohler, Greg; Volin, Curtis; Harter, Alexa W.

    2017-03-01

    The field of quantum information processing is rapidly advancing. As the control of quantum systems approaches the level needed for useful computation, the physical hardware underlying the quantum systems is becoming increasingly complex. It is already becoming impractical to manually code control for the larger hardware implementations. In this chapter, we will employ an approach to the problem of system control that parallels compiler design for a classical computer. We will start with a candidate quantum computing technology, the surface electrode ion trap, and build a system instruction language which can be generated from a simple machine-independent programming language via compilation. We incorporate compile time generation of ion routing that separates the algorithm description from the physical geometry of the hardware. Extending this approach to automatic routing at run time allows for automated initialization of qubit number and placement and additionally allows for automated recovery after catastrophic events such as qubit loss. To show that these systems can handle real hardware, we present a simple demonstration system that routes two ions around a multi-zone ion trap and handles ion loss and ion placement. While we will mainly use examples from transport-based ion trap quantum computing, many of the issues and solutions are applicable to other architectures.

  6. Gain Scheduling for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Sara J.; Restrepo, Carolina I.; Madsen, Jennifer M.; Medina, Edgar A.; Proud, Ryan W.; Whitley, Ryan J.

    2011-01-01

    One of NASAs challenges for the Orion vehicle is the control system design for the Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV), which is required to abort safely at any time during the atmospheric ascent portion of ight. The focus of this paper is the gain design and scheduling process for a controller that covers the wide range of vehicle configurations and flight conditions experienced during the full envelope of potential abort trajectories from the pad to exo-atmospheric flight. Several factors are taken into account in the automation process for tuning the gains including the abort effectors, the environmental changes and the autopilot modes. Gain scheduling is accomplished using a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) approach for the decoupled, simplified linear model throughout the operational envelope in time, altitude and Mach number. The derived gains are then implemented into the full linear model for controller requirement validation. Finally, the gains are tested and evaluated in a non-linear simulation using the vehicles ight software to ensure performance requirements are met. An overview of the LAV controller design and a description of the linear plant models are presented. Examples of the most significant challenges with the automation of the gain tuning process are then discussed. In conclusion, the paper will consider the lessons learned through out the process, especially in regards to automation, and examine the usefulness of the gain scheduling tool and process developed as applicable to non-Orion vehicles.

  7. Determination of optimal gains for constrained controllers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, C.M.; Mestha, L.K.

    1993-08-01

    In this report, we consider the determination of optimal gains, with respect to a certain performance index, for state feedback controllers where some elements in the gain matrix are constrained to be zero. Two iterative schemes for systematically finding the constrained gain matrix are presented. An example is included to demonstrate the procedures.

  8. Gaining and sustaining schistosomiasis control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezeamama, Amara E.; He, Chun-La; Shen, Ye;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE) was established in 2008 to answer strategic questions about schistosomiasis control. For programme managers, a high-priority question is: what are the most cost-effective strategies for delivering preventiv...

  9. Automated power management and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolce, James L.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive automation design is being developed for Space Station Freedom's electric power system. A joint effort between NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Exploration Technology and NASA's Office of Space Station Freedom, it strives to increase station productivity by applying expert systems and conventional algorithms to automate power system operation. The initial station operation will use ground-based dispatches to perform the necessary command and control tasks. These tasks constitute planning and decision-making activities that strive to eliminate unplanned outages. We perceive an opportunity to help these dispatchers make fast and consistent on-line decisions by automating three key tasks: failure detection and diagnosis, resource scheduling, and security analysis. Expert systems will be used for the diagnostics and for the security analysis; conventional algorithms will be used for the resource scheduling.

  10. Gaining and sustaining schistosomiasis control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezeamama, Amara E.; He, Chun-La; Shen, Ye

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE) was established in 2008 to answer strategic questions about schistosomiasis control. For programme managers, a high-priority question is: what are the most cost-effective strategies for delivering preventive...... chemotherapy (PCT) with praziquantel (PZQ)? This paper describes the process SCORE used to transform this question into a harmonized research protocol, the study design for answering this question, the village eligibility assessments and data resulting from the first year of the study. METHODS: Beginning......-aged children. Seven studies are currently being implemented in five African countries. During the first year, villages were screened for eligibility, and data were collected on prevalence and intensity of infection prior to randomisation and the implementation of different schemes of PZQ intervention...

  11. Gain control mechanisms in spinal motoneurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael David Johnson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Motoneurons provide the only conduit for motor commands to reach muscles. For many years, motoneurons were in fact considered to be little more than passive wires. Systematic studies in the past 25 years however have clearly demonstrated that the intrinsic electrical properties of motoneurons are under strong neuromodulatory control via multiple sources. The discovery of potent neuromodulation from the brainstem and its ability to change the gain of motoneurons shows that the passive view of the motor output stage is no longer tenable. A mechanism for gain control at the motor output stage makes good functional sense considering our capability of generating an enormous range of forces, from very delicate (e.g. putting in a contact lens to highly forceful (emergency reactions. Just as sensory systems need gain control to deal with a wide dynamic range of inputs, so to might motor output need gain control to deal with the wide dynamic range of the normal movement repertoire. Two problems emerge from the potential use of the brainstem monoaminergic projection to motoneurons for gain control. First, the projection is highly diffuse anatomically, so that independent control of the gains of different motor pools is not feasible. In fact, the system is so diffuse that gain for all the motor pools in a limb likely increases in concert. Second, if there is a system that increases gain, probably a system to reduce gain is also needed. In this review, we summarize recent studies that show local inhibitory circuits within the spinal cord, especially reciprocal and recurrent inhibition, have the potential to solve both of these problems as well as constitute another source of gain modulation.

  12. Automated Hierarchical Time Gain Compensation for In Vivo Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshavegh, Ramin; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Martins, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Time gain compensation (TGC) is essential to ensure the optimal image quality of the clinical ultrasound scans. When large fluid collections are present within the scan plane, the attenuation distribution is changed drastically and TGC compensation becomes challenging. This paper presents...... tissue and the ultrasound signal strength. The proposed algorithm was applied to a set of 44 in vivo abdominal movie sequences each containing 15 frames. Matching pairs of in vivo sequences, unprocessed and processed with the proposed AHTGC were visualized side by side and evaluated by two radiologists...

  13. Automated postoperative blood pressure control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hang ZHENG; Kuanyi ZHU

    2005-01-01

    It is very important to maintain the level of mean arterial pressure (MAP).The MAP control is applied in many clinical situations,including limiting bleeding during cardiac surgery and promoting healing for patient's post-surgery.This paper presents a fuzzy controller-based multiple-model adaptive control system for postoperative blood pressure management.Multiple-model adaptive control (MMAC) algorithm is used to identify the patient model,and it is a feasible system identification method even in the presence of large noise.Fuzzy control (FC) method is used to design controller bank.Each fuzzy controller in the controller bank is in fact a nonlinear proportional-integral (PI) controller,whose proportional gain and integral gain are adjusted continuously according to error and rate of change of error of the plant output,resulting in better dynamic and stable control performance than the regular PI controller,especially when a nonlinear process is involved.For demonstration,a nonlinear,pulsatile-flow patient model is used for simulation,and the results show that the adaptive control system can effectively handle the changes in patient's dynamics and provide satisfactory performance in regulation of blood pressure of hypertension patients.

  14. Weight Gain Through Self-Control Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulanick, Nancy; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Underweight subjects were assigned to either a self-reinforcement condition, a self-punishment condition, or to a discussion/reflection control condition. The subjects received one treatment session per week over a five-week period. After treatment, the self-reinforcement groups gained significantly more pounds (kilograms) than either of the other…

  15. Contrast Gain Control Model Fits Masking Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Solomon, Joshua A.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We studied the fit of a contrast gain control model to data of Foley (JOSA 1994), consisting of thresholds for a Gabor patch masked by gratings of various orientations, or by compounds of two orientations. Our general model includes models of Foley and Teo & Heeger (IEEE 1994). Our specific model used a bank of Gabor filters with octave bandwidths at 8 orientations. Excitatory and inhibitory nonlinearities were power functions with exponents of 2.4 and 2. Inhibitory pooling was broad in orientation, but narrow in spatial frequency and space. Minkowski pooling used an exponent of 4. All of the data for observer KMF were well fit by the model. We have developed a contrast gain control model that fits masking data. Unlike Foley's, our model accepts images as inputs. Unlike Teo & Heeger's, our model did not require multiple channels for different dynamic ranges.

  16. A Toolchain for Home Automation Controller Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter H.; Le Guilly, Thibaut; Middelhede, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Home Automation systems provide a large number of devices to control diverse appliances. Taking advantage of this diversity to create efficient and intelligent environments requires well designed, validated, and implemented controllers. However, designing and deploying such controllers is a complex...

  17. Operator versus computer control of adaptive automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburn, Brian; Molloy, Robert; Wong, Dick; Parasuraman, Raja

    1993-01-01

    Adaptive automation refers to real-time allocation of functions between the human operator and automated subsystems. The article reports the results of a series of experiments whose aim is to examine the effects of adaptive automation on operator performance during multi-task flight simulation, and to provide an empirical basis for evaluations of different forms of adaptive logic. The combined results of these studies suggest several things. First, it appears that either excessively long, or excessively short, adaptation cycles can limit the effectiveness of adaptive automation in enhancing operator performance of both primary flight and monitoring tasks. Second, occasional brief reversions to manual control can counter some of the monitoring inefficiency typically associated with long cycle automation, and further, that benefits of such reversions can be sustained for some time after return to automated control. Third, no evidence was found that the benefits of such reversions depend on the adaptive logic by which long-cycle adaptive switches are triggered.

  18. Automated Power Control for Virtualized Infrastructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文雨; 王伟平; 郭莉; 孟丹

    2014-01-01

    Power control for virtualized environments has gained much attention recently. One of the ma jor challenges is keeping underlying infrastructure in reasonably low power states and achieving service-level objectives (SLOs) of upper applications as well. Existing solutions, however, cannot effectively tackle this problem for virtualized environments. In this paper, we propose an automated power control solution for such scenarios in hope of making some progress. The major advantage of our solution is being able to precisely control the CPU frequency levels of a physical environment and the CPU power allocations among virtual machines with respect to the SLOs of multiple applications. Based on control theory and online model estimation, our solution can adapt to the variations of application power demands. Additionally, our solution can simultaneously manage the CPU power control for all virtual machines according to their dependencies at either the application-level or the infrastructure-level. The experimental evaluation demonstrates that our solution outperforms three state-of-the-art methods in terms of achieving the application SLOs with low infrastructure power consumption.

  19. Gain control in the sonar of odontocetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya Supin, Alexander; Nachtigall, Paul E

    2013-06-01

    The sonar of odontocetes processes echo-signals within a wide range of echo levels. The level of echoes varies widely by tens of decibels depending on the level of the emitted sonar pulse, the target strength, the distance to the target, and the sound absorption by the water media. The auditory system of odontocetes must be capable of effective perception, analysis, and discrimination of echo-signals within all this variability. The sonar of odontocetes has several mechanisms to compensate for the echo-level variation (gain control). To date, several mechanisms of the biosonar gain control have been revealed in odontocetes: (1) adjustment of emitted sonar pulse levels (the longer the distance to the target, the higher the level of the emitted pulse), (2) short-term variation of hearing sensitivity based on forward masking of the echo by the preceding self-heard emitted pulse and subsequent release from the masking, and (3) active long-term control of hearing sensitivity. Recent investigations with the use of the auditory evoked-potential technique have demonstrated that these mechanisms effectively minimize the variation of the response to the echo when either the emitted sonar pulse level, or the target distance, or both vary within a wide range. A short review of these data is presented herein.

  20. Future Computer, Communication, Control and Automation

    CERN Document Server

    2011 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation

    2012-01-01

    The volume includes a set of selected papers extended and revised from the 2011 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation (3CA 2011). 2011 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation (3CA 2011) has been held in Zhuhai, China, November 19-20, 2011. This volume topics covered include wireless communications, advances in wireless video, wireless sensors networking, security in wireless networks, network measurement and management, hybrid and discrete-event systems, internet analytics and automation, robotic system and applications, reconfigurable automation systems, machine vision in automation. We hope that researchers, graduate students and other interested readers benefit scientifically from the proceedings and also find it stimulating in the process.

  1. Electric power distribution, automation, protection, and control

    CERN Document Server

    Momoh, James A

    2007-01-01

    * Each Chapter Provides an Introduction, Illustrative Examples, and a SummaryIntroduction to Distribution Automation Systems Historical Background Distribution System Topology and Structure Distribution Automation (DA) and Control Computational Techniques for Distribution Systems Complex Power Concepts Balanced Voltage to Neutral-Connected System Power Relationship for f Y-?-Connected System Per-Unit System Calculation of Power Losses Voltage Regulation Techniques Voltage-Sag Analysis and Calculation Equipment Modeling Components Modeling Distribution System Line Model Distribution Power Flo

  2. Traffic Flow Control In Automated Highway Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Luis; Horowitz, Roberto

    1997-01-01

    This report studies the problem of traffic control in the Automated Highway System (AHS) hierarchical architecture of the California PATH program. A link layer controller for the PATH AHS architecture is presented. It is shown that the proposed control laws stabilize the vehicular density and flow around predetermined profiles.

  3. Future Control and Automation : Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volume Future Control and Automation- Volume 1 includes best papers selected from 2012 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation (ICFCA 2012) held on July 1-2, 2012, Changsha, China. Future control and automation is the use of control systems and information technologies to reduce the need for human work in the production of goods and services. This volume can be divided into five sessions on the basis of the classification of manuscripts considered, which is listed as follows: Identification and Control, Navigation, Guidance and Sensor, Simulation Technology, Future Telecommunications and Control

  4. Stabilizing Gain Selection of Networked Variable Gain Controller to Maximize Robustness Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Indranil; Ghosh, Soumyajit; Gupta, Amitava; 10.1109/PACC.2011.5978958

    2012-01-01

    Networked Control Systems (NCSs) are often associated with problems like random data losses which might lead to system instability. This paper proposes a method based on the use of variable controller gains to achieve maximum parametric robustness of the plant controlled over a network. Stability using variable controller gains under data loss conditions is analyzed using a suitable Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) formulation. Also, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based technique is used to maximize parametric robustness of the plant.

  5. Bumpless Transfer between Observer-based Gain Scheduled Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Stoustrup, Jakob; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with bumpless transfer between a number of observer-based controllers in a gain scheduling architecture. Linear observer-based controllers are designed for a number of linear approximations of a nonlinear system in a set of operating points, and gain scheduling control can...

  6. Aircraft nonlinear optimal control using fuzzy gain scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusyirwan, I. F.; Kung, Z. Y.

    2016-10-01

    Fuzzy gain scheduling is a common solution for nonlinear flight control. The highly nonlinear region of flight dynamics is determined throughout the examination of eigenvalues and the irregular pattern of root locus plots that show the nonlinear characteristic. By using the optimal control for command tracking, the pitch rate stability augmented system is constructed and the longitudinal flight control system is established. The outputs of optimal control for 21 linear systems are fed into the fuzzy gain scheduler. This research explores the capability in using both optimal control and fuzzy gain scheduling to improve the efficiency in finding the optimal control gains and to achieve Level 1 flying qualities. The numerical simulation work is carried out to determine the effectiveness and performance of the entire flight control system. The simulation results show that the fuzzy gain scheduling technique is able to perform in real time to find near optimal control law in various flying conditions.

  7. Automation and control of off-planet oxygen production processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marner, W. J.; Suitor, J. W.; Schooley, L. S.; Cellier, F. E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses several aspects of the automation and control of off-planet production processes. First, a general approach to process automation and control is discussed from the viewpoint of translating human process control procedures into automated procedures. Second, the control issues for the automation and control of off-planet oxygen processes are discussed. Sensors, instruments, and components are defined and discussed in the context of off-planet applications, and the need for 'smart' components is clearly established.

  8. Control and automation, and energy system engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tai-hoon [Hannam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Adeli, Hojjat [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Stoica, Adrian [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Kang, Byeong-Ho (eds.) [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia)

    2011-07-01

    This book comprises selected papers of the International Conferences, CA and CES3 2011, held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2011, in Conjunction with GDC 2011, Jeju Island, Korea, in December 2011. The papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions and focused on the various aspects of control and automation, and circuits, control, communication, electricity, electronics, energy, system, signal and simulation. (orig.)

  9. A novel control method for on-off gain and gain tilt of fiber Raman amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Feng(冯雪); Wei Zhang(张巍); Xiaoming Liu(刘小明); Jiangde Peng(彭江得)

    2004-01-01

    Considering spectrum tilt due to signal-to-signal Raman scattering (SSRS) in backward distributed fiber Raman amplifiers (B-DFRA), an inverse tilted on-off gain profile is adopted to achieve flat net gain. A simple approximate linear relationship of pump power at each wavelength versus on-off gain level and tilt was derived numerically and experimentally so that a novel control method was established. Since there are only 3 pre-determinable constants required for individual pump wave, it is easy to be realized. As an example, maximum errors less than 0.2 and 0.4 dB respectively for average gain and gain tilt were achieved over C+L band in 100-km back-pumped standard single-mode fiber (SMF) experimentally.

  10. Automated Voltage Control in LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Granado Cardoso, L; Jacobsson, R

    2011-01-01

    LHCb is one of the 4 LHC experiments. In order to ensure the safety of the detector and to maximize efficiency, LHCb needs to coordinate its own operations, in particular the voltage configuration of the different subdetectors, according to the accelerator status. A control software has been developed for this purpose, based on the Finite State Machine toolkit and the SCADA system used for control throughout LHCb (and the other LHC experiments). This software permits to efficiently drive both the Low Voltage (LV) and High Voltage (HV) systems of the 10 different sub-detectors that constitute LHCb, setting each sub-system to the required voltage (easily configurable at run-time) based on the accelerator state. The control software is also responsible for monitoring the state of the Sub-detector voltages and adding it to the event data in the form of status-bits. Safe and yet flexible operation of the LHCb detector has been obtained and automatic actions, triggered by the state changes of the ...

  11. Adaptive Human Control Gains During Precision Grip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik D. Engeberg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Eight human test subjects attempted to track a desired position trajectory with an instrumented manipulandum (MN. The test subjects used the MN with three different levels of stiffness. A transfer function was developed to represent the human application of a precision grip from the data when the test subjects initially displaced the MN so as to learn the position mapping from the MN onto the display. Another transfer function was formed from the data of the remainder of the experiments, after significant displacement of the MN occurred. Both of these transfer functions accurately modelled the system dynamics for a portion of the experiments, but neither was accurate for the duration of the experiments because the human grip dynamics changed while learning the position mapping. Thus, an adaptive system model was developed to describe the learning process of the human test subjects as they displaced the MN in order to gain knowledge of the position mapping. The adaptive system model was subsequently validated following comparison with the human test subject data. An examination of the average absolute error between the position predicted by the adaptive model and the actual experimental data yielded an overall average error of 0.34mm for all three levels of stiffness.

  12. Real time control engineering systems and automation

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Tian Seng

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the two broad areas of the electronics and electrical aspects of control applications, highlighting the many different types of control systems of relevance to real-life control system design. The control techniques presented are state-of-the-art. In the electronics section, readers will find essential information on microprocessor, microcontroller, mechatronics and electronics control. The low-level assembly programming language performs basic input/output control techniques as well as controlling the stepper motor and PWM dc motor. In the electrical section, the book addresses the complete elevator PLC system design, neural network plant control, load flow analysis, and process control, as well as machine vision topics. Illustrative diagrams, circuits and programming examples and algorithms help to explain the details of the system function design. Readers will find a wealth of computer control and industrial automation practices and applications for modern industries, as well as the educat...

  13. HVAC control system for building automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. S.; Song, I. T.; Cho, S. W.; Cho, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of the project is to design and construction of the HVAC control system for building automation. The HVAC control system can accomplish the function which are the optimum operation condition and operation time, and the operation pattern analysis. Also, this control system can effectively manage energy saving, building environment control, facilities safety monitoring etc. The HVAC control system consisted of the central control and monitoring system (CCMS) and the direct digital controller (DDC). 1) CCMS: -Main Compute -Graphic Board -Printer -Console Desk -Intercom. 2) DDC : -IMC-M (System Control Unit Main Module) -IMC-1,2,3,4(System Control Unit Module). Following this report will be used important data for the design, construction, operation and maintenance of the HVAC control system. 12 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  14. Automated hierarchical time gain compensation for in-vivo ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshavegh, Ramin; Hemmsen, Martin C.; Martins, Bo; Brandt, Andreas H.; Hansen, Kristoffer L.; Nielsen, Michael B.; Jensen, Jørgen A.

    2015-03-01

    Time gain compensation (TGC) is essential to ensure the optimal image quality of the clinical ultrasound scans. When large fluid collections are present within the scan plane, the attenuation distribution is changed drastically and TGC compensation becomes challenging. This paper presents an automated hierarchical TGC (AHTGC) algorithm that accurately adapts to the large attenuation variation between different types of tissues and structures. The algorithm relies on estimates of tissue attenuation, scattering strength, and noise level to gain a more quantitative understanding of the underlying tissue and the ultrasound signal strength. The proposed algorithm was applied to a set of 44 in vivo abdominal movie sequences each containing 15 frames. Matching pairs of in vivo sequences, unprocessed and processed with the proposed AHTGC were visualized side by side and evaluated by two radiologists in terms of image quality. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to evaluate whether radiologists preferred the processed sequences or the unprocessed data. The results indicate that the average visual analogue scale (VAS) is positive ( p-value: 2.34 × 10-13) and estimated to be 1.01 (95% CI: 0.85; 1.16) favoring the processed data with the proposed AHTGC algorithm.

  15. L2-gain and passivity techniques in nonlinear control

    CERN Document Server

    van der Schaft, Arjan

    2017-01-01

    This standard text gives a unified treatment of passivity and L2-gain theory for nonlinear state space systems, preceded by a compact treatment of classical passivity and small-gain theorems for nonlinear input-output maps. The synthesis between passivity and L2-gain theory is provided by the theory of dissipative systems. Specifically, the small-gain and passivity theorems and their implications for nonlinear stability and stabilization are discussed from this standpoint. The connection between L2-gain and passivity via scattering is detailed. Feedback equivalence to a passive system and resulting stabilization strategies are discussed. The passivity concepts are enriched by a generalised Hamiltonian formalism, emphasising the close relations with physical modeling and control by interconnection, and leading to novel control methodologies going beyond passivity. The potential of L2-gain techniques in nonlinear control, including a theory of all-pass factorizations of nonlinear systems, and of parametrization...

  16. Help Your Child Gain Control Over Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a pet inside, keep it out of your child’s bedroom. • Keep pets off of your furniture. • Vacuum carpets and furniture when your child is not around. Vacuum every week to help control pet hair and dust. 23 Cockroaches (“roaches” or other “ ...

  17. Advances in Computer, Communication, Control and Automation

    CERN Document Server

    011 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation

    2012-01-01

    The volume includes a set of selected papers extended and revised from the 2011 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation (3CA 2011). 2011 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation (3CA 2011) has been held in Zhuhai, China, November 19-20, 2011. This volume  topics covered include signal and Image processing, speech and audio Processing, video processing and analysis, artificial intelligence, computing and intelligent systems, machine learning, sensor and neural networks, knowledge discovery and data mining, fuzzy mathematics and Applications, knowledge-based systems, hybrid systems modeling and design, risk analysis and management, system modeling and simulation. We hope that researchers, graduate students and other interested readers benefit scientifically from the proceedings and also find it stimulating in the process.

  18. Security-Control Systems and Automation in Contemporary Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadet Aytıs

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the developing technology, major renovations related to the security control systems and to building automation applications on contemporary buildings have appeared. The main item of the control systems is the entry system with cards and passwords and this is applied almost in all the large contemporary buildings. The entry and exit to/from the carparking is getting to be as important as the entry and exit to/from the building. Thus, specific measures to stop the security system being already perforated in the parking are needed. Warning systems with a great range of different detectors against various dangers that run connected to the mainframe computers and that turn on the system in case of danger are taken into consideration. The fact of obtaining all comfort conditions desired in the contemporary high space buildings and functioning of the first-aid systems are fully realized by computers with the help of systems that are called “Building Automation System” (BAS. All inspection, energy saving and security controls are achieved through these systems. In the buildings where building automation systems are applied, trained personel is needed to keep the system running; and the training of the residents about the system gains more and more importance.

  19. Gain scheduled control of linear systems with unsymmetrical saturation actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Juan; Duan, Guang-Ren

    2016-11-01

    The problem of stabilisation of a class of nonlinear continuous-time systems with asymmetric saturations on the control is studied in this paper. By combining the parametric Lyapunov equation approach and gain scheduling technique, a state feedback gain scheduling controller is proposed to solve the stabilisation problem of systems with unsymmetrical saturated control. The proposed gain scheduled approach is to increase the value of the design parameter so that the convergence rate of the closed-loop system can be increased. Numerical simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  20. An output amplitude configurable wideband automatic gain control with high gain step accuracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓丰; 莫太山; 马成炎; 叶甜春

    2012-01-01

    An output amplitude configurable wideband automatic gain control (AGC) with high gain step accuracy for the GNSS receiver is presented.The amplitude of an AGC is configurable in order to cooperate with baseband chips to achieve interference suppression and be compatible with different full range ADCs.And what's more,the gain-boosting technology is introduced and the circuit is improved to increase the step accuracy.A zero,which is composed by the source feedback resistance and the source capacity,is introduced to compensate for the pole.The AGC is fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process.The AGC shows a 62 dB gain control range by 1 dB each step with a gain error of less than 0.2 dB.The AGC provides 3 dB bandwidth larger than 80 MHz and the overall power consumption is less than 1.8 mA,and the die area is 800 × 300μm2.

  1. Gain Scheduling Control based on Closed-Loop System Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus

    This paper deals with system identification and gain scheduling control of multi-variable nonlinear systems. We propose a novel scheme where a linear approximation of the system model is obtained in an operating point; then, a Youla-Kucera (YJBK) parameter specifying the difference between...... the first and a second operating point is identified in closed-loop using system identification methods with open-loop properties. Next, a linear controller is designed for this linearised model, and gain scheduling control can subsequently be achieved by interpolating between each controller...

  2. Humanoid Walking Robot: Modeling, Inverse Dynamics, and Gain Scheduling Control

    OpenAIRE

    Elvedin Kljuno; Williams, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents reference-model-based control design for a 10 degree-of-freedom bipedal walking robot, using nonlinear gain scheduling. The main goal is to show concentrated mass models can be used for prediction of the required joint torques for a bipedal walking robot. Relatively complicated architecture, high DOF, and balancing requirements make the control task of these robots difficult. Although linear control techniques can be used to control bipedal robots, nonlinear control is n...

  3. Automated Formal Verification for PLC Control Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    Fernández Adiego, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are widely used devices used in industrial control systems. Ensuring that the PLC software is compliant with its specification is a challenging task. Formal verification has become a recommended practice to ensure the correctness of the safety-critical software. However, these techniques are still not widely applied in industry due to the complexity of building formal models, which represent the system and the formalization of requirement specifications. We propose a general methodology to perform automated model checking of complex properties expressed in temporal logics (e.g. CTL, LTL) on PLC programs. This methodology is based on an Intermediate Model (IM), meant to transform PLC programs written in any of the languages described in the IEC 61131-3 standard (ST, IL, etc.) to different modeling languages of verification tools. This approach has been applied to CERN PLC programs validating the methodology.

  4. Using Automated Planning for Traffic Signals Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Gulić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Solving traffic congestions represents a high priority issue in many big cities. Traditional traffic control systems are mainly based on pre-programmed, reactive and local techniques. This paper presents an autonomic system that uses automated planning techniques instead. These techniques are easily configurable and modified, and can reason about the future implications of actions that change the default traffic lights behaviour. The proposed implemented system includes some autonomic properties, since it monitors the current traffic state, detects if the system is degrading its performance, sets up new sets of goals to be achieved by the planner, triggers the planner that generates plans with control actions, and executes the selected courses of actions. The obtained results in several artificial and real world data-based simulation scenarios show that the proposed system can efficiently solve traffic congestion.

  5. Driver's situation awareness during supervision of automated control - comparison between SART and SAGAT measurement techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukel, van den A.P.; Voort, van der M.C.; Risser, R.

    2014-01-01

    Systems enabling to drive automatically are being introduced on the market. When using this technology, drivers are in need for interfaces which support them with supervision of the automated control. Assessment of Situation Awareness (SA) which drivers are able to gain while using such interfaces,

  6. Application of gain scheduling to the control of batch bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardello, Ralph; San, Ka-Yiu

    1987-01-01

    The implementation of control algorithms to batch bioreactors is often complicated by the inherent variations in process dynamics during the course of fermentation. Such a wide operating range may render the performance of fixed gain PID controllers unsatisfactory. In this work, a detailed study on the control of batch fermentation is performed. Furthermore, a simple batch controller design is proposed which incorporates the concept of gain-scheduling, a subclass of adaptive control, with oxygen uptake rate as an auxiliary variable. The control of oxygen tension in the biorector is used as a vehicle to convey the proposed idea, analysis and results. Simulation experiments indicate significant improvement in controller performance can be achieved by the proposed approach even in the presence of measurement noise.

  7. Robotic Automation in Computer Controlled Polishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. D.; Yu, G.; Bibby, M.; Dunn, C.; Li, H.; Wu, Y.; Zheng, X.; Zhang, P.

    2016-02-01

    We first present a Case Study - the manufacture of 1.4 m prototype mirror-segments for the European Extremely Large Telescope, undertaken by the National Facility for Ultra Precision Surfaces, at the OpTIC facility operated by Glyndwr University. Scale-up to serial-manufacture demands delivery of a 1.4 m off-axis aspheric hexagonal segment with surface precision robots and computer numerically controlled ('CNC') polishing machines for optical fabrication. The objective was not to assess which is superior. Rather, it was to understand for the first time their complementary properties, leading us to operate them together as a unit, integrated in hardware and software. Three key areas are reported. First is the novel use of robots to automate currently-manual operations on CNC polishing machines, to improve work-throughput, mitigate risk of damage to parts, and reduce dependence on highly-skilled staff. Second is the use of robots to pre-process surfaces prior to CNC polishing, to reduce total process time. The third draws the threads together, describing our vision of the automated manufacturing cell, where the operator interacts at cell rather than machine level. This promises to deliver a step-change in end-to-end manufacturing times and costs, compared with either platform used on its own or, indeed, the state-of-the-art used elsewhere.

  8. Control of Spacecraft Formation with Disturbance Rejection and Exponential Gains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schlanbusch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of state feedback translational motion control of a spacecraft formation through a modified sliding surface controller using variable gains and I^2 action for disturbance rejection. The exponential varying gains ensure faster convergence of the state trajectories during attitude maneuver while keeping the gains small (and the system less stiff for station keeping. Integral action is introduced for rejection of disturbances with a constant nonzero mean such as aerodynamic drag. A direct consequence is a drop in energy consumption when affected by sensor noise and a decrease in size of the error states residual when operating close to the equilibrium point. A large number of simulation results are presented to show the control performance.

  9. Gain-assisted control of the Goos-Haenchen shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziauddin,; Qamar, Sajid [Centre for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-11-15

    A gain-assisted model is considered to study the Goos-Haenchen (GH) shift behavior in the reflected and transmitted light. In this model, a probe light is incident on a cavity containing three-level dilute gaseous atomic medium. The atom-field interaction follows two-photon Raman transitions, and the dielectric susceptibility of the medium exhibits dispersion and gain properties [L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich, and A. Dogariu, Nature (London) 406, 227 (2000)]. Under appropriate conditions, two gain peaks are observed with anomalous dispersion between the peaks, whereas normal dispersion can be observed at and around the gain maxima. The manipulation of the detuning associated with the probe light field which interacts with the intracavity medium during its propagation through the cavity can lead to a control over negative and positive GH shift in the reflected and transmitted light beam via the anomalous and normal dispersion of the medium.

  10. Cognitive adaptation of sonar gain control in the bottlenose dolphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloepper, Laura N; Smith, Adam B; Nachtigall, Paul E; Buck, John R; Simmons, James A; Pacini, Aude F

    2014-01-01

    Echolocating animals adjust the transmit intensity and receive sensitivity of their sonar in order to regulate the sensation level of their echoes; this process is often termed automatic gain control. Gain control is considered not to be under the animal's cognitive control, but previous investigations studied animals ensonifying targets or hydrophone arrays at predictable distances. To test whether animals maintain gain control at a fixed level in uncertain conditions, we measured changes in signal intensity for a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) detecting a target at three target distances (2.5, 4 and 7 m) in two types of sessions: predictable and unpredictable. Predictable sessions presented the target at a constant distance; unpredictable sessions moved the target randomly between the three target positions. In the predictable sessions the dolphin demonstrated intensity distance compensation, increasing the emitted click intensity as the target distance increased. Additionally, as trials within sessions progressed, the animal adjusted its click intensity even from the first click in a click train, which is consistent with the animal expecting a target at a certain range. In the unpredictable sessions there was no significant difference of intensity with target distance until after the 7th click in a click train. Together, these results demonstrate that the bottlenose dolphin uses learning and expectation for sonar gain control.

  11. Challenges in Gaining Large Scale Carbon Reductions through Wireless Home Automation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Gorm; Rovsing, Poul Ejnar; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg

    2010-01-01

    Buildings account for more than a 35 % of the energy consumption in Europe. Therefore a step towards more sustainable lifestile is to use home automation to optimize the energy consumption “automatically”. This paper reports about the usage and some of the remaining challenges of especially...... wireless but also powerline communication in a home automation setting. For many years, home automation has been visible to many, but accessible to only a few, because of inadequate integration of systems. A vast number of both standard and proprietary communication protocols are used, and systems...... are often difficult to install and configure so professional assistance is needed. In this paper we report about our experience in constructing an open universal home automation framework enabling interoperability of multiple communication protocols. The framework can easily be expanded in order to support...

  12. Fully Mechanically Controlled Automated Electron Microscopic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxin; Li, Hongchang; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Meng; Yu, Yadong; Peng, Bo; Celis, César Díaz; Xu, April; Zou, Qin; Yang, Xu; Chen, Xuefeng; Ren, Gang

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of three-dimensional (3D) structures of each individual particles of asymmetric and flexible proteins is essential in understanding those proteins’ functions; but their structures are difficult to determine. Electron tomography (ET) provides a tool for imaging a single and unique biological object from a series of tilted angles, but it is challenging to image a single protein for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction due to the imperfect mechanical control capability of the specimen goniometer under both a medium to high magnification (approximately 50,000–160,000×) and an optimized beam coherence condition. Here, we report a fully mechanical control method for automating ET data acquisition without using beam tilt/shift processes. This method could reduce the accumulation of beam tilt/shift that used to compensate the error from the mechanical control, but downgraded the beam coherence. Our method was developed by minimizing the error of the target object center during the tilting process through a closed-loop proportional-integral (PI) control algorithm. The validations by both negative staining (NS) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) suggest that this method has a comparable capability to other ET methods in tracking target proteins while maintaining optimized beam coherence conditions for imaging.

  13. Observer-based H-infinity output feedback control with feedback gain and observer gain variations for Delta operator system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruiquan LIN; Fuwen YANG; Renchong PENG

    2009-01-01

    Considering that the controller feedback gain and the observer gain are of additive norm-bounded variations, a design method of observer-based H-infinity output feedback controller for uncertain Delta operator systems is proposed in this paper. A sufficient condition of such controllers is presented in linear matrix inequality (LMI) forms. A numerical example is then given to illustrate the effectiveness of this method, that is, the obtained controller guarantees the closed-loop system asymptotically stable and the expected H-infinity performance even if the controller feedback gain and the observer gain are varied.

  14. A gain-control theory of binocular combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Sperling, George

    2006-01-24

    In binocular combination, light images on the two retinas are combined to form a single "cyclopean" perceptual image, in contrast to binocular rivalry which occurs when the two eyes have incompatible ("rivalrous") inputs and only one eye;s stimulus is perceived. We propose a computational theory for binocular combination with two basic principles of interaction: in every spatial neighborhood, each eye (i) exerts gain control on the other eye's signal in proportion to the contrast energy of its own input and (ii) additionally exerts gain control on the other eye's gain control. For stimuli of ordinary contrast, when either eye is stimulated alone, the predicted cyclopean image is the same as when both eyes are stimulated equally, coinciding with an easily observed property of natural vision. The gain-control theory is contrast dependent: Very low-contrast stimuli to the left- and right-eye add linearly to form the predicted cyclopean image. The intrinsic nonlinearity manifests itself only as contrast increases. To test the theory more precisely, a horizontal sine wave grating of 0.68 cycles per degree is presented to each eye. The gratings differ in contrast and phase. The predicted (and perceived) cyclopean grating also is a sine wave; its apparent phase indicates the relative contribution of the two eyes to the cyclopean image. For 48 measured combinations of phase and contrast, the theory with only one estimated parameter accounts for 95% of the variance of the data. Therefore, a simple, robust, physiologically plausible gain-control theory accurately describes an early stage of binocular combination.

  15. Automated sampling and control of gaseous simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ruoguan

    2013-05-04

    In this work, we describe a method that automates the sampling and control of gaseous fluid simulations. Several recent approaches have provided techniques for artists to generate high-resolution simulations based on a low-resolution simulation. However, often in applications the overall flow in the low-resolution simulation that an animator observes and intends to preserve is composed of even lower frequencies than the low resolution itself. In such cases, attempting to match the low-resolution simulation precisely is unnecessarily restrictive. We propose a new sampling technique to efficiently capture the overall flow of a fluid simulation, at the scale of user\\'s choice, in such a way that the sampled information is sufficient to represent what is virtually perceived and no more. Thus, by applying control based on the sampled data, we ensure that in the resulting high-resolution simulation, the overall flow is matched to the low-resolution simulation and the fine details on the high resolution are preserved. The samples we obtain have both spatial and temporal continuity that allows smooth keyframe matching and direct manipulation of visible elements such as smoke density through temporal blending of samples. We demonstrate that a user can easily configure a simulation with our system to achieve desired results. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  16. Gain Scheduling of PID Controller Based on Fuzzy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to utilize fuzzy rules and reasoning to determine the controller parameters and the PID controller generates the control signal. The objective of this study is to simulate the proposed scheme on various processes and arrive at results providing better response of the system when compared with best industrial auto-tuning technique: Ziegler-Nichols. The proposed scheme is based upon the Ultimate Gain (Ku and the Period (Tu of the system. The error and rate of change in error gains are tuned manually to get the desired response using LabVIEW. This can also be done with various optimization techniques. A thumb rule for choosing the ranges for Kc, Kd and Ki has been obtained experimentally.

  17. Automated electric power management and control for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolce, James L.; Mellor, Pamela A.; Kish, James A.

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive automation design is being developed for Space Station Freedom's electric power system. It strives to increase station productivity by applying expert systems and conventional algorithms to automate power system operation. An integrated approach to the power system command and control problem is defined and used to direct technology development in: diagnosis, security monitoring and analysis, battery management, and cooperative problem-solving for resource allocation. The prototype automated power system is developed using simulations and test-beds.

  18. Retrofitting automated process control systems at Ukrainian power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.E. Simkin; V.S. Naumchik; B.D. Kozitskii (and others) [OAO L' vovORGRES, Lviv (Ukraine)

    2008-04-15

    Approaches and principles for retrofitting automated process control systems at Ukrainian power stations are considered. The results obtained from retrofitting the monitoring and control system of Unit 9 at the Burshtyn thermal power station are described.

  19. Structured, Gain-Scheduled Control of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher

    2013-01-01

    control developments, which contributes to the analysis and design of wind turbines in an integrated aeroservoelastic process. From a control point of view, a wind turbine is a challenging system since the wind, which is the energy source driving the machine, is a poorly known disturbance. Additionally......) control framework. The modeling and design procedures allow gain-scheduling to compensate for plant non-linearities and reconfiguration of the controller in face of faults on sensors and actuators of the system. Stability and performance in closed-loop are measured in terms of induced L2-norm....... The procedures are appealing to solve some of the practical wind turbine control problems because the controller structure can be chosen arbitrarily, and the resulting controllers are simple to implement online, requiring low data storage and simple math operations. The modeling procedures also allow...

  20. Fitts' law with an isometric controller: effects of order of control and control-display gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantowitz, B H; Elvers, G C

    1988-03-01

    Twenty-four male subjects performed a discrete positioning task using an isometric controller. Two levels of order of control (position and velocity) were factorially crossed with two levels of control-display gain. Fitts' law functions were found for each of the four conditions. The velocity control conditions had significantly steeper slopes than the corresponding position control conditions, but there was no main effect for gain. A predicted interaction between control-display gain and order of control was found, indicating that the relative benefit of high gain is greater for velocity control than for position control. The reaction time (RT) regression lines had steeper negative slopes than those attained by Jagacinski, Repperger, Moran, Ward, and Glass (1980), who used an isotonic controller. This is in agreement with the results of Falkenberg and Newell (1980), who found that as average velocity increases, RT decreases. The components of Fitts' law were investigated, and this showed that the RT finding was due to the amplitude of the target, which covaried with average velocity, but was not due to the width.

  1. 75 FR 77664 - Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... Employment and Training Administration Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions... of Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division, Rock Island, Illinois... International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division. The Department has determined that these...

  2. 76 FR 81986 - Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions... Assistance on July 30, 2010, applicable to workers of Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control... location of Honeywell International, Inc., Automation and Control Solutions Division. The Department...

  3. Humanoid Walking Robot: Modeling, Inverse Dynamics, and Gain Scheduling Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvedin Kljuno

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents reference-model-based control design for a 10 degree-of-freedom bipedal walking robot, using nonlinear gain scheduling. The main goal is to show concentrated mass models can be used for prediction of the required joint torques for a bipedal walking robot. Relatively complicated architecture, high DOF, and balancing requirements make the control task of these robots difficult. Although linear control techniques can be used to control bipedal robots, nonlinear control is necessary for better performance. The emphasis of this work is to show that the reference model can be a bipedal walking model with concentrated mass at the center of gravity, which removes the problems related to design of a pseudo-inverse system. Another significance of this approach is the reduced calculation requirements due to the simplified procedure of nominal joint torques calculation. Kinematic and dynamic analysis is discussed including results for joint torques and ground force necessary to implement a prescribed walking motion. This analysis is accompanied by a comparison with experimental data. An inverse plant and a tracking error linearization-based controller design approach is described. We propose a novel combination of a nonlinear gain scheduling with a concentrated mass model for the MIMO bipedal robot system.

  4. Gain Scheduling Control of an Islanded Microgrid Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haritza Camblong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research study has been to design a gain scheduling (GS digital controller in order to control the voltage of an islanded microgrid in the presence of fast varying loads (FVLs, and to compare it to a robust controller. The inverter which feeds the microgrid is connected to it through an inductance-capacitor-inductance (LCL filter. The oscillatory and nonlinear behaviour of the plant is analyzed in the whole operating zone. Afterwards, the design of the controllers which contain two loops in cascade are described. The first loop concerns the current control, while the second is linked to the voltage regulation. Two controllers, one defined as Robust and another one as GS controller, are designed for the two loops, emphasizing in their robustness and their ability to damp the oscillatory plant behaviour. To finish, some simulations are carried out to study and compare the two kinds of controllers in different operating points. The results show that both controllers damp the oscillatory behaviour of the plant in closed loop (CL, and that the GS controller ensures a better rejection of current disturbances from FVLs.

  5. Robust, Gain-Scheduled Control of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Kasper Zinck

    Wind turbines are today large and efficient machines, which are combined into wind farms operating on par with conventional power plants. When looking back, this is significantly different from the status only a few years ago, when wind turbines were sold mainly to private people. This change...... in turbine owners has resulted in a new focus on operational reliability instead of turbine size. This research deals with investigating model-based gain-scheduling control of wind turbines by use of linear parameter varying (LPV) methods. The numerical challenges grow quickly with the model size...

  6. Automated Quality Control for Ortholmages and DEMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhle, Joachim; Potucková, Marketa

    2005-01-01

    The checking of geometric accurancy of orthoimages and digital elevation models (DEMs) is discussed. As a reference, an existing orthoimage and a second orthoimage derived from an overlapping aerial image, are used. The proposed automated procedures for checking the orthoimages and DEMs are based...

  7. LPV gain-scheduled control of SCR aftertreatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisami-Azad, Mona; Mohammadpour, Javad; Grigoriadis, Karolos M.; Harold, Michael P.; Franchek, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and some of other polluting emissions produced by diesel engines are usually lower than those produced by gasoline engines. While great strides have been made in the exhaust aftertreatment of vehicular pollutants, the elimination of nitrogen oxide (NO x ) from diesel vehicles is still a challenge. The primary reason is that diesel combustion is a fuel-lean process, and hence there is significant unreacted oxygen in the exhaust. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a well-developed technology for power plants and has been recently employed for reducing NO x emissions from automotive sources and in particular, heavy-duty diesel engines. In this article, we develop a linear parameter-varying (LPV) feedforward/feedback control design method for the SCR aftertreatment system to decrease NO x emissions while keeping ammonia slippage to a desired low level downstream the catalyst. The performance of the closed-loop system obtained from the interconnection of the SCR system and the output feedback LPV control strategy is then compared with other control design methods including sliding mode, and observer-based static state-feedback parameter-varying control. To reduce the computational complexity involved in the control design process, the number of LPV parameters in the developed quasi-LPV (qLPV) model is reduced by applying the principal component analysis technique. An LPV feedback/feedforward controller is then designed for the qLPV model with reduced number of scheduling parameters. The designed full-order controller is further simplified to a first-order transfer function with a parameter-varying gain and pole. Finally, simulation results using both a low-order model and a high-fidelity and high-order model of SCR reactions in GT-POWER interfaced with MATLAB/SIMULINK illustrate the high NO x conversion efficiency of the closed-loop SCR system using the proposed parameter-varying control law.

  8. Internal Control, Auditing, and the Automated Acquisitions System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, Carol Pitts

    1990-01-01

    Discusses issues and procedures involved in auditing the automated acquisitions system at Ohio State University Libraries. The audit process is explained, internal controls within the system are identified, general control mechanisms such as limited electronic access are discussed, and application control mechanisms that relate to specific…

  9. Divisive gain modulation of motoneurons by inhibition optimizes muscular control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Mikkel; Berg, Rune W

    2015-02-25

    When using muscles, the precision with which force is delivered is as important as the delivery of force itself. Force is regulated by both the number of recruited motoneurons and their spike frequency. While it is known that the recruitment is ordered to reduce variability in force, it remains unclear whether the motoneuron gain, i.e., the slope of the transformation between synaptic input and spiking output, is also modulated to reduce variability in force. To address this issue, we use turtle hindlimb scratching as a model for fine motor control, since this behavior involves precise limb movement to rub the location of somatic nuisance touch. We recorded intracellularly from motoneurons in a reduced preparation where the limbs were removed to increase mechanical stability and the motor nerve activity served as a surrogate for muscle force. We found that not only is the gain of motoneurons regulated on a subsecond timescale, it is also adjusted to minimize variability. The modulation is likely achieved via an expansive nonlinearity between spike rate and membrane potential with inhibition having a divisive influence. These findings reveal a versatile mechanism of modulating neuronal sensitivity and suggest that such modulation is fundamentally linked to optimization.

  10. Keep the driver in control: Automating automobiles of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Victoria A; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-03-01

    Automated automobiles will be on our roads within the next decade but the role of the driver has not yet been formerly recognised or designed. Rather, the driver is often left in a passive monitoring role until they are required to reclaim control from the vehicle. This research aimed to test the idea of driver-initiated automation, in which the automation offers decision support that can be either accepted or ignored. The test case examined a combination of lateral and longitudinal control in addition to an auto-overtake system. Despite putting the driver in control of the automated systems by enabling them to accept or ignore behavioural suggestions (e.g. overtake), there were still issues associated with increased workload and decreased trust. These issues are likely to have arisen due to the way in which the automated system has been designed. Recommendations for improvements in systems design have been made which are likely to improve trust and make the role of the driver more transparent concerning their authority over the automated system.

  11. Automation and control of the MMT thermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. D.; Porter, Dallan; Goble, William

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the software automation and control framework for the MMT thermal system. Thermal-related effects on observing and telescope behavior have been considered during the entire software development process. Regression analysis of telescope and observatory subsystem data is used to characterize and model these thermal-related effects. The regression models help predict expected changes in focus and overall astronomical seeing that result from temperature variations within the telescope structure, within the primary mirror glass, and between the primary mirror glass and adjacent air (i.e., mirror seeing). This discussion is followed by a description of ongoing upgrades to the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system and the associated software controls. The improvements of the MMT thermal system have two objectives: 1) to provide air conditioning capabilities for the MMT facilities, and 2) to modernize and enhance the primary mirror (M1) ventilation system. The HVAC upgrade necessitates changes to the automation and control of the M1 ventilation system. The revised control system must factor in the additional requirements of the HVAC system, while still optimizing performance of the M1 ventilation system and the M1's optical behavior. An industry-standard HVAC communication and networking protocol, BACnet (Building Automation and Control network), has been adopted. Integration of the BACnet protocol into the existing software framework at the MMT is discussed. Performance of the existing automated system is evaluated and a preliminary upgraded automated control system is presented. Finally, user interfaces to the new HVAC system are discussed.

  12. Modeling of a Multiple Digital Automatic Gain Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jingdian; LU Xiuhong; ZHANG Li

    2008-01-01

    Automatic gain control (AGC) has been used in many applications. The key features of AGC, including a steady state output and static/dynamic timing response, depend mainly on key parameters such as the reference and the filter coefficients. A simple model developed to describe AGC systems based on several simple assumptions shows that AGC always converges to the reference and that the timing constant depends on the filter coefficients. Measures are given to prevent oscillations and limit cycle effects. The simple AGC system is adapted to a multiple AGC system for a TV tuner in a much more efficient model. Simulations using the C language are 16 times faster than those with MATLAB, and 10 times faster than those with a mixed register transfer level (RTL)-simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis (SPICE) model.

  13. Evaluation Performance of IC Engine: Linear Tunable Gain Computed Torque Controller vs. Sliding Mode Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Tayebi Haghighi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Design a nonlinear controller for second order nonlinear uncertain dynamical systems (e.g., internal combustion engine is one of the most important challenging works. This paper focuses on the comparative study between two important nonlinear controllers namely; computed torque controller (CTC and sliding mode controller (SMC and applied to internal combustion (IC engine in presence of uncertainties. In order to provide high performance nonlinear methodology, sliding mode controller and computed torque controller are selected. Pure SMC and CTC can be used to control of partly known nonlinear dynamic parameters of IC engine. Pure sliding mode controller and computed torque controller have difficulty in handling unstructured model uncertainties. To solve this problem applied linear error-based tuning method to sliding mode controller and computed torque controller for adjusting the sliding surface gain (λ and linear inner loop gain (K. Since the sliding surface gain (λ and linear inner loop gain (K are adjusted by linear error-based tuning method. In this research new λ and new K are obtained by the previous λ and K multiple gains updating factor(α. The results demonstrate that the error-based linear SMC and CTC are model-based controllers which works well in certain and uncertain system. These controllers have acceptable performance in presence of uncertainty.

  14. Accurately control and flatten gain spectrum of L-band erbium doped fiber amplifier based on suitable gain-clamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiuru; Meng, Xiangyu; Liu, Chunyu

    2016-04-01

    The increasing traffic with dynamic nature requires the applications of gain-clamped L-band erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). However, the weak or over clamping may lead the unexpected gain-compression and flatness-worsening. In this article, to enhance practicality, we modify the partly gain-clamping configuration and utilize a pair of C-band fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) to non-uniformly compress the gain spectrum of L-band. Through a comprehensive test and comparison, the suitable gain-clamping region for the amplified signals is found, and the gain in L-band is accurately controlled and flattened under the matched central wavelength of FBGs. The experimental results show that, our designed L-band EDFA achieves a trade-off among the output gain, flatness and stability. The ±0.44 dB flatness and 20.2 dB average gain are together obtained in the range of 1570-1610 nm, with the ±0.1 dB stability of signals in over 30 dBm dynamic range.

  15. On controllability of neuronal networks with constraints on the average of control gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yang; Wang, Zidong; Gao, Huijun; Qiao, Hong; Kurths, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    Control gains play an important role in the control of a natural or a technical system since they reflect how much resource is required to optimize a certain control objective. This paper is concerned with the controllability of neuronal networks with constraints on the average value of the control gains injected in driver nodes, which are in accordance with engineering and biological backgrounds. In order to deal with the constraints on control gains, the controllability problem is transformed into a constrained optimization problem (COP). The introduction of the constraints on the control gains unavoidably leads to substantial difficulty in finding feasible as well as refining solutions. As such, a modified dynamic hybrid framework (MDyHF) is developed to solve this COP, based on an adaptive differential evolution and the concept of Pareto dominance. By comparing with statistical methods and several recently reported constrained optimization evolutionary algorithms (COEAs), we show that our proposed MDyHF is competitive and promising in studying the controllability of neuronal networks. Based on the MDyHF, we proceed to show the controlling regions under different levels of constraints. It is revealed that we should allocate the control gains economically when strong constraints are considered. In addition, it is found that as the constraints become more restrictive, the driver nodes are more likely to be selected from the nodes with a large degree. The results and methods presented in this paper will provide useful insights into developing new techniques to control a realistic complex network efficiently.

  16. Transition of Control: automation giving back control to the driver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, D.M.C.; Stuiver, A.; Hogema, J.

    2014-01-01

    The automotive domain is currently moving towards automated driver assistance applications, like automatic evasive maneuvers to avoid accidents, and even beyond assistance towards automated driving. However, in the near future these systems will only be active under certain conditions, thus still re

  17. Transition of Control : Automation Giving Back Control to the Driver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahram, T; Karwowski, W; Marek, T; Willemsen, D; Stuiver, A; Hogema, J

    2014-01-01

    The automotive domain is currently moving towards automated driver assistance applications, like automatic evasive maneuvers to avoid accidents, and even beyond assistance towards automated driving. However, in the near future these systems will only be active under certain conditions, thus still re

  18. POWER CONTROL AND ANTENNA GAIN OPTIMIZATION DURING WIMAX HANDOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P. Edwin Winston

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless systems have recently been becoming faster and more intelligent. However the high speed access and intelligence make the power consumption of wireless systems high. In the WiMAX system, the MS transmission power is controlled in order to avoid exceeding the BS’s total receiving power from an antenna. Conventional wireless network design has long used base site sectorization and single, omni-directional antennas at the enduser device to serve the communications link, with advanced multi-antenna implementations operators have a new suite of tools to develop the robust wireless networks of the future. Revolutionary multiple antenna techniques at the base station and end-user device, paired with sophisticated signal processing and power consumption control, can dramatically improve the communications link for the most demanding applicationscenarios including heavily obstructed propagation environments and high speed mobility service. This paper presents results of an experimental study, simulation based, directed to determine the optimum transmission power and Antenna gain which influence on the overall handover performance in mobility scenarios, related toWiMAX communications. Based on them, optimal parameter sets can be provided by the network operator to mobile station, to guide its adaptation of the major WiMAX parameters to its speed and network topology and to help the handover decision.

  19. Levels of automation and user control - evaluation of a turbine automation interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Jonas (Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden))

    2008-10-15

    The study was performed during the annual operator training at the Studsvik nuclear power plant simulator facility in Nykoeping, Sweden. The participating operators came from the Oskarshamn 3 nuclear power plant. In the study, seven nuclear power plant turbine operators were interviewed concerning their use of the automatic turbine system. A field study approach together with a heuristic usability evaluation was made to assess how the operators are affected by use of automation in the control room setting. The purpose of the study was to examine how operator performance is affected by varying levels of automation in nuclear power plant turbine operation. The Automatic Turbine System (ATS) was evaluated to clarify how the ATS interface design supports the operators work. The results show that during manual control the operators experience loss of speed and accuracy in performing actions together with difficulty of dividing attention between performing a task and overall monitoring, as the major problems. The positive aspects of manual operations lie in increased feeling of being in control when performing actions by hand. With higher levels of automation the problems shift to issues concerning difficulty of following the automatic sequences and loosing track in procedures. As the level of automation gets higher, the need of feedback increases which means that information presentation also becomes more important. The use of the semiautomatic, step-mode is often preferred by the operators since it combines the speed and accuracy of the automation with the ability of maintaining the feeling of being in control. Further, a number of usability related concerns was found in the ATS interface. The operators especially experience the presentation of the conditions that manage the automatic sequences as difficult to perceive. (author)

  20. Hierarchical Model Predictive Control for Sustainable Building Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Mayer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchicalmodel predictive controller (HMPC is proposed for flexible and sustainable building automation. The implications of a building automation system for sustainability are defined, and model predictive control is introduced as an ideal tool to cover all requirements. The HMPC is presented as a development suitable for the optimization of modern buildings, as well as retrofitting. The performance and flexibility of the HMPC is demonstrated by simulation studies of a modern office building, and the perfect interaction with future smart grids is shown.

  1. Automation and remote control at Mining 85 in Birmingham

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czauderna, N.

    1985-09-12

    Looking round the exhibition showed that more and more manufacturers and users take advantage of the new measuring, control and regulatory techniques with economic profit. Process computers and micro-computers make a general use of these techniques possible. The backbone of all automation systems is data transmission between widely distributed stations on individual machines. Here, too, it was clear that in mining multiple data transmission on the basis of highly integrated components and own microprocessors is occupying an ever more prominent place in communication techniques. BUS systems are more and more in evidence and already installed in some plants. For the purpose of this report and ease of reference to the large field automation and remote control at Minig 85 the products have been grouped under sensor, transmission and automation technologies. (orig./MOS).

  2. Automation and control trends in the upstream sector of the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plucenio, Agustinho; Pagano, Daniel J. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP em Automacao, Controle e Instrumentacao para a Industria do Petroleo e Gas, PRH-34

    2004-07-01

    The need to continuously improve the aspects of Health, Safety and Environment to operators, installation's security, optimization of oil reservoir recovery in wells operating with different artificial lift methods, subject to different secondary recovery techniques, has motivated the development of technologies in the automation and control for the upstream sector of the oil industry. While the application of control and automation techniques is well established in the downstream sector of the oil industry that is not the case in the downstream sector. One tendency in this sector is the utilization of control via Field bus Networks. This technology uses equipment that communicate with each other in a two wire digital network and can be programmed to execute function blocks algorithms designed to perform a designed control strategy. The most noticeable benefits are the improvements in the process performance and the equipment reusability and interoperability. Proprietary solutions can be replaced by systems composed of equipment supplied by different manufacturers connected in the same network. These equipment operate according to a strategy designed by automation and control engineers under the supervision of professionals working in computer terminals located in different company departments. Other gains are a better understanding about the industry processes, application of optimization techniques, fault detection, equipment maintenance follow-up, and improved operators working conditions and workers qualification. Other tendencies are: permanent well monitoring. Either with installation of down hole sensors based on fiber grating sensors or surface sensors using embedded electronic processors. Developments of instrumentation technology for low cost multiphase flow measurements. Application of control techniques for flow regime control and optimization of reservoir recovery through better identification, optimization and Model Based Predictive Control

  3. Dynamic one-way traffic control in automated transportation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, M; van der Zee, DJ

    2004-01-01

    In a project on underground freight transportation using Automated Guided Vehicles, single lanes for traffic in two directions are constructed to reduce infrastructure investment. Intelligent control rules are required to manage vehicle flows such, that collision is avoided and waiting times are min

  4. Automated Model Fit Method for Diesel Engine Control Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seykens, X.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kuijpers, B.; Rietjens, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automated fit for a control-oriented physics-based diesel engine combustion model. This method is based on the combination of a dedicated measurement procedure and structured approach to fit the required combustion model parameters. Only a data set is required that is consider

  5. ANDROID BASED REMOTE CONTROLLER FOR HOME AND OFFICE AUTOMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Navaneethakrishnan .V.M*; Navaneeda Krishnan .K; Michel .P; Velmurugan R

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, as the world gets more and more technologically advanced, we find new technology coming in deeper and deeper into our personal lives even at home. Home automation is becoming more popular around the world and is becoming a common practice. This Paper presents the overall design of Home Automation System (HAS) with low cost and wireless remote control. This system is designed to assist and provide support in order to fulfill the needs of elderly and disabled in home. Also, the s...

  6. Flexible Joints Robotic Manipulator Control By Adaptive Gain Smooth Sliding Observer-Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. FILIPESCU

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive gain sliding observer for uncertain parameter nonlinear systems together with an adaptive gain sliding controller is proposed in this paper. It considered nonlinear, SISO affine systems, with uncertainties in steady-state functions and parameters. A further parameter term, adaptively updated, has been introduced in steady state space model of the controlled system, in order to obtain useful information despite fault detection and isolation. By using of the sliding observer with adaptive gain, the robustness to uncertainties is increased and the parameters adaptively updated can provide useful information in fault detection. Also, the state estimation error is bounded accordingly with bound limits of the uncertainties. The both of them, the sliding adaptive observer and sliding controller are designed to fulfill the attractiveness condition of its corresponding switching surface. An application to a single arm with flexible joint robot is presented. In order to alleviate chattering, a parameterized tangent hyperbolic has been used as switching function, instead of pure relay one, to the observer and the controller. Also, the gains of the switching functions, to the sliding observer and sliding controller are adaptively updated depending of estimation error and tracking error, respectively. By the using adaptive gains, the transient and tracking response can be improved.

  7. Intelligent control and automation technology for nuclear application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hee; Eom, Heung Sub; Kim, Ko Ryu; Lee, Jae Cheol; Choi, You Rak; Lee, Soo Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    Using recent technologies on a mobile robot and computer science, we developed an automatic inspection system for weld lines of the reactor pressure vessel. The ultrasonic inspection of the reactor pressure vessel is currently performed by commercialized robot manipulators. Since, however, the conventional fixed type robot manipulator is very huge, heavy and expensive, it needs long inspection time and is hard to handle and maintain. In order to resolve these problems, we developed a new inspection automation system using a small mobile robot crawling on the vertical wall. According to the conceptual design studied in the first year, we developed the inspection automation system including an underwater inspection robot, a laser position control subsystem and a main control subsystem. And we carried out underwater experiments on the reactor vessel mockup. After finishing this project successfully, we have a plan to commercialize our inspection system. Using this system, we can expect much reduction of the inspection time, performance enhancement, automatic management of inspection history, etc. In the economic point of view, we can also expect import substitution more than 5 million dollars. The established essential technologies for intelligent control and automation are expected to be synthetically applied to the automation of similar systems in nuclear power plants. 4 tabs., 37 figs., 6 refs. (Author).

  8. Gain Scheduling Control of Gas Turbine Engines: Absolute Stability by Finding a Common Lyapunov Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Pakmehr, Mehrdad; Fitzgerald, Nathan; Feron, Eric; Shamma, Jeff; Behbahani, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript aims to develop and describe gain scheduling control concept for a gas turbine engine which drives a variable pitch propeller. An architecture for gain-scheduling control is developed that controls the turboshaft engine for large thrust commands in stable fashion with good performance. Fuel ow and propeller pitch angle are the two control inputs of the system. New stability proof has been developed for gain scheduling control of gas turbine engines using global linearization a...

  9. Gain-Scheduled Control of a Fossil-Fired Power Plant Boiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hangstrup, M.; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle;

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the objective is to optimize the control of a coal fired 250 MW power plant boiler. The conventional control system is supplemented with a multivariable optimizing controller operating in parallel with the conventional control system. Due to the strong dependence of the gains...... and dynamics upon the load, it is beneficial to consider a gain-scheduling control approach. Optimization using complex mu synthesis results in unstable LTI controllers in some operating points of the boiler. A recent gain-scheduling approach allowing for unstable fixed LTI controllers is applied. Gain...

  10. Automation of Sensor Control in Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    status. Custom input handling with the script allowed for status acknowledgements from participants. 2.2.4.4 Sensor control Three sensor control...adaptable system for invoking automation. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 48(4), 693-709. doi: 10.1518...Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting. doi: 10.1177/1071181312561093 Cummings, M. L., Bruni, S., Mercier, S., & Mitchell, P

  11. Air Traffic Control automation: for humans or people?

    OpenAIRE

    Brooker, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Are air traffic controllers humans or people? At first sight, this seems a very odd question, given that ‘humans’ and ‘people’ are near-synonyms in the dictionary and everyday usage. However, in research on air traffic control (ATC) automation the phrase ‘human-centred’ is used to mean particular aspects of people: for example, it does not usually address their motivations for embracing change or cover organisational behaviour issues. The objective here is to try to understa...

  12. Automated safety control by video cameras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefter, I.; Rothkrantz, L.; Somhorst, M.

    2012-01-01

    At this moment many surveillance systems are installed in public domains to control the safety of people and properties. They are constantly watched by human operators who are easily overloaded. To support the human operators, a surveillance system model is designed that detects suspicious behaviour

  13. A New Approach to an Automated Air Traffic Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patchev Dragoljub

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies areas of improvements of the air traffic control system and proposes modification of the concept of automation by using available technologies. With the proposed modification, the current Europe wide en route network structure can be modified in order to make routes more optimal. For this new route network structure, a new concept of automation will be used to manage with the air traffic. The first identified area of improvement is implementation of automation process that will enable decentralization of the air traffic control functionality to each individual aircraft and this will be achieved through automated routing of the aircrafts and CD&R (conflict detection and resolution). The FMS (flight management system) at the aircraft will make decisions for the optimal flight route based on the sensor inputs, information on selection of the routes, next hope points and flight levels, all received by ADS-B (automatic dependant surveillance-broadcast). The second area is processing the information about the deviation from the optimal route as in flight plan due to a traffic management (vectoring, level change) and taking it into consideration when further actions are undertaken. For each action, a cost factor will be calculated from the fuel burned for that action. This factor will be used to select conflict resolution protocol. The proposed concept shall increase the capacity of the network, and enable the air traff~c more efficient and more environmentally friendly while maintaining safe separation.

  14. Adaptive Control for Nonlinear Systems with Time-Varying Control Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rincon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a scheme for nonlinear plants with time-varying control gain and time-varying plant coefficients, on the basis of a plant model consisting of a Brunovsky-type model with polynomials as approximators. We develop an adaptive robust control scheme for this plant, under the following assumptions: (i the plant terms involve time-varying but bounded coefficients, being its upper bound unknown; (ii the control gain is unknown, not necessarily bounded, and only its signum is known. To achieve robustness, we use a combination of robustifying control inputs and dead zone-type update laws. We apply this methodology to the speed control of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM, and we achieve proper tracking results.

  15. CRDIAC: Coupled Reactor Depletion Instrument with Automated Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven K. Logan

    2012-08-01

    When modeling the behavior of a nuclear reactor over time, it is important to understand how the isotopes in the reactor will change, or transmute, over that time. This is especially important in the reactor fuel itself. Many nuclear physics modeling codes model how particles interact in the system, but do not model this over time. Thus, another code is used in conjunction with the nuclear physics code to accomplish this. In our code, Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) codes and the Multi Reactor Transmutation Analysis Utility (MRTAU) were chosen as the codes to use. In this way, MCNP would produce the reaction rates in the different isotopes present and MRTAU would use cross sections generated from these reaction rates to determine how the mass of each isotope is lost or gained. Between these two codes, the information must be altered and edited for use. For this, a Python 2.7 script was developed to aid the user in getting the information in the correct forms. This newly developed methodology was called the Coupled Reactor Depletion Instrument with Automated Controls (CRDIAC). As is the case in any newly developed methodology for modeling of physical phenomena, CRDIAC needed to be verified against similar methodology and validated against data taken from an experiment, in our case AFIP-3. AFIP-3 was a reduced enrichment plate type fuel tested in the ATR. We verified our methodology against the MCNP Coupled with ORIGEN2 (MCWO) method and validated our work against the Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) data. When compared to MCWO, the difference in concentration of U-235 throughout Cycle 144A was about 1%. When compared to the PIE data, the average bias for end of life U-235 concentration was about 2%. These results from CRDIAC therefore agree with the MCWO and PIE data, validating and verifying CRDIAC. CRDIAC provides an alternative to using ORIGEN-based methodology, which is useful because CRDIAC's depletion code, MRTAU, uses every available isotope in its

  16. Sistemas de control automático en pavimentadoras acabadoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinchilla, M.

    1962-10-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de control automático tienden a lograr la fijación de la posición de la placa acabadora, de forma que, independientemente de las irregularidades del suelo y alteraciones producidas por las ruedas y orugas durante el movimiento de máquina, se consiga una superficie plana uniforme y del espesor y pendiente deseados.

  17. Robotic control architecture development for automated nuclear material handling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, R.D.; Hurd, R.; Couture, S.; Wilhelmsen, K.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is engaged in developing automated systems for handling materials for mixed waste treatment, nuclear pyrochemical processing, and weapon components disassembly. In support of these application areas there is an extensive robotic development program. This paper will describe the portion of this effort at LLNL devoted to control system architecture development, and review two applications currently being implemented which incorporate these technologies.

  18. Automated quality control in a file-based broadcasting workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lina

    2014-04-01

    Benefit from the development of information and internet technologies, television broadcasting is transforming from inefficient tape-based production and distribution to integrated file-based workflows. However, no matter how many changes have took place, successful broadcasting still depends on the ability to deliver a consistent high quality signal to the audiences. After the transition from tape to file, traditional methods of manual quality control (QC) become inadequate, subjective, and inefficient. Based on China Central Television's full file-based workflow in the new site, this paper introduces an automated quality control test system for accurate detection of hidden troubles in media contents. It discusses the system framework and workflow control when the automated QC is added. It puts forward a QC criterion and brings forth a QC software followed this criterion. It also does some experiments on QC speed by adopting parallel processing and distributed computing. The performance of the test system shows that the adoption of automated QC can make the production effective and efficient, and help the station to achieve a competitive advantage in the media market.

  19. Control of microbial fuel cell voltage using a gain scheduling control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghani, Hitesh C.; Michie, Iain; Dinsdale, Richard M.; Guwy, Alan J.; Premier, Giuliano C.

    2016-08-01

    Recent microbial fuel cell (MFC) research frequently addresses matters associated with scale and deployability. Modularisation is often needed to reduce ohmic losses with increasing volume. Series/parallel is then often an obvious strategy to enhance power quality during operation, to make best use of generated electricity. Hence, voltage reversal resulting from power and voltage mismatch between cells become virtually unavoidable. Control MFC voltages could be used to stabilise MFC stacks. Here, nonlinear MFCs are controlled using simple gain scheduled Proportional + Integral actions. Parsimonious control may be necessary for implementation in MFC arrays, so minimising costs. Controller parameterisation used several linearised models over the dynamic operating range of the MFCs. Controller gains were then scheduled according to the operating conditions. A digital potentiometer was used to actuate the control, varying the current sourced from the MFC. The results show that the controller was able to control MFC voltages, rejecting the disturbances. It was shown that the controller was transferable between MFCs with different power performances. This study demonstrates that the control of MFCs can be achieved with relatively simple digital approaches, plausibly implementable using low cost microcontrollers, and likely to be useful in the effective deployment of MFCs in large scale arrays.

  20. Multi-dimensional Gain Scheduling with Application to Power Plant Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Stoustrup, Jakob; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with gain scheduling control of a power plant model, which is an example of a multi-dimensional nonlinear system. Linear observer-based controllers are designed for a number of linear approximations of the system model in a set of operating points, and gain-scheduling control can...

  1. Advances in automation and control research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG DaiZhan

    2009-01-01

    Automation is the utilization of control techniques together with other Information technology to control industrial processes,reducing the need for human intervention.It plays a highly important role in social and economy as well as In daily life.Control theory is the theory of automation,and is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and mathematics,examining the behavior of dynamical systems.China has a long history of manufacturing automatic devices.In recent years,some rapid progresses in control theory have been made in China.Many new theories and new methodologies have been developed to meet the increasing demands in industry,agriculture,defense,and other social sectors.Contemporary sciences such as complexity,systems biology,quantum technologies,have also found their close links to control theories and technologies.On the other hand,control theory itself has many unsolved fundamental problems requiring further studies and investigation.This paper is to review the development and progress that have been made in all these aspects in China.Some remarks on the future development of control theory are also presented.

  2. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’15, held in Fuzhou, China. The topics include adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, reconfigurable control, etc. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into interdisciplinary solutions in the field of intelligent automation.

  3. Tools for the automation of large control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gaspar, Clara

    2005-01-01

    The new LHC experiments at CERN will have very large numbers of channels to operate. In order to be able to configure and monitor such large systems, a high degree of parallelism is necessary. The control system is built as a hierarchy of sub-systems distributed over several computers. A toolkit – SMI++, combining two approaches: finite state machines and rule-based programming, allows for the description of the various sub-systems as decentralized deciding entities, reacting in real-time to changes in the system, thus providing for the automation of standard procedures and the for the automatic recovery from error conditions in a hierarchical fashion. In this paper we will describe the principles and features of SMI++ as well as its integration with an industrial SCADA tool for use by the LHC experiments and we will try to show that such tools, can provide a very convenient mechanism for the automation of large scale, high complexity, applications.

  4. Tools for the Automation of Large Distributed Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gaspar, Clara

    2005-01-01

    The new LHC experiments at CERN will have very large numbers of channels to operate. In order to be able to configure and monitor such large systems, a high degree of parallelism is necessary. The control system is built as a hierarchy of sub-systems distributed over several computers. A toolkit - SMI++, combining two approaches: finite state machines and rule-based programming, allows for the description of the various sub-systems as decentralized deciding entities, reacting is real-time to changes in the system, thus providing for the automation of standard procedures and for the automatic recovery from error conditions in a hierarchical fashion. In this paper we will describe the principles and features of SMI++ as well as its integration with an industrial SCADA tool for use by the LHC experiments and we will try to show that such tools, can provide a very convenient mechanism for the automation of large scale, high complexity, applications.

  5. Backstepping Designs for Aircraft Control - What is there to Gain?

    OpenAIRE

    Härkegård, Ola

    2001-01-01

    Aircraft flight control design is traditionally based on linear control theory, due to the existing wealth of tools for linear design and analysis. However, in order to achieve tactical advantages, modern fighter aircraft strive towards performing maneuvers outside the region where the dynamics of flight are linear, and the need for nonlinear tools arises. In this paper, backstepping is proposed as a possible framework for nonlinear flight control design. Its capabilities of handling five maj...

  6. Two stage dual gate MESFET monolithic gain control amplifier for Ka-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, V.; Geddes, J.; Contolatis, A.

    A monolithic two stage gain control amplifier has been developed using submicron gate length dual gate MESFETs fabricated on ion implanted material. The amplifier has a gain of 12 dB at 30 GHz with a gain control range of over 30 dB. This ion implanted monolithic IC is readily integrable with other phased array receiver functions such as low noise amplifiers and phase shifters.

  7. OPTIMAL-TUNING OF PID CONTROLLER GAINS USING GENETIC ALGORITHMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer GÜNDOĞDU

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of optimum parameter tuning of a PID controller to be used in driving an inertial load by a dc motor thorough a gearbox. Specifically, the method uses genetic algorithms to determine the optimum controller parameters by minimizing the sum of the integral of the squared error and the squared controller output deviated from its steady state value. The paper suggests the use of Ziegler-Nichols settings to form the intervals for the controller parameters in which the population to be formed. The results obtained from the genetic algorithms are compared with the ones from Ziegler-Nichols in both figures and tabular form. Comparatively better results are obtained in the genetic algorithm case.

  8. Development of an Automatic Gain Controller Card or Next Generation EDFAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. Y. Liaw; T. H. Cheng; C. Lu; M.Akiyama; T.Sakai; A.Wada

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a low cost automatic gain controller card that provides fast transient gain control to maintain the power of the surviving channels when the number of input channels to an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA)changes rapidly.

  9. Vector Control Algorithm for Electric Vehicle AC Induction Motor Based on Improved Variable Gain PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration performance of EV, which affects a lot of performances of EV such as start-up, overtaking, driving safety, and ride comfort, has become increasingly popular in recent researches. An improved variable gain PID control algorithm to improve the acceleration performance is proposed in this paper. The results of simulation with Matlab/Simulink demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm through the control performance of motor velocity, motor torque, and three-phase current of motor. Moreover, it is investigated that the proposed controller is valid by comparison with the other PID controllers. Furthermore, the AC induction motor experiment set is constructed to verify the effect of proposed controller.

  10. Bidders' gains and family control of private target firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonenc, Halit; Hermes, Niels; van Sinderen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the announcement returns of bidders acquiring private firms owned by families versus the returns of bidders acquiring non-family controlled private firms. The sample consists of 391 acquisitions of private targets in seven continental European countries for the period 1997-2008.

  11. Mathematical models of magnetite desliming for automated quality control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olevska, Yu.; Mishchenko, V.; Olevskyi, V.

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study is to provide multifactor mathematical models suitable for use in automatic control systems of desliming process. For this purpose we described the motion of a two-phase environment regard to the shape the desliming machine and technological parameters of the enrichment process. We created the method for preparation of dependences of the enrichment process quality from the technological and design parameters. To automate the process we constructed mathematical models to justify intensive technological modes and optimal parameters for design of desliming machine.

  12. Instrumentation, control, and automation for submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Ángel; Durán, Freddy; Ruano, María Victoria; Ribes, Josep; Rosado, Alfredo; Seco, Aurora; Ferrer, José

    2015-01-01

    A submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) demonstration plant with two commercial hollow-fibre ultrafiltration systems (PURON®, Koch Membrane Systems, PUR-PSH31) was designed and operated for urban wastewater treatment. An instrumentation, control, and automation (ICA) system was designed and implemented for proper process performance. Several single-input-single-output (SISO) feedback control loops based on conventional on-off and PID algorithms were implemented to control the following operating variables: flow-rates (influent, permeate, sludge recycling and wasting, and recycled biogas through both reactor and membrane tanks), sludge wasting volume, temperature, transmembrane pressure, and gas sparging. The proposed ICA for AnMBRs for urban wastewater treatment enables the optimization of this new technology to be achieved with a high level of process robustness towards disturbances.

  13. A High Efficiency Variable Gain Amplifier Circuit with Controllable Transconductance Amp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Tetsuro; Okura, Shunsuke; Ido, Toru; Taniguchi, Kenji

    A novel power reduction technique for a variable gain amplifier (VGA) with a two-stage operational amplifier is proposed. The technique improves the power consumption of a VGA by optimizing the bandwidth and the phase margin dynamically on all gain range of the VGA through controlling the input transconductance of opamp. A VGA utilizing the proposed technique shows 40% reduction of power consumption against a conventional VGA at the best condition of VGA gain range.

  14. Automation of PRL's Astronomical Optical Polarimeter with a GNU/Linux based distributed control system

    CERN Document Server

    Ganesh, S; Baliyan, K S; Mathur, S N; Patwal, P S; Shah, R R

    2009-01-01

    Physical Research Laboratory's (PRL) Optical Polarimeter has been used on various telescopes in India since its development in-house in the mid 1980s. To make the instrument more efficient and effective we have designed the acquisition and control system and written the software to run on the GNU/Linux Operating System. CCD cameras have been used, in place of eyepieces, which allow to observe fainter sources with smaller apertures. The use of smaller apertures provides dramatic gains in the signal-to-noise ratio. The polarimeter is now fully automated resulting in increased efficiency. With the advantage of networking being built-in at the operating system level in GNU/Linux, this instrument can now be controlled from anywhere on the PRL local area network which means that the observer can be stationed in Ahmedabad / Thaltej as well or via ssh anywhere on the internet. The current report provides an overview of the system as implemented.

  15. Automated alignment method for coherence-controlled holographic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, Zbynek; Slaby, Tomas; Kvasnica, Lukas; Lostak, Martin; Krizova, Aneta; Chmelik, Radim

    2015-11-01

    A coherence-controlled holographic microscope (CCHM) was developed particularly for quantitative phase imaging and measurement of live cell dynamics, which is the proper subject of digital holographic microscopy (DHM). CCHM in low-coherence mode extends DHM in the study of living cells. However, this advantage is compensated by sensitivity of the system to easily become misaligned, which is a serious hindrance to wanted performance. Therefore, it became clear that introduction of a self-correcting system is inevitable. Accordingly, we had to devise a theory of a suitable control and design an automated alignment system for CCHM. The modulus of the reconstructed holographic signal was identified as a significant variable for guiding the alignment procedures. From this, we derived the original basic realignment three-dimensional algorithm, which encompasses a unique set of procedures for automated alignment that contains processes for initial and advanced alignment as well as long-term maintenance of microscope tuning. All of these procedures were applied to a functioning microscope and the tested processes were successfully validated. Finally, in such a way, CCHM is enabled to substantially contribute to study of biology, particularly of cancer cells in vitro.

  16. Automated Deployment of Advanced Controls and Analytics in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritoni, Marco

    Buildings use 40% of primary energy in the US. Recent studies show that developing energy analytics and enhancing control strategies can significantly improve their energy performance. However, the deployment of advanced control software applications has been mostly limited to academic studies. Larger-scale implementations are prevented by the significant engineering time and customization required, due to significant differences among buildings. This study demonstrates how physics-inspired data-driven models can be used to develop portable analytics and control applications for buildings. Specifically, I demonstrate application of these models in all phases of the deployment of advanced controls and analytics in buildings: in the first phase, "Site Preparation and Interface with Legacy Systems" I used models to discover or map relationships among building components, automatically gathering metadata (information about data points) necessary to run the applications. During the second phase: "Application Deployment and Commissioning", models automatically learn system parameters, used for advanced controls and analytics. In the third phase: "Continuous Monitoring and Verification" I utilized models to automatically measure the energy performance of a building that has implemented advanced control strategies. In the conclusions, I discuss future challenges and suggest potential strategies for these innovative control systems to be widely deployed in the market. This dissertation provides useful new tools in terms of procedures, algorithms, and models to facilitate the automation of deployment of advanced controls and analytics and accelerate their wide adoption in buildings.

  17. Switched-Observer-Based Adaptive Neural Control of MIMO Switched Nonlinear Systems With Unknown Control Gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Lijun; Zhao, Jun

    2016-05-02

    In this paper, the problem of adaptive neural output-feedback control is addressed for a class of multi-input multioutput (MIMO) switched uncertain nonlinear systems with unknown control gains. Neural networks (NNs) are used to approximate unknown nonlinear functions. In order to avoid the conservativeness caused by adoption of a common observer for all subsystems, an MIMO NN switched observer is designed to estimate unmeasurable states. A new switched observer-based adaptive neural control technique for the problem studied is then provided by exploiting the classical average dwell time (ADT) method and the backstepping method and the Nussbaum gain technique. It effectively handles the obstacle about the coexistence of multiple Nussbaum-type function terms, and improves the classical ADT method, since the exponential decline property of Lyapunov functions for individual subsystems is no longer satisfied. It is shown that the technique proposed is able to guarantee semiglobal uniformly ultimately boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system under a class of switching signals with ADT, and the tracking errors converge to a small neighborhood of the origin. The effectiveness of the approach proposed is illustrated by its application to a two inverted pendulum system.

  18. The Model and Control Methods of Access to Information and Technology Resources of Automated Control Systems in Water Supply Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytov, M. Yu; Spichyack, S. A.; Fedorov, V. P.; Petreshin, D. I.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes a formalized control model of access to information and technological resources of automated control systems at water supply enterprises. The given model considers the availability of various communication links with information systems and technological equipment. There are also studied control methods of access to information and technological resources of automated control systems at water supply enterprises. On the basis of the formalized control model and appropriate methods there was developed a software-hardware complex for rapid access to information and technological resources of automated control systems, which contains an administrator’s automated workplace and ultimate users.

  19. Comparison of gradient methods for gain tuning of a PD controller applied on a quadrotor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho; Wilkerson, Stephen A.; Gadsden, S. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Many mechanical and electrical systems have utilized the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control strategy. The concept of PID control is a classical approach but it is easy to implement and yields a very good tracking performance. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are currently experiencing a significant growth in popularity. Due to the advantages of PID controllers, UAVs are implementing PID controllers for improved stability and performance. An important consideration for the system is the selection of PID gain values in order to achieve a safe flight and successful mission. There are a number of different algorithms that can be used for real-time tuning of gains. This paper presents two algorithms for gain tuning, and are based on the method of steepest descent and Newton's minimization of an objective function. This paper compares the results of applying these two gain tuning algorithms in conjunction with a PD controller on a quadrotor system.

  20. An application of gain-scheduled control using state-space interpolation to hydroactive gas bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Camino, Juan F.; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2016-01-01

    , it is possible to design a gain-scheduled controller using multiple controllers optimised for a single frequency. Gain-scheduling strategies using the Youla parametrisation can guarantee stability at the cost of increased controller order and performance loss in the interpolation region. This paper contributes...... with a gain-scheduling strategy using state-space interpolation, which avoids both the performance loss and the increase of controller order associated to the Youla parametrisation. The proposed state-space interpolation for gain-scheduling is applied for mass imbalance rejection for a controllable gas...... bearing scheduled in two parameters. Comparisons against the Youla-based scheduling demonstrate the superiority of the state-space interpolation....

  1. Cooperative Control and Active Interfaces for Vehicle Assitsance and Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Flemisch, Frank; Kelsch, Johann; Löper, Christan; Schieben, Anna; Schindler, Julian; Heesen, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Enabled by scientific, technological and societal progress, and pulled by human demands, more and more aspects of our life can be assisted or automated by technical artefacts. One example is the transportation domain, where in the sky commercial aircraft are flying highly automated most of the times and where on the roads a gradual revolution takes place towards assisted, highly automated or even fully automated cars and trucks. Automobiles and mobility are changing gradually t...

  2. Multiplatform automated system for monitoring and sprinkler irrigation control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PINTO, M. L.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The automation systems together with web and mobile control is a facilitator of the various processes in several areas, among them the agricultural sector. Specically in the irrigation management, the lowest cost technology is not able to satisfy the farmer's needs, which are the correct water supply to plants and remote monitoring of the irrigation. The objective of this paper is to present a system for controlling and monitoring irrigation with a multiplatform support for both desktop and web/mobile. The system is designed to realize automatic irrigation management in order to provide the exact amount of water needed for culture, avoiding water stress both the culture and the waste of resources such as water and electricity. Additionally, the system allows remote monitoring from anywhere by means of a computer and/or mobile device by internet. This work was developed during the undergraduate mentorship of the authors.

  3. Second order sliding control with state dependent gain and its application to a hydraulic drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2013-01-01

    for improved convergence speed, and the gain of the discontinuous control is made variable according to the control target itself. It is shown that the control error and its derivative are globally convergent to a vicinity of the target via Lyapunov arguments, with accuracy dependent on control parameters...

  4. Floquet control of the gain and loss in a PT-symmetric optical coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi; Zhu, Bo; Hu, Shu-Fang; Zhou, Zheng; Zhong, Hong-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Controlling the balanced gain and loss in a PT-symmetric system is a rather challenging task. Utilizing Floquet theory, we explore the constructive role of periodic modulation in controlling the gain and loss of a PT-symmetric optical coupler. It is found that the gain and loss of the system can be manipulated by applying a periodic modulation. Further, such an original non-Hermitian system can even be modulated into an effective Hermitian system derived by the high-frequency Floquet method. Therefore, compared with other PT symmetry control schemes, our protocol can modulate the unbroken PT-symmetric range to a wider parameter region. Our results provide a promising approach for controlling the gain and loss of a realistic system.

  5. Effects of Automation Types on Air Traffic Controller Situation Awareness and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethumadhavan, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Joint Planning and Development Office has proposed the introduction of automated systems to help air traffic controllers handle the increasing volume of air traffic in the next two decades (JPDO, 2007). Because fully automated systems leave operators out of the decision-making loop (e.g., Billings, 1991), it is important to determine the right level and type of automation that will keep air traffic controllers in the loop. This study examined the differences in the situation awareness (SA) and collision detection performance of individuals when they worked with information acquisition, information analysis, decision and action selection and action implementation automation to control air traffic (Parasuraman, Sheridan, & Wickens, 2000). When the automation was unreliable, the time taken to detect an upcoming collision was significantly longer for all the automation types compared with the information acquisition automation. This poor performance following automation failure was mediated by SA, with lower SA yielding poor performance. Thus, the costs associated with automation failure are greater when automation is applied to higher order stages of information processing. Results have practical implications for automation design and development of SA training programs.

  6. Automated Controlled-Potential Coulometer for the IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordaro, J.V. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Holland, M.K.; Fields, T.

    1998-01-29

    An automated controlled-potential coulometer has been developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the determination of plutonium for use at the International Atomic Energy Agency`s (IAEA) Safeguards Analytical Laboratory in Siebersdorf, Austria. The system is functionally the same as earlier systems built for use at the Savannah River Site`s Analytical Laboratory. All electronic circuits and printed circuits boards have been upgraded with state-of-the-art components. A higher amperage potentiostat with improved control stability has been developed. The system achieves electronic calibration accuracy and linearity of better than 0.01 percent, with a precision and accuracy better than 0.1 percent has been demonstrated. This coulometer features electrical calibration of the integration system, electrolysis current background corrections, and control-potential adjustment capabilities. These capabilities allow application of the system to plutonium measurements without chemical standards, achieving traceability to the international measurement system through electrical standards and Faraday`s constant. the chemist is provided with the capability to perform measurements without depending upon chemical standards, which is a significant advantage for applications such as characterization of primary and secondary standards. Additional benefits include reducing operating cost to procure, prepare and measure calibration standards and the corresponding decrease in radioactive waste generation. The design and documentation of the automated instrument are provided herein. Each individual module`s operation, wiring, layout, and alignment are described. Interconnection of the modules and system calibration are discussed. A complete set of prints and a list of associated parts are included.

  7. Effect of Weight Gain on Cardiac Autonomic Control During Wakefulness and Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Taro; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H.; Calvin, Andrew D.; Singh, Prachi; Romero-Corral, Abel; van der Walt, Christelle; Davison, Diane E.; Bukartyk, Jan; Konecny, Tomas; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Sierra-Johnson, Justo; Somers, Virend K.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with increased cardiac sympathetic activation during wakefulness, but the effect on sleep-related sympathetic modulation is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fat gain on cardiac autonomic control during wakefulness and sleep in humans. We performed a randomized controlled study to assess the effects of fat gain on heart rate variability (HRV). We recruited 36 healthy volunteers, who were randomized to either a standardized diet to gain approximately 4 kg over 8 weeks followed by an 8 week weight loss period (n=20), or to serve as a weight-maintainer control (n=16). An overnight polysomnogram with power spectral analysis of HRV was performed at baseline, after weight gain, and after weight loss to determine the ratio of low frequency (LF) to high frequency (HF) power, and to examine the relationship between changes in HRV and changes in insulin, leptin and adiponectin levels. Mean weight gain was 3.9 kg in the fat gain group versus 0.1 kg in the maintainer group. LF/HF increased both during wakefulness and sleep after fat gain and returned to baseline after fat loss in the fat gain group, and did not change in the control group. Insulin, leptin and adiponectin also increased after fat gain and fell after fat loss, but no clear pattern of changes were seen that correlated consistently with changes in HRV. Short-term fat gain in healthy subjects is associated with increased cardiac sympathetic activation during wakefulness and sleep but the mechanisms remain unclear. PMID:21357280

  8. Raman-based distributed temperature sensor using simplex code and gain controlled EDFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassan, F. R.; Penze, R. S.; Leonardi, A. A.; Fracarolli, J. P. V.; Floridia, C.; Rosolem, J. B.; Fruett, F.

    2015-09-01

    In this work we present a comparison between simplex coded and optical amplified simplex coded Raman based Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS). An increase in performance is demonstrated using erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) with proper gain control scheme that allows a DTS operates with simplex code. Using 63-bit simplex code and gain controlled EDFA we demonstrated the temperature resolution and dynamic range improvement in 16 °C @ 10 km and 4 dB, respectively.

  9. Control and path prediction of an Automate Guided Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Butdee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this paper a new architecture and control strategy of an AGV is proposed. It is organized as follows.The system architecture is explained in section 2. Section 3 deals with the kinematics model of the AGV path,prediction and control. Section 4 describes the experiments. The conclusion and recommendation are given insection 5.Design/methodology/approach: It is a three wheels vehicle. The front wheel is used for driving and steering theAGV and the two rear wheels are free. The steering and driving are DC motor. Two encoders are individuallyattached on the two rear wheels in order to measure the vehicle displacement and then calculate its real timeposition and orientation. The choice of positioning the encoders on the free wheels provides to the vehicle anaccurate measurement of its progression. A programmable logic control (PLC is used for motion control.Findings: In this paper, An Automate Guided Vehicle (AGV is presented. The developed algorithm is basedon memorised path and kinematics determination of the movement. The vehicle position and deviation arecalculated from rear wheels rotation measurement. The steering and driving command are determined fromthis deviation. Localization of AGV by Kaman filtering algorithm is presented. Control of AGV motion isimplemented by using PID control scheme. Displacement axis and steering axis are separated to implementthe motion control. We proposed the localization system for estimation of AGV. Position and orientation areestimated by Kalman filtering in state-space model. Position and orientation of AGV are measured and used forsimulation for localization system. We conclude that the vehicle can reach from the initial position moved alongwith generated path with accurate location. A Schneider PLC is used to implement this control. The tests reveala smooth movement and convenient deviation.Practical implications: The first prototype working, the next research steps will be development of a

  10. A Uniform Voltage Gain Control for Alignment Robustness in Wireless EV Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yabiao Gao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of wireless power transfer is sensitive to the horizontal and vertical distances between the transmitter and receiver coils due to the magnetic coupling change. To address the output voltage variation and efficiency drop caused by misalignment, a uniform voltage gain frequency control is implemented to improve the power delivery and efficiency of wireless power transfer under misalignment. The frequency is tuned according to the amplitude and phase-frequency characteristics of coupling variations in order to maintain a uniform output voltage in the receiver coil. Experimental comparison of three control methods, including fixed frequency control, resonant frequency control, and the proposed uniform gain control was conducted and demonstrated that the uniform voltage gain control is the most robust method for managing misalignment in wireless charging applications.

  11. Gain-Scheduled Model Predictive Control of Wind Turbines using Laguerre Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Wisniewski, Rafal; Larsen, Lars Finn Sloth

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach to design gain-scheduled predictive controllers for wind turbines. The predictive control law is based on Laguerre functions to parameterize control signals and a parameter-dependent cost function that is analytically determined from turbine data. These p...

  12. Automated washing of FTA Card punches and PCR setup for reference samples using a LIMS-controlled Sias Xantus automated liquid handler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Olsen, Addie Nina; Frøslev, Tobias G.;

    2009-01-01

    We have implemented and validated automated methods for washing FTA Card punches containing buccal samples and subsequent PCR setup using a Sias Xantus automated liquid handler. The automated methods were controlled by worklists generated by our LabWare Laboratory Information Management System (L...

  13. Adaptation as a mechanism for gain control in cockroach ON and OFF olfactory receptor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgstaller, Maria; Tichy, Harald

    2012-02-01

    In many sensory systems adaptation acts as a gain control mechanism that optimizes sensory performance by trading increased sensitivity to low stimulus intensity for decreased sensitivity to high stimulus intensity. Adaptation of insect antennal olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) has been studied for strong odour concentrations, either pulsed or constant. Here, we report that during slowly oscillating changes in the concentration of the odour of lemon oil, the ON and OFF ORNs on the antenna of the cockroach Periplaneta americana adapt to the actual odour concentration and the rate at which concentration changes. When odour concentration oscillates rapidly with brief periods, adaptation improves gain for instantaneous odour concentration and reduces gain for the rate of concentration change. Conversely, when odour concentration oscillates slowly with long periods, adaptation increases gain for the rate of change at the expense of instantaneous concentration. Without this gain control the ON and OFF ORNs would, at brief oscillation periods, soon reach their saturation level and become insensitive to further concentration increments and decrements. At long oscillation periods, on the other hand, the cue would simply be that the discharge begins to change. Because of the high gain for the rate of change, the cockroach will receive creeping changes in odour concentration, even if they persist in one direction. Gain control permits a high degree of precision at small rates when it counts most, without sacrificing the range of detection and without extending the measuring scale.

  14. Intelligent Control in Automation Based on Wireless Traffic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

    2007-08-01

    Wireless technology is a central component of many factory automation infrastructures in both the commercial and government sectors, providing connectivity among various components in industrial realms (distributed sensors, machines, mobile process controllers). However wireless technologies provide more threats to computer security than wired environments. The advantageous features of Bluetooth technology resulted in Bluetooth units shipments climbing to five million per week at the end of 2005 [1, 2]. This is why the real-time interpretation and understanding of Bluetooth traffic behavior is critical in both maintaining the integrity of computer systems and increasing the efficient use of this technology in control type applications. Although neuro-fuzzy approaches have been applied to wireless 802.11 behavior analysis in the past, a significantly different Bluetooth protocol framework has not been extensively explored using this technology. This paper presents a new neurofuzzy traffic analysis algorithm of this still new territory of Bluetooth traffic. Further enhancements of this algorithm are presented along with the comparison against the traditional, numerical approach. Through test examples, interesting Bluetooth traffic behavior characteristics were captured, and the comparative elegance of this computationally inexpensive approach was demonstrated. This analysis can be used to provide directions for future development and use of this prevailing technology in various control type applications, as well as making the use of it more secure.

  15. Intelligent Control in Automation Based on Wireless Traffic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt Derr; Milos Manic

    2007-09-01

    Wireless technology is a central component of many factory automation infrastructures in both the commercial and government sectors, providing connectivity among various components in industrial realms (distributed sensors, machines, mobile process controllers). However wireless technologies provide more threats to computer security than wired environments. The advantageous features of Bluetooth technology resulted in Bluetooth units shipments climbing to five million per week at the end of 2005 [1, 2]. This is why the real-time interpretation and understanding of Bluetooth traffic behavior is critical in both maintaining the integrity of computer systems and increasing the efficient use of this technology in control type applications. Although neuro-fuzzy approaches have been applied to wireless 802.11 behavior analysis in the past, a significantly different Bluetooth protocol framework has not been extensively explored using this technology. This paper presents a new neurofuzzy traffic analysis algorithm of this still new territory of Bluetooth traffic. Further enhancements of this algorithm are presented along with the comparison against the traditional, numerical approach. Through test examples, interesting Bluetooth traffic behavior characteristics were captured, and the comparative elegance of this computationally inexpensive approach was demonstrated. This analysis can be used to provide directions for future development and use of this prevailing technology in various control type applications, as well as making the use of it more secure.

  16. Gain-controlled erbium-doped fiber amplifier using mode-selective photonic lantern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Galmiche, G.; Sanjabi Eznaveh, Z.; Antonio-Lopez, J. E.; Velazquez-Benitez, A. M.; Rodriguez-Asomoza, J.; Herrera-Piad, L. A.; Sanchez-Mondragon, J. J.; Gonent, C.; Sillard, P.; Li, G.; SchuÌlzgen, A.; Okonkwo, C.; Amezcua Correa, R.

    2016-02-01

    For the first time, we demonstrate the implementation of a core pumped few mode erbium amplifier utilizing a mode selective photonic lantern for spatial modal control of the pump light. This device is able to individually amplify the first six fiber modes with low differential modal gain. In addition, we obtained differential modal gain lower than 1 dB and signal gain of approximately 16.17 dB at λs = 1550 nm through forward pumping the LP21 modes at λp = 976 nm.

  17. Analysis and design of sliding mode controller gains for boost power factor corrector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessal, Abdelhalim; Rahmani, Lazhar

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a systematic procedure to compute the gains of sliding mode controller based on an optimization scheme. This controller is oriented to drive an AC-DC converter operating in continuous mode with power factor near unity, and in order to improve static and dynamic performances with large variations of reference voltage and load. This study shows the great influence of the controller gains on the global performances of the system. Hence, a methodology for choosing the gains is detailed. The sliding surface used in this study contains two state variables, input current and output voltage; the advantage of this surface is getting reactions against various disturbances-at the power source, the reference of the output, or the value of the load. The controller is experimentally confirmed for steady-state performance and transient response.

  18. Adaptive fuzzy dynamic surface control for the chaotic permanent magnet synchronous motor using Nussbaum gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Shaohua [School of Automation, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China and College of Mechanical Engineering, Hunan University of Arts and Science, Hunan 415000 (China)

    2014-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of adaptive fuzzy dynamic surface control (DSC) for the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) system with chaotic behavior, disturbance and unknown control gain and parameters. Nussbaum gain is adopted to cope with the situation that the control gain is unknown. And the unknown items can be estimated by fuzzy logic system. The proposed controller guarantees that all the signals in the closed-loop system are bounded and the system output eventually converges to a small neighborhood of the desired reference signal. Finally, the numerical simulations indicate that the proposed scheme can suppress the chaos of PMSM and show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.

  19. Reliable gain-scheduled control of discrete-time systems and its application to CSTR model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivel, R.; Selvi, S.; Mathiyalagan, K.; Shi, Y.

    2016-10-01

    This paper is focused on reliable gain-scheduled controller design for a class of discrete-time systems with randomly occurring nonlinearities and actuator fault. Further, the nonlinearity in the system model is assumed to occur randomly according to a Bernoulli distribution with measurable time-varying probability in real time. The main purpose of this paper is to design a gain-scheduled controller by implementing a probability-dependent Lyapunov function and linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach such that the closed-loop discrete-time system is stochastically stable for all admissible randomly occurring nonlinearities. The existence conditions for the reliable controller is formulated in terms of LMI constraints. Finally, the proposed reliable gain-scheduled control scheme is applied on continuously stirred tank reactor model to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed design technique.

  20. Adaptive control of linear multivariable systems with high frequency gain matrix hurwitz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying ZHOU; Yuqiang WU; Shumin FEI

    2005-01-01

    A new adaptive control scheme is proposed for multivariable model reference adaptive control(MRAC) systems based on the nonlinear backstepping approach with vector form.The assumption on a priori knowledge of the high frequency gain matrix in existing results is relaxed and the new required condition for the high frequency gain matrix can be easily checked for certain plants so that the proposed method is widely applicable.This control scheme guarantees the global stability of the closed-loop systems and the tracking error can be arbitrary small.The simulation result for an application example shows the validity of the proposed nonlinear adaptive scheme.

  1. AUTOMATION OF PLC PROGRAMMING WHEN IMPLEMENTING ALGORITHMS OF GUARANTEEING CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Levinskyi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During developing programs for programmable logic controllers (PLCs the concept of model-oriented design is increasingly used. In particular, usage of Simulink PLC Coder is giving the opportunity to get SCL program codefrom Simulink model which contains certain dynamic elements. Then, for example, this SCL code can be transformed to functional blocks of the Simatic S7-300 (VIPA 300 PLC. This significantly reduces the timerequired to develop code in the language of SCL and reduces requirements for specialists’ qualification when developing control systems. In this article we provide an example of PLC programming automation whenimplementing algorithms of guaranteeing control (AGC. For certain types of technological processes it is typical to contain monotonically increasing function of the effectiveness with fixed one-way restriction in regulations. Forexample, in the grinders, presses, extruders the load current of the drive is stabilized using the change of feed. Energy efficiency of these plants will increase with increasing of the set point (SP to the controller of the drive loadcurrent stabilization loop. However, an increase in SP increases the probability of triggering appropriate protection, for example, as a result of random changes in the properties of raw materials. Therefore, to avoid this accident, thepower of driving motors is often unreasonably overrated. And in this case they are used with currents equal to the half of rated.Systems of guaranteeing control (SGC are used to solve the contradiction between the need to improvethe efficiency and increasing probability of an accident.

  2. Model-Based Control for Postal Automation and Baggage Handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarau, A.N.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we focus on two specific transportation systems, namely postal automation and baggage handling. Postal automation: During the last decades the volume of magazines, catalogs, and other plastic wrapped mail items that have to be processed by post sorting centers has increased consider

  3. Gain-scheduled Linear Quadratic Control of Wind Turbines Operating at High Wind Speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Kasper Zinck; Stoustrup, Jakob; Brath, Per

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses state estimation and linear quadratic (LQ) control of variable speed variable pitch wind turbines. On the basis of a nonlinear model of a wind turbine, a set of operating conditions is identified and a LQ controller is designed for each operating point. The controller gains....... Simulation results are given that display good performance of the observers and comparisons with a controller designed by classical methods displays the potential of the method.  ...

  4. Gain Scheduling Control of Nonlinear Systems Based on Neural State Space Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for gain scheduling control of nonlinear systems based on extraction of local linear state space models from neural networks with direct application to robust control. A neural state space model of the system is first trained based on in- and output training...

  5. Trajectory Specification for Automation of Terminal Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paielli, Russell A.

    2016-01-01

    "Trajectory specification" is the explicit bounding and control of aircraft tra- jectories such that the position at each point in time is constrained to a precisely defined volume of space. The bounding space is defined by cross-track, along-track, and vertical tolerances relative to a reference trajectory that specifies position as a function of time. The tolerances are dynamic and will be based on the aircraft nav- igation capabilities and the current traffic situation. A standard language will be developed to represent these specifications and to communicate them by datalink. Assuming conformance, trajectory specification can guarantee safe separation for an arbitrary period of time even in the event of an air traffic control (ATC) sys- tem or datalink failure, hence it can help to achieve the high level of safety and reliability needed for ATC automation. As a more proactive form of ATC, it can also maximize airspace capacity and reduce the reliance on tactical backup systems during normal operation. It applies to both enroute airspace and the terminal area around airports, but this paper focuses on arrival spacing in the terminal area and presents ATC algorithms and software for achieving a specified delay of runway arrival time.

  6. Direct versus Facility Centric Load Control for Automated Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Ed; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-11-06

    Direct load control (DLC) refers to the scenario where third party entities outside the home or facility are responsible for deciding how and when specific customer loads will be controlled in response to Demand Response (DR) events on the electric grid. Examples of third parties responsible for performing DLC may be Utilities, Independent System Operators (ISO), Aggregators, or third party control companies. DLC can be contrasted with facility centric load control (FCLC) where the decisions for how loads are controlled are made entirely within the facility or enterprise control systems. In FCLC the facility owner has more freedom of choice in how to respond to DR events on the grid. Both approaches are in use today in automation of DR and both will continue to be used in future market segments including industrial, commercial and residential facilities. This paper will present a framework which can be used to differentiate between DLC and FCLC based upon where decisions are made on how specific loads are controlled in response to DR events. This differentiation is then used to compare and contrast the differences between DLC and FCLC to identify the impact each has on:(1)Utility/ISO and third party systems for managing demand response, (2)Facility systems for implementing load control, (3)Communications networks for interacting with the facility and (4)Facility operators and managers. Finally a survey of some of the existing DR related specifications and communications standards is given and their applicability to DLC or FCLC. In general FCLC adds more cost and responsibilities to the facilities whereas DLC represents higher costs and complexity for the Utility/ISO. This difference is primarily due to where the DR Logic is implemented and the consequences that creates. DLC may be more certain than FCLC because it is more predictable - however as more loads have the capability to respond to DR signals, people may prefer to have their own control of end-use loads

  7. Noise Temperature Characteristics and Gain-control of Avalanche Photodiodes for Laser Radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Xi-ping; SHANG Hong-Bo; BAI Ji-yuan; YANG Shuang; WANG Li-na

    2008-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes(APDs) are promising light sensors with high quantum efficiency and low noise. It has been extensively used in radiation detection, laser radar and other weak signal detection fields. Unlike other photodiodes, APD is a very sensitive light detector with very high internal gain. The basic theory shows that the gain of APD is related to the temperature. The internal gain fluctuates with the variation of temperature. Investigated was the influence of the variation of the gain induced by the fluctuation of temperature on the output from APD for a very weak laser pulse input in laser radar. An active reverse-biased voltage compensation method is used to stabilize the gain of APD. An APD model is setup to simulate the detection of light pulse signal. The avalanche process, various noises and temperature's effect are all included in the model. Our results show that for the detection of weak light signal such as in laser radar, even a very small fluctuation of temperature could cause a great effect on APD's gain. The results show that the signal-to-noise ratio of the APD's output could be improved effectively with the active gain-control system.

  8. L∞-gain adaptive fuzzy fault accommodation control design for nonlinear time-delay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huai-Ning; Qiang, Xiao-Hong; Guo, Lei

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, an adaptive fuzzy fault accommodation (FA) control design with a guaranteed L(∞)-gain performance is developed for a class of nonlinear time-delay systems with persistent bounded disturbances. Using the Lyapunov technique and the Razumikhin-type lemma, the existence condition of the L(∞) -gain adaptive fuzzy FA controllers is provided in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). In the proposed FA scheme, a fuzzy logic system is employed to approximate the unknown term in the derivative of the Lyapunov function due to the unknown fault function; a continuous-state feedback control strategy is adopted for the control design to avoid the undesirable chattering phenomenon. The resulting FA controllers can ensure that every response of the closed-loop system is uniformly ultimately bounded with a guaranteed L(∞)-gain performance in the presence of a fault. Moreover, by the existing LMI optimization technique, a suboptimal controller is obtained in the sense of minimizing an upper bound of the L(∞)-gain. Finally, the achieved simulation results on the FA control of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) show the effectiveness of the proposed design procedure.

  9. Adaptive Fuzzy Robust Control for a Class of Nonlinear Systems via Small Gain Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjian Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Practical nonlinear systems can usually be represented by partly linearizable models with unknown nonlinearities and external disturbances. Based on this consideration, we propose a novel adaptive fuzzy robust control (AFRC algorithm for such systems. The AFRC effectively combines techniques of adaptive control and fuzzy control, and it improves the performance by retaining the advantages of both methods. The linearizable part will be linearly parameterized with unknown but constant parameters, and the discontinuous-projection-based adaptive control law is used to compensate these parts. The Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy logic systems are used to approximate unknown nonlinearities. Robust control law ensures the robustness of closed-loop control system. A systematic design procedure of the AFRC algorithm by combining the backstepping technique and small-gain approach is presented. Then the closed-loop stability is studied by using small gain theorem, and the result indicates that the closed-loop system is semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded.

  10. Robotics, automation, and the new role of process control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, R A

    1998-01-01

    The natural progression of automation in the clinical laboratory next will lead to robotic devices to perform many of the manual tasks still remaining. To date, most efforts of laboratory automation have been directed at the analytic phase. New targets for automation will be at the preanalytic and postanalytic phases where many of the bottlenecks in specimen flow now occur in highly repetitive manual tasks. Laboratory professionals will have a unique opportunity to incorporate new concepts of robotics in their facilities to improve error rates and to use massive laboratory databases to improve medical and public health services.

  11. Sliding mode control of wind-induced vibrations using fuzzy sliding surface and gain adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenozhi, Suresh; Yu, Wen

    2016-04-01

    Although fuzzy/adaptive sliding mode control can reduce the chattering problem in structural vibration control applications, they require the equivalent control and the upper bounds of the system uncertainties. In this paper, we used fuzzy logic to approximate the standard sliding surface and designed a dead-zone adaptive law for tuning the switching gain of the sliding mode control. The stability of the proposed controller is established using Lyapunov stability theory. A six-storey building prototype equipped with an active mass damper has been used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller towards the wind-induced vibrations.

  12. Automated X-ray quality control of catalytic converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashishekhar, N.; Veselitza, D.

    2017-02-01

    Catalytic converters are devices attached to the exhaust system of automobile or other engines to eliminate or substantially reduce polluting emissions. They consist of coated substrates enclosed in a stainless steel housing. The substrate is typically made of ceramic honeycombs; however stainless steel foil honeycombs are also used. The coating is usually a slurry of alumina, silica, rare earth oxides and platinum group metals. The slurry also known as the wash coat is applied to the substrate in two doses, one on each end of the substrate; in some cases multiple layers of coating are applied. X-ray imaging is used to inspect the applied coating depth on a substrate to confirm compliance with quality requirements. Automated image analysis techniques are employed to measure the coating depth from the X-ray image. Coating depth is assessed by analysis of attenuation line profiles in the image. Edge detection algorithms with noise reduction and outlier rejection are used to calculate the coating depth at a specified point along an attenuation line profile. Quality control of the product is accomplished using several attenuation line profile regions for coating depth measurements, with individual pass or fail criteria specified for each region.

  13. Construction of cryptographic information protection in automated control systems for rapid reaction military forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Petrovich Evseev

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available New approaches to realizations of military operations are analyzed. The main factors that directly affect the construction and operation of information security subsystems in prospective automated command and control military systems are described. Possible ways of the construction of cryptographic subsystems of information protection in automated operation management systems for united military force groups are investigated.

  14. The modeling of transfer of steering between automated vehicle and human driver using hybrid control framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaustubh, M.; Willemsen, D.M.C.; Mazo, M.

    2016-01-01

    Proponents of autonomous driving pursue driverless technologies, whereas others foresee a gradual transition where there will be automated driving systems that share the control of the vehicle with the driver. With such advances it becomes pertinent that the developed automated systems need to be sa

  15. Control Performance Management in Industrial Automation Assessment, Diagnosis and Improvement of Control Loop Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Jelali, Mohieddine

    2013-01-01

    Control Performance Management in Industrial Automation provides a coherent and self-contained treatment of a group of methods and applications of burgeoning importance to the detection and solution of problems with control loops that are vital in maintaining product quality, operational safety, and efficiency of material and energy consumption in the process industries. The monograph deals with all aspects of control performance management (CPM), from controller assessment (minimum-variance-control-based and advanced methods), to detection and diagnosis of control loop problems (process non-linearities, oscillations, actuator faults), to the improvement of control performance (maintenance, re-design of loop components, automatic controller re-tuning). It provides a contribution towards the development and application of completely self-contained and automatic methodologies in the field. Moreover, within this work, many CPM tools have been developed that goes far beyond available CPM packages. Control Perform...

  16. Output feedback adaptive control of multivariable nonlinear systems using Nussbaum gain method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Ying; Wu Yuqiang

    2006-01-01

    A new output feedback adaptive control scheme for multi-input and multi-output nonlinear systems with parametric uncertainty is presented based on the Nussbaum gain method and the backstepping approach. The high frequency gain matrix of the linear part of the system is not necessarily positive definite, but can be transformed into a lower or upper triangular matrix whose signs of diagonal elements are unknown. The new required condition for the high frequency gain matrix can be easily checked for certain plants so that the proposed method is widely applicable. The global stability of the closed loop systems is guaranteed through this control scheme, at the same time the tracking error converges to zero.

  17. Control and automation of the Pegasus multi-point Thomson scattering system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, G M; Bongard, M W; Fonck, R J; Reusch, J A; Rodriguez Sanchez, C; Schlossberg, D J

    2016-11-01

    A new control system for the Pegasus Thomson scattering diagnostic has recently been deployed to automate the laser operation, data collection process, and interface with the system-wide Pegasus control code. Automation has been extended to areas outside of data collection, such as manipulation of beamline cameras and remotely controlled turning mirror actuators to enable intra-shot beam alignment. Additionally, the system has been upgraded with a set of fast (∼1 ms) mechanical shutters to mitigate contamination from background light. Modification and automation of the Thomson system have improved both data quality and diagnostic reliability.

  18. An artificial pancreas for automated blood glucose control in patients with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe; Boiroux, Dimitri; Ranjan, Ajenthen;

    2015-01-01

    Automated glucose control in patients with Type 1 diabetes is much-coveted by patients, relatives and healthcare professionals. It is the expectation that a system for automated control, also know as an artificial pancreas, will improve glucose control, reduce the risk of diabetes complications a....... This review gives an introduction to recent progress, challenges and future prospects within the field of artificial pancreas research....

  19. Knowledge based support for real time application of multiagent control and automation in electric power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Nordstrom, Lars; Lind, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a mechanism for developing knowledge based support for real time application of multiagent systems (MAS) in control, automation and diagnosis of electric power systems. In particular it presents a way for autonomous agents to utilize a qualitative means-ends based model...... and choose an appropriate control action. The paper also elaborates on real time interfacing between multi-agent systems and industry standard distribution automation and control system....

  20. Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Based Gain Controller for Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUCEL, M.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA must have a flat gain profile which is a very important parameter such as wavelength division multiplexing (WDM and dense WDM (DWDM applications for long-haul optical communication systems and networks. For this reason, it is crucial to hold a stable signal power per optical channel. For the purpose of overcoming performance decline of optical networks and long-haul optical systems, the gain of the EDFA must be controlled for it to be fixed at a high speed. In this study, due to the signal power attenuation in long-haul fiber optic communication systems and non-equal signal amplification in each channel, an automatic gain controller (AGC is designed based on the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS for EDFAs. The intelligent gain controller is implemented and the performance of this new electronic control method is demonstrated. The proposed ANFIS-based AGC-EDFA uses the experimental dataset to produce the ANFIS-based sets and the rule base. Laser diode currents are predicted within the accuracy rating over 98 percent with the proposed ANFIS-based system. Upon comparing ANFIS-based AGC-EDFA and experimental results, they were found to be very close and compatible.

  1. Explicit control of adaptive automation under different levels of environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Jürgen; Kao, Chung-Shan; Wastell, David; Nickel, Peter

    2011-08-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of three different forms of explicit control of adaptive automation under low- and high-stress conditions, operationalised by different levels of noise. In total, 60 participants were assigned to one of three types of automation design (free, prompted and forced choice). They were trained for 4 h on a highly automated simulation of a process control environment, called AutoCAMS. This was followed by a 4-h testing session under noise exposure and quiet conditions. Measures of performance, psychophysiology and subjective reactions were taken. The results showed that all three modes of explicit control of adaptive automation modes were able to attenuate the negative effects of noise. This was partly due to the fact that operators opted for higher levels of automation under noise. It also emerged that forced choice showed marginal advantages over the two other automation modes. Statement of Relevance: This work is relevant to the design of adaptive automation since it emphasises the need to consider the impact of work-related stressors during task completion. During the presence of stressors, different forms of operator support through automation may be required than under more favourable working conditions.

  2. Robust PID Steering Control in Parameter Space for Highly Automated Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mümin Tolga Emirler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is on the design of a parameter space based robust PID steering controller. This controller is used for automated steering in automated path following of a midsized sedan. Linear and nonlinear models of this midsized sedan are presented in the paper. Experimental results are used to validate the longitudinal and lateral dynamic models of this vehicle. This paper is on automated steering control and concentrates on the lateral direction of motion. The linear model is used to design a PID steering controller in parameter space that satisfies D-stability. The PID steering controller that is designed is used in a simulation study to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Simulation results for a circular trajectory and for a curved trajectory are presented and discussed in detail. This study is part of a larger research effort aimed at implementing highly automated driving in a midsized sedan.

  3. 12th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Gusikhin, Oleg; Madani, Kurosh; Sasiadek, Jurek

    2016-01-01

    The present book includes a set of selected extended papers from the 11th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics (ICINCO 2014), held in Vienna, Austria, from 1 to 3 September 2014. The conference brought together researchers, engineers and practitioners interested in the application of informatics to Control, Automation and Robotics. Four simultaneous tracks will be held, covering Intelligent Control Systems, Optimization, Robotics, Automation, Signal Processing, Sensors, Systems Modelling and Control, and Industrial Engineering, Production and Management. Informatics applications are pervasive in many areas of Control, Automation and Robotics. ICINCO 2014 received 301 submissions, from 49 countries, in all continents. After a double blind paper review performed by the Program Committee, 20% were accepted as full papers and thus selected for oral presentation. Additional papers were accepted as short papers and posters. A further selection was made after the Conference, ba...

  4. 12th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Madani, Kurosh; Gusikhin, Oleg; Sasiadek, Jurek

    2016-01-01

    The present book includes a set of selected extended papers from the 12th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics (ICINCO 2015), held in Colmar, France, from 21 to 23 July 2015. The conference brought together researchers, engineers and practitioners interested in the application of informatics to Control, Automation and Robotics. Four simultaneous tracks will be held, covering Intelligent Control Systems, Optimization, Robotics, Automation, Signal Processing, Sensors, Systems Modelling and Control, and Industrial Engineering, Production and Management. Informatics applications are pervasive in many areas of Control, Automation and Robotics. ICINCO 2015 received 214 submissions, from 42 countries, in all continents. After a double blind paper review performed by the Program Committee, 14% were accepted as full papers and thus selected for oral presentation. Additional papers were accepted as short papers and posters. A further selection was made after the Conference, based ...

  5. Adaptive-Gain Second-Order Sliding Mode Control of Attitude Tracking of Flexible Spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chutiphon Pukdeboon

    2014-01-01

    finite-time second-order sliding mode control algorithms are presented to solve this problem. For the first controller, a novel second-order sliding mode control scheme is developed to achieve high-precision tracking performance. For the second control law, an adaptive-gain second-order sliding mode control algorithm combing an adaptive law with second-order sliding mode control strategy is designed to relax the requirement of prior knowledge of the bound of the system uncertainties. The rigorous proofs show that the proposed controllers provide finite-time convergence of the attitude and angular velocity tracking errors. Numerical simulations on attitude tracking control are presented to demonstrate the performance of the developed controllers.

  6. Acoustic Wake-Up Receivers for Home Automation Control Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Bannoura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated home applications are to ease the use of technology and devices around the house. Most of the electronic devices, like shutters or entertainment products (Hifi, TV and even WiFi, are constantly in a standby mode, where they consume a considerable amount of energy. The standby mode is necessary to react to commands triggered by the user, but the time the device spends in a standby mode is considered long. In our work, we present a receiver that is attached to home appliances that allows the devices to be activated while they are completely turned off in order to reduce the energy consumed in the standby mode. The receiver contains a low power wake-up module that reacts to an addressable acoustic 20-kHz sound signal that controls home devices that are connected to it. The acoustic wake-up signal can be sent by any kind of speaker that is available in commercial smartphones. The smartphones will operate as transmitters to the signals. Our wake-up receiver consists of two parts: a low power passive circuit connected to a wake-up chip microcontroller and an active micro-electromechanical system (MEMS microphone that receives the acoustic signal. A duty cycle is required to reduce the power consumption of the receiver, because the signal reception occurs when the microphone is active. The current consumption was measured to be 15 μA in sleep mode and 140 μA in active mode. An average wake-up range of 10 m using a smartphone as a sender was achieved.

  7. LNA with wide range of gain control and wideband interference rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jhen-Ji; Chen, Duan-Yu

    2016-10-01

    This work presents a low-noise amplifier (LNA) design with a wide-range gain control characteristic that integrates adjustable current distribution and output impedance techniques. For a given gain characteristic, the proposed LNA provides better wideband interference rejection performance than conventional LNA. Moreover, the proposed LNA also has a wider gain control range than conventional LNA. Therefore, it is suitable for satellite communications systems. The simulation results demonstrate that the voltage gain control range is between 14.5 and 34.2 dB for such applications (2600 MHz); the input reflection coefficient is less than -18.9 dB; the noise figure (NF) is 1.25 dB; and the third-order intercept point (IIP3) is 4.52 dBm. The proposed LNA consumes 23.85-28.17 mW at a supply voltage of 1.8 V. It is implemented by using TSMC 0.18-um RF CMOS process technology.

  8. Visual information gain and task asymmetry interact in bimanual force coordination and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaogang; Newell, Karl M

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the question of whether and how the influence of visual information on force coordination patterns is dependent on the settings of a task asymmetry constraint. In a bimanual isometric force experiment, the task asymmetry was manipulated via imposing different coefficients on the index finger forces such that the weighted sum of the finger forces matched the target force. The environmental constraint was quantified by the visual performance error and was manipulated through the change of visual gain (number of pixels on the screen representing the unit of force). The constraint arising from the individual was quantified by the bilateral coupling effect (i.e., symmetric force production) between hands. The results revealed improved performance in terms of lower variability and performance error and more complex total force structure with higher visual gain. The influence of visual gain on the force coordination pattern, however, was found to be dependent on the task coefficients imposed on the finger forces. Namely, the force sharing between hands became more symmetric with high visual gain only when the right finger force had the higher coefficient, and an error-compensatory strategy was evident with high gain only when symmetric coefficients were imposed on the two fingers. The findings support the proposition that the motor coordination and control patterns are organized by the interactive influence of different categories of constraints where the functional influence of the information provided is dependent on the motor output.

  9. Intelligent, Semi-Automated Procedure Aid (ISAPA) for ISS Flight Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop the Intelligent, Semi-Automated Procedure Aid (ISAPA) intended for use by International Space Station (ISS) ground controllers to increase the...

  10. INTEGRATION OF INFORMATIONAL COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES SMK: AUTOMATION OF THE MAIN FUNCTIONS OF THE TECHNICAL CONTROL DEPARTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Pavlenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that automation of some functions of control department allows to record defects, reclamations and failures of technology, to make the necessary reporting forms and quality certificates for production.

  11. Adaptive Robust Actuator Fault Accommodation for a Class of Uncertain Nonlinear Systems with Unknown Control Gains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuefei Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive robust fault tolerant control approach is proposed for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems with unknown signs of high-frequency gain and unmeasured states. In the recursive design, neural networks are employed to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions, K-filters are designed to estimate the unmeasured states, and a dynamical signal and Nussbaum gain functions are introduced to handle the unknown sign of the virtual control direction. By incorporating the switching function σ algorithm, the adaptive backstepping scheme developed in this paper does not require the real value of the actuator failure. It is mathematically proved that the proposed adaptive robust fault tolerant control approach can guarantee that all the signals of the closed-loop system are bounded, and the output converges to a small neighborhood of the origin. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is illustrated by the simulation examples.

  12. A novel analog/digital reconfigurable automatic gain control with a novel DC offset cancellation circuit*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Xiaofeng; Mo Taishan; Ma Chengyan; Ye Tianchun

    2011-01-01

    An analog/digital reconfigurable automatic gain control (AGC) circuit with a novel DC offset cancellation circuit for a direct-conversion receiver is presented. The AGC is analog/digital reconfigurable in order to be compatible with different baseband chips. What's more, a novel DC offset cancellation (DCOC) circuit with an HPCF (high pass cutoff frequency) less than 10 kHz is proposed. The AGC is fabricated by a 0.18 μm CMOS process. Under analog control mode, the AGC achieves a 70 dB dynamic range with a 3 dB-bandwidth larger than 60 MHz. Under digital control mode, through a 5-bit digital control word, the AGC shows a 64 dB gain control range by 2 dB each step with a gain error of less than 0.3 dB. The DC offset cancellation circuits can suppress the output DC offset voltage to be less than 1.5 mV, while the offset voltage of 40 mV is introduced into the input. The overall power consumption is less than 3.5 mA, and the die area is 800 × 300μm2.

  13. Auto gain control of EMCCD in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhaoyi; Li, Dayu; Hu, Lifa; Mu, QuanQuan; Cao, Zhaoliang; Wang, Yukun; Wang, Shaoxin; Xuan, Li

    2016-12-01

    Electron multiplying charge-coupled-device (EMCCD) applied in Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (S-H WFS) makes the wavefront sensing more efficient for adaptive optics (AO). However when the brightness of the observed target changes in large ranges in a few minutes, a fixed electron multiplying (EM) gain may not be optimum. Thus an auto-gain-control (AGC) method based on the spots image of the S-H WFS is proposed. The designed control value is the average value of the maximum signals of all the light spots in a frame. It has been demonstrated in the experiments that the control value is sensitive to the change of the target brightness, and is stable in the presence of detecting noises and turbulence influence. The goal value for control is predetermined based on the linear relation of the signal with the EM gain and the number of photons collected in sub-apertures. The conditions of the self-protection of the EMCCD are also considered for the goal value. Simulations and experiments indicate that the proposed control method is efficient, and keeps the sensing in a high SNR which reaches the upper SNR limit when sensing with EMCCD. The self-protection of the EMCCD is avoided during the whole sensing process.

  14. 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’13, held in Yangzhou, China. The topics include e.g. adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, and reconfigurable control. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry, and government can gain an inside view of new solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent automation. Zengqi Sun and Zhidong Deng are professors at the Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, China.

  15. 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’13, held in Yangzhou, China. The topics include e.g. adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, and reconfigurable control. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry, and government can gain an inside view of new solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent automation.   Zengqi Sun and Zhidong Deng are professors at the Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, China.

  16. Effect of olive oil massage on weight gain in preterm infants: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Jabraeile

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the fact that effect of massage with or without oil on the baby′s weight gain is not clear, but recent studies have shown that massage with essential oils make lipid absorption through the skin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of olive oil massage on weight gain in preterm infants. Materials and Methods: This study was a single-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial. In this study, infants who met inclusion criteria for the study were divided into two groups by using random numbers table. Newborns in intervention group were under massage for 10 days and 3 times for 15 min daily; the mother of these newborns had been trained already using olive oil. Moreover, the infants of the control group were under massaging without oil same as the above-mentioned method. Researchers weighed babies daily during 10 days and recorded it at the checklist. Data from the study were reviewed and analyzed by descriptive statistics and repeated measure test using the statistical software SPSS/13. Results: This study showed that the neonatal weight gain in the infants with the oil massage was 21 g daily in average, whereas the increase in infant massage without oil was 7 g. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Considering the positive effect of infant massage on weight gain in premature infants with olive oil, it is recommended that nurses use oil in infant massage in the neonatal units.

  17. The implementation of the situational control concept of information security in automated training systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Chernih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main approaches to ensuring security of information in the automated training systems are considered, need of application of situational management of security of information for the automated training systems is proved, the mathematical model and a problem definition of situational control is offered, the technique of situational control of security of information is developed.The purpose of the study. The aim of the study is to base the application of situational control of information security by subsystem of the control and protection of information in automated learning systems and to develop implementation methods of the situational control concept.Materials and methods. It is assumed that the automated learning system is a fragment of a larger information system that contains several information paths, each of them treats different information in the protection degree from information, containing constituting state secrets, to open access information.It is considered that the technical methods, measures and means of information protection in automated learning systems implement less than half (30% functions of subsystems of control and protection information. The main part of the functions of this subsystem are organizational measures to protect information. It is obvious that the task of ensuring the security of information in automated learning systems associated with the adoption of decisions on rational selection and proper combination of technical methods and institutional arrangements. Conditions of practical application of automated learning systems change over time and transform the situation of such a decision, and this leads to the use of situational control methods.When situational control is implementing, task of the protection of information in automated learning system is solved by the subsystem control and protection of information by distributing the processes ensuring the security of information and resources of

  18. Decentralized PI/PID controllers based on gain and phase margin specifications for TITO processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghade, D K; Patre, B M

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, a decentralized PI/PID controller design method based on gain and phase margin specifications for two-input-two-output (TITO) interactive processes is proposed. The decouplers are designed for systems to minimize the interaction between the loops, and the first order plus dead time (FOPDT) model is achieved for each decoupled subsystem based on the frequency response fitting. An independent PI/PID controller is designed for each reduced order decoupled subsystem to obtain the desired gain and phase margins, and the performance is verified on the original interactive system to show the effectiveness of the proposed design method for the general class of TITO systems. Simulation examples are incorporated to validate the usefulness of the presented algorithm. An experimentation is performed on the Level-Temperature reactor process to show the practical applicability of the proposed method for the interactive system.

  19. Distributed temperature sensing system using a commercial OTDR and a standard EDFA with controlled gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassan, Fabio R.; Salgado, Felipe C.; Fruett, Fabiano; Rosolem, Joao B.

    2016-05-01

    The distributed temperature sensor system based in the spontaneous Raman backscattering is demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge, using a commercial OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer) and a standard erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) with controlled gain. We evaluated this approach in a 30 km of single mode fiber using an OTDR pulse width of 100 ns and an EDFA with 17 dBm of output power.

  20. Gain transient control for wavelength division multiplexed access networks using semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Osadchiy, Alexey Vladimirovich; Kjær, Rasmus;

    2009-01-01

    measurements how a near-saturated semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) can be used to control these gain transients. An SOA is shown to reduce the penalty of transients originating in an EDFA from 2.3 dB to 0.2 dB for 10 Gb/s transmission over standard single mode fiber using a 231-1 PRBS pattern. The results...

  1. Adaptive gain control for spike-based map communication in a neuromorphic vision system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yicong; Shi, Bertram E

    2008-06-01

    To support large numbers of model neurons, neuromorphic vision systems are increasingly adopting a distributed architecture, where different arrays of neurons are located on different chips or processors. Spike-based protocols are used to communicate activity between processors. The spike activity in the arrays depends on the input statistics as well as internal parameters such as time constants and gains. In this paper, we investigate strategies for automatically adapting these parameters to maintain a constant firing rate in response to changes in the input statistics. We find that under the constraint of maintaining a fixed firing rate, a strategy based upon updating the gain alone performs as well as an optimal strategy where both the gain and the time constant are allowed to vary. We discuss how to choose the time constant and propose an adaptive gain control mechanism whose operation is robust to changes in the input statistics. Our experimental results on a mobile robotic platform validate the analysis and efficacy of the proposed strategy.

  2. Instrumentation, control and automation in wastewater - from London 1973 to Narbonne 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, G.; Carlsson, B.; Comas, J.

    2014-01-01

    Key developments of instrumentation, control and automation (ICA) applications in wastewater systems during the past 40 years are highlighted in this paper. From the first ICA conference in 1973 through to today there has been a tremendous increase in the understanding of the processes, instrumen......Key developments of instrumentation, control and automation (ICA) applications in wastewater systems during the past 40 years are highlighted in this paper. From the first ICA conference in 1973 through to today there has been a tremendous increase in the understanding of the processes......, instrumentation, computer systems and control theory. However, many developments have not been addressed here, such as sewer control, drinking water treatment and water distribution control. It is hoped that this review can stimulate new attempts to more effectively apply control and automation in water systems...

  3. Using Visual Specifications in Verification of Industrial Automation Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Vyatkin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with further development of a graphical specification language resembling timing-diagrams and allowing specification of partially ordered events in input and output signals. The language specifically aims at application in modular modelling of industrial automation systems and their formal verification via model-checking. The graphical specifications are translated into a model which is connected with the original model under study.

  4. Using Visual Specifications in Verification of Industrial Automation Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouzon Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper deals with further development of a graphical specification language resembling timing-diagrams and allowing specification of partially ordered events in input and output signals. The language specifically aims at application in modular modelling of industrial automation systems and their formal verification via model-checking. The graphical specifications are translated into a model which is connected with the original model under study.

  5. Preventing Weight Gain in Women in Rural Communities: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Lombard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions in both developed and developing countries. Even modest weight gain increases the risk for chronic illness, yet evidence-based interventions to prevent weight gain are rare. This trial will determine if a simple low-intensity intervention can prevent weight gain in women compared to general health information.We conducted a 1-yr pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial in 41 Australian towns (clusters randomised using a computer-generated randomisation list for intervention (n = 21 or control (n = 20. Women aged 18 to 50 yr were recruited from the general population to receive a 1-yr self-management lifestyle intervention (HeLP-her consisting of one group session, monthly SMS text messages, one phone coaching session, and a program manual, or to a control group receiving one general women's health education session. From October 2012 to April 2014 we studied 649 women, mean age 39.6 yr (+/- SD 6.7 and BMI of 28.8 kg/m(2 (+/- SD 6.9 with the primary outcome weight change between groups at 1 yr. The mean change in the control was +0.44 kg (95% CI -0.09 to 0.97 and in the intervention group -0.48 kg (95% CI -0.99 to 0.03 with an unadjusted between group difference of -0.92 kg (95% CI -1.67 to -0.16 or -0.87 kg (95% CI -1.62 to -0.13 adjusted for baseline values and clustering. Secondary outcomes included improved diet quality and greater self-management behaviours. The intervention appeared to be equally efficacious across all age, BMI, income, and education subgroups. Loss to follow-up included 23.8% in the intervention group and 21.8% in the control group and was within the anticipated range. Limitations include lack of sensitive tools to measure the small changes to energy intake and physical activity. Those who gained weight may have been less inclined to return for 1 yr weight measures.A low intensity lifestyle program can prevent the persistent weight gain observed in women. Key features included

  6. Design and Development of a Simple Low-cost Touchscreen to Control Home Automation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Muntasir Rahman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Human and computer interaction has been developed into a wide and sophisticated field. Earlier automating electrical devices were absolutely mechanical. But with the invention of computer system, many computer researchers have tried to create computer based intelligent systems to accomplish many of their functionalities. Touchscreen controlled home automation system is one of them. These fascinating efforts to create intelligent systems are to provide human being a more convenient life. Moreover, it would accelerate the working speed of users. This paper concentrates primarily on experimental experiences on home automation system with a low-cost touchscreen technology. The proposed system provide an environment in which user can give commands by touching desired position on the touchscreen to automate the control of electrical devices. The interfacing circuit is designed using electronic components available in local market to keep the cost at low level.

  7. The design of the automated control system for warehouse equipment under radio-electronic manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapulin, D. V.; Chemidov, I. V.; Kazantsev, M. A.

    2017-01-01

    In the paper, the aspects of design, development and implementation of the automated control system for warehousing under the manufacturing process of the radio-electronic enterprise JSC «Radiosvyaz» are discussed. The architecture of the automated control system for warehousing proposed in the paper consists of a server which is connected to the physically separated information networks: the network with a database server, which stores information about the orders for picking, and the network with the automated storage and retrieval system. This principle allows implementing the requirements for differentiation of access, ensuring the information safety and security requirements. Also, the efficiency of the developed automated solutions in terms of optimizing the warehouse’s logistic characteristics is researched.

  8. A Multiple Agent Model of Human Performance in Automated Air Traffic Control and Flight Management Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, Kevin; Pisanich, Gregory; Condon, Gregory W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A predictive model of human operator performance (flight crew and air traffic control (ATC)) has been developed and applied in order to evaluate the impact of automation developments in flight management and air traffic control. The model is used to predict the performance of a two person flight crew and the ATC operators generating and responding to clearances aided by the Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS). The purpose of the modeling is to support evaluation and design of automated aids for flight management and airspace management and to predict required changes in procedure both air and ground in response to advancing automation in both domains. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Robust Model Predictive Control of a Nonlinear System with Known Scheduling Variable and Uncertain Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Robust model predictive control (RMPC) of a class of nonlinear systems is considered in this paper. We will use Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) model of the nonlinear system. By taking the advantage of having future values of the scheduling variable, we will simplify state prediction. Because...... of the special structure of the problem, uncertainty is only in the B matrix (gain) of the state space model. Therefore by taking advantage of this structure, we formulate a tractable minimax optimization problem to solve robust model predictive control problem. Wind turbine is chosen as the case study and we...

  10. New Gain Controllable Resistor-less Current-mode First Order Allpass Filter and its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jaikla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available New first order allpass filter (APF in current mode, constructed from 2 CCCCTAs and grounded capacitor, is presented. The current gain and phase shift can be electronically /orthogonally controlled. Low input and high output impedances are achieved which make the circuit to be easily cascaded to the current-mode circuit without additional current buffers. The operation of the proposed filter has been verified through simulation results which confirm the theoretical analysis. The application example as current-mode quadrature oscillator with non-interactive current control for both of oscillation condition and oscillation frequency is included to show the usability of the proposed filter.

  11. Extremum-seeking with variable gain control for intensifying biogas production in anaerobic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Olsson, G; Mattiasson, B

    2006-01-01

    A state-dependent variable-gain control system is implemented to follow the characteristics of a laboratory-scale up-flow anaerobic fixed-bed reactor dynamically. The transition from one state to another is determined on an hourly basis, depending on difference between the setpoint of the reactor pH and its true value. Considerable improvement of the process stability--reduction of oscillation in both the reactor pH and biogas production rate during high-rate operation, has been achieved, although the control structure is simple and intuitive.

  12. A novel analog power supply for gain control of the Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengwei; Liu, Congzhan; Xu, Yupeng; Yan, Bo; Li, Yanguo; Lu, Xuefeng; Li, Xufang; Zhang, Shuo; Chang, Zhi; Li, Jicheng; Gao, He; Zhang, Yifei; Zhao, Jianling

    2017-04-01

    Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPM) are regarded as novel photo-detectors to replace conventional Photo-Multiplier Tubes (PMTs). However, the breakdown voltage dependence on the ambient temperature results in a gain variation of ∼3%/°C. This severely limits the application of this device in experiments with wide range of operating temperature, especially in space missions. An experimental setup was established to investigate the temperature and bias voltage dependence of gain for the Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC). The gain and breakdown voltage dependence on operating temperature of an MPPC can be approximated by a linear function, which is similar to the behavior of a zener diode. The measured temperature coefficient of the breakdown voltage is (59.4±0.4 mV)/°C. According to this fact, an analog power supply based on two zener diodes and an operational amplifier was designed with a positive temperature coefficient. The measured temperature dependence for the designed power supply is between 63.65-64.61 mV/°C at different output voltages. The designed power supply can bias the MPPC at an over-voltage with a temperature variation of ∼5 mV/°C. The gain variation of the MPPC biased at over-voltage of 2 V was reduced from 2.8 % / ° C to 0.3 % / ° C when biased the MPPC with the designed power supply for gain control. Detailed design and performance of the analog power supply in the temperature range from - 42.7 ° C to 20.9 ° C will be discussed in this paper.

  13. Distributed adaptive output consensus control of second-order systems containing unknown non-linear control gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Wang, Chaoli; Du, Qinghui; Cai, Xuan

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we address the output consensus problem of tracking a desired trajectory for a group of second-order agents on a directed graph with a fixed topology. Each agent is modelled by a second-order non-linear system with unknown non-linear dynamics and unknown non-linear control gains. Only a subset of the agents is given access to the desired trajectory information directly. A distributed adaptive consensus protocol driving all agents to track the desired trajectory is presented using the backstepping technique and approximation technique of Fourier series (FSs). The FS structure is taken not only for tracking the non-linear dynamics but also the unknown portion in the controller design procedure, which can avoid virtual controllers containing the uncertain terms. Stability analysis and parameter convergence of the proposed algorithm are conducted based on the Lyapunov theory and the algebraic graph theory. It is also demonstrated that arbitrary small tracking errors can be achieved by appropriately choosing design parameters. Though the proposed work is applicable for second-order non-linear systems containing unknown non-linear control gains, the proposed controller design can be easily extended to higher-order non-linear systems containing unknown non-linear control gains. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  14. Design of Constant Gain Dissipative Controllers for Eigensystem Assignment in Passive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghami, Peiman G.; Gupta, Sandeep

    1998-01-01

    Partial eigensystem assignment with output feedback can lead to an unstable closed-loop system. However, output feedback with passive linear time-invariant systems, such as flexible space structures, is guaranteed to be stable if the controller is dissipative. This paper presents a novel approach for synthesis of dissipative output feedback gain matrices for assigning a selected number of closed-loop poles. Dissipativity of a gain matrix is known to be equivalent to positive semidefiniteness of the symmetric part of the matrix. A sequential procedure is presented to assign one self-conjugate pair of closed-loop eigenvalues at each step using dissipative output feedback gain matrices, while ensuring that the eigenvalues assigned in the previous steps are not disturbed. The problem of assigning one closed-loop pair is reduced to a constrained solution of a system of quadratic equations, and necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a solution are presented. A minimax approach is presented for determining parameters which satisfy these conditions. This method can assign as many closed-loop system poles as the number of control inputs. A numerical example of damping enhancement for a flexible structure is presented to demonstrate the approach.

  15. WGC Based Robust and Gain Scheduling PI Controller Design for Condensing Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Onat

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the water temperature PI control in condensing domestic boilers. The main challenge of this process under the controller design perspective is the fact that the dynamics of condensing boilers are strongly affected by the demanded water flow rate. First, a robust PI controller based on weighted geometrical center method is designed that stabilizes and achieves good performance for closed-loop system for a wide range of the water flow rate. Then, it is shown that if the water flow rate information is used to update the controller gains, through a technique known as gain scheduled control, the performance can be significantly improved. Important characteristics of these PI design approaches are that the resulting parameters are calculated numerically without using any graphical method or iterative optimization process and that it guarantees the stability of the closed-loop. Significantly, simulation results have demonstrated that the proposed tuning techniques can perform better for set point changes and load disturbance than other available methods in the literature.

  16. Determinants of rapid weight gain during infancy: baseline results from the NOURISH randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihrshahi Seema

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid weight gain in infancy is an important predictor of obesity in later childhood. Our aim was to determine which modifiable variables are associated with rapid weight gain in early life. Methods Subjects were healthy infants enrolled in NOURISH, a randomised, controlled trial evaluating an intervention to promote positive early feeding practices. This analysis used the birth and baseline data for NOURISH. Birthweight was collected from hospital records and infants were also weighed at baseline assessment when they were aged 4-7 months and before randomisation. Infant feeding practices and demographic variables were collected from the mother using a self administered questionnaire. Rapid weight gain was defined as an increase in weight-for-age Z-score (using WHO standards above 0.67 SD from birth to baseline assessment, which is interpreted clinically as crossing centile lines on a growth chart. Variables associated with rapid weight gain were evaluated using a multivariable logistic regression model. Results Complete data were available for 612 infants (88% of the total sample recruited with a mean (SD age of 4.3 (1.0 months at baseline assessment. After adjusting for mother's age, smoking in pregnancy, BMI, and education and infant birthweight, age, gender and introduction of solid foods, the only two modifiable factors associated with rapid weight gain to attain statistical significance were formula feeding [OR = 1.72 (95%CI 1.01-2.94, P = 0.047] and feeding on schedule [OR = 2.29 (95%CI 1.14-4.61, P = 0.020]. Male gender and lower birthweight were non-modifiable factors associated with rapid weight gain. Conclusions This analysis supports the contention that there is an association between formula feeding, feeding to schedule and weight gain in the first months of life. Mechanisms may include the actual content of formula milk (e.g. higher protein intake or differences in feeding styles, such as feeding to schedule

  17. Who is driving my car? Development and analysis of a control transition strategy for collaborative automated congestion driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urhahne, Joseph Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The role of the driver is changing now that vehicles with driving automation technologies appear on the road. It evolves from being an active controller of the vehicle to being a supervisor of the automated ride. The driver has to collaborate with the driving automation and remains responsible for t

  18. An artificial pancreas for automated blood glucose control in patients with Type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Signe; Boiroux, Dimitri; Ranjan, Ajenthen; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Madsen, Henrik; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Automated glucose control in patients with Type 1 diabetes is much-coveted by patients, relatives and healthcare professionals. It is the expectation that a system for automated control, also know as an artificial pancreas, will improve glucose control, reduce the risk of diabetes complications and markedly improve patient quality of life. An artificial pancreas consists of portable devices for glucose sensing and insulin delivery which are controlled by an algorithm residing on a computer. The technology is still under development and currently no artificial pancreas is commercially available. This review gives an introduction to recent progress, challenges and future prospects within the field of artificial pancreas research.

  19. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A low power automatic gain control loop for a receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guofeng, Li; Zhiqing, Geng; Nanjian, Wu

    2010-09-01

    This paper proposes a new structure to lower the power consumption of a variable gain amplifier (VGA) and keep the linearity of the VGA unchanged. The structure is used in a high rate amplitude-shift keying (ASK) based IF-stage. It includes an automatic gain control (AGC) loop and ASK demodulator. The AGC mainly consists of six-stage VGAs. The IF-stage is realized in 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The measurement results show that the power consumption of the whole system is very low. The system consumes 730 μA while operating at 1.8 V. The minimum ASK signal the system could detect is 0.7 mV (peak to peak amplitude).

  20. A small-gain method for integrated guidance and control in terminal phase of reentry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Han; Tan, Shuping; He, Yingzi

    2017-03-01

    The guidance and control systems of reentry vehicles are usually designed separately and then integrated, but the scheme can be argued that synergistic relationships between the two subsystems are not fully exploited. In order to improve the performance of reusable launch vehicles (RLVs), this paper proposes an integrated guidance and control law for approach and landing of a RLV. According to the idea of reference-trajectory guidance, the angle of attack and bank angle commands are designed using sliding mode control (SMC) method to make the reference-trajectory tacking error converge into a small neighborhood of zero. An integrated guidance and control (IGC) law is developed utilizing generalized small-gain theorem to enforce the commands, and theoretical analysis shows that the law can guarantee the stability of the overall system. The Monte Carlo simulation confirms the effectiveness of the proposed design approach.

  1. Intelligent Control Mechanism of Part Picking Operations of Automated Warehouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chwen-Tzeng; Su

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the part picking operations of a ut omated warehouse. It assumed the demand of picking orders of automated warehouse are dynamic generated. Once the picking orders of certain period of time are kn own, it is necessary to decide an efficient order picking sequence and routing t o minimize the total travel distance to complete those orders. Assumed there are n i items to be picked in order O i. Each item in the picking ord er is located in different locations in the warehouse. Since i...

  2. Policy-based secure communication with automatic key management for industrial control and automation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernoguzov, Alexander; Markham, Thomas R.; Haridas, Harshal S.

    2016-11-22

    A method includes generating at least one access vector associated with a specified device in an industrial process control and automation system. The specified device has one of multiple device roles. The at least one access vector is generated based on one or more communication policies defining communications between one or more pairs of devices roles in the industrial process control and automation system, where each pair of device roles includes the device role of the specified device. The method also includes providing the at least one access vector to at least one of the specified device and one or more other devices in the industrial process control and automation system in order to control communications to or from the specified device.

  3. Redesign of a Variable-Gain Output Feedback Longitudinal Controller Flown on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a redesigned longitudinal controller that flew on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) during calendar years (CY) 1995 and 1996. Linear models are developed for both the modified controller and a baseline controller that was flown in CY 1994. The modified controller was developed with three gain sets for flight evaluation, and several linear analysis results are shown comparing the gain sets. A Neal-Smith flying qualities analysis shows that performance for the low- and medium-gain sets is near the level 1 boundary, depending upon the bandwidth assumed, whereas the high-gain set indicates a sensitivity problem. A newly developed high-alpha Bode envelope criterion indicates that the control system gains may be slightly high, even for the low-gain set. A large motion-base simulator in the United Kingdom was used to evaluate the various controllers. Desired performance, which appeared to be satisfactory for flight, was generally met with both the low- and medium-gain sets. Both the high-gain set and the baseline controller were very sensitive, and it was easy to generate pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) in some of the target-tracking maneuvers. Flight target-tracking results varied from level 1 to level 3 and from no sensitivity to PIO. These results were related to pilot technique and whether actuator rate saturation was encountered.

  4. PLACE: an open-source python package for laboratory automation, control, and experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jami L; Tom Wörden, Henrik; van Wijk, Kasper

    2015-02-01

    In modern laboratories, software can drive the full experimental process from data acquisition to storage, processing, and analysis. The automation of laboratory data acquisition is an important consideration for every laboratory. When implementing a laboratory automation scheme, important parameters include its reliability, time to implement, adaptability, and compatibility with software used at other stages of experimentation. In this article, we present an open-source, flexible, and extensible Python package for Laboratory Automation, Control, and Experimentation (PLACE). The package uses modular organization and clear design principles; therefore, it can be easily customized or expanded to meet the needs of diverse laboratories. We discuss the organization of PLACE, data-handling considerations, and then present an example using PLACE for laser-ultrasound experiments. Finally, we demonstrate the seamless transition to post-processing and analysis with Python through the development of an analysis module for data produced by PLACE automation.

  5. Voluntary Fasting to Control Post-Ramadan Weight Gain among Overweight and Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriani Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of an Islamic voluntary fasting intervention to control post-Ramadan weight gain. Methods: This study was conducted between July and November 2011. Two weight loss intervention programmes were developed and implemented among groups of overweight or obese Malay women living in the Malaysian cities of Putrajaya and Seremban: a standard programme promoting control of food intake according to national dietary guidelines (group B and a faith-based programme promoting voluntary fasting in addition to the standard programme (group A. Participants’ dietary practices (i.e., voluntary fasting practices, frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week and quantity of carbohydrates/protein consumed per day, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, fasting blood high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and total cholesterol (TC:HDL-C ratio were assessed before Ramadan and three months post-Ramadan. Results: Voluntary fasting practices increased only in group A (P <0.01. Additionally, the quantity of protein/carbohydrates consumed per day, mean diastolic pressure and TC:HDL-C ratio decreased only in group A (P <0.01, 0.05, 0.02 and <0.01, respectively. Frequency of fruit/vegetable consumption per week, as well as HDL-C levels, increased only in group A (P = 0.03 and <0.01, respectively. Although changes in BMI between the groups was not significant (P = 0.08, BMI decrease among participants in group A was significant (P <0.01. Conclusion: Control of post-Ramadan weight gain was more evident in the faith-based intervention group. Healthcare providers should consider faith-based interventions to encourage weight loss during Ramadan and to prevent post-Ramadan weight gain among patients.

  6. Gain tuning PI controllers for boiler turbine unit using a new hybrid jump PSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sayed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new hybrid jump PSO (HJPSO is proposed for tuning the gains of PI controllers to the boiler turbine unit. HJPSO based Gaussian and Cauchy mutation is proposed to improve the standard PSO performance. The new strategy is based on observing the local and global best particles which are not improved in a predefined number of iterations and moving these particles to a new best position. Besides, forming a new particle that handles the minimum error of each controller to replace the global best particle if it has best fitness. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has its ability in optimizing the control parameters and effectively achieved better performance when compared with other PSO algorithms.

  7. Intelligent Control of Diesel Generators Using Gain-Scheduling Based on Online External-Load Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Christian; Jepsen, Kasper Lund; Yang, Zhenyu;

    2014-01-01

    keep a consistent performance for a wide range of operating conditions. Technically, a general nonlinear dynamic model is firstly developed based on fundamental principles of diesel generators. Then, the system parameters of this model can be identified experimentally or partially retrieved from...... the data-sheet for a specific unit. By combining an online external-load estimation with this specific units model, finally an intelligent control using the online gain scheduling strategy is proposed. The proposed solution is verified and analyzed based on a lab-sized emulator of a diesel generator, where...... a controlled AC-motor is employed to emulate a diesel engine. The testing results clearly show that the proposed control solution can lead to a better overall system performance than most existing solutions do, especially subject to widely diverse operating conditions....

  8. Stability of Gain Scheduling Control for Aircraft with Highly Nonlinear Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fany Mendez-Vergara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work is to study the stability properties of an aircraft with nonlinear behavior, controlled using a gain scheduled approach. An output feedback is proposed which is able to guarantee asymptotical stability of the task-coordinates origin and safety of the operation in the entire flight envelope. The results are derived using theory of hybrid and singular perturbed systems. It is demonstrated that both body velocity and orientation asymptotic tracking can be obtained in spite of nonlinearities and uncertainty. The results are illustrated using numerical simulations in F16 jet.

  9. Feedback shape control for deployable mesh reflectors using gain scheduling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yangmin; Shi, Hang; Alleyne, Andrew; Yang, Bingen

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study on the dynamic shape control problem of deployable mesh reflectors (DMRs) via feedback approaches. The reflector structure is simplified from a nonlinear model to be quasi-static with respect to temperature variations but dynamic with respect to mechanical vibrations. The orbital cycle is segmented into multiple temperature zones, and an H∞ robust state feedback controller is designed for each zone to guarantee the local stability of the system under the model uncertainty caused by thermal effects and to reject external force disturbances. At the same time, gain scheduling control method is adopted to compensate thermal distortions and to ensure smooth transition response when switching among the local robust controllers. A DMR model is considered in the case study to show the effectiveness of the control approach. The structural vibrations caused by external force disturbances can be sufficiently suppressed in a much shorter time. The closed loop response of the DMR structure shows that much higher surface accuracy is obtained during the orbiting mission compared to the open-loop configuration, and transient focal length and transient de-focus of the reflector are well controlled within the satisfactory bounds, demonstrating the numerical feasibility of the proposed method to solve the dynamic shape control problem of DMRs.

  10. Coherence-controlled transparency and far-from-degenerate parametric gain in a strongly-absorbing Doppler-broadened medium

    CERN Document Server

    George, T F; George, Thomas F.

    2000-01-01

    An inversionless gain of anti-Stokes radiation above the oscillation threshold in an optically-dense far-from-degenerate double-Lambda Doppler-broadened medium accompanied by Stokes gain is predicted. The outcomes are illustrated with numerical simulations applied to sodium dimer vapor. Optical switching from absorption to gain via transparency controlled by a small variation of the medium and of the driving radiation parameters which are at a level less than one photon per molecule is shown.

  11. Design of a multivariable RF control system using gain-shaping in the frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziomek, C. D.; Jachim, S. P.; Natter, E. F.

    1991-05-01

    Due to the time-varying nature of the radio-frequency (RF) accelerator, RF field amplitude and phase parameters must be precisely controlled in order to confine and accelerate the charged particle beam. Typically, a feedback control system regulates the RF field, rejects noise and disturbances, and maintains operational stability over changes in the electrical structure of the accelerator. This paper describes a multivariable control system that compensates the electrical structure of the accelerator by using gain-shaping in the frequency domain. The amplitude and phase quantities have been resolved into in-phase and quadrature (I and Q) variables. These orthogonal variables have simple mathematical relationships, and can be analyzed using linear transfer function matrices. The transfer matrix theory has been applied to the design of the multivariable control system that regulates the RF field in-phase and quadrature components. Frequency-domain controllers compensate these two signals to provide desired frequency response characteristics. A control predistorter performs an inverse coupling function, so that the I and Q components are effectively decoupled by the accelerator. Furthermore, computer interface circuitry allows the adaptive optimization of the mathematical transfer functions of the compensators.

  12. Risk Assessment on the Transition Program for Air Traffic Control Automation System Upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dong Bin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the safety risks of the transition program for Air Traffic Control (ATC automation system upgrade by using the event tree analysis method in this paper. We decomposed the occurrence progress of the three transition phase and built the event trees corresponding to the three stages, and then we determined the probability of success of each factor and calculated probability of success of the air traffic control automation system upgrade transition. In the conclusion, we illustrate the transition program safety risk according to the results.

  13. Synchronous Control Method and Realization of Automated Pharmacy Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-Quan

    Firstly, the control method of elevator's synchronous motion is provided, the synchronous control structure of double servo motor based on PMAC is accomplished. Secondly, synchronous control program of elevator is implemented by using PMAC linear interpolation motion model and position error compensation method. Finally, the PID parameters of servo motor were adjusted. The experiment proves the control method has high stability and reliability.

  14. Maximum Power Point Tracking Controller for Thermoelectric Generators with Peak Gain Control of Boost DC-DC Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungyong; Kim, Shiho

    2012-06-01

    An analog maximum power point tracking (MPPT) circuit for a thermoelectric generator (TEG) is proposed. We show that the peak point of the voltage conversion gain of a boost DC-DC converter with an input voltage source having an internal resistor is the maximum power point of the TEG. The key characteristic of the proposed MPPT controller is that the duty ratio of the input clock pulse to the boost DC-DC converter shifts toward the maximum power point of the TEG by seeking the peak gain point of the boost DC-DC converters. The proposed MPPT technique provides a simple and useful analog MPPT solution, without employing digital microcontroller units.

  15. Function complex for automated system of coke machinery remote control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonov, N.F.; Pankrat' ev, O.N.; Bannikov, L.S.; Slatin, E.I.; Parfenov, G.I.

    1979-05-01

    this paper discusses a functional control system for remote control of coking plants introduced at the KBAiM of the Giprokoks. The control block allows for three modes of operation: fully automatic, by predesignated program according to oven design and technology; semi-automatic, in which individual programs perform automatically, checked and initiated by the operator; and remote, in which the operator controls each operation from the control console. The functions of selecting the location for the coke machinery, signal transmission and control selection have been incorporated as three autonomous but interfacing systems. (In Russian)

  16. Automated explosive pellet manufacturing using a PDP-14 programmable controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, D.O.

    1976-10-29

    A Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-14 Industrial Programmable Controller was employed to provide automatic, closed-loop control for an explosive pellet manufacturing system at Mound Laboratory. Programmable controllers allow the application of sophisticated and flexible control, through programming. Advantages of the PDP-14 controller are ease of installation and maintenance, capability for modular expansion, and immunity to electrical noise. Safety requirements were met by using new techniques for adapting electrical equipment to a hazardous environment and by locating the PDP-14 remotely outside the explosive area. Another advantage of the new explosion proofing (EP) methods/equipment was that they produced a minimum of clutter on the controlled explosive pellet manufacturing system.

  17. Automation inflicted differences on operator performance in nuclear power plant control rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Jonas; Osvalder, A.L. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Product and Producton Development (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    Today it is possible to automate almost any function in a human-machine system. Therefore it is important to find a balance between automation level and the prerequisites for the operator to maintain safe operation. Different human factors evaluation methods can be used to find differences between automatic and manual operations that have an effect on operator performance; e.g. Predictive Human Error Analysis (PHEA), NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX), Halden Questionnaire, and Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART). Results from an empirical study concerning automation levels, made at Ringhals power plant, showed that factors as time pressure and criticality of the work situation influenced the operator's performance and mental workload more than differences in level of automation. The results indicate that the operator's attention strategies differ between the manual and automatic sequences. Independently of level of automation, it is essential that the operator retains control and situational understanding. When performing a manual task, the operator is 'closer' to the process and in control with sufficient situational understanding. When the level of automation increases, the demands on information presentation increase to ensure safe plant operation. The need for control can be met by introducing 'control gates' where the operator has to accept that the automatic procedures are continuing as expected. Situational understanding can be established by clear information about process status and by continuous feedback. A conclusion of the study was that a collaborative control room environment is important. Rather than allocating functions to either the operator or the system, a complementary strategy should be used. Key parameters to consider when planning the work in the control room are time constraints and task criticality and how they affect the performance of the joint cognitive system.However, the examined working

  18. Single-beam water vapor detection system with automatic photoelectric conversion gain control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C. G.; Chang, J.; Wang, P. P.; Wang, Q.; Wei, W.; Liu, Z.; Zhang, S. S.

    2014-11-01

    A single-beam optical sensor system with automatic photoelectric conversion gain control is proposed for doing high reliability water vapor detection under relatively rough environmental conditions. Comparing to a dual-beam system, it can distinguish the finer photocurrent variations caused by the optical power drift and provide timely compensation by automatically adjusting the photoelectric conversion gain. This system can be rarely affected by the optical power drift caused by fluctuating ambient temperature or variation of fiber bending loss. The deviation of the single-beam system is below 1.11% when photocurrent decays due to fiber bending loss for bending radius of 5 mm, which is obviously lower than the dual-beam system (8.82%). We also demonstrate the long-term stability of the single-beam system by monitoring a 660 ppm by volume (ppmv) water vapor sample continuously for 24 h. The maximum deviation of the measured concentration during the whole testing period does not exceed 10 ppmv. Experiments have shown that the new system features better reliability and is more apt for remote sensing application which is often subject to light transmission loss.

  19. Real Time Fuzzy Based Speed and Direction Angle Control of an Automated Guided Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Başçı

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a fuzzy controller is applied to velocity and direction angle control of a certain type of wheeled mobile robots called Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs. The velocity and direction angle of the AGV are controlled to keep the vehicle on desired path. A PI controller is also applied to AGV in order to show the robustness of the fuzzy controller. Experimental results prove that the fuzzy controller shows better tracking performance than the PI controller in terms of robustness, smoothness and fast dynamics. Results are also given for sudden disturbance and extra load conditions and satisfied results are obtained.

  20. [Open loop gain of the CO2-ventilation feedback control system in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, H; Kunitomo, F; Okita, S; Tojima, H; Tatsumi, K; Kuriyama, T; Hashizume, I; Honda, Y

    1989-07-01

    To evaluate the stability of the CO2-ventilation feedback system, we measured its open loop gain (G) in 12 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 15 control subjects. Then, we compared G to the conventional slope of the CO2-ventilation response line (S) and that of the metabolic hyperbola (SL). G was determined as the ratio of S to SL by applying external dead space of 250 and 500 ml. G, S and 1/SL in the control and the COPD were +17.1 +/- 7.2 (Mean +/- SD), 1.70 +/- 0.75 L.min-1.Torr-1 and -10.4 +/- 2.0 L-1.min.Torr, and -7.2 +/- 3.3, 0.48 +/- 0.27 L.min-1.Torr-1 and -16.1 +/- 6.4 L-1.min.Torr, respectively. G was significantly correlated with S in both groups, but that was not the case in 1/SL. The magnitude of G and S in COPD was about 42% and 28% of the control, indicating that G was maintained more stable than S. These data suggest that the decreased G in the COPD resulted from insufficient compensation of ventilatory drive, whereas 1/SL increased higher than the control. We conclude that G can be used to indicate the stability of the CO2-ventilation feedback system better than S.

  1. Towards cooperative guidance and control of highly automated vehicles: H-Mode and Conduct-by-Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemisch, Frank Ole; Bengler, Klaus; Bubb, Heiner; Winner, Hermann; Bruder, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a general ergonomic framework of cooperative guidance and control for vehicles with an emphasis on the cooperation between a human and a highly automated vehicle. In the twenty-first century, mobility and automation technologies are increasingly fused. In the sky, highly automated aircraft are flying with a high safety record. On the ground, a variety of driver assistance systems are being developed, and highly automated vehicles with increasingly autonomous capabilities are becoming possible. Human-centred automation has paved the way for a better cooperation between automation and humans. How can these highly automated systems be structured so that they can be easily understood, how will they cooperate with the human? The presented research was conducted using the methods of iterative build-up and refinement of framework by triangulation, i.e. by instantiating and testing the framework with at least two derived concepts and prototypes. This article sketches a general, conceptual ergonomic framework of cooperative guidance and control of highly automated vehicles, two concepts derived from the framework, prototypes and pilot data. Cooperation is exemplified in a list of aspects and related to levels of the driving task. With the concept 'Conduct-by-Wire', cooperation happens mainly on the guidance level, where the driver can delegate manoeuvres to the automation with a specialised manoeuvre interface. With H-Mode, a haptic-multimodal interaction with highly automated vehicles based on the H(orse)-Metaphor, cooperation is mainly done on guidance and control with a haptically active interface. Cooperativeness should be a key aspect for future human-automation systems. Especially for highly automated vehicles, cooperative guidance and control is a research direction with already promising concepts and prototypes that should be further explored. The application of the presented approach is every human-machine system that moves and includes high

  2. CLOSED LOOP CONTROL OF THREE PORT CONVERTER WITH HIGH VOLTAGE GAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhi Mary Antony A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV system is one of the best renewable energy sources for power generation system due to their pollution free and low cost properties. The PV cells has less efficiency compared to other source of power generation. The system efficiency is improved by reducing components count, which reduces the losses. In this paper a new three port converter (TPC is proposed for stand-alone renewable power applications. The proposed converter has three switches to achieve the power flow control. Single inductor is used for common energy transfer element for two different sources. The coupled inductor is used to increase the voltage conversion ratio with reasonable duty cycle. Thus the proposed converter has high voltage gain with less components count. The output voltage is regulated through feedback network. The system performance is verified through simulation results.

  3. A wideband LC-VCO with small VCO gain variation and adaptive power control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Bin; Fan Xiangning; Wang Zhigong

    2012-01-01

    A wideband LC tank voltage-controlled-oscillator (VCO) is proposed.To solve the impacts ofwideband operation on VCO gain (Kvco) variation and start-up constraint,a binary-weighted varactor array and a binary-weighted negative resistance array all with optimal unit values are designed.Implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS process,the proposed VCO shows a frequency tuning range from 1.9 to 3.1 GHz,with a current consumption varying accordingly from 14.2 to 4 mA from a 1.8 V supply.With the proposed Kvco suppression technique,the Kvco varies from 50 to 60 MHz/V in the entire frequency range.The measured phase noise is -117 dBc/Hz at a 1 MHz offset from a 3 GHz carrier.

  4. Automated roof window control system to address overheating on renovated houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psomas, Theofanis Ch.; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Lyme, Thøger

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •Manually controlled passive cooling system do not assure high quality environment. •Automated window system reduces overheating risk in houses of temperate climates. •Window system offers similar indoor air quality with mechanical ventilation system. •User behavior on window system is...

  5. Value sensitive design of automated workload distribution support for traffic control teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of automated support for workload distribution in traffic control teams on human values such as security, autonomy and privacy. The paper describes a workshop in which the support system's stakeholders, their values, and the effects of the support system on these value

  6. THE CYBERSECURITY OF AUTOMATED CONTROL SYSTEMS AS A KEY COMPONENT OF NATIONAL SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galin R. Ivanov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the current problems raised by the necessity to provide and ensure national cybersecurity. Moreover, it suggests measures for adequate counteraction to present-day cyber threats to automated control systems employed in the sector of national security.

  7. Planning and control of automated material handling systems: The merge module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneyah, Sameh; Hurink, Johann; Schutten, Marco; Zijm, Henk; Schuur, Peter; Hu, Bo; Morasch, Karl; Pickl, Stefan; Siegle, Markus

    2011-01-01

    We address the field of internal logistics, embodied in Automated Material Handling Systems (AMHSs), which are complex installations employed in sectors such as Baggage Handling, Physical Distribution, and Parcel & Postal. We work on designing an integral planning and real-time control architecture,

  8. Generic Planning and Control of Automated Material Handling Systems: Practical Requirements Versus Existing Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneyah, Sameh; Zijm, Henk; Schutten, Marco; Schuur, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of generic planning and control of Automated Material Handling Systems (AMHSs). The paper illustrates the relevance of this research direction, and then addresses three different market sectors where AMHSs are used. These market sectors are: baggage handling, distrib

  9. 78 FR 56541 - Concept Release on Risk Controls and System Safeguards for Automated Trading Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... September 12, 2013 Part IV Commodity Futures Trading Commission 17 CFR Chapter I Concept Release on Risk Controls and System Safeguards for Automated Trading Environments; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 177 / Thursday, September 12, 2013 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ] COMMODITY FUTURES...

  10. Effects of adaptive cruise control and highly automated driving on workload and situation awareness : A review of the empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, J.C.F. de; Happee, R.; Martens, M.H.; Stanton, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive cruise control (ACC), a driver assistance system that controls longitudinal motion, has been introduced in consumer cars in 1995. A next milestone is highly automated driving (HAD), a system that automates both longitudinal and lateral motion. We investigated the effects of ACC and HAD on d

  11. Effects of adaptive cruise control and highly automated driving on workload and situation awareness: A review of the empirical evidence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, de Joost C.F.; Happee, Riender; Martens, Marieke H.; Stanton, Neville A.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive cruise control (ACC), a driver assistance system that controls longitudinal motion, has been introduced in consumer cars in 1995. A next milestone is highly automated driving (HAD), a system that automates both longitudinal and lateral motion. We investigated the effects of ACC and HAD on d

  12. Providing security for automated process control systems at hydropower engineering facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, Y. S.; Zegzhda, P. D.; Zegzhda, D. P.

    2016-12-01

    This article suggests the concept of a cyberphysical system to manage computer security of automated process control systems at hydropower engineering facilities. According to the authors, this system consists of a set of information processing tools and computer-controlled physical devices. Examples of cyber attacks on power engineering facilities are provided, and a strategy of improving cybersecurity of hydropower engineering systems is suggested. The architecture of the multilevel protection of the automated process control system (APCS) of power engineering facilities is given, including security systems, control systems, access control, encryption, secure virtual private network of subsystems for monitoring and analysis of security events. The distinctive aspect of the approach is consideration of interrelations and cyber threats, arising when SCADA is integrated with the unified enterprise information system.

  13. An adaptive fuzzy-sliding lateral control strategy of automated vehicles based on vision navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinghua; Li, Linhui; Li, Keqiang; Wang, Rongben

    2013-10-01

    Lateral control is considered to be one of the toughest challenges in the development of automated vehicles due to their features of nonlinearities, parametric uncertainties and external disturbances. In order to overcome these difficulties, an adaptive fuzzy-sliding mode control strategy used for lateral control of vision-based automated vehicles is proposed in this paper. First, a vision algorithm is designed to provide accurate location information of vehicle relative to reference path. Then, an adaptive fuzzy-sliding mode lateral controller is proposed to counteract parametric uncertainties and strong nonlinearities, and the asymptotic stability of the closed-loop lateral control system is proven by the Lyapunov theory. Finally, experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm can achieve favourable tracking performance, and it has strong robustness.

  14. Automated detection and control of volunteer potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, A.T.

    2009-01-01

    High amounts of manual labor are needed to control volunteer potato plants in arable fields. Due to the high costs, this leads to incomplete control of these weed plants, and they spread diseases like Phytophthora infestans to other fields. This results in higher environmental loads by curative spra

  15. Knowledge based support for multiagent control and automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Lind, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a mechanism for developing knowledge based support in multiagent based control and diagnosis. In particular it presents a way for autonomous agents to utilize a qualitative means-ends based model for reasoning about control situations. The proposed mechanism have been used in ...

  16. Automatic Gain Control in Mass Spectrometry using a Jet Disrupter Electrode in an Electrodynamic Ion Funnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Jason S.; Bogdanov, Bogdan; Vilkov, Andrey N.; Prior, David C.; Buschbach, Michael A.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2005-02-01

    We report on the use of a jet disrupter electrode in an electrodynamic ion funnel as an electronic valve to regulate the intensity of the ion beam transmitted through the interface of a mass spectrometer in order to perform automatic gain control (AGC). The ion flux is determined by either directly detecting the ion current on the conductance limiting orifice of the ion funnel or using a short mass spectrometry acquisition. Based upon the ion flux intensity, the voltage of the jet disrupter is adjusted to alter the transmission efficiency of the ion funnel to provide a desired ion population to the mass analyzer. Ion beam regulation by an ion funnel is shown to provide an unbiased control to within a few percent of a targeted ion intensity or abundance. The utility of ion funnel AGC was evaluated using a protein tryptic digest analyzed with liquid chromatography Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (LC-FTICR) mass spectrometry. The ion population in the ICR cell was accurately controlled to a variety of different levels, which improved data quality and provided better mass measurement accuracy.

  17. IEPLC Framework, Automated Communication in a Heterogeneous Control System Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Locci, F

    2014-01-01

    In CERN accelerators control system several components are essential such as: Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), PCI Extensions for Instrumentation (PXI), and other micro-controller families. Together with their weaknesses and their strength points they typically present custom communication protocols and it is therefore difficult to federate them into the control system using a single communication strategy. Furthermore this dependency to the physical device interfaces and protocols makes most of the code not reusable and the replacement of old technology a difficult problem. The purpose of IEPLC ([1]) is to mitigate the communication issues given by this heterogeneity; it proposes a framework to define communication interfaces in a hardware independent manner. In addition it automatically generates all the resources needed on master side (typically represented by a FEC: Front-End Computer) and slave side (typically represented by the controller) to implement a common and generic Ethernet communication. Th...

  18. 3rd International Asia Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics

    2012-01-01

    Session 2 includes 110 papers selected from 2011 3rd International Asia Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics (CAR 2011), held on December 24-25, 2011, Shenzhen, China.   As we all know, the ever growing technology in robotics and automation will help build a better human society. This session will provide a unique opportunity for the academic and industrial communities to address new challenges, share solutions, and discuss research directions for the future. Robotics research emphasizes intelligence and adaptability to cope with unstructured environments. Automation research emphasizes efficiency, productivity, quality, and reliability, focusing on systems that operate autonomously. The main focus of this session is on the autonomous acquisition of semantic information in intelligent robots and systems, as well as the use of semantic knowledge to guide further acquisition of information.

  19. Design and performance of an Automatic Gain Control system for the High Energy X-Ray Timing Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelling, Michael R.; Rothschild, Richard E.; Macdonald, Daniel R.; Hertel, Robert; Nishiie, Edward

    1991-01-01

    The High Energy X-Ray Timing Experiment (HEXTE), currently under development for the X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE) mission, employs a closed loop gain control system to attain 0.5 percent stabilization of each of eight-phoswich detector gains. This Automatic Gain Control (AGC) system utilizes a split window discriminator scheme to control the response of each detector pulse height analyzer to gated Am-241 X-ray events at 60 keV. A prototype AGC system has been implemented and tested within the gain perturbation environment expected to be experienced by the HEXTE instrument in flight. The AGC system and test configuration are described. Response, stability and noise characteristics are measured and compared with theoretical predictions. The system is found to be generally suitable for the HEXTE application.

  20. Controllable optical response by modifying the gain and loss of a mechanical resonator and cavity mode in an optomechanical system

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yu-Long; Zhang, Jing; Özdemir, Şahin Kaya; Yang, Lan; Nori, Franco; Liu, Yu-xi

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically study a strongly-driven optomechanical system which consists of a passive optical cavity and an active mechanical resonator. When the optomechanical coupling strength is varied, phase transitions, which are similar those observed in $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric systems, are observed. We show that the optical transmission can be controlled by changing the gain of the mechanical resonator and loss of the optical cavity mode. Especially, we find that: (i) for balanced gain and loss, optical amplification and absorption can be tuned by changing the optomechanical coupling strength through a control field; (ii) for unbalanced gain and loss, even with a tiny mechanical gain, both optomechanically-induced transparency and anomalous dispersion can be observed around a critical point, which exhibits an ultra-long group delay. The time delay $\\tau$ can be optimized by regulating the optomechanical coupling strength through the control field and improved up to several orders of magnitude ($\\tau\\sim2$ $\\math...

  1. Automated accelerator controls for a 3 MV tandem Pelletron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathmell, R. D.; Kitchen, R. L.; Luck, T. R.; Sundquist, M. L.

    1991-05-01

    A new accelerator control system has been developed which uses a real-time, multitasking operating system running on a Motorola 68030 based microcomputer. The system includes multiple graphic and text displays and allows the operator to communicate via these displays to the accelerator, which is interfaced to CAMAC. Most accelerator parameters can be controlled using a mouse in conjunction with a single graphic display, eliminating the need to change CRT pages in order to control parameters from the source to the target. A touch screen is also available to permit a number of parameters to be at the operator's finger tips at all times. Operating parameters for a new beam and energy can be automatically set by scaling from a previously stored run. The program and database are structured to facilitate interlocking and closed loop control of parameters. The hardware configuration, structure and features of the software will be reviewed.

  2. FUZZY CONTROLLED AUTOMATION SYSTEM FOR THE MAIN COAL BUNKER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵良杉; 叶景楼; 付华

    1997-01-01

    A fuzzy control scheme is presented according to the coal quantity in the main coal bunker, this method has a good dynamic response characteristic and is suited for complex nonlinear systems. The designation of self-adopting fuzzy controller, the working principle and functions of this system are also proposed, with the hardware and the main flow diagram of this system introduced in this paper.

  3. CUSTOMS CONTROL SYSTEM AUTOMATION AND ITS IMPACT ON THE TAXATION ON INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery V. Ozhigov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of technology and economy, an increasing number of objects requires the development of automation. In today’s world of computer technology is inconceivable without control various processes, including the control system. All accumulated information to be used for further monitoring and analysis of the computer itself without the inspector, and issued in the form of employee risks to further its decision. Only automating conducting customs operations and customs control of goods transported by individuals we can reduce the time for customs control and improve its quality and as a consequence increase the collection of customs duties and levy fines on individuals. This is important in time of crisis/

  4. Sensing for advancing mining automation capability:A review of underground automation technology development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ralston Jonathon; Reid David; Hargrave Chad; Hainsworth David

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the role of automation technologies for improving the safety, productivity, and environmental sustainability of underground coal mining processes. This is accomplished by reviewing the impact that the introduction of automation technology has made through the longwall shearer auto-mation research program of Longwall Automation Steering Committee (LASC). This result has been achieved through close integration of sensing, processing, and control technologies into the longwall mining process. Key to the success of the automation solution has been the development of new sensing methods to accurately measure the location of longwall equipment and the spatial configuration of coal seam geology. The relevance of system interoperability and open communications standards for facilitat-ing effective automation is also discussed. Importantly, the insights gained through the longwall automa-tion development process are now leading to new technology transfer activity to benefit other underground mining processes.

  5. Monitoring and Control of the Automated Transfer Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugonnet, C.; D'Hoine, S.

    The objective of this paper is to present succinctly the architecture of the heart of the ATV Control Centre: the Monitoring and Control developed by CS for the French Space Agency (CNES) and the European Space Agency (ESA). At the moment, the Monitoring and Control is in the development phase, a first real time version will be delivered to CNES in July 2003, then a second version will be delivered in October including off line capabilities. The following paper introduces the high level specifications and the main driving performance criteria of the monitoring and control system in order to successfully operate these complex ATV space vehicles from the first flight planned in 2004. It presents the approach taken by CS and CNES in order to meet this challenge in a very short time. ATV-CC Monitoring and Control system is based on the reuse of flight proven components that are integrated in a software bus based architecture. The paper particularly shows the advantages of using new computer technologies in operational system: use of Object Oriented technologies from specification, design (UML) to development (C++, Java, PLSQL), use of a CORBA Object Request Broker for the exchange of messages and some centralised services, use of Java for the development of an ergonomic and standardised (for all functions of the M&C) Graphical User Interface and the extensive use of XML for data exchanges.

  6. Early Validation of Automation Plant Control Software using Simulation Based on Assumption Modeling and Validation Use Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Brandstetter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In automation plants, technical processes must be conducted in a way that products, substances, or services are produced reliably, with sufficient quality and with minimal strain on resources. A key driver in conducting these processes is the automation plant’s control software, which controls the technical plant components and thereby affects the physical, chemical, and mechanical processes that take place in automation plants. To this end, the control software of an automation plant must adhere to strict process requirements arising from the technical processes, and from the physical plant design. Currently, the validation of the control software often starts late in the engineering process in many cases – once the automation plant is almost completely constructed. However, as widely acknowledged, the later the control software of the automation plant is validated, the higher the effort for correcting revealed defects is, which can lead to serious budget overruns and project delays. In this article we propose an approach that allows the early validation of automation control software against the technical plant processes and assumptions about the physical plant design by means of simulation. We demonstrate the application of our approach on the example of an actual plant project from the automation industry and present it’s technical implementation

  7. Controlling the dynamical behavior of nonlinear fiber ring resonators with balanced loss and gain

    CERN Document Server

    Deka, Jyoti P; Sarma, Amarendra K

    2015-01-01

    We show the possibility of controlling the dynamical behavior of a single fiber ring (SFR) resonator system with the fiber being an amplified (gain) channel and the ring being attenuated (loss) nonlinear dielectric medium. The system considered here is a simple alteration in the basic building block of the parity time (PT) symmetric synthetic coupler structures reported in A. Regensburger et al., Nature 488, 167 (2012). We find that this result in a dynamically controllable algorithm for the chaotic dynamics inherent in the system. We have also shown the dependence of the period doubling point upon the input amplitude, emphasizing on the dynamical aspects of our system. Moreover, the fact that the resonator essentially plays the role of a damped harmonic oscillator has been elucidated with the non-zero intensity inside the resonator due to constant influx of input light. This study may be a step forward to further investigations in regard to the inter-connectivity between the PT symmetry and chaos along with ...

  8. Automated system of control and diagnostics of cast-steel defects in the mass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazev, S. V.; Usoltsev, A. A.; Skopich, D. V.; Fatyanova, E. A.; Dolgopolov, A. E.

    2016-09-01

    To solve the problem of efficient control over technological process in the foundry the mathematical model is required, that would connect the the input and output parameters of the object. To collect the data on cast-steels defects an automated system was developed that greatly simplifies the process of technical control and allows the problem of process parameters optimization to be solved using the criterion of defects minimization in the cast- steels.

  9. A camera space control system for an automated forklift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.K.; Stewart, D.G.; Brockman, W.H. (Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)); Skaar, S.B. (Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States). Dept. of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-10-01

    The authors present experimental results on a method of camera space control applied to a mobile cart with an on-board robot, operated as a forklift. The objective is to extend earlier results to the task of the precise and robust three-dimensional object placement. The method is illustrated with a box stacking task. Camera space control does not rely on producing absolute position measurements. All measurements, estimates and control criteria are done relative to camera images in units of pixels. The resulting ''camera space'' technique is found to be very robust, i.e., extremely accurate modeling and calibration are not needed in order to achieve a precise result.

  10. Partitioning,Automation and Error Recovery in the Control and Monitoring System of an LHC Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.Gaspar

    2001-01-01

    The Joint Controls Project(JCOP)is a collaboration between CERN and the four LHC experiments to find and implement common solutions for their control and monitoring systems.As part of this project and Architecture Working Group was set up in order to study the requirements and devise an architectural model that would suit the four experiments.Many issues were studied by this working group:Alarm handling,Access Control,Hierarchical Control,etc.This paper will report on the specific issue of hierarchical control and in particular partitioning,automation and error recovery.

  11. Development of an integrated spacecraft Guidance, Navigation, & Control subsystem for automated proximity operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Peter Z.; Spencer, David A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development and validation process of a highly automated Guidance, Navigation, & Control subsystem for a small satellite on-orbit inspection application, enabling proximity operations without human-in-the-loop interaction. The paper focuses on the integration and testing of Guidance, Navigation, & Control software and the development of decision logic to address the question of how such a system can be effectively implemented for full automation. This process is unique because a multitude of operational scenarios must be considered and a set of complex interactions between subsystem algorithms must be defined to achieve the automation goal. The Prox-1 mission is currently under development within the Space Systems Design Laboratory at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The mission involves the characterization of new small satellite component technologies, deployment of the LightSail 3U CubeSat, entering into a trailing orbit relative to LightSail using ground-in-the-loop commands, and demonstration of automated proximity operations through formation flight and natural motion circumnavigation maneuvers. Operations such as these may be utilized for many scenarios including on-orbit inspection, refueling, repair, construction, reconnaissance, docking, and debris mitigation activities. Prox-1 uses onboard sensors and imaging instruments to perform Guidance, Navigation, & Control operations during on-orbit inspection of LightSail. Navigation filters perform relative orbit determination based on images of the target spacecraft, and guidance algorithms conduct automated maneuver planning. A slew and tracking controller sends attitude actuation commands to a set of control moment gyroscopes, and other controllers manage desaturation, detumble, thruster firing, and target acquisition/recovery. All Guidance, Navigation, & Control algorithms are developed in a MATLAB/Simulink six degree-of-freedom simulation environment and are integrated using

  12. Controlling the gain shape of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate fibre amplifier by a coherent field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张惠芳; 吴金辉; 高锦岳

    2003-01-01

    We proposed a four-level system to explore the quantum interference effects on optical amplification. We found that the gain of the probe, including positions and values of gain peaks, can be adjusted by changing the coherent field and the incoherent pumping. At the same time, we can also modify the absorption profile of electromagnetically induced transparency by the incoherent pump. The results provide a method to flatten the gain of Erbium-doped fibre amplifiers.

  13. Automated Control Surface Design and Sizing for the Prandtl Plane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ginneken, D.A.J.; Voskuijl, M.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.; Frediani, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the design of the primary flight control surfaces, in terms of size, number and location, for fixed wing aircraft (conventional or unconventional). As test case, the methodology is applied to a 300 passenger variant of the Prandtl Plane. This box wing aircraft i

  14. Transition of control in highly automated vehicles : a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlakveld, W.P.

    2016-01-01

    The Directorate-General of Highways, Waterways, and Water Systems (Rijkswaterstaat in Dutch) of the Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment (Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu (IenM) in Dutch) has commissioned SWOV to conduct a literature review about transition of control in highly and

  15. A new adjustable gains for second order sliding mode control of saturated DFIG-based wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounadja, E.; Djahbar, A.; Taleb, R.; Boudjema, Z.

    2017-02-01

    The control of Doubly-Fed induction generator (DFIG), used in wind energy conversion, has been given a great deal of interest. Frequently, this control has been dealt with ignoring the magnetic saturation effect in the DFIG model. The aim of the present work is twofold: firstly, the magnetic saturation effect is accounted in the control design model; secondly, a new second order sliding mode control scheme using adjustable-gains (AG-SOSMC) is proposed to control the DFIG via its rotor side converter. This scheme allows the independent control of the generated active and reactive power. Conventionally, the second order sliding mode control (SOSMC) applied to the DFIG, utilize the super-twisting algorithm with fixed gains. In the proposed AG-SOSMC, a simple means by which the controller can adjust its behavior is used. For that, a linear function is used to represent the variation in gain as a function of the absolute value of the discrepancy between the reference rotor current and its measured value. The transient DFIG speed response using the aforementioned characteristic is compared with the one determined by using the conventional SOSMC controller with fixed gains. Simulation results show, accurate dynamic performances, quicker transient response and more accurate control are achieved for different operating conditions.

  16. Automating Fine Concurrency Control in Object-Oriented Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Malta, Carmelo; 10.1109/ICDE.1993.344057

    2010-01-01

    Several propositions were done to provide adapted concurrency control to object-oriented databases. However, most of these proposals miss the fact that considering solely read and write access modes on instances may lead to less parallelism than in relational databases! This paper cope with that issue, and advantages are numerous: (1) commutativity of methods is determined a priori and automatically by the compiler, without measurable overhead, (2) run-time checking of commutativity is as efficient as for compatibility, (3) inverse operations need not be specified for recovery, (4) this scheme does not preclude more sophisticated approaches, and, last but not least, (5) relational and object-oriented concurrency control schemes with read and write access modes are subsumed under this proposition.

  17. Biosensors and Automation for Bioprocess Monitoring and Control

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Bioprocess monitoring and control is a complex task that needs rapid and reliable methods which are adaptable to continuous analysis. Process monitoring during fermentation is widely applicable in the field of pharmaceutical, food and beverages and wastewater treatment. The ability to monitor has direct relevance in improving performance, quality, productivity, and yield of the process. In fact, the complexity of the bioprocesses requires almost real time insight into the dynamic process for ...

  18. Automation and Systems Issues in Air Traffic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela STROE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the study and analysis of a successfully designed control system in ATM. The aircraft's motion is affected by other factors, besides the pilot controls in the form of external disturbances, such as wind, and internal errors, due to unmodelled dynamics, tracking error and system noise. Navigation equipment tracks the exact real-time location of the aircraft in 4D space and provides feedback to both the pilot in the cockpit and ATC via ADS-B. ATM was expressed as a large, decentralized, dynamic, variable size, infinite horizon, multi-parameter, constrained, nonlinear, non-causal, non-convex, multi-objective, high-dimensionality, hybrid (continuous and combinatorial, optimal control problem. Rapidly increasing growth and demand in CNS/ATM, the advanced scheme for ATM, ADS-B system which is based on digital communication is being implemented in the field of surveillance. ADS-B is a radically new technology that is redefining the paradigm of CNS in ATM today. Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B is the next generation air surveillance system which supplants and complements the limitations of conventional radar, since conventional ATM radar systems will reach their limits soon due to the increases in air traffic.

  19. 9th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Alain; Gusikhin, Oleg; Madani, Kurosh

    2014-01-01

    This book includes extended and revised versions of a set of selected papers from the Ninth International Conference on Informatics in Control Automation and Robotics (ICINCO 2012), held in Rome, Italy, from 28 to 31 July 2012. The conference was organized in four simultaneous tracks: Intelligent Control Systems and Optimization, Robotics and Automation, Systems Modeling, Signal Processing and Control and Industrial Engineering, Production and Management.   ICINCO 2012 received 360 paper submissions, from 58 countries in all continents. From these, after a blind review process, only 40 were accepted as full papers, of which 20 were selected for inclusion in this book, based on the classifications provided by the Program Committee. The selected papers reflect the interdisciplinary nature of the conference as well as the logic equilibrium between the four abovementioned tracks. The diversity of topics is an important feature of this conference, enabling an overall perception of several important scientific and...

  20. Automating Access Control Logics in Simple Type Theory with LEO-II (Techreport)

    CERN Document Server

    Benzmueller, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Garg and Abadi recently proved that prominent access control logics can be translated in a sound and complete way into modal logic S4. We have previously outlined how normal multimodal logics, including monomodal logics K and S4, can be embedded in simple type theory (which is also known as higher-order logic) and we have demonstrated that the higher-order theorem prover LEO-II can automate reasoning in and about them. In this paper we combine these results and describe a sound and complete embedding of different access control logics in simple type theory. Employing this framework we show that the off the shelf theorem prover LEO-II can be applied to automate reasoning in prominent access control logics.

  1. Method and System for Protection of Automated Control Systems for “Smart Buildings”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Mikhaylov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is related to system and method for protection of an automated control system (ACS against un-authorized devices connected to the ACS via wired or wireless channels that substantially obviates the disadvantages of the related art. The protection system monitors the signals spreading in the network analyzing the performance of the network for malicious code or hidden connections of attacker. The system is developed specifically for this purpose and it can protect the industrial control systems more effectively than standard anti-virus programs. Specific anti-virus software installed on a central server of the automated control system protects it from software-based attacks both from internal and external offenders. The system comprises a plurality of bus protection devices of different types, including any of a twisted-pair protection device, a power lines protection device, On-Board Diagnostics signal protocol protection device, and a wireless protection device.

  2. Development of a finite state machine for the automates operation of the LLRF control at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, A.

    2007-07-15

    The entry of digital signal processors in modern control systems not only allows for extended diagnostics compared to analog systems but also for sophisticated and tricky extensions of the control algorithms. With modern DSP- and FPGA-technology, the processing speed of digital systems is no longer inferior to analog systems in many applications. A higher degree of digitalization leads to an increased complexity of the systems and hence to higher requirements on their operators. The focus of research and development in the field of high frequency control has changed in the last few years and moved towards the direction of software development and complexity management. In the presented thesis, a frame for an automation concept of modern high frequency control systems is developed. The developed automation is based on the concept of finite state machines (FSM), which is established in industry for years. A flexible framework was developed, in which procedures communicate using standardized interfaces and can be exchanged easily. With that, the developer of high frequency control components as well as the operator on shift shall be empowered to improve and adapt the automation to changed conditions without special programming skills required. Along the automation concept a number of algorithms addressing various problems were developed which satisfy the needs of modern high frequency control systems. Among the developed and successfully tested algorithms are the calibration of incident and reflected wave of resonators without antennas, the fast adaptive compensation of repetitive errors, the robust estimation of the phase advance in the control loop and the latency adjustment for the rejection of instabilities caused by passband modes. During the development of the resonator theory, high value was set on the usability of the equation in algorithms for high frequency control. The usage of the common nomenclature of control theory emphasizes the underlying mathematical

  3. An Automated SVD for Alignment and Control of James Webb Space Telescope Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Sharam; Howard, Joseph M.; Aronstein, David L.; Ha, Kong; Smith, J. Scott; Dean, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a three-mirror anastigmatic telescope. The alignment of the segmented primary and secondary mirrors in the wavefront sensing and control process involves a series of actuators to control the six degrees-of-freedom motion on each surface in addition to the radius of curvature. The control matrix developed from the alignment parameters is over-determined and singular value decomposition (SVD) method is used to solve it in the least square sense. An automated SVD scheme has been developed to identify the most contributing modes in a typical alignment process and reduce the impact of error-prone modes from the control process.

  4. FPGA Control System for the Automated Test of Microshutters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyness, Eric; Rapchun, David A.; Moseley, S. Harvey

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope, scheduled to replace the Hubble in 2013, must simultaneously observe hundreds of faint galaxies. This requirement has led to the development of a programmable transmission mask which can be adapted to admit light with arbitrary pattern of galaxies into its spectrograph. This programmable mask will contain a large array of micro-electromechanical (MEMs) devices called MicroShutters. These microscopic shutters physically open and close like the shutter on a camera, except each shutter is microscopic in size and an array 365 by 171 is used to select the objects under spectroscopic observation at a given time, and to block the unwanted background light from other areas. NASA developed and is currently refining the exceptionally difficult process of manufacturing these shutters. This paper describes how the authors used LabVIEW FPGA and a reconfigurable I/O board to control the shutters in a test chamber and how the flexibility of the system allows us to continue to modify the control algorithms as NASA optimizes the performance of the MicroShutter arrays.

  5. A digitally calibrated CMOS RMS power detector for RF automatic gain control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Taotao; Wang Hui; Li Jinbo; Zhou Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a digitally calibrated CMOS wideband radio frequency (RF) root-mean-square (RMS) power detector for high accuracy RF automatic gain control (AGC).The proposed RMS power detector demonstrates accurate power detection in the presence of process,supply voltage,and temperature (PVT) variations by employing a digital calibration scheme.It also consumes low power and occupies a small chip area.The measurement results show that the scheme improves the accuracy of the detector to better than 0.3 dB over the PVT variations and wide operating frequency range from 0.2 to 0.8 GHz.Implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS process and occupying a small die area of 263 × 214 μm2,the proposed digitally calibrated CMOS RMS power detector only consumes 1.6 mA in power detection mode and 2.1 mA in digital calibration mode from a 1.8 V supply voltage.

  6. DFIG-Based Wind Turbine Robust Control Using High-Order Sliding Modes and a High Gain Observer

    OpenAIRE

    Beltran, Brice; Benbouzid, Mohamed; Ahmed-Ali, Tarek; Mangel, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    International audience; This paper deals with the power generation control in variable speed wind turbines. In this context, a control strategy is proposed to ensure power extraction optimization of a DFIG-based wind turbine. The proposed control strategy combines an MPPT using a high gain observer and second-order sliding mode for the DFIG control. This strategy presents attractive features such as chattering-free behavior, finite reaching time, robustness and unmodeled dynamics (generator a...

  7. Automated methods and control when mining seams prone to outburst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolesov, O.A.; Agaphonov, A.V.; Kolchin, G.I. [Makeyevka Safety in Mines Research Institute (Ukraine)

    1995-12-31

    Drawbacks in existing methods of predicting outburst zones in Donbas (Russia) thin coal seams led specialists at MakNII to investigate methods based on artificial excited acoustic signals, with processing by personnal computers. The paper describes investigations to correlate different acoustic signal parameters with stress and strained state of the massif preface. The method proved reliable in determining the relief zone in 12 Donbas mines. The paper goes on to describe development of a control method for another widely used method of coal and gas outburst prevention in Donbas, that of water injection into the coal seam known as `hydroripping`. This method includes acoustic signals recording and preface part parameters determination in the drilling process for infusion and recording and processing of the acoustic signal in real time, which is created during water infusion. 8 refs.

  8. Automation system for quality control in manufacture of iodine-125 sealed sources used in brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somessari, Samir L.; Feher, Anselmo; Sprenger, Francisco E.; Rostellato, Maria E.C.M.; Moura, Joao A.; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Calvo, Wilson A.P., E-mail: somessar@ipen.b, E-mail: afeher@ipen.b, E-mail: sprenger@ipen.b, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.b, E-mail: olcosta@ipen.b, E-mail: wapcalvo@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this work is to develop an automation system for Quality Control in the production of Iodine-125 sealed sources, after undergoing the process of laser beam welding. These sources, also known as Iodine-125 seeds are used, successfully, in the treatment of cancer by brachytherapy, with low-dose rates. Each small seed is composed of a welded titanium capsule with 0.8 mm diameter and 4.5 mm in length, containing Iodine-125 adsorbed on an internal silver wire. The seeds are implanted in the human prostate to irradiate the tumor and treat the cancerous cells. The technology to automate the quality control system in the manufacture of Iodine-125 seeds consists in developing and associate mechanical parts, electronic components and pneumatic circuits to control machines and processes. The automation technology for Iodine-125 seed production developed in this work employs programmable logic controller, step motors, drivers of control, electrical-electronic interfaces, photoelectric sensors, interfaces of communication and software development. Industrial automation plays an important role in the production of Iodine-125 seeds, with higher productivity and high standard of quality, facilitating the implementation and operation of processes with good manufacturing practices. Nowadays, the Radiation Technology Center at IPEN-CNEN/SP imports and distributes 36,000 Iodine-125 seeds per year for clinics and hospitals in the whole country. However, the Brazilian potential market is of 8,000 Iodine-125 seeds per month. Therefore, the local production of these radioactive seeds has become a priority for the Institute, aiming to reduce the price and increase the supply to the population in Brazil. (author)

  9. Automated control of optical polarization for nonlinear microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brideau, Craig; Stys, Peter K.

    2012-03-01

    Laser-scanning non-linear optical techniques such as multi-photon fluorescence excitation microscopy (MPM), Second/ Third Harmonic Generation (SHG/THG), and Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) are being utilized in research laboratories worldwide. The efficiencies of these non-linear effects are dependent on the polarization state of the excitation light relative to the orientation of the sample being imaged. In highly ordered anisotropic biological samples this effect can become pronounced and the excitation polarization can have a dramatic impact on imaging experiments. Therefore, controlling the polarization state of the exciting light is important; however this is challenging when the excitation light passes through a complex optical system. In a typical laser-scanning microscope, components such as the dichroic filters, lenses, and even mirrors can alter the polarization state of a laser beam before it reaches the sample. We present an opto-mechanical solution to compensate for the polarization effects of an optical path, and to precisely program the polarization state of the exciting laser light. The device and accompanying procedures allow the delivery of precise laser polarization states at constant average power levels to a sample during an imaging experiment.

  10. Lasing oscillation condition and group delay control in gain-assisted plasmon-induced transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zi-Lan; Wang, He-Zhou; Cheng, S H; Li, Jensen

    2012-01-01

    A gain-assisted plasmonic waveguide with two detuned resonators is investigated in the plasmon-induced transparency window. Phase map is employed to study power transmittance and group delay for varying gain coefficients and frequency detunings of the two resonators. The gain coefficient for lasing oscillation condition is analytically shown to vary quadratically with the frequency detuning. In the amplification regime below the lasing threshold, the spectrum implies not only large group delay, but also high transmittance and narrow linewidth. This is in contrast to those in the loss-compensation regime and the passive case in which there always exists a trade-off between the linewidth and the peak transmittance.

  11. Controllable optical response by modifying the gain and loss of a mechanical resonator and cavity mode in an optomechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Long; Wu, Rebing; Zhang, Jing; Özdemir, Şahin Kaya; Yang, Lan; Nori, Franco; Liu, Yu-xi

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically study a strongly driven optomechanical system which consists of a passive optical cavity and an active mechanical resonator. When the optomechanical coupling strength is varied, phase transitions, which are similar to those observed in PT -symmetric systems, are observed. We show that the optical transmission can be controlled by changing the gain of the mechanical resonator and loss of the optical cavity mode. Especially, we find that (i) for balanced gain and loss, optical amplification and absorption can be tuned by changing the optomechanical coupling strength through a control field; (ii) for unbalanced gain and loss, even with a tiny mechanical gain, both optomechanically induced transparency and anomalous dispersion can be observed around a critical point, which exhibits an ultralong group delay. The time delay τ can be optimized by regulating the optomechanical coupling strength through the control field, and it can be improved up to several orders of magnitude (τ ˜2 ms ) compared to that of conventional optomechanical systems (τ ˜1 μ s ). The presence of mechanical gain makes the group delay more robust to environmental perturbations. Our proposal provides a powerful platform to control light transport using a PT -symmetric-like optomechanical system.

  12. Dynamic Sliding Mode Evolution PWM Controller for a Novel High-Gain Interleaved DC-DC Converter in PV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taizhou Bei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the disadvantages of the traditional high-gain DC-DC converter such as big size, high voltage stress of switches, and large input current ripple, a novel high-gain interleaved boost converter with coupled-inductor and switched-capacitor was proposed correspondingly and the operation principle together with the steady-state analysis of this converter was also described. Besides, a new control approach-dynamic sliding mode evolution PWM controller (DSME PWM for the novel topological converter based on both dynamic evolution and sliding mode control was also presented. From the simulation results and experimental validation the proposed converter can fulfill high-gain boost, low ripple of both the input current and the output voltage. Furthermore, MPPT technique can be also achieved in a short time by simulation. The efficiency and stability of the converter proposed in this paper can be improved.

  13. Assessment Study on Sensors and Automation in the Industries of the Future. Reports on Industrial Controls, Information Processing, Automation, and Robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Bonnie [Adventium Labs; Boddy, Mark [Adventium Labs; Doyle, Frank [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Jamshidi, Mo [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ogunnaike, Tunde [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2004-11-01

    This report presents the results of an expert study to identify research opportunities for Sensors & Automation, a sub-program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Industrial Technologies Program (ITP). The research opportunities are prioritized by realizable energy savings. The study encompasses the technology areas of industrial controls, information processing, automation, and robotics. These areas have been central areas of focus of many Industries of the Future (IOF) technology roadmaps. This report identifies opportunities for energy savings as a direct result of advances in these areas and also recognizes indirect means of achieving energy savings, such as product quality improvement, productivity improvement, and reduction of recycle.

  14. Exercise Training and Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial (ETIP Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Krohn Garnæs

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of exercise training for preventing excessive gestational weight gain (GWG and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is still uncertain. As maternal obesity is associated with both GWG and GDM, there is a special need to assess whether prenatal exercise training programs provided to obese women reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our primary aim was to assess whether regular supervised exercise training in pregnancy could reduce GWG in women with prepregnancy overweight/obesity. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of exercise in pregnancy on 30 outcomes including GDM incidence, blood pressure, blood measurements, skinfold thickness, and body composition.This was a single-center study where we randomized (1:1 91 pregnant women with a prepregnancy body mass index (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2 to exercise training (n = 46 or control (standard maternity care (n = 45. Assessments were done at baseline (pregnancy week 12-18 and in late pregnancy (week 34-37, as well as at delivery. The exercise group was offered thrice weekly supervised sessions of 35 min of moderate intensity endurance exercise and 25 min of strength training. Seventeen women were lost to follow-up (eight in the exercise group and nine in the control group. Our primary endpoint was GWG from baseline testing to delivery. The principal analyses were done as intention-to-treat analyses, with supplementary per protocol analyses where we assessed outcomes in the women who adhered to the exercise program (n = 19 compared to the control group. Mean GWG from baseline to delivery was 10.5 kg in the exercise group and 9.2 kg in the control group, with a mean difference of 0.92 kg (95% CI -1.35, 3.18; p = 0.43. Among the 30 secondary outcomes in late pregnancy, an apparent reduction was recorded in the incidence of GDM (2009 WHO definition in the exercise group (2 cases; 6.1% compared to the control group (9 cases; 27.3%, with an odds ratio of 0.1 (95% CI 0.02, 0.95; p = 0

  15. The Study of Maglev Train Control and Diagnosis Networks Based on Role Automation Decentralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Qi; Tan, Yongdong

    The control and diagnosis networks in Maglev Train are the most important parts. In the paper, the control and diagnosis network structures are discussed, and the disadvantages of them are described and analyzed. In virtue of role automation decentralized system (RoADS), some basic ideas of RoADS are applied in new network. The structure, component parts and application of new network are proposed, designed and discussed in detail. The comparison results show that new network not only embodies some RoADS' ideas but also better meets the demands of control and diagnosis networks in Maglev Train.

  16. SPS/LEP beam transfer equipment control using industrial automation components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aimar, A.; Berard, G.; Bretin, J.L.; Carlier, E.; Dieperink, J.H.; Laffin, M.; Mertens, V.; Verhagen, H. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1992-12-01

    Several control systems for SPS and LEP beam transfer equipment have to be commissioned in the near future. Tools for fast software development, easy maintenance and modifications, compliance with industrial standards, and independence of specific suppliers are considered to be essential. A large fraction of the systems can be realized using off-the-shelf industrial automation components like industrial I/O systems, programmable logic controllers, or diskless PCs. Specific electronics built up in G-64 can be integrated. Diskless systems running UNIX and X Windows are foreseen as process controllers and local access media. (author).

  17. Feasibility and reliability of an automated controller of inspired oxygen concentration during mechanical ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Saihi, Kaouther; Richard, Jean-Christophe M; Gonin, Xavier; Krüger, Thomas; Dojat, Michel; Brochard, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Hypoxemia and high fractions of inspired oxygen (FiO2) are concerns in critically ill patients. An automated FiO2 controller based on continuous oxygen saturation (SpO2) measurement was tested. Two different SpO2-FiO2 feedback open loops, designed to react differently based on the level of hypoxemia, were compared. The results of the FiO2 controller were also compared with a historical control group. Methods The system measures SpO2, compares with a target range (92% to 96%), and...

  18. Automated drop-on-demand system with real-time gravimetric control for precise dosage formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, A; Brown, M; Muzzio, F; Takhistov, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Many of the therapies for personalized medicine have few dosage options, and the successful translation of these therapies to the clinic is significantly dependent on the drug/formulation delivery platform. We have developed a lab-scale integrated system for microdosing of drug formulations with high accuracy and precision that is capable of feedback control. The designed modular drug dispensing system includes a microdispensing valve unit and is fully automated with a LabVIEW-controlled computer interface. The designed system is capable of dispensing drug droplets with volumes ranging from nanoliters to microliters with high accuracy (relative standard deviation gravimetric control.

  19. Automated quality control methods for sensor data: a novel observatory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Taylor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available National and international networks and observatories of terrestrial-based sensors are emerging rapidly. As such, there is demand for a standardized approach to data quality control, as well as interoperability of data among sensor networks. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON has begun constructing their first terrestrial observing sites with 60 locations expected to be distributed across the US by 2017. This will result in over 14 000 automated sensors recording more than > 100 Tb of data per year. These data are then used to create other datasets and subsequent "higher-level" data products. In anticipation of this challenge, an overall data quality assurance plan has been developed and the first suite of data quality control measures defined. This data-driven approach focuses on automated methods for defining a suite of plausibility test parameter thresholds. Specifically, these plausibility tests scrutinize data range, persistence, and stochasticity on each measurement type by employing a suite of binary checks. The statistical basis for each of these tests is developed and the methods for calculating test parameter thresholds are explored here. While these tests have been used elsewhere, we apply them in a novel approach by calculating their relevant test parameter thresholds. Finally, implementing automated quality control is demonstrated with preliminary data from a NEON prototype site.

  20. Automated quality control methods for sensor data: a novel observatory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Taylor

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available National and international networks and observatories of terrestrial-based sensors are emerging rapidly. As such, there is demand for a standardized approach to data quality control, as well as interoperability of data among sensor networks. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON has begun constructing their first terrestrial observing sites, with 60 locations expected to be distributed across the US by 2017. This will result in over 14 000 automated sensors recording more than > 100 Tb of data per year. These data are then used to create other datasets and subsequent "higher-level" data products. In anticipation of this challenge, an overall data quality assurance plan has been developed and the first suite of data quality control measures defined. This data-driven approach focuses on automated methods for defining a suite of plausibility test parameter thresholds. Specifically, these plausibility tests scrutinize the data range and variance of each measurement type by employing a suite of binary checks. The statistical basis for each of these tests is developed, and the methods for calculating test parameter thresholds are explored here. While these tests have been used elsewhere, we apply them in a novel approach by calculating their relevant test parameter thresholds. Finally, implementing automated quality control is demonstrated with preliminary data from a NEON prototype site.

  1. Enhancement in the gain recovery of a semiconductor optical amplifier by device temperature control

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    YOGESH KUMAR; M R SHENOY

    2016-12-01

    We present a numerical investigation on the temperature dependence of gain recovery, of a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). It is shown that the decrease in temperature significantly speed-up the gain recovery of the SOA. Under typical operating conditions, a 20 K reduction in temperature of the SOA results in a decrease of 150 ps in the gain recovery time. A comparative estimation of device temperature and assisted-light power requirements for enhancing the gain recovery has also been carried out. It is found that, a decrease of 8 K in the temperature of the SOA, is as effective in enhancing the gain recovery as injection of 25 dBm assistedlight power in the counter-propagating mode. Our study shows that under moderate current biasing conditions, temperature reduction is a better and convenient option to speed-up the gain recovery of an SOA, than the use of external assisted-light injection, which requires an additional laser source and wavelength division multiplexing(WDM) components for coupling and de-coupling, leading to insertion losses in the communication channel.

  2. Gain self-scheduled H∞ control for morphing aircraft in the wing transition process based on an LPV model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Ting; Wang Lixin; Ai Junqiang

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates gain self-scheduled H∞ robust control system design for a tailless folding-wing morphing aircraft in the wing shape varying process.During the wing morphing phase,the aircraft's dynamic response will be governed by time-varying aerodynamic forces and moments.Nonlinear dynamic equations of the morphing aircraft are linearized by using Jacobian linearization approach,and a linear parameter varying (LPV) model of the morphing aircraft in wing folding is obtained.A multi-loop controller for the morphing aircraft is formulated to guarantee stability for the wing shape transition process.The proposed controller uses a set of inner-loop gains to provide stability using classical techniques,whereas a gain self-scheduled H∞ outer-loop controller is devised to guarantee a specific level of robust stability and performance for the time-varying dynamics.The closed-loop simulations show that speed and altitude vary slightly during the whole wing folding process,and they converge rapidly after the process ends.This proves that the gain self-scheduled H∞ robust controller can guarantee a satisfactory dynamic performance for the morphing aircraft during the whole wing shape transition process.Finally,the flight control system's robustness for the wing folding process is verified according to uncertainties of the aerodynamic parameters in the nonlinear model.

  3. Decision-directed automatic gain control for MAPSK systems. [M-ary Amplitude and Phase Shift Keying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, W. J., III

    1974-01-01

    An automatic gain control (AGC) loop is presented for use with M-ary amplitude and phase shift keying (MAPSK) systems. The gain control amplifier is regulated by an error signal formed by the difference between the estimated amplitude level and the received amplitude level. The AGC performance is thus independent of the short-term average received signal energy. AGC loop analysis and simulation is presented for M-ary amplitude shift keying and quadrature amplitude shift keying. The AGC is shown to have a negligible degradation on the symbol probability of error for most practical cases. A generalized AGC for an arbitrary MAPSK system is presented.

  4. Effects of gain-scheduling methods in a classical wind turbine controller on wind turbine aeroservoelastic modes and loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaldi, Carlo; Henriksen, Lars Christian; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2014-01-01

    The eects of dierent gain-scheduling methods for a classical wind turbine controller, operating in full load region, on the wind turbine aeroservoelastic modes and loads are investigated in this work. The dierent techniques are derived looking at the physical problem to take into account the chan......The eects of dierent gain-scheduling methods for a classical wind turbine controller, operating in full load region, on the wind turbine aeroservoelastic modes and loads are investigated in this work. The dierent techniques are derived looking at the physical problem to take into account...

  5. Improvement of Hydraulic Edge Position Control System by Proportion Sliding Mode of Self-tuning Switching Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Baoquan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problem of tracking performance degradation of hydraulic EPC system caused by time-varying inertia parameters, nonlinear and external disturbances, the proportion sliding mode control of fuzzy self-tuning gain was proposed. The EPC system state space model on deviation parameters was established and the main feedback sliding mode switching algorithm was designed. The fuzzy method was used to dynamically adjust the proportion sliding mode switching gain by product of the switching function and its derivative state and to adaptive compensate for the uncertainty of the system. At the same time to ensure the effectiveness of the design strategy, the controller model and physical model worked together to simulate the actual conditions. The fixed switching gain switch was, respectively greater and smaller and compared with the fuzzy self-tuning gain, in which the latter achieves a fast and coordinated control of chattering. The results show that after comprehensive consideration all interference the system is stable, fast response, high accuracy and to solve chattering problem caused by the traditional large switching gain of proportion sliding mode.

  6. Continuous higher-order sliding mode control with time-varying gain for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yaozhen; Liu, Xiangjie

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a continuous higher-order sliding mode (HOSM) control scheme with time-varying gain for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems. The proposed controller is derived from the concept of geometric homogeneity and super-twisting algorithm, and includes two parts, the first part of which achieves smooth finite time stabilization of pure integrator chains. The second part conquers the twice differentiable uncertainty and realizes system robustness by employing super-twisting algorithm. Particularly, time-varying switching control gain is constructed to reduce the switching control action magnitude to the minimum possible value while keeping the property of finite time convergence. Examples concerning the perturbed triple integrator chains and excitation control for single-machine infinite bus power system are simulated respectively to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed approach.

  7. New results on the robust stability of PID controllers with gain and phase margins for UFOPTD processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Q B; Liu, Q; Huang, B

    2016-03-01

    This paper considers the problem of determining all the robust PID (proportional-integral-derivative) controllers in terms of the gain and phase margins (GPM) for open-loop unstable first order plus time delay (UFOPTD) processes. It is the first time that the feasible ranges of the GPM specifications provided by a PID controller are given for UFOPTD processes. A gain and phase margin tester is used to modify the original model, and the ranges of the margin specifications are derived such that the modified model can be stabilized by a stabilizing PID controller based on Hermite-Biehlers Theorem. Furthermore, we obtain all the controllers satisfying a given margin specification. Simulation studies show how to use the results to design a robust PID controller.

  8. Development of a Software Tool to Automate ADCO Flight Controller Console Planning Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark G.

    2011-01-01

    This independent study project covers the development of the International Space Station (ISS) Attitude Determination and Control Officer (ADCO) Planning Exchange APEX Tool. The primary goal of the tool is to streamline existing manual and time-intensive planning tools into a more automated, user-friendly application that interfaces with existing products and allows the ADCO to produce accurate products and timelines more effectively. This paper will survey the current ISS attitude planning process and its associated requirements, goals, documentation and software tools and how a software tool could simplify and automate many of the planning actions which occur at the ADCO console. The project will be covered from inception through the initial prototype delivery in November 2011 and will include development of design requirements and software as well as design verification and testing.

  9. Digital Coal Mine Integrated Automation System Based on ControlNet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-yun; ZHANG Shen; ZUO Wei-ran

    2007-01-01

    A three-layer model for digital communication in a mine is proposed. Two basic platforms are discussed: A uniform transmission network and a uniform data warehouse. An actual, ControlNet based, transmission network platform suitable for the Jining No.3 coal mine is presented. This network is an information superhighway intended to integrate all existing and new automation subsystems. Its standard interface can be used with future subsystems. The network, data structure and management decision-making all employ this uniform hardware and software. This effectively avoids the problems of system and information islands seen in traditional mine-automation systems. The construction of the network provides a stable foundation for digital communication in the Jining No.3 coal mine.

  10. Validation of the process control system of an automated large scale manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, H; Kremers, H; Karrer, T; Traut, R H

    1998-02-01

    The validation procedure for the process control system of a plant for the large scale production of human albumin from plasma fractions is described. A validation master plan is developed, defining the system and elements to be validated, the interfaces with other systems with the validation limits, a general validation concept and supporting documentation. Based on this master plan, the validation protocols are developed. For the validation, the system is subdivided into a field level, which is the equipment part, and an automation level. The automation level is further subdivided into sections according to the different software modules. Based on a risk categorization of the modules, the qualification activities are defined. The test scripts for the different qualification levels (installation, operational and performance qualification) are developed according to a previously performed risk analysis.

  11. An automated qualification framework for the MeerKAT CAM (Control-And-Monitoring)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heever, Lize; Marais, Neilen; Slabber, Martin

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces and discusses the design of an Automated Qualification Framework (AQF) that was developed to automate as much as possible of the formal Qualification Testing of the Control And Monitoring (CAM) subsystem of the 64 dish MeerKAT radio telescope currently under construction in the Karoo region of South Africa. The AQF allows each Integrated CAM Test to reference the MeerKAT CAM requirement and associated verification requirement it covers and automatically produces the Qualification Test Procedure and Qualification Test Report from the test steps and evaluation steps annotated in the Integrated CAM Tests. The MeerKAT System Engineers are extremely happy with the AQF results, but mostly by the approach and process it enforces.

  12. Automation technology and sense of control: a window on human agency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Berberian

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the perceived times of voluntary actions and their effects are perceived as shifted towards each other, so that the interval between action and outcome seems shortened. This has been referred to as 'intentional binding' (IB. However, the generality of this effect remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that Intentional Binding also occurs in complex control situations. Using an aircraft supervision task with different autopilot settings, our results first indicated a strong relation between measures of IB and different levels of system automation. Second, measures of IB were related to explicit agency judgement in this applied setting. We discuss the implications for the underlying mechanisms, and for sense of agency in automated environments.

  13. Concurrent combined verification: reducing false positives in automated NMR structure verification through the evaluation of multiple challenge control structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golotvin, Sergey S; Pol, Rostislav; Sasaki, Ryan R; Nikitina, Asya; Keyes, Philip

    2012-06-01

    Automated structure verification using (1)H NMR data or a combination of (1)H and heteronuclear single-quantum correlation (HSQC) data is gaining more interest as a routine application for qualitative evaluation of large compound libraries produced by synthetic chemistry. The goal of this automated software method is to identify a manageable subset of compounds and data that require human review. In practice, the automated method will flag structure and data combinations that exhibit some inconsistency (i.e. strange chemical shifts, conflicts in multiplicity, or overestimated and underestimated integration values) and validate those that appear consistent. One drawback of this approach is that no automated system can guarantee that all passing structures are indeed correct structures. The major reason for this is that approaches using only (1)H or even (1)H and HSQC spectra often do not provide sufficient information to properly distinguish between similar structures. Therefore, current implementations of automated structure verification systems allow, in principle, false positive results. Presented in this work is a method that greatly reduces the probability of an automated validation system passing incorrect structures (i.e. false positives). This novel method was applied to automatically validate 127 non-proprietary compounds from several commercial sources. Presented also is the impact of this approach on false positive and false negative results.

  14. Automated Controller Synthesis for non-Deterministic Piecewise-Affine Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran

    formations. This thesis uses a hybrid systems model of a satellite formation with possible actuator faults as a motivating example for developing an automated control synthesis method for non-deterministic piecewise-affine hybrid systems (PAHS). The method does not only open an avenue for further research......To further advance space based science the need for ever more precise measurement techniques increases. One of the most promising new ideas are satellite formations where accurate spatial control of multiple spacecraft can be used to create very large virtual apertures or very sensitive...... interferometric measurements. Control of satellite formations presents a whole new set of challenges for spacecraft control systems requiring advances in actuation, sensing, communication, and control algorithms. Specifically having the control system duplicated onto multiple satellites increases the possibility...

  15. An analytical method for PID controller tuning with specified gain and phase margins for integral plus time delay processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wuhua; Xiao, Gaoxi; Li, Xiumin

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, an analytical method is proposed for proportional-integral/proportional-derivative/proportional-integral-derivative (PI/PD/PID) controller tuning with specified gain and phase margins (GPMs) for integral plus time delay (IPTD) processes. Explicit formulas are also obtained for estimating the GPMs resulting from given PI/PD/PID controllers. The proposed method indicates a general form of the PID parameters and unifies a large number of existing rules as PI/PD/PID controller tuning with various GPM specifications. The GPMs realized by existing PID tuning rules are computed and documented as a reference for control engineers to tune the PID controllers.

  16. Methodology and planning for a microprocessor-oriented real time controller design automation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matelan, M.N.; Smith, R.J. II

    1976-11-04

    A methodology for reducing the complexity of designing dedicated real-time control systems is developed. It is shown that three areas are amenable to automation: the selection and configuration of hardware, the production of software, and the adaptation of a monitor to maintain real-time integrity of the entire system. The concept of hardware binding is introduced, and it is shown that delaying the point in the design cycle where hardware is functionally bound allows a new approach to machine independence. Concepts which allow expression of repetitive control situations are described, and a realization-independent language (CSDL), based on these concepts, is defined. Methods for automatically selecting a time-wise correct monitor are classified, and techniques for specifying the realization capabilities of digital processors are discussed. These concepts and techniques are brought together in a design automation system for the production of a complete controller design from a behavioral description. An example description is traced through the CSD System; a software listing and hardware configuration document for an actual microprocessor (the Intel 8080) is produced. This research provides a structured description of the control system design process, and allows a unified perspective in the realization of controllers for applications previously considered to be unrelated. The concepts developed define a new direction in the production of real-time control systems. 9 figures, 4 tables.

  17. Control of transient gain absorption via tunneling and incoherent pumping in triple quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Si-Cong; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Wan, Ren-Gang; Wang, Li-Jie; Shu, Shi-Li; Wang, Tao; Lu, Ze-Feng; Sun, Fang-Yuan; Tong, Cun-Zhu

    2017-01-01

    The transient gain-absorption properties of the probe field in vertical triple quantum dots assisted by double tunneling and incoherent pumping are investigated. With a proper intensity value and detuning of the second tunneling, the transient gain in triple quantum dots with incoherent pumping can be completely eliminated. In addition, the incoherent pumping affects both the amplitude of the transient absorption and the steady-state value. The dependence of transient behaviors on other parameters, such as the radiative decay rate and the pure dephasing decay rate of the quantum dots, is also discussed. The scheme may have important applications in quantum information networks and communication.

  18. A flexible and high-performance bidirectional optical amplifier with all optical gain control using ASE noise path through multi-port circulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Vu Tran; Chang-Joon Chae; Rodney S. Tucker

    2003-01-01

    We report a flexible all-optical gain controlled bidirectional optical amplifier. The device achieves constant gain and low noise figure over a large input power range. Moreover, the device removes Rayleigh backscattered light and amplifier noise.

  19. 几种车辆纵向控制器的性能比较%Performance Comparison of Automated Vehicle Controllers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The design of intelligent vehicle control system is an important part of AHS (Automated highway systems).This paper addresses the problem of longitudinal control of a vehicles platoon and pressents the comparison of several control algorthms of vehicle longitudinal control system,Simlation of the appopriate platoon performance if presented.

  20. Development of an Automated Decision-Making Tool for Supervisory Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetiner, Sacit M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Muhlheim, Michael David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Flanagan, George F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This technical report was generated as a product of the Supervisory Control for Multi-Modular Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Plants project within the Instrumentation, Control and Human-Machine Interface technology area under the Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) Research and Development Program of the US Department of Energy. The report documents the definition of strategies, functional elements, and the structural architecture of a supervisory control system for multi-modular AdvSMR plants. This research activity advances the state of the art by incorporating real-time, probabilistic-based decision-making into the supervisory control system architectural layers through the introduction of a tiered-plant system approach. The report provides background information on the state of the art of automated decision-making, including the description of existing methodologies. It then presents a description of a generalized decision-making framework, upon which the supervisory control decision-making algorithm is based. The probabilistic portion of automated decision-making is demonstrated through a simple hydraulic loop example.

  1. Optimal camera exposure for video surveillance systems by predictive control of shutter speed, aperture, and gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Juan; Menéndez, José Manuel

    2015-02-01

    This paper establishes a real-time auto-exposure method to guarantee that surveillance cameras in uncontrolled light conditions take advantage of their whole dynamic range while provide neither under nor overexposed images. State-of-the-art auto-exposure methods base their control on the brightness of the image measured in a limited region where the foreground objects are mostly located. Unlike these methods, the proposed algorithm establishes a set of indicators based on the image histogram that defines its shape and position. Furthermore, the location of the objects to be inspected is likely unknown in surveillance applications. Thus, the whole image is monitored in this approach. To control the camera settings, we defined a parameters function (Ef ) that linearly depends on the shutter speed and the electronic gain; and is inversely proportional to the square of the lens aperture diameter. When the current acquired image is not overexposed, our algorithm computes the value of Ef that would move the histogram to the maximum value that does not overexpose the capture. When the current acquired image is overexposed, it computes the value of Ef that would move the histogram to a value that does not underexpose the capture and remains close to the overexposed region. If the image is under and overexposed, the whole dynamic range of the camera is therefore used, and a default value of the Ef that does not overexpose the capture is selected. This decision follows the idea that to get underexposed images is better than to get overexposed ones, because the noise produced in the lower regions of the histogram can be removed in a post-processing step while the saturated pixels of the higher regions cannot be recovered. The proposed algorithm was tested in a video surveillance camera placed at an outdoor parking lot surrounded by buildings and trees which produce moving shadows in the ground. During the daytime of seven days, the algorithm was running alternatively together

  2. THE AUTOMATED SYSTEM OF RADIATION EXPOSURE CONTROL (ASCRE FOR ROSPOTREBNADZOR: CREATION HISTORY, APPLICABILITY AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Repin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the automated system of radiation exposure control (ASCRE for Rospotrebnadzor developed  in  the  framework  of  the  Federal  target  program  "Nuclear  and  Radiation  Safety  in  2008  and  for  the period till 2015". The history of the development of this system is given. It is shown the diagram of the functioning of ASCRE, description of the individual blocks of diagram is given. It is shown that the grpouping of the data from various Federal banks in the single automated information-analytical system on the general address basis with the wide possibilities of analytical tools application will greatly expand the range of the issues for the assessment of radiation impact on the population than in the existing systems. The use of automation resources will reduce the time for obtaining the necessary information and, ultimately, will increase the effectiveness of the decision making in the field of radiation protection.

  3. GASICA: Generic Automated Stress Induction and Control ApplicationDesign of an application for controlling the stress state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Van Der Vijgh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available 1.In a multitude of research and therapy paradigms it is relevant to know, and desirably to control, the stress state of a patient or participant. Examples include research paradigms in which the stress state is the dependent or independent variable, or therapy paradigms where this state indicates the boundaries of the therapy. To our knowledge, no application currently exists that focuses specifically on the automated control of the stress state while at the same time being generic enough to be used in various therapy and research purposes. Therefore, we introduce GASICA, an application aimed at the automated control of the stress state in a multitude of therapy and research paradigms. The application consists of three components: a digital stressor game, a set of measurement devices and a feedback model. These three components form a closed loop (called a biocybernetic loop by Pope, Bogart, & Bartolome, 1995 and Fairclough, 2009 that continuously presents an acute psychological stressor, measures several physiological responses to this stressor, and adjusts the stressor intensity based on these measurements by means of the feedback model, hereby aiming to control the stress state. In this manner GASICA presents multidimensional and ecological valid stressors, whilst continuously in control of the form and intensity of the presented stressors, aiming at the automated control of the stress state. Furthermore, the application is designed as a modular open-source application to easily implement different therapy and research tasks using a high-level programming interface and configuration file, and allows for the addition of (existing measurement equipment, making it usable for various paradigms.

  4. GASICA: generic automated stress induction and control application design of an application for controlling the stress state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vijgh, Benny; Beun, Robbert J; van Rood, Maarten; Werkhoven, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In a multitude of research and therapy paradigms it is relevant to know, and desirably to control, the stress state of a patient or participant. Examples include research paradigms in which the stress state is the dependent or independent variable, or therapy paradigms where this state indicates the boundaries of the therapy. To our knowledge, no application currently exists that focuses specifically on the automated control of the stress state while at the same time being generic enough to be used in various therapy and research purposes. Therefore, we introduce GASICA, an application aimed at the automated control of the stress state in a multitude of therapy and research paradigms. The application consists of three components: a digital stressor game, a set of measurement devices, and a feedback model. These three components form a closed loop (called a biocybernetic loop by Pope et al. (1995) and Fairclough (2009) that continuously presents an acute psychological stressor, measures several physiological responses to this stressor, and adjusts the stressor intensity based on these measurements by means of the feedback model, hereby aiming to control the stress state. In this manner GASICA presents multidimensional and ecological valid stressors, whilst continuously in control of the form and intensity of the presented stressors, aiming at the automated control of the stress state. Furthermore, the application is designed as a modular open-source application to easily implement different therapy and research tasks using a high-level programming interface and configuration file, and allows for the addition of (existing) measurement equipment, making it usable for various paradigms.

  5. Fuzzy Gain Scheduling of PI Controller for Dual Star Induction Machine fed by a Matrix Converter

    OpenAIRE

    B. Meliani; A. Meroufel; H. Khouidmi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a full digital implementation of a field orientation controlled Double Star induction Machine, and a PI controller is designed to control the speed, the machine is fed by a matrix converter. The advent of vector control technique has partially solved DSIM control problems because they are sensitive to drive parameter variations and performance may deteriorate if conventional controllers are used. Fuzzy logic and neural network Based controllers are consider...

  6. Compensation for secondary uncertainty in electro-hydraulic servo system by gain adaptive sliding mode variable structure control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG You-wang; GUI Wei-hua

    2008-01-01

    Based on consideration of the differential relations between the immeasurable variables and measurable variables in electro-hydraulic servo system, adaptive dynamic recurrent fuzzy neural networks(ADRFNNs) were employed to identify the primary uncertainty and the mathematic model of the system was turned into an equivalent linear model with terms of secondary uncertainty. At the same time, gain adaptive sliding mode variable structure control(GASMVSC) was employed to synthesize the control effort. The results show that the unrealization problem caused by some system's immeasurable state variables in traditional fuzzy neural networks(TFNN) taking all state variables as its inputs is overcome. On the other hand, the identification by the ADRFNNs online with high accuracy and the adaptive function of the correction term's gain in the GASMVSC make the system possess strong robustness and improved steady accuracy, and the chattering phenomenon of the control effort is also suppressed effectively.

  7. Wireless Controlled Methods via Voice and Internet (e-mail for Home Automation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.Ramlee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a wireless Home Automation System (HAS that mainly performed by computer. The system is designed with several control methods in order to control the target electrical appliances. This various control methods implemented to fulfill the needs of users at home even at outside. The computer application is designed in Microsoft Windows OS that integrated with speech recognition voice control by using Microsoft Speech Application Programming Interface (SAPI. The voice control method provides more convenience especially to the blind and paralyzed users at home. This system is designed to perform short distance control by using wireless Bluetooth technology and long distance control by using Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP email control method. The short distance control is considered as the control that performed inside the house. Moreover, the long distance control can be performed at everywhere by devices that installed with browser or email application, and also with the internet access. The system intended to control electrical appliances at home with relatively low cost design, user-friendly interface and ease of installation.

  8. Coaxial GaAs-AlGaAs core-multishell nanowire lasers with epitaxial gain control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stettner, T., E-mail: Thomas.Stettner@wsi.tum.de, E-mail: Gregor.Koblmueller@wsi.tum.de, E-mail: Jonathan.Finley@wsi.tum.de; Zimmermann, P.; Loitsch, B.; Regler, A.; Mayer, B.; Winnerl, J.; Matich, S.; Riedl, H.; Kaniber, M.; Abstreiter, G.; Koblmüller, G., E-mail: Thomas.Stettner@wsi.tum.de, E-mail: Gregor.Koblmueller@wsi.tum.de, E-mail: Jonathan.Finley@wsi.tum.de; Finley, J. J., E-mail: Thomas.Stettner@wsi.tum.de, E-mail: Gregor.Koblmueller@wsi.tum.de, E-mail: Jonathan.Finley@wsi.tum.de [Walter Schottky Institut and Physik Department, TU München, Garching 85748 (Germany); Döblinger, M. [Department of Chemistry, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich 81377 (Germany)

    2016-01-04

    We demonstrate the growth and single-mode lasing operation of GaAs-AlGaAs core-multishell nanowires (NW) with radial single and multiple GaAs quantum wells (QWs) as active gain media. When subject to optical pumping lasing emission with distinct s-shaped input-output characteristics, linewidth narrowing and emission energies associated with the confined QWs are observed. Comparing the low temperature performance of QW NW laser structures having 7 coaxial QWs with a nominally identical structure having only a single QW shows that the threshold power density reduces several-fold, down to values as low as ∼2.4 kW/cm{sup 2} for the multiple QW NW laser. This confirms that the individual radial QWs are electronically weakly coupled and that epitaxial design can be used to optimize the gain characteristics of the devices. Temperature-dependent investigations show that lasing prevails up to 300 K, opening promising new avenues for efficient III–V semiconductor NW lasers with embedded low-dimensional gain media.

  9. Automated system for acquisition and image processing for the control and monitoring boned nopal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luevano, E.; de Posada, E.; Arronte, M.; Ponce, L.; Flores, T.

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of a system for acquisition and image processing to control the removal of thorns nopal vegetable (Opuntia ficus indica) in an automated machine that uses pulses of a laser of Nd: YAG. The areolas, areas where thorns grow on the bark of the Nopal, are located applying segmentation algorithms to the images obtained by a CCD. Once the position of the areolas is known, coordinates are sent to a motors system that controls the laser to interact with all areolas and remove the thorns of the nopal. The electronic system comprises a video decoder, memory for image and software storage, and digital signal processor for system control. The firmware programmed tasks on acquisition, preprocessing, segmentation, recognition and interpretation of the areolas. This system achievement identifying areolas and generating table of coordinates of them, which will be send the motor galvo system that controls the laser for removal

  10. Reason's Enemy Is Not Emotion: Engagement of Cognitive Control Networks Explains Biases in Gain/Loss Framing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rosa; Smith, David V; Clithero, John A; Venkatraman, Vinod; Carter, R McKell; Huettel, Scott A

    2017-03-29

    In the classic gain/loss framing effect, describing a gamble as a potential gain or loss biases people to make risk-averse or risk-seeking decisions, respectively. The canonical explanation for this effect is that frames differentially modulate emotional processes, which in turn leads to irrational choice behavior. Here, we evaluate the source of framing biases by integrating functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 143 human participants performing a gain/loss framing task with meta-analytic data from >8000 neuroimaging studies. We found that activation during choices consistent with the framing effect were most correlated with activation associated with the resting or default brain, while activation during choices inconsistent with the framing effect was most correlated with the task-engaged brain. Our findings argue against the common interpretation of gain/loss framing as a competition between emotion and control. Instead, our study indicates that this effect results from differential cognitive engagement across decision frames.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The biases frequently exhibited by human decision makers have often been attributed to the presence of emotion. Using a large fMRI sample and analysis of whole-brain networks defined with the meta-analytic tool Neurosynth, we find that neural activity during frame-biased decisions was more significantly associated with default behaviors (and the absence of executive control) than with emotion. These findings point to a role for neuroscience in shaping long-standing psychological theories in decision science.

  11. Quality Control in Automated Manufacturing Processes – Combined Features for Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kuhlenkötter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In production processes the use of image processing systems is widespread. Hardware solutions and cameras respectively are available for nearly every application. One important challenge of image processing systems is the development and selection of appropriate algorithms and software solutions in order to realise ambitious quality control for production processes. This article characterises the development of innovative software by combining features for an automatic defect classification on product surfaces. The artificial intelligent method Support Vector Machine (SVM is used to execute the classification task according to the combined features. This software is one crucial element for the automation of a manually operated production process. 

  12. Real world instrumentation with Python automated data acquisition and control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, John

    2010-01-01

    Learn how to develop your own applications to monitor or control instrumentation hardware. Whether you need to acquire data from a device or automate its functions, this practical book shows you how to use Python's rapid development capabilities to build interfaces that include everything from software to wiring. You get step-by-step instructions, clear examples, and hands-on tips for interfacing a PC to a variety of devices. Use the book's hardware survey to identify the interface type for your particular device, and then follow detailed examples to develop an interface with Python and C. O

  13. THE AUTOMATED SYSTEM OF RADIATION EXPOSURE CONTROL (ASCRE) FOR ROSPOTREBNADZOR: CREATION HISTORY, APPLICABILITY AND DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    L. V. Repin; A. M. Biblin; P. G. Kovalev; M. S. Nikolaevich; V. S. Repin

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the automated system of radiation exposure control (ASCRE) for Rospotrebnadzor developed  in  the  framework  of  the  Federal  target  program  "Nuclear  and  Radiation  Safety  in  2008  and  for  the period till 2015". The history of the development of this system is given. It is shown the diagram of the functioning of ASCRE, description of the individual blocks of diagram is given. It is shown that the grpouping of the data from various Federal banks in the single au...

  14. Preventing weight gain: the baseline weight related behaviors and delivery of a randomized controlled intervention in community based women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teede Helena J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women aged 25–45 years represent a high risk group for weight gain and those with children are at increased risk because of weight gain associated with pregnancy and subsequent lifestyle change. Average self-reported weight gain is approximately 0.60 kg per year, and weight gain is associated with increased risk of chronic disease. There are barriers to reaching, engaging and delivering lifestyle interventions to prevent weight gain in this population. Methods This study investigated the baseline weight related behaviors and feasibility of recruiting and delivering a low intensity self-management lifestyle intervention to community based women with children in order to prevent weight gain, compared to standard education. The recruitment and delivery of the cluster-randomized controlled intervention was in conjunction with 12 primary (elementary schools. Baseline data collection included demographic, anthropometric, behavioral and biological measures. Results Two hundred and fifty community based women were randomized as clusters to intervention (n = 127 or control (n = 123. Mean age was 40.4 years (SD 4.7 and mean BMI 27.8 kg/m2 (SD 5.6. All components of this intervention were successfully delivered and retention rates were excellent, 97% at 4 months. Nearly all women (90% reported being dissatisfied with their weight and 72% attempted to self-manage their weight. Women were more confident of changing their diet (mean score 3.2 than physical activity (mean score 2.7. This population perceived they were engaging in prevention behaviors, with 71% reporting actively trying to prevent weight gain, yet they consumed a mean of 68 g fat/day (SD30 g and 27 g saturated fat/day (SD12 g representing 32% and 13% of energy respectively. The women had a high rate of dyslipidemia (33% and engaged in an average of 9187 steps/day (SD 3671. Conclusion Delivery of this low intensity intervention to a broad cross-section of community based

  15. Complex Event Processing Approach To Automated Monitoring Of Particle Accelerator And Its Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Grzegorczyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the design and implementation of a software component for automated monitoring and diagnostic information analysis of a particle accelerator and its control system. The information that is analyzed can be seen as streams of events. A Complex Event Processing (CEP approach to event processing was selected. The main advantage of this approach is the ability to continuously query data coming from several streams. The presented software component is based on Esper, the most popular open-source implementation of CEP. As a test bed, the control system of the accelerator complex located at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, was chosen. The complex includes the Large Hadron Collider, the world’s most powerful accelerator. The main contribution to knowledge is by showing that the CEP approach can successfully address many of the challenges associated with automated monitoring of the accelerator and its control system that were previously unsolved. Test results, performance analysis, and a proposal for further works are also presented.

  16. The influence of automation support on Air Traffic Controller behaviour with a Speed And Route Advisory function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merwe, K. van de; Oprins, E.A.P.B.; Plaat, A. van der; Erikson, F.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the influence of automation support on Air Traffic Controller performance, workload and Situation Awareness (SA). Controllers handle traffic through means of tactical control involving heading, speed and altitude instructions. Future Air Traffic Management (ATM)

  17. Dynamic gain control with a matrix inequality approach to uncertain systems with triangular and non-triangular nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Min-Sung; Choi, Ho-Lim

    2016-04-01

    We consider the global regulation problem of uncertain systems with both triangular and non-triangular nonlinearities. For the global regulation in the presence of non-triangular nonlinearities, we propose a dynamic gain controller designed by using power order conditions and a matrix inequality condition imposed on non-triangular nonlinearities. Compared with the existing results, the proposed control method allows a class of nonlinear systems that have not been treated before. Analysis and examples are given to prove the general applicability of our control method.

  18. An assessment of overall open-loop "gain" of CO2-ventilation feedback control system in hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuyama, H; Akiyama, S; Honda, Y

    1985-01-01

    Overall open-loop gain of the CO2-ventilation feedback control system in hypoxia (GHCO2) was determined on 8 male and one female healthy subjects. They breathed in a closed circuit, and were subjected to the progressive hypoxia test. This procedure was first conducted without dead space (DS), then with 250, 500, and finally 750 ml DS, consecutively. GHCO2 was calculated by dividing the slope of the CO2 response curve (S) by that of the metabolic hyperbola (SL). GHCO2 was considerably larger than the overall open-loop gain of the O2-ventilation feedback control system (GO2) previously obtained. This was ascribed to the facts that S was larger than the slope of the hypoxia response curve, and that the absolute value of SL in GHCO2 was smaller than that in GO2.

  19. Fuzzy Gain Scheduling of PI Controller for Dual Star Induction Machine fed by a Matrix Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Meliani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a full digital implementation of a field orientation controlled Double Star induction Machine, and a PI controller is designed to control the speed, the machine is fed by a matrix converter. The advent of vector control technique has partially solved DSIM control problems because they are sensitive to drive parameter variations and performance may deteriorate if conventional controllers are used. Fuzzy logic and neural network Based controllers are considered as potential candidates for such an application. In this paper the fuzzy logic system is used on-line to generate the PI controller parameters. Simulink results for a 4.5 kW six-phase induction machine are presented and analyzed using a matlab environment. Obtained results demonstrated that the proposed control scheme is able to obtain high performances.

  20. Improved synthetic-heterodyne Michelson interferometer vibrometer using phase and gain control feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeti, José Henrique; Kitano, Cláudio; Connelly, Michael J

    2015-12-10

    Synthetic-heterodyne demodulation is a useful technique for dynamic displacement and velocity measurement using interferometric sensors as it can provide an output signal which is immune to interferometric drift. With the advent of cost effective, high-speed real-time signal processing systems and software, processing of the complex signals encountered in interferometry has become more feasible. In conventional synthetic-heterodyne demodulation schemes, to obtain the dynamic displacement or vibration of the object under test requires knowledge of the interferometer visibility and also the argument of two Bessel functions. In this paper, a new synthetic-heterodyne demodulation method is described leading to an expression for the dynamic displacement and velocity of the object under test that is significantly less sensitive to the received optical power. In addition, the application of two independent phase and gain feedback loops is used to compensate for the nonideal gain and phase response of the anti-aliasing filter required for the signal acquisition of the received wideband interferometer signal. The efficacy of the improved system is demonstrated by measuring the displacement sensitivity frequency response and linearity of a Piezoelectric Mirror-Shifter (PMS) over a range of 200 Hz-9 kHz. In addition, the system is used to measure the response of the PMS to triangular and impulse type stimuli. The experimental results show excellent agreement with measurements taken using two independent industry standard calibration methods.

  1. The Impact of Weight Gain on Motivation, Compliance, and Metabolic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes, approximately 85% of whom are overweight or obese, often have an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as hypertension and dyslipidemia. Both type 2 diabetes and obesity are independent risk factors for CVD. Unfortunately, many therapies aimed at maintaining and improving glucose control are associated with weight gain. Among the older antidiabetes agents, most, including the insulin secretagogues and sensitizers, can lead to weig...

  2. Weight Gain Prevention among Midlife Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Address Needs Related to the Physical and Social Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney D. Perry

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Women tend to gain weight at midlife (40–60 years increasing risk of obesity-related chronic diseases. Within specific eating occasions, needs related to the physical and social environment may result in less healthy eating behavior, which can lead to weight gain over time. The purpose of this study was to determine if a dietitian-delivered nutrition counseling intervention tailored to eating occasion needs could improve diet and prevent weight gain among midlife women over two years. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with healthy midlife women (n = 354 in one U.S. metropolitan area. The intervention group (n = 185 received ten hours of individual nutrition counseling from dietitians over six months, while women in a control group (n = 169 received no counseling. Measured height, weight and waist circumference, and dietary intakes were collected at baseline and every six months over two years. Mixed linear models were used to test for intervention effect on change in outcome variables over time. Dietary intakes of fruit, reduced/low-fat dairy foods and refined grains were significantly improved over time in the intervention compared to control group. However, the intervention had no effect on weight over time (p = 0.48. Nutrition counseling tailored to address eating occasion needs improved self-reported diet but did not significantly affect weight change.

  3. Adaptive Switching Gain for a Discrete-Time Sliding Mode Controller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsees, G.; Scherpen, J.M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Sliding Mode Control is a well-known technique capable of making the closed loop system robust with respect to certain kinds of parameter variations and unmodeled dynamics. The sliding mode control law consists of the linear control part which is based on the model knowledge and the discontinuous co

  4. Control and Automation of Fluid Flow, Mass Transfer and Chemical Reactions in Microscale Segmented Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhasani, Milad

    Flowing trains of uniformly sized bubbles/droplets (i.e., segmented flows) and the associated mass transfer enhancement over their single-phase counterparts have been studied extensively during the past fifty years. Although the scaling behaviour of segmented flow formation is increasingly well understood, the predictive adjustment of the desired flow characteristics that influence the mixing and residence times, remains a challenge. Currently, a time consuming, slow and often inconsistent manual manipulation of experimental conditions is required to address this task. In my thesis, I have overcome the above-mentioned challenges and developed an experimental strategy that for the first time provided predictive control over segmented flows in a hands-off manner. A computer-controlled platform that consisted of a real-time image processing module within an integral controller, a silicon-based microreactor and automated fluid delivery technique was designed, implemented and validated. In a first part of my thesis I utilized this approach for the automated screening of physical mass transfer and solubility characteristics of carbon dioxide (CO2) in a physical solvent at a well-defined temperature and pressure and a throughput of 12 conditions per hour. Second, by applying the segmented flow approach to a recently discovered CO2 chemical absorbent, frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs), I determined the thermodynamic characteristics of the CO2-FLP reaction. Finally, the segmented flow approach was employed for characterization and investigation of CO2-governed liquid-liquid phase separation process. The second part of my thesis utilized the segmented flow platform for the preparation and shape control of high quality colloidal nanomaterials (e.g., CdSe/CdS) via the automated control of residence times up to approximately 5 minutes. By introducing a novel oscillatory segmented flow concept, I was able to further extend the residence time limitation to 24 hours. A case study of a

  5. Rockwell Automation PLC-5 Lands Stennis Space Center with a Reliable, Flexible Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperson, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Ever since the first rocket was launched, people have been infatuated with the vast and unchartered frontier of space. Whether it's visiting a space center or watching a shuttle launch, people are waiting to see what will be discovered next. And even though orbiting the Earth or taking soil samples form the Moon now seems effortless, decades worth of behind-the-scenes work have helped the U.S. space program get to this point. Even today, NASA must take every precaution to ensure equipment is up to the endeavor of setting foot on the moon. As part of the initial push to put the first man on the moon, NASA established the John C. Stennis Space Center, Hancock County, Mississippi in 1961 for space engine propulsion system development. Today, Stennis has three major test complexes where engine and component testing is carried out and integrated into full motion systems for space shuttles and vehicles as well as secondary testing facilities. With different products being tested throughout the facilities, Stennis was in need of an automation system that could link the operations. By integrating a control system based on a Rockwell Automation's flexible and reliable PLC-5 controller, Stennis was able to implement projects more efficiently and focus its efforts on getting the next generation of products ready for space.

  6. Automation of multi-agent control for complex dynamic systems in heterogeneous computational network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oparin, Gennady; Feoktistov, Alexander; Bogdanova, Vera; Sidorov, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    The rapid progress of high-performance computing entails new challenges related to solving large scientific problems for various subject domains in a heterogeneous distributed computing environment (e.g., a network, Grid system, or Cloud infrastructure). The specialists in the field of parallel and distributed computing give the special attention to a scalability of applications for problem solving. An effective management of the scalable application in the heterogeneous distributed computing environment is still a non-trivial issue. Control systems that operate in networks, especially relate to this issue. We propose a new approach to the multi-agent management for the scalable applications in the heterogeneous computational network. The fundamentals of our approach are the integrated use of conceptual programming, simulation modeling, network monitoring, multi-agent management, and service-oriented programming. We developed a special framework for an automation of the problem solving. Advantages of the proposed approach are demonstrated on the parametric synthesis example of the static linear regulator for complex dynamic systems. Benefits of the scalable application for solving this problem include automation of the multi-agent control for the systems in a parallel mode with various degrees of its detailed elaboration.

  7. Switching Controller Design for a Class of Markovian Jump Nonlinear Systems Using Stochastic Small-Gain Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Switching controller design for a class of Markovian jump nonlinear systems with unmodeled dynamics is considered in this paper. Based on the differential equation and infinitesimal generator of jump systems, the concept of Jump Input-to-State practical Stability (JISpS in probability and stochastic Lyapunov stability criterion are put forward. By using backsetpping technology and stochastic small-gain theorem, a switching controller is proposed which ensures JISpS in probability for the jump nonlinear system. A simulation example illustrates the validity of this design.

  8. Architectures and design patterns for functional design of logic control and diagnostics in industrial automation

    OpenAIRE

    Sartini, Matteo

    2010-01-01

    Recently in most of the industrial automation process an ever increasing degree of automation has been observed. This increasing is motivated by the higher requirement of systems with great performance in terms of quality of products/services generated, productivity, efficiency and low costs in the design, realization and maintenance. This trend in the growth of complex automation systems is rapidly spreading over automated manufacturing systems (AMS), where the integration of the mechanic...

  9. Intelligent sensor-model automated control of PMR-15 autoclave processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, S.; Kranbuehl, D.; Loos, A.; Hinds, B.; Koury, J.

    1992-01-01

    An intelligent sensor model system has been built and used for automated control of the PMR-15 cure process in the autoclave. The system uses frequency-dependent FM sensing (FDEMS), the Loos processing model, and the Air Force QPAL intelligent software shell. The Loos model is used to predict and optimize the cure process including the time-temperature dependence of the extent of reaction, flow, and part consolidation. The FDEMS sensing system in turn monitors, in situ, the removal of solvent, changes in the viscosity, reaction advancement and cure completion in the mold continuously throughout the processing cycle. The sensor information is compared with the optimum processing conditions from the model. The QPAL composite cure control system allows comparison of the sensor monitoring with the model predictions to be broken down into a series of discrete steps and provides a language for making decisions on what to do next regarding time-temperature and pressure.

  10. 10th International Conference on Informatics in Control Automation and Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Gusikhin, Oleg; Madani, Kurosh; Sasiadek, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The present book includes a set of selected papers from the tenth “International Conference on Informatics in Control Automation and Robotics” (ICINCO 2013), held in Reykjavík, Iceland, from 29 to 31 July 2013. The conference was organized in four simultaneous tracks: “Intelligent Control Systems and Optimization”, “Robotics and Automation”, “Signal Processing, Sensors, Systems Modeling and Control” and “Industrial Engineering, Production and Management”. The book is based on the same structure. ICINCO 2013 received 255 paper submissions from 50 countries, in all continents. After a double blind paper review performed by the Program Committee only 30% were published and presented orally. A further refinement was made after the conference, based also on the assessment of presentation quality, so that this book includes the extended and revised versions of the very best papers of ICINCO 2013.

  11. Automated Generation of Formal Models from ST Control Programs for Verification Purposes

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Adiego, B; Tournier, J-C; Blanco Vinuela, E; Blech, J-O; Gonzalez Suarez, V

    2014-01-01

    In large industrial control systems such as the ones installed at CERN, one of the main issues is the ability to verify the correct behaviour of the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) programs. While manual and automated testing can achieve good results, some obvious problems remain unsolved such as the difficulty to check safety or liveness properties. This paper proposes a general methodology and a tool to verify PLC programs by automatically generating formal models for different model checkers out of ST code. The proposed methodology defines an automata-based formalism used as intermediate model (IM) to transform PLC programs written in ST language into different formal models for verification purposes. A tool based on Xtext has been implemented that automatically generates models for the NuSMV and UPPAAL model checkers and the BIP framework.

  12. Automated control for coal handling operations at Bethlehem Steel, Burns Harbor Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zendzian, T.N. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Chesterton, IN (United States). Burns Harbor Div.

    1997-12-31

    The Burns Harbor coal handling operation processes 7,200 tons of coal per day to supply two 82 oven, six meter batteries. The operations in coal handling are subdivided into three separate sections: the coal field and stacker reclaimer operation, the crushing and storage of coal, and the coal blending operation. In 1996 a supervisory system was developed and installed to fully automate all the operations and equipment in the coal handling unit, add additional instrumentation and logic controls to prevent coal contamination, and improve data collection and logging. The supervisory system is operated from a computer based workstation and is based on a distributed control philosophy utilizing programmable logic controllers, set point controllers, and man-machine interface displays. The previous control system for the coal handling operation consisted of a switchboard from which an operator controller the set up and running of the conveyor systems and equipment to stack, reclaim, and blend coal. The new supervisory system was installed in parallel with the original control system to safeguard continued operation during the system installation and commissioning. The original system still exists and can be operated in even of failure of the supervisory system.

  13. Control computers and automation subsystem equipment in Del'fin facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allin, A.P.; Belen' kiy, Yu.M.; Borzyak, Yu.V.; Bykovskiy, N.E.; Grigor' ev, V.E.; Gusyatnikov, B.S.; Doroshkevich, I.L.; Ivanov, V.V.; Kuchinskiy, A.G.; Savchenko, V.M.

    1983-01-01

    The power equipment of the Del'fin laser facility contains a 10/sup 7/ J capacitor bank divided into four identical sections feeding a power preamplifier and three output stages each, with 328 IFP-20,000 flash tubes designed to produce 2.5 kJ laser radiation. The system for controlling and automating laser experiments, modeled after the SHIVA system (Lawrence Livermore Laboratory), includes a computer complex in the central console and the sequential ring bus, with CAMAC peripheral stations inside the optical chamber including three microcomputers (Polon, Nuclear Enterprise, HENESA). The control computer with a 28 K memory is linked to the CAMAC stations and to a terminal DECWRITER-II. The system crate contains a 9030/32 interface, a 3992 driver for the sequential bus, and a 064 LAM GRADER interrogation processing module. The computer complex also includes an RSX-11M multiprogram multipurpose real-time disk operating system which uses standard DECNET-11 software and includes a translator from MACRO-11 assembler language to FORTRAN-4, BASIC-11, COBOL and a few other languages. The laser power is automatically controlled through the CAMAC stations according to a main program as well as dialog maintenance programs (BCE, KASKN, KASN, DIAL, STRB, MODB, BKYM, STRB, BKYB, BKY) and measurement programs (CONTRO, CNTRO, KOD) designed to ensure simple and reliable high-speed control of laser experiments. All alignment and regulation of the laser facility is automated through optical channels (aligning LTI-501 laser, collimators, lenses, auxiliary optics) and servomechanisms (coordinate photoreceiver-homing signal module-step motors) designed for positioning and orientating mirrors 80 mm and 30 mm in diameter. 25 references, 31 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Effects of Granular Control on Customers’ Perspective and Behavior with Automated Demand Response Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schetrit, Oren; Kim, Joyce; Yin, Rongxin; Kiliccote, Sila

    2014-08-01

    Automated demand response (Auto-DR) is expected to close the loop between buildings and the grid by providing machine-to-machine communications to curtail loads without the need for human intervention. Hence, it can offer more reliable and repeatable demand response results to the grid than the manual approach and make demand response participation a hassle-free experience for customers. However, many building operators misunderstand Auto-DR and are afraid of losing control over their building operation. To ease the transition from manual to Auto-DR, we designed and implemented granular control of Auto-DR systems so that building operators could modify or opt out of individual load-shed strategies whenever they wanted. This paper reports the research findings from this effort demonstrated through a field study in large commercial buildings located in New York City. We focused on (1) understanding how providing granular control affects building operators’ perspective on Auto-DR, and (2) evaluating the usefulness of granular control by examining their interaction with the Auto-DR user interface during test events. Through trend log analysis, interviews, and surveys, we found that: (1) the opt-out capability during Auto-DR events can remove the feeling of being forced into load curtailments and increase their willingness to adopt Auto-DR; (2) being able to modify individual load-shed strategies allows flexible Auto-DR participation that meets the building’s changing operational requirements; (3) a clear display of automation strategies helps building operators easily identify how Auto-DR is functioning and can build trust in Auto-DR systems.

  15. Automated Internet-based pain coping skills training to manage osteoarthritis pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rini, Christine; Porter, Laura S; Somers, Tamara J; McKee, Daphne C; DeVellis, Robert F; Smith, Meredith; Winkel, Gary; Ahern, David K; Goldman, Roberta; Stiller, Jamie L; Mariani, Cara; Patterson, Carol; Jordan, Joanne M; Caldwell, David S; Keefe, Francis J

    2015-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) places a significant burden on worldwide public health because of the large and growing number of people affected by OA and its associated pain and disability. Pain coping skills training (PCST) is an evidence-based intervention targeting OA pain and disability. To reduce barriers that currently limit access to PCST, we developed an 8-week, automated, Internet-based PCST program called PainCOACH and evaluated its potential efficacy and acceptability in a small-scale, 2-arm randomized controlled feasibility trial. Participants were 113 men and women with clinically confirmed hip or knee OA and associated pain. They were randomized to a group completing PainCOACH or an assessment-only control group. Osteoarthritis pain, pain-related interference with functioning, pain-related anxiety, self-efficacy for pain management, and positive and negative affect were measured before intervention, midway through the intervention, and after intervention. Findings indicated high acceptability and adherence: 91% of participants randomized to complete PainCOACH finished all 8 modules over 8 to 10 weeks. Linear mixed models showed that, after treatment, women who received the PainCOACH intervention reported significantly lower pain than that in women in the control group (Cohen d = 0.33). Intervention effects could not be tested in men because of their low pain and small sample size. Additionally, both men and women demonstrated increases in self-efficacy from baseline to after intervention compared with the control group (d = 0.43). Smaller effects were observed for pain-related anxiety (d = 0.20), pain-related interference with functioning (d = 0.13), negative affect (d = 0.10), and positive affect (d = 0.24). Findings underscore the value of continuing to develop an automated Internet-based approach to disseminate this empirically supported intervention.

  16. Gaining Control and Predictability of Software-Intensive Systems Development and Sustainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-04

    this would be a major design driver for the software architect (Naegle & Petross, 2007). Primary Software Acquisition Problem Areas Addressed The...control and produces significantly more predictability in the program management realm. The research conclusions and recommendations are designed to...provide more control and predictability to software-intensive systems development. Due to the TOC and architectural design focus, system sustainability

  17. Adaptive switching gain for a discrete-time sliding mode controller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsees, G.; Scherpen, J.M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Sliding mode control is a well-known technique capable of making the closed loop system robust with respect to certain kinds of parameter variations and unmodelled dynamics. The sliding mode control law consists of a continuous component which is based on the model knowledge and discontinuous compon

  18. Validating an automated outcomes surveillance application using data from a terminated randomized, controlled trial (OPUS [TIMI-16]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheny, Michael E; Morrow, David A; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Cannon, Christopher P; Resnic, Frederic S

    2007-10-11

    We sought to validate an automated outcomes surveillance system (DELTA) using OPUS (TIMI-16), a multi-center randomized, controlled trial that was stopped early due to elevated mortality in one of the two intervention arms. Methodologies that were incorporated into the application (Statistical Process Control [SPC] and Bayesian Updating Statistics [BUS]) were compared with standard Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) protocols.

  19. An assessment of overall "gain" of the O2-feedback control system with and without external dead space breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuyama, H; Hayashi, F; Honda, Y

    1983-01-01

    Overall gain of the O2-ventilation feedback control system (GO2) was determined in 9 male and one female healthy subjects. GO2 progressively increased with decreasing end-tidal PO2 (PETO2). This value did not exceed the overall gain of the CO2-ventilation feedback system (GCO2) even at a PETO2 level of 40 mmHg, suggesting that hypoxic stimulation did not become predominant in the present experimental condition. With addition of 250 ml of external dead space, PETO2 decrement (delta PETO2 X actual) was experimentally observed. The delta PETO2 X actual thus obtained was found to be in good agreement with the PETO2 decrement deduced from GO2 (delta PETO2 X expected). This result was similar to that found in the PETCO2 change previously seen in normoxia.

  20. An automated workflow for patient-specific quality control of contour propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, William J; McWilliam, Alan; Slevin, Nicholas J; Mackay, Ranald I; van Herk, Marcel

    2016-12-21

    Contour propagation is an essential component of adaptive radiotherapy, but current contour propagation algorithms are not yet sufficiently accurate to be used without manual supervision. Manual review of propagated contours is time-consuming, making routine implementation of real-time adaptive radiotherapy unrealistic. Automated methods of monitoring the performance of contour propagation algorithms are therefore required. We have developed an automated workflow for patient-specific quality control of contour propagation and validated it on a cohort of head and neck patients, on which parotids were outlined by two observers. Two types of error were simulated-mislabelling of contours and introducing noise in the scans before propagation. The ability of the workflow to correctly predict the occurrence of errors was tested, taking both sets of observer contours as ground truth, using receiver operator characteristic analysis. The area under the curve was 0.90 and 0.85 for the observers, indicating good ability to predict the occurrence of errors. This tool could potentially be used to identify propagated contours that are likely to be incorrect, acting as a flag for manual review of these contours. This would make contour propagation more efficient, facilitating the routine implementation of adaptive radiotherapy.

  1. Human-Automation Interaction Design for Adaptive Cruise Control Systems of Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Hwisoo; Lee, Sang Hun

    2015-01-01

    A majority of recently developed advanced vehicles have been equipped with various automated driver assistance systems, such as adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane keeping assistance systems. ACC systems have several operational modes, and drivers can be unaware of the mode in which they are operating. Because mode confusion is a significant human error factor that contributes to traffic accidents, it is necessary to develop user interfaces for ACC systems that can reduce mode confusion. To meet this requirement, this paper presents a new human-automation interaction design methodology in which the compatibility of the machine and interface models is determined using the proposed criteria, and if the models are incompatible, one or both of the models is/are modified to make them compatible. To investigate the effectiveness of our methodology, we designed two new interfaces by separately modifying the machine model and the interface model and then performed driver-in-the-loop experiments. The results showed that modifying the machine model provides a more compact, acceptable, effective, and safe interface than modifying the interface model. PMID:26076406

  2. An automated workflow for patient-specific quality control of contour propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, William J.; McWilliam, Alan; Slevin, Nicholas J.; Mackay, Ranald I.; van Herk, Marcel

    2016-12-01

    Contour propagation is an essential component of adaptive radiotherapy, but current contour propagation algorithms are not yet sufficiently accurate to be used without manual supervision. Manual review of propagated contours is time-consuming, making routine implementation of real-time adaptive radiotherapy unrealistic. Automated methods of monitoring the performance of contour propagation algorithms are therefore required. We have developed an automated workflow for patient-specific quality control of contour propagation and validated it on a cohort of head and neck patients, on which parotids were outlined by two observers. Two types of error were simulated—mislabelling of contours and introducing noise in the scans before propagation. The ability of the workflow to correctly predict the occurrence of errors was tested, taking both sets of observer contours as ground truth, using receiver operator characteristic analysis. The area under the curve was 0.90 and 0.85 for the observers, indicating good ability to predict the occurrence of errors. This tool could potentially be used to identify propagated contours that are likely to be incorrect, acting as a flag for manual review of these contours. This would make contour propagation more efficient, facilitating the routine implementation of adaptive radiotherapy.

  3. Stress- and diet-induced fat gain is controlled by NPY in catecholaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Lee, I-Chieh J; Enriquez, Rondaldo F; Lau, Jackie; Vähätalo, Laura H; Baldock, Paul A; Savontaus, Eriika; Herzog, Herbert

    2014-08-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and noradrenaline are commonly co-expressed in sympathetic neurons. Both are key regulators of energy homeostasis and critical for stress-coping. However, little is known about the specific function of NPY in the catecholaminergic system in these regulations. Here we show that mice with NPY expression only in the noradrenergic and adrenergic cells of the catecholaminergic system (catNPY) exhibited exacerbated diet-induced obesity, lower body and brown adipose tissue temperatures compared to WT and NPY(-/-) mice under a HFD. Furthermore, chronic stress increased adiposity and serum corticosterone level in WT but not NPY(-/-) mice. Re-introducing NPY specifically to the catecholaminergic system in catNPY mice restored stress responsiveness associated with increased respiratory exchange ratio and decreased liver pACC to tACC ratio. These results demonstrate catecholaminergic NPY signalling is critical in mediating diet- and chronic stress-induced fat gain via effects on diet-induced thermogenesis and stress-induced increases in corticosterone levels and lipogenic capacity.

  4. Storage for free: a surprising property of a simple gain-control model of motion aftereffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Grind, Wim A; van der Smagt, Maarten J; Verstraten, Frans A J

    2004-01-01

    If a motion aftereffect (MAE) for given adaptation conditions has a duration T s, and the eyes are closed after adaptation during a waiting period tw=T s before testing, an unexpected MAE of a 'residual' duration TrT s is experienced. This effect is called 'storage' and it is often quantified by a storage factor sigma=TrT/T, which can reach values up to about 0.7-0.8. The phenomenon and its name have invited explanations in terms of inhibition of recovery during darkness. We present a model based on the opposite idea, that an effective test stimulus quickens recovery relative to darkness or other ineffective test stimuli. The model is worked out in mathematical detail and proves to explain 'storage' data from the literature, on the static MAE (sMAE: an MAE experienced for static test stimuli). We also present results of a psychophysical experiment with moving random pixel arrays, quantifying storage phenomena both for the sMAE and the dynamic MAE (dMAE: an MAE experienced for a random dynamic noise test stimulus). Storage factors for the dMAE are lower than for the sMAE. Our model also gives an excellent description of these new data on storage of the dMAE. The term 'storage' might therefore be a misnomer. If an effective test stimulus influences all direction tuned motion sensors indiscriminately and thus speeds up equalization of gains, one gets the storage phenomenon for free.

  5. A model based message passing approach for flexible and scalable home automation controllers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienhaus, D. [INNIAS GmbH und Co. KG, Frankenberg (Germany); David, K.; Klein, N.; Kroll, D. [ComTec Kassel Univ., SE Kassel Univ. (Germany); Heerdegen, F.; Jubeh, R.; Zuendorf, A. [Kassel Univ. (Germany). FG Software Engineering; Hofmann, J. [BSC Computer GmbH, Allendorf (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    There is a large variety of home automation systems that are largely proprietary systems from different vendors. In addition, the configuration and administration of home automation systems is frequently a very complex task especially, if more complex functionality shall be achieved. Therefore, an open model for home automation was developed that is especially designed for easy integration of various home automation systems. This solution also provides a simple modeling approach that is inspired by typical home automation components like switches, timers, etc. In addition, a model based technology to achieve rich functionality and usability was implemented. (orig.)

  6. A Closed-Loop Proportional-Integral (PI) Control Software for Fully Mechanically Controlled Automated Electron Microscopic Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-23

    A closed-loop proportional-integral (PI) control software is provided for fully mechanically controlled automated electron microscopic tomography. The software is developed based on Gatan DigitalMicrograph�, and is compatible with Zeiss LIBRA� 120 transmission electron microscope. However, it can be expanded to other TEM instrument with modification. The software consists of a graphical user interface, a digital PI controller, an image analyzing unit, and other drive units (i.e.: image acquire unit and goniometer drive unit). During a tomography data collection process, the image analyzing unit analyzes both the accumulated shift and defocus value of the latest acquired image, and provides the results to the digital PI controller. The digital PI control compares the results with the preset values and determines the optimum adjustments of the goniometer. The goniometer drive unit adjusts the spatial position of the specimen according to the instructions given by the digital PI controller for the next tilt angle and image acquisition. The goniometer drive unit achieves high precision positioning by using a backlash elimination method. The major benefits of the software are: 1) the goniometer drive unit keeps pre-aligned/optimized beam conditions unchanged and achieves position tracking solely through mechanical control; 2) the image analyzing unit relies on only historical data and therefore does not require additional images/exposures; 3) the PI controller enables the system to dynamically track the imaging target with extremely low system error.

  7. Application of a New Membership Function in Nonlinear Fuzzy PID Controllers with Variable Gains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuda Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a nonlinear fuzzy PID control algorithm, whose membership function (MF is adjustable, is universal, and has a wide adjustable range. Appling this function to fuzzy control theory will increase system’s tunability. The continuity of this function is proved. This method was employed in the simulation and HIL experiments. Effectiveness and feasibility of this function are demonstrated in the results.

  8. An integrated approach to the design of an aircraft gain scheduled controller

    OpenAIRE

    Berglund, Erik

    1995-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of integrated design of the aircraft plant parameters and of the corresponding feedback controller. The plant parameters are typically the sizes of the control surfaces or other aerodynamical surfaces of the aircraft. The approach is to rewrite the aircraft dynamic requirements as linear matrix inequalities (LMI's) and to optimize a linear cost function associated with aircraft plant parameters, while meeting the LMI constraints. An algorithm using Matlab and...

  9. Gain Scheduling Control of Gas Turbine Engines: Stability by Computing a Single Quadratic Lyapunov Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    STABILITY BY COMPUTING A SINGLE QUADRATIC LYAPUNOV FUNCTION Mehrdad Pakmehr∗ PhD Candidate Decision and Control Laboratory (DCL) School of Aerospace...linearization and linear matrix inequality (LMI) techniques. Using convex optimization tools, a single quadratic Lyapunov function is computed for multiple...Scheduling Control of Gas Turbine Engines: Stability by Computing a Single Quadratic Lyapunov Function 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  10. Simple adaptive pH control in bioreactors using gain-scheduling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnoth, S; Kuprijanov, A; Simutis, R; Lübbert, A

    2010-01-01

    A simple well-performing adaptive control technique for pH control in fermentations of recombinant protein production processes is described and its design procedure is explained. First, the entire control algorithm was simulated and parameterized. Afterwards it was tested in real cultivation processes. The results show that this simple technique leads to significant reductions in the fluctuations of the pH values in microbial cultures at a minimum of expenditures. The signal-to-noise ratio and thus the information captured by the pH signal were increased by about an order of magnitude. This leads to a substantial improvement in the noise of many other process signals that are used to monitor and control the process. For instance, respiratory off-gas data of CO(2) and its derived carbon dioxide production rate signals from the cultures carry much less noise as compared to those values obtained with conventional pH control. Detailed process analysis revealed that even very small pH jumps of 0.03 values during the fermentation were shown to result in pronounced deflections in CO(2)-volume fraction of 8% (peak to peak). The proposed controller, maintaining the pH within the interval of 0.01 around the setpoint, reduces the noise considerably.

  11. AUTOMATED DYNAMIC LOAD CONTROL BY ELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS OF A BUCKET-CHAIN EXCAVATOR IN THE COURSE OF SCOOPING

    OpenAIRE

    Khayrullin Rustam Zinnatullovich

    2012-01-01

    Methods and algorithms of control of the tension of lifting and towing ropes of bucket-chain excavators are proposed in the article. They are based on the non-linear dependence of the current path length and intensity of excavation efforts. Three automatic control modes, including scooping, correction signals and automatic overload protection, are implemented. Two independent control loops in charge of tension of lifting and towing ropes are developed. The proposed automated control syste...

  12. Automated Kick Control Procedure for an Influx in Managed Pressure Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Within drilling of oil and gas wells, the Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD method with active control of wellbore pressure during drilling has partly evolved from conventional well control procedures. However, for MPD operations the instrumentation is typically more extensive compared to conventional drilling. Despite this, any influx of formation fluids (commonly known as a kick during MPD operations is typically handled by conventional well control methods, at least if the kick is estimated to be larger than a threshold value. Conventional well control procedures rely on manual control of the blow out preventer, pumps, and choke valves and do not capitalize on the benefits from the instrumentation level associated with MPD. This paper investigates two alternative well control procedures specially adapted to backpressure MPD: the dynamic shut-in (DSI procedure and the automatic kick control (AKC procedure. Both methods capitalize on improvements in Pressure While Drilling (PWD technology. A commercially available PWD tool buffers high-resolution pressure measurements, which can be used in an automated well control procedure. By using backpressure MPD, the choke valve opening is tuned automatically using a feedback-feedforward control method. The two procedures are evaluated using a high fidelity well flow model and cases from a North Sea drilling operation are simulated. The results show that using AKC procedure reduces the time needed to establish control of the well compared to DSI procedure. It also indicates that the AKC procedure reduces the total kick size compared to the DSI procedure, and thereby reduces the risk of lost circulation.

  13. LMI-based gain scheduled controller synthesis for a class of linear parameter varying systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Anderson, Brian; Lanzon, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for constructing controllers for a class of single-input multiple-output (SIMO) linear parameter varying (LPV) systems. This class of systems encompasses many physical systems, in particular systems where individual components vary with time, and is therefore...... the parameters are varying, with the degree of stability related directly to a bound on the average rate of allowable parameter variations. Thus, if knowledge of the parameter variations is available, the conservativeness of the design can be kept at a minimum. The construction of the controller is formulated...

  14. Automation of the 1.3-meter Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderman, Richard; Treffers, Richard R.

    2011-03-01

    This poster describes the automation for the Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) Consortium of the 50-inch telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. Building upon the work of the previous contractor the telescope, dome and instrument were wired for totally autonomous (robotic) observations. The existing motors, encoders, limit switches and cables were connected to an open industrial panel that allows easy interconnection, troubleshooting and modifications. A sixteen axis Delta Tau Turbo PMAC controller is used to control all motors, encoders, flat field lights and many of the digital functions of the telescope. ADAM industrial I/O bricks are used for additional digital and analog I/O functions. Complex relay logic problems, such as the mirror cover opening sequence and the slit control, are managed using Allen Bradley Pico PLDs. Most of the low level software is written in C using the GNU compiler. The basic functionality uses an ASCII protocol communicating over Berkeley sockets. Early versions of this software were developed at U.C. Berkeley, for what was to become the Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope (KAIT) at Lick Observatory. ASCII communications are useful for control, testing and easy to debug by looking at the log files; C-shell scripts are written to form more complex orchestrations.

  15. Automated adaptive sliding mode control scheme for a class of real complicated systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Shahi; A H Mazinan

    2015-02-01

    A class of real complicated systems, including chemical reactions, biological systems, information processing, laser systems, electrical circuits, information exchange, brain activities modelling, secure communication and other related ones can be presented through nonlinear and non-identical hyper-chaotic systems. The main goal of the present investigation is to synchronize two non-identical hyperchaotic master/slave systems, which are given as the models of the complicated systems, based on the realization of an efficient automated adaptive sliding mode control scheme. In the research presented here, the mentioned systems need to be dealt with through the proposed control scheme, since two non-identical systems are completely synchronized. In one such case, the whole of the chosen states of the master and slave systems should be coincided after a few time steps, as long as the effect of the external disturbance, uncertainty and unknown parameters could truly be ignored. Due to the fact that the investigated hyper-chaotic systems have taken into consideration as the representation of a number of complicated processes under mentioned external disturbance, uncertainty and unknown parameters, the traditional control approaches cannot actually be realized, in satisfactory manners.With this purpose, the proposed control scheme has been designed to cope with synchronization error, in a reasonable amount of time, in order to drive applicable hyper-chaotic systems. Consequently, the performance of the proposed control scheme is considered and verified through the numerical simulations.

  16. On a small-gain approach to distributed event-triggered control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Sailer, R.; Wirth, F.

    2011-01-01

    We consider large-scale systems stabilized by distributed controllers, which communicate over a limited shared medium. In this context it is of interest to reduce the communication load. An approach in this direction is eventtriggered sampling, which attempts only to send “relevant” data. In order t

  17. Optimal Control and Coordination of Connected and Automated Vehicles at Urban Traffic Intersections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yue J. [Boston University; Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL; Cassandras, Christos G. [Boston University

    2016-01-01

    We address the problem of coordinating online a continuous flow of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) crossing two adjacent intersections in an urban area. We present a decentralized optimal control framework whose solution yields for each vehicle the optimal acceleration/deceleration at any time in the sense of minimizing fuel consumption. The solu- tion, when it exists, allows the vehicles to cross the intersections without the use of traffic lights, without creating congestion on the connecting road, and under the hard safety constraint of collision avoidance. The effectiveness of the proposed solution is validated through simulation considering two intersections located in downtown Boston, and it is shown that coordination of CAVs can reduce significantly both fuel consumption and travel time.

  18. 4D Trajectory Estimation for Air Traffic Control Automation System Based on Hybrid System Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Min Tang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To resolve the problem of future airspace management under great traffic flow and high density condition, 4D trajectory estimation has become one of the core technologies of the next new generation air traffic control automation system. According to the flight profile and the dynamics models of different aircraft types under different flight conditions, a hybrid system model that switches the aircraft from one flight stage to another with aircraft state changing continuously in one state is constructed. Additionally, air temperature and wind speed are used to modify aircraft true airspeed as well as ground speed, and the hybrid system evolution simulation is used to estimate aircraft 4D trajectory. The case study proves that 4D trajectory estimated through hybrid system model can image the flight dynamic states of aircraft and satisfy the needs of the planned flight altitude profile.KEY WORDSair traffic management, 4D trajectory estimation, hybrid system model, aircraft dynamic model

  19. Sfm_georef: Automating image measurement of ground control points for SfM-based projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mike R.

    2016-04-01

    Deriving accurate DEM and orthomosaic image products from UAV surveys generally involves the use of multiple ground control points (GCPs). Here, we demonstrate the automated collection of GCP image measurements for SfM-MVS processed projects, using sfm_georef software (James & Robson, 2012; http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/staff/jamesm/software/sfm_georef.htm). Sfm_georef was originally written to provide geo-referencing procedures for SfM-MVS projects. It has now been upgraded with a 3-D patch-based matching routine suitable for automating GCP image measurement in both aerial and ground-based (oblique) projects, with the aim of reducing the time required for accurate geo-referencing. Sfm_georef is compatible with a range of SfM-MVS software and imports the relevant files that describe the image network, including camera models and tie points. 3-D survey measurements of ground control are then provided, either for natural features or artificial targets distributed over the project area. Automated GCP image measurement is manually initiated through identifying a GCP position in an image by mouse click; the GCP is then represented by a square planar patch in 3-D, textured from the image and oriented parallel to the local topographic surface (as defined by the 3-D positions of nearby tie points). Other images are then automatically examined by projecting the patch into the images (to account for differences in viewing geometry) and carrying out a sub-pixel normalised cross-correlation search in the local area. With two or more observations of a GCP, its 3-D co-ordinates are then derived by ray intersection. With the 3-D positions of three or more GCPs identified, an initial geo-referencing transform can be derived to relate the SfM-MVS co-ordinate system to that of the GCPs. Then, if GCPs are symmetric and identical, image texture from one representative GCP can be used to search automatically for all others throughout the image set. Finally, the GCP observations can be

  20. Sliding mode attitude control with L 2-gain performance and vibration reduction of flexible spacecraft with actuator dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qinglei

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a dual-stage control system design method for the rotational maneuver control and vibration stabilization of a flexible spacecraft. In this design approach, the sub-systems of attitude control and vibration suppression are designed separately using the low order model. Based on the sliding mode control (SMC) theory, a discontinuous attitude control law in the form of the input voltage of the reaction wheel is derived to control the orientation of the spacecraft, incorporating the L 2-gain performance criterion constraint. The resulting closed-loop system is proven to be uniformly ultimately bounded stability and the effect of the external disturbance on both attitude quaternion and angular velocity can be attenuated to the prescribed level as well. In addition, an adaptive version of the control law is designed for adapting the unknown upper bounds of the lumped disturbance such that the limitation of knowing the bound of the disturbance in advance is released. For actively suppressing the induced vibration, strain rate feedback control method is also investigated by using piezoelectric materials as additional sensors and actuators bonded on the surface of the flexible appendages. Numerical simulations are performed to show that rotational maneuver and vibration suppression are accomplished in spite of the presence of disturbance and uncertainty.

  1. Actively phase-controlled coupling between plasmonic waveguides via in-between gain-assisted nanoresonator: nanoscale optical logic gates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kum-Song; Han, Yong-Ha; Ri, Chol-Song; Im, Song-Jin

    2016-08-15

    The development of nanoscale optical logic gates has attracted immense attention due to increasing demand for ultrahigh-speed and energy-efficient optical computing and data processing, however, suffers from the difficulty in precise control of phase difference of the two optical signals. We propose a novel conception of nanoscale optical logic gates based on actively phase-controlled coupling between two plasmonic waveguides via an in-between gain-assisted nanoresonator. Precise control of phase difference between the two plasmonic signals can be performed by manipulating pumping rate at an appropriate frequency detuning, enabling a high contrast between the output logic states "1" and "0." Without modification of the structural parameters, different logic functions can be provided. This active nanoscale optical logic device is expected to be quite energy-efficient with ideally low energy consumption on the order of 0.1 fJ/bit. Analytical calculations and numerical experiments demonstrate the validity of the proposed concept.

  2. Modeling and distributed gain scheduling strategy for load frequency control in smart grids with communication topology changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shichao; Liu, Xiaoping P; El Saddik, Abdulmotaleb

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the modeling and distributed control problems for the load frequency control (LFC) in a smart grid. In contrast with existing works, we consider more practical and real scenarios, where the communication topology of the smart grid changes because of either link failures or packet losses. These topology changes are modeled as a time-varying communication topology matrix. By using this matrix, a new closed-loop power system model is proposed to integrate the communication topology changes into the dynamics of a physical power system. The globally asymptotical stability of this closed-loop power system is analyzed. A distributed gain scheduling LFC strategy is proposed to compensate for the potential degradation of dynamic performance (mean square errors of state vectors) of the power system under communication topology changes. In comparison to conventional centralized control approaches, the proposed method can improve the robustness of the smart grid to the variation of the communication network as well as to reduce computation load. Simulation results show that the proposed distributed gain scheduling approach is capable to improve the robustness of the smart grid to communication topology changes.

  3. High-gain adaptive regulator for a string equation with uncertain harmonic disturbance under boundary output feedback control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baozhu GUO; Wei GUO

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers the boundary stabilization and parameter estimation of a one-dimensional wave equation in the case when one end is fixed and control and harmonic disturbance with uncertain amplitude are input at another end. A high-gain adaptive regulator is designed in terms of measured collocated end velocity. The existence and uniqueness of the classical solution of the closed-loop system is proven. It is shown that the state of the system approaches the standstill as time goes to infitv and meanwhile, the estimated parameter converges to the unknown parameter.

  4. Impact of automation: Measurement of performance, workload and behaviour in a complex control environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfe, Nora; Sharples, Sarah; Wilson, John R

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes an experiment that was undertaken to compare three levels of automation in rail signalling; a high level in which an automated agent set routes for trains using timetable information, a medium level in which trains were routed along pre-defined paths, and a low level where the operator (signaller) was responsible for the movement of all trains. These levels are described in terms of a Rail Automation Model based on previous automation theory (Parasuraman et al., 2000). Performance, subjective workload, and signaller activity were measured for each level of automation running under both normal operating conditions and abnormal, or disrupted, conditions. The results indicate that perceived workload, during both normal and disrupted phases of the experiment, decreased as the level of automation increased and performance was most consistent (i.e. showed the least variation between participants) with the highest level of automation. The results give a strong case in favour of automation, particularly in terms of demonstrating the potential for automation to reduce workload, but also suggest much benefit can achieved from a mid-level of automation potentially at a lower cost and complexity.

  5. Modeling and control of tissue compression and temperature for automation in robot-assisted surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Utkarsh; Li, Baichun; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgery is being used widely due to its various benefits that includes reduced patient trauma and increased dexterity and ergonomics for the operating surgeon. Making the whole or part of the surgical procedure autonomous increases patient safety and will enable the robotic surgery platform to be used in telesurgery. In this work, an Electrosurgery procedure that involves tissue compression and application of heat such as the coaptic vessel closure has been automated. A MIMO nonlinear model characterizing the tissue stiffness and conductance under compression was feedback linearized and tuned PID controllers were used to control the system to achieve both the displacement and temperature constraints. A reference input for both the constraints were chosen as a ramp and hold trajectory which reflect the real constraints that exist in an actual surgical procedure. Our simulations showed that the controllers successfully tracked the reference trajectories with minimal deviation and in finite time horizon. The MIMO system with controllers developed in this work can be used to drive a surgical robot autonomously and perform electrosurgical procedures such as coaptic vessel closures.

  6. Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm for System Identification and Controller Optimization of Automated Guided Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA with Pareto optimality and elitist tactics for the control system design of automated guided vehicle (AGV. The MOGA is used to identify AGV driving system model and optimize its servo control system sequentially. In system identification, the model identified by least square method is adopted as an evolution tutor who selects the individuals having balanced performances in all objectives as elitists. In controller optimization, the velocity regulating capability required by AGV path tracking is employed as decision-making preferences which select Pareto optimal solutions as elitists. According to different objectives and elitist tactics, several sub-populations are constructed and they evolve concurrently by using independent reproduction, neighborhood mutation and heuristic crossover. The lossless finite precision method and the multi-objective normalized increment distance are proposed to keep the population diversity with a low computational complexity. Experiment results show that the cascaded MOGA have the capability to make the system model consistent with AGV driving system both in amplitude and phase, and to make its servo control system satisfy the requirements on dynamic performance and steady-state accuracy in AGV path tracking.

  7. Intelligent systems approach for automated identification of individual control behavior of a human operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaychik, Kirill B.

    Acceptable results have been obtained using conventional techniques to model the generic human operator's control behavior. However, little research has been done in an attempt to identify an individual based on his/her control behavior. The main hypothesis investigated in this dissertation is that different operators exhibit different control behavior when performing a given control task. Furthermore, inter-person differences are manifested in the amplitude and frequency content of the non-linear component of the control behavior. Two enhancements to the existing models of the human operator, which allow personalization of the modeled control behavior, are presented in this dissertation. One of the proposed enhancements accounts for the "testing" control signals, which are introduced by an operator for more accurate control of the system and/or to adjust his/her control strategy. Such enhancement uses the Artificial Neural Network (ANN), which can be fine-tuned to model the "testing" control behavior of a given individual. The other model enhancement took the form of an equiripple filter (EF), which conditions the power spectrum of the control signal before it is passed through the plant dynamics block. The filter design technique uses Parks-McClellan algorithm, which allows parameterization of the desired levels of power at certain frequencies. A novel automated parameter identification technique (APID) was developed to facilitate the identification process of the parameters of the selected models of the human operator. APID utilizes a Genetic Algorithm (GA) based optimization engine called the Bit-climbing Algorithm (BCA). Proposed model enhancements were validated using the experimental data obtained at three different sources: the Manual Control Laboratory software experiments, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle simulation, and NASA Langley Research Center Visual Motion Simulator studies. Validation analysis involves comparison of the actual and simulated control

  8. Modelling of Fuzzy Control Modes for the Automated Pumping Station of the Oil and Gas Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagdatullin, A.; Muravyova, E.; Sharipov, M.

    2016-06-01

    An attempt has been made to explain to the scientific and technical establishment the fact that the fuzzy controllers with input/output parameters represented by the set of precise terms of automate control objects, which operative algorithm is verbally presented as a unique experience of experts in the domain, in simpler way, with higher speed, slighter error and less costs as compared with the standard fuzzy controllers.

  9. METHOD OF PLANNING CONTROL AUTOMATED SYSTEM INTEGRITY IN THE OPERATION AND SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton S. Lysunets

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the problems of monitoring the integrity of sophisticated banking systems in the accompaniment. The understanding of the level of integrity of the automated system is described using estimates of the integrity level of the planning methodology of testing the automated banking system. Results of the article would be used in courses on Software Engineering and Banking Systems Automation

  10. A Sigma-Delta ADC with Decimation and Gain Control Function for a Bluetooth Receiver in 130 nm Digital CMOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Jinseok

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a discrete-time second-order multibit sigma-delta ADC that filters and decimates by two the input data samples. At the same time it provides gain control function in its input sampling stage. A 4-tap FIR switched capacitor (SC architecture was chosen for antialiasing filtering. The decimation-by-two function is realized using divided-by-two clock signals in the antialiasing filter. Antialiasing, gain control, and sampling functions are merged in the sampling network using SC techniques. This compact architecture allows operating the preceding blocks at twice the ADC's clock frequency, thus improving the noise performance of the wireless receiver channel and relaxing settling requirements of the analog building blocks. The presented approach has been validated and incorporated in a commercial single-chip Bluetooth radio realized in a 1.5 V 130 nm digital CMOS process. The measured antialiasing filtering shows better than 75 dB suppression at the folding frequency band edge. A 67 dB dynamic range was measured with a sampling frequency of 37.5MHz.

  11. [Grazing systems, rotenone and parasites control in crossbred calves: effect on live weight gain and on parasites burdens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catto, João B; Bianchin, Ivo; Santurio, Jânio M; Feijó, Gelson L D; Kichel, Armindo N; Silva, José M da

    2009-01-01

    Practices for endo and ectoparasite control in beef cattle were evaluated in two independent experiments. First, the effects of rotenone on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks were evaluated in vitro and in experimentally infected calves. In the second trial, the effects of grazing systems associated with endo and ectoparasite treatments on parasite burden and weight gain of naturally parasited animals were evaluated. Rotenone showed acaricide action on larvae and engorged ticks during in vitro tests and on larvae in experimentally infected calves. Three treatments with endectocide decreased (P parasited by horn fly, tick and larvae of Dermatobia hominis and the group treated with rotenone were significantly less parasited by horn fly in relation to control. Animals under rotational grazing showed significantly higher EPG than those under continuous grazing. Three treatments with endectocide in the dry season plus three acaricide treatments with fipronil in the raining season reduced EPG, tick, and screw worm larva counts, and provided a significant increase (23 kg) of live weight gain in relation to untreated animals.

  12. Dynamic planning of navigation determinations of airspace and missile objects in an automated flight test control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovtsov, D. A.; Karpov, D. S.

    2011-12-01

    This study considers an approach to planning navigation determinations of airspace and missile objects in the course of preparing for and carrying out an active flight test in an automated flight test control system. The approach is based on special information and mathematical software. The performance indices of the navigation determination subsystem are studied. Results of simulated modeling are provided.

  13. Automated agents for management and control of the ALICE Computing Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoras, C.; Betev, L.; Carminati, F.; Legrand, I.; Voicu, R.

    2010-04-01

    A complex software environment such as the ALICE Computing Grid infrastructure requires permanent control and management for the large set of services involved. Automating control procedures reduces the human interaction with the various components of the system and yields better availability of the overall system. In this paper we will present how we used the MonALISA framework to gather, store and display the relevant metrics in the entire system from central and remote site services. We will also show the automatic local and global procedures that are triggered by the monitored values. Decision-taking agents are used to restart remote services, alert the operators in case of problems that cannot be automatically solved, submit production jobs, replicate and analyze raw data, resource load-balance and other control mechanisms that optimize the overall work flow and simplify day-to-day operations. Synthetic graphical views for all operational parameters, correlations, state of services and applications as well as the full history of all monitoring metrics are available for the ent ire system that now encompasses 85 sites all over the world, mo re than 14000 CPU cores and 10PB of storage.

  14. PLC在工业自动化控制中的应用%Application of PLC in Industrial Automation Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗勇

    2012-01-01

    叙述了PLC在工业自动化控制中的应用,并对可编程器PLC进行了简要介绍,分析了PLC的通信功能和特点,探讨了PLC在工业自动化领域的未来发展。%The author described application of PLC in industrial automation control, and briefly introduced PLC. Then, the author analyzed of communication function and features of PLC, and discussed future development of PLC in industrial automation field.

  15. Feasibility of a controlled trial aiming to prevent excessive pregnancy-related weight gain in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiderpass Elisabete

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention may predispose women to long-term overweight and other health problems. Intervention studies aiming at preventing excessive pregnancy-related weight gain are needed. The feasibility of implementing such a study protocol in primary health care setting was evaluated in this pilot study. Methods A non-randomized controlled trial was conducted in three intervention and three control maternity and child health clinics in primary health care in Finland. Altogether, 132 pregnant and 92 postpartum women and 23 public health nurses (PHN participated in the study. The intervention consisted of individual counselling on physical activity and diet at five routine visits to a PHN and of an option for supervised group exercise until 37 weeks' gestation or ten months postpartum. The control clinics continued their usual care. The components of the feasibility evaluation were 1 recruitment and participation, 2 completion of data collection, 3 realization of the intervention and 4 the public health nurses' experiences. Results 1 The recruitment rate was slower than expected and the recruitment period had to be prolonged from the initially planned three months to six months. The average participation rate of eligible women at study enrolment was 77% and the drop-out rate 15%. 2 In total, 99% of the data on weight, physical activity and diet and 96% of the blood samples were obtained. 3 In the intervention clinics, 98% of the counselling sessions were realized, their contents and average durations were as intended, 87% of participants regularly completed the weekly records for physical activity and diet, and the average participation percentage in the group exercise sessions was 45%. 4 The PHNs regarded the extra training as a major advantage and the high additional workload as a disadvantage of the study. Conclusion The study protocol was mostly feasible to implement, which

  16. Steam generation process control and automation; Automacao e controle no processo de geracao de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Junior, Jose Cleodon de; Silva, Walmy Andre C.M. da [PETROBRAS S.A., Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the implementation of the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA) in the steam generation process for injection in heavy oil fields of the Alto do Rodrigues Production Asset, developed by PETROBRAS/E and P/UN-RNCE. This Asset is located in the northeastern region of Brazil, in Rio Grande do Norte State. It addresses to the steam generators for injection in oil wells and the upgrade project that installed remote terminal units and a new panel controlled by PLC, changed all the pneumatic transmitters by electronic and incorporated the steam quality and oxygen control, providing the remote supervision of the process. It also discusses the improvements obtained in the steam generation after the changes in the conception of the control and safety systems. (author)

  17. Model-Driven Development of Automation and Control Applications: Modeling and Simulation of Control Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Vepsäläinen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope and responsibilities of control applications are increasing due to, for example, the emergence of industrial internet. To meet the challenge, model-driven development techniques have been in active research in the application domain. Simulations that have been traditionally used in the domain, however, have not yet been sufficiently integrated to model-driven control application development. In this paper, a model-driven development process that includes support for design-time simulations is complemented with support for simulating sequential control functions. The approach is implemented with open source tools and demonstrated by creating and simulating a control system model in closed-loop with a large and complex model of a paper industry process.

  18. Automation Security

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzoev, Dr. Timur

    2014-01-01

    Web-based Automated Process Control systems are a new type of applications that use the Internet to control industrial processes with the access to the real-time data. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks contain computers and applications that perform key functions in providing essential services and commodities (e.g., electricity, natural gas, gasoline, water, waste treatment, transportation) to all Americans. As such, they are part of the nation s critical infrastructu...

  19. Predictive Sea State Estimation for Automated Ride Control and Handling - PSSEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terrance L.; Howard, Andrew B.; Aghazarian, Hrand; Rankin, Arturo L.

    2012-01-01

    PSSEARCH provides predictive sea state estimation, coupled with closed-loop feedback control for automated ride control. It enables a manned or unmanned watercraft to determine the 3D map and sea state conditions in its vicinity in real time. Adaptive path-planning/ replanning software and a control surface management system will then use this information to choose the best settings and heading relative to the seas for the watercraft. PSSEARCH looks ahead and anticipates potential impact of waves on the boat and is used in a tight control loop to adjust trim tabs, course, and throttle settings. The software uses sensory inputs including IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit), stereo, radar, etc. to determine the sea state and wave conditions (wave height, frequency, wave direction) in the vicinity of a rapidly moving boat. This information can then be used to plot a safe path through the oncoming waves. The main issues in determining a safe path for sea surface navigation are: (1) deriving a 3D map of the surrounding environment, (2) extracting hazards and sea state surface state from the imaging sensors/map, and (3) planning a path and control surface settings that avoid the hazards, accomplish the mission navigation goals, and mitigate crew injuries from excessive heave, pitch, and roll accelerations while taking into account the dynamics of the sea surface state. The first part is solved using a wide baseline stereo system, where 3D structure is determined from two calibrated pairs of visual imagers. Once the 3D map is derived, anything above the sea surface is classified as a potential hazard and a surface analysis gives a static snapshot of the waves. Dynamics of the wave features are obtained from a frequency analysis of motion vectors derived from the orientation of the waves during a sequence of inputs. Fusion of the dynamic wave patterns with the 3D maps and the IMU outputs is used for efficient safe path planning.

  20. Automated innovative diagnostic, data management and communication tool, for improving malaria vector control in endemic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontas, John; Mitsakakis, Konstantinos; Zengerle, Roland; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Sikaala, Chadwick Haadezu; Etang, Josiane; Fallani, Matteo; Carman, Bill; Müller, Pie; Chouaïbou, Mouhamadou; Coleman, Marlize; Coleman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease that caused more than 400,000 deaths in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015. Mass prevention of the disease is best achieved by vector control which heavily relies on the use of insecticides. Monitoring mosquito vector populations is an integral component of control programs and a prerequisite for effective interventions. Several individual methods are used for this task; however, there are obstacles to their uptake, as well as challenges in organizing, interpreting and communicating vector population data. The Horizon 2020 project "DMC-MALVEC" consortium will develop a fully integrated and automated multiplex vector-diagnostic platform (LabDisk) for characterizing mosquito populations in terms of species composition, Plasmodium infections and biochemical insecticide resistance markers. The LabDisk will be interfaced with a Disease Data Management System (DDMS), a custom made data management software which will collate and manage data from routine entomological monitoring activities providing information in a timely fashion based on user needs and in a standardized way. The ResistanceSim, a serious game, a modern ICT platform that uses interactive ways of communicating guidelines and exemplifying good practices of optimal use of interventions in the health sector will also be a key element. The use of the tool will teach operational end users the value of quality data (relevant, timely and accurate) to make informed decisions. The integrated system (LabDisk, DDMS & ResistanceSim) will be evaluated in four malaria endemic countries, representative of the vector control challenges in sub-Saharan Africa, (Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia and Zambia), highly representative of malaria settings with different levels of endemicity and vector control challenges, to support informed decision-making in vector control and disease management.

  1. Automated Microscopy: Macro Language Controlling a Confocal Microscope and its External Illumination: Adaptation for Photosynthetic Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Gábor; Kaňa, Radek

    2016-04-01

    Photosynthesis research employs several biophysical methods, including the detection of fluorescence. Even though fluorescence is a key method to detect photosynthetic efficiency, it has not been applied/adapted to single-cell confocal microscopy measurements to examine photosynthetic microorganisms. Experiments with photosynthetic cells may require automation to perform a large number of measurements with different parameters, especially concerning light conditions. However, commercial microscopes support custom protocols (through Time Controller offered by Olympus or Experiment Designer offered by Zeiss) that are often unable to provide special set-ups and connection to external devices (e.g., for irradiation). Our new system combining an Arduino microcontroller with the Cell⊕Finder software was developed for controlling Olympus FV1000 and FV1200 confocal microscopes and the attached hardware modules. Our software/hardware solution offers (1) a text file-based macro language to control the imaging functions of the microscope; (2) programmable control of several external hardware devices (light sources, thermal controllers, actuators) during imaging via the Arduino microcontroller; (3) the Cell⊕Finder software with ergonomic user environment, a fast selection method for the biologically important cells and precise positioning feature that reduces unwanted bleaching of the cells by the scanning laser. Cell⊕Finder can be downloaded from http://www.alga.cz/cellfinder. The system was applied to study changes in fluorescence intensity in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 cells under long-term illumination. Thus, we were able to describe the kinetics of phycobilisome decoupling. Microscopy data showed that phycobilisome decoupling appears slowly after long-term (>1 h) exposure to high light.

  2. Classification Trees for Quality Control Processes in Automated Constructed Response Scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, David M.; Hone, Anne S.; Miller, Susan; Bejar, Isaac I.

    As the automated scoring of constructed responses reaches operational status, the issue of monitoring the scoring process becomes a primary concern, particularly when the goal is to have automated scoring operate completely unassisted by humans. Using a vignette from the Architectural Registration Examination and data for 326 cases with both human…

  3. Distributed cerebellar plasticity implements adaptable gain control in a manipulation task: a closed-loop robotic simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus A Garrido Alcazar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Adaptable gain regulation is at the core of the forward controller operation performed by the cerebro-cerebellar loops and it allows the intensity of motor acts to be finely tuned in a predictive manner. In order to learn and store information about body-object dynamics and to generate an internal model of movement, the cerebellum is thought to employ long-term synaptic plasticity. LTD at the PF-PC synapse has classically been assumed to subserve this function (Marr, 1969. However, this plasticity alone cannot account for the broad dynamic ranges and time scales of cerebellar adaptation. We therefore tested the role of plasticity distributed over multiple synaptic sites (Gao et al., 2012; Hansel et al., 2001 by generating an analog cerebellar model embedded into a control loop connected to a robotic simulator. The robot used a three-joint arm and performed repetitive fast manipulations with different masses along an 8-shape trajectory. In accordance with biological evidence, the cerebellum model was endowed with both LTD and LTP at the PF-PC, MF-DCN and PC-DCN synapses. This resulted in a network scheme whose effectiveness was extended considerably compared to one including just PF-PC synaptic plasticity. Indeed, the system including distributed plasticity reliably self-adapted to manipulate different masses and to learn the arm-object dynamics over a time course that included fast learning and consolidation, along the lines of what has been observed in behavioral tests. In particular, PF-PC plasticity operated as a time correlator between the actual input state and the system error, while MF-DCN and PC-DCN plasticity played a key role in generating the gain controller. This model suggests that distributed synaptic plasticity allows generation of the complex learning properties of the cerebellum. The incorporation of further plasticity mechanisms and of spiking signal processing will allow this concept to be extended in a more realistic

  4. Weight gain is associated with improved glycaemic control but with adverse changes in plasma lipids and blood pressure isn Type 1 diabetes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ferriss, J B

    2012-02-03

    AIMS: To assess the effects of weight gain on metabolic control, plasma lipids and blood pressure in patients with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Patients in the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study (n = 3250) were examined at baseline and 1800 (55%) were re-examined a mean of 7.3 years later. Patients had Type 1 diabetes, defined as a diagnosis made before age 36 years and with a need for continuous insulin therapy within a year of diagnosis. Patients were aged 15-60 years at baseline and were stratified for age, sex and duration of diabetes. RESULTS: The change in HbA(1c) from baseline to follow-up examination was significantly more favourable in those who gained 5 kg or more during follow-up (\\'marked weight gain\\') than in patients who gained less or no weight or lost weight (\\'less or no weight gain\\'). In those with marked weight gain, there was a significantly greater rise in plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol and significantly less favourable changes in low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with those with less or no weight gain, with or without adjustment for HbA(1c). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure also rose significantly more in the group with marked weight gain. CONCLUSION: Weight gain in patients with Type 1 diabetes has adverse effects on plasma lipids and blood pressure, despite a small improvement in glycaemic control.

  5. A Multi-core Heterogeneous Programmable Automation Controller System of Construction Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Guoqing

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There are two main issues, high cost and interrupt response delay for current PACs (programmable automation controllers which are using high frequency single-chip microprocessors and commercial RTOS (real-time operating system working by switching the tasks and interrupts. To solve these problems, a new low-cost multi-core heterogeneous PAC structure was proposed. Based on the traditional front-end of interrupt service without interrupt switching delay and the division & deployment of multi real-time tasks. We implemented a new programming language Engineer C including its syntax, compiler and an integrated development environment, which can dynamically divide the multi tasks and deploy the division to single low-cost microcontroller, then built the hardware prototype, which consists of a digital signal board, an analog signal board and a motion control board, every board has its microcontroller and communicates each other by an enhanced SPI bus. Testing results show the hardware prototype and IDE can be provided as a low-cost PAC solution for construction machine.

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Security Entry Control Programs: Security Forces versus Automated Entry Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Performance, Uci . ’*. Now York: John Wiley & Sons, 19B4*. Austin, Brian 1B. "Controlling Physical Access From a Central Location." Securitu Mianaement...needed to accomplish tasks rver a period of time. Eating, if not properly approached, can cause malnutrition or improper nutrition, definitely

  7. SiPM Gain Stabilization Studies for Adaptive Power Supply

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2074257; Zalieckas, Justas; Cvach, Jaroslav; Kvasnicka, Jiri; Polak, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    We present herein gain stabilization studies of SiPMs using a climate chamber at CERN. We present results for four detectors not tested before, three from Hamamatsu and one from KETEK. Two of the Hamamatsu SiPMs are novel sensors with trenches that reduce cross talk. We use an improved readout system with a digital oscilloscope controlled with a dedicated LabView program. We improved and automized the analysis to deal with large datasets. We have measured the gain-versus-bias-voltage dependence at fixed temperature and gain-versus-temperature dependence at fixed bias voltage to determine the bias voltage dependence on temperature $V(T)$ for stable gain. We show that the gain remains stable to better than $\\pm 0.5\\%$ in the $20^\\circ \\rm C - 30^\\circ C$ temperature range if the bias voltage is properly adjusted with temperature.

  8. Development of Digital Hysteresis Current Control with PLL Loop Gain Compensation Strategy for PWM Inverters with Constant Switching Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Belhaouchet

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Hysteresis current control is one of the simplest techniques used to control the magnitude and phase angle of motor current for motor drives systems. However, this technique presents several disadvantages such as operation at variable switching frequency which can reveal problems of filtering, interference between the phases in the case of the three-phase systems with insulated neutral connection or delta connection, and irregularity of the modulation pulses which especially causes an acoustic noise on the level of the machine for the high power drive. In this paper, a new technique is proposed for a variable-hysteresis-band controller based on dead beat control applied to three phase voltage source PWM inverters feeding AC motors. Its main aim is firstly ensure a constant switching frequency and secondly the synchronization of modulation pulses using the phase-locked-loop with loop gain compensation in order to ensure a better stability. The behavior of the proposed technique is verified by simulation.

  9. A gene-based information gain method for detecting gene-gene interactions in case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Huang, Dongli; Guo, Maozu; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Chunyu; Teng, Zhixia; Zhang, Ruijie; Jiang, Yongshuai; Lv, Hongchao; Wang, Limei

    2015-11-01

    Currently, most methods for detecting gene-gene interactions (GGIs) in genome-wide association studies are divided into SNP-based methods and gene-based methods. Generally, the gene-based methods can be more powerful than SNP-based methods. Some gene-based entropy methods can only capture the linear relationship between genes. We therefore proposed a nonparametric gene-based information gain method (GBIGM) that can capture both linear relationship and nonlinear correlation between genes. Through simulation with different odds ratio, sample size and prevalence rate, GBIGM was shown to be valid and more powerful than classic KCCU method and SNP-based entropy method. In the analysis of data from 17 genes on rheumatoid arthritis, GBIGM was more effective than the other two methods as it obtains fewer significant results, which was important for biological verification. Therefore, GBIGM is a suitable and powerful tool for detecting GGIs in case-control studies.

  10. Gimbals Drive and Control Electronics Design, Development and Testing of the LRO High Gain Antenna and Solar Array Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyakov, Boris; Thakore, Kamal

    2010-01-01

    Launched June 18, 2009 on an Atlas V rocket, NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is the first step in NASA's Vision for Space Exploration program and for a human return to the Moon. The spacecraft (SC) carries a wide variety of scientific instruments and provides an extraordinary opportunity to study the lunar landscape at resolutions and over time scales never achieved before. The spacecraft systems are designed to enable achievement of LRO's mission requirements. To that end, LRO's mechanical system employed two two-axis gimbal assemblies used to drive the deployment and articulation of the Solar Array System (SAS) and the High Gain Antenna System (HGAS). This paper describes the design, development, integration, and testing of Gimbal Control Electronics (GCE) and Actuators for both the HGAS and SAS systems, as well as flight testing during the on-orbit commissioning phase and lessons learned.

  11. Gaining control over responses to implicit attitude tests: Implementation intentions engender fast responses on attitude-incongruent trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Thomas L; Sheeran, Paschal; Pepper, John

    2012-03-01

    The present research investigated whether forming implementation intentions could promote fast responses to attitude-incongruent associations (e.g., woman-manager) and thereby modify scores on popular implicit measures of attitude. Expt 1 used the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure associations between gender and science versus liberal arts. Planning to associate women with science engendered fast responses to this category-attribute pairing and rendered summary scores more neutral compared to standard IAT instructions. Expt 2 demonstrated that forming egalitarian goal intentions is not sufficient to produce these effects. Expt 3 extended these findings to a different measure of implicit attitude (the Go/No-Go Association Task) and a different stereotypical association (Muslims-terrorism). In Expt 4, managers who planned to associate women with superordinate positions showed more neutral IAT scores relative to non-planners and effects were maintained 3 weeks later. In sum, implementation intentions enable people to gain control over implicit attitude responses.

  12. Asthma Triggers: Gain Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Asthma Share Facebook Twitter Google+ ... remove an animal from the home, it is important to thoroughly clean the floors, walls, carpets and ...

  13. Determination of all feasible robust PID controllers for open-loop unstable plus time delay processes with gain margin and phase margin specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Jay

    2014-03-01

    This paper proposes a novel alternative method to graphically compute all feasible gain and phase margin specifications-oriented robust PID controllers for open-loop unstable plus time delay (OLUPTD) processes. This method is applicable to general OLUPTD processes without constraint on system order. To retain robustness for OLUPTD processes subject to positive or negative gain variations, the downward gain margin (GM(down)), upward gain margin (GM(up)), and phase margin (PM) are considered. A virtual gain-phase margin tester compensator is incorporated to guarantee the concerned system satisfies certain robust safety margins. In addition, the stability equation method and the parameter plane method are exploited to portray the stability boundary and the constant gain margin (GM) boundary as well as the constant PM boundary. The overlapping region of these boundaries is graphically determined and denotes the GM and PM specifications-oriented region (GPMSOR). Alternatively, the GPMSOR characterizes all feasible robust PID controllers which achieve the pre-specified safety margins. In particular, to achieve optimal gain tuning, the controller gains are searched within the GPMSOR to minimize the integral of the absolute error (IAE) or the integral of the squared error (ISE) performance criterion. Thus, an optimal PID controller gain set is successfully found within the GPMSOR and guarantees the OLUPTD processes with a pre-specified GM and PM as well as a minimum IAE or ISE. Consequently, both robustness and performance can be simultaneously assured. Further, the design procedures are summarized as an algorithm to help rapidly locate the GPMSOR and search an optimal PID gain set. Finally, three highly cited examples are provided to illustrate the design process and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Automatic controller to water plants Acionador automático para irrigar plantas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Oliveira Medici

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the massive demand of water for plant irrigation, there are few devices being used in the automation of this process in agriculture. This work evaluates a simple controller to water plants automatically that can be set up with low cost commercial materials, which are large-scale produced. This controller is composed by a ceramic capsule used in common domestic water filters; a plastic tube around 1.5 m long, and a pressostate used in domestic washing machines. The capsule and the pressostate are connected through the tube so that all parts are filled with water. The ceramic capsule is the sensor of the controller and has to be placed into the plant substrate. The pressostate has to be placed below the sensor and the lower it is, the higher is the water tension to start the irrigation, since the lower is the pressostate the higher is the water column above it and, therefore, the higher is the tension inside the ceramic cup to pull up the water column. The controller was evaluated in the control of drip irrigation for small containers filled with commercial organic substrate or soil. Linear regressions explained the relationship between the position of pressostate and the maximum water tension in the commercial substrate (p A despeito da enorme demanda por água na irrigação de plantas, existem poucos aparelhos para automação deste processo sendo usados na agricultura. Avaliou-se um acionador automático para irrigação, o qual pode ser confeccionado com materiais comerciais de baixo custo, pois são produzidos em larga escala. Este acionador é composto por uma cápsula cerâmica usada em filtros de água domésticos; um tubo plástico com cerca de um metro e meio de comprimento e um pressostato de máquinas de lavar roupas domésticas. A cápsula e o pressostato são conectados pelo tubo de forma que todo o espaço interno seja preenchido com água. A cápsula é o sensor do acionador e deve ser posicionada dentro do substrato das

  15. Automated characterization of varnishes photo-degradation using portable T-controlled Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osticioli, I.; Ciofini, D.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Siano, S.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, a portable-Raman device (excitation wavelength 1064 nm) was employed for the first time for continuously monitoring the complex molecular dynamics of terpenoid resins (dammar, mastic, colophony, sandarac and shellac), which occur during their ageing under artificial light exposure. The instrumentation was equipped with a pyroelectric sensor allowing for temperature control of the sample's irradiated surface while the acquisition of spectra occurs by setting fixed maximum temperature and total radiant exposure. Resins were dropped into special pits over a dedicated rotating wheel moved by a USB motor. The rotation allowed samples sliding between the positions designated for the acquisition of the Raman spectra and that for artificial ageing. Samples were exposed to artificial light for 45-days and almost 400 spectra for each resin sample were collected. The exposure to artificial light led to significant changes allowing the characterization of the alteration process. The automated acquisition of a large number of spectra overtime during light-exposure has given the possibility to distinguish fast dynamics, mainly associated to solvent evaporation, from those slower due to resins photo-degradation processes.

  16. AUTOMATION OF QUALITY CONTROL OF MILK HOMOGENIZATION BY ULTRASONIC SPECTROSCOPY METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Bityukov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the possibility of determining homogenization degree of milk and dairy products using ultrasonic vibrations absorption spectra. Advantages of this method application in automated manufacturing systems were examined. Theoretical background of the method, as well as the possibility of determining the distribution of the fat globules in milk, depending on their sizes were substantiated. We derived mathematical equations, showing the relationship between the homogenization degree of dairy products and the acoustic properties of the medium, such as the propagation velocity of ultrasonic vibrations in the medium tested and the absorption coefficient in the medium at a specific frequency of the ultrasonic impact and medium temperature. It was shown that the measurement of the propagation of the milk acoustic properties in frequency, evaluation of their density function of the relaxation times spectrum, and then from the relaxation times to the particles masses allow operational control of the fat globules masses distribution in fractions. Theoretical studies were confirmed by experimental research carrying out whose results demonstrate clearly the dependence of absorption degree of ultrasonic vibrations on the degree of milk homogenization. The dependence between the estimates of the relaxation spectra and the first two moments of the statistical distribution of milk fat globules, which demonstrated their relationship was studied. Possible improvements the method under consideration to increase the reliability of the results obtained were proposed.

  17. Heating automation

    OpenAIRE

    Tomažič, Tomaž

    2013-01-01

    This degree paper presents usage and operation of peripheral devices with microcontroller for heating automation. The main goal is to make a quality system control for heating three house floors and with that, increase efficiency of heating devices and lower heating expenses. Heat pump, furnace, boiler pump, two floor-heating pumps and two radiator pumps need to be controlled by this system. For work, we have chosen a development kit stm32f4 - discovery with five temperature sensors, LCD disp...

  18. Heat recovery gain more than doubled. Heat recovery system controller; Rueckwaermezahl mehr als verdoppelt. WRG-Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voit, Christian [Kulle und Hofstetter, TGA Consulting, Muenchen (Germany); Niederer, Martin [Konvekta AG, St. Gallen (Switzerland)

    2009-03-15

    The hospital at Munich-Bogenhausen, which is a top level hospital with more than 1000 beds, modernised its heat recovery system first installed in the eighties of last century. A modern high-efficiency integrated recirculation system was installed instead. The system has a novel heat recovery controller which not only detects deviations from optimal operation but also identifies the causes. The system supplier, Konvekta AG of St.Gallen, Switzerland, is able to guarantee a heat recovery rate of 87 percent on a long-term basis. The energy cost for preheating of the ambient air was reduced by 78 percent as compared to the original system. (orig.)

  19. Integrating Prognostics in Automated Contingency Management Strategies for Advanced Aircraft Controls Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Automated Contingency Management (ACM) is an emerging and game-changing area of engineering and scientific research that integrates prognostics and health management...

  20. Fuzzy-Logic-Based Gain-Scheduling Control for State-of-Charge Balance of Distributed Energy Storage Systems for DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    -charge or deep-discharge in one of the energy storage units. Primary control in a microgrid is responsible for power sharing among units; and droop control is typically used in this stage. This paper proposes a modular and decentralized gain-scheduling control strategy based on fuzzy logic that ensures balanced...

  1. Automated methanol dosage using liquid flow controllers; Automatisierte Methanolregelung mit Liquid Flow Controllern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattler, Thomas [Buerkert Fluid Control Systems, Ingelfingen (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    Transmission gearwheels are frequently exposed to extreme loads. Generally, in order to counteract premature wear, gearwheels made from steel are surface-hardened. This is carried out primarily by gas carburizing and subsequent quenching (case hardening). These processes of gas carburizing increase the carbon content in the boundary area of the workpiece and change the boundary structure of the steel. In the foundation Institut fuer Werkstofftechnik (IWT) (Institute for Materials Engineering) in Bremen, they are engaged intensively with the various processes of heat treatment for the hardening of steel. As an alternative to gas carburizing using endogas, the Nitrogen-Methanol Process, in which liquid methanol is directly introduced into the furnace, plays an important role and is gaining in importance. At the IWT, Liquid Flow Controllers (LFC) provide regulated and completely documented processes. (orig.)

  2. A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial of Maternal Postpartum Deworming to Improve Infant Weight Gain in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casapía, Martín; Aguilar, Eder; Silva, Hermánn; Montresor, Antonio; Rahme, Elham; Fraser, William D.; Marquis, Grace S.; Vercruysse, Jozef; Allen, Lindsay H.; Blouin, Brittany; Razuri, Hugo; Pezo, Lidsky

    2017-01-01

    Background Nutritional interventions targeting the critical growth and development period before two years of age can have the greatest impact on health trajectories over the life course. Compelling evidence has demonstrated that interventions investing in maternal health in the first 1000 days of life are beneficial for both mothers and their children. One such potential intervention is deworming integrated into maternal postpartum care in areas where soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic. Methodology/Principal Findings From February to August 2014, 1010 mother-infant pairs were recruited into a trial aimed at assessing the effectiveness of maternal postpartum deworming on infant and maternal health outcomes. Following delivery, mothers were randomly assigned to receive either single-dose 400 mg albendazole or placebo. Participants were followed-up at 1 and 6 months postpartum. There was no statistically significant difference in mean weight gain between infants in the experimental and control groups (mean difference: -0.02; 95% CI: -0.1, 0.08) at 6 months of age. Further, deworming had no effect on measured infant morbidity indicators. However, ad hoc analyses restricted to mothers who tested positive for STHs at baseline suggest that infants of mothers in the experimental group had greater mean length gain in cm (mean difference: 0.8; 95% CI: 0.1, 1.4) and length-for-age z-score (mean difference: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) at 6 months of age. Conclusions/Significance In a study population composed of both STH-infected and uninfected mothers, maternal postpartum deworming was insufficient to impact infant growth and morbidity indicators up to 6 months postpartum. Among STH-infected mothers, however, important improvements in infant length gain and length-for-age were observed. The benefits of maternal postpartum deworming should be further investigated in study populations having higher overall prevalences and intensities of STH infections and, in

  3. Fuzzy PI Controller Based Fault Analysis and Recovery in Sensorless BLDC Motor using High Gain Hybrid Converter (HGHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jayanthi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Renewable Energy Sources (RES has been widely used in various applications due to increase in power demand. In this study, a High Gain Hybrid Converter (HGHC has been used to utilize maximum power from PV panel and to control the battery mode of operation such as charging/discharging in an efficient manner. In the load side, sensor less BLDC motor has been used in this study. After the back EMF is generated in the load side BLDC motor, it is taken as feedback to the HGHC. So, this will act as the main supply and thus, more power can be saved. Moreover, this research study also focuses on the transient analysis of the BLDC motor. The inverter in BLDC motor plays a vital role as it is responsible for flux generation and fixing up of angle ‘θ’ to the motor for its operation. So, the failures in the switches of the inverter would greatly affect the overall functioning of the BLDC motor. Thus, this research study focuses on the failure analysis of these switches in the inverter. In order to analyze and recover these faults, error controllers have been used in this proposed study. The simulations are carried out in MATLAB r2011a and the results are taken. The results show the significant performance of the proposed model.

  4. Gasification technology increases the efficiency of power plants. Automation solution controls processses; Vergasungstechnologie steigert Effizienz von Kraftwerken. Automatisierungsloesung steuert Prozesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laufkoetter, Silke

    2013-04-15

    More electric power and heat from waste and biomass - this enables innovative technologies which were developed by Metso (Helsinki, Finland). The plant installed by Metso in Lathi (Finland) is a milestone in the technology of the waste incineration: Never before, a power plant has gasified waste materials in such an order of magnitude. In Pori (Finland) biomass was gasified. The automation solution Metso DNA was used in both power plants in order to control the demanding processes.

  5. Deadlock handling for real-time control of AGVs at automated container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, M.; Grunow, M.; Günther, H.O.

    2006-01-01

    In automated container terminals, situations occur where quay cranes, stacking cranes, and automated guided vehicles (AGVs), directly or indirectly request each other to start a specific process. Hence, all of the affected resources are blocked, possibly leading to the complete deadlock of indivi......In automated container terminals, situations occur where quay cranes, stacking cranes, and automated guided vehicles (AGVs), directly or indirectly request each other to start a specific process. Hence, all of the affected resources are blocked, possibly leading to the complete deadlock...... of individual cranes or AGVs. Particularly, AGVs are liable to deadlocks because they always need a secondary resource, either a quay crane or a stacking crane, to perform the pick-up and drop-off operations. Because usually no buffering of containers takes place at the interfaces between AGVs and cranes......, the consequences of deadlocks are rather severe. Two different methods for the detection of deadlocks are presented. One is based on a matrix representation of the terminal system. The other directly traces the requests for the individual resources. To resolve deadlock situations arising in an automated container...

  6. Deadlock handling for real-time control of AGV's at automated container terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, M.; Grunow, Martin; Günther, H.O.

    2007-01-01

    In automated container terminals, situations occur where quay cranes, stacking cranes, and automated guided vehicles (AGVs), directly or indirectly request each other to start a specific process. Hence, all of the affected resources are blocked, possibly leading to the complete deadlock of indivi......In automated container terminals, situations occur where quay cranes, stacking cranes, and automated guided vehicles (AGVs), directly or indirectly request each other to start a specific process. Hence, all of the affected resources are blocked, possibly leading to the complete deadlock...... of individual cranes or AGVs. Particularly, AGVs are liable to deadlocks because they always need a secondary resource, either a quay crane or a stacking crane, to perform the pick-up and drop-off operations. Because usually no buffering of containers takes place at the interfaces between AGVs and cranes......, the consequences of deadlocks are rather severe. Two different methods for the detection of deadlocks are presented. One is based on a matrix representation of the terminal system. The other directly traces the requests for the individual resources. To resolve deadlock situations arising in an automated container...

  7. Spectrum efficiency gains resulting from the implementation of adaptive transmit power control in fixed terrestrial links at 38 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, S. A.; Inglis, I.; Hansell, P.

    2009-06-01

    Adaptive transmit power control (ATPC) can be used to improve the spectrum efficiency of terrestrial point-to-point fixed links by limiting the transmit power to that required to maintain a constant bit error rate regardless of the propagation conditions. This results in a reduced transmit power being used during clear-sky conditions, lowering the interference resulting from the ATPC link. This improves the frequency reuse factor associated with a given band and geographic area, providing a spectrum efficiency gain. The project described in this paper found that implementing ATPC in the 38 GHz terrestrial fixed links band gives significant improvements in spectrum efficiency as measured by the increase in the number of links assigned to channel 1 (from ˜50% to ˜70%) and the decrease in the maximum bandwidth used (from ˜300 MHz to ˜180 MHz). However, a model plan exposed to an exceptionally intense frontal rain event showed a number of additional outages caused by ATPC, amounting to approximately 12% of the number of outages caused directly by rain. In comparison, when exposed to an annualized simulated rain database the number of extra outages in this case falls to 2.6%.

  8. Comparison of dual-time-constant and fast-acting automatic gain control (AGC) systems in cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Patrick J; Büchner, Andreas; Stone, Michael A; Lenarz, Thomas; Moore, Brian C J

    2009-04-01

    Cochlear implants usually employ an automatic gain control (AGC) system as a first stage of processing. AGC1 was a fast-acting (syllabic) compressor. AGC2 was a dual-time-constant system; it usually performed as a slow-acting compressor, but incorporated an additional fast-acting system to provide protection from sudden increases in sound level. Six experienced cochlear-implant users were tested in a counterbalanced order, receiving one-month of experience with a given AGC type before switching to the other type. Performance was evaluated shortly after provision of a given AGC type and after one-month of experience with that AGC type. Questionnaires, mainly relating to listening in quiet situations, did not reveal significant differences between the two AGC types. However, fixed-level and roving-level tests of sentence identification in noise both revealed significantly better performance for AGC2. It is suggested that the poorer performance for AGC1 occurred because AGC1 introduced cross-modulation between the target speech and background noise, which made perceptual separation of the target and background more difficult.

  9. Automated work packages architecture: An initial set of human factors and instrumentation and controls requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Oxstrand, Johanna H. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Le Blanc, Katya L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The work management process in current fleets of national nuclear power plants is so highly dependent on large technical staffs and quality of work instruction, i.e., paper-based, that this puts nuclear energy at somewhat of a long-term economic disadvantage and increase the possibility of human errors. Technologies like mobile portable devices and computer-based procedures can play a key role in improving the plant work management process, thereby increasing productivity and decreasing cost. Automated work packages are a fundamentally an enabling technology for improving worker productivity and human performance in nuclear power plants work activities because virtually every plant work activity is accomplished using some form of a work package. As part of this year’s research effort, automated work packages architecture is identified and an initial set of requirements identified, that are essential and necessary for implementation of automated work packages in nuclear power plants.

  10. Microprocessor-based integration of microfluidic control for the implementation of automated sensor monitoring and multithreaded optimization algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezra, Elishai; Maor, Idan; Bavli, Danny; Shalom, Itai; Levy, Gahl; Prill, Sebastian; Jaeger, Magnus S; Nahmias, Yaakov

    2015-08-01

    Microfluidic applications range from combinatorial synthesis to high throughput screening, with platforms integrating analog perfusion components, digitally controlled micro-valves and a range of sensors that demand a variety of communication protocols. Currently, discrete control units are used to regulate and monitor each component, resulting in scattered control interfaces that limit data integration and synchronization. Here, we present a microprocessor-based control unit, utilizing the MS Gadgeteer open framework that integrates all aspects of microfluidics through a high-current electronic circuit that supports and synchronizes digital and analog signals for perfusion components, pressure elements, and arbitrary sensor communication protocols using a plug-and-play interface. The control unit supports an integrated touch screen and TCP/IP interface that provides local and remote control of flow and data acquisition. To establish the ability of our control unit to integrate and synchronize complex microfluidic circuits we developed an equi-pressure combinatorial mixer. We demonstrate the generation of complex perfusion sequences, allowing the automated sampling, washing, and calibrating of an electrochemical lactate sensor continuously monitoring hepatocyte viability following exposure to the pesticide rotenone. Importantly, integration of an optical sensor allowed us to implement automated optimization protocols that require different computational challenges including: prioritized data structures in a genetic algorithm, distributed computational efforts in multiple-hill climbing searches and real-time realization of probabilistic models in simulated annealing. Our system offers a comprehensive solution for establishing optimization protocols and perfusion sequences in complex microfluidic circuits.

  11. Demo abstract: Flexhouse-2-an open source building automation platform with a focus on flexible control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehrke, Oliver; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Svendsen, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    in or on buildings, and most of these resources will not be communicating directly with the smart grid; in order to allow internal coordination and optimization of resource use at building level, a building automation platform will act as an intermediary. Such a platform must be easy to adapt to the multitude......, an open-source implementation of a building automation system which has been designed with a strong focus on enabling the integration of the building into a smart power system and dedicated support for the requirements of an R&D environment. We will demonstrate the need for such a platform, discuss...

  12. The scheme of combined application of optimization and simulation models for formation of an optimum structure of an automated control system of space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernigovskiy, A. S.; Tsarev, R. Yu; Nikiforov, A. Yu; Zelenkov, P. V.

    2016-11-01

    With the development of automated control systems of space systems, there are new classes of spacecraft that requires improvement of their structure and expand their functions. When designing the automated control system of space systems occurs various tasks such as: determining location of elements and subsystems in the space, hardware selection, the distribution of the set of functions performed by the system units, all of this under certain conditions on the quality of control and connectivity of components. The problem of synthesis of structure of automated control system of space systems formalized using discrete variables at various levels of system detalization. A sequence of tasks and stages of the formation of automated control system of space systems structure is developed. The authors have developed and proposed a scheme of the combined implementation of optimization and simulation models to ensure rational distribution of functions between the automated control system complex and the rest of the system units. The proposed approach allows to make reasonable hardware selection, taking into account the different requirements for the operation of automated control systems of space systems.

  13. L-band automatic-gain-controlled erbium-doped fiber amplifier utilizing C-band backward-amplified spontaneous emission and electrical feedback monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jyi-Lai; Lee, Yueh-Chien; Huang, Chia-Chih

    2009-02-10

    A new L-band automatic-gain-controlled (AGC) erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) for dense wavelength-division-multiplexing transmission systems is presented, in which a single 1480 nm laser with an internal thermoelectric cooler is used as a primary pump for stable amplification. All C-band amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) is recycled by the secondary pump to enhance the gain efficiency. A fraction of the output signal is used as an electrical feedback monitor for the AGC to improve the gain-clamped (GC) flatness. Experimental results prove that the AGC EDFA has a gain flatness of better than 0.46 dB/40 nm, i.e., below 1.5%, and a higher gain of approximately 36.5 dB compared to that of approximately 35.3 dB for the conventional GC EDFA at -30 dBm input signal power. The best gain flatness of +/-0.25 dB can be achieved over the dynamic range greater than 20 dB. The dynamic range of noise figure is between 6.7 and 7.1. The 3 dB down bandwidth is more than 40 nm. Overall dynamics measurements for the AGC EDFA feedback stabilization have been carried out. The recorded corresponding rise time of 1.565 ms indicates that the system does not exhibit any overshoot of gain or ASE variation due to the signal at the beginning of the pulse.

  14. A low-power high-performance configurable auto-gain control loop for a digital hearing aid SoC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengying, Chen; Hainan, Liu; Yong, Hei; Jun, Fan; Xiaoyu, Hu

    2013-10-01

    A low-power, configurable auto-gain control loop for a digital hearing aid system on a chip (SoC) is presented. By adopting a mixed-signal feedback control structure and peak detection and judgment, it can work in automatic gain or variable gain control modes through a digital signal processing unit. A noise-reduction and dynamic range (DR) improvement technique is also used to ensure the DR of the circuit in a low-voltage supply. The circuit is implemented in an SMIC 0.13 μm 1P8M CMOS process. The measurement results show that in a 1 V power supply, 1.6 kHz input frequency and 200 mVp—p, the SFDR is 74.3 dB, the THD is 66.1 dB, and the total power is 89 μW, meeting the application requirements of hearing aid SoCs.

  15. Automation of controller's management by train work on the byelorussian ferrous road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Erofeev

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The description of the automated system of working out of the look-ahead train schedule is resulted. Appointment, structure and system structure are considered. Requirements to the entrance information are established. Procedures of automatic construction and dispatching updatings of the look-ahead train schedule are regulated

  16. Towards automation of control software: a review of challenges in mechatronic design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez Cabrera, A.A.; Foeken, M.J.; Tekin, O.A.; Woestenenk, K.; Erden, M.S.; De Schutter, B.; Tooren, M.J.L.; Babuska, R.; Houten, van F.J.A.M.; Tomiyama, T.

    2010-01-01

    Development of mechatronic systems requires collaboration among experts from different design domains. In this paper the authors identify a set of challenges related to the design of mechatronic systems. The challenges are mostly related to integration of design and analysis tools, and automation of

  17. All-optical pulse data generation in a semiconductor optical amplifier gain controlled by a reshaped optical clock injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Gong-Ru; Chang, Yung-Cheng; Yu, Kun-Chieh

    2006-05-01

    Wavelength-maintained all-optical pulse data pattern transformation based on a modified cross-gain-modulation architecture in a strongly gain-depleted semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is investigated. Under a backward dark-optical-comb injection with 70% duty-cycle reshaping from the received data clock at 10GHz, the incoming optical data stream is transformed into a pulse data stream with duty cycle, rms timing jitter, and conversion gain of 15%, 4ps, and 3dB, respectively. The high-pass filtering effect of the gain-saturated SOA greatly improves the extinction ratio of data stream by 8dB and reduces its bit error rate to 10-12 at -18dBm.

  18. Instrumentation, control and automation for biogas plants - a full-scale example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, J. [EnerCess GmbH, Bad Oeynhausen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Biogas plants win more and more importance, because of numerous ecological advantages. That means, the biogas production cycle is an integrated system of resources utilization, organic waste treatment, nutrient recycling and redistribution, and renewable energy production, which creates numerous energetic, environmental and agricultural benefits. In these plants biogas can be produced by using numerous different input substrates: Farm products: cattle and pork liquid manure, wheat, poultry excrements, maize etc.; Organic waste (primarily from food industries): canteen kitchens, food markets, viniculture, brewery, distillery etc.; Sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants. The processes in biogas plants are similar to processes, which are well known for many decades in anaerobic wastewater/sludge treatment. But up to now, the level of instrumentation, control and automation (ICA) of full-scale biogas systems is still low. I.e. most plants are black box systems which can be analyzed and/or optimized only difficultly. Consequently, the practice shows that many biogas plants are operated suboptimal. Furthermore, for economic reasons more and more plants are operated in a critical (load) range. I.e. there is a high danger of a plant breakdown, which can cause high financial deficits. This situation is mainly caused by the fact, that most of biogas plants are still rather small plants. E.g., the average electricity production capacity of approx. 2,000 biogas plants in Germany is only approx. 125 kWel. But, as a result of technical progress and permanently rising prices for non-renewable energy, biogas plants become more and more economic reasonable. Furthermore, because of the economies of scale law more and more larger plants are built (250 - 2,000 kWel). In case of larger plants, the costs for ICA are only a small part of the total investment costs (5 - 10 %). On larger plants the operators are also usually full-time workers, which can fully concentrate upon the

  19. Dynamic Coordinated Shifting Control of Automated Mechanical Transmissions without a Clutch in a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinlei Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the shifting process of automated mechanical transmissions (AMTs for traditional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs, and by combining the features of electric machines with fast response speed, the dynamic model of the hybrid electric AMT vehicle powertrain is built up, the dynamic characteristics of each phase of shifting process are analyzed, and a control strategy in which torque and speed of the engine and electric machine are coordinatively controlled to achieve AMT shifting control for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV without clutch is proposed. In the shifting process, the engine and electric machine are well controlled, and the shift jerk and power interruption and restoration time are reduced. Simulation and real car test results show that the proposed control strategy can more efficiently improve the shift quality for PHEVs equipped with AMTs.

  20. More automation and less cognitive control of imagined walking movements in high versus low fit older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Godde

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Using motor imagery, we investigated brain activation in simple and complex walking tasks (walking forward and backward on a treadmill and analyzed if the motor status of older adults influenced these activation patterns. 51 older adults (64-79 years of age were trained in motor execution and imagery and then performed the imagination task and two control tasks (standing, counting backward in a horizontal position within a 3T MRI scanner (first person perspective, eyes closed. Walking backward as compared to walking forward required larger activations in the primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, parietal cortex, thalamus, putamen, and caudatum, but less activation in the cerebellum and brainstem. Motor high-fit individuals showed more activations and larger BOLD signals in motor-related areas compared to low-fit participants but demonstrated lower activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Moreover, parietal activation in high-fit participants remained stable throughout the movement period whereas low-fit participants revealed an early drop in activity in this area accompanied by increasing activity in frontal brain regions. Overall, walking forward seemed to be more automated (more activation in cerebellum and brainstem, whereas walking backward required more resources, e.g. for visual-spatial processing and sensorimotor control. Low-fit subjects in particular seemed to require more cognitive resources for planning and controlling. High-fit subjects, on the contrary, revealed more movement automation and a higher “attention span.” Our results support the hypothesis that high fitness corresponds with more automation and less cognitive control of complex motor tasks, which might help to free up cognitive resources.

  1. Automated Air Traffic Control Operations with Weather and Time-Constraints: A First Look at (Simulated) Far-Term Control Room Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, Thomas; Homola, Jeffrey R.; Martin, Lynne H.; Mercer, Joey S.; Cabrall, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss results from a recent high fidelity simulation of air traffic control operations with automated separation assurance in the presence of weather and time-constraints. We report findings from a human-in-the-loop study conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) at the NASA Ames Research Center. During four afternoons in early 2010, fifteen active and recently retired air traffic controllers and supervisors controlled high levels of traffic in a highly automated environment during three-hour long scenarios, For each scenario, twelve air traffic controllers operated eight sector positions in two air traffic control areas and were supervised by three front line managers, Controllers worked one-hour shifts, were relieved by other controllers, took a 3D-minute break, and worked another one-hour shift. On average, twice today's traffic density was simulated with more than 2200 aircraft per traffic scenario. The scenarios were designed to create peaks and valleys in traffic density, growing and decaying convective weather areas, and expose controllers to heavy and light metering conditions. This design enabled an initial look at a broad spectrum of workload, challenge, boredom, and fatigue in an otherwise uncharted territory of future operations. In this paper we report human/system integration aspects, safety and efficiency results as well as airspace throughput, workload, and operational acceptability. We conclude that, with further refinements. air traffic control operations with ground-based automated separation assurance can be an effective and acceptable means to routinely provide very high traffic throughput in the en route airspace.

  2. Automated DNA Sequencing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Ekkebus, C.P.; Hauser, L.J.; Kress, R.L.; Mural, R.J.

    1999-04-25

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a core DNA sequencing facility to support biological research endeavors at ORNL and to conduct basic sequencing automation research. This facility is novel because its development is based on existing standard biology laboratory equipment; thus, the development process is of interest to the many small laboratories trying to use automation to control costs and increase throughput. Before automation, biology Laboratory personnel purified DNA, completed cycle sequencing, and prepared 96-well sample plates with commercially available hardware designed specifically for each step in the process. Following purification and thermal cycling, an automated sequencing machine was used for the sequencing. A technician handled all movement of the 96-well sample plates between machines. To automate the process, ORNL is adding a CRS Robotics A- 465 arm, ABI 377 sequencing machine, automated centrifuge, automated refrigerator, and possibly an automated SpeedVac. The entire system will be integrated with one central controller that will direct each machine and the robot. The goal of this system is to completely automate the sequencing procedure from bacterial cell samples through ready-to-be-sequenced DNA and ultimately to completed sequence. The system will be flexible and will accommodate different chemistries than existing automated sequencing lines. The system will be expanded in the future to include colony picking and/or actual sequencing. This discrete event, DNA sequencing system will demonstrate that smaller sequencing labs can achieve cost-effective the laboratory grow.

  3. Automating checks of plan check automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabi, Tarek; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2014-07-08

    While a few physicists have designed new plan check automation solutions for their clinics, fewer, if any, managed to adapt existing solutions. As complex and varied as the systems they check, these programs must gain the full confidence of those who would run them on countless patient plans. The present automation effort, planCheck, therefore focuses on versatility and ease of implementation and verification. To demonstrate this, we apply planCheck to proton gantry, stereotactic proton gantry, stereotactic proton fixed beam (STAR), and IMRT treatments.

  4. Controlling Air Traffic (Simulated) in the Presence of Automation (CATS PAu) 1995: A Study of Measurement Techniques for Situation Awareness in Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jennifer R.

    1995-01-01

    As automated systems proliferate in aviation systems, human operators are taking on less and less of an active role in the jobs they once performed, often reducing what should be important jobs to tasks barely more complex than monitoring machines. When operators are forced into these roles, they risk slipping into hazardous states of awareness, which can lead to reduced skills, lack of vigilance, and the inability to react quickly and competently when there is a machine failure. Using Air Traffic Control (ATC) as a model, the present study developed tools for conducting tests focusing on levels of automation as they relate to situation awareness. Subjects participated in a two-and-a-half hour experiment that consisted of a training period followed by a simulation of air traffic control similar to the system presently used by the FAA, then an additional simulation employing automated assistance. Through an iterative design process utilizing numerous revisions and three experimental sessions, several measures for situational awareness in a simulated Air Traffic Control System were developed and are prepared for use in future experiments.

  5. Controlling slow and fast light and dynamic pulse-splitting with tunable optical gain in a whispering-gallery-mode microcavity

    CERN Document Server

    Asano, Motoki; Chen, Weijian; Ikuta, Rikizo; Yang, Lan; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We report controllable manipulation of slow and fast light in a whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microtoroid resonator fabricated from Erbium (Er3+) doped silica. We observe continuous transition of the coupling between the fiber-taper waveguide and the microresonator from undercoupling to critical coupling and then to overcoupling regimes by increasing the pump power even though the spatial distance between the resonator and the waveguide was kept fixed. This, in turn, enables switching from fast to slow light and vice versa just by increasing the optical gain. An enhancement of delay of two-fold over the passive silica resonator (no optical gain) was observed in the slow light regime. Moreover, we show dynamic pulse splitting and its control in slow/fast light systems using optical gain.

  6. Highly Automated Arrival Management and Control System Suitable for Early NextGen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Jung, Jaewoo

    2013-01-01

    This is a presentation of previously published work conducted in the development of the Terminal Area Precision Scheduling and Spacing (TAPSS) system. Included are concept and technical descriptions of the TAPSS system and results from human in the loop simulations conducted at Ames Research Center. The Terminal Area Precision Scheduling and Spacing system has demonstrated through research and extensive high-fidelity simulation studies to have benefits in airport arrival throughput, supporting efficient arrival descents, and enabling mixed aircraft navigation capability operations during periods of high congestion. NASA is currently porting the TAPSS system into the FAA TBFM and STARS system prototypes to ensure its ability to operate in the FAA automation Infrastructure. NASA ATM Demonstration Project is using the the TAPSS technologies to provide the ground-based automation tools to enable airborne Interval Management (IM) capabilities. NASA and the FAA have initiated a Research Transition Team to enable potential TAPSS and IM Technology Transfer.

  7. Dibujo automático de planos complejos: control de posiciones ocupadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Historico, Jesús

    1976-09-01

    Full Text Available The computerized design of building structures at a level of an almost total automation give rise to a great number of problems of various kinds that have to be solved. Out of these problems the author has chosen a topic that is of special interest because of its general field of application and because it is different from the previous topics dealing with automatic dimensioning of structures.El diseño computarizado de estructuras de edificación a un nivel de automatismo prácticamente del cien por cien, exige la resolución de múltiples problemas de variada índole. De entre ellos, el autor selecciona un tema de especial interés, por su aplicabilidad genérica y por apartarse de los temas ya clásicos en el dimensionamiento automático de estructuras.

  8. AUTOMATION OF QUALITY CONTROL OF MILK HOMOGENIZATION BY ULTRASONIC SPECTROSCOPY METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    V. K. Bityukov; A. A. Khvostov; D. I. Rebrikov; V. E. Merzlikin

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the possibility of determining homogenization degree of milk and dairy products using ultrasonic vibrations absorption spectra. Advantages of this method application in automated manufacturing systems were examined. Theoretical background of the method, as well as the possibility of determining the distribution of the fat globules in milk, depending on their sizes were substantiated. We derived mathematical equations, showing the relationship between the homogenization de...

  9. Distribution automation and control support; Analysis and interpretation of DAC working group results for use in project planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klock, P.; Evans, D.

    1979-01-01

    The Executive Summary and Proceedings of the Working Group Meeting was analyzed to identify specific projects appropriate for Distribution Automation and Control DAC RD&D. Specific projects that should be undertaken in the DAC RD&D program were recommended. The projects are presented under broad categories of work selected based on ESC's interpretation of the results of the Working Group Meeting. Some of the projects are noted as utility industry projects. The ESC recommendations regarding program management are presented. Utility versus Government management responsibilities are noted.

  10. 26 CFR 1.355-6 - Recognition of gain on certain distributions of stock or securities in controlled corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... recommendation, 20 unrelated individuals each purchases 30 shares of the outstanding D stock. Each client's... that clients purchase D stock, the trustee of several trusts qualified under section 401(a) sponsored... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recognition of gain on certain distributions...

  11. Preventing weight gain by lifestyle intervention in a general practice setting - three-year results of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Bogt, Nancy C. W.; Bemelmans, Wanda J. E.; Beltman, Frank W.; Broer, Jan; Smit, Andries J.; van der Meer, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Weight regain after initial loss of weight is common, which indicates a need for lifestyle counseling aimed at preventing weight gain instead of weight loss. This study was conducted to determine whether structured lifestyle counseling by nurse practitioners (NPs) group compared with usu

  12. Warehouse automation

    OpenAIRE

    Pogačnik, Jure

    2017-01-01

    An automated high bay warehouse is commonly used for storing large number of material with a high throughput. In an automated warehouse pallet movements are mainly performed by a number of automated devices like conveyors systems, trolleys, and stacker cranes. From the introduction of the material to the automated warehouse system to its dispatch the system requires no operator input or intervention since all material movements are done automatically. This allows the automated warehouse to op...

  13. Does Automated Feedback Improve Writing Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Joshua; Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Andrada, Gilbert N.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines data from students in grades 4-8 who participated in a statewide computer-based benchmark writing assessment that featured automated essay scoring and automated feedback. We examined whether the use of automated feedback was associated with gains in writing quality across revisions to an essay, and with transfer effects…

  14. A 0.04 mm (2) Buck-Boost DC-DC Converter for Biomedical Implants Using Adaptive Gain and Discrete Frequency Scaling Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Libin; Gargiulo, Gaetano Dario; Lehmann, Torsten; Hamilton, Tara Julia

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the design of a reconfigurable buck-boost switched-capacitor DC-DC converter suitable for use in a wide range of biomedical implants. The proposed converter has an extremely small footprint and uses a novel control method that allows coarse and fine control of the output voltage. The converter uses adaptive gain control, discrete frequency scaling and pulse-skipping schemes to regulate the power delivered to a range of output voltages and loads. Adaptive gain control is used to implement variable switching gain ratios from a reconfigurable power stage and thereby make coarse steps in output voltage. A discrete frequency scaling controller makes discrete changes in switching frequency to vary the power delivered to the load and perform fine tuning when the output voltage is within 10% of the target output voltage. The control architecture is predominately digital and it has been implemented as part of a fully-integrated switched-capacitor converter design using a standard bulk CMOS 0.18 μm process. Measured results show that the converter has an output voltage range of 1.0 to 2.2 V, can deliver up to 7.5 mW of load power and efficiency up to 75% using an active area of only 0.04 mm (2), which is significantly smaller than that of other designs. This low-area, low-complexity reconfigurable power converter can support low-power circuits in biomedical implant applications.

  15. Assessment for Operator Confidence in Automated Space Situational Awareness and Satellite Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, J.; Voshell, M.; Sliva, A.

    2016-09-01

    The United States is highly dependent on space resources to support military, government, commercial, and research activities. Satellites operate at great distances, observation capacity is limited, and operator actions and observations can be significantly delayed. Safe operations require support systems that provide situational understanding, enhance decision making, and facilitate collaboration between human operators and system automation both in-the-loop, and on-the-loop. Joint cognitive systems engineering (JCSE) provides a rich set of methods for analyzing and informing the design of complex systems that include both human decision-makers and autonomous elements as coordinating teammates. While, JCSE-based systems can enhance a system analysts' understanding of both existing and new system processes, JCSE activities typically occur outside of traditional systems engineering (SE) methods, providing sparse guidance about how systems should be implemented. In contrast, the Joint Director's Laboratory (JDL) information fusion model and extensions, such as the Dual Node Network (DNN) technical architecture, provide the means to divide and conquer such engineering and implementation complexity, but are loosely coupled to specialized organizational contexts and needs. We previously describe how Dual Node Decision Wheels (DNDW) extend the DNN to integrate JCSE analysis and design with the practicalities of system engineering and implementation using the DNN. Insights from Rasmussen's JCSE Decision Ladders align system implementation with organizational structures and processes. In the current work, we present a novel approach to assessing system performance based on patterns occurring in operational decisions that are documented by JCSE processes as traces in a decision ladder. In this way, system assessment is closely tied not just to system design, but the design of the joint cognitive system that includes human operators, decision-makers, information systems, and

  16. Ultrasonic testing of canning tubes in stainless steel of the EL 4 reactor; Controle par ultrasons des tubes de gaine en acier inoxydable du reacteur EL 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prot, A.; Monnier, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    From all the methods possible for controlling thin cans the one chosen, for numerous reasons, vas that making use of ultrasonic techniques. A method has been developed which should make it possible to carry out a rapid and efficient industrial control of canning tubes, The reasons for the choice of the ultrasonic method are given in detail, together with the principles of the method and the actual control parameters. In the present state of our research, it should be possible to control at least 50 000 tubes a year. Improvements brought about in the details of the control technique itself should make it possible to increase this rate considerably. (authors) [French] Parmi toutes les methodes possibles de controle des gaines minces, le procede retenu pour de multiples raisons a ete celui faisant appel a la technique des ultrasons. Une methode a ete mise au point qui doit permettre un controle industriel rapide et efficace des tubes de gaine. Sont exposes en detail, les raisons du choix de la methode par ultrasons, les principes de cette methode et les parametres du controle proprement dit. Dans l'etat actuel de nos etudes la cadence devrait permettre le controle de 50000 tubes par an au minimum. Des ameliorations de detail portant sur la technique de controle elle-meme, doivent permettre d'accelerer tres notablement cette cadence. (auteurs)

  17. An advanced automation system for operation of Sao Paulo pumping stations from TRANSPETRO Master Control Center - CNCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corcioli, Mario Sergio; Barreto, Camila Maria Benevenuto [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Since 2000 the operations of the TRANSPETRO pumping stations in the state of Sao Paulo region began to be transferred from local control centers located at the transfer and storage terminals to the National Operational Control Center (CNCO) of TRANSPETRO, located at the headquarters of the company, in Rio de Janeiro. The proposed paper aims to presenting an overview of the automation system that was developed to enable such pumping stations to be operated from CNCO in a reliable and secure manner, focusing on tools that offer an embedded system alarms completely free of false alarms with automatic determining of the root cause, and also automatic and advanced diagnoses of problems caused by failures of hardware, human error and abnormal conditions of the process, providing the CNCO SCADA system of accurate and quality information that help operators to make decisions. The referred automation system was integrated for the first time to CNCO SCADA system in 2000, for pipeline pumps of Osvat (Sao Sebastiao - Vale do Paraiba pipeline) station at the Sao Sebastiao Terminal - northern coast of Sao Paulo region. (author)

  18. Light-scattering properties of a woven shade-screen material used for daylighting and solar heat-gain control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Jacob; Jonsson, Jacob C.; Lee, Eleanor S.; Rubin, Mike

    2008-08-01

    Shade-screens are widely used in commercial buildings as a way to limit the amount of direct sunlight that can disturb people in the building. The shade screens also reduce the solar heat-gain through glazing the system. Modern energy and daylighting analysis software such as EnergyPlus and Radiance require complete scattering properties of the scattering materials in the system. In this paper a shade screen used in the LBNL daylighting testbed is characterized using a photogoniometer and a normal angle of incidence integrating sphere. The data is used to create a complete bi-directional scattering distribution function (BSDF) that can be used in simulation programs. The resulting BSDF is compared to a model BADFs, both directly and by calculating the solar heat-gain coefficient for a dual pane system using Window 6.

  19. An Internet-based program for depressive symptoms using human and automated support: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adriana Mira,1 Juana Bretón-López,1,2 Azucena García-Palacios,1,2 Soledad Quero,1,2 Rosa María Baños,2,3 Cristina Botella1,2 1Department of Basic, Clinical Psychology and Psychobiology, Labpsitec, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón de la Plana, Spain; 2CIBER of Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition CIBERobn, CB06/03 Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 3Department of Personality, Evaluation and Psychological Treatment, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the efficacy of an Internet-based program for depressive symptoms using automated support by information and communication technologies (ICTs and human support. Patients and methods: An Internet-based program was used to teach adaptive ways to cope with depressive symptoms and daily problems. A total of 124 participants who were experiencing at least one stressful event that caused interference in their lives, many of whom had clinically significant depressive symptoms, were randomly assigned into either an intervention group with ICT support (automated mobile phone messages, automated emails, and continued feedback through the program; an intervention group with ICT support plus human support (brief weekly support phone call without clinical content; or a waiting-list control. At pre-, post-, and 12-month follow-up, they completed depression, anxiety, positive and negative effect, and perceived stress measures. Results were analyzed using both intention-to-treat and completers data. The majority were women (67.7%, with a mean age of 35.6 years (standard deviation =9.7. Results: The analysis showed that the two intervention groups improved significantly pre- to posttreatment, compared with the control group. Furthermore, improvements were maintained at the 12-month follow-up. Adherence and satisfaction with the program was high in both conditions. Conclusion: The Internet-based program was effective and well

  20. An novel analog programmable power supply for active gain control of the Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC)

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhengwei; Xu, Yupeng; Yan, Bo; Li, Yanguo; Lu, Xuefeng; Li, Xufang; Zhang, Shuo; Chang, Zhi; Li, Jicheng; Zhang, Yifei; Zhao, Jianling

    2016-01-01

    Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPM) are regarded as novel photo-detector to replace conventional Photo-Multiplier Tubes (PMTs). However, the breakdown voltage dependence on the ambient temperature results in a gain variation of $\\sim$3$\\% /^{\\circ} \\mathrm C$. This can severely limit the application of this device in experiments with wide range of operating temperature, especially in space telescope. An experimental setup in dark condition was established to investigate the temperature and bias voltage dependence of gain for the Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC), one type of the SiPM developed by Hamamatsu. The gain and breakdown voltage dependence on operating temperature of an MPPC can be approximated by a linear function, which is similar to the behavior of a zener diode. The measured temperature coefficient of the breakdown voltage is $(59.4 \\pm 0.4$ mV)$/^{\\circ} \\mathrm C$. According to this fact, a programmable power supply based on two zener diodes and an operational amplifier was designed with a positiv...

  1. Gain Flattening Filter Canceling Temperature Dependence of EDFA s gain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.; Ohmura; Y.; Ishizawa; H.; Nakaji; K.; Hashimoto; T.; Shibata; M.; Shigehara; A.; Inoue

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a gain flattening filter (GFF) for an erbium doped fiber (EDF) without temperature control systems. This GFF, which consists of temperature-sensitive long period gratings (LPGs) and a temperature compensated slanted fiber Bragg grating (SFBG), follows the gain shift of EDF with temperature. Gain variation of the EDFA less than 0.25dBp-p was achieved with the bandwidth of 37nm, and the temperature range 0-65℃ without any temperature control systems.

  2. Metamaterials with Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Ortwin

    2012-02-01

    Nanoplasmonic metamaterials are the key to an extreme control of light and allow us to conceive materials with negative or vanishing refractive index. Indeed, metamaterials enable a multitude of exciting and useful applications, such as subwavelength focusing, invisibility cloaking, and ``trapped rainbow'' stopping of light. The realization of these materials has recently advanced from the microwave to the optical regime. However, at optical wavelengths, metamaterials may suffer from high dissipative losses owing to the metallic nature of their constituent nanoplasmonic meta-molecules. It is therefore not surprising that overcoming loss restrictions by gain is currently one of the most important topics in metamaterials' research. At the same time, providing gain on the nanoplasmonic (metamolecular) level opens up exciting new possibilities such as a whole new type of metamaterial nano-laser with a cavity length of about a tenth of the wavelength. The talk gives an overview of the state of the art of gain-enhanced metamaterials. Particular focus will be placed on nano-plasmonic metamaterials (such as double-fishnet metamaterials) with integrated laser dyes as gain medium. The successful compensation of loss by gain is demonstrated on the meta-molecular level. On the basis of a comprehensive, microscopic Maxwell-Bloch Langevin approach of spatio-temporal light amplification and lasing in gain-enhanced nanoplasmonic (negative-index) metamaterials a methodology based on the discrete Poynting's theorem is introduced that allows dynamic tracing of the flow of electromagnetic energy into and out of ``microscopic'' channels (light field, plasmons, gain medium). It is shown that steady-state amplification can be achieved in nanoplasmonic metamaterials. Finally, a complex spatio-temporal interplay of light-field and coherent absorption dynamics is revealed in the lasing dynamics of a nanoplasmonic gain-enhanced double-fishnet metamaterial.

  3. High throughput detection of Coxiella burnetii by real-time PCR with internal control system and automated DNA preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramme Stefanie

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q-fever, a widespread zoonosis. Due to its high environmental stability and infectivity it is regarded as a category B biological weapon agent. In domestic animals infection remains either asymptomatic or presents as infertility or abortion. Clinical presentation in humans can range from mild flu-like illness to acute pneumonia and hepatitis. Endocarditis represents the most common form of chronic Q-fever. In humans serology is the gold standard for diagnosis but is inadequate for early case detection. In order to serve as a diagnostic tool in an eventual biological weapon attack or in local epidemics we developed a real-time 5'nuclease based PCR assay with an internal control system. To facilitate high-throughput an automated extraction procedure was evaluated. Results To determine the minimum number of copies that are detectable at 95% chance probit analysis was used. Limit of detection in blood was 2,881 copies/ml [95%CI, 2,188–4,745 copies/ml] with a manual extraction procedure and 4,235 copies/ml [95%CI, 3,143–7,428 copies/ml] with a fully automated extraction procedure, respectively. To demonstrate clinical application a total of 72 specimens of animal origin were compared with respect to manual and automated extraction. A strong correlation between both methods was observed rendering both methods suitable. Testing of 247 follow up specimens of animal origin from a local Q-fever epidemic rendered real-time PCR more sensitive than conventional PCR. Conclusion A sensitive and thoroughly evaluated real-time PCR was established. Its high-throughput mode may show a useful approach to rapidly screen samples in local outbreaks for other organisms relevant for humans or animals. Compared to a conventional PCR assay sensitivity of real-time PCR was higher after testing samples from a local Q-fever outbreak.

  4. Fault Tolerant Control System Design Using Automated Methods from Risk Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.

    Fault tolerant controls have the ability to be resilient to simple faults in control loop components.......Fault tolerant controls have the ability to be resilient to simple faults in control loop components....

  5. Development and flight test of a multi-function controller for automated cruise flaps on an aircraft wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Craig Allen

    Cruise flaps are trailing-edge flaps which minimize the profile drag of a wing by moving the low-drag-region (or bucket) of a drag polar such that it spans the current coefficient of lift. Previous research has explored the use of a pressure-based technique for automating cruise flaps. Data obtained using this technique can be presented in a number of different formats, and different presentations of the same data tend to lead to the development of different types of automating controllers. The presentation used by previous researchers led to the development of a drag-minimizing controller that required a low-pass filter to prevent instability. This prevented the controller from being used for purposes which required a fast-acting flap. The presentation of pressure data used in this research led to the development of a multi-function controller that includes both slow-acting functionality (drag reduction) and fast-acting functionality (gust alleviation). The pressure-based technique developed by previous researchers using natural-laminar-flow (NLF) airfoils must be modified somewhat for the low Reynolds number SD7037 airfoil used in this research. Drag polars for low Reynolds number airfoils do not behave as predictably as those for NLF airfoils at much higher Reynolds numbers. A series of rigid-aircraft simulations were conducted to show the effectiveness of the multi-function controller, which was able to simultaneously reduce drag and alleviate the effects of vertical gusts. A flight controller was developed using low-cost microcontrollers and pressure transducers. The controller implemented a slow-acting drag-reduction function and a fast-acting function to handle pilot-commanded elevator inputs. Gust alleviation was not implemented due to limitations of the available hardware and flight test conditions. The controller was tested on an radio-controlled sailplane with a wingspan of 100 inches. Although direct measurement of the drag of an aircraft this size is

  6. An Integrated Solution for both Monitoring and Controlling for Automization Using Wireless Sensor Networks: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gnana Seelan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Temperature monitoring plays a major role in controlling it according to its varied conditions. Thisprocess is common in all critical areas like data centre, server rooms, grid rooms and other datacommunication equipped rooms. This is mandatory for each organization/industry to impart suchprocess, as most of the critical data would be in data centre along with their network infrastructure whichhaving various electronic, electrical and mechanical devices are involved for data transmissions. Thesedevices are very much depend on the environmental factors such as temperature, moisture, humidity etc.,and also emit heat in the form of thermal energy when they are in functional. To overcome these heats,the server/data centre room(s would be engaged with multiple (distributed air-conditioning (ac systemsto provide cooling environment and maintain the temperature level of the room. The proposed paper isthe study of automization of monitoring and controlling temperature as per desired requirements withwsn network

  7. Gaining control: changing relations between executive control and processing speed and their relevance for mathematics achievement over course of the preschool period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Caron A C; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Garza, John; Sheffield, Tiffany D; Wiebe, Sandra A; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2014-01-01

    Early executive control (EC) predicts a range of academic outcomes and shows particularly strong associations with children's mathematics achievement. Nonetheless, a major challenge for EC research lies in distinguishing EC from related cognitive constructs that also are linked to achievement outcomes. Developmental cascade models suggest that children's information processing speed is a driving mechanism in cognitive development that supports gains in working memory, inhibitory control and associated cognitive abilities. Accordingly, individual differences in early executive task performance and their relation to mathematics may reflect, at least in part, underlying variation in children's processing speed. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the degree of overlap between EC and processing speed at different preschool age points; and (2) determine whether EC uniquely predicts children's mathematics achievement after accounting for individual differences in processing speed. As part of a longitudinal, cohort-sequential study, 388 children (50% boys; 44% from low income households) completed the same battery of EC tasks at ages 3, 3.75, 4.5, and 5.25 years. Several of the tasks incorporated baseline speeded naming conditions with minimal EC demands. Multidimensional latent models were used to isolate the variance in executive task performance that did not overlap with baseline processing speed, covarying for child language proficiency. Models for separate age points showed that, while EC did not form a coherent latent factor independent of processing speed at age 3 years, it did emerge as a distinct factor by age 5.25. Although EC at age 3 showed no distinct relation with mathematics achievement independent of processing speed, EC at ages 3.75, 4.5, and 5.25 showed independent, prospective links with mathematics achievement. Findings suggest that EC and processing speed are tightly intertwined in early childhood. As EC becomes progressively decoupled from

  8. COMPRESSIBLE VIRTUAL WINDOW ALGORITHM IN PICKING PROCESS CONTROL OF AUTOMATED SORTING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yaohua; ZHANG Yigong; WU Yingying

    2008-01-01

    Compared to fixed virtual window algorithm (FVWA), the dynamic virtual window algorithm (DVWA) determines the length of each virtual container according to the sizes of goods of each order, which saves space of virtual containers and improves the picking efficiency. However, the interval of consecutive goods caused by dispensers on conveyor can not be eliminated by DVWA, which limits a further improvement of picking efficiency. In order to solve this problem, a compressible virtual window algorithm (CVWA) is presented. It not only inherits the merit of DVWA but also compresses the length of virtual containers without congestion of order accumulation by advancing the beginning time of order picking and reasonably coordinating the pace of order accumulation. The simulation result proves that the picking efficiency of automated sorting system is greatly improved by CVWA.

  9. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study of Betahistine to Counteract Olanzapine-Associated Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Nir; Beck, Yaffa; Albeck, Joseph H

    2016-06-01

    Patients with schizophrenia experience higher rates of obesity and related morbidity and mortality than the general population does. Given preclinical studies revealing the role of histamine H1 receptor in human eating behavior, and the potential of olanzapine to block with this system, we hypothesized that histamine H1 receptor agonists may be beneficial in reducing antipsychotic-associated weight gain. In the present study, 36 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and treated with olanzapine were randomized to betahistine (48 mg/d) or matching placebo for 16 weeks. Study outcomes were change in body weight from baseline and effect on antipsychotic efficacy of olanzapine. The patients in the betahistine group had less weight gain (-1.95 kg) compared with placebo group (5.6 + 5.5 kg vs 6.9 + 5.6 kg, respectively). Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Questionnaire showed improvement within each group and that subjects treated with betahistine enjoyed an improvement (reduction) by a mean of 35.7 points, higher when compared with placebo subjects who had a reduction of 26.6 points (P = 0.233). An almost equal amount of subjects in both groups experienced adverse effects during the course of this study (87.5% of betahistine vs 85.0% of placebo-treated subjects). Overall, there were no clinically marked differences in safety signals between both groups. A larger study addressing the weaknesses of this pilot study is warranted.

  10. Safe and Efficacious Use of Automated Bolus Advisors in Individuals Treated With Multiple Daily Insulin Injection (MDI) Therapy: Lessons Learned From the Automated Bolus Advisor Control and Usability Study (ABACUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Christopher G; Barnard, Katharine; Hinnen, Deborah A

    2015-03-20

    Numerous studies have shown that use of integrated automated bolus advisors (BAs) provides significant benefits to individuals using insulin pump devices, including improved glycemic control and greater treatment satisfaction. Within the past few years, BA devices have been developed specifically for individuals treated with multiple daily insulin injection (MDI) therapy; however, many clinicians who treat these individuals may be unfamiliar with insulin pump therapy and, thus, BA use. Findings from the Automated Bolus Advisor Control and Usability Study (ABACUS) revealed that BA use can be efficacious and clinically meaningful in MDI therapy, and that most patients are willing and able to use this technology appropriately when adequate clinical support is provided. The purpose of this article is to review key learnings from ABACUS and provide practical advice for initiating BA use and monitoring therapy.

  11. Accounting Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril1

    2017-01-01

    Accounting Automation   Click Link Below To Buy:   http://hwcampus.com/shop/accounting-automation/  Or Visit www.hwcampus.com Accounting Automation” Please respond to the following: Imagine you are a consultant hired to convert a manual accounting system to an automated system. Suggest the key advantages and disadvantages of automating a manual accounting system. Identify the most important step in the conversion process. Provide a rationale for your response. ...

  12. Home Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I briefly discuss the importance of home automation system. Going in to the details I briefly present a real time designed and implemented software and hardware oriented house automation research project, capable of automating house's electricity and providing a security system to detect the presence of unexpected behavior.

  13. Controlling inbreeding and maximizing genetic gain using semi-definite programming with pedigree-based and genomic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierenbeck, S; Pimentel, E C G; Tietze, M; Körte, J; Reents, R; Reinhardt, F; Simianer, H; König, S

    2011-12-01

    Because of the relatively high levels of genetic relationships among potential bull sires and bull dams, innovative selection tools should consider both genetic gain and genetic relationships in a long-term perspective. Optimum genetic contribution theory using official estimated breeding values for a moderately heritable trait (production index, Index-PROD), and a lowly heritable functional trait (index for somatic cell score, Index-SCS) was applied to find optimal allocations of bull dams and bull sires. In contrast to previous practical applications using optimizations based on Lagrange multipliers, we focused on semi-definite programming (SDP). The SDP methodology was combined with either pedigree (a(ij)) or genomic relationships (f(ij)) among selection candidates. Selection candidates were 484 genotyped bulls, and 499 preselected genotyped bull dams completing a central test on station. In different scenarios separately for PROD and SCS, constraints on the average pedigree relationships among future progeny were varied from a(ij)=0.08 to a(ij)=0.20 in increments of 0.01. Corresponding constraints for single nucleotide polymorphism-based kinship coefficients were derived from regression analysis. Applying the coefficient of 0.52 with an intercept of 0.14 estimated for the regression pedigree relationship on genomic relationship, the corresponding range to alter genomic relationships varied from f(ij) = 0.18 to f(ij) = 0.24. Despite differences for some bulls in genomic and pedigree relationships, the same trends were observed for constraints on pedigree and corresponding genomic relationships regarding results in genetic gain and achieved coefficients of relationships. Generally, allowing higher values for relationships resulted in an increase of genetic gain for Index-PROD and Index-SCS and in a reduction in the number of selected sires. Interestingly, more sires were selected for all scenarios when restricting genomic relationships compared with restricting

  14. Toward Automating Web Protocol Configuration for a Programmable Logic Controller Emulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-19

    programmable logic controller RTU remote terminal unit SCADA supervisory control and data acquisition SUT system under test TTL time to live VM virtual...Date 29 May 2014 Date AFIT-ENG-T-14-J-4 Abstract Industrial Control Systems (ICS) remain vulnerable through attack vectors that exist within programmable...5 2.2 Industrial Control Systems

  15. Experiencia Praktikum con máquinas eléctricas y control automático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael González Curiel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Praktikum project is an innovative experience carried out at the Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV with 17-years-old students that have taken a course of Technology in the High School period. Students are chosen from all the Valencia region attending to their marks in their first year of High School. This note explains the activities carried out in the frame of this program in the Electrical Engineering Department at the Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales of the UPV. During a week, a student was guided by the university professors of this department in the fields of maintenance and calculation of electrical machines and domestic electrical installations. The automated control of them was also introduced to the student.

  16. Automated and temperature-controlled micro-PIV measurements enabling long-term-stable microchannel acoustophoresis characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustsson, Per; Barnkob, Rune; Wereley, Steven T.

    2011-01-01

    We present a platform for micro particle image velocimetry (μPIV), capable of carrying out full-channel, temperature-controlled, long-term-stable, and automated μPIV-measurement of microchannel acoustophoresis with uncertainties below 5% and a spatial resolution in the order of 20 μm. A method...... to determine optimal μPIV-settings for obtaining high-quality results of the spatially inhomogeneous acoustophoretic velocity fields of large dynamical range is presented. In particular we study the dependence of the results on the μPIV interrogation window size and the number of repeated experiments. The μPIV......-method was further verified by comparing it with our previously published particle tracking method. Using the μPIV platform we present a series of high-resolution measurements of the acoustophoretic velocity field as a function of the driving frequency, the driving voltage, and the resonator temperature. Finally, we...

  17. Optimization and Quality Control of Automated Quantitative Mineralogy Analysis for Acid Rock Drainage Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Pooler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Low ore-grade waste samples from the Codelco Andina mine that were analyzed in an environmental and mineralogical test program for acid rock drainage prediction, revealed inconsistencies between the quantitative mineralogical data (QEMSCAN® and the results of geochemical characterizations by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS, LECO® furnace, and sequential extractions. For the QEMSCAN® results, biases were observed in the proportions of pyrite and calcium sulfate minerals detected. An analysis of the results indicated that the problems observed were likely associated with polished section preparation. Therefore, six different sample preparation protocols were tested and evaluated using three samples from the previous study. One of the methods, which involved particle size reduction and transverse section preparation, was identified as having the greatest potential for correcting the errors observed in the mineralogical analyses. Further, the biases in the quantities of calcium sulfate minerals detected were reduced through the use of ethylene glycol as a polishing lubricant. It is recommended that the sample preparation methodology described in this study be used in order to accurately quantify percentages of pyrite and calcium sulfate minerals in environmental mineralogical studies which use automated mineralogical analysis.

  18. Automation in Warehouse Development

    CERN Document Server

    Verriet, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and supports the quality of picking processes. Secondly, the development of models to simulate and analyse warehouse designs and their components facilitates the challenging task of developing warehouses that take into account each customer’s individual requirements and logistic processes. Automation in Warehouse Development addresses both types of automation from the innovative perspective of applied science. In particular, it describes the outcomes of the Falcon project, a joint endeavour by a consortium of industrial and academic partners. The results include a model-based approach to automate warehouse control design, analysis models for warehouse design, concepts for robotic item handling and computer vision, and auton...

  19. AUTOMATED DYNAMIC LOAD CONTROL BY ELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS OF A BUCKET-CHAIN EXCAVATOR IN THE COURSE OF SCOOPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayrullin Rustam Zinnatullovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Methods and algorithms of control of the tension of lifting and towing ropes of bucket-chain excavators are proposed in the article. They are based on the non-linear dependence of the current path length and intensity of excavation efforts. Three automatic control modes, including scooping, correction signals and automatic overload protection, are implemented. Two independent control loops in charge of tension of lifting and towing ropes are developed. The proposed automated control system may be integrated both into new bucket-chain excavators and into those excavators that are already in operation. The new system does not require any substantial alterations in electric drive control systems in charge of lifting and towing, if integrated into excavators in operation. The author has performed the non-linearity analysis; he has also designed, developed and implemented the models that are capable of taking an adequate account of the system peculiarities identified in the course of the project implementation. The system parameters are adjustable to specific conditions of the excavator operation, including the hardness of the rock extracted by the excavator, etc. The automatic overload control system attached to the electric drives in control of lifting and towing ensures maximal responsiveness of the system based on the commutation-related limitations imposed by power-driven elements, maximal over-control values and variability of the transition process. Prevention of any rope slacks in the course of scooping of any hard rock is assured by the loop of regulation of minimal tension of lifting cables. The service life of lifting and towing ropes goes up by eight to ten weeks, if the system proposed by the author is implemented.

  20. Agent-oriented Embedded Control System Design and Development of a Vision-based Automated Guided Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xing

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a control system design and development approach for a vision‐based automated guided vehicle (AGV based on the multi‐agent system (MAS methodology and embedded system resources. A three‐phase agent‐oriented design methodology Prometheus is used to analyse system functions, construct operation scenarios, define agent types and design the MAS coordination mechanism. The control system is then developed in an embedded implementation containing a digital signal processor (DSP and an advanced RISC machine (ARM by using the multitasking processing capacity of multiple microprocessors and system services of a real‐time operating system (RTOS. As a paradigm, an onboard embedded controller is designed and developed for the AGV with a camera detecting guiding landmarks, and the entire procedure has a high efficiency and a clear hierarchy. A vision guidance experiment for our AGV is carried out in a space‐limited laboratory environment to verify the perception capacity and the onboard intelligence of the agent‐oriented embedded control system.

  1. 零相差跟踪控制器增益特性处理技术%Gain-characteristics manipulation technique for zero phase error tracking controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周黎; 杨世洪; 高晓东

    2012-01-01

    In a zero phase error tracking control system, the gain error increases as frequency increases; meanwhile, the zero phase error tracking control system exhibits amplification to high frequency noises. In order to solve these problems, a gain-characteristics manipulation method for zero phase error tracking controller is investigated based on the idea of op- timization. By setting the optimization objective function and restriction conditions, we design the gain error compensator with gain-compensation in low frequency band and gain-attenuation in high frequency band. The design process is given in details and the parameter calculation formulas are derived analytically. Simulation results indicate that the designed compensator effectively increases the tracking accuracy and reduces noise content in controller output, thus, improving the motion smoothness and providing advantages for engineering applications.%零相差跟踪控制系统增益误差随频率升高而增大,同时零相差跟踪控制器对高频噪声有放大作用.为了解决以上问题,本文研究了一种对零相差跟踪控制器增益特性的处理方法.采用了求解优化问题的思想,通过对优化目标函数及约束条件的设置,使设计得到的补偿器具有低频段增益误差补偿,高频段增益衰减的性能.文中详细介绍了补偿器的设计过程,理论推导了参数计算公式.比较仿真结果表明,所设计的补偿器有效地提高了轨迹跟踪精度,减小了控制器输出噪声含量,有利于提高运动平稳性,对工程实践具有参考价值.

  2. Application of matrix singular value properties for evaluating gain and phase margins of multiloop systems. [stability margins for wing flutter suppression and drone lateral attitude control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, V.; Newsom, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    A stability margin evaluation method in terms of simultaneous gain and phase changes in all loops of a multiloop system is presented. A universal gain-phase margin evaluation diagram is constructed by generalizing an existing method using matrix singular value properties. Using this diagram and computing the minimum singular value of the system return difference matrix over the operating frequency range, regions of guaranteed stability margins can be obtained. Singular values are computed for a wing flutter suppression and a drone lateral attitude control problem. The numerical results indicate that this method predicts quite conservative stability margins. In the second example if the eigenvalue magnitude is used instead of the singular value, as a measure of nearness to singularity, more realistic stability margins are obtained. However, this relaxed measure generally cannot guarantee global stability.

  3. Simultaneous gains tuning in boiler/turbine PID-based controller clusters using iterative feedback tuning methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Taft, Cyrus W; Bentsman, Joseph; Hussey, Aaron; Petrus, Bryan

    2012-09-01

    Tuning a complex multi-loop PID based control system requires considerable experience. In today's power industry the number of available qualified tuners is dwindling and there is a great need for better tuning tools to maintain and improve the performance of complex multivariable processes. Multi-loop PID tuning is the procedure for the online tuning of a cluster of PID controllers operating in a closed loop with a multivariable process. This paper presents the first application of the simultaneous tuning technique to the multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) PID based nonlinear controller in the power plant control context, with the closed-loop system consisting of a MIMO nonlinear boiler/turbine model and a nonlinear cluster of six PID-type controllers. Although simplified, the dynamics and cross-coupling of the process and the PID cluster are similar to those used in a real power plant. The particular technique selected, iterative feedback tuning (IFT), utilizes the linearized version of the PID cluster for signal conditioning, but the data collection and tuning is carried out on the full nonlinear closed-loop system. Based on the figure of merit for the control system performance, the IFT is shown to deliver performance favorably comparable to that attained through the empirical tuning carried out by an experienced control engineer.

  4. AUTOMATING THE CONFIGURATION OF THE CONTROLS SYSTEMS OF THE LHC EXPERIMENTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Calheiros, F; Varela, F

    2007-01-01

    The supervisory layer of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments is based on the Prozeßvisualisierungs- und Steuerungsystem (PVSS) [1] and the Joint COntrols Project (JCOP) Framework (FW) [2]. This controls framework includes a Finite State Machine (FSM) toolkit, which allows to operate the control systems according to a well-defined set of states and commands. During the FSM transitions of the detectors, it is required to re-configure parts of the control systems. All configuration parameters of the devices integrated into the control system are stored in the so-called configuration database. In this paper the JCOP FW FSM-Configuration database tool is presented. This tool ensures the availability of all required configuration data, for a given type of run of the experiment, in the PVSS sub-detector control applications. The chosen implementation strategy is discussed in the paper. The approach enables the standalone operation of different partitions of the detectors simultaneously while ensuring indepe...

  5. Altering user' acceptance of automation through prior automation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekier, Marek; Molesworth, Brett R C

    2016-08-22

    Air navigation service providers worldwide see increased use of automation as one solution to overcome the capacity constraints imbedded in the present air traffic management (ATM) system. However, increased use of automation within any system is dependent on user acceptance. The present research sought to determine if the point at which an individual is no longer willing to accept or cooperate with automation can be manipulated. Forty participants underwent training on a computer-based air traffic control programme, followed by two ATM exercises (order counterbalanced), one with and one without the aid of automation. Results revealed after exposure to a task with automation assistance, user acceptance of high(er) levels of automation ('tipping point') decreased; suggesting it is indeed possible to alter automation acceptance. Practitioner Summary: This paper investigates whether the point at which a user of automation rejects automation (i.e. 'tipping point') is constant or can be manipulated. The results revealed after exposure to a task with automation assistance, user acceptance of high(er) levels of automation decreased; suggesting it is possible to alter automation acceptance.

  6. Automation infrastructure and operation control strategy in a stand-alone power system based on renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziogou, Chrysovalantou; Ipsakis, Dimitris; Elmasides, Costas; Stergiopoulos, Fotis; Papadopoulou, Simira; Seferlis, Panos; Voutetakis, Spyros

    The design of the automation system and the implemented operation control strategy in a stand-alone power system in Greece are fully analyzed in the present study. A photovoltaic array and three wind generators serve as the system main power sources and meet a predefined load demand. A lead-acid accumulator is used to compensate the inherent power fluctuations (excess or shortage) and to regulate the overall system operation, based on a developed power management strategy. Hydrogen is produced by using system excess power in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer and is further stored in pressurized cylinders for subsequent use in a PEM fuel cell in cases of power shortage. A diesel generator complements the integrated system and is employed only in emergency cases, such as subsystems failure. The performance of the automatic control system is evaluated through the real-time operation of the power system where data from the various subsystems are recorded and analyzed using a supervised data acquisition unit. Various network protocols were used to integrate the system devices into one central control system managing in this way to compensate for the differences between chemical and electrical subunits. One of the main advantages is the ability of process monitoring from distance where users can perform changes to system principal variables. Furthermore, the performance of the implemented power management strategy is evaluated through simulated scenarios by including a case study analysis on system abilities to meet higher than expected electrical load demands.

  7. Biogas-pH automation control strategy for optimizing organic loading rate of anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating high COD wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dawei; Liu, Jibao; Sui, Qianwen; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-03-01

    Control of organic loading rate (OLR) is essential for anaerobic digestion treating high COD wastewater, which would cause operation failure by overload or less efficiency by underload. A novel biogas-pH automation control strategy using the combined gas-liquor phase monitoring was developed for an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating high COD (27.53 g·L(-1)) starch wastewater. The biogas-pH strategy was proceeded with threshold between biogas production rate >98 Nml·h(-1) preventing overload and pH>7.4 preventing underload, which were determined by methane production kinetics and pH titration of methanogenesis slurry, respectively. The OLR and the effluent COD were doubled as 11.81 kgCOD·kgVSS(-1)·d(-1) and halved as 253.4 mg·L(-1), respectively, comparing with a constant OLR control strategy. Meanwhile COD removal rate, biogas yield and methane concentration were synchronously improved to 99.1%, 312 Nml·gCODin(-1) and 74%, respectively. Using the biogas-pH strategy, AnMBR formed a "pH self-regulation ternary buffer system" which seizes carbon dioxide and hence provides sufficient buffering capacity.

  8. Virtual Planning, Control, and Machining for a Modular-Based Automated Factory Operation in an Augmented Reality Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Yun Suen; Yap, Hwa Jen; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah; Ramesh, S; Phoon, Sin Ye

    2016-06-07

    This study presents a modular-based implementation of augmented reality to provide an immersive experience in learning or teaching the planning phase, control system, and machining parameters of a fully automated work cell. The architecture of the system consists of three code modules that can operate independently or combined to create a complete system that is able to guide engineers from the layout planning phase to the prototyping of the final product. The layout planning module determines the best possible arrangement in a layout for the placement of various machines, in this case a conveyor belt for transportation, a robot arm for pick-and-place operations, and a computer numerical control milling machine to generate the final prototype. The robotic arm module simulates the pick-and-place operation offline from the conveyor belt to a computer numerical control (CNC) machine utilising collision detection and inverse kinematics. Finally, the CNC module performs virtual machining based on the Uniform Space Decomposition method and axis aligned bounding box collision detection. The conducted case study revealed that given the situation, a semi-circle shaped arrangement is desirable, whereas the pick-and-place system and the final generated G-code produced the highest deviation of 3.83 mm and 5.8 mm respectively.

  9. Virtual Planning, Control, and Machining for a Modular-Based Automated Factory Operation in an Augmented Reality Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Yun Suen; Yap, Hwa Jen; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah; Ramesh, S.; Phoon, Sin Ye

    2016-06-01

    This study presents a modular-based implementation of augmented reality to provide an immersive experience in learning or teaching the planning phase, control system, and machining parameters of a fully automated work cell. The architecture of the system consists of three code modules that can operate independently or combined to create a complete system that is able to guide engineers from the layout planning phase to the prototyping of the final product. The layout planning module determines the best possible arrangement in a layout for the placement of various machines, in this case a conveyor belt for transportation, a robot arm for pick-and-place operations, and a computer numerical control milling machine to generate the final prototype. The robotic arm module simulates the pick-and-place operation offline from the conveyor belt to a computer numerical control (CNC) machine utilising collision detection and inverse kinematics. Finally, the CNC module performs virtual machining based on the Uniform Space Decomposition method and axis aligned bounding box collision detection. The conducted case study revealed that given the situation, a semi-circle shaped arrangement is desirable, whereas the pick-and-place system and the final generated G-code produced the highest deviation of 3.83 mm and 5.8 mm respectively.

  10. Control of a Wheelchair in an Indoor Environment Based on a Brain-Computer Interface and Automated Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Yuanqing; Yan, Yongyong; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Shaoyu; Yu, Tianyou; Gu, Zhenghui

    2016-01-01

    The concept of controlling a wheelchair using brain signals is promising. However, the continuous control of a wheelchair based on unstable and noisy electroencephalogram signals is unreliable and generates a significant mental burden for the user. A feasible solution is to integrate a brain-computer interface (BCI) with automated navigation techniques. This paper presents a brain-controlled intelligent wheelchair with the capability of automatic navigation. Using an autonomous navigation system, candidate destinations and waypoints are automatically generated based on the existing environment. The user selects a destination using a motor imagery (MI)-based or P300-based BCI. According to the determined destination, the navigation system plans a short and safe path and navigates the wheelchair to the destination. During the movement of the wheelchair, the user can issue a stop command with the BCI. Using our system, the mental burden of the user can be substantially alleviated. Furthermore, our system can adapt to changes in the environment. Two experiments based on MI and P300 were conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of our system.

  11. Performance evaluation of an automated detection and control system for volunteer potatoes in sugar beet fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, A.T.; Hofstee, J.W.; Henten, van E.J.

    2010-01-01

    Incomplete control of volunteer potato plants causes a high environmental load through increased crop protection chemical usage in potato cropping. A joint effort of industry, policy makers and science initiated a four year scientific project on detection and control of volunteer potato plants. A pr

  12. Automated Manipulation of Micro-Nano Objects with SPM by Using L₁ Adaptive Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinmin Yang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel control methodology for automatically manipulating micro/nano particles by using a Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM is presented. First\tof all, a mathematical model of micro/nanomanipulation, including the interactive forces and dynamics between the tip, particle and substrate along with the roughness effect of the substrate, is described. Then, the L₁ adaptive control design for the manipulation system of micro/nano objects is presented, which consists of a state predictor with fast adaptation, a piece‐wise continuous adaptive law and a low‐pass filtered control design. This control framework can handle nonlinear uncertainties and ensures uniformly bounded tracking performance. The tracking performance bound can be systematically improved by reducing the step size of integration. Rigorous mathematical proof is provided. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented L₁ adaptive control law on the micro/nanomanipulation model.

  13. Dt2 is a gain-of-function MADS-Domain factor gene that controls semi-determinacy in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Similar to Arabidopsis, the wild soybean (Glycine soja) and many soybean (Glycine max) cultivars exhibit indeterminate stem growth controlled by a gene Dt1 – the functional counterpart of the Arabidopsis TFL1. Mutations in TFL1 and Dt1 both result in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) switching from ve...

  14. Design and Implementation of Adaptive Model Based Gain Scheduled Controller for a Real Time Non Linear System in LabVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kalyan Chakravarthi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to design and implement an Adaptive Model Based Gain Scheduled (AMBGS Controller using classical controller tuning techniques for a Single Spherical Nonlinear Tank System (SSTLLS. A varying range of development in the control mechanisms have been evidently seen in the last two decades. The control of level has always been a topic of discussion in the process control scenario. In this study a real time SSTLLS has been chosen for investigation. System identification of these different regions of nonlinear process is done using black box model, which is identified to be nonlinear and approximated to be a First Order plus Dead Time (FOPDT model. A proportional and integral controller is designed using LabVIEW and Skogestad’s and Ziegler Nichols (ZN tuning methods are implemented. The paper will provide details about the data acquisition unit, shows the implementation of the controller and compare the results of PI tuning methods used for an AMBGS Controller.

  15. Gaining Control over Radiolytic Synthesis of Uniform Sub-3-nanometer Palladium Nanoparticles: Use of Aromatic Liquids in the Electron Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abellan Baeza, Patricia; Parent, Lucas R.; Al Hasan, Naila M.; Park, Chiwoo; Arslan, Ilke; Karim, Ayman M.; Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2016-01-07

    Synthesizing nanomaterials of uniform shape and size is of critical importance to access and manipulate the novel structure-property relationships arising at the nanoscale. In this work we synthesize Pd nanoparticles with well-controlled size using in situ liquid-stage scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and demonstrate a match between the reaction kinetics and products of the radiolytic and chemical syntheses of size-stabilized Pd nanoparticles. We quantify the effect of electron dose on the nucleation kinetics, and compare these results with in situ small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments investigating the effect of temperature during chemical synthesis. This work introduces methods for precise control of nanoparticle synthesis in the STEM and provides a means to uncover the fundamental processes behind the size and shape stabilization of nanoparticles.

  16. Automated boundary interaction force control of micromanipulators with in situ applications to microsurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Sohrab; Jalili, Nader

    2012-12-01

    Most recent works on miniature tasks are concentrated on developing tools to take advantage of the visual servoing feedback to control the ultra-small interaction forces. This paper spans an extensive platform for automatic controlling of boundary interaction forces with high precision in the level of micro/nano-Newton with extensive micro/nanoengineering applications such as the microsurgery. To this end, a comprehensive piezoresistive microcantilever (PMC) model considering the shear deformation and rotary inertia effects treating as the distributed-parameters model along with the Hertzian contact force is presented. The purpose of considering the Hertzian contact force model is to investigate the dynamic response of the interaction force between the microcantilever's tip and the specimen. Afterward, a control platform is introduced to automatically manipulate the PMC to follow an ideal micro/nano-interaction force. By using the integrated PMC with the micromanipulator and a digital signal processor, an intuitive programming code is written to incorporate the micromanipulator and the controller in a real-time framework. To calibrate and verify the induced voltage in the PMC, a self-sensing experiment on the piezoelectric microcantilever is carried out to warrant the calibration procedure. Some experiments are established to affirm the validity of the proposed control for the autonomous real-time tasks on the boundary interaction force control. Unlike the conventional research studies, the measured force here contributes as the feedback source in contrast to the vision feedback while force sensors possess more precision, productivity and small size. This technique has several potential applications listed but not limited to the micro/nanomanipulation, developing artificial biological systems (e.g., fabricating hydrogel for the scaffold), and medicine such as microsurgery. As a result, using the proposed platform, we are able to manipulate and control the boundary

  17. Automated optogenetic feedback control for precise and robust regulation of gene expression and cell growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milias-Argeitis, Andreas; Rullan, Marc; Aoki, Stephanie K.; Buchmann, Peter; Khammash, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic control of gene expression can have far-reaching implications for biotechnological applications and biological discovery. Thanks to the advantages of light, optogenetics has emerged as an ideal technology for this task. Current state-of-the-art methods for optical expression control fail to combine precision with repeatability and cannot withstand changing operating culture conditions. Here, we present a novel fully automatic experimental platform for the robust and precise long-term optogenetic regulation of protein production in liquid Escherichia coli cultures. Using a computer-controlled light-responsive two-component system, we accurately track prescribed dynamic green fluorescent protein expression profiles through the application of feedback control, and show that the system adapts to global perturbations such as nutrient and temperature changes. We demonstrate the efficacy and potential utility of our approach by placing a key metabolic enzyme under optogenetic control, thus enabling dynamic regulation of the culture growth rate with potential applications in bacterial physiology studies and biotechnology. PMID:27562138

  18. Controller Strategies for Automation Tool Use under Varying Levels of Trajectory Prediction Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Susan; Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Martin, Lynne; Bienert, Nancy; Cabrall, Christopher; Hunt, Sarah; Homola, Jeffrey; Kraut, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop simulation was conducted to examine the effects of varying levels of trajectory prediction uncertainty on air traffic controller workload and performance, as well as how strategies and the use of decision support tools change in response. This paper focuses on the strategies employed by two controllers from separate teams who worked in parallel but independently under identical conditions (airspace, arrival traffic, tools) with the goal of ensuring schedule conformance and safe separation for a dense arrival flow in en route airspace. Despite differences in strategy and methods, both controllers achieved high levels of schedule conformance and safe separation. Overall, results show that trajectory uncertainties introduced by wind and aircraft performance prediction errors do not affect the controllers' ability to manage traffic. Controller strategies were fairly robust to changes in error, though strategies were affected by the amount of delay to absorb (scheduled time of arrival minus estimated time of arrival). Using the results and observations, this paper proposes an ability to dynamically customize the display of information including delay time based on observed error to better accommodate different strategies and objectives.

  19. More gain less pain: balance control learning shifts the activation patterns of leg and neck muscles and increases muscular parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iodice, Pierpaolo; Cesinaro, Stefano; Romani, Gian Luca; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Athletes such as skaters or surfers maintain their balance on very unstable platforms. Remarkably, the most skilled athletes seem to execute these feats almost effortlessly. However, the dynamics that lead to the acquisition of a defined and efficient postural strategy are incompletely known. To understand the posture reorganization process due to learning and expertise, we trained twelve participants in a demanding balance/posture maintenance task for 4 months and measured their muscular activity before and after a (predictable) disturbance cued by an auditory signal. The balance training determined significant delays in the latency of participants' muscular activity: from largely anticipatory muscular activity (prior to training) to a mixed anticipatory-compensatory control strategy (after training). After training, the onset of activation was delayed for all muscles, and the sequence of activation systematically reflected the muscle position in the body from top to bottom: neck/upper body muscles were recruited first and in an anticipatory fashion, whereas leg muscles were recruited after the disturbance onset, producing compensatory adjustments. The resulting control strategy includes a mixture of anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments, with a systematic sequence of muscular activation reflecting the different demands of neck and leg muscles. Our results suggest that subjects learned the precise timing of the disturbance onset and used this information to deploy postural adjustments just-in-time and to transfer at least part of the control of posture from anticipatory to less-demanding feedback-based strategies. In turn, this strategy shift increases the cost-efficiency of muscular activity, which is a key signature of skilled performance.

  20. Human factors dimensions in the evolution of increasingly automated control rooms for near-earth satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center is responsible for the control and ground support for all of NASA's unmanned near-earth satellites. Traditionally, each satellite had its own dedicated mission operations room. In the mid-seventies, an integration of some of these dedicated facilities was begun with the primary objective to reduce costs. In this connection, the Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) was designed. MSOCC represents currently a labor intensive operation. Recently, Goddard has become increasingly aware of human factors and human-machine interface issues. A summary is provided of some of the attempts to apply human factors considerations in the design of command and control environments. Current and future activities with respect to human factors and systems design are discussed, giving attention to the allocation of tasks between human and computer, and the interface for the human-computer dialogue.

  1. Muscle weakness and lack of reflex gain adaptation predominate during post-stroke posture control of the wrist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Helm Frans CT

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Instead of hyper-reflexia as sole paradigm, post-stroke movement disorders are currently considered the result of a complex interplay between neuronal and muscular properties, modified by level of activity. We used a closed loop system identification technique to quantify individual contributors to wrist joint stiffness during an active posture task. Methods Continuous random torque perturbations applied to the wrist joint by a haptic manipulator had to be resisted maximally. Reflex provoking conditions were applied i.e. additional viscous loads and reduced perturbation signal bandwidth. Linear system identification and neuromuscular modeling were used to separate joint stiffness into the intrinsic resistance of the muscles including co-contraction and the reflex mediated contribution. Results Compared to an age and sex matched control group, patients showed an overall 50% drop in intrinsic elasticity while their reflexive contribution did not respond to provoking conditions. Patients showed an increased mechanical stability compared to control subjects. Conclusion Post stroke, we found active posture tasking to be dominated by: 1 muscle weakness and 2 lack of reflex adaptation. This adds to existing doubts on reflex blocking therapy as the sole paradigm to improve active task performance and draws attention to muscle strength and power recovery and the role of the inability to modulate reflexes in post stroke movement disorders.

  2. To Fear Is to Gain? The Role of Fear Recognition in Risky Decision Making in TBI Patients and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser-Keizer, Annemarie C.; Westerhof-Evers, Herma J.; Gerritsen, Marleen J. J.; van der Naalt, Joukje; Spikman, Jacoba M.

    2016-01-01

    Fear is an important emotional reaction that guides decision making in situations of ambiguity or uncertainty. Both recognition of facial expressions of fear and decision making ability can be impaired after traumatic brain injury (TBI), in particular when the frontal lobe is damaged. So far, it has not been investigated how recognition of fear influences risk behavior in healthy subjects and TBI patients. The ability to recognize fear is thought to be related to the ability to experience fear and to use it as a warning signal to guide decision making. We hypothesized that a better ability to recognize fear would be related to a better regulation of risk behavior, with healthy controls outperforming TBI patients. To investigate this, 59 healthy subjects and 49 TBI patients were assessed with a test for emotion recognition (Facial Expression of Emotion: Stimuli and Tests) and a gambling task (Iowa Gambling Task (IGT)). The results showed that, regardless of post traumatic amnesia duration or the presence of frontal lesions, patients were more impaired than healthy controls on both fear recognition and decision making. In both groups, a significant relationship was found between better fear recognition, the development of an advantageous strategy across the IGT and less risk behavior in the last blocks of the IGT. Educational level moderated this relationship in the final block of the IGT. This study has important clinical implications, indicating that impaired decision making and risk behavior after TBI can be preceded by deficits in the processing of fear. PMID:27870900

  3. Gaining Control over Radiolytic Synthesis of Uniform Sub-3-nanometer Palladium Nanoparticles: Use of Aromatic Liquids in the Electron Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellan, Patricia; Parent, Lucas R; Al Hasan, Naila; Park, Chiwoo; Arslan, Ilke; Karim, Ayman M; Evans, James E; Browning, Nigel D

    2016-02-16

    Synthesizing nanomaterials of uniform shape and size is of critical importance to access and manipulate the novel structure-property relationships arising at the nanoscale, such as catalytic activity. In this work, we synthesize Pd nanoparticles with well-controlled size in the sub-3 nm range using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) in combination with an in situ liquid stage. We use an aromatic hydrocarbon (toluene) as a solvent that is very resistant to high-energy electron irradiation, which creates a net reducing environment without the need for additives to scavenge oxidizing radicals. The primary reducing species is molecular hydrogen, which is a widely used reductant in the synthesis of supported metal catalysts. We propose a mechanism of particle formation based on the effect of tri-n-octylphosphine (TOP) on size stabilization, relatively low production of radicals, and autocatalytic reduction of Pd(II) compounds. We combine in situ STEM results with insights from in situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) from alcohol-based synthesis, having similar reduction potential, in a customized microfluidic device as well as ex situ bulk experiments. This has allowed us to develop a fundamental growth model for the synthesis of size-stabilized Pd nanoparticles and demonstrate the utility of correlating different in situ and ex situ characterization techniques to understand, and ultimately control, metal nanostructure synthesis.

  4. Gain Flattening Filter Canceling Temperature Dependence of EDFA's gain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Ohmura; Y. Ishizawa; H. Nakaji; K. Hashimoto; T. Shibata; M. Shigehara; A. Inoue

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a gain flattening filter(GFF) for an erbium doped fiber (EDF) without temperature control systems. This GFF, which consists of temperature-sensitive long period gratings (LPGs)and a temperature compensated slanted fiber Bragg grating (SFBG), follows the gain shift of EDF with temperature. Gain variation of the EDFA less than 0.25dBp-p was achieved with the bandwidth of 37nm,and the temperature range 0-65℃ without and temperature control systems.

  5. Systematic review automation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

  6. Technology and Jobs: Computer-Aided Design. Numerical-Control Machine-Tool Operators. Office Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Michael; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Three reports on the effects of high technology on the nature of work include (1) Stanton on applications and implications of computer-aided design for engineers, drafters, and architects; (2) Nardone on the outlook and training of numerical-control machine tool operators; and (3) Austin and Drake on the future of clerical occupations in automated…

  7. A review of mechanical move sprinkler irrigation control and automation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electronic sensors, equipment controls, and communication protocols have been developed to meet the growing interest in site-specific irrigation using center pivot and lateral move irrigation systems. Onboard and field-distributed sensors can collect data necessary for real-time irrigation manageme...

  8. The Automation of Government Publications: Functional Requirements and Selected Software Systems for Serials Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Mary Sue; Purcell, Gary R.

    1985-01-01

    Describes computer-based software and network systems for application to serials and government publications. General and specific functional requirements (hardware, software, file structure) are discussed, and descriptive information about commercially available serials control systems and a list of distributors are provided. (CLB)

  9. A Domain-specific Framework for Automated Construction and Verification of Railway Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    The development of modern railway and tramway control systems represents a considerable challenge to both systems and software engineers: The goal to increase the traffic throughput while at the same time increasing the availability and reliability of railway operations leads to a demand for more...

  10. An Overview of the Cost/Benefit Analyses for the Automated Technical Control (ATEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-11-01

    Functions for Croughton and Hillingdon , Mar 󈨎. 63 TABLE XXIV. DETERMINATION OF MANPOWER REDUCTIONS (ATEC WITHOUT ENHANCEMENTS) A. Using direct...analysis of the technical control functions for DCS stations Croughton and Hillingdon was used extensively. The LCC computations included an appreciable

  11. Fuzzy Adaptive Control of Stochastic Nonlinear Systems with Unknown Virtual Control Gain Function%虚拟控制增益函数未知的随机非线性系统模糊自适应控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王迎春; 张化光; 王以忠

    2006-01-01

    The problem of track control is studied for a class of strict-feedback stochastic nonlinear systems in which unknown virtual control gain function is the main feature. First, the so-called stochastic LaSalle theory is extended to some extent, and accordingly, the results of global ultimate boundedness for stochastic nonlinear systems are developed. Next, a new design scheme of fuzzy adaptive control is proposed. The advantage of it is that it does not require priori knowledge of virtual control gain function sign, which is usually demanded in many designs. At the same time,the track performance of closed-loop systems is improved by adaptive modifying the estimated error upper bound. By theoretical analysis, the signals of closed-loop systems are globally ultimately bounded in probability and the track error converges to a small residual set around the origin in 4th-power expectation.

  12. Analysis of Reliability of Electrical Automation Control Equipment%关于电气自动化控制设备可靠性问题的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英杰

    2016-01-01

    The author analyzes and researches on some problems related to reliability of the electrical automation equipment based on years of practical experience and professional knowledge and skills,mainly including significance of doing a good job of electrical automation equipment reliability analysis,problems in the analysis process of electrical automation control equipment reliability,and measures of solving the problems in electrical automation control equipment reliability analysis,aiming to offer ref-erence and promote better development of Chinaˊs electrical industry.%笔者结合自身多年的实践经验和所掌握的专业知识和技能,就电气自动化设备可靠性的相关问题进行了分析和研究,主要包括做好电气自动化设备可靠性分析工作的重要意义、电气自动化控制设备可靠性分析过程中存在的问题、解决电气自动化控制设备可靠性分析中存在问题及措施三个基础部分,希望能够起到一定参考和借鉴的作用,促进我国的电气行业实现更快更好的发展。

  13. Self Assistive Technology for Disabled People – Voice Controlled Wheel Chair and Home Automation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Puviarasi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of an innovative and low cost self-assistive technology that is used to facilitate the control of a wheelchair and home appliances by using advanced voice commands of the disabled people. This proposed system will provide an alternative to the physically challenged people with quadriplegics who is permanently unable to move their limbs (but who is able to speak and hear and elderly people in controlling the motion of the wheelchair and home appliances using their voices to lead an independent, confident and enjoyable life. The performance of this microcontroller based and voice integrated design is evaluated in terms of accuracy and velocity in various environments. The results show that it could be part of an assistive technology for the disabled persons without any third person’s assistance.

  14. Semi-automated x-ray gauging process control system. [For pressed-material components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draut, C.F.; Homan, D.A.

    1976-10-08

    An x-ray gauging method was developed and a production gauging system was subsequently fabricated to control the quality of precision manufactured components. The gauging system measures via x-ray absorption the density of pressed finely divided solids held in a dissimilar container. The two dissimilar materials condition necessitated a ''two scan'' technique: first, the x-ray attenuation (absorption) of the empty container prior to loading and then, the attenuation of the loaded container are measured; that is, four variables. The system provided greatly improved product control via timely data feedback and increased product quality assurance via 100 percent inspection of product. In addition, it reduced labor costs, product cost, and possibilities for human errors.

  15. Library Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakne, B. N.; Giri, V. V.; Waghmode, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    New technologies library provides several new materials, media and mode of storing and communicating the information. Library Automation reduces the drudgery of repeated manual efforts in library routine. By use of library automation collection, Storage, Administration, Processing, Preservation and communication etc.

  16. Enabling Spacecraft Formation Flying through Position Determination, Control and Enhanced Automation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, John; Bauer, Frank; Hartman, Kate; How, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Formation Flying is revolutionizing the way the space community conducts science missions around the Earth and in deep space. This technological revolution will provide new, innovative ways for the community to gather scientific information, share that information between space vehicles and the ground, and expedite the human exploration of space. Once fully matured, formation flying will result in numerous sciencecraft acting as virtual platforms and sensor webs, gathering significantly more and better science data than call be collected today. To achieve this goal, key technologies must be developed including those that address the following basic questions posed by the spacecraft: Where am I? Where is the rest of the fleet? Where do I need to be? What do I have to do (and what am I able to do) to get there? The answers to these questions and the means to implement those answers will depend oil the specific mission needs and formation configuration. However, certain critical technologies are common to most formations. These technologies include high-precision position and relative-position knowledge including Global Positioning System (GPS) mid celestial navigation; high degrees of spacecraft autonomy inter-spacecraft communication capabilities; targeting and control including distributed control algorithms, and high precision control thrusters and actuators. This paper provides an overview of a selection of the current activities NASA/DoD/Industry/Academia are working to develop Formation Flying technologies as quickly as possible, the hurdles that need to be overcome to achieve our formation flying vision, and the team's approach to transfer this technology to space. It will also describe several of the formation flying testbeds, such as Orion and University Nanosatellites, that are being developed to demonstrate and validate many of these innovative sensing and formation control technologies.

  17. An Automated Treatment Plan Quality Control Tool for Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Using a Voxel-Weighting Factor-Based Re-Optimization Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ting; Li, Nan; Zarepisheh, Masoud; Li, Yongbao; Gautier, Quentin; Zhou, Linghong; Mell, Loren; Jiang, Steve; Cerviño, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) currently plays an important role in radiotherapy, but its treatment plan quality can vary significantly among institutions and planners. Treatment plan quality control (QC) is a necessary component for individual clinics to ensure that patients receive treatments with high therapeutic gain ratios. The voxel-weighting factor-based plan re-optimization mechanism has been proved able to explore a larger Pareto surface (solution domain) and therefore increase the possibility of finding an optimal treatment plan. In this study, we incorporated additional modules into an in-house developed voxel weighting factor-based re-optimization algorithm, which was enhanced as a highly automated and accurate IMRT plan QC tool (TPS-QC tool). After importing an under-assessment plan, the TPS-QC tool was able to generate a QC report within 2 minutes. This QC report contains the plan quality determination as well as information supporting the determination. Finally, the IMRT plan quality can be controlled by approving quality-passed plans and replacing quality-failed plans using the TPS-QC tool. The feasibility and accuracy of the proposed TPS-QC tool were evaluated using 25 clinically approved cervical cancer patient IMRT plans and 5 manually created poor-quality IMRT plans. The results showed high consistency between the QC report quality determinations and the actual plan quality. In the 25 clinically approved cases that the TPS-QC tool identified as passed, a greater difference could be observed for dosimetric endpoints for organs at risk (OAR) than for planning target volume (PTV), implying that better dose sparing could be achieved in OAR than in PTV. In addition, the dose-volume histogram (DVH) curves of the TPS-QC tool re-optimized plans satisfied the dosimetric criteria more frequently than did the under-assessment plans. In addition, the criteria for unsatisfied dosimetric endpoints in the 5 poor-quality plans could typically be

  18. Automated, Miniaturized and Integrated Quality Control-on-Chip (QC-on-a-Chip) for Advanced Cell Therapy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartmann, David; Rothbauer, Mario; Kuten, Olga; Barresi, Caterina; Visus, Carmen; Felzmann, Thomas; Ertl, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The combination of microfabrication-based technologies with cell biology has laid the foundation for the development of advanced in vitro diagnostic systems capable of evaluating cell cultures under defined, reproducible and standardizable measurement conditions. In the present review we describe recent lab-on-a-chip developments for cell analysis and how these methodologies could improve standard quality control in the field of manufacturing cell-based vaccines for clinical purposes. We highlight in particular the regulatory requirements for advanced cell therapy applications using as an example dendritic cell-based cancer vaccines to describe the tangible advantages of microfluidic devices that overcome most of the challenges associated with automation, miniaturization and integration of cell-based assays. As its main advantage lab-on-a-chip technology allows for precise regulation of culturing conditions, while simultaneously monitoring cell relevant parameters using embedded sensory systems. State-of-the-art lab-on-a-chip platforms for in vitro assessment of cell cultures and their potential future applications for cell therapies and cancer immunotherapy are discussed in the present review.

  19. Automated and temperature-controlled micro-PIV measurements enabling long-term-stable microchannel acoustophoresis characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustsson, Per; Barnkob, Rune; Wereley, Steven T; Bruus, Henrik; Laurell, Thomas

    2011-12-21

    We present a platform for micro particle image velocimetry (μPIV), capable of carrying out full-channel, temperature-controlled, long-term-stable, and automated μPIV-measurement of microchannel acoustophoresis with uncertainties below 5% and a spatial resolution in the order of 20 μm. A method to determine optimal μPIV-settings for obtaining high-quality results of the spatially inhomogeneous acoustophoretic velocity fields of large dynamical range is presented. In particular we study the dependence of the results on the μPIV interrogation window size and the number of repeated experiments. The μPIV-method was further verified by comparing it with our previously published particle tracking method. Using the μPIV platform we present a series of high-resolution measurements of the acoustophoretic velocity field as a function of the driving frequency, the driving voltage, and the resonator temperature. Finally, we establish a direct and consistent connection between the obtained acoustophoretic velocity fields, and continuous flow mode acoustophoresis, commonly used in applications.

  20. Automated Control of the Organic and Inorganic Composition of Aloe vera Extracts Using (1)H NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Randel, Gabriele; Diehl, Bernd W K

    2016-09-01

    Recent classification of Aloe vera whole-leaf extract by the International Agency for Research and Cancer as a possible carcinogen to humans as well as the continuous adulteration of A. vera's authentic material have generated renewed interest in controlling A. vera. The existing NMR spectroscopic method for the analysis of A. vera, which is based on a routine developed at Spectral Service, was extended. Apart from aloverose, glucose, malic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, whole-leaf material (WLM), acetic acid, fumaric acid, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate, the quantification of Mg(2+), Ca(2+), and fructose is possible with the addition of a Cs-EDTA solution to sample. The proposed methodology was automated, which includes phasing, baseline-correction, deconvolution (based on the Lorentzian function), integration, quantification, and reporting. The NMR method was applied to 41 A. vera preparations in the form of liquid A. vera juice and solid A. vera powder. The advantages of the new NMR methodology over the previous method were discussed. Correlation between the new and standard NMR methodologies was significant for aloverose, glucose, malic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, and WLM (P vera.