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Sample records for automated external defibrillators

  1. Automated External Defibrillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Health Topics / Automated External Defibrillator Automated External Defibrillator Also known as What Is An automated external ... in survival. Training To Use an Automated External Defibrillator Learning how to use an AED and taking ...

  2. Automated external defibrillators: design considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, M W; Brewer, J E

    1997-05-01

    Biphasic defibrillation waveforms are now the standard of care in clinical use for defibrillation with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), due to the superior performance demonstrated over that of comparable monophasic waveforms. To better understand these significantly different outcomes, ICD research has developed cardiac cell response models to defibrillation. Waveform design criteria have been derived from these first principles and have been applied to monophasic and biphasic waveforms to optimize their parameters. These principles-based design criteria have produced significant improvements over the current art of waveforms. Monophasic defibrillation waveforms remain the standard of care in clinical use for transthoracic defibrillation. Waveform design has not yet been influenced by the important gains made in ICD research. The limitations of present transthoracic waveforms may be due in part to a lack of application of these design principles to determine optimal waveform characteristics. To overcome these limitations, design principles based on cell response have recently been developed for external defibrillation waveforms. The transthoracic model incorporates elements into a cell response model that extends it to external defibrillation. External waveform design principles demonstrate reductions in capacitance, voltage, duration, and delivered energy. Therefore, design principles based on cardiac electrophysiology may provide a means to significantly reduce the energy required for safe and efficacious external defibrillation. Footnotes, formulae, and figures augment this presentation in order to clarify the defibrillation waveform theory.

  3. Use of Automated External Defibrillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory K Christensen

    2009-02-01

    In an effort to improve survival from cardiac arrest, the American Heart Association (AHA) has promoted the Chain of Survival concept, describing a sequence of prehospital steps that result in improved survival after sudden cardiac arrest. These interventions include immediate deployment of emergency medical services, prompt cardiopulmonary resuscitation, early defibrillation when indicated, and early initiation of advanced medical care. Early defibrillation has emerged as the most important intervention with survival decreasing by 10% with each minute of delay in defibrillation. Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) is a condition in which there is uncoordinated contraction of the heart cardiac muscle of the ventricles in the heart, making them tremble rather than contract properly. VF is a medical emergency and if the arrhythmia continues for more than a few seconds, blood circulation will cease, and death can occur in a matter of minutes. During VF, contractions of the heart are not synchronized, blood flow ceases, organs begin to fail from oxygen deprivation and within 10 minutes, death will occur. When VF occurs, the victim must be defibrillated in order to establish the heart’s normal rhythm. On average, the wait for an ambulance in populated areas of the United States is about 11 minutes. In view of these facts, the EFCOG Electrical Safety Task Group initiated this review to evaluate the potential value of deployment and use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) for treatment of SCA victims. This evaluation indicates the long term survival benefit to victims of SCA is high if treated with CPR plus defibrillation within the first 3-5 minutes after collapse. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), survival rates as high as 74% are possible if treatment and defibrillation is performed in the first 3 minutes. In contrast survival rates are only 5% where no AED programs have been established to provide prompt CPR and defibrillation. ["CPR statistics

  4. [Automated external defibrillators, life vest defibrillator, or both?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, C Richard

    2012-03-01

    As most understand, survival of cardiac arrest victims falls significantly if cardioversion is not performed promptly. The standard of practice for out-of-hospital defibrillation is the implantable cardiac defibrillator; however, much has been written and discussed about the use of automated external defibrillators. Not as much has been written about life vest wearable defibrillators. How to use these devices will be reviewed in this article.

  5. 21 CFR 870.5310 - Automated external defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated external defibrillator. 870.5310 Section 870.5310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... external defibrillator. (a) Identification. An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a low-energy...

  6. Open-source automated external defibrillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Ferretti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Automated External Defibrillator (AED is a medical device that analyzes a patient’s electrocardiogram in order to establish whether he/she is suffering from the fatal condition of Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA, and subsequently allows the release of a therapeutic dose of electrical energy (i.e. defibrillation. SCA is responsible for over 300,000 deaths per year both in Europe and in USA, and immediate clinical assistance through defibrillation is fundamental for recovery. In this context, an open-source approach can easily lead in improvements to the distribution and efficiency of AEDs. The proposed Open-Source AED (OAED is composed of two separate electric boards: a high voltage board (HV-B, which contains the circuitry required to perform defibrillation and a control board (C-B, which detects SCA in the patient and controls the HV-B. Computer simulations and preliminary tests show that the OAED can release a 200 J biphasic defibrillation in about 12 s and detects SCA with sensitivity higher than 90% and specificity of about 99%. The OAED was also conceived as a template and teaching tool in the framework of UBORA, a platform for design and sharing medical devices compliant to international standards.

  7. Automated external defibrillation skills by naive schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge-Soto, Cristina; Abelairas-Gómez, Cristian; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto; Garrido-Viñas, Anxela; Navarro-Patón, Rubén; Muiño-Piñeiro, María; Díaz-Pereira, M Pino; Rodríguez-Núñez, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Early defibrillation should achieve the highest survival rates when applied within the first minutes after the collapse. Public access defibrillation programs have increased the population awareness of the importance of defibrillation. Schoolchildren should be trained in basic life support (BLS) skills and some countries have included BLS in their school syllabus. However, little is known of the current knowledge and ability of schoolchildren to use an automated external defibrillator (AED). A multicentric descriptive study, 1295 children from 6 to 16 years of age without previous BLS or AED training. Subjects performed a simulation with an AED and a manikin with no training or feedback and were evaluated by means of a checklist. A total of 258 participants (19.9%) were able to simulate an effective and safe defibrillation in less than 3min and 52 (20.1% of this group) performed it successfully. A significant correlation between objective and age group was observed (G=0.172) (p<0.001). The average time to deliver a shock was 83.3±26.4s; that time decreased significantly with age [6 YO (108.3±40.4) vs. 16 YO (64.7±18.6)s] (p<0.001). Around 20% of schoolchildren without prior training are able to use an AED correctly in less than 3min following the device's acoustic and visual instructions. However, only one-fifth of those who showed success managed to complete the procedure satisfactorily. These facts should be considered in order to provide a more accurate definition and effective implementation of BLS/AED teaching and training at schools. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 78 FR 17890 - Effective Date of Requirement for Premarket Approval for Automated External Defibrillator System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... Approval for Automated External Defibrillator System. AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... the following class III preamendments devices: Automated external defibrillators systems (AEDs), which... defibrillator based on new information. This action implements certain statutory requirements. DATES: Submit...

  9. Prescribing an automated external defibrillator for children at increased risk of sudden arrhythmic death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Karen A; Fern, Eileen; Clements, Fiona; McGowan, Ruth

    2017-09-01

    Automated external defibrillators can be life-saving in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Our aim was to review our experience of prescribing automated external defibrillators for children at increased risk of sudden arrhythmic death. We reviewed all automated external defibrillators issued by the Scottish Paediatric Cardiac Electrophysiology Service from 2005 to 2015. All parents were given resuscitation training according to the Paediatric Resuscitation Guidelines, including the use of the automated external defibrillator. A total of 36 automated external defibrillators were issued to 36 families for 44 children (27 male). The mean age at issue was 8.8 years. Diagnoses at issue included long QT syndrome (50%), broad complex tachycardia (14%), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (11%), and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (9%). During the study period, the automated external defibrillator was used in four (9%) children, and in all four the automated external defibrillator correctly discriminated between a shockable rhythm - polymorphic ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation in three patients with one or more shocks delivered - and non-shockable rhythm - sinus rhythm in one patient. Of the three children, two of them who received one or more shocks for ventricular fibrillation/polymorphic ventricular tachycardia survived, but one died as a result of recurrent torsades de pointes. There were no other deaths. Parents can be taught to recognise cardiac arrest, apply resuscitation skills, and use an automated external defibrillator. Prescribing an automated external defibrillator should be considered for children at increased risk of sudden arrhythmic death, especially where the risk/benefit ratio of an implantable defibrillator is unclear or delay to defibrillator implantation is deemed necessary.

  10. Automated external defibrillator use for in-hospital emergency management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huschak, G; Dünnebier, A; Kaisers, U X; Huschens, B; Bercker, S

    2016-05-01

    The in-hospital spread of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) is aimed to allow for a shock-delivery within three minutes. However, it has to be questioned if the implementation of AED alone really contributes to a 'heart-safe hospital'. We performed a cohort study of 1008 in-hospital emergency calls in a university tertiary care hospital, analysing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) cases with and without AED use. In total, 484 patients (48%) had cardiac arrest and received CPR. Response time of the emergency team was 4.3 ± 4.0 minutes. Only 8% percent of the CPR cases had a shockable rhythm. In three of 43 placements a shock was delivered by the AED. There were no differences in survival between patients with CPR only and CPR with AED use. Our data do not support the use of an AED for in-hospital CPR if a professional response team is rapidly available.

  11. Optimizing a Drone Network to Deliver Automated External Defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutilier, Justin J; Brooks, Steven C; Janmohamed, Alyf; Byers, Adam; Buick, Jason E; Zhan, Cathy; Schoellig, Angela P; Cheskes, Sheldon; Morrison, Laurie J; Chan, Timothy C Y

    2017-06-20

    Public access defibrillation programs can improve survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, but automated external defibrillators (AEDs) are rarely available for bystander use at the scene. Drones are an emerging technology that can deliver an AED to the scene of an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest for bystander use. We hypothesize that a drone network designed with the aid of a mathematical model combining both optimization and queuing can reduce the time to AED arrival. We applied our model to 53 702 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests that occurred in the 8 regions of the Toronto Regional RescuNET between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2014. Our primary analysis quantified the drone network size required to deliver an AED 1, 2, or 3 minutes faster than historical median 911 response times for each region independently. A secondary analysis quantified the reduction in drone resources required if RescuNET was treated as a large coordinated region. The region-specific analysis determined that 81 bases and 100 drones would be required to deliver an AED ahead of median 911 response times by 3 minutes. In the most urban region, the 90th percentile of the AED arrival time was reduced by 6 minutes and 43 seconds relative to historical 911 response times in the region. In the most rural region, the 90th percentile was reduced by 10 minutes and 34 seconds. A single coordinated drone network across all regions required 39.5% fewer bases and 30.0% fewer drones to achieve similar AED delivery times. An optimized drone network designed with the aid of a novel mathematical model can substantially reduce the AED delivery time to an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest event. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Attitudes toward automated external defibrillator use in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Takumi; Omi, Wataru; Inaba, Hideo

    2008-11-01

    The American Heart Association 2005 Guidelines recommend immediate defibrillation for ventricular fibrillation (VF) of short duration, such as witnessed sudden cardiac arrest. However, it is unclear if public-access automated external defibrillators (AEDs) would actually be used in Japan, because there have been few studies about public attitudes regarding AED use. Therefore, we examined Japanese attitudes toward AED use. Between February and March 2006, 3328 individuals, including high school students, teachers, emergency medical technicians (EMTs), medical nurses, and medical students, were asked about AED knowledge and their willingness to operate an AED. All EMTs, 86% of nurses, and 90% of medical students knew how to use AEDs, while only 15% of high school students and 44% of teachers had such knowledge. All EMTs, 78% of nurses, and 94% of medical students reported they would 'definitely' use the AED, but only 12% of high school students and 35% of teachers gave this reply. The reasons for unwillingness to operate AEDs among both laypeople and health care providers were poor of awareness of what AED is and/or how to use an AED. However, 83% of students and 81% of teachers with AED knowledge reported they would 'definitely' use the AED. Many non-medical people in Japan would be unwilling to operate an AED, because they do not know what AED is and/or how to use an AED. However, many would be willing to operate AEDs if they had better understanding of AEDs. Thus, it is necessary to improve public knowledge of AEDs and AED use.

  13. Automated External Defibrillators in High Schools: Disparities Persist Despite Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Matthew D; Cicero, Mark X; McCabe, Megan E; Chen, Lei

    2017-10-31

    Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) have demonstrated increased survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, and their prevalence continues to rise. In 2009, Connecticut passed a legislation requiring all schools to have an AED, barring financial barriers. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine if this legislation was associated with an increase in Connecticut high school AEDs and (2) to detect disparities in the availability of AEDs based on school type, student demographics, and school size. A single researcher conducted a scripted telephone survey of all 54 public and 13 private high schools in New Haven County, Connecticut. A response rate of 100% was achieved. Forty-nine percent of high schools had an AED before the legislation, compared with 88% after (P schools had a higher percentage of AEDs than public schools (69% vs 44%; P = 0.1). Postlegislation, the difference is less (92% vs 87%; P = 0.4). Small schools (schools (40% vs 100%; P Schools with a higher percentage of students with disabilities are also less likely to have an AED (P = 0.005), even when controlling for school size (P = 0.03). State legislation requiring schools to have an AED, if financially feasible, was associated with a significant increase in AED presence among New Haven County high schools. Small high schools and those with a higher percentage of students with disabilities remain less likely to have an AED despite legislation.

  14. Availability of Automated External Defibrillators in Public High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michelle J; Loccoh, Emefah C; Goble, Monica M; Yu, Sunkyung; Duquette, Deb; Davis, Matthew M; Odetola, Folafoluwa O; Russell, Mark W

    2016-05-01

    To assess automated external defibrillator (AED) distribution and cardiac emergency preparedness in Michigan secondary schools and investigate for association with school sociodemographic characteristics. Surveys were sent via electronic mail to representatives from all public high schools in 30 randomly selected Michigan counties, stratified by population. Association of AED-related factors with school sociodemographic characteristics were evaluated using Wilcoxon rank sum test and χ(2) test, as appropriate. Of 188 schools, 133 (71%) responded to the survey and all had AEDs. Larger student population was associated with fewer AEDs per 100 students (P schools. Schools with >20% students from racial minority groups had significantly fewer AEDs available per 100 students than schools with less racial diversity (P = .03). Schools with more students eligible for free and reduced lunch were less likely to have a cardiac emergency response plan (P = .02) and demonstrated less frequent AED maintenance (P = .03). Although AEDs are available at public high schools across Michigan, the number of AEDs per student varies inversely with minority student population and school size. Unequal distribution of AEDs and lack of cardiac emergency preparedness may contribute to outcomes of sudden cardiac arrest among youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Location of cardiac arrest in a city center: strategic placement of automated external defibrillators in public locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folke, Fredrik; Lippert, Freddy Knudsen; Nielsen, Søren Loumann

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Public-access defibrillation with automated external defibrillators (AEDs) is being implemented in many countries worldwide with considerable financial implications. The potential benefit and economic consequences of focused or unfocused AED deployment are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS...

  16. Lay Bystanders' Perspectives on What Facilitates Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Use of Automated External Defibrillators in Real Cardiac Arrests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malta Hansen, Carolina; Rosenkranz, Simone Mørk; Folke, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients who suffer an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest will fail to receive bystander intervention (cardiopulmonary resuscitation [CPR] or defibrillation) despite widespread CPR training and the dissemination of automated external defibrillators (AEDs). We sought to investigate what...

  17. Use of automated external defibrillators in a Brazilian airline. A 1-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Paulo Magalhães

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available After the incorporation of automated external defibrilators by other airlines and the support of the Brazilian Society of cardiology, Varig Airlines Began the onboard defibrilation program with the initial purpose of equiping wide-body aircrafts frequently used in international flights and that airplanes use in the Rio - São Paulo route. With all fight attendants trained, the automated. External defibrilation devides were incorporated to 34 airplanes of a total pleet of 80 aircrats. The devices were intalled in the bagage compartments secured with velero straps and 2 pairs of electrods, one or which pre-conected to the device to minimize application time. Later, a portable monitor was addres to the ressocitation kit in the long flights. The expansion of the knowledge of the basic life support fundamentors and the correted implantation of the survival chain and of the automated external defibrilators will increase the extense of recovery of cardiorespiratory arrest victins in aircrafts.

  18. Automated external defibrillator availability and CPR training among state police agencies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Lior M; Wallace, Sarah K; Leary, Marion; Tucker, Kathryn D; Becker, Lance B; Abella, Benjamin S

    2012-07-01

    Access to automated external defibrillators and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training are key determinants of cardiac arrest survival. State police officers represent an important class of cardiac arrest first responders responsible for the large network of highways in the United States. We seek to determine accessibility of automated external defibrillators and CPR training among state police agencies. Contact was attempted with all 50 state police agencies by telephone and electronic mail. Officers at each agency were guided to complete a 15-question Internet-based survey. Descriptive statistics of the responses were performed. Attempts were made to contact all 50 states, and 46 surveys were completed (92% response rate). Most surveys were filled out by police leadership or individuals responsible for medical programs. The median agency size was 725 (interquartile range 482 to 1,485) state police officers, with 695 (interquartile range 450 to 1,100) patrol vehicles ("squad cars"). Thirty-three percent of responding agencies (15/46) reported equipping police vehicles with automated external defibrillators. Of these, 53% (8/15) equipped less than half of their fleet with the devices. Regarding emergency medical training, 78% (35/45) of state police agencies reported training their officers in automated external defibrillator usage, and 98% (44/45) reported training them in CPR. One third of state police agencies surveyed equipped their vehicles with automated external defibrillators, and among those that did, most equipped only a minority of their fleet. Most state police agencies reported training their officers in automated external defibrillator usage and CPR. Increasing automated external defibrillator deployment among state police represents an important opportunity to improve first responder preparedness for cardiac arrest care. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  19. A reference automated external defibrillator provider course for Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoke, Robert Sebastian; Chamberlain, Douglas A; Handley, Anthony J

    2006-06-01

    Scientific evidence is scarce in relation to the effectiveness of different methods of teaching automated external defibrillator (AED) use to laypeople. A reference course is needed in order to test new courses or methods against a comparative standard. To propose a reference AED provider course that can be used as a comparator when testing new courses or teaching methods. All national resuscitation councils that are represented in the European Resuscitation Council were sent a questionnaire about the AED provider courses run by them or under their auspices. Sixteen national resuscitation councils responded to the enquiry. Apart from the individual course timetables, there was remarkable consistency amongst the European countries as regards organisation, structure, content and methods. A reference AED provider course for laypeople, based on a synthesis of existing European courses, is suggested as a tool for research. Prior completion of a basic life support provider course is mandatory. Course duration is 2 h 45 min (excluding breaks), with 1 h 40 min practice time for the participants, 25 min for theory, 20 min for practical demonstrations by the instructor and 20 min for introduction, discussion and closure. A manual is distributed at the start of the course. The ratio of instructors to participants is one to six. Lectures are interactive between the instructor and the class. AED use is practised in groups of six participants. Participants prove their competency by means of a formal test that simulates a cardiac arrest scenario. Using this course as a comparator during research into the methodology of AED teaching would provide a reference against which other courses could be tested.

  20. Analysis of automated external defibrillator device failures reported to the Food and Drug Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Lawrence A; Simpson, Allan; Beskind, Dan; Grall, Kristi; Stoneking, Lisa; Stolz, Uwe; Spaite, Daniel W; Panchal, Ashish R; Denninghoff, Kurt R

    2012-02-01

    Automated external defibrillators are essential for treatment of cardiac arrest by lay rescuers and must determine when to shock and if they are functioning correctly. We seek to characterize automated external defibrillator failures reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and whether battery failures are properly detected by automated external defibrillators. FDA adverse event reports are catalogued in the Manufacturer and User Device Experience (MAUDE) database. We developed and internally validated an instrument for analyzing MAUDE data, reviewing all reports in which a fatality occurred. Two trained reviewers independently analyzed each report, and a third resolved discrepancies or passed them to a committee for resolution. One thousand two hundred eighty-four adverse events were reported between June 1993 and October 2008, of which 1,150 were failed defibrillation attempts. Thirty-seven automated external defibrillators never powered on, 252 failed to complete rhythm analysis, and 524 failed to deliver a recommended shock. In 149 cases, the operator disagreed with the device's rhythm analysis. In 54 cases, the defibrillator stated the batteries were low and in 110 other instances powered off unexpectedly. Interrater agreement between reviewers 1 and 2 ranged by question from 69.0% to 98.6% and for most likely cause was 55.9%. Agreement was obtained for 93.7% to 99.6% of questions by the third reviewer. Remaining discrepancies were resolved by the arbitration committee. MAUDE information is often incomplete and frequently no corroborating data are available. Some conditions not detected by automated external defibrillators during self-test cause units to power off unexpectedly, causing defibrillation delays. Backup units frequently provide shocks to patients. Copyright © 2011 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pharmacy Students' Retention of Knowledge and Skills Following Training in Automated External Defibrillator Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopp, Anna Legreid; Dopp, John M.; Vardeny, Orly; Sims, J. Jason

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess pharmacy students' retention of knowledge about appropriate automated external defibrillator use and counseling points following didactic training and simulated experience. Design Following a lecture on sudden cardiac arrest and automated external defibrillator use, second-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students were assessed on their ability to perform basic life support and deliver a shock at baseline, 3 weeks, and 4 months. Students completed a questionnaire to evaluate recall of counseling points for laypeople/the public. Assessment Mean time to shock delivery at baseline was 74 ± 25 seconds, which improved significantly at 3 weeks (50 ± 17 seconds, p defibrillator counseling points was diminished after 4 months. Conclusion Pharmacy students can use automated external defibrillators to quickly deliver a shock and are able to retain this ability after 4 months. Refresher training/courses will be required to improve students' retention of automated external defibrillator counseling points to ensure their ability to deliver appropriate patient education. PMID:21045951

  2. Interruption of cardiopulmonary resuscitation with the use of the automated external defibrillator in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alem, Anouk P.; Sanou, Björn T.; Koster, Rudolph W.

    2003-01-01

    Study objective: The protocol for the use of the automated external defibrillator calls for a period of "hands-off" time, during which no cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can be performed. We assessed the actual interruption time of CPR during the use of the automated external defibrillator in

  3. Public health surveillance of automated external defibrillators in the USA: protocol for the dynamic automated external defibrillator registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, JoAnn Broeckel; Merchant, Raina; Daya, Mohamud; Youngquist, Scott; Salcido, David; Valenzuela, Terence; Nichol, Graham

    2017-03-29

    Lay use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) before the arrival of emergency medical services (EMS) providers on scene increases survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). AEDs have been placed in public locations may be not ready for use when needed. We describe a protocol for AED surveillance that tracks these devices through time and space to improve public health, and survival as well as facilitate research. Included AEDs are installed in public locations for use by laypersons to treat patients with OHCA before the arrival of EMS providers on scene. Included cases of OHCA are patients evaluated by organised EMS personnel and treated for OHCA. Enrolment of 10 000 AEDs annually will yield precision of 0.4% in the estimate of readiness for use. Enrolment of 2500 patients annually will yield precision of 1.9% in the estimate of survival to hospital discharge. Recruitment began on 21 Mar 2014 and is ongoing. AEDs are found by using multiple methods. Each AED is then tagged with a label which is a unique two-dimensional (2D) matrix code; the 2D matrix code is recorded and the location and status of the AED tracked using a smartphone; these elements are automatically passed via the internet to a secure and confidential database in real time. Whenever the 2D matrix code is rescanned for any non-clinical or clinical use of an AED, the user is queried to answer a finite set of questions about the device status. The primary outcome of any clinical use of an AED is survival to hospital discharge. Results are summarised descriptively. These activities are conducted under a grant of authority for public health surveillance from the Food and Drug Administration. Results are provided periodically to participating sites and sponsors to improve public health and quality of care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Data management in automated external defibrillators: a call for a standardised solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Møller; Rasmussen, L S

    2011-01-01

    The ECG data stored in automated external defibrillators (AEDs) may be valuable for establishing a final diagnosis and deciding further diagnostics and treatment. Different data management systems are used and this may create significant problems for data storage and access for physicians treating...

  5. Interprofessional education and social interaction: The use of automated external defibrillators in team-based basic life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onan, Arif; Simsek, Nurettin

    2017-04-01

    Automated external defibrillators are pervasive computing devices designed for the treatment and management of acute sudden cardiac arrest. This study aims to explain users' actual use behavior in teams formed by different professions taken after a short time span of interaction with automated external defibrillator. Before the intervention, all the participants were certified with the American Heart Association Basic Life Support for healthcare providers. A statistically significant difference was revealed in mean individual automated external defibrillator technical skills between uniprofessional and interprofessional groups. The technical automated external defibrillator team scores were greater for groups with interprofessional than for those with uniprofessional education. The nontechnical automated external defibrillator skills of interprofessional and uniprofessional teams revealed differences in advantage of interprofessional teams. Students positively accept automated external defibrillators if well-defined and validated training opportunities to use them expertly are available. Uniprofessional teams were successfully supported by their members and, thereby, used automated external defibrillator effectively. Furthermore, the interprofessional approach resulted in as much effective teamwork as the uniprofessional approach.

  6. Automated external defibrillators inaccessible to more than half of nearby cardiac arrests in public locations during evening, nighttime, and weekends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carolina Malta; Wissenberg, Mads; Weeke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite wide dissemination, use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in community settings is limited. We assessed how AED accessibility affected coverage of cardiac arrests in public locations. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified cardiac arrests in public locations (1994...

  7. Emergency response planning and sudden cardiac arrests in high schools after automated external defibrillator legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew M; Kannankeril, Prince J; Meredith, Mark

    2013-12-01

    To compare medical emergency response plan (MERP) and automated external defibrillator (AED) prevalence and define the incidence and outcomes of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in high schools before and after AED legislation. In 2011, Tennessee Secondary School Athletic Association member schools were surveyed regarding AED placement, MERPs, and on-campus SCAs within the last 5 years. Results were compared with a similar study conducted in 2006, prior to legislation requiring AEDs in schools. Of the schools solicited, 214 (54%, total enrollment 182 289 students) completed the survey. Compared with 2006, schools in the 2011 survey had a significantly higher prevalence of MERPs (84% vs 71%, P defibrillators (90% vs 47%, P defibrillators but rates of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and overall compliance with guidelines remained low. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Utilization of automated external defibrillators installed in commonly used areas of Japanese hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    OHTA, SHOICHI; NAKAO, HIROYUKI; KUSHIMOTO, SHIGEKI; HIRAIDE, ATSUSHI; SAKAMOTO, TETSUYA; NAGAO, KEN; HORI, SHINGO

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Since July 2004, it has become legal in Japan for laypersons to use automated external defibrillators (AEDs). We investigated the effect of AED installation in commonly used areas of Japanese Association for Acute Medicine accredited training (JAAM) hospitals. Methods. In 2008, we sent questionnaires to 419 JAAM hospitals enquiring about the systems, operations, outcome and characteristics of AED usage. Results. Valid responses were received from 271 hospitals (64.7%). A total of 2...

  9. A qualitative study to identify barriers to deployment and student training in the use of automated external defibrillators in schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinckernagel, Line; Hansen, Carolina Malta; Rod, Morten Hulvej

    2017-01-01

    Background: Student training in use of automated external defibrillators and deployment of such defibrillators in schools is recommended to increase survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Low implementation rates have been observed, and even at schools with a defibrillator, challenges suc...... for defibrillator training. Furthermore, it is important to provide schools with a basis for decision making about when to install defibrillators, and to ensure that school staff and students are informed about their placement....... to their perception of student training but not for their considerations on the relevance of their placement at schools. Conclusions: It is crucial for implementation of automated external defibrillators in schools to inform staff about how they work and are operated and that students are an appropriate target group......Background: Student training in use of automated external defibrillators and deployment of such defibrillators in schools is recommended to increase survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Low implementation rates have been observed, and even at schools with a defibrillator, challenges...

  10. Automated external cardioversion defibrillation monitoring in cardiac arrest: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Bakhtiar; Bloom, Heather; Veledar, Emir; House, Dorothy; Norvel, Robert; Dudley, Samuel C; Zafari, A Maziar

    2008-06-11

    In-hospital cardiac arrest has a poor prognosis despite active electrocardiography monitoring. The initial rhythm of approximately 25% of in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) events is pulseless ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF). Early defibrillation is an independent predictor of survival in CPR events caused by VT/VF. The automated external cardioverter defibrillator (AECD) is a device attached by pads to the chest wall that monitors, detects, and within seconds, automatically delivers electric countershock to an appropriate tachyarrhythmia. To evaluate safety of AECD monitoring in hospitalized patients. To evaluate whether AECDs provide earlier defibrillation than hospital code teams. The study is a prospective trial randomizing patients admitted to the telemetry ward to standard CPR (code team) or standard CPR plus AECD monitoring (PowerHeart CRM). The AECD is programmed to deliver one 150 J biphasic shock to patients in sustained VT/VF. Data is collected using the Utstein criteria for cardiac arrest. The primary endpoint is time-to-defibrillation; secondary outcomes include neurological status and survival to discharge, with 3-year follow-up. To date, 192 patients have been recruited in the time period between 10/10/2006 to 7/20/2007. A total of 3,655 hours of telemetry data have been analyzed in the AECD arm. The AECD has monitored ambulatory telemetry patients in sinus rhythm, sinus tachycardia, supraventricular tachycardia, atrial flutter or fibrillation, with premature ventricular complexes and non-sustained VT without delivery of inappropriate shocks. One patient experienced sustained VT during AECD monitoring, who was successfully defibrillated (17 seconds after meeting programmed criteria). There are no events to report in the control arm. The patient survived the event without neurological complications. During the same time period, mean time to shock for VT/VF cardiac arrest occurring outside the telemetry ward was

  11. New signal processing algorithms for automated external defibrillators

    OpenAIRE

    Irusta Zarandona, Unai

    2017-01-01

    [ES]La fibrilación ventricular (VF) es el primer ritmo registrado en el 40\\,\\% de las muertes súbitas por paro cardiorrespiratorio extrahospitalario (PCRE). El único tratamiento eficaz para la FV es la desfibrilación mediante una descarga eléctrica. Fuera del hospital, la descarga se administra mediante un desfibrilador externo automático (DEA), que previamente analiza el electrocardiograma (ECG) del paciente y comprueba si presenta un ritmo desfibrilable. La supervivencia en un caso de PCRE ...

  12. Employment and residential characteristics in relation to automated external defibrillator locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffis, Heather M; Band, Roger A; Ruther, Matthew; Harhay, Michael; Asch, David A; Hershey, John C; Hill, Shawndra; Nadkarni, Lindsay; Kilaru, Austin; Branas, Charles C; Shofer, Frances; Nichol, Graham; Becker, Lance B; Merchant, Raina M

    2016-02-01

    Survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is generally poor and varies by geography. Variability in automated external defibrillator (AED) locations may be a contributing factor. To inform optimal placement of AEDs, we investigated AED access in a major US city relative to demographic and employment characteristics. This was a retrospective analysis of a Philadelphia AED registry (2,559 total AEDs). The 2010 US Census and the Local Employment Dynamics database by ZIP code was used. Automated external defibrillator access was calculated as the weighted areal percentage of each ZIP code covered by a 400-m radius around each AED. Of 47 ZIP codes, only 9% (4) were high-AED-service areas. In 26% (12) of ZIP codes, less than 35% of the area was covered by AED service areas. Higher-AED-access ZIP codes were more likely to have a moderately populated residential area (P = .032), higher median household income (P = .006), and higher paying jobs (P =. 008). The locations of AEDs vary across specific ZIP codes; select residential and employment characteristics explain some variation. Further work on evaluating OHCA locations, AED use and availability, and OHCA outcomes could inform AED placement policies. Optimizing the placement of AEDs through this work may help to increase survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hidden in Plain Sight: A Crowdsourced Public Art Contest to Make Automated External Defibrillators More Visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffis, Heather M.; Kilaru, Austin S.; Sellers, Allison M.; Hershey, John C.; Hill, Shawndra S.; Kramer-Golinkoff, Emily; Nadkarni, Lindsay; Debski, Margaret M.; Padrez, Kevin A.; Becker, Lance B.; Asch, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to explore the feasibility of using a crowdsourcing study to promote awareness about automated external defibrillators (AEDs) and their locations. Methods. The Defibrillator Design Challenge was an online initiative that asked the public to create educational designs that would enhance AED visibility, which took place over 8 weeks, from February 6, 2014, to April 6, 2014. Participants were encouraged to vote for AED designs and share designs on social media for points. Using a mixed-methods study design, we measured participant demographics and motivations, design characteristics, dissemination, and Web site engagement. Results. Over 8 weeks, there were 13 992 unique Web site visitors; 119 submitted designs and 2140 voted. The designs were shared 48 254 times on Facebook and Twitter. Most designers–voters reported that they participated to contribute to an important cause (44%) rather than to win money (0.8%). Design themes included: empowerment, location awareness, objects (e.g., wings, lightning, batteries, lifebuoys), and others. Conclusions. The Defibrillator Design Challenge engaged a broad audience to generate AED designs and foster awareness. This project provides a framework for using design and contest architecture to promote health messages. PMID:25320902

  14. Hidden in plain sight: a crowdsourced public art contest to make automated external defibrillators more visible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Raina M; Griffis, Heather M; Ha, Yoonhee P; Kilaru, Austin S; Sellers, Allison M; Hershey, John C; Hill, Shawndra S; Kramer-Golinkoff, Emily; Nadkarni, Lindsay; Debski, Margaret M; Padrez, Kevin A; Becker, Lance B; Asch, David A

    2014-12-01

    We sought to explore the feasibility of using a crowdsourcing study to promote awareness about automated external defibrillators (AEDs) and their locations. The Defibrillator Design Challenge was an online initiative that asked the public to create educational designs that would enhance AED visibility, which took place over 8 weeks, from February 6, 2014, to April 6, 2014. Participants were encouraged to vote for AED designs and share designs on social media for points. Using a mixed-methods study design, we measured participant demographics and motivations, design characteristics, dissemination, and Web site engagement. Over 8 weeks, there were 13 992 unique Web site visitors; 119 submitted designs and 2140 voted. The designs were shared 48 254 times on Facebook and Twitter. Most designers-voters reported that they participated to contribute to an important cause (44%) rather than to win money (0.8%). Design themes included: empowerment, location awareness, objects (e.g., wings, lightning, batteries, lifebuoys), and others. The Defibrillator Design Challenge engaged a broad audience to generate AED designs and foster awareness. This project provides a framework for using design and contest architecture to promote health messages.

  15. Automated external defibrillation as part BLS: implications for education and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moule, Pam; Albarran, John W

    2002-09-01

    The latest Adult Basic Life Support (BLS) guidelines support the inclusion of the use of the automated external defibrillator (AED), as part of basic life support (BLS). Emphasis on the provision of early defibrillation as part of BLS acknowledges the importance of this manoeuvre in the successful termination of ventricular fibrillation. The ramifications of such changes for both first responders and organisations implementing the guidelines should not be underestimated. Issues relating to resourcing, content and duration of training and retraining, auditing and evaluation require further exploration. To consider these issues now seems particularly pertinent, given the recent launch of the UK Government's paper on public health, 'Saving Lives-Our Healthier Nation' which seeks to deploy AEDs in busy public places for use by trained members of the lay public. Additionally, defibrillation has been identified as one of the key competencies that all trained nurses and other health care providers should be able to undertake. This paper will consider the background to the current guideline changes, analyse the wider implications of translating the recommendations into practice, and offer possible solutions to address the issues raised. Whilst the analysis is particularly pertinent to the United Kingdom, many of the issues raised have international importance.

  16. New signs to encourage the use of Automated External Defibrillators by the lay public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher M; Colquhoun, Michael C; Samuels, Marc; Hodson, Mark; Mitchell, Sarah; O'Sullivan, Judy

    2017-05-01

    Public Access Defibrillation - the use of Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs) by lay bystanders before the arrival of Emergency Medical Services - is an important strategy in delivering prompt defibrillation to victims of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and can greatly improve survival rates. Such public-access AEDs are used rarely: one barrier might be poor understanding and content of current signage to indicate their presence. The aim of this project was to develop a sign, with public consultation, that better indicated the function of an AED, and an associated poster to encourage its use. Two public surveys were undertaken, in July and December 2015, to investigate perceptions of the current AED location sign recommended for use in the UK and to produce an improved location sign and associated information poster. There were 1895 and 2115 respondents to the surveys. Fewer than half (47.9%, 895/1870) understood what the current location sign indicated. One of four design options for a location sign best explained the indication for (preferred by 56.0%, 1023/1828) and best encouraged the use of a public AED (51.8%, 946/1828). 83.5% (1766/2115) preferred an illustration of a stylised heart trace to the lightning bolt used at present. From five wording options, 'Defibrillator - Heart Restarter' was the most popular (29.4%, 622/2115). An associated poster was developed using design features from the new location sign, findings from the surveys and expert group input regarding its content. This is the first time that public consultation has been used to design a public AED location sign. Effective signage has the potential to help break down the barriers to more widespread use of AEDs in public places. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Automated external cardioversion defibrillation monitoring in cardiac arrest: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norvel Robert

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In-hospital cardiac arrest has a poor prognosis despite active electrocardiography monitoring. The initial rhythm of approximately 25% of in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR events is pulseless ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF. Early defibrillation is an independent predictor of survival in CPR events caused by VT/VF. The automated external cardioverter defibrillator (AECD is a device attached by pads to the chest wall that monitors, detects, and within seconds, automatically delivers electric countershock to an appropriate tachyarrhythmia. Study Objectives • To evaluate safety of AECD monitoring in hospitalized patients. • To evaluate whether AECDs provide earlier defibrillation than hospital code teams. Methods The study is a prospective trial randomizing patients admitted to the telemetry ward to standard CPR (code team or standard CPR plus AECD monitoring (PowerHeart CRM. The AECD is programmed to deliver one 150 J biphasic shock to patients in sustained VT/VF. Data is collected using the Utstein criteria for cardiac arrest. The primary endpoint is time-to-defibrillation; secondary outcomes include neurological status and survival to discharge, with 3-year follow-up. Results To date, 192 patients have been recruited in the time period between 10/10/2006 to 7/20/2007. A total of 3,655 hours of telemetry data have been analyzed in the AECD arm. The AECD has monitored ambulatory telemetry patients in sinus rhythm, sinus tachycardia, supraventricular tachycardia, atrial flutter or fibrillation, with premature ventricular complexes and non-sustained VT without delivery of inappropriate shocks. One patient experienced sustained VT during AECD monitoring, who was successfully defibrillated (17 seconds after meeting programmed criteria. There are no events to report in the control arm. The patient survived the event without neurological complications. During the same time period, mean time to

  18. Trained first-responders with an automated external defibrillator: how do they perform in real resuscitation attempts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Wiebe; van Alem, Anouk P.; de Vos, Rien; van Oostrom, Joost; Koster, Rudolph W.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The quality of first-responder performance at the end of automated external defibrillator (AED) training may not predict the performance adequately during a real resuscitation attempt. Methods: Between January and December 2000, we evaluated 67 resuscitation attempts in Amsterdam and

  19. Systematic downloading and analysis of data from automated external defibrillators used in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marco Bo; Lippert, Freddy Knudsen; Rasmussen, Lars Simon

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Valuable information can be retrieved from automated external defibrillators (AEDs) used in victims of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We describe our experience with systematic downloading of data from deployed AEDs. The primary aim was to compare the proportion of shockable...

  20. Psychological and social impacts of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, Anthony J; Diehr, Paula; Meischke, Hendrika; Rea, Tom; Olsen, John; Rodrigues, Derek; Yakovlevitch, Marko; Amidon, Thomas; Eisenberg, Mickey

    2007-09-01

    The majority of cardiac arrests occur in the home. The placement of AEDs in the homes of at-risk patients may save lives through early defibrillation. However, the impact of having an AED in the home on psychological outcomes and quality-of-life is unknown. The purpose of this research was to determine whether training in the use of and possessing an automated external defibrillator (AED) has an effect on a patient at risk's quality of life. We investigated the psychological consequences of AED training and possession of such a device for patients who recently experienced an acute ischemic event. One hundred fifty eight patients and their family members were assigned at random to receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training (N=66) or AED/CPR training and possession of the device after training (N=92). We measured quality of life using the Short-Form (SF-36) survey and a 9-item survey we developed specifically for this study to measure differences in social activities and worries about being left alone. Participants answered these questions at enrollment, 2 weeks, 3 months, and 3 months after enrollment. Patients in the AED group reported lower (worse) scores on most SF-36 subscales at all periods, particularly in those subscales relating to social functioning. The differences were most often small and probably not clinically meaningful. The social activities/worry scales also favored the CPR group at all periods, but with no significant differences. Physicians counselling patients about AEDs should be aware of the potential effects the device may have on a patient's social functioning.

  1. Automated external defibrillator rescues among children with diagnosed and treated long QT syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundi, Kavitha N; Bos, J Martijn; Cannon, Bryan C; Ackerman, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a potentially lethal yet highly treatable cardiac channelopathy. A comprehensive LQTS-directed treatment program often includes an automated external defibrillator (AED). The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of AED rescues among children evaluated, risk-stratified, and treated in an LQTS specialty center. We performed a retrospective review of the electronic medical records to identify 1665 patients evaluated in our Genetic Heart Rhythm Clinic (1999-2013). Subset analysis was performed on 291 children managed without an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). The average age at diagnosis was 8.3 ± 5.7 years with an average. QTc of 463 ± 40 ms (17% ≥500 ms). The represented LQTS genotypes included type 1 (LQT1) in 52%, type 2 (LQT2) in 35%, and type 3 (LQT3) in 7%. During follow-up, 3 of 291 children (1%) had a cardiac arrest with an appropriate AED rescue (2/51 symptomatic, 1/240 asymptomatic). The first AED rescue occurred during exercise in a symptomatic 3-year-old boy with compound LQT1 treated with beta-blocker and videoscopic left cardiac sympathetic denervation (LCSD). The second AED rescue occurred in a remotely symptomatic 14-year-old boy with high-risk LQT2 (QTc >550 ms) on a beta-blocker who previously declined a prophylactic ICD. The third AED rescue involved an asymptomatic 17-year-old girl with LQT3 on mexiletine who collapsed in school. An AED should seldom be necessary in an appropriately treated child with LQTS. Nevertheless, despite only 3 AED rescues in more than 1700 patient-years, an AED can be a lifesaving and cost-effective part of an LQTS patient's comprehensive sudden death prevention program. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effective deployment of public-access automated external defibrillators to improve out-of-hospital cardiac arrest outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Shinji; Sakamoto, Tetsuya

    2017-10-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a major health concern in Japan and other developed countries with aging populations. Improvements in OHCA outcomes require streamlining the chain of survival. Deployment of public-access automated external defibrillators (PADs) and defibrillation by bystanders is one strategy that may streamline the chain by reducing the time to defibrillation in individuals with shockable rhythms. Although the effectiveness of PAD programs in increasing survival to discharge has been reported, there have been criticisms and concerns about the small population impact, cost-effectiveness, and potential negative impact on those with nonshockable rhythms. This article reviews relevant literature regarding the effectiveness and concerns regarding PAD for OHCA.

  3. Characteristics of automated external defibrillator coverage in Philadelphia, PA, based on land use and estimated risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisinger, Benjamin W; Grossestreuer, Anne V; Laguna, Meredith C; Griffis, Heather M; Branas, Charles C; Wiebe, Douglas J; Merchant, Raina M

    2016-12-01

    Approximately 424,000 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) occur in the US annually. As automated external defibrillators (AED) are an important part of the community response to OHCA, we investigated how well the spatial demand (likelihood of OHCA) was met by the spatial supply (AEDs) in a dense urban environment. Using geographic information system (GIS) software, we applied kernel density and optimized hot spot procedures with two differently-sized radii to model OHCA incidence rates from existing studies, providing an estimate of OHCA likelihood at a given location. We compared these density maps to existing AED coverage in the study area. Descriptive statistics summarized coverage by land use. With a 420-ft buffer, we found that 56.0% (79.9%, 840-ft buffer) of the land area in the city center was covered by existing AEDs at, though 70.1 (91.5)% of the OHCA risk was covered using kernel density and 79.8% (98.1) was covered using hot spot analysis. The difference in coverage by area and risk seems to indicate efficient placement of existing AEDs. Our findings also highlight the possible benefits to expanding the influence of AEDs by lowering search times, and identify opportunities to improve AED coverage in the study area. This article offers one method by which local officials can use spatial data to prioritize attention for AED placement and coverage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sudden cardiac arrests, automated external defibrillators, and medical emergency response plans in Tennessee high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Mark L; Watson, Andrew M; Gregory, Andrew; Givens, Timothy G; Abramo, Thomas J; Kannankeril, Prince J

    2013-03-01

    Schools are important public locations of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), and the American Heart Association (AHA) recommends medical emergency response plans (MERPs), which may include an automated external defibrillator (AED) in schools. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of SCA and the prevalence of AEDs and MERPs in Tennessee high schools. Tennessee Secondary School Athletic Association member schools were surveyed regarding SCA on campus within 5 years, AED presence, and MERP characteristics. Of 378 schools, 257 (68%) completed the survey. There were 21 (5 student and 16 adult) SCAs on school grounds, yielding a 5-year incidence of 1 SCA per 12 high schools. An AED was present at 11 of 21 schools with SCA, and 6 SCA victims were treated with an AED shock. A linear increase in SCA frequency was noted with increasing school size (schools, 71% had an MERP, 48% had an AED, and only 4% were fully compliant with AHA recommendations. Schools with a history of SCA were more likely to be compliant (19% vs. 3%, P = 0.011). The 5-year incidence of SCA in Tennessee high schools is 1 in 12, but increases to 1 in 7 for schools with more than 1000 students. Compliance with AHA guidelines for MERPs is poor, but improved in schools with recent SCA. Future recommendations should encourage the inclusion of AED placement in schools with more than 1000 students.

  5. The availability, condition and employability of automated external defibrillators in large city centres in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huig, Isabelle C; Boonstra, Linda; Gerritsen, Patricia C; Hoeks, Sanne E

    2014-10-01

    In the Netherlands there are, at the time of writing, no clear guidelines about the implementation of automated external defibrillators (AEDs). An observational study was conducted to investigate the current status of AEDs in city centres in the Netherlands looking specifically at the availability, condition and employability of the AEDs. The shopping areas in the old city centres of the six largest cities in the Netherlands were included in the study. After the AEDs had been identified, a questionnaire was used to determine the availability, condition and employability of the AED. In total 130 AEDs were found and 122 included in the study. The following results were found: 40% of the AEDs were not visible (range 21-64), 29% were not indicated with a sign (range 19-41), 7% had an empty battery (range 0-23), 16% of the defipads had expired (range 0-31) and in 98% of the AEDs a trained employee was present (range 96-100). After combining these results, 71% of the AEDs were available for use (range 61-93), 70% were in a good condition (range 46-82) and 70% were employable (range 58-93). The results show a major variability between cities. Our study demonstrates that although national guidelines have not been implemented, a reasonable amount of AEDs can be found. However there is certainly room for improvement in the current availability, condition and employability of AEDs in city centres in the Netherlands. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Quality of basic life support education and automated external defibrillator setting in schools in Ishikawa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Akiteru; Ito, Sayori; Maruyama, Kaori; Ryo, Yusuke; Saito, Manami; Fujimura, Shuhei; Ishiura, Yuna; Hori, Ariyuki

    2017-03-01

    Automated external defibrillators (AED) have been installed in schools in Japan since 2004, and the government strongly recommends teaching basic life support (BLS). We therefore examined the quality of BLS education and AED installation in schools. We conducted a prefecture-wide questionnaire survey of all primary and junior high schools in 2016, to assess BLS education and AED installation against the recommendations of the Japan Circulation Society. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-squared test. In total, 195 schools out of 315 (62%) responded, of which 38% have introduced BLS education for children. BLS training was held in a smaller proportion of primary schools (18%) than junior high schools (86%). More than 90% of primary school staff had undergone BLS training in the previous 2 years. The most common locations of AED were the gymnasium (32%) followed by entrance hall (28%), staffroom (25%), and infirmary (12%). The reasons given for location were that it was obvious (34%), convenient for staff (32%), could be used out of hours (17%), and the most likely location for a heart attack (15%). Approximately 18% of schools reported that it takes >5 min to reach the AED from the furthest point. BLS training, AED location, and understanding of both are not sufficient to save children's lives efficiently. Authorities should make recommendations about the correct number of AED, and their location, and provide more information to improve the quality of BLS training in schools. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. Life-saving automated external defibrillation in a teenager: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rey Corsino

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent sudden death during sport participation is commonly due to cardiac causes. Survival is more likely when an automated external defibrillator (AED is used soon after collapse. Case presentation We describe a case of sudden death in a 14 year old boy with two remarkable points, successful resuscitation at school using an AED and diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR was immediately started by a witness and 5 minutes after the event the child was placed on an AED monitor that determined he was in a non shockable rhythm, therefore CPR was continued. Two minutes later, the AED monitor detected a shockable rhythm and recommended a shock, which was then administered. One minute after the shock, a palpable pulse was detected and the child began to breathe by himself. Four days after cardiac arrest, the boy was conversing and self-caring. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was suggestive of ARVC. Conclusion Ventricular fibrillation secondary to ARVC may be a devastating event and places young patients and athletes at high risk of sudden death. Immediate CPR and AED have been demonstrated to be lifesaving in such events. Therefore, we suggest that schools should have teachers skilled in CPR and accessible AEDs.

  8. A case of ventricular fibrillation not detected by an automated external defibrillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigetoshi Sakabe, MD

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of ventricular fibrillation (VF which an automated external defibrillator (AED could not detect. A 13-year-old girl collapsed just after playing basketball. Cardio pulmonary resuscitation (CPR was started immediately and 5 minutes later an AED was applied by a rescue team. The monitor of the AED displayed typical VF, but the AED did not detect it as VF. The VF was not detected during 2 more attempts. Detection occurred on the fourth attempt, and counter-shock was successfully delivered, but the process took an extra 9 minutes. After the event, the girl was diagnosed with a latent type of prolonged QT syndrome. We analyzed the reason why the VF was not detected by the AED and found that the ECG detected by the AED fell outside the device’s parameters for ventricular tachycardia (VT or VF. We emphasize that the AED is an excellent device, but we should also be aware of its limitations.

  9. Preventing Sudden Cardiac Death: Automated External Defibrillators in Ohio High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Aaron; Hoang, Minh-Ha; Zyzanski, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    Ohio passed legislation in 2004 for optional public funding of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in all Ohio high schools. To report occurrences of sudden cardiac arrest in which AEDs were used in Ohio high schools and to evaluate the adherence of Ohio high schools with AEDs to state law and published guidelines on AEDs and emergency action plans (EAPs) in schools. Cross-sectional survey. Web-based survey. A total of 264 of 827 schools that were members of the Ohio High School Athletic Association. We surveyed schools on AED use, AED maintenance, and EAPs. Twenty-five episodes of AED deployment at 22 schools over an 11-year period were reported; 8 (32%) involved students and 17 (68%) involved adults. The reported survival rate was 60% (n = 15). Most events (n = 20, 80%) in both students and adults occurred at or near athletic facilities. The annual use rate of AEDs was 0.7%. Fifty-three percent (n = 140) of schools reported having an EAP in place for episodes of cardiac arrest. Of the schools with EAPs, 57% (n = 80) reported having rehearsed them. Our data supported the placement of AEDs in high schools given the frequency of use for sudden cardiac arrest and the survival rate reported. They also suggested the need for increased awareness of recommendations for EAPs and the need to formulate and practice EAPs. School EAPs should emphasize planning for events in the vicinity of athletic facilities.

  10. High School Automated External Defibrillator Programs as Markers of Emergency Preparedness for Sudden Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toresdahl, Brett G.; Harmon, Kimberly G.; Drezner, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Context: School-based automated external defibrillator (AED) programs have demonstrated a high survival rate for individuals suffering sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in US high schools. Objective: To examine the relationship between high schools having an AED on campus and other measures of emergency preparedness for SCA. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: United States high schools, December 2006 to September 2009. Patients or Other Participants: Principals, athletic directors, school nurses, and certified athletic trainers represented 3371 high schools. Main Outcome Measure(s): Comprehensive surveys on emergency planning for SCA submitted by high school representatives to the National Registry for AED Use in Sports from December 2006 to September 2009. Schools with and without AEDs were compared to assess other elements of emergency preparedness for SCA. Results: A total of 2784 schools (82.6%) reported having 1 or more AEDs on campus, with an average of 2.8 AEDs per school; 587 schools (17.4%) had no AEDs. Schools with an enrollment of more than 500 students were more likely to have an AED (relative risk [RR] = 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 1.16, P defibrillation (RR = 3.45, 95% CI = 2.97, 3.99, P < .01), establish an emergency action plan for SCA (RR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.67, 2.00, P < .01), review the emergency action plan at least annually (RR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.58, 2.50, P < .01), consult emergency medical services to develop the emergency action plan (RR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.32, P < .01), and establish a communication system to activate emergency responders (RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.08, P < .01). Conclusions: High schools with AED programs were more likely to establish a comprehensive emergency response plan for SCA. Implementing school-based AED programs is a key step associated with emergency planning for young athletes with SCA. PMID:23672389

  11. Automated external defibrillators and survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Paul S; Krumholz, Harlan M; Spertus, John A; Jones, Philip G; Cram, Peter; Berg, Robert A; Peberdy, Mary Ann; Nadkarni, Vinay; Mancini, Mary E; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K

    2010-11-17

    Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) improve survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, but data on their effectiveness in hospitalized patients are limited. To evaluate the association between AED use and survival for in-hospital cardiac arrest. Cohort study of 11,695 hospitalized patients with cardiac arrests between January 1, 2000, and August 26, 2008, at 204 US hospitals following the introduction of AEDs on general hospital wards. Survival to hospital discharge by AED use, using multivariable hierarchical regression analyses to adjust for patient factors and hospital site. Of 11,695 patients, 9616 (82.2%) had nonshockable rhythms (asystole and pulseless electrical activity) and 2079 (17.8%) had shockable rhythms (ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia). AEDs were used in 4515 patients (38.6%). Overall, 2117 patients (18.1%) survived to hospital discharge. Within the entire study population, AED use was associated with a lower rate of survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest compared with no AED use (16.3% vs 19.3%; adjusted rate ratio [RR], 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78-0.92; P < .001). Among cardiac arrests due to nonshockable rhythms, AED use was associated with lower survival (10.4% vs 15.4%; adjusted RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.65-0.83; P < .001). In contrast, for cardiac arrests due to shockable rhythms, AED use was not associated with survival (38.4% vs 39.8%; adjusted RR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.88-1.13; P = .99). These patterns were consistently observed in both monitored and nonmonitored hospital units where AEDs were used, after matching patients to the individual units in each hospital where the cardiac arrest occurred, and with a propensity score analysis. Among hospitalized patients with cardiac arrest, use of AEDs was not associated with improved survival.

  12. Simulation of the Effects of Co-Locating Naloxone with Automated External Defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Jessica E; Weiss, Leonard S; Salcido, David D

    2018-03-01

    Opioid-related overdoses have been steadily increasing over the past decade in the United States. Naloxone is used by first responders to revive overdose victims, but results may be improved by increasing access to and usage of naloxone by bystanders. Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs) are pervasive, recognizable, and publicly accessible. Co-locating naloxone kits with AEDs could increase public naloxone access and usage. However, the impact of co-locating naloxone kits with AEDs is not known. We sought to evaluate the impact of co-locating naloxone kits with AEDs in a simulation study centered on Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. Naloxone administration frequency (N = 3,650) at the zip-code level from March 2016 to March 2017 was provided by the Allegheny County Health Department. AED point locations (N = 1,653) were obtained from the University of Pittsburgh's Resuscitation Logistics and Informatics Venture. Zip-code level geospatial analyses were conducted using QGIS and STATA to determine the correlation between AED count and naloxone administrations. AED naloxone kit (N-AED) coverage, based on a maximum "walking-distance" radius of 200 m, was estimated at a zip-code level using the QGIS buffer tool and a custom MATLAB script. Potential impact of N-AEDs was estimated assuming uniform spatial distribution of naloxone administrations. The median (IQR) AED coverage based on a 200 m access radius per zip code was 4% (0-7). The median (IQR) number of naloxone administrations per zip code was 27(7-55). A total of 82 zip codes had data for both AED locations and naloxone administrations. The correlation between number of AEDs and naloxone administrations per zip code was 0.20. Overall, 16% of naloxone administrations were estimated to be covered by an N-AED. Using these limited methods, co-locating naloxone with AEDs is not likely to have a standalone impact on preventing overdose fatalities.

  13. Presence of automated external defibrillators in North Carolina public middle schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Karl B; Bright, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) have been used in the school setting to successfully resuscitate students, staff, and visitors. All public high schools in North Carolina have an AED. However, the number of North Carolina public middle schools with an AED is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of AEDs at public middle schools in North Carolina and to estimate the cost associated with providing an AED to all public middle schools currently without one. All 547 middle schools in North Carolina's 117 public school systems were surveyed in 2009 via e-mail, fax, and, when necessary, telephone about whether an AED was present on site. For middle schools without AEDs, we estimated the cost of purchase and for 1 year of maintenance. A total 66.6% of public middle schools responded to 1 of 3 survey mailings. The remaining schools were contacted by telephone, so that 100% were included in data collection. At the time of the survey, at least 1 AED was present in 334 schools (61.1%). Of the 213 schools without AEDs, 57 (26.8%) were in school systems in which some middle schools had AEDs, and 156 (73.2%) were in systems in which no middle school had an AED. On the basis of a start-up cost of $1,200 per AED, the cost of providing an AED to each school without one is approximately $255,600. These data are based on self-report, and we could not verify whether AEDs were functional. Cost estimates do not include charges for ongoing maintenance and staff training. Two hundred and thirteen North Carolina public middle schools (38.9%) do not have an AED on site.

  14. Performance of an automated external defibrillator in a moving ambulance vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jong Geun; Jeung, Kyung Woon; Lee, Byung Kook; Ryu, Hyun Ho; Lee, Hyoung Youn; Kim, Mu Jin; Heo, Tag; Min, Yong Il; You, Yeonho

    2010-04-01

    The available data suggest that automated external defibrillators (AED) can be safely used in vibration-like moving conditions such as rigid inflatable boats and aircraft environments. However, little literature exists examining their performance in a moving ambulance. The present study was undertaken to determine whether an AED is able to analyse the heart rhythm correctly during ambulance transport. An ambulance was driven on paved (20-100 km/h) and unpaved (10 km/h) roads. The performance of two AED devices (CU ER 2, CU Medical Systems Inc., Korea, and Heartstart MRx, Phillips, USA) was determined in a moving ambulance using manikins. Vibration intensity was measured simultaneously with a digital vibrometer. AED performance was then evaluated again on manikins and on a swine model under simulated vibration intensities (0.5-5m/s(2)) measured by the vibrometer in the previous phase of the investigation. The vibration intensity increased with increasing speeds on paved roads (1.98+/-0.44 m/s(2) at 100 km/h). While driving on unpaved roads, it increased to 6.40+/-1.06 m/s(2). Both AED algorithms analysed the heart rhythm correctly under resting state. When tested on pigs, both algorithms showed substantially degraded performances, even at low vibration intensities of 0.5-1m/s(2), which corresponded to vibration intensities while driving on paved roads at 20-60 km/h. This study also showed that electrocardiograms generated on manikins were more resistant to motion artifacts than were the pig electrocardiograms. Ambulance personnel should consider the possibility of misinterpretation by an AED when this device is used while transporting a patient. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The use of AEDs by police officers in the City of London. Automated external defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, P; Nolan, J; Hill, E; Dawson, J; Whimster, F; Skinner, D

    2001-08-01

    The Guidelines 2000 for cardiopulmonary resuscitation recommend shock delivery to victims in ventricular fibrillation within 5 min of call receipt by the Emergency Medical Services. In an effort to achieve this goal, in some parts of the United States, police officers have been trained to use automated external defibrillators (AEDs). We undertook a 3-year pilot evaluation of the use of AEDs by City of London police (CPOL) officers. Over a period of 3 years, 147 CPOL officers were trained in the use of an AED. Four AEDs were placed on rapid response vehicles covering the City of London. An overall call-response interval target was set at 8 min. The CPOL attended 1103 (90%) of the total of 1232 calls to which they were summoned. The mean interval between the first call received and arrival of the CPOL on scene was 8.9+/-4.0 min. The CPOL applied AEDs to 25 victims, 13 of whom were initially in ventricular fibrillation; at least one shock was delivered to all 13. The interval between call reception and delivery of the first shock was 5.5+/-2.5 min. The mean interval between switching on the AED and delivery of the first shock was 24+/-12 s. Two (15%) of these victims survived to hospital discharge. This study has confirmed the feasibility of training police officers in the UK to use AEDs as first responders. The call received to arrival on scene interval should be reduced by improvements in communication between LAS and CPOL.

  16. Automated external defibrillator training and skill retention at a ski patrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usatch, Ben R; Cone, David C

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether members of a ski patrol, most of whom have no off-season medical responsibilities, can successfully complete an automated external defibrillator (AED) training program prior to the ski season, and retain AED skills at the end of the season and at the beginning of the following season. A prospective educational study was conducted with 61 ski patrol personnel: 51 (84%) had no other medical training, 44 (72%) had no off-season medical duties, and 57 (93%) had no prior exposure to AEDs. Prior to the ski season (December 1, 1998), all members were trained and tested using the standard American Heart Association (AHA) AED training package and a Life-Pak 500 AED and AED Trainer donated by the Medtronic Physio-Control Corporation. Both after the ski season (April 1, 1999) and prior to the following season (October 30, 1999), with no refresher training, participants were retested with the same written and practical exams. Cochrane's linear trend test was used to compare scores on the practical and written tests over time. For the three testing sessions, practical test pass rates were 95%, 92%, and 97%, and written test pass rates were 100%, 98%, and 98%. There was no change in individuals' scores on either the written test (p = 0.914) or the practical test (p = 0.413) over time. A heterogeneous group of ski patrollers can successfully complete an AED training course, with good skill retention both after the ski season and at the beginning of the following season.

  17. Temporal Trends in Coverage of Historical Cardiac Arrests Using a Volunteer-Based Network of Automated External Defibrillators Accessible to Laypersons and Emergency Dispatch Centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malta Hansen, Carolina; Knudsen Lippert, Freddy; Wissenberg, Mads

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -Although increased dissemination of Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs) has been associated with more frequent AED use, the trade-off between the number of deployed AEDs and coverage of cardiac arrests remains unclear. We investigated how volunteer-based AED dissemination affected...

  18. AEDs at your fingertips: automated external defibrillators on college campuses and a novel approach for increasing accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Ryan J; O'Shea, Jesse G

    2014-01-01

    The use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) increases survival in cardiac arrest events. Due to the success of previous efforts and free, readily available mobile mapping software, the discussion is to emphasize the importance of the use of AEDs to prevent sudden cardiac arrest-related deaths on college campuses and abroad, while suggesting a novel approach to aiding in access and awareness issues. A user-friendly mobile application (a low-cost iOS map) was developed at Florida State University to decrease AED retrieval distance and time. The development of mobile AED maps is feasible for a variety of universities and other entities, with the potential to save lives. Just having AEDs installed is not enough--they need to be easily locatable. Society increasingly relies on phones to provide information, and there are opportunities to use mobile technology to locate and share information about relevant emergency devices; these should be incorporated into the chain of survival.

  19. Optimization of automated external defibrillator deployment outdoors: An evidence-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Benjamin; Jabre, Patricia; Karam, Nicole; Misslin, Renaud; Bories, Marie-Cécile; Tafflet, Muriel; Bougouin, Wulfran; Jost, Daniel; Beganton, Frankie; Beal, Guillaume; Pelloux, Patricia; Marijon, Eloi; Jouven, Xavier

    2016-11-01

    The benefits of available automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) for out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) are well known, but strategies for their deployment outdoors remain somewhat arbitrary. Our study sought to assess different strategies for AED deployment. All OHCAs in Paris between 2000 and 2010 were prospectively recorded and geocoded. A guidelines-based strategy of placing an AED in locations where more than one OHCA had occurred within the past five years was compared to two novel strategies: a grid-based strategy with a regular distance between AEDs and a landmark-based strategy. The expected number of AEDs necessary and their median (IQR) distance to the nearest OHCA were assessed for each strategy. Of 4176 OHCAs, 1372 (33%) occurred in public settings. The first strategy would result in the placement of 170 AEDs, with a distance to OHCA of 416 (180-614) m and a continuous increase in the number of AEDS. In the second strategy, the number of AEDs and their distance to the closest OHCA would change with the grid size, with a number of AEDs between 200 and 400 seeming optimal. In the third strategy, median distances between OHCAs and AEDs would be 324m if placed at post offices (n=195), 239 at subway stations (n=302), 137 at bike-sharing stations (n=957), and 142 at pharmacies (n=1466). This study presents an original evidence-based approach to strategies of AED deployment to optimize their number and location. This rational approach can estimate the optimal number of AEDs for any city. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Training program on cardiopulmonary resuscitation with the use of automated external defibrillator in a university].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Ana Paula; Miyadahira, Ana Maria Kazue

    2012-03-01

    Early defibrillation in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) receives increasing emphasis on its priority and rapidity. This is an experience report about the implementation of a training program in CPR using a defibrillator in a private university. The training program in basic CPR maneuvers was based on global guidelines, including a theorical course with practical demonstration of CPR maneuvers with the defibrillator, individual practical training and theoretical and practical assessments. About the performance of students in the practical assessment the mean scores obtained by students in the first stage of the course was 26.4 points, while in the second stage the mean was 252.8 points, in the theoretical assessment the mean in the first stage was 3.06 points and in the second 9.0 points. The implementation of programs like this contribute to the effective acquisition of knowledge (theory) and skill (pratice) for the care of CPR victims.

  1. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and placement of automated external defibrillators in the community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folke, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    INDLEDNING Chancen for at overleve et hjertestop udenfor hospital er i de første minutter efter kollaps afhængig af hjælpen fra nærmeste tilstedeværende. Dette har faciliteret strategier for placering af automatiske eksterne defibrillatorer (AED) i det offentlige rum og muliggjort hurtig defibril...

  2. Prepared for sudden cardiac arrest? A cross-sectional study of automated external defibrillators in amateur sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Owen; Jordan, Joseph; Quigley, Fionnuala; Molloy, Michael G

    2013-12-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is a rare but tragic part of professional and amateur sport. Following multiple high profile deaths in professional sport over the past two decades, there has been a significant trend towards the widespread availability of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) at amateur sports grounds. To examine the availability of AEDs in amateur sports clubs in Cork, Ireland, and to investigate club practices with respect to the purchase, accessibility, maintenance and use of AEDs. A cross-sectional survey of 218 amateur Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA), soccer and rugby clubs was conducted between July and September 2012. Club committee representatives answered a 22-point questionnaire. 126 GAA clubs and 28 soccer and 17 rugby (n=171) clubs were enrolled in this study. A total of 81.3% of amateur clubs own an AED. We estimate an AED-use rate of one AED use for every 54.5 years an AED is available. Almost 50% of club representatives thought the location of their club AED could be improved while 12.9% of clubs admitted to not maintaining their club AED on a regular basis. A large proportion of amateur clubs in Cork City and County own an AED. Many clubs engage in regular maintenance and storage of AEDs. However, this study identifies several areas for improvement in facilitating a secure chain of survival for players in the event of an SCA.

  3. The Effect of the Duration of Basic Life Support Training on the Learners’ Cardiopulmonary and Automated External Defibrillator Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hyuck Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Basic life support (BLS training with hands-on practice can improve performance during simulated cardiac arrest, although the optimal duration for BLS training is unknown. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of various BLS training durations for acquiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR and automated external defibrillator (AED skills. Methods. We randomised 485 South Korean nonmedical college students into four levels of BLS training: level 1 (40 min, level 2 (80 min, level 3 (120 min, and level 4 (180 min. Before and after each level, the participants completed questionnaires regarding their willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs, and their psychomotor skills for CPR and AED use were assessed using a manikin with Skill-Reporter™ software. Results. There were no significant differences between levels 1 and 2, although levels 3 and 4 exhibited significant differences in the proportion of overall adequate chest compressions (p<0.001 and average chest compression depth (p=0.003. All levels exhibited a greater posttest willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs (all, p<0.001. Conclusions. Brief BLS training provided a moderate level of skill for performing CPR and using AEDs. However, high-quality skills for CPR required longer and hands-on training, particularly hands-on training with AEDs.

  4. [Study of knowledge in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillation in sports instructors of public sport centers in Asturias (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Cuervo, Coral; Cuartas Álvarez, Tatiana; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Arcos González, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the level of knowledge about cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillation (AED) in sport instructors working in public sport centers in Asturias. A cross-sectional study was conducted on sports instructors in May 2014, by completing a self-administered questionnaire on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and use of AED, with 25 items and four possible answers, only one valid, divided into five categories (emergency medical system in Asturias, initial assessment, circulation,airway and use of AED). Age, gender, work experience as sports instructor, previous training courses, education and training and employment contract were studied as epidemiological variables. A total 26 questionnaires (52%) were collected in public sports centers, and 84% of total responses were correct. It should be emphasized that among the wrong answers, 42.30% did not know what was the first action in a cardiac arrest, and 36.62% did not know how to perform a complete cardiopulmonary resuscitation if the person affected had a perioral injury, with 46.15% not knowing how to respond to a cardiac arrest due to drowning. It is recommended to include the management of cardiac arrest in their workplace in the training plans and the continuing education of sports instructors, at least every two years, according to national laws and laws from Asturias, including also training on the use and management of AED. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Effectiveness of emergency response planning for sudden cardiac arrest in United States high schools with automated external defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drezner, Jonathan A; Rao, Ashwin L; Heistand, Justin; Bloomingdale, Megan K; Harmon, Kimberly G

    2009-08-11

    US high schools are increasingly adopting automated external defibrillators (AEDs) for use in campus settings. We analyzed the effectiveness of emergency response planning for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in a large cohort of US high schools that had onsite AED programs. A cohort of US high schools with at least 1 onsite AED was identified from the National Registry for AED Use in Sports. A school representative completed a comprehensive survey on emergency planning and provided details of any SCA incident occurring within 6 months of survey completion. Surveys were completed between December 2006 and July 2007. In total, 1710 high schools with an onsite AED program were studied. Although 83% (1428 of 1710) of schools have an established emergency response plan for SCA, only 40% practice and review the plan at least annually with potential school responders. A case of SCA was reported by 36 of 1710 schools (2.1%). The 36 SCA victims included 14 high school student athletes (mean age, 16 years; range, 14 to 17 years) and 22 older nonstudents (mean age, 57 years; range, 42 to 71 years) such as employees and spectators. No cases were reported in student nonathletes. Of the 36 SCA cases, 35 (97%) were witnessed, 34 (94%) received bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and 30 (83%) received an AED shock. Twenty-three SCA victims (64%) survived to hospital discharge, including 9 of the 14 student athletes and 14 of the 22 older nonstudents. School-based AED programs provide a high survival rate for both student athletes and older nonstudents who suffer SCA on school grounds. High schools are strongly encouraged to implement onsite AED programs as part of a comprehensive emergency response plan to SCA.

  6. Efficacy and retention of Basic Life Support education including Automated External Defibrillator usage during a physical education period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Watanabe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The American Heart Association (AHA advocates for CPR education as a requirement of secondary school curriculum. Unfortunately, many states have not adopted CPR education. Our aim was to investigate a low-cost, time effective method to educate students on Basic Life Support (BLS, including reeducation. This is a prospective, randomized study. Retention was assessed at 4 months post-initial education. Education was performed by AHA-certified providers during a 45-minute physical education class in a middle school in Florida. This age provides opportunities for reinforcement through high school, with ability for efficient learning. The study included 41 Eighth grade students. Students were randomized into two groups; one group received repeat education 2 months after the first education, the second group did not. All students received BLS education limited to chest compressions and usage of an Automated External Defibrillator. Students had skills and knowledge tests administered pre- and post-education after initial education, and repeated 2 and 4 months later to assess retention. There was a significant increase in CPR skills and knowledge when comparing pre- and post-education results for all time-points (p < 0.001. When assessing reeducation, a significant improvement was noted in total knowledge scores but not during the actual steps of CPR. Our study indicates significant increase in CPR knowledge and skills following a one-time 45-minute session. Reeducation may be useful, but the interval needs further investigation. If schools across the United States invested one 45–60-minute period every school year, this would ensure widespread CPR knowledge with minimal cost and loss of school time.

  7. Radius of Care in Secondary Schools in the Midwest: Are Automated External Defibrillators Sufficiently Accessible to Enable Optimal Patient Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, Michael; Claiborne, Tina; Liberi, Victor

    2018-04-25

      Sudden cardiac arrest is the leading cause of death among young athletes. According to the American Heart Association, an automated external defibrillator (AED) should be available within a 1- to 1.5-minute brisk walk from the patient for the highest chance of survival. Secondary school personnel have reported a lack of understanding about the proper number and placement of AEDs for optimal patient care.   To determine whether fixed AEDs were located within a 1- to 1.5-minute timeframe from any location on secondary school property (ie, radius of care).   Cross-sectional study.   Public and private secondary schools in northwest Ohio and southeast Michigan.   Thirty schools (24 public, 6 private) volunteered.   Global positioning system coordinates were used to survey the entire school properties and determine AED locations. From each AED location, the radius of care was calculated for 3 retrieval speeds: walking, jogging, and driving a utility vehicle. Data were analyzed to expose any property area that fell outside the radius of care.   Public schools (37.1% ± 11.0%) possessed more property outside the radius of care than did private schools (23.8% ± 8.0%; F 1,28 = 8.35, P = .01). After accounting for retrieval speed, we still observed differences between school types when personnel would need to walk or jog to retrieve an AED ( F 1.48,41.35 = 4.99, P = .02). The percentages of school property outside the radius of care for public and private schools were 72.6% and 56.3%, respectively, when walking and 34.4% and 12.2%, respectively, when jogging. Only 4.2% of the public and none of the private schools had property outside the radius of care when driving a utility vehicle.   Schools should strategically place AEDs to decrease the percentage of property area outside the radius of care. In some cases, placement in a centralized location that is publicly accessible may be more important than the overall number of AEDs on site.

  8. Factors influencing the intentions of nurses and respiratory therapists to use automated external defibrillators during in-hospital cardiac arrest: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jessica; Vaillancourt, Christian; Jensen, Jan; Kasaboski, Ann; Charette, Manya; Clement, Catherine M; Brehaut, Jamie C; Osmond, Martin H; Wells, George A; Stiell, Ian G; Grimshaw, Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    Nurses and respiratory therapists are seldom allowed to use automated external defibrillators (AED) during in-hospital cardiac arrest. This can result in significant time delays before defibrillation occurs and lower survival for cardiac arrest victims. We sought to identify barriers and facilitators to AED use by nurses and respiratory therapists. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with a purposeful sample of nurses and respiratory therapists. We developed the interview guide based on the constructs of the theory of planned behaviour, which elicits salient attitudes, social influences, and control beliefs potentially influencing the intent to use an AED. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed until achieving data saturation. Two independent reviewers performed inductive analyses to identify emerging categories and themes, and ranked them by frequency of the number of participants stating the topic. Demographics for the 24 interviewees include mean age 40.5, 79.2% female, 87.5% performed cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), 29.2% defibrillated a patient. Identified attitudes pertained to the timeliness of defibrillation, patient survival, simplicity of AED use, accuracy of rhythm recognition, and harm to self or others. Social influences consisted of physician and hospital administration support of AED use. Control beliefs included training on AED use, policy allowing AED use, familiarity with AED, and task burden during resuscitation. Most nurses and respiratory therapists intended to use an AED if permitted to do so by a medical directive. Successful implementation would require educational initiatives focusing on safety and efficacy of AEDs, support from physicians and hospital administrators, and additional training on AED use.

  9. Optimal installation locations for automated external defibrillators in Taipei 7-Eleven stores: using GIS and a genetic algorithm with a new stirring operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chung-Yuan; Wen, Tzai-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Immediate treatment with an automated external defibrillator (AED) increases out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patient survival potential. While considerable attention has been given to determining optimal public AED locations, spatial and temporal factors such as time of day and distance from emergency medical services (EMSs) are understudied. Here we describe a geocomputational genetic algorithm with a new stirring operator (GANSO) that considers spatial and temporal cardiac arrest occurrence factors when assessing the feasibility of using Taipei 7-Eleven stores as installation locations for AEDs. Our model is based on two AED conveyance modes, walking/running and driving, involving service distances of 100 and 300 meters, respectively. Our results suggest different AED allocation strategies involving convenience stores in urban settings. In commercial areas, such installations can compensate for temporal gaps in EMS locations when responding to nighttime OHCA incidents. In residential areas, store installations can compensate for long distances from fire stations, where AEDs are currently held in Taipei.

  10. Locating Automated External Defibrillators in a Complicated Urban Environment Considering a Pedestrian-Accessible Network that Focuses on Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil Kwon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Automated external defibrillators (AEDs are portable devices that defibrillate and diagnose sudden-cardiac-arrest patients. Therefore, AEDs are widely installed in public places such as airports, schools, sport complexes, etc., and the installation of AEDs is required by law in these places. However, despite their usefulness, AEDs are mostly installed indoors with limited coverage outdoors. Hence, this study conducts research in the placement of AEDs in outdoor locations. This study considers a complicated urban environment using a pedestrian network dataset and network barriers. We draw on the Teitz and Bart’s (1968 heuristic method that was built in the location-allocation solver in ArcMap. The results of this study found that a total of 455 AEDs, including 227 pre-installed AEDs, could be placed in the study area, thus providing an additional 228 devices. Compared with 10 different installation methods that were set as experimental groups, our test results found that additional installations were able to cover 10% to 30% more actual out-of-hospital cardiac-arrest cases. The main contribution of this study is the proposal of a new method in locating AEDs in optimal areas while considering complicated urban environments. We predict that the cardiac-arrest-related mortality rate would be reduced through implementing the findings of this study.

  11. Effectiveness of teaching automated external defibrillators use using a traditional classroom instruction versus self-instruction video in non-critical care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiboon, Ismail M; Qamruddin, Reza M; Jaafar, Johar M; Bakar, Afliza A; Hamzah, Faizal A; Eng, Ho S; Robertson, Colin E

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and retention of learning automated external defibrillator (AED) usage taught through a traditional classroom instruction (TCI) method versus a novel self instructed video (SIV) technique in non-critical care nurses (NCCN). A prospective single-blind randomized study was conducted over 7 months (April-October 2014) at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Kuala Lampur, Malaysia. Eighty nurses were randomized into either TCI or SIV instructional techniques. We assessed knowledge, skill and confidence level at baseline, immediate and 6-months post-intervention. Knowledge and confidence were assessed via questionnaire; skill was assessed by a calibrated and blinded independent assessor using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) method. Pre-test mean scores for knowledge in the TCI group was 10.87 ± 2.34, and for the SIV group was 10.37 ± 1.85 (maximum achievable score 20.00); 4.05 ± 2.87 in the TCI and 3.71 ± 2.66 in the SIV (maximum score 11.00) in the OSCE evaluation and 9.54 ± 3.65 in the TCI and 8.56 ± 3.47 in the SIV (maximum score 25.00) in the individual's personal confidence level. Both methods increased the mean scores significantly during immediate post-intervention (0-month). At 6-months, the TCI group scored lower than the SIV group in all aspects 11.13 ± 2.70 versus 12.95 ± 2.26 (p=0.03) in knowledge, 7.27 ± 1.62 versus 7.68 ± 1.73 (p=0.47) in the OSCE, and 16.40 ± 2.72 versus 18.82 ± 3.40 (p=0.03) in confidence level. In NCCN's, SIV is as good as TCI in providing the knowledge, competency, and confidence in performing AED defibrillation.

  12. Impact of community-wide police car deployment of automated external defibrillators on survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myerburg, Robert J; Fenster, Jeffrey; Velez, Mauricio; Rosenberg, Donald; Lai, Shenghan; Kurlansky, Paul; Newton, Starbuck; Knox, Melenda; Castellanos, Agustin

    2002-08-27

    Disappointing survival rates from out-of-hospital cardiac arrests encourage strategies for faster defibrillation, such as use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) by nonconventional responders. AEDs were provided to all Miami-Dade County, Florida, police. AED-equipped police (P-AED) and conventional emergency medical rescue (EMS) responders are simultaneously deployed to possible cardiac arrests. Times from 9-1-1 contact to the scene were compared for P-AED and concurrently deployed EMS, and both were compared with historical EMS experience. Survival with P-AED was compared with outcomes when EMS was the sole responder. Among 420 paired dispatches of P-AED and EMS, the mean+/-SD P-AED time from 9-1-1 call to arrival at the scene was 6.16+/-4.27 minutes, compared with 7.56+/-3.60 minutes for EMS (P<0.001). Police arrived first to 56% of the calls. The time to first responder arrival among P-AED and EMS was 4.88+/-2.88 minutes (P<0.001), compared with a historical response time of 7.64+/-3.66 minutes when EMS was the sole responder. A 17.2% survival rate was observed for victims with ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VT/VF), compared with 9.0% for standard EMS before P-AED implementation (P=0.047). However, VT/VF benefit was diluted by the observation that 61% of the initial rhythms were nonshockable, reducing the absolute survival benefit among the total study population to 1.6% (P-AED, 7.6%; EMS, 6.0%). P-AED establishes a layer of responders that generate improved response times and survival from VT/VF. There was no benefit for victims with nonshockable rhythms.

  13. Optimal Installation Locations for Automated External Defibrillators in Taipei 7-Eleven Stores: Using GIS and a Genetic Algorithm with a New Stirring Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yuan Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Immediate treatment with an automated external defibrillator (AED increases out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA patient survival potential. While considerable attention has been given to determining optimal public AED locations, spatial and temporal factors such as time of day and distance from emergency medical services (EMSs are understudied. Here we describe a geocomputational genetic algorithm with a new stirring operator (GANSO that considers spatial and temporal cardiac arrest occurrence factors when assessing the feasibility of using Taipei 7-Eleven stores as installation locations for AEDs. Our model is based on two AED conveyance modes, walking/running and driving, involving service distances of 100 and 300 meters, respectively. Our results suggest different AED allocation strategies involving convenience stores in urban settings. In commercial areas, such installations can compensate for temporal gaps in EMS locations when responding to nighttime OHCA incidents. In residential areas, store installations can compensate for long distances from fire stations, where AEDs are currently held in Taipei.

  14. 75 FR 70015 - External Defibrillators; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... to Enhance Survival (CARES). The registry will provide the infrastructure to foster the development... how industry should identify, report, and take action on problems observed with these devices, and to... past 5 years we have seen persistent safety problems with all types of external defibrillators, across...

  15. Effectiveness of teaching automated external defibrillators use using a traditional classroom instruction versus self-instruction video in non-critical care nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail M. Saiboon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness and retention of learning automated external defibrillator (AED usage taught through a traditional classroom instruction (TCI method versus a novel self instructed video (SIV technique in non-critical care nurses (NCCN. Methods: A prospective single-blind randomized study was conducted over 7 months (April-October 2014 at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Kuala Lampur, Malaysia. Eighty nurses were randomized into either TCI or SIV instructional techniques. We assessed knowledge, skill and confidence level at baseline, immediate and 6-months post-intervention. Knowledge and confidence were assessed via questionnaire; skill was assessed by a calibrated and blinded independent assessor using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE method. Results: Pre-test mean scores for knowledge in the TCI group was 10.87 ± 2.34, and for the SIV group was 10.37 ± 1.85 (maximum achievable score 20.00; 4.05 ± 2.87 in the TCI and 3.71 ± 2.66 in the SIV (maximum score 11.00 in the OSCE evaluation and 9.54 ± 3.65 in the TCI and 8.56 ± 3.47 in the SIV (maximum score 25.00 in the individual’s personal confidence level. Both methods increased the mean scores significantly during immediate post-intervention (0-month. At 6-months, the TCI group scored lower than the SIV group in all aspects 11.13 ± 2.70 versus 12.95 ± 2.26 (p=0.03 in knowledge, 7.27 ± 1.62 versus 7.68 ± 1.73 (p=0.47 in the OSCE, and 16.40 ± 2.72 versus 18.82 ± 3.40 (p=0.03 in confidence level. Conclusion: In NCCN’s, SIV is as good as TCI in providing the knowledge, competency, and confidence in performing AED defibrillation.

  16. Innovative cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillator programs in schools: Results from the Student Program for Olympic Resuscitation Training in Schools (SPORTS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Victoria L; Haley, Danielle M; Dugan, Noreen P; Iyer, V Ramesh; Shults, Justine

    2016-07-01

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) rates are low. Our study objective was to encourage Philadelphia high school students to develop CPR/AED (automated external defibrillator) training programs and to assess their efficacy. The focus was on developing innovative ways to learn the skills of CPR/AED use, increasing willingness to respond in an emergency, and retention of effective psychomotor resuscitation skills. Health education classes in 15 Philadelphia School District high schools were selected, with one Control and one Study Class per school. Both completed CPR/AED pre- and post-tests to assess cognitive knowledge and psychomotor skills. After pre-tests, both were taught CPR skills and AED use by their health teacher. Study Classes developed innovative programs to learn, teach, and retain CPR/AED skills. The study culminated with Study Classes competing in multiple CPR/AED skills events at the CPR/AED Olympic event. Outcomes included post-tests, Mock Code, and presentation scores. All students' cognitive and psychomotor skills improved with standard classroom education (p<0.001). Competition with other schools at the CPR/AED Olympics and the development of their own student-directed education programs resulted in remarkable retention of psychomotor skill scores in the Study Class (88%) vs the Control Class (79%) (p<0.001). Olympic participants averaged 93.1% on the Mock Code with 10 of 12 schools ≥94%. Students who developed creative and novel methods of teaching and learning resuscitation skills showed outstanding application of these skills in a Mock Code with remarkable psychomotor skill retention, potentially empowering a new generation of effectively trained CPR bystanders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A multiple linear regression analysis of factors affecting the simulated Basic Life Support (BLS) performance with Automated External Defibrillator (AED) in Flemish lifeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserbyt, Peter; Schouppe, Gilles; Charlier, Nathalie

    2015-04-01

    Research investigating lifeguards' performance of Basic Life Support (BLS) with Automated External Defibrillator (AED) is limited. Assessing simulated BLS/AED performance in Flemish lifeguards and identifying factors affecting this performance. Six hundred and sixteen (217 female and 399 male) certified Flemish lifeguards (aged 16-71 years) performed BLS with an AED on a Laerdal ResusciAnne manikin simulating an adult victim of drowning. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was conducted with BLS/AED performance as outcome variable and demographic data as explanatory variables. Mean BLS/AED performance for all lifeguards was 66.5%. Compression rate and depth adhered closely to ERC 2010 guidelines. Ventilation volume and flow rate exceeded the guidelines. A significant regression model, F(6, 415)=25.61, p<.001, ES=.38, explained 27% of the variance in BLS performance (R2=.27). Significant predictors were age (beta=-.31, p<.001), years of certification (beta=-.41, p<.001), time on duty per year (beta=-.25, p<.001), practising BLS skills (beta=.11, p=.011), and being a professional lifeguard (beta=-.13, p=.029). 71% of lifeguards reported not practising BLS/AED. Being young, recently certified, few days of employment per year, practising BLS skills and not being a professional lifeguard are factors associated with higher BLS/AED performance. Measures should be taken to prevent BLS/AED performances from decaying with age and longer certification. Refresher courses could include a formal skills test and lifeguards should be encouraged to practise their BLS/AED skills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of introducing a voluntary virtual patient module to a basic life support with an automated external defibrillator course: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kononowicz Andrzej A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of virtual patients (VPs encompasses a great variety of predominantly case-based e-learning modules with different complexity and fidelity levels. Methods for effective placement of VPs in the process of medical education are sought. The aim of this study was to determine whether the introduction of a voluntary virtual patients module into a basic life support with an automated external defibrillator (BLS-AED course improved the knowledge and skills of students taking the course. Methods Half of the students were randomly assigned to an experimental group and given voluntary access to a virtual patient module consisting of six cases presenting BLS-AED knowledge and skills. Pre- and post-course knowledge tests and skills assessments were performed, as well as a survey of students' satisfaction with the VP usage. In addition, time spent using the virtual patient system, percentage of screen cards viewed and scores in the formative questions in the VP system throughout the course were traced and recorded. Results The study was conducted over a six week period and involved 226 first year medical students. The voluntary module was used by 61 (54% of the 114 entitled study participants. The group that used VPs demonstrated better results in knowledge acquisition and in some key BLS-AED action skills than the group without access, or those students from the experimental group deliberately not using virtual patients. Most of the students rated the combination of VPs and corresponding teaching events positively. Conclusions The overall positive reaction of students and encouraging results in knowledge and skills acquisition suggest that the usage of virtual patients in a BLS-AED course on a voluntary basis is feasible and should be further investigated.

  19. Teaching basic life support with an automated external defibrillator using the two-stage or the four-stage teaching technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnshave, Katrine; Krogh, Lise Q; Hansen, Svend B; Nebsbjerg, Mette A; Thim, Troels; Løfgren, Bo

    2018-02-01

    Laypersons often hesitate to perform basic life support (BLS) and use an automated external defibrillator (AED) because of self-perceived lack of knowledge and skills. Training may reduce the barrier to intervene. Reduced training time and costs may allow training of more laypersons. The aim of this study was to compare BLS/AED skills' acquisition and self-evaluated BLS/AED skills after instructor-led training with a two-stage versus a four-stage teaching technique. Laypersons were randomized to either two-stage or four-stage teaching technique courses. Immediately after training, the participants were tested in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario to assess their BLS/AED skills. Skills were assessed using the European Resuscitation Council BLS/AED assessment form. The primary endpoint was passing the test (17 of 17 skills adequately performed). A prespecified noninferiority margin of 20% was used. The two-stage teaching technique (n=72, pass rate 57%) was noninferior to the four-stage technique (n=70, pass rate 59%), with a difference in pass rates of -2%; 95% confidence interval: -18 to 15%. Neither were there significant differences between the two-stage and four-stage groups in the chest compression rate (114±12 vs. 115±14/min), chest compression depth (47±9 vs. 48±9 mm) and number of sufficient rescue breaths between compression cycles (1.7±0.5 vs. 1.6±0.7). In both groups, all participants believed that their training had improved their skills. Teaching laypersons BLS/AED using the two-stage teaching technique was noninferior to the four-stage teaching technique, although the pass rate was -2% (95% confidence interval: -18 to 15%) lower with the two-stage teaching technique.

  20. External defibrillation failure due to antimicrobial incise drape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, David W; Dietz, Niki M; White, Roger D; Pochettino, Alberto; Nuttall, Gregory A

    2013-09-01

    Antimicrobial incise drapes adhere to a patient's skin during surgery in an attempt to reduce surgical infections. We describe a patient undergoing repeated aortic valve replacement who experienced sudden ventricular fibrillation before median sternotomy. External defibrillation was unsuccessful on multiple attempts using several defibrillators. On removal of the incise drape from the patient's chest, external defibrillation was immediately successful. Increased transthoracic impedance can be caused by multiple factors and may prevent defibrillation. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an antimicrobial incise drape preventing defibrillation. If external defibrillation, cardioversion, or pacing is indicated intraoperatively, we recommend prompt removal of the antimicrobial incise drapes before electrode placement if the drapes overlay the intended pad position. Since this case, our institutional practice has now changed to placement of 2 external adhesive defibrillator electrodes onto the patient's skin lateral to the surgical field before incise drape application to allow for defibrillation. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Advisory External Defibrillator Availability in General Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, T; Bury, G

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the availability of advisory external defibrillators (AEDs) in Irish General Practice. The study utilised a computer generated random sample of Irish general practitioners and involved a postal questionnaire, with telephone follow up of non-responders. The cohort of GPs already known to possess an AED (via participation in the Merit Project) was excluded. 115 valid paper survey responses were received representing a response rate of 59%. 5 of the responding GPs identified themselves as Merit project participants and were excluded from data analysis. 74/110 GPs (67%) reported having one or more AED(s) available for use at their practice. 41/77 GPs (53%) who had not responded to the paper survey but were contactable by telephone had an AED available. When AED availability was examined by practice setting a higher proportion of rural and mixed settings had AEDs available than in urban and city areas. Cost was reported as the most common reason for not having an AED.

  2. [Public access defibrillation: successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation due to automatic external defibrillator at traffic accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, S; Reuter, H; Pfister, R; Michels, G

    2014-03-01

    A 65-year-old man collapsed after he stepped out of his car after a traffic accident. Fortunately, two police officers on a routine patrol in the area were quickly on the scene and started cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A passerby noticed that the patient was in distress and that an automatic defibrillator was nearby. He attached the electrodes of the defibrillator to the chest of the patient in accordance with instructions on the defibrillator and terminated the ventricular fibrillation (200 joule, biphasic). Emergency cardiac catheterization revealed a subtotal stenosis proximally in the right coronary artery, which was successfully treated with a stent. Based on the ideal basic life support, the immediate care by emergency mobile system and coronary angioplasty with successful revascularisation the patient could be released without any neurological deficit. This case illustrates that laypersons can use automatic external defibrillator in case of cardiac resuscitation sufficiently and quickly. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Part 3: Adult Basic Life Support and Automated External Defibrillation: 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Andrew H; Perkins, Gavin D; Berg, Robert A; Castren, Maaret; Considine, Julie; Escalante, Raffo; Gazmuri, Raul J; Koster, Rudolph W; Lim, Swee Han; Nation, Kevin J; Olasveengen, Theresa M; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Sayre, Michael R; Sierra, Alfredo; Smyth, Michael A; Stanton, David; Vaillancourt, Christian

    2015-10-20

    This review comprises the most extensive literature search and evidence evaluation to date on the most important international BLS interventions, diagnostics, and prognostic factors for cardiac arrest victims. It reemphasizes that the critical lifesaving steps of BLS are (1) prevention, (2) immediate recognition and activation of the emergency response system, (3) early high-quality CPR, and (4) rapid defibrillation for shockable rhythms. Highlights in prevention indicate the rational and judicious deployment of search-and-rescue operations in drowning victims and the importance of education on opioid-associated emergencies. Other 2015 highlights in recognition and activation include the critical role of dispatcher recognition and dispatch-assisted chest compressions, which has been demonstrated in multiple international jurisdictions with consistent improvements in cardiac arrest survival. Similar to the 2010 ILCOR BLS treatment recommendations, the importance of high quality was reemphasized across all measures of CPR quality: rate, depth, recoil, and minimal chest compression pauses, with a universal understanding that we all should be providing chest compressions to all victims of cardiac arrest. This review continued to focus on the interface of BLS sequencing and ensuring high-quality CPR with other important BLS interventions, such as ventilation and defibrillation. In addition, this consensus statement highlights the importance of EMS systems, which employ bundles of care focusing on providing high-quality chest compressions while extricating the patient from the scene to the next level of care. Highlights in defibrillation indicate the global importance of increasing the number of sites with public-access defibrillation programs. Whereas the 2010 ILCOR Consensus on Science provided important direction for the “what” in resuscitation (ie, what to do), the 2015 consensus has begun with the GRADE methodology to provide direction for the quality of

  4. Is external defibrillation an electric threat for bystanders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoke, Robert Sebastian; Heinroth, Konstantin; Trappe, Hans-Joachim; Werdan, Karl

    2009-04-01

    Safety precautions during defibrillation and cardioversion are generally taken very seriously. The actual hazard for bystanders and rescuers, however, has rarely been investigated. Recently, continuing chest compressions during defibrillation has been suggested to improve outcome from cardiac arrest. This article is to review reports on electric shocks to persons other than patients and to discuss the pertinent biomedical principles. Systematic search in medical literature databases and consecutive hand-search of reference lists. A total of 29 adverse events are reported in the medical literature; seven due to accidental or intentional defibrillator misuse, three due to device malfunction, four during training/maintenance procedures, and 15 during regular resuscitation efforts. Tingling sensations and minor burns are frequently reported consequences of inadvertent shocks. There are no accounts on immediate life-threatening conditions or long-term disability in rescuers/bystanders inflicted by defibrillation/cardioversion of a patient. Discharging a defibrillator directly to a healthy person's chest can be lethal. External electric therapy is likely to be safer than traditionally assumed, especially with self-adhesive thoracic electrodes. Sound clinical experiments are urgently needed before safety measures are revised.

  5. Use of a geographic information system to identify differences in automated external defibrillator installation in urban areas with similar incidence of public out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a retrospective registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredman, David; Haas, Jan; Ban, Yifang; Jonsson, Martin; Svensson, Leif; Djarv, Therese; Hollenberg, Jacob; Nordberg, Per; Ringh, Mattias; Claesson, Andreas

    2017-06-02

    Early defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is of importance to improve survival. In many countries the number of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) is increasing, but the use is low. Guidelines suggest that AEDs should be installed in densely populated areas and in locations with many visitors. Attempts have been made to identify optimal AED locations based on the incidence of OHCA using geographical information systems (GIS), but often on small datasets and the studies are seldom reproduced. The aim of this paper is to investigate if the distribution of public AEDs follows the incident locations of public OHCAs in urban areas of Stockholm County, Sweden. OHCA data were obtained from the Swedish Register for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and AED data were obtained from the Swedish AED Register. Urban areas in Stockholm County were objectively classified according to the pan-European digital mapping tool, Urban Atlas (UA). Furthermore, we reclassified and divided the UA land cover data into three classes (residential, non-residential and other areas). GIS software was used to spatially join and relate public AED and OHCA data and perform computations on relations and distance. Between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2014 a total of 804 OHCAs occurred in public locations in Stockholm County and by December 2013 there were 1828 AEDs available. The incidence of public OHCAs was similar in residential (47.3%) and non-residential areas (43.4%). Fewer AEDs were present in residential areas than in non-residential areas (29.4% vs 68.8%). In residential areas the median distance between OHCAs and AEDs was significantly greater than in non-residential areas (288 m vs 188 m, ppublic OHCAs occurred in areas classified in UA as 'residential areas' with limited AED accessibility. These areas need to be targeted for AED installation and international guidelines need to take geographical location into account when suggesting locations for AED installation

  6. Estimation of current density distribution under electrodes for external defibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papazov Sava P

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transthoracic defibrillation is the most common life-saving technique for the restoration of the heart rhythm of cardiac arrest victims. The procedure requires adequate application of large electrodes on the patient chest, to ensure low-resistance electrical contact. The current density distribution under the electrodes is non-uniform, leading to muscle contraction and pain, or risks of burning. The recent introduction of automatic external defibrillators and even wearable defibrillators, presents new demanding requirements for the structure of electrodes. Method and Results Using the pseudo-elliptic differential equation of Laplace type with appropriate boundary conditions and applying finite element method modeling, electrodes of various shapes and structure were studied. The non-uniformity of the current density distribution was shown to be moderately improved by adding a low resistivity layer between the metal and tissue and by a ring around the electrode perimeter. The inclusion of openings in long-term wearable electrodes additionally disturbs the current density profile. However, a number of small-size perforations may result in acceptable current density distribution. Conclusion The current density distribution non-uniformity of circular electrodes is about 30% less than that of square-shaped electrodes. The use of an interface layer of intermediate resistivity, comparable to that of the underlying tissues, and a high-resistivity perimeter ring, can further improve the distribution. The inclusion of skin aeration openings disturbs the current paths, but an appropriate selection of number and size provides a reasonable compromise.

  7. What Is an Automated External Defibrillator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as police, fire service personnel, flight attendants, security guards and other lay rescuers who have been ... venues, shopping malls, airports, airplanes, businesses, convention centers, hotels, schools and doctors’ offices. They should also be ...

  8. Double Sequential External Defibrillation and Survival from Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Martin; Cheskes, Sheldon; Ross, Garry; Verbeek, P Richard

    2016-01-01

    Patients who present in ventricular fibrillation are typically treated with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), epinephrine, antiarrhythmic medications, and defibrillation. Although these therapies have shown to be effective, some patients remain in a shockable rhythm. Double sequential external defibrillation has been described as a viable option for patients in refractory ventricular fibrillation. To describe the innovative use of two defibrillators used to deliver double sequential external defibrillation by paramedics in a case of refractory ventricular fibrillation resulting in prehospital return of spontaneous circulation and survival to hospital discharge with good neurologic function. A 28-year-old female sustained a witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Bystander CPR was performed by her husband followed by paramedics providing high-quality CPR, antiarrhythmic medication, and 6 biphasic defibrillations using standard energy levels. Double sequential external defibrillation was applied and a return of spontaneous circulation was attained on scene and maintained through to arrival to the emergency department. Following admission to hospital the patient was diagnosed with long QT syndrome. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator was placed and the patient was discharged with a Cerebral Performance Category of 2 as well as a modified Rankin Scale of 2 after an 18-day hospital stay. The patient's functional status continued to improve post discharge. The addition of double sequential external defibrillation as part of a well-organized resuscitation effort may be a valid treatment option for OHCA patients who present in refractory ventricular fibrillation.

  9. Uso do desfibrilador automático externo no ambiente pré-hospitalar peruano: melhorando a resposta a emergências na América Latina Use of automated external defibrillator in Peruvian out-of-hospital environment: improving emergency response in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Lister

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este relato de caso reporta o atendimento pré-hospitalar de um paciente com fatores de risco atendido pelo serviço pré-hospitalar ao ser acometido por uma parada cardíaca e apresentar fibrilação ventricular. O paciente foi atendido seguindo os padrões de suporte básico de vida e suporte cardiovascular avançado. Um desfibrilador automático externo (DAE foi aplicado com resultados favoráveis e o paciente se recuperou do quadro de perigo de vida com sucesso. Este é o primeiro relato documentado com resultados favoráveis no Peru, na área de atendimento pré-hospitalar e enfatiza a necessidade de serem adotadas políticas de acesso público à desfibrilação precoce.El presente reporte de caso, relata la atencion prehospitalaria de un paciente con factores de riesgo atendido en el area prehospitalaria al sufrir arresto cardiaco y presentar fibrilacion ventricular. El paciente fue atendido bajo estandares de Soporte Basico Vital y Soporte Cardiovascular Avanzado Vital, se aplico un Desfibrilador Automatizado Externo (DEA con resultado favorable y exito al recuperar al paciente de su condicion de compromiso de vida. Este es el primer reporte documentado con resultado favorable en el pais, en el area prehospitalaria y refuerza la conveniencia de adoptar politicas de Acceso Publico a la Desfibrilacion Temprana.This case report relates out-of-hospital care to a patient with risk factors treated in the out-of-hospital services after cardiac arrest and ventricular fibrillation. The patient was treated according to the standards of basic life support and advanced cardiovascular life support; by applying an automated external defibrillator (AED with favorable outcome and successful recovery of the patient from his risk of life condition. This is the first documented report with a favorable outcome in Peru, in out-of-hospital services and stresses the desirability of adopting policies for public access to early defibrillation.

  10. Quality of life effects of automatic external defibrillators in the home: results from the Home Automatic External Defibrillator Trial (HAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Daniel B; Anstrom, Kevin J; McNulty, Steven E; Flaker, Greg C; Tonkin, Andrew M; Smith, Warren M; Toff, William D; Dorian, Paul; Clapp-Channing, Nancy E; Anderson, Jill; Johnson, George; Schron, Eleanor B; Poole, Jeanne E; Lee, Kerry L; Bardy, Gust H

    2010-04-01

    Public access automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) can save lives, but most deaths from out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest occur at home. The Home Automatic External Defibrillator Trial (HAT) found no survival advantage for adding a home AED to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training for 7,001 patients with a prior anterior wall myocardial infarction. Quality of life (QOL) outcomes for both the patient and spouse/companion were secondary end points. A subset of 1,007 study patients and their spouse/companions was randomly selected for ascertainment of QOL by structured interview at baseline and 12 and 24 months after enrollment. The primary QOL measures were the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form psychological well-being (reflecting anxiety and depression) and vitality (reflecting energy and fatigue) subscales. For patients and spouse/companions, the psychological well-being and vitality scales did not differ significantly between those randomly assigned an AED plus CPR training and controls who received CPR training only. None of the other QOL measures collected showed a clinically and statistically significant difference between treatment groups. Patients in the AED group were more likely to report being extremely or quite a bit reassured by their treatment assignment. Spouse/companions in the AED group reported being less often nervous about the possibility of using AED/CPR treatment than those in the CPR group. Adding access to a home AED to CPR training did not affect QOL either for patients with a prior anterior myocardial infarction or their spouse/companion but did provide more reassurance to the patients without increasing anxiety for spouse/companions. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. An MRI-Conditional External Cardiac Defibrillator for Resuscitation Within the MRI Scanner Bore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ehud J.; Watkins, Ronald D.; Zviman, Menekhem M.; Guttman, Michael A.; Wang, Wei; Halperin, Henry A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Subjects undergoing cardiac arrest within an MRI scanner are currently removed from the bore and then from the MRI suite, prior to delivery of CPR and defibrillation, potentially increasing risk of mortality. This precludes many higher-risk (acute-ischemic, acute-stroke) patients from undergoing MRI imaging and MRI-guided intervention. An MRI-conditional cardiac defibrillator should enable scanning with defibrillation pads attached and the generator ON, enabling application of defibrillation within the MRI seconds after a cardiac event. An MRI-conditional external defibrillator may improve patient acceptance for MRI procedures. Methods and Results A commercial external defibrillator was rendered 1.5 Tesla MRI-conditional by addition of novel Radio-Frequency (RF) filters between the generator and commercial disposable surface-pads. The RF filters reduced emission into the MRI scanner, and prevented cable/surface-pad heating during imaging, while preserving all the defibrillator’s monitoring and delivery functions. Human volunteers were imaged using high Specific-Absorption-Rate sequences to validate MRI image quality (IQ) and lack of heating. Swine were electrically fibrillated (N=4) and thereafter defibrillated both outside and inside the MRI bore. MRI IQ was reduced by 0.8 or 1.6 dB, with the generator in monitoring mode and operating on battery or AC power, respectively. Commercial surface-pads did not create artifacts deeper than 6mm below the skin surface. RF heating was within FDA guidelines. Defibrillation was completely successful inside and outside the MRI bore. Conclusions A prototype MRI-conditional defibrillation system successfully defibrillated in the MRI without degrading image quality, or increasing the time needed for defibrillation. It can increase patient acceptance for MRI procedures. PMID:27729363

  12. Public knowledge of how to use an automatic external defibrillator in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, K L; Leung, L P; Poon, H T; Chiu, H Y; Liu, H L; Tang, W Y

    2016-12-01

    The survival rate of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Hong Kong is low. A long delay between collapse and defibrillation is a contributing factor. Public access to defibrillation may shorten this delay. It is unknown, however, whether Hong Kong's public is willing or able to use an automatic external defibrillator. This study aimed to evaluate public knowledge of how to use an automatic external defibrillator in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A face-to-face semi-structured questionnaire survey of the public was conducted in six locations with a high pedestrian flow in Hong Kong. In this study, 401 members of the public were interviewed. Most had no training in first aid (65.8%) or in use of an automatic external defibrillator (85.3%). Nearly all (96.5%) would call for help for a victim of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest but only 18.0% would use an automatic external defibrillator. Public knowledge of automatic external defibrillator use was low: 77.6% did not know the location of an automatic external defibrillator in the vicinity of their home or workplace. People who had ever been trained in both first aid and use of an automatic external defibrillator were more likely to respond to and help a victim of cardiac arrest, and to use an automatic external defibrillator. Public knowledge of automatic external defibrillator use is low in Hong Kong. A combination of training in first aid and in the use of an automatic external defibrillator is better than either one alone.

  13. An esophageal probe for measuring three-dimensional electric fields during external cardiac defibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, David A; de Jongh Curry, Amy L

    2012-03-01

    External defibrillation is a common treatment for the cardiac arrhythmia atrial fibrillation. Electrode placement has been shown to affect defibrillation efficacy and required energy levels. We suggest investigating the relationship between esophageal electric fields (EEFs) and atrial defibrillation thresholds to determine the feasibility of creating patient-specific electrode placements using EEFs. This study presents the design and implementation of an esophageal probe (EP) that accurately measures three-dimensional electric fields. The root-mean-square error of the EP was 1.69% as determined by measurements performed in an electrolytic tank. The EP also performed well during in vivo testing in a pig. There was a strong positive relationship between EEF(2)s and applied energy during defibrillation strength shocks. The EEF measurements were also repeatable, with less than 4.24% difference between repeated shocks. This is the first description of a probe designed specifically for measuring electric fields in the esophagus.

  14. [Chronobiology of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Galicia with semi-automatic external defibrillators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Araujo, L; Costa-Parcero, M; López-Campos, M; Sánchez-Santos, L; Iglesias-Vázquez, J A; Rodríguez-Núñez, A

    2015-04-01

    To analyze the chronobiological variations of out-hospital cardiac arrest in which an automated external defibrillator was used in Galicia. Descriptive retrospective study of the cardiac arrest attended by the Emergency Medical Service in which an automated external defibrillator was in use during a period of 5 years (2007-2011). An Utstein style database was used. The sex, age, date and hour of the event, location, cardiac arrest attended, beginning of resuscitation by the professional, first monitored rhythm, emergency team activation time and care, endotracheal intubation, and recovery of spontaneous circulation were studied as independent variables. A total of 2,005 cases (0.14/1,000 population-year) was recorded. Time slot with more frequency of cardiac arrest: between 09-11 hrs (18.4%). Months with more cases: January (10.4%) and December (9.8%). It was significantly more probable that the cardiac arrest occurred in the home between 00-08 hrs, and in the street between 08-16 hrs. Asystole was more frequent in the night period (00-08 hrs), whereas the shockable rhythm was in the evening (16-00 hrs). There is more probability of death after cardiac arrest between 00-08 hrs, with recovery of spontaneous circulation being more probable between 16-00 hrs. The time between the emergency team activation and time care was longer in night schedule. In Galicia, cardiac arrest is more frequent in the winter months and in morning schedule. There is a circadian distribution of the cardiac arrest and the rhythm detected at the time of the first assistance, with asystole being more common in night schedule and the shockable rhythm in the evening. The chronobiology of the cardiac arrest should be taken into account in order to organize the distribution and the schedule of the healthcare resources. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Defibrillation in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Sarah E; Atkins, Dianne L

    2010-01-01

    Defibrillation is the only effective treatment for ventricular fibrillation (VF). Optimal methods for defibrillation in children are derived and extrapolated from adult data. VF occurs as the initial rhythm in 8-20% of pediatric cardiac arrests. This has fostered a new interest in determining the optimal technique for pediatric defibrillation. This review will provide a brief background of the history of defibrillation and a review of the current literature on pediatric defibrillation. The literature search was performed through PubMed, using the MeSH headings of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, defibrillation and electric countershock. The authors’ personal bibliographic files were also searched. Only published articles were chosen. The recommended energy dose has been 2 J/kg for 30 years, but recent reports may indicate that higher dosages may be more effective and safe. In 2005, the European Resuscitation Council recommended 4 J/kg as the initial dose, without escalation for subsequent shocks. Automated external defibrillators are increasingly used for pediatric cardiac arrest, and available reports indicate high success rates. Additional research on pediatric defibrillation is critical in order to be able to provide an equivalent standard of care for children in cardiac arrest and improve outcomes. PMID:20930970

  16. Public Access Defibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Marianne; Nielsen, Anne Møller; Hansen, Carolina Malta

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Copenhagen, a volunteer-based Automated External Defibrillator (AED) network provides a unique opportunity to assess AED use. We aimed to determine the proportion of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) where an AED was applied before arrival of the ambulance, and the proportion o...

  17. A Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Conditional External Cardiac Defibrillator for Resuscitation Within the Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scanner Bore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ehud J; Watkins, Ronald D; Zviman, Menekhem M; Guttman, Michael A; Wang, Wei; Halperin, Henry A

    2016-10-01

    Subjects undergoing cardiac arrest within a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner are currently removed from the bore and then from the MRI suite, before the delivery of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation, potentially increasing the risk of mortality. This precludes many higher-risk (acute ischemic and acute stroke) patients from undergoing MRI and MRI-guided intervention. An MRI-conditional cardiac defibrillator should enable scanning with defibrillation pads attached and the generator ON, enabling application of defibrillation within the seconds of MRI after a cardiac event. An MRI-conditional external defibrillator may improve patient acceptance for MRI procedures. A commercial external defibrillator was rendered 1.5 Tesla MRI-conditional by the addition of novel radiofrequency filters between the generator and commercial disposable surface pads. The radiofrequency filters reduced emission into the MRI scanner and prevented cable/surface pad heating during imaging, while preserving all the defibrillator monitoring and delivery functions. Human volunteers were imaged using high specific absorption rate sequences to validate MRI image quality and lack of heating. Swine were electrically fibrillated (n=4) and thereafter defibrillated both outside and inside the MRI bore. MRI image quality was reduced by 0.8 or 1.6 dB, with the generator in monitoring mode and operating on battery or AC power, respectively. Commercial surface pads did not create artifacts deeper than 6 mm below the skin surface. Radiofrequency heating was within US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. Defibrillation was completely successful inside and outside the MRI bore. A prototype MRI-conditional defibrillation system successfully defibrillated in the MRI without degrading the image quality or increasing the time needed for defibrillation. It can increase patient acceptance for MRI procedures. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Electrical defibrillation optimization: An automated, iterative parallel finite-element approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, S.A.; Shadid, J.N. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ng, K.T. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Nadeem, A. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    To date, optimization of electrode systems for electrical defibrillation has been limited to hand-selected electrode configurations. In this paper we present an automated approach which combines detailed, three-dimensional (3-D) finite element torso models with optimization techniques to provide a flexible analysis and design tool for electrical defibrillation optimization. Specifically, a parallel direct search (PDS) optimization technique is used with a representative objective function to find an electrode configuration which corresponds to the satisfaction of a postulated defibrillation criterion with a minimum amount of power and a low possibility of myocardium damage. For adequate representation of the thoracic inhomogeneities, 3-D finite-element torso models are used in the objective function computations. The CPU-intensive finite-element calculations required for the objective function evaluation have been implemented on a message-passing parallel computer in order to complete the optimization calculations in a timely manner. To illustrate the optimization procedure, it has been applied to a representative electrode configuration for transmyocardial defibrillation, namely the subcutaneous patch-right ventricular catheter (SP-RVC) system. Sensitivity of the optimal solutions to various tissue conductivities has been studied. 39 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Ressuscitação cardiopulmonar com a utilização do desfibrilador externo semi-automático: avaliação do processo ensino-aprendizagem Resucitador cardiopulmonar con utilización del disfibrilador externo semiautomático: evaluación del proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje Cardiopulmonary resuscitation with semi-automated external defibrillator: assessment of the teaching-learning process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Kazue Miyadahira

    2008-09-01

    that, for every minute delayed on defibrillating a heart arrest patient, survival chances decrease by 10%, and that the same chances of survival are 98% effective when it is employed within 30 seconds. While attending a heart arrest patient, it is crucial that the use of external semi-automated defibrillator (AED is included in the training. The purpose of the present study is to compare Psychomotor Ability and the Theoretical Knowledge of lay people on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR using AED, before and after training. This sample was composed of 40 administrative workers of a public institution that were trained on CPR technique using EAD, as an experiment. The significantly higher scores in the assessment instrument items of Psychomotor Ability and Theoretical Knowledge, after training, indicates that the participants have presented improvements in their performances.

  20. Public Claims about Automatic External Defibrillators: An Online Consumer Opinions Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnett Julie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients are no longer passive recipients of health care, and increasingly engage in health communications outside of the traditional patient and health care professional relationship. As a result, patient opinions and health related judgements are now being informed by a wide range of social, media, and online information sources. Government initiatives recognise self-delivery of health care as a valuable means of responding to the anticipated increased global demand for health resources. Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs, designed for the treatment of Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA, have recently become available for 'over the counter' purchase with no need for a prescription. This paper explores the claims and argumentation of lay persons and health care practitioners and professionals relating to these, and how these may impact on the acceptance, adoption and use of these devices within the home context. Methods We carry out a thematic content analysis of a novel form of Internet-based data: online consumer opinions of AED devices posted on Amazon.com, the world's largest online retailer. A total of #83 online consumer reviews of home AEDs are analysed. The analysis is both inductive, identifying themes that emerged from the data, exploring the parameters of public debate relating to these devices, and also driven by theory, centring around the parameters that may impact upon the acceptance, adoption and use of these devices within the home as indicated by the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM. Results Five high-level themes around which arguments for and against the adoption of home AEDs are identified and considered in the context of TAM. These include opinions relating to device usability, usefulness, cost, emotional implications of device ownership, and individual patient risk status. Emotional implications associated with AED acceptance, adoption and use emerged as a notable factor that is not currently reflected

  1. Public claims about automatic external defibrillators: an online consumer opinions study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, Arthur G; Barnett, Julie; Kuljis, Jasna

    2011-05-18

    Patients are no longer passive recipients of health care, and increasingly engage in health communications outside of the traditional patient and health care professional relationship. As a result, patient opinions and health related judgements are now being informed by a wide range of social, media, and online information sources. Government initiatives recognise self-delivery of health care as a valuable means of responding to the anticipated increased global demand for health resources. Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs), designed for the treatment of Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA), have recently become available for 'over the counter' purchase with no need for a prescription. This paper explores the claims and argumentation of lay persons and health care practitioners and professionals relating to these, and how these may impact on the acceptance, adoption and use of these devices within the home context. We carry out a thematic content analysis of a novel form of Internet-based data: online consumer opinions of AED devices posted on Amazon.com, the world's largest online retailer. A total of #83 online consumer reviews of home AEDs are analysed. The analysis is both inductive, identifying themes that emerged from the data, exploring the parameters of public debate relating to these devices, and also driven by theory, centring around the parameters that may impact upon the acceptance, adoption and use of these devices within the home as indicated by the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Five high-level themes around which arguments for and against the adoption of home AEDs are identified and considered in the context of TAM. These include opinions relating to device usability, usefulness, cost, emotional implications of device ownership, and individual patient risk status. Emotional implications associated with AED acceptance, adoption and use emerged as a notable factor that is not currently reflected within the existing TAM. The value, credibility and

  2. AED (Automated External Defibrillator) Programs: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a trained and licensed medical first responder (MFR), an established standard of care is outlined in ... system. If they are not trained and licensed MFRs , check the state laws to determine if lay ...

  3. Automated External Defibrillators: Do You Need an AED?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually covered by insurance. Your overall health and philosophy. If you have numerous medical problems, a terminal ... agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below. Terms and Conditions Privacy Policy Notice ...

  4. Differences between out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in residential and public locations and implications for public-access defibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folke, Fredrik; Gislason, Gunnar H; Lippert, Freddy

    2010-01-01

    The majority of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) occur in residential locations, but knowledge about strategic placement of automated external defibrillators in residential areas is lacking. We examined whether residential OHCA areas suitable for placement of automated external defibrillat......The majority of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) occur in residential locations, but knowledge about strategic placement of automated external defibrillators in residential areas is lacking. We examined whether residential OHCA areas suitable for placement of automated external...... defibrillators could be identified on the basis of demographic characteristics and characterized individuals with OHCA in residential locations....

  5. Mechanisms of defibrillation by standing waves in the bidomain ventricular tissue with voltage applied in an external bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanidi, Oleg V.; Benson, Alan P.; Boyett, Mark R.; Zhang, Henggui

    2009-06-01

    Standing waves of depolarisation produced by periodic low-voltage driving eliminate propagation activity in the heart, thus providing a defibrillating effect. The phenomenon cannot be reproduced by mono- or bidomain models of cardiac tissue, where voltage perturbations decay exponentially with a space constant λ 1≈1 mm. Extension of the bidomain model taking into account effects of the external bathing medium allows simulation of the standing waves which eliminate spiral wave activity in the tissue. Mechanisms of such a defibrillating effect can be explained by the existence of an additional, unusually long space constant, λ 2≈20 mm, in the bidomain model with a bath, which emerges due to redistribution of the applied voltage by the external conductive medium.

  6. Defibrillation probability and impedance change between shocks during resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, Robert G.; Koster, Rudolph W.; Sun, Charles; Moffat, George; Barger, Joseph; Dodson, Pamela P.; Chapman, Fred W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Technical data now gathered by automated external defibrillators (AEDs) allows closer evaluation of the behavior of defibrillation shocks administered during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We analyzed technical data from a large case series to evaluate the change in transthoracic

  7. General anaesthesia for insertion of an automated implantable cardioverter defibrillator in a child with Brugada and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shwetal Goraksha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-year-old autistic boy presented with acute gastroenteritis and hypotension. The electrocardiogram showed a ventricular fibrillation rhythm - he went into cardiorespiratory arrest and was immediately resuscitated. On investigation, the electrocardiogram showed a partial right bundle branch block with a "coved" pattern of ST elevation in leads v 1 -v 3 . A provisional diagnosis of Brugada syndrome was made, for which an automated implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD implantation was advised. Although the automated implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation is usually performed under sedation, because this was an autistic child, he needed general anaesthesia. We performed the procedure uneventfully under general anaesthesia and he was discharged after a short hospital stay.

  8. Towards the Automated Analysis and Database Development of Defibrillator Data from Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trygve Eftestøl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. During resuscitation of cardiac arrest victims a variety of information in electronic format is recorded as part of the documentation of the patient care contact and in order to be provided for case review for quality improvement. Such review requires considerable effort and resources. There is also the problem of interobserver effects. Objective. We show that it is possible to efficiently analyze resuscitation episodes automatically using a minimal set of the available information. Methods and Results. A minimal set of variables is defined which describe therapeutic events (compression sequences and defibrillations and corresponding patient response events (annotated rhythm transitions. From this a state sequence representation of the resuscitation episode is constructed and an algorithm is developed for reasoning with this representation and extract review variables automatically. As a case study, the method is applied to the data abstraction process used in the King County EMS. The automatically generated variables are compared to the original ones with accuracies ≥90% for 18 variables and ≥85% for the remaining four variables. Conclusions. It is possible to use the information present in the CPR process data recorded by the AED along with rhythm and chest compression annotations to automate the episode review.

  9. Evaluation of a Unique Defibrillation Unit with Dual-Vector Biphasic Waveform Capabilities: Towards a Miniaturized Defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Hideo; Desimone, Christopher V; Killu, Ammar M; Gilles, Emily J; Tri, Jason; Asirvatham, Roshini; Ladewig, Dejae J; Suddendorf, Scott H; Powers, Joanne M; Wood-Wentz, Christina M; Gray, Peter D; Raymond, Douglas M; Savage, Shelley J; Savage, Walter T; Bruce, Charles J; Asirvatham, Samuel J; Friedman, Paul A

    2017-02-01

    Automated external defibrillators can provide life-saving therapies to treat ventricular fibrillation. We developed a prototype unit that can deliver a unique shock waveform produced by four independent capacitors that is delivered through two shock vectors, with the rationale of providing more robust shock pathways during emergent defibrillation. We describe the initial testing and feasibility of this unique defibrillation unit, features of which may enable downsizing of current defibrillator devices. We tested our defibrillation unit in four large animal models (two canine and two swine) under general anesthesia. Experimental defibrillation thresholds (DFT) were obtained by delivery of a unique waveform shock pulse via a dual-vector pathway with four defibrillation pads (placed across the chest). DFTs were measured and compared with those of a commercially available biphasic defibrillator (Zoll M series, Zoll Medical, Chelmsford, MA, USA) tested in two different vectors. Shocks were delivered after 10 seconds of stable ventricular fibrillation and the output characteristics and shock outcome recorded. Each defibrillation series used a step-down to failure protocol to define the defibrillation threshold. A total of 96 shocks were delivered during ventricular fibrillation in four large animals. In comparison to the Zoll M series, which delivered a single-vector, biphasic shock, the energy required for successful defibrillation using the unique dual-vector biphasic waveform did not differ significantly (P = 0.65). Our early findings support the feasibility of a unique external defibrillation unit using a dual-vector biphasic waveform approach. This warrants further study to leverage this unique concept and work toward a miniaturized, portable shock delivery system. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Use of double sequential external defibrillation for refractory ventricular fibrillation during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Eric; Krebs, William; Davis, James; Keseg, David P; Panchal, Ashish R

    2016-11-01

    Survival from out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is highest in victims with shockable rhythms when early CPR and rapid defibrillation are provided. However, a subset of individuals present with ventricular fibrillation (VF) that does not respond to defibrillation (refractory VF). One intervention that may be a possible option in refractory VF is double sequential external defibrillation (DSD). The objective of this case series was to describe the outcome of prehospital victims with refractory VF treated with DSD in the out-of-hospital setting. This evaluation is a retrospective chart review of VF patients treated with DSD in the prehospital setting from August 1st, 2010 through June 30th, 2014. Patients were excluded if less than 17 years of age. The outcomes we evaluated were the number of patients with return of spontaneous circulation, conversion from VF, survival-to-hospital discharge, and Cerebral Performance Category score. Total of 2428 OHCA events were reviewed with twelve patients treated with DSD. Median DSD and prehospital resuscitation times were 27min (IQR 22-33) and 32 (IQR 24-38), respectively. Of the 12 patients treated, return of spontaneous circulation was achieved in three patients, nine patients were converted out of ventricular fibrillation, three patients survived to hospital discharge, and two patients (2/12, 17%) were discharged with Cerebral Performance Category scores of 1 (good cerebral performance). Double sequential defibrillation may be another tool to improve neurologically intact survival from OHCA. Further studies are needed to demonstrate direct benefits to patient outcomes. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. The Effects of Public Access Defibrillation on Survival After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Josefine S; Viereck, Søren; Møller, Thea Palsgaard

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite recent advances, the average survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains automated external defibrillator is the most important intervention for patients with OHCA, showing survival proportions >50%. Accordingly, placement...... of automated external defibrillators in the community as part of a public access defibrillation program (PAD) is recommended by international guidelines. However, different strategies have been proposed on how exactly to increase and make use of publicly available automated external defibrillators....... This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effect of PAD and the different PAD strategies on survival after OHCA. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched on August 31, 2015 for observational studies reporting survival to hospital discharge in OHCA patients where...

  12. Signal integral for optimizing the timing of defibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaobo; Bisera, Joe; Tang, Wanchun

    2013-12-01

    The possibility of successful defibrillation decreases with an increased duration of ventricular fibrillation (VF). Futile electrical shocks are inversely correlated with myocardial contractile function and long-term survival. Previous studies have demonstrated that various ECG waveform analyses predict the success of defibrillation. This study investigated whether the absolute amplitude of pre-shock VF waveform is likely to predict the success of defibrillation. ECG recordings of 350 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA) patients were obtained from the automated external defibrillator (AED) and analyzed by the method of signal integral. Successful defibrillation was defined as organized rhythm with heart rate ≥40beat/min commencing within one min of post-shock period and persisting for a minimum of 30s. Signal integral was significantly greater in successful defibrillation than unsuccessful defibrillation (81.76±32.3mV vs. 34.9±15.33mV, pdefibrillation were 90%, 86%, 80% and 93%, respectively. The receiver operator curve further revealed that signal integral predicted the likelihood of successful defibrillation (area under the curve=0.949). Signal integral predicted successful electrical shocks on patients with ventricular fibrillation and have potential to optimize the timing of defibrillation and reduce the number of electrical shocks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genoplivning med automatisk ekstern defibrillator på hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løfgren, Bo; Wahlgreen, Claus; Hoffmann, Anne Mette

    2009-01-01

    Early defibrillation is a determinant of survival in cardiac arrest. We report a Danish case of successful in-hospital resuscitation using an automated external defibrillator (AED). This case illustrates important aspects of implementation of in-hospital use of an AED, i.e. location of the AED......, education of the staff, systematic registration and data collection and technical aspects of AED use. If in-hospital AED implementation is carefully executed, its use may provide a safe and effective way of obtaining early defibrillation. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Jan-26...

  14. External manual defibrillators. Focus on the Physio-Control Lifepak 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    The Physio-Control Lifepak 15 is a satisfactory entry in the manual defibrillator marketplace. It doesn't offer CPR feedback, but it does have some other advantageous features. We rate the Lifepak 15 and compare it to seven other available models.

  15. Programa de capacitação em ressuscitação cardiorrespiratória com uso do desfibrilador externo automático em uma universidade Programa de formación en reanimación cardiopulmonar con el uso del desfibrilador externo automático en una universidad Training program on cardiopulmonary resuscitation with the use of automated external defibrillator in a university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Boaventura

    2012-03-01

    .Early defibrillation in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR receives increasing emphasis on its priority and rapidity. This is an experience report about the implementation of a training program in CPR using a defibrillator in a private university. The training program in basic CPR maneuvers was based on global guidelines, including a theorical course with practical demonstration of CPR maneuvers with the defibrillator, individual practical training and theoretical and practical assessments. About the performance of students in the practical assessment, the mean scores obtained by students in the first stage of the course was 26.4 points, while in the second stage the mean was 252.8 points; in the theoretical assessment the mean in the first stage was 3.06 points and in the second 9.0 points. The implementation of programs like this contribute to the effective acquisition of knowledge (theory and skill (pratice for the care of CPR victims.

  16. Hvor er den automatiske eksterne defibrillator? Udvikling og uddannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løfgren, Bo; Grove, Erik; Krarup, Niels Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation has presented a universal sign to indicate the presence of automated external defibrillators (AED). To disseminate the knowledge of this important signage, a review in a Danish context is presented. It is essential that the public in general...

  17. [Does public access to defibrillators have a chance in Germany?--On the US model, legal considerations and justification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliger, M; Knorr, M

    2000-12-01

    The introduction of public access to defibrillation via automated external defibrillators makes it possible to reduce the incidence of sudden cardiac arrest cases. Since they may expect civil and criminal liability after negligence causing damage, many German potential First Responders might hesitate to use an AED. After we demonstrate the medical reasons and compare the legal situation of Public Access Defibrillation between the USA and Germany we analyse a possible hesitation of German First Responders. More than 30 states of the USA provide immunity from civil liability after a public access defibrillation followed by damage due to negligence. However, only an AED-trained US-First Responder is granted immunity from civil liability. In Germany there is no immunity from civil and criminal liability in case of public access defibrillation with damage caused by negligence. German law will not decrease any possible hesitation by First Responders. For a successful system of public access defibrillation, revision of the legal situation is mandatory.

  18. [Factors predicting survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest managed with semiautomatic external defibrillators in Galicia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Araujo, Lorena; Costa-Parcero, Manuel; González-González, María Dolores; Sánchez-Santos, Luis; Iglesias-Vázquez, José Antonio; Rodríguez-Núñez, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    To determine prognostic factors in out-of-hospital cardiac arrests managed with semiautomatic external defibrillators (SAEDs) by emergency health service responders in Galicia, Spain. Retrospective descriptive study of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests treated with SAEDs over a period of 5 years. We collected Utstein outcome data from the database and analyzed the following variables: sex, age, date and time of cardiac event, rural vs urban setting, type of location, witnessed or not, bystander resuscitation attempts or not, time first heart rhythm was detected, use of orotracheal intubation or not, time of call for help, and time to arrival of emergency responders. We analyzed 2005 cases (0.14/1000 person-years; 68.2% male, 70.8% in rural locations, 61% at home). Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was achieved in situ in 10.9% (in 29.9% of patients with shockable rhythms and in 3.3% of those in asystole). Intubation was necessary in 15.7%; ROSC was achieved in 24.8% of the intubated patients. ROSC was achieved in significantly more patients when responders arrived soon after the call for help (mean: 12 minutes, 26 seconds) than when arrival was delayed (mean: 16 minutes, 16 seconds when ROSC was not achieved; PGalicia were the presence of a shockable rhythm, shorter response time, continuation of basic life support measures including advanced airway management, bystander life-support maneuvers, an urban location, and night timing of the arrest.

  19. Overcoming Spatial and Temporal Barriers to Public Access Defibrillators Via Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Christopher L.F.; Demirtas, Derya; Brooks, Steven C.; Morrison, Laurie J.; Chan, Timothy C.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background Immediate access to an automated external defibrillator (AED) increases the chance of survival for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Current deployment usually considers spatial AED access, assuming AEDs are available 24 h a day. Objectives The goal of this study was to develop an

  20. The Prognosis of Patients who Received Automated External Defibrillator Treatment in Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Kato, MD

    2008-01-01

    Conclusion: The situation of AED use may be different whether it is used in hospital or outof-hospital. This study suggests that using AED in the hospital may have limited effect when it is used for critically ill patients.

  1. Basic life support and automated external defibrillator skills among ambulance personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Møller; Isbye, Dan Lou; Lippert, Freddy Knudsen

    2012-01-01

    Ambulance personnel play an essential role in the 'Chain of Survival'. The prognosis after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest was dismal on a rural Danish island and in this study we assessed the cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance of ambulance personnel on that island....

  2. Training program on cardiopulmonary resuscitation with the use of automated external defibrillator in a university

    OpenAIRE

    Boaventura, Ana Paula; Miyadahira, Ana Maria Kazue

    2012-01-01

    A desfibrilação precoce na ressuscitação cardiopulmonar (RCP) recebe crescente destaque quanto à prioridade e rapidez. Este é um relato de experiência da implantação de um programa de capacitação em RCP, utilizando o desfibrilador em uma universidade privada. O programa em manobras básicas de RCP foi baseado nas diretrizes mundiais, envolvendo um curso teórico com demonstração prática das manobras de RCP com desfibrilador, treinamento prático individual, avaliação teórica e prática. Quanto ao...

  3. Retrospective evaluation of current-based impedance compensation defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bihua; Yin, Changlin; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Quan, Weilun; Tan, Qing; Freeman, Gary; Li, Yongqin

    2013-05-01

    Transthoracic impedance (TTI) is a principal parameter that influences the intracardiac current flow and defibrillation outcome. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the performance of current-based impedance compensation defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. ECG recordings, along with TTI measurements were collected from multiple emergency medical services (EMSs) in the USA. All the EMSs in this study used automated external defibrillators (AEDs) which employing rectilinear biphasic (RLB) waveform. The distribution and change of TTI between successive shocks, the influence of preceding shock results on the subsequent shock outcome, and the performance of current-based impedance compensation defibrillation was evaluated. A total of 1166 shocks from 594 OHCA victims were examined in this study. The average TTI for the 1st shock was 134.8 Ω and a significant decrease in TTI was observed for the 2nd (pdefibrillation success. The success rate remained unchanged over the whole spectrum of TTI. The average TTI was relatively higher in this OHCA population treated with RLB defibrillation as compared with previously reported data. TTI was significantly decreased after 1st and 2nd successive escalating shock but kept constant after the 3rd shock. Preceding shock success was a better predictor of subsequent defibrillation outcome other than TTI. Current-based impedance compensation defibrillation resulted in equivalent success rate for high impedance patients when compared with those of low impedance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of external defibrillator jacket to facilitate safe delivery of radiotherapy for lung cancer - a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Robert W; Scott, Paul A; Roberts, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    The increasing rate of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation coupled with shared risk factors between lung cancer and ischemic cardiac disease means that the need for radiotherapy in cardiac device patients is set to become commonplace. We describe two cases referred to our electrophysiology service over a 6-month period. Both had been diagnosed with lung cancer in tissue directly posterior to a previously implanted ICD device. The cases highlight the risks to device function caused by ionizing radiation, the practical difficulties and ethical dilemmas of delivering radiotherapy to cardiac device patients safely and a novel setting for the use of a wearable defibrillator system. Copyright © 2013 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Determining risk for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest by location type in a Canadian urban setting to guide future public access defibrillator placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Steven C; Hsu, Jonathan H; Tang, Sabrina K; Jeyakumar, Roshan; Chan, Timothy C Y

    2013-05-01

    Automated external defibrillator use by lay bystanders during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest rarely occurs but can improve survival. We seek to estimate risk for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest by location type and evaluate current automated external defibrillator deployment in a Canadian urban setting to guide future automated external defibrillator deployment. This was a retrospective analysis of a population-based out-of-hospital cardiac arrest database. We included consecutive public location, nontraumatic, out-of-hospital cardiac arrests occurring in Toronto from January 1, 2006, to June 30, 2010, captured in the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Epistry database. Two investigators independently categorized each out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and automated external defibrillator location into one of 38 categories. Total site counts in each location category were used to estimate average annual per-site cardiac arrest incidence and determine the relative automated external defibrillator coverage for each location type. There were 608 eligible out-of-hospital cardiac arrest cases. The top 5 location categories by average annual out-of-hospital cardiac arrests per site were race track/casino (0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0 to 1.63), jail (0.62; 95% CI 0.3 to 1.06), hotel/motel (0.15; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.18), hostel/shelter (0.14; 95% CI 0.067 to 0.19), and convention center (0.11; 95% CI 0 to 0.43). Although schools were relatively lower risk for cardiac arrest, they represented 72.5% of automated external defibrillator-covered locations in the study region. Some higher-risk location types such as hotel/motel, hostel/shelter, and rail station were severely underrepresented with respect to automated external defibrillator coverage. We have identified types of locations with higher per-site risk for cardiac arrest relative to others. We have also identified potential mismatches between cardiac arrest risk by location type and registered automated external

  6. Public-Access Defibrillation and Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Sakai, Tomohiko; Matsuyama, Tasuku; Hatakeyama, Toshihiro; Shimamoto, Tomonari; Izawa, Junichi; Fujii, Tomoko; Nishiyama, Chika; Kawamura, Takashi; Iwami, Taku

    2016-10-27

    Early defibrillation plays a key role in improving survival in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrests due to ventricular fibrillation (ventricular-fibrillation cardiac arrests), and the use of publicly accessible automated external defibrillators (AEDs) can help to reduce the time to defibrillation for such patients. However, the effect of dissemination of public-access AEDs for ventricular-fibrillation cardiac arrest at the population level has not been extensively investigated. From a nationwide, prospective, population-based registry of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Japan, we identified patients from 2005 through 2013 with bystander-witnessed ventricular-fibrillation arrests of presumed cardiac origin in whom resuscitation was attempted. The primary outcome measure was survival at 1 month with a favorable neurologic outcome (Cerebral Performance Category of 1 or 2, on a scale from 1 [good cerebral performance] to 5 [death or brain death]). The number of patients in whom survival with a favorable neurologic outcome was attributable to public-access defibrillation was estimated. Of 43,762 patients with bystander-witnessed ventricular-fibrillation arrests of cardiac origin, 4499 (10.3%) received public-access defibrillation. The percentage of patients receiving public-access defibrillation increased from 1.1% in 2005 to 16.5% in 2013 (PThe percentage of patients who were alive at 1 month with a favorable neurologic outcome was significantly higher with public-access defibrillation than without public-access defibrillation (38.5% vs. 18.2%; adjusted odds ratio after propensity-score matching, 1.99; 95% confidence interval, 1.80 to 2.19). The estimated number of survivors in whom survival with a favorable neurologic outcome was attributed to public-access defibrillation increased from 6 in 2005 to 201 in 2013 (Pbystanders was associated with an increase in the number of survivors with a favorable neurologic outcome after out

  7. Amplitude spectrum area to guide defibrillation: a validation on 1617 patients with ventricular fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristagno, Giuseppe; Mauri, Tommaso; Cesana, Giancarlo; Li, Yongqin; Finzi, Andrea; Fumagalli, Francesca; Rossi, Gianpiera; Grieco, Niccolò; Migliori, Maurizio; Andreassi, Aida; Latini, Roberto; Fornari, Carla; Pesenti, Antonio

    2015-02-03

    This study sought to validate the ability of amplitude spectrum area (AMSA) to predict defibrillation success and long-term survival in a large population of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. ECGs recorded by automated external defibrillators from different manufacturers were obtained from patients with cardiac arrests occurring in 8 city areas. A database, including 2447 defibrillations from 1050 patients, was used as the derivation group, and an additional database, including 1381 defibrillations from 567 patients, served as validation. A 2-second ECG window before defibrillation was analyzed, and AMSA was calculated. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were used for associations between AMSA and study end points: defibrillation success, sustained return of spontaneous circulation, and long-term survival. Among the 2447 defibrillations of the derivation database, 26.2% were successful. AMSA was significantly higher before a successful defibrillation than a failing one (13 ± 5 versus 6.8 ± 3.5 mV-Hz) and was an independent predictor of defibrillation success (odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-1.37) and sustained return of spontaneous circulation (odds ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-1.26). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for defibrillation success prediction was 0.86 (95% confidence interval, 0.85-0.88). AMSA was also significantly associated with long-term survival. The following AMSA thresholds were identified: 15.5 mV-Hz for defibrillation success and 6.5 mV-Hz for defibrillation failure. In the validation database, AMSA ≥ 15.5 mV-Hz had a positive predictive value of 84%, whereas AMSA ≤ 6.5 mV-Hz had a negative predictive value of 98%. In this large derivation-validation study, AMSA was validated as an accurate predictor of defibrillation success. AMSA also appeared as a predictor of long-term survival. © 2014 American Heart

  8. Use and benefits of public access defibrillation in a nation-wide network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Møller; Folke, Fredrik; Lippert, Freddy Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs) are known to increase survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The aim of this study was to examine the use and benefit of public-access defibrillation (PAD) in a nation-wide network. We primarily sought to assess survival at 1 month...... to exercise (42% vs. 0%), and with improved 30-day survival (69% vs. 15%, p=0.001). Among those presenting with a shockable rhythm, 20 (65%) had Return of Spontaneous Circulation upon arrival of EMS and 8 (26%) were conscious, which emphasizes the diagnostic value of ECG downloads from AEDs. Survival could...

  9. Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To Health Topics / Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators Also known as What Is an Implantable Cardioverter ... pacemakers and defibrillators. Comparison of an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator and a Pacemaker The image compares an ICD ...

  10. Local lay rescuers with AEDs, alerted by text messages, contribute to early defibrillation in a Dutch out-of-hospital cardiac arrest dispatch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijlstra, Jolande A; Stieglis, Remy; Riedijk, Frank; Smeekes, Martin; van der Worp, Wim E; Koster, Rudolph W

    2014-11-01

    Public access defibrillation rarely reaches out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients in residential areas. We developed a text message (TM) alert system, dispatching local lay rescuers (TM-responders). We analyzed the functioning of this system, focusing on response times and early defibrillation in relation to other responders. In July 2013, 14112 TM-responders and 1550 automated external defibrillators (AEDs) were registered in a database residing with the dispatch center of two regions of the Netherlands. TM-responders living defibrillator was connected from February 2010 until July 2013. Electrocardiograms from all defibrillators were analyzed for connection and defibrillation time. Of all OHCAs, the dispatcher activated the TM-alert system 893 times (58.1%). In 850 cases ≥1 TM-responder received a TM-alert and in 738 cases ≥1 AED was available. A TM-responder AED was connected in 184 of all OHCAs (12.0%), corresponding with 23.1% of all connected AEDs. Of all used TM-responder AEDs, 87.5% were used in residential areas, compared to 71.6% of all other defibrillators. TM-responders with AEDs defibrillated mean 2:39 (min:sec) earlier compared to emergency medical services (median interval 8:00 [25-75th percentile, 6:35-9:49] vs. 10:39 [25-75th percentile, 8:18-13:23], Pdefibrillation in OHCA, particularly in residential areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. PA/Lateral chest X-ray is equivalent to cine-fluoroscopy for the detection of conductor externalization in defibrillation leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Christian; Sarrazin, Jean-François; Philippon, François; Champagne, Jean; Molin, Franck; Nault, Isabelle; Blier, Louis; Bouchard, Marc-André; Arsenault, Jean; O'Hara, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Riata™ and Riata ST defibrillation leads (St. Jude Medical, Sylmar, CA, USA) are susceptible to insulation defects with conductor externalization. Cine-fluoroscopy is considered to be the gold standard for the documentation of insulation defects, but similar detection rates have been reported for posterior-anterior (PA)/lateral chest x-ray (CXR) with zooming. Prospective single-center study to assess the diagnostic equivalence of a PA/lateral CXR with zooming for the detection of Riata insulation defects in a direct comparison to cine-fluoroscopy. Seventy-eight consecutive patients underwent 3-view cine-fluoroscopy and a PA/lateral CXR. All CXRs and cine-fluoroscopy images were reviewed by blinded electrophysiologists and staff radiologists. Forty-four of 78 patients had an abnormal cine-fluoroscopy (56%). The diagnostic correlation between PA/lateral CXR and cine-fluoroscopy was excellent (κ = 0.90; 95% confidence interval 0.80-1.00). PA/lateral CXR was equivalent to cine-fluoroscopy for the detection of conductor externalization showing a sensitivity of 97.7% and a specificity of 91.2%. The mean radiation effective dose of CXR was significantly lower compared to cine-fluoroscopy (0.09 millisievert [mSV] vs 0.85 ± 0.47 mSv; P cine-fluoroscopy for the detection of Riata insulation defects and should be considered as the preferred screening method. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Manuell arytmitolkning och defibrillering prehospitalt för att minska avbrott i bröstkompressioner

    OpenAIRE

    Mattsson, Andreas; Erling, Kristofer

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Todays guidelines for advanced CPR emphasize chest compressions with good quality and early defibrillation. Prehospital CPR performed by ambulance crew, an automated external defibrillator (AED) is used. The AED analyzes the heart rhythm and the performer is following the advice to chock the heart or not, given by the AED. During on-going CPR there are sequences when no chest compression is performed known as hands-off time. Hands-off time includes the time for the AED to ...

  13. Improving Defibrillation Efficiency in Area Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vincent C; Shen, Jay J; Stanley, Ramona; Dahlke, Jeffrey; McPartlin, Sheri; Row, Lynn

    2016-07-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in the young is a rare event but the effects can be devastating. We sought to identify variables that would lead to an improvement in time to defibrillation (TDFB), a previously noted factor significantly influencing survival from cardiac arrest. During the 2013-2014 academic year, the Clark county school district performed quarterly drills to practice the coordinated automated external defibrillator (AED) response. Variables including school, AED carrier, and drill characteristics were measured to determine influence on TDFB. Schools were grouped by TDFB at a cutoff of three minutes. Characteristics were sought for schools with TDFB below three minutes. A mixed regression model taking into account repeated measures was created to determine which variables influenced TDFB. Time to overhead announcement, distance of AED from drill site, and time to setup AED were the variables influencing TDFB with statistical significance (P <.01). This study supports the notion of early recognition, announcement, and close proximity to an AED during a SCA to ensure an early TDFB. These results are consistent with basic life support and the chain of survival tenets of the American Heart Association. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Basic life support and external defibrillation competences after instruction and at 6 months comparing face-to-face and blended training. Randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jordi; Gallart, Aberto; Rodríguez, Encarnación; Castillo, Jorge; Gomar, Carmen

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the immediate and 6-month efficacy of basic life support (BLS) and automatic external defibrillation (AED) training using standard or blended methods. First-year students of medicine and nursing (n = 129) were randomly assigned to a control group (face-to-face training based on the European Resuscitation Council [ERC] Guidelines) or to an experimental group that trained with a self-training video, a new website, a Moodle platform, an intelligent manikin, and 45 min of instructor presence. Both groups were homogeneous and were evaluated identically. Theoretical knowledge was evaluated using a multi-choice questionnaire (MCQ). Skill performance was evaluated by the instructor's rubric and on a high-fidelity Resusci Anne QCPR manikin. Immediately after the course, there were no statistically significant differences in knowledge between the two groups. The median score of practical evaluation assessed by the instructor was significantly better in the experimental group (8.15, SD 0.93 vs 7.7, SD 1.18; P = 0.02). No differences between groups were found when using a high-fidelity manikin to evaluate chest compressions and lung inflations. At six months, the scores in knowledge and skill performance were significantly lower compared to the evaluations at the end of the instruction, but they remained still higher compared to baseline. The experimental group had higher scores in practical skills evaluated by the instructor than the control group (7.44, SD 1.85 vs 6.10, SD 2.6; P = 0.01). The blended method provides the same or even higher levels of knowledge and skills than standard instruction both immediately after the course and six months later. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nationwide fluoroscopic screening of recalled riata defibrillator leads in denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob M; Riahi, Sam; Nielsen, Jens Carl Ry

    2013-01-01

    The natural history of insulation defects with inside-out conductor externalization in recalled St Jude Medical Riata defibrillator leads is not well understood.......The natural history of insulation defects with inside-out conductor externalization in recalled St Jude Medical Riata defibrillator leads is not well understood....

  16. Ranking Businesses and Municipal Locations by Spatiotemporal Cardiac Arrest Risk to Guide Public Defibrillator Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Christopher L F; Brooks, Steven C; Morrison, Laurie J; Chan, Timothy C Y

    2017-03-21

    Efforts to guide automated external defibrillator placement for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) treatment have focused on identifying broadly defined location categories without considering hours of operation. Broad location categories may be composed of many businesses with varying accessibility. Identifying specific locations for automated external defibrillator deployment incorporating operating hours and time of OHCA occurrence may improve automated external defibrillator accessibility. We aim to identify specific businesses and municipal locations that maximize OHCA coverage on the basis of spatiotemporal assessment of OHCA risk in the immediate vicinity of franchise locations. This study was a retrospective population-based cohort study using data from the Toronto Regional RescuNET Epistry cardiac arrest database. We identified all nontraumatic public OHCAs occurring in Toronto, ON, Canada, from January 2007 through December 2015. We identified 41 unique businesses and municipal location types with ≥20 locations in Toronto from the YellowPages, Canadian Franchise Association, and the City of Toronto Open Data Portal. We obtained their geographic coordinates and hours of operation from Web sites, by phone, or in person. We determined the number of OHCAs that occurred within 100 m of each location when it was open (spatiotemporal coverage) for Toronto overall and downtown. The businesses and municipal locations were then ranked by spatiotemporal OHCA coverage. To evaluate temporal stability of the rankings, we calculated intraclass correlation of the annual coverage values. There were 2654 nontraumatic public OHCAs. Tim Hortons ranked first in Toronto, covering 286 OHCAs. Starbucks ranked first in downtown, covering 110 OHCAs. Coffee shops and bank machines from the 5 largest Canadian banks occupied 8 of the top 10 spots in both Toronto and downtown. The rankings exhibited high temporal stability with intraclass correlation values of 0.88 (95

  17. Return of spontaneous circulation and long-term survival according to feedback provided by automated external defibrillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, M; Hansen, M B; Nielsen, A M

    2017-01-01

    levels. METHODS: We collected data on OHCA occurring between 2011 and 2014 in the Capital Region of Denmark where an AED was applied prior to ambulance arrival. Patient data were obtained from the Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry and medical records. AED data were retrieved from the Emergency Medical...... Dispatch Centre (EMDC) and information on feedback mechanisms, energy waveform and energy level was downloaded from the applied AEDs. RESULTS: A total of 196 OHCAs had an AED applied prior to ambulance arrival; 62 of these (32%) provided audio visual (AV) feedback while no feedback was provided in 134 (68...

  18. Comparison of instructor-led automated external defibrillation training and three alternative DVD-based training methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Wiebe; Turner, Nigel M.; Monsieurs, Koenraad G.; Bierens, Joost J. L. M.; Koster, Rudolph W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Self-directed BLS-training, using a personal training manikin with video has been shown to be as effective as instructor-led training. This has not previously been investigated for AED-training. Materials and methods: This prospective, randomized study with a non-inferiority design

  19. Lay bystanders' perspectives on what facilitates cardiopulmonary resuscitation and use of automated external defibrillators in real cardiac arrests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malta Hansen, Carolina; Rosenkranz, Simone Mørk; Folke, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    obligation to act. CONCLUSIONS: Several factors other than previous hands-on CPR training facilitate lay bystander instigation of CPR and AED use. The recognition and modification of these factors may increase lay bystander CPR rates and patient survival following an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest....... factors encourage lay bystanders to initiate CPR and AED use in a cohort of bystanders previously trained in CPR techniques who were present at an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. METHODS AND RESULTS: One-hundred and twenty-eight semistructured qualitative interviews with CPR-trained lay bystanders......, until data saturation. We used cross-sectional indexing (using software), and inductive in-depth thematic analyses, to identify those factors that facilitated CPR and AED use. In addition to prior hands-on CPR training, the following were described as facilitators: prior knowledge that intervention...

  20. Dual dispatch early defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in a mixed urban-rural population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saner, Hugo; Morger, Cyrill; Eser, Prisca; von Planta, Martin

    2013-09-01

    The effects of a system based on minimally trained first responders (FR) dispatched simultaneously with the emergency medical services (EMS) of the local hospital in a mixed urban and rural area in Northwestern Switzerland were examined. In this prospective study 500 voluntary fire fighters received a 4-h training in basic-life-support using automated-external-defibrillation (AED). FR and EMS were simultaneously dispatched in a two-tier rescue system. During the years 2001-2008, response times, resuscitation interventions and outcomes were monitored. 1334 emergencies were included. The FR reached the patients (mean age 60.4 ± 19 years; 65% male) within 6 ± 3 min after emergency calls compared to 12 ± 5 min by the EMS (prailway station equipped with an on-site AED. FR were on the scene before arrival of the EMS in 1166 (87.4%) cases. Of these, the FR used AED in 611 patients for monitoring or defibrillation. CPR was initiated by the FR in 164 (68.9% of 238 resuscitated patients). 124 patients were defibrillated, of whom 93 (75.0%) were defibrillated first by the FR. Eighteen patients (of whom 13 were defibrillated by the FR) were discharged from hospital in good neurological condition. Minimally trained fire fighters integrated in an EMS as FR contributed substantially to an increase of the survival rate of OHCAs in a mixed urban and rural area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007370.htm Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is a device that detects any life- ...

  2. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000108.htm Implantable cardioverter defibrillator - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is a device that detects a life- ...

  3. The number of prehospital defibrillation shocks and 1-month survival in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Manabu; Abe, Takeru; Nagata, Takashi; Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito

    2015-04-17

    The relationship between the number of pre-hospital defibrillation shocks and treatment outcome in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) presenting with ventricular fibrillation (VF) is unknown currently. We examined the association between the number of pre-hospitalization defibrillation shocks and 1-month survival in OHCA patients. We conducted a prospective observational study using national registry data obtained from patients with OHCA between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2012 in Japan. The study subjects were ≥ 18-110 years of age, had suffered from an OHCA before arrival of EMS personnel, had a witnessed collapse, had an initial rhythm that was shockable [VF/ventricular tachycardia (pulseless VT)], were not delivered a shock using a public automated external defibrillator (AED), received one or more shocks using a biphasic defibrillator by EMS personnel, and were transported to a medical institution between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2012. There were 20,851 OHCA cases which met the inclusion criteria during the study period. Signal detection analysis was used to identify the cutoff point in the number of prehospital defibrillation shocks most closely related to one-month survival. Variables related to the number of defibrillations or one-month survival in OHCA were identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. A cutoff point in the number of pre-hospital defibrillation shocks most closely associated with 1-month OHCA survival was between two and three (χ(2) = 209.61, p defibrillations (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.38), OHCA origin (OR = 2.81, 95% CI: 2.26, 3.49), use of ALS devices (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.79), use of epinephrine (OR = 0.33, 95% C: 0.28, 0.39), interval between first defibrillation and first ROSC (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.78), and chest compression (OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.38) were associated significantly with 1-month OCHA survival. The cutoff point in the number of defibrillations of

  4. The role of the wearable cardioverter defibrillator in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mina K

    2014-05-01

    The wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD) is an option for external monitoring and defibrillation in patients at risk for sudden cardiac arrest caused by ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation and who are not candidates for or who refuse an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). WCDs provide monitoring with backup defibrillation protection. WCDs have been used when a patient's condition delays or prohibits ICD implantation, or as a bridge when an indicated ICD must be explanted. WCDs are used for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death during high-risk gap periods early after myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, or new diagnosis of heart failure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effects of Public Access Defibrillation on Survival After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bækgaard, Josefine S; Viereck, Søren; Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Lippert, Freddy; Folke, Fredrik

    2017-09-05

    Despite recent advances, the average survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains 50%. Accordingly, placement of automated external defibrillators in the community as part of a public access defibrillation program (PAD) is recommended by international guidelines. However, different strategies have been proposed on how exactly to increase and make use of publicly available automated external defibrillators. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effect of PAD and the different PAD strategies on survival after OHCA. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched on August 31, 2015 for observational studies reporting survival to hospital discharge in OHCA patients where an automated external defibrillator had been used by nonemergency medical services. PAD was divided into 3 groups according to who applied the defibrillator: nondispatched lay first responders, professional first responders (firefighters/police) dispatched by the Emergency Medical Dispatch Center (EMDC), or lay first responders dispatched by the EMDC. A total of 41 studies were included; 18 reported PAD by nondispatched lay first responders, 20 reported PAD by EMDC-dispatched professional first responders (firefighters/police), and 3 reported both. We identified no qualified studies reporting survival after PAD by EMDC-dispatched lay first responders. The overall survival to hospital discharge after OHCA treated with PAD showed a median survival of 40.0% (range, 9.1-83.3). Defibrillation by nondispatched lay first responders was associated with the highest survival with a median survival of 53.0% (range, 26.0-72.0), whereas defibrillation by EMDC-dispatched professional first responders (firefighters/police) was associated with a median survival of 28.6% (range, 9.0-76.0). A meta-analysis of the different survival outcomes could not be performed because of the large heterogeneity of the included studies. This systematic review showed a median overall

  6. INTRACARDIAC ATRIAL DEFIBRILLATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosdall, Derek J.; Ideker, Raymond E.

    2007-01-01

    Intravascular ventricular defibrillation and intravascular atrial defibrillation have many similarities, some of which are as follows. An important factor influencing the outcome of the shock is the potential gradient field created throughout the ventricles or the atria by the shock. A minimum potential gradient is required throughout the ventricles and probably the atria to defibrillate. The value of this minimum potential gradient is affected by several factors including the duration, tilt, and number of phases of the waveform. For shock strengths near the defibrillation threshold, earliest activation following failed shocks arises in a region in which the potential gradient is low. The defibrillation threshold energy can be decreased by adding a third and even a fourth defibrillation electrode in regions where the shock potential gradient is low for the shock field created by the first two defibrillation electrodes and giving two sequential shocks, each through a different set of electrodes. However, the addition of more electrodes and sequential shocks complicates both the device and its implantation. Since patients are conscious when the atrial defibrillation shock is given, they experience pain during the shock, which is one of the main drawbacks of intravascular atrial defibrillation. Unfortunately, the pain threshold for defibrillation shocks is so low that a shock of less than 1 Joule is uncomfortable and is not much less painful than shocks several times stronger. Therefore, even though electrode configurations exist that have lower atrial defibrillation threshold energy requirements than the atrial defibrillation threshold with standard defibrillation electrode configurations used in implantable cardioverter/defibrillators (ICDs) for ventricular defibrillation, they are not clinically practical because their shocks are almost as painful as with the standard ICD electrode configurations and they would cause the ICD to be more complicated and to take

  7. Advances in defibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Charles D

    2011-06-01

    The place of defibrillation in the chain of survival is paramount and this review covers advances in this aspect of resuscitation over the past 18 months. The main advance is the publication of 2010 European Resuscitation Council guidelines of which defibrillation is a key aspect. Additionally, there have been a number of important articles discussing safety issues with defibrillation, the occurrence of refibrillation following successful cardioversion, prediction of shock success and changes in transthoracic impedance with sequential defibrillation shocks. The focus of these articles is to improve the delivery of defibrillation without interrupting chest compression and aiming to do so at an optimal stage of the resuscitation attempt.

  8. Defibrillation for Ventricular Fibrillation: A Shocking Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Graham; Sayre, Michael R; Guerra, Federico; Poole, Jeanne

    2017-09-19

    Cardiac arrest is defined as the termination of cardiac activity associated with loss of consciousness, of spontaneous breathing, and of circulation. Sudden cardiac arrest and sudden cardiac death (SCD) are terms often used interchangeably. Most patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest have shown coronary artery disease or symptoms during the hour before the event. Cardiac arrest is potentially reversible by cardiopulmonary resuscitation, defibrillation, cardioversion, cardiac pacing, or treatments targeted at the underlying disease (e.g., acute coronary occlusion). We restrict SCD hereafter to cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation, including rhythms shockable by an automatic external defibrillator (AED), implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), or wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD). We summarize the state of the art related to defibrillation in treating SCD, including a brief history of the evolution of defibrillation, technical characteristics of modern AEDs, strategies to improve AED access and increase survival, ancillary treatments, and use of ICDs or WCDs. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [History of electric defibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qing; Wan, Zhi

    2007-07-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is one of the most effective methods in rescuing those in critical situations. In recent decades, electric cardiac defibrillation has made the biggest advance in the field of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. It has been found that the rate of successful resuscitation with electric defibrillation is much higher than by bare-handed or drug resuscitations by which more lives have been saved, has become the most essential and most important means of first aid. The history of the development of electric defibrillation is a successful modality of multidisciplinary cooperation of physicians, biologists, physiologists, and engineers. Although "early defibrillation" has been recognized as an idea of standard therapy and a basic measure of life support by international organizations as American Heart Association, it is far from being perfect and has a long way to go. A review of the history may help to bring the technique of electric defibrillation into perfection, and to save more lives in the future.

  10. Risk stratification for implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy: the role of the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Helmut U; Goldenberg, Ilan; Moss, Arthur J

    2013-08-01

    The benefit of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy depends upon appropriate evaluation of a persisting risk of sudden death and estimation of the patient's overall survival. Assessment of a stable and unchangeable arrhythmogenic substrate is often difficult. Structural abnormality and ventricular dysfunction, the two major risk parameters, may recover, and heart failure symptoms can improve so that ICD therapy may not be indicated. Risk stratification can take time while the patient continues to be at high risk of arrhythmic death, and patients may need temporary bridging by a defibrillator in cases of interrupted ICD therapy. The wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) combines a long-term electrocardiogram (ECG)-monitoring system with an external automatic defibrillator. The LIfeVest® (ZOLL, Pittsburgh, PA, USA) is composed of a garment, containing two defibrillation patch electrodes on the back, and an elastic belt with a front-defibrillation patch electrode and four non-adhesive ECG electrodes, connected to a monitoring and defibrillation unit. The WCD is a safe and effective tool to terminate ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation events, unless a conscious patient withholds shock delivery. It may be used in patients in the early phase after acute myocardial infarction with poor left ventricular function, after acute coronary revascularization procedures (percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (≤35%), in patients with acute heart failure in non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy of uncertain aetiology and prognosis. The WCD may be helpful in subjects with syncope of assumed tachyarrhythmia origin or in patients with inherited arrhythmia syndromes. The WCD may replace ICD implantation in patients waiting for heart transplantation or who need a ventricular-assist device. This review describes the technical details and characteristics of the WCD, discusses its

  11. Patient ECG recording control for an automatic implantable defibrillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Glen H. (Inventor); Lee, Jr., David G. (Inventor); Kitchin, David A. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An implantable automatic defibrillator includes sensors which are placed on or near the patient's heart to detect electrical signals indicative of the physiology of the heart. The signals are digitally converted and stored into a FIFO region of a RAM by operation of a direct memory access (DMA) controller. The DMA controller operates transparently with respect to the microprocessor which is part of the defibrillator. The implantable defibrillator includes a telemetry communications circuit for sending data outbound from the defibrillator to an external device (either a patient controller or a physician's console or other) and a receiver for sensing at least an externally generated patient ECG recording command signal. The patient recording command signal is generated by the hand held patient controller. Upon detection of the patient ECG recording command, DMA copies the contents of the FIFO into a specific region of the RAM.

  12. Mechanisms of Defibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosdall, Derek J.; Fast, Vladimir G.; Ideker, Raymond E.

    2014-01-01

    Electrical shock has been the one effective treatment for ventricular fibrillation for several decades. With the advancement of electrical and optical mapping techniques, histology, and computer modeling, the mechanisms responsible for defibrillation are now coming to light. In this review, we discuss recent work that demonstrates the various mechanisms responsible for defibrillation. On the cellular level, membrane depolarization and electroporation affect defibrillation outcome. Cell bundles and collagenous septae are secondary sources and cause virtual electrodes at sites far from shocking electrodes. On the whole-heart level, shock field gradient and critical points determine whether a shock is successful or whether reentry causes initiation and continuation of fibrillation. PMID:20450352

  13. Implantable defibrillator therapy: more than defibrillation...

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A.M.J. Theuns (Dominic)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractDuring the past 25 years, the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) has evolved from the treatment of last resort to the gold standard for patients at high risk for life­threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Patients at high risk include those who survived life-threatening

  14. Nationwide public-access defibrillation in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Iwami, Taku; Kawamura, Takashi; Nagao, Ken; Tanaka, Hideharu; Hiraide, Atsushi

    2010-03-18

    It is unclear whether dissemination of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in public places can improve the rate of survival among patients who have had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. From January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2007, we conducted a prospective, population-based, observational study involving consecutive patients across Japan who had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and in whom resuscitation was attempted by emergency responders. We evaluated the effect of nationwide dissemination of public-access AEDs on the rate of survival after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The primary outcome measure was the 1-month rate of survival with minimal neurologic impairment. A multivariate logistic-regression analysis was performed to assess factors associated with a good neurologic outcome. A total of 312,319 adults who had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest were included in the study; 12,631 of these patients had ventricular fibrillation and had an arrest that was of cardiac origin and that was witnessed by bystanders. In 462 of these patients (3.7%), shocks were administered by laypersons with the use of public-access AEDs, and the proportion increased, from 1.2% to 6.2%, as the number of public-access AEDs increased (Ppublic-access AEDs, 31.6% were alive at 1 month with minimal neurologic impairment. Early defibrillation, regardless of the type of provider (bystander or emergency-medical-services personnel), was associated with a good neurologic outcome after a cardiac arrest with ventricular fibrillation (adjusted odds ratio per 1-minute increase in the time to administration of shock, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.89 to 0.92; Ppublic-access AEDs increased from fewer than 1 per square kilometer of inhabited area to 4 or more. Nationwide dissemination of public-access AEDs in Japan resulted in earlier administration of shocks by laypersons and in an increase in the 1-month rate of survival with minimal neurologic impairment after an out

  15. Definition of successful defibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Rudolph W.; Walker, Robert G.; van Alem, Anouk P.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The definition of defibrillation shock "success" endorsed by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation since the publication of Guidelines 2000 for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiac Care has been removal of ventricular fibrillation at 5 secs after shock

  16. Intraoperative Defibrillation Testing of Subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Systems-A Simple Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommeyer, Gerrit; Zumhagen, Sven; Dechering, Dirk G; Larbig, Robert; Bettin, Markus; Löher, Andreas; Köbe, Julia; Reinke, Florian; Eckardt, Lars

    2016-03-15

    The results of the recently published randomized SIMPLE trial question the role of routine intraoperative defibrillation testing. However, testing is still recommended during implantation of the entirely subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) system. To address the question of whether defibrillation testing in S-ICD systems is still necessary, we analyzed the data of a large, standard-of-care prospective single-center S-ICD registry. In the present study, 102 consecutive patients received an S-ICD for primary (n=50) or secondary prevention (n=52). Defibrillation testing was performed in all except 4 patients. In 74 (75%; 95% CI 0.66-0.83) of 98 patients, ventricular fibrillation was effectively terminated by the first programmed internal shock. In 24 (25%; 95% CI 0.22-0.44) of 98 patients, the first internal shock was ineffective and further internal or external shock deliveries were required. In these patients, programming to reversed shock polarity (n=14) or repositioning of the sensing lead (n=1) or the pulse generator (n=5) led to successful defibrillation. In 4 patients, a safety margin of defibrillation testing is not necessary in transvenous ICD systems, it seems particular important for S-ICD systems, because in nearly 25% of the cases the primary intraoperative test was not successful. In most cases, a successful defibrillation could be achieved by changing shock polarity or by optimizing the shock vector caused by the pulse generator or lead repositioning. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  17. Will medical examination gloves protect rescuers from defibrillation voltages during hands-on defibrillation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Joseph L; Chapman, Fred W

    2012-12-01

    Continuing compressions during a defibrillation shock has been proposed as a method of reducing pauses in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) but the safety of this procedure is unproven. The medical examination gloves worn by rescuers play an important role in protecting the rescuer yet the electrical characteristics of these gloves are unknown. This study examined the response of medical examination gloves to defibrillation voltages. Part 1 of this study measured voltage-current curves for a small sample (8) of gloves. Part 2 tested more gloves (460) to determine the voltage required to produce a specific amount of current flow. Gloves were tested at two current levels: 0.1 mA and 10 mA. Testing included four glove materials (chloroprene, latex, nitrile, and vinyl) in a single layer and double-gloved. All gloves tested in part 1 allowed little current to flow (gloves and 93 of 120 (77%) double gloves allowed at least 0.1 mA of current flow at voltages within the external defibrillation voltage range. Also, 6 of 80 (7.5%) single gloves and 5 of 80 (6.2%) double gloves allowed over 10 mA. Few of the gloves tested limited the current to levels proven to be safe. A lack of sensation during hands-on defibrillation does not guarantee that a safety margin exists. As such, we encourage rescuers to minimize rather than eliminate the pause in compressions for defibrillation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of a national public access defibrillation programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Patrick S; Teljeur, Conor; Masterson, Siobhán; O'Neill, Michelle; Harrington, Patricia; Ryan, Máirín

    2015-06-01

    Proposed Irish legislation aimed at increasing survival from out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest (OHCA) mandates the provision of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in a comprehensive range of publicly accessible premises in urban and rural areas. This study estimated the clinical and cost effectiveness of the legislation, compared with alternative programme configurations involving more targeted AED placement. We used a cost-utility analysis to estimate the costs and consequences of public access defibrillation (PAD) programmes from a societal perspective, based on AED deployment by building type. Comparator programmes ranged from those that only included building types with the highest incidence of OHCA, to the comprehensive programme outline in the proposed legislation. Data on OHCA incidence and outcomes were obtained from the Irish Out-of-Hospital-Cardiac-Arrest Register (OHCAR). Costs were obtained from the Irish health service, device suppliers and training providers. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) for the most comprehensive PAD scheme was €928,450/QALY. The ICER for the most scaled-back programme involving AED placement in transport stations, medical practices, entertainment venues, schools (excluding primary) and fitness facilities was €95,640/QALY. A 40% increase in AED utilisation when OHCAs occur in a public area could potentially render this programme cost effective. National PAD programmes involving widespread deployment of static AEDs are unlikely to be cost-effective. To improve cost-effectiveness any prospective programmes should target locations with the highest incidence of OHCA and be supported by efforts to increase AED utilisation, such as improving public awareness, increasing CPR and AED training, and establishing an EMS-linked AED register. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Azygos Vein Lead Implantation For High Defibrillation Thresholds In Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naga VA Kommuri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of defibrillation threshold is a standard of care during implantation of implantable cardioverter defibrillator. High defibrillation thresholds are often encountered and pose a challenge to electrophysiologists to improve the defibrillation threshold. We describe a case series where defibrillation thresholds were improved after implanting a defibrillation lead in the azygos vein.

  20. What externally presented information do VRUs require when interacting with fully Automated Road Transport Systems in shared space?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merat, Natasha; Louw, Tyron; Madigan, Ruth; Wilbrink, Marc; Schieben, Anna

    2018-03-31

    As the desire for deploying automated ("driverless") vehicles increases, there is a need to understand how they might communicate with other road users in a mixed traffic, urban, setting. In the absence of an active and responsible human controller in the driving seat, who might currently communicate with other road users in uncertain/conflicting situations, in the future, understanding a driverless car's behaviour and intentions will need to be relayed via easily comprehensible, intuitive and universally intelligible means, perhaps presented externally via new vehicle interfaces. This paper reports on the results of a questionnaire-based study, delivered to 664 participants, recruited during live demonstrations of an Automated Road Transport Systems (ARTS; SAE Level 4), in three European cities. The questionnaire sought the views of pedestrians and cyclists, focussing on whether respondents felt safe interacting with ARTS in shared space, and also what externally presented travel behaviour information from the ARTS was important to them. Results showed that most pedestrians felt safer when the ARTS were travelling in designated lanes, rather than in shared space, and the majority believed they had priority over the ARTS, in the absence of such infrastructure. Regardless of lane demarcations, all respondents highlighted the importance of receiving some communication information about the behaviour of the ARTS, with acknowledgement of their detection by the vehicle being the most important message. There were no clear patterns across the respondents, regarding preference of modality for these external messages, with cultural and infrastructural differences thought to govern responses. Generally, however, conventional signals (lights and beeps) were preferred to text-based messages and spoken words. The results suggest that until these driverless vehicles are able to provide universally comprehensible externally presented information or messages during interaction

  1. Effects of automated external lubrication on tablet properties and the stability of eprazinone hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Takahiro; Ohta, Tomoaki; Taira, Toshinari; Ogawa, Yutaka; Sakai, Yasuyuki; Moribe, Kunikazu; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2009-03-31

    We investigated the advantages of an external lubrication technique for tableting. A newly developed external lubricating system was applied to tableting in a rotary tablet press using magnesium stearate. The resulting tablets were compared with tablets produced by the conventional internal lubrication method, in which lubricant is blended before tableting. As a model API, we chose eprazinone hydrochloride, because it is easily hydrolyzed by alkaline lubricant. The amount of lubricant required to prevent sticking with external lubrication was only 1/13th of that required with internal lubrication. External lubrication increased tablet crushing strength by 40%, without prolonging tablet disintegration time, and improved the residual ratio of eprazinone hydrochloride in tablets stored under stress conditions for 4 weeks by 10%. The distribution of lubricant on the surface of externally lubricated tablets was observed by scanning electron microscopy after the preparation by focused ion beam milling. The lubricant had formed a layer on the tablet surface. At the central part of the tablet surface, this layer was much thinner than at the edges, and remained extremely thin even when there was excess magnesium stearate. This is the first report to describe the distribution of lubricant on the surface of externally lubricated tablets.

  2. Behandling med implanterbar defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roseva-Nielsen, Natasha G; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

    2003-01-01

    About 20 years ago the first patient received an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), and since then the number of implants have increased dramatically. The ICD can terminate ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. Studies of secondary prophylaxis show that ICD treatment can...

  3. Automated Microscopy: Macro Language Controlling a Confocal Microscope and its External Illumination: Adaptation for Photosynthetic Organisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Steinbach, Gabor; Kaňa, Radek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2016), s. 258-263 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/12/0304; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0059; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0110; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1416 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : automated microscopy * remote controlled microscopy * confocal microscopy Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  4. Assessment of the Efficacy of Pulsed Biphasic Defibrillation Shocks for Treatment of Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Didon

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the efficacy of a Pulsed Biphasic Waveform (PBW for treatment of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA patients in ventricular fibrillation (VF. Large database (2001-2006, collected with automated external defibrillators (AED, (FRED®, Schiller Medical SAS, France, is processed.In Study1 we compared the defibrillation efficacy of two energy stacks (90-130-180 J vs. (130-130-180 J in 248 OHCA VF patients. The analysis of the first shock PBW efficacy proves that energies as low as 90 J are able to terminate VF in a large proportion of OHCA patients (77% at 5 s and 69% at 30 s. Although the results show a trend towards the benefit of higher energy PBW with 130 J (86% at 5 s, 73% at 30 s, the difference in shock efficacy does not reach statistical significance. Both PBW energy stacks (90-130-180 J and (130-130-180 J achieve equal success rates of defibrillation. Analysis of the post-shock rhythm after the first shock is also provided.For Study2 of 21 patients with PBW shocks (130-130-180 J, we assessed some attending OHCA circumstances: call-to-shock delay (median 16min, range 11-41 min, phone advices of CPR (67%. About 50% of the patients were admitted alive to hospital, and 19% were discharged from hospital. After the first shock, patients admitted to hospital are more often presenting organized rhythm (OR (27% to 55% than patients not admitted (0% to 10%, with significant difference at 15 s and 30 s. Post-shock VFs appear significantly rare until 15s for patients admitted to hospital (0% to 9% than for patients not admitted to hospital (40% to 50%. Return of OR (ROOR and efficacy to defibrillate VF at 5 s and 15 s with first shock are important markers to predict patient admission to hospital.

  5. The effectiveness of prophylactic attachment of adhesive defibrillation pads in adult living donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Hsien; Cheng, Kwok-Wai; Chen, Chao-Long; Wu, Shoa-Chun; Shih, Tsung-Hsiao; Yang, Sheng-Chun; Jawan, Bruno; Huang, Chia-Jung

    2015-02-19

    The aim of current study is to present the effectiveness of prophylactic attachment of adhesive defibrillation electrode pads in adult living donor liver transplantation. We divided 487 adult living donor liver transplantation patients into 2 Eras according to the history of without (Era 1) and with (Era 2) pre-attachment of adhesive defibrillation pads. The incidences of intraoperative cardiac events requiring cardioversion or defibrillation, its management, and outcome between Era 1 and 2 were compared. Two cases out of 124 patients (1.6%) in Era 1 had cardiac arrest. The closed chest cardiac massage in 1 cardiac arrest in Era 1 required trans-diaphragmatic open-chest cardiac massage followed by internal cardiac defibrillation due to difficulty in performing external defibrillation. Both patients of Era 1 had in-hospital mortality. Four patients of Era 2 (n=363) received electrical treatment (1.01%); 2 had paroxysmal tachycardia requiring cardio-version and the other 2 had ventricular fibrillation requiring closed-chest cardiac massage and external defibrillation. All 4 patients in Era 2 regained sinus rhythm after electrical treatment, tolerated the subsequent operation well, and had 100% survival to date. Our results show that prophylactic attachment of adhesive defibrillation pads allows the immediate performance of cardioversion, conventional closed-chest CPR, and defibrillation if indicated without any delay and without interference with the sterility of the operation field. Our preliminary result is clear and encouraging.

  6. Part 3: Adult Basic Life Support and Automated External Defibrillation 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travers, Andrew H.; Perkins, Gavin D.; Berg, Robert A.; Castren, Maaret; Considine, Julie; Escalante, Raffo; Gazmuri, Raul J.; Koster, Rudolph W.; Lim, Swee Han; Nation, Kevin J.; Olasveengen, Theresa M.; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Sayre, Michael R.; Sierra, Alfredo; Smyth, Michael A.; Stanton, David; Vaillancourt, Christian; Bierens, Joost J. L. M.; Bourdon, Emmanuelle; Brugger, Hermann; Buick, Jason E.; Charette, Manya L.; Chung, Sung Phil; Couper, Keith; Daya, Mohamud R.; Drennan, Ian R.; Gräsner, Jan-Thorsten; Idris, Ahamed H.; Lerner, E. Brooke; Lockhat, Husein; Løfgren, Bo; McQueen, Carl; Monsieurs, Koenraad G.; Mpotos, Nicolas; Orkin, Aaron M.; Quan, Linda; Raffay, Violetta; Reynolds, Joshua C.; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Scapigliati, Andrea; Vadeboncoeur, Tyler F.; Wenzel, Volker; Yeung, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    This review comprises the most extensive literature search and evidence evaluation to date on the most important international BLS interventions, diagnostics, and prognostic factors for cardiac arrest victims. It reemphasizes that the critical lifesaving steps of BLS are (1) prevention, (2)

  7. Saving lives with public access defibrillation: A deadly game of hide and seek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidebottom, David B; Potter, Ryan; Newitt, Laura K; Hodgetts, Gillian A; Deakin, Charles D

    2018-04-11

    Early defibrillation is a critical link in the chain of survival. Public access defibrillation (PAD) programmes utilising automated external defibrillators (AEDs) aim to decrease the time-to-first-shock, and improve survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Effective use of PADs requires rapid location of the device, facilitated by adequate signage. We aimed to therefore assess the quality of signage for PADs in the community. From April 2017 to January 2018 we surveyed community PADs available for public use on the 'Save a Life' AED locator mobile application in and around Southampton, UK. Location and signage characteristics were collected, and the distance from the furthest sign to the AED was measured. Researchers evaluated 201 separate PADs. All devices visited were included in the final analysis. No signage at all was present for 135 (67.2%) devices. Only 15/201 (7.5%) AEDs had signage at a distance from AED itself. In only 5 of these cases (2.5%) was signage mounted more than 5.0 meters from the AED. When signage was present, 46 used 2008 ILCOR signage and 15 used 2006 Resuscitation Council (UK) signage. Signage visibility was partially or severely obstructed at 27/66 (40.9%) sites. None of the 45 GP surgeries surveyed used exterior signage or an exterior 24/7 access box. Current signage of PADs is poor and limits the device effectiveness by impeding public awareness and location of AEDs. Recommendations should promote visible signage within the operational radius of each AED. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Surviving out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: just a matter of defibrillators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Alessandro; Gasparetto, Nicola; Stella, Federica; Bortoluzzi, Andrea; Cacciavillani, Luisa; Basso, Cristina

    2014-08-01

    Out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a leading cause of death all over the world. Although the outcome of OHCA resulting from 'nonshockable' rhythms (asystole and pulseless electrical activity) is poor regardless of resuscitation efforts, 'shockable' rhythms such as ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation may carry a good prognosis if early defibrillation is performed. At present, simplified cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques (hands-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation) and automated external defibrillators (AEDs) offer lay people the possibility to provide lifesaving treatment to OHCA victims in the critical minutes before the arrival of the emergency medical system. Programs aimed at increasing provision of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and use of AEDs by lay people have been set up in different countries, including Italy, and have contributed to improve survival rates. However, success of these programs critically depends on appropriate planning and design, and on cultural predisposition of witnesses to undertake immediate measures of resuscitation in the case of OHCA. Placement of a large number of AEDs may carry high costs and little benefits if it is uncoordinated and not preceded by educational campaigns to spread widely the 'culture of resuscitation' in the population.

  9. Defibrillator/monitor/pacemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-01

    This study updates our May-June 1993 Evaluation of defibrillator/monitor/pacemakers, published in Health Devices 22(5-6), in which we tested eight units from six suppliers. For this Update Evaluation, we tested three additional units, each from a different supplier. We also present update information, including some new ratings, for most of the previously evaluated units. We judged the new units against the same basic criteria and rated and ranked them using the same scheme--with some minor revisions--as in our original Evaluation. We judged the suitability of these units for three primary clinical applications: (1) general crash-cart use, (2) prehospital (emergency medical service [EMS]) use, and (3) in-hospital transport use. Because our criteria have changed slightly since the original study, we have repeated them in this issue. The test methods have not changed significantly and can be found in the original 1993 Evaluation. For more detailed information about this technology, the environments in which these units are used, and the factors to consider when selecting this type of device, we encourage readers to refer to the following sections in the original Evaluation: the Clinical Perspective "The Importance of Early Defibrillation"; the Clinical and Technical Overview; and the Selection and Use Guide for Defibrillator/Monitor/Pacemakers.

  10. Internal and external validation of an ESTRO delineation guideline - dependent automated segmentation tool for loco-regional radiation therapy of early breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eldesoky, A.R.; Yates, E.S.; Nyeng, T.B.; Thomsen, M.S.; Nielsen, H.M.; Poortmans, P.; Kirkove, C.; Krause, M.; Kamby, C.; Mjaaland, I.; Blix, E.S.; Jensen, I.; Berg, M; Lorenzen, E.L.; Taheri-Kadkhoda, Z.; Offersen, B.V.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To internally and externally validate an atlas based automated segmentation (ABAS) in loco-regional radiation therapy of breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Structures of 60 patients delineated according to the ESTRO consensus guideline were included in four categorized

  11. Wearable Cardioverter Defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrick, Aileen M; Tian, David; Vudathaneni, Vijaya; Shevchuk, Olga L; Ferrick, Neal J; Frishman, William

    The use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) has favorably impacted the prevention and treatment of sudden cardiac death (SCD) associated with ventricular arrhythmias. However, there are situations where an ICD cannot be immediately implanted, even though the patient is at high risk for SCD. The wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD) is a unique technology that can bridge this gap for patients. The WCD has been demonstrated to terminate ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation if worn and used correctly. With proper training, it is relatively easy to put on, maintain, and use. Most patients are compliant and are able to consistently wear the device. The WCD negates the infection risk or procedural complications associated with insertion and possible extraction of leads, as with an ICD. In terms of primary prevention of ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35%, prospective, randomized studies evaluating the survival of patients utilizing the WCD will need to be performed before evidenced-based criteria for its use can be established. On the basis of current data, WCD use for those awaiting heart transplant, for those with ICD indications status post-ICD explant, and for high-risk SCD patients with possible reversible cardiomyopathy appears to be a reasonable approach on the basis of current data.

  12. Automated detection of external ventricular and lumbar drain-related meningitis using laboratory and microbiology results and medication data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike S M van Mourik

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Monitoring of healthcare-associated infection rates is important for infection control and hospital benchmarking. However, manual surveillance is time-consuming and susceptible to error. The aim was, therefore, to develop a prediction model to retrospectively detect drain-related meningitis (DRM, a frequently occurring nosocomial infection, using routinely collected data from a clinical data warehouse. METHODS: As part of the hospital infection control program, all patients receiving an external ventricular (EVD or lumbar drain (ELD (2004 to 2009; n = 742 had been evaluated for the development of DRM through chart review and standardized diagnostic criteria by infection control staff; this was the reference standard. Children, patients dying <24 hours after drain insertion or with <1 day follow-up and patients with infection at the time of insertion or multiple simultaneous drains were excluded. Logistic regression was used to develop a model predicting the occurrence of DRM. Missing data were imputed using multiple imputation. Bootstrapping was applied to increase generalizability. RESULTS: 537 patients remained after application of exclusion criteria, of which 82 developed DRM (13.5/1000 days at risk. The automated model to detect DRM included the number of drains placed, drain type, blood leukocyte count, C-reactive protein, cerebrospinal fluid leukocyte count and culture result, number of antibiotics started during admission, and empiric antibiotic therapy. Discriminatory power of this model was excellent (area under the ROC curve 0.97. The model achieved 98.8% sensitivity (95% CI 88.0% to 99.9% and specificity of 87.9% (84.6% to 90.8%. Positive and negative predictive values were 56.9% (50.8% to 67.9% and 99.9% (98.6% to 99.9%, respectively. Predicted yearly infection rates concurred with observed infection rates. CONCLUSION: A prediction model based on multi-source data stored in a clinical data warehouse could accurately

  13. Automated detection of healthcare associated infections: external validation and updating of a model for surveillance of drain-related meningitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike S M van Mourik

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Automated surveillance of healthcare-associated infections can improve efficiency and reliability of surveillance. The aim was to validate and update a previously developed multivariable prediction model for the detection of drain-related meningitis (DRM. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using traditional surveillance by infection control professionals as reference standard. PATIENTS: Patients receiving an external cerebrospinal fluid drain, either ventricular (EVD or lumbar (ELD in a tertiary medical care center. Children, patients with simultaneous drains, <1 day of follow-up or pre-existing meningitis were excluded leaving 105 patients in validation set (2010-2011 and 653 in updating set (2004-2011. METHODS: For validation, the original model was applied. Discrimination, classification and calibration were assessed. For updating, data from all available years was used to optimally re-estimate coefficients and determine whether extension with new predictors is necessary. The updated model was validated and adjusted for optimism (overfitting using bootstrapping techniques. RESULTS: In model validation, the rate of DRM was 17.4/1000 days at risk. All cases were detected by the model. The area under the ROC curve was 0.951. The positive predictive value was 58.8% (95% CI 40.7-75.4 and calibration was good. The revised model also includes Gram stain results. Area under the ROC curve after correction for optimism was 0.963 (95% CI 0.953- 0.974. Group-level prediction was adequate. CONCLUSIONS: The previously developed multivariable prediction model maintains discriminatory power and calibration in an independent patient population. The updated model incorporates all available data and performs well, also after elaborate adjustment for optimism.

  14. Living with Your Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More Living With Your Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) Updated:Dec 21,2016 The American Heart ... home without it. Download a printable Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) Wallet ID card . Always keep it with ...

  15. Basal genoplivning af voksne og automatisk ekstern defibrillering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berlac, P.A.; Lippert, F.K.; Torp-Pedersen, Christian Tobias

    2008-01-01

    The new ERC guidelines on resuscitation emphasize the importance of quality CPR. BLS should be started as early as possible. Lay rescuers should not check for a pulse, they should call for help and start chest compressions immediately. Compression depth should be 4-5 cm at a rate of 100 compressi...... ventilations followed by a compression-ventilation ratio of 15:2. Automatic External Defibrillation should be used as early as possible Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11/17...

  16. Differential effects of defibrillation on systemic and cardiac sympathetic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, F; Wiegand, U; Raasch, W; Richardt, G; Potratz, J

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To assess the effect of defibrillation shocks on cardiac and circulating catecholamines.
Design—Prospective examination of myocardial catecholamine balance during dc shock by simultaneous determination of arterial and coronary sinus plasma concentrations. Internal countershocks (10-34 J) were applied in 30 patients after initiation of ventricular fibrillation for a routine implantable cardioverter defibrillator test. Another 10 patients were externally cardioverted (50-360 J) for atrial fibrillation.
Main outcome measures—Transcardiac noradrenaline, adrenaline, and lactate gradients immediately after the shock.
Results—After internal shock, arterial noradrenaline increased from a mean (SD) of 263 (128) pg/ml at baseline to 370 (148) pg/ml (p = 0.001), while coronary sinus noradrenaline fell from 448 (292) to 363 (216) pg/ml (p = 0.01), reflecting a shift from cardiac net release to net uptake. After external shock delivery, there was a similar increase in arterial noradrenaline, from 260 (112) to 459 (200) pg/ml (p = 0.03), while coronary sinus noradrenaline remained unchanged. Systemic adrenaline increased 11-fold after external shock (p = 0.01), outlasting the threefold rise following internal shock (p = 0.001). In both groups, a negative transmyocardial adrenaline gradient at baseline decreased further, indicating enhanced myocardial uptake. Cardiac lactate production occurred after ventricular fibrillation and internal shock, but not after external cardioversion, so the neurohumoral changes resulted from the defibrillation process and not from alterations in oxidative metabolism.
Conclusions—A dc shock induces marked systemic sympathoadrenal and sympathoneuronal activation, but attenuates cardiac sympathetic activity. This might promote the transient myocardial depression observed after electrical discharge to the heart.

 Keywords: defibrillation;  autonomic cardiac function;  catecholamines;  lactate

  17. 21 CFR 870.5325 - Defibrillator tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defibrillator tester. 870.5325 Section 870.5325...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Therapeutic Devices § 870.5325 Defibrillator tester. (a) Identification. A defibrillator tester is a device that is connected to the output of a...

  18. Quality of basic life support when using different commercially available public access defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Michael P; Poenicke, Cynthia; Kurth, Maxi; Richter, Torsten; Koch, Thea; Eisold, Carolin; Pfältzer, Adrian; Heller, Axel R

    2015-06-21

    Basic life support (BLS) guidelines focus on chest compressions with a minimal no-flow fraction (NFF), early defibrillation, and a short perishock pause. By using an automated external defibrillator (AED) lay persons are guided through the process of attaching electrodes and initiating defibrillation. It is unclear, however, to what extent the voice instructions given by the AED might influence the quality of initial resuscitation. Using a patient simulator, 8 different commercially available AEDs were evaluated within two different BLS scenarios (ventricular fibrillation vs. asystole). A BLS certified instructor acted according to the current European Resuscitation Council 2010 Guidelines and followed all of the AED voice prompts. In a second set of scenarios, the rescuer anticipated the appropriate actions and started already before the AED stopped speaking. A BLS scenario without AED served as the control. All scenarios were run three times. The time until the first chest compression was 25 ± 2 seconds without the AED and ranged from 50 ± 3 to 148 ± 13 seconds with the AED depending on the model used. The NFF was .26 ± .01 without the AED and between .37 ± .01 and .72 ± .01 when an AED was used. The perishock pause ranged from 12 ± 0 to 46 ± 0 seconds. The optimized sequence of actions reduced the NFF, which ranged now from .32 ± .01 to .41 ± .01, and the perishock pause ranging from 1 ± 1 to 19 ± 1 seconds. Voice prompts given by commercially available AED merely meet the requirements of current evidence in basic life support. Furthermore, there is a significant difference between devices with regard to time until the first chest compression, perishock pause, no-flow fraction and other objective measures of the quality of BLS. However, the BLS quality may be improved with optimized handling of the AED. Thus, rescuers should be trained on the respective AED devices, and manufacturers should expend more

  19. Desfibrilador automático implantado en pacientes con miocardiopatía hipertrófica: criterios de selección, evolución y predictores de terapia apropiada Automatic defibrillator implanted in patients with hypertrophic myocardiopathy: selection criteria, evolution and appropriate therapy predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Mora

    Full Text Available Introducción y objetivos: la miocardiopatía hipertrófica es una enfermedad de origen genético con prevalencia de 1% al 2%. La mitad de los pacientes fallecen por muerte súbita cardiaca, la mayoría por arritmias ventriculares. Todavía no está claro a qué pacientes se les debe implantar un desfibrilador automático. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir una serie de pacientes con implante, los criterios empleados y los resultados obtenidos, así como analizar los predictores de terapia apropiada por el desfibrilador. Métodos: se incluyeron 20 pacientes que recibieron un desfibrilador de tercera generación. En todos se realizó estudio electrofisiológico y seguimiento prospectivo con registro de eventos. En 18 (90% se hizo estudio genético. Resultados: el 55% eran hombres con edad promedio de 40 [11-78] años. Seis (30% recibieron implantante por prevención secundaria y 14 (70% por prevención primaria; los últimos por presentar varios factores de riesgo. Se indujo una arritmia sostenida en 15 (75% y en 3 (15% taquicardia ventricular monomórfica sostenida. A 22 meses de seguimiento 4 (20% sufrieron terapia apropiada y 2 (10% fallecieron. La taquicardia ventricular monomórfica clínica (p=0,03 y la inducida (pIntroduction and objectives: hypertrophic myocardiopathy is a genetic entity with 1% to 2% prevalence. Half patients die of sudden cardiac death, most due to ventricular arrhythmias. There is still no clarity with regard to the patients to whom an automatic defibrillator has to be implanted. The objective of this work is to describe a series of patients with implant, the criteria used and the results obtained, as well as to analyze the predictors of appropriate therapy with the defibrillator. Methods: 20 patients that received a third generation defibrillator were included. Electrophysiological study and prospective follow-up with register of events was performed in all. Genetic study was done in 18 (90%. Results: 55% were

  20. Anesthetic management of a parturient with Kearns–Sayre syndrome, dual-chamber and VVI implantable defibrillator pacemaker/defibrillator, and preeclampsia for cesarean delivery: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmohsen Al Ghamdi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Kearns–Sayre syndrome (KSS, a rare form of mitochondrial myopathy, is a triad of chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, bilateral pigmentary retinopathy, and cardiac conduction abnormalities. In this report, we show how a combined spinal epidural anesthesia can be useful for cesarean delivery, as we illustrate in a dual-chamber and VVI implantable defibrillator pacemaker/defibrillator parturient with a KSS and preeclampsia.

  1. Shoulder Joint Dislocation as an Unusual Complication of Defibrillation Threshold Testing Following Subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Noheria, MBBS, SM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A 53-year-old man underwent implantation of a totally subcutaneous ICD (S-ICD; Boston Scientific. He was positioned supine, with the left arm abducted, externally rotated (i.e. palm up and strapped to the arm extender. The generator was placed in the left mid-axillary line along the 5th-6th intercostal spaces and the defibrillation coil was tunneled anterior to the sternum. Defibrillation threshold (DFT testing with 65 Jcaused a forceful pectoralis twitch. The patient woke up with a painful anteriorly dislocated left shoulder. Glenohumeral dislocation due to DFT testing has not been previously reported. It is likely that this complication is specific to the S-ICD implantation, and is related to positioning with the arm abducted, externally rotated, and immobilized, and use of greater defibrillation energy with current pathway through the bulk of the pectoralis muscle.Precautions may include extending the arm palm down, strapping the arm loosely, and adduction of the arm for DFT testing.

  2. Predict Defibrillation Outcome Using Stepping Increment of Poincare Plot for Out-of-Hospital Ventricular Fibrillation Cardiac Arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yushun; Lu, Yubao; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Hehua; Li, Yongqin

    2015-01-01

    Early cardiopulmonary resuscitation together with early defibrillation is a key point in the chain of survival for cardiac arrest. Optimizing the timing of defibrillation by predicting the possibility of successful electric shock can guide treatments between defibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation and improve the rate of restoration of spontaneous circulation. Numerous methods have been proposed for predicting defibrillation success based on quantification of the ventricular fibrillation waveform during past decades. To date, however, no analytical technique has been widely accepted for clinical application. In the present study, we investigate whether median stepping increment that is calculated from the Euclidean distance of consecutive points in Poincare plot could be used to predict the likelihood of successful defibrillation. Electrocardiographic recordings of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients were obtained from the external defibrillators. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curve and compared with the results of other established features. The results indicated that median stepping increment has comparable performance to the established methods in predicting the likelihood of successful defibrillation.

  3. Hemodynamic effects of ventricular defibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansegrau, Donald G.; Abboud, François M.

    1970-01-01

    Hemodynamic responses to ventricular defibrillation were studied in anesthetized dogs. Observations were made on arterial, right atrial and left ventricular end-diastolic pressures, on cardiac output (dye dilution), heart rate, and right atrial electrocardiogram. Ventricular fibrillation was induced electrically with a bipolar electrode catheter placed in the right ventricle. Fibrillation was maintained for 15 or 30 sec and terminated with a 400 w sec capacitor discharge across the thoracic cage. Responses lasted 1-10 min after conversion and included a cholinergic and an adrenergic component. The cholinergic component was characterized by sinus bradycardia, periods of sinus arrest, atrioventricular block, and ventricular premature beats. The adrenergic component included increases in arterial pressure, in cardiac output, and in left ventricular stroke work at a time when left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was normal; there was no change in total peripheral resistance. The pH of arterial blood decreased slightly and pCO2 increased but pO2 and the concentration of lactate were unchanged. Bilateral vagotomy and intravenous administration of atropine blocked the cholinergic component, unmasked a sinus tachycardia, and accentuated the adrenergic component of the response. The latter was blocked by intravenous administration of propranolol and phenoxybenzamine. These responses were related primarily to conversion of ventricular fibrillation rather than to the electrical discharge of countershock because countershock without ventricular fibrillation caused more transient and smaller responses than those observed with defibrillation: furthermore, the hemodynamic effects of defibrillation were augmented by prolongation of the duration of fibrillation. The results suggest that the cholinergic component of the response may be detrimental in that it favors spontaneous recurrence of fibrillation; on the other hand, the adrenergic component may be essential for conversion

  4. Rapidly switching multidirectional defibrillation: reversal of ventricular fibrillation with lower energy shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Marcelo A; Bassani, Rosana A; Petrucci, Orlando; Marques, Denilson A; Bassani, José Wilson M

    2014-12-01

    Cardiac arrest after open surgery has an incidence of approximately 3%, of which more than 50% of the cases are due to ventricular fibrillation. Electrical defibrillation is the most effective therapy for terminating cardiac arrhythmias associated with unstable hemodynamics. The excitation threshold of myocardial microstructures is lower when external electrical fields are applied in the longitudinal direction with respect to the major axis of cells. However, in the heart, cell bundles are disposed in several directions. Improved myocardial excitation and defibrillation have been achieved by applying shocks in multiple directions via intracardiac leads, but the results are controversial when the electrodes are not located within the cardiac chambers. This study was designed to test whether rapidly switching shock delivery in 3 directions could increase the efficiency of direct defibrillation. A multidirectional defibrillator and paddles bearing 3 electrodes each were developed and used in vivo for the reversal of electrically induced ventricular fibrillation in an anesthetized open-chest swine model. Direct defibrillation was performed by unidirectional and multidirectional shocks applied in an alternating fashion. Survival analysis was used to estimate the relationship between the probability of defibrillation and the shock energy. Compared with shock delivery in a single direction in the same animal population, the shock energy required for multidirectional defibrillation was 20% to 30% lower (P < .05) within a wide range of success probabilities. Rapidly switching multidirectional shock delivery required lower shock energy for ventricular fibrillation termination and may be a safer alternative for restoring cardiac sinus rhythm. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator pocket infection caused by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Like any other foreign bodies, implanted cardiac devices can become infected. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphilococci are the most common causes of infections of pacemaker and defibrillator systems. In this case an implantable cardioverter defibrillator pocket infection caused by an extremely rare ...

  6. Application of an automated natural language processing (NLP) workflow to enable federated search of external biomedical content in drug discovery and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntire, Robin; Szalkowski, Debbie; Butler, James; Kuo, Michelle S; Chang, Meiping; Chang, Man; Freeman, Darren; McQuay, Sarah; Patel, Jagruti; McGlashen, Michael; Cornell, Wendy D; Xu, Jinghai James

    2016-05-01

    External content sources such as MEDLINE(®), National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants and conference websites provide access to the latest breaking biomedical information, which can inform pharmaceutical and biotechnology company pipeline decisions. The value of the sites for industry, however, is limited by the use of the public internet, the limited synonyms, the rarity of batch searching capability and the disconnected nature of the sites. Fortunately, many sites now offer their content for download and we have developed an automated internal workflow that uses text mining and tailored ontologies for programmatic search and knowledge extraction. We believe such an efficient and secure approach provides a competitive advantage to companies needing access to the latest information for a range of use cases and complements manually curated commercial sources. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. A second defibrillator chest patch electrode will increase implantation rates for nonthoracotomy defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, A J; Swartz, J F; Rodak, D J; Moore, H J; Hannan, R L; Tracy, C M; Fletcher, R D

    1996-09-01

    Nonthoracotomy defibrillator systems can be implanted with a lower morbidity and mortality, compared to epicardial systems. However, implantation may be unsuccessful in up to 15% of patients, using a monophasic waveform. It was the purpose of this study to prospectively examine the efficacy of a second chest patch electrode in a nonthoracotomy defibrillator system. Fourteen patients (mean age 62 +/- 11 years, ejection fraction = 0.29 +/- 0.12) with elevated defibrillation thresholds, defined as > or = 24 J, were studied. The initial lead system consisted of a right ventricular electrode (cathode), a left innominate vein, and subscapular chest patch electrode (anodes). If the initial defibrillation threshold was > or = 24 J, a second chest patch electrode was added. This was placed subcutaneously in the anterior chest (8 cases), or submuscularly in the subscapular space (6 cases). This resulted in a decrease in the system impedance at the defibrillation threshold, from 72.3 +/- 13.3 omega to 52.2 +/- 8.6 omega. Additionally, the defibrillation threshold decreased from > or = 24 J, with a single patch, to 16.6 +/- 2.8 J with two patches. These changes were associated with successful implantation of a nonthoracotomy defibrillator system in all cases. In conclusion, the addition of a second chest patch electrode (using a subscapular approach) will result in lower defibrillation thresholds in patients with high defibrillation thresholds, and will subsequently increase implantation rates for nonthoracotomy defibrillators.

  8. Internal and external validation of an ESTRO delineation guideline - dependent automated segmentation tool for loco-regional radiation therapy of early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldesoky, Ahmed R; Yates, Esben S; Nyeng, Tine B; Thomsen, Mette S; Nielsen, Hanne M; Poortmans, Philip; Kirkove, Carine; Krause, Mechthild; Kamby, Claus; Mjaaland, Ingvil; Blix, Egil S; Jensen, Ingelise; Berg, Martin; Lorenzen, Ebbe L; Taheri-Kadkhoda, Zahra; Offersen, Birgitte V

    2016-12-01

    To internally and externally validate an atlas based automated segmentation (ABAS) in loco-regional radiation therapy of breast cancer. Structures of 60 patients delineated according to the ESTRO consensus guideline were included in four categorized multi-atlas libraries using MIM Maestro™ software. These libraries were used for auto-segmentation in two different patient groups (50 patients from the local institution and 40 patients from other institutions). Dice Similarity Coefficient, Average Hausdorff Distance, difference in volume and time were computed to compare ABAS before and after correction against a gold standard manual segmentation (MS). ABAS reduced the time of MS before and after correction by 93% and 32%, respectively. ABAS showed high agreement for lung, heart, breast and humeral head, moderate agreement for chest wall and axillary nodal levels and poor agreement for interpectoral, internal mammary nodal regions and LADCA. Correcting ABAS significantly improved all the results. External validation of ABAS showed comparable results. ABAS is a clinically useful tool for segmenting structures in breast cancer loco-regional radiation therapy in a multi-institutional setting. However, manual correction of some structures is important before clinical use. The ABAS is now available for routine clinical use in Danish patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimal Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Bindi K

    Optimal programming of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) is essential to appropriately treat ventricular tachyarrhythmias and to avoid unnecessary and inappropriate shocks. There have been a series of large clinical trials evaluating tailored programming of ICDs. We reviewed the clinical trials evaluating ICD therapies and detection, and the consensus statement on ICD programming. In doing so, we found that prolonged ICD detection times, higher rate cutoffs, and antitachycardia pacing (ATP) programming decreases inappropriate and painful therapies in a primary prevention population. The use of supraventricular tachyarrhythmia discriminators can also decrease inappropriate shocks. Tailored ICD programming using the knowledge gained from recent ICD trials can decrease inappropriate and unnecessary ICD therapies and decrease mortality.

  10. The role of conductivity discontinuities in design of cardiac defibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyunkyung; Cun, Wenjing; Wang, Yue; Gray, Richard A.; Glimm, James

    2018-01-01

    Fibrillation is an erratic electrical state of the heart, of rapid twitching rather than organized contractions. Ventricular fibrillation is fatal if not treated promptly. The standard treatment, defibrillation, is a strong electrical shock to reinitialize the electrical dynamics and allow a normal heart beat. Both the normal and the fibrillatory electrical dynamics of the heart are organized into moving wave fronts of changing electrical signals, especially in the transmembrane voltage, which is the potential difference between the cardiac cellular interior and the intracellular region of the heart. In a normal heart beat, the wave front motion is from bottom to top and is accompanied by the release of Ca ions to induce contractions and pump the blood. In a fibrillatory state, these wave fronts are organized into rotating scroll waves, with a centerline known as a filament. Treatment requires altering the electrical state of the heart through an externally applied electrical shock, in a manner that precludes the existence of the filaments and scroll waves. Detailed mechanisms for the success of this treatment are partially understood, and involve local shock-induced changes in the transmembrane potential, known as virtual electrode alterations. These transmembrane alterations are located at boundaries of the cardiac tissue, including blood vessels and the heart chamber wall, where discontinuities in electrical conductivity occur. The primary focus of this paper is the defibrillation shock and the subsequent electrical phenomena it induces. Six partially overlapping causal factors for defibrillation success are identified from the literature. We present evidence in favor of five of these and against one of them. A major conclusion is that a dynamically growing wave front starting at the heart surface appears to play a primary role during defibrillation by critically reducing the volume available to sustain the dynamic motion of scroll waves; in contrast, virtual

  11. Electrical Heart Defibrillation with Ion Channel Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Erin; Clark, Courtney; Puwal, Steffan

    Heart disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Rotary electrical waves within heart muscle underlie electrical disorders of the heart termed fibrillation; their propagation and breakup leads to a complex distribution of electrical activation of the tissue (and of the ensuing mechanical contraction that comes from electrical activation). Successful heart defibrillation has, thus far, been limited to delivering large electrical shocks to activate the entire heart and reset its electrical activity. In theory, defibrillation of a system this nonlinear should be possible with small electrical perturbations (stimulations). A successful algorithm for such a low-energy defibrillator continues to elude researchers. We propose to examine in silica whether low-energy electrical stimulations can be combined with antiarrhythmic, ion channel-blocking drugs to achieve a higher rate of defibrillation and whether the antiarrhythmic drugs should be delivered before or after electrical stimulation has commenced. Progress toward a more successful, low-energy defibrillator will greatly minimize the adverse effects noted in defibrillation and will assist in the development of pediatric defibrillators.

  12. Interaction of defibrillation waveform with the time to defibrillation or the number of defibrillation attempts on survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Akihito; Onozuka, Daisuke; Ono, Junko; Nagata, Takashi; Hasegawa, Manabu

    2018-01-01

    Early biphasic defibrillation is effective in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) cases. In the resuscitation of patients with OHCA, it is not clear how the defibrillation waveform interacts with the time to defibrillation to influence patient survival. The second, and any subsequent, shocks need to be administered by an on-line physician in Japan. Thus, we investigated the interaction between the defibrillation waveform and time to or the number of defibrillation on resuscitation outcomes. This prospective observational study used data for all OHCAs that occurred between 2005 and 2014 in Japan. To investigate the interaction effect between the defibrillation waveform and the time to defibrillation or the number of defibrillations on the return to spontaneous circulation (ROSC), 1-month survival, and cerebral performance category (CPC) (1, 2), we assessed the modifying effects of the defibrillation waveform and the time to or the number of defibrillation on additive scale (i.e., the relative excessive risk due to interaction, RERI) and multiplicative scale (i.e., ratio of odds ratios (ORs)). In total, 71,566 cases met the inclusion criteria. For the measure of interaction between the defibrillation waveform and the time to defibrillation, ratio of ORs for ROSC was 0.84 (0.75-0.94), implying that the effect of time to first defibrillation on ROSC was negatively modified by defibrillation waveform. For the interaction between the defibrillation waveform and the number of defibrillations, RERI and ratio of ORs for CPC (1, 2) was -0.25 (-0.47 to -0.06) and 0.79 (0.67-0.93), respectively. It is implied that the effect of number of defibrillation on CPC (1, 2) was negatively modified by defibrillation waveform. An increased number of defibrillations was associated with a decreased ROSC in the case of biphasic and monophasic defibrillation, while an increased number of defibrillations was related to an increased 1-month survival rate and CPC (1, 2) only in the case of

  13. Study of Cardiac Defibrillation Through Numerical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragard, J.; Marin, S.; Cherry, E. M.; Fenton, F. H.

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the defibrillation problem are presented. In particular, in this study we use the rabbit ventricular geometry as a realistic model system for evaluating the efficacy of defibrillatory shocks. Statistical data obtained from the simulations were analyzed in term of a dose-response curve. Good quantitative agreement between our numerical results and clinically relevant values is obtained. An electric field strength of about 6.6 V/cm indicates a fifty percent probability of successful defibrillation for a 12-ms monophasic shock. Our validated model will be useful for optimizing defibrillation protocols.

  14. Validation of defibrillator lead performance registry data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders Elgaard; Larsen, Jacob Moesgaard; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis

    2017-01-01

    intervention. The validity of the less detailed overall reasons for lead interventions commonly used to report lead performance is also excellent. These findings indicate high registry data quality appropriate for scientific analysis and industry-independent post-marketing surveillance........9% (95% CI: 85.2-90.2%) with a κ value of 0.82 (95% CI:0.78-0.86) representing an almost perfect match. CONCLUSION: The validity of data on defibrillator lead performance recorded in the DPIR is excellent for the specific types of lead intervention and good for the specific reasons for defibrillator lead......AIMS: The validity of registry data on defibrillator lead performance is described only sparsely, despite its clinical importance. This study investigated the validity of defibrillator lead performance registry data in a nationwide and population-based registry. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified...

  15. Clinical impact of defibrillation testing at the time of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadid, Claudio; Atienza, Felipe; Strasberg, Boris; Arenal, Ángel; Codner, Pablo; González-Torrecilla, Esteban; Datino, Tomás; Percal, Tamara; Almendral, Jesús; Ortiz, Mercedes; Martins, Raphael; Martinez-Alzamora, Nieves; Fernandez Aviles, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Ventricular fibrillation is routinely induced during implantable cardioverter-defibrillator insertion to assess defibrillator performance, but this strategy is experiencing a progressive decline. We aimed to assess the efficacy of defibrillator therapies and long-term outcome in a cohort of patients that underwent defibrillator implantation with and without defibrillation testing. Retrospective observational series of consecutive patients undergoing initial defibrillator insertion or generator replacement. We registered spontaneous ventricular arrhythmias incidence and therapy efficacy, and mortality. A total of 545 patients underwent defibrillator implantation (111 with and 434 without defibrillation testing). After 19 (range 9-31) months of follow-up, the death rate per observation year (4% vs. 4%; p = 0.91) and the rate of patients with defibrillator-treated ventricular arrhythmic events per observation year (with test: 10% vs. without test: 12%; p = 0.46) were similar. The generalized estimating equations-adjusted first shock probability of success in patients with test (95%; CI 88-100%) vs. without test (98%; CI 96-100%; p = 0.42) and the proportion of successful antitachycardia therapies (with test: 87% vs. without test: 80%; p = 0.35) were similar between groups. There was no difference in the annualized rate of failed first shock per patient and per shocked patient between groups (5% vs. 4%; p = 0.94). In this observational study, that included an unselected population of patients with a defibrillator, no difference was found in overall mortality, first shock efficacy and rate of failed shocks regardless of whether defibrillation testing was performed or not.

  16. Intra-operative defibrillation testing and clinical shock efficacy in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bänsch, Dietmar; Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Brandt, Johan

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: This trial was designed to test the hypothesis that shock efficacy during follow-up is not impaired in patients implanted without defibrillation (DF) testing during first implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between February 2011 and July 2013, 107...

  17. Questions to Ask Your Doctor--Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questions to Ask Your Doctor - Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) Updated:Dec 21,2016 Implantable cardioverter defibrillators are ... are the benefits versus the limitations of the ICD? What is the general prognosis and how might ...

  18. Rise and Shock: Optimal Defibrillator Placement in a High-rise Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Timothy C Y

    2017-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) in high-rise buildings experience lower survival and longer delays until paramedic arrival. Use of publicly accessible automated external defibrillators (AED) can improve survival, but "vertical" placement has not been studied. We aim to determine whether elevator-based or lobby-based AED placement results in shorter vertical distance travelled ("response distance") to OHCAs in a high-rise building. We developed a model of a single-elevator, n-floor high-rise building. We calculated and compared the average distance from AED to floor of arrest for the two AED locations. We modeled OHCA occurrences using floor-specific Poisson processes, the risk of OHCA on the ground floor (λ 1 ) and the risk on any above-ground floor (λ). The elevator was modeled with an override function enabling direct travel to the target floor. The elevator location upon override was modeled as a discrete uniform random variable. Calculations used the laws of probability. Elevator-based AED placement had shorter average response distance if the number of floors (n) in the building exceeded three quarters of the ratio of ground-floor OHCA risk to above-ground floor risk (λ 1 /λ) plus one half (n ≥ 3λ 1 /4λ + 0.5). Otherwise, a lobby-based AED had shorter average response distance. If OHCA risk on each floor was equal, an elevator-based AED had shorter average response distance. Elevator-based AEDs travel less vertical distance to OHCAs in tall buildings or those with uniform vertical risk, while lobby-based AEDs travel less vertical distance in buildings with substantial lobby, underground, and nearby street-level traffic and OHCA risk.

  19. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sondergaard, Kathrine B.; Hansen, Steen Moller; Pallisgaard, Jannik L.

    2018-01-01

    Aims: Despite wide dissemination of automated external defibrillators (AEDs), bystander defibrillation rates remain low. We aimed to investigate how route distance to the nearest accessible AED was associated with probability of bystander defibrillation in public and residential locations. Methods...

  20. An evaluation of the effectiveness of the Opportunities for Resuscitation and Citizen Safety (ORCS) defibrillator training programme designed for older school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younas, Shamyla; Raynes, Alison; Morton, Sally; Mackway-Jones, Kevin

    2006-11-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of an automated external defibrillation (AED) training programme on the knowledge, attitudes and application of BLS and AED use in young people of secondary school age in Manchester, United Kingdom. Students from two schools who had piloted Opportunities for Resuscitation and Citizen Safety (ORCS) in the academic year 2004/2005 volunteered to partake in the study. This 'ORCS intervention' group was compared against a control group, which consisted of students who had no formal training in resuscitation nor, to our knowledge, any other form of life support training during their time at secondary school. All students were assessed and scored on their knowledge and performance of the BLS algorithm (in accordance with the UK Resuscitation Council ('Resuscitation Guidelines for the Citizen') and the use of a trainer defibrillator on a fictional cardiac arrest scenario. We compared 34 ORCS-trained students with 25 control students, all aged between 13 and 16 years. Approximately, twice as many ORCS-trained students than the control students performed many parts of the algorithm correctly, such as checking for danger, checking for response, opening the airway and checking for breathing. More than three times as many ORCS-trained students than controls correctly performed CPR (50% versus 12% of students). As expected, the use of the AED was the part of the algorithm performed worst, but was performed correctly by six times as many ORCS students as controls (27% versus 4% of students). This study demonstrates that training through the ORCS scheme has a positive influence on the ability of secondary school teenagers to perform emergency life support (ELS), but particularly in their ability to deploy an AED and perform CPR.

  1. Living with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S; Knudsen, Charlotte; Dilling, Karen

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: The clinical management and care of patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) has shifted from face-to-face in-clinic visits to remote monitoring. Reduced interactions between patients and healthcare professionals may impede patients' transition to adapting post-implant.......AIMS: The clinical management and care of patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) has shifted from face-to-face in-clinic visits to remote monitoring. Reduced interactions between patients and healthcare professionals may impede patients' transition to adapting post......-implant. We examined patients' needs and preferences for information provision and care options and overall satisfaction with treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients implanted with a first-time ICD or defibrillator with cardiac resynchronization therapy (n = 389) within the last 2 years at Odense University...

  2. A Case Series of Double Sequence Defibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Mark A; Tagore, Ammundeep; Bauter, Robert; Arshad, Faizan H

    2016-01-01

    Double Sequence Defibrillation or Double Simultaneous Defibrillation (DSD) is the use of two defibrillators almost simultaneously at their highest allowed energy setting to treat refractory ventricular fibrillation (RVF). One set of pads is placed in the Anterior-Posterior position and the other set of pads is placed in the Anterior-Lateral Position. Both defibrillation buttons are pressed simultaneously. We sought to determine ROSC and survival rates in a large EMS system when DSD is routinely utilized for RVF. A retrospective case series was performed of all patients who received DSD from January 1, 2015 to April 30, 2015. During the four month period, we requested physicians to instruct paramedics to use DSD on patients after three refractory episodes of VF. All Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ALS) patients treated by paramedics are discussed via telephone communication with a physician in the system of 100 ALS treated patients per day. From January 1, 2015 to April 1, 2015, a total of 7 patients were treated with DSD. The mean age was 62 (Range: 45-78), with mean resuscitation time of 34.3 minutes before first DSD (Range: 23-48). The mean number of single shocks was 5.4 prior to DSD (Range: 3-9), with a mean of 2 DSD shocks delivered. VF converted after DSD in 5 cases (57.1%). Four patients survived to admission (43%). Three patients survived to discharge with no or minimal neurologic disability (28.6%). The mean Cerebral Performance Category Scale was 3.4 with 1 indicating good cerebral performance and 5 indicating Brain Death. The correct amount of energy in joules for VF remains unknown. In this case series, significant patients converted out of VF. The reason for improved VF conversion may be several factors including additional defibrillation vectors, increased energy, more energy across myocardium, and unknown variables. Additional research is underway to determine if routine DSD will result in improved survival compared to standard defibrillation

  3. Double sequential defibrillation for refractory ventricular fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Tawil, Chady; Mrad, Sandra; Khishfe, Basem F

    2017-12-01

    A 54-year-old suffered from an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Compressions were started within minutes and the patient was in refractory ventricular fibrillation despite multiple asynchronized shocks and maximal doses of antiarrhythmic agents. Double sequential defibrillation was attempted with successful Return Of Spontaneous Circulation (ROSC) after a total of 61min of cardiac arrest. The patient was discharged home neurologically intact. Double sequential defibrillation could be a simple effective approach to patients with refractory ventricular fibrillation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Imaging of Ventricular Fibrillation and Defibrillation: The Virtual Electrode Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukens, Bastiaan J; Gutbrod, Sarah R; Efimov, Igor R

    2015-01-01

    Ventricular fibrillation is the major underlying cause of sudden cardiac death. Understanding the complex activation patterns that give rise to ventricular fibrillation requires high resolution mapping of localized activation. The use of multi-electrode mapping unraveled re-entrant activation patterns that underlie ventricular fibrillation. However, optical mapping contributed critically to understanding the mechanism of defibrillation, where multi-electrode recordings could not measure activation patterns during and immediately after a shock. In addition, optical mapping visualizes the virtual electrodes that are generated during stimulation and defibrillation pulses, which contributed to the formulation of the virtual electrode hypothesis. The generation of virtual electrode induced phase singularities during defibrillation is arrhythmogenic and may lead to the induction of fibrillation subsequent to defibrillation. Defibrillating with low energy may circumvent this problem. Therefore, the current challenge is to use the knowledge provided by optical mapping to develop a low energy approach of defibrillation, which may lead to more successful defibrillation.

  5. Decreased Defibrillation Threshold and Minimized Myocardial Damage With Left Axilla Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noro, Mahito; Zhu, Xin; Enomoto, Yoshinari; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Tatsunami, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Rina; Toyoda, Yasutake; Asami, Masako; Sahara, Naohiko; Takagi, Takahito; Narabayashi, Yuriko; Hashimoto, Hikari; Ito, Naoshi; Kujime, Shingo; Sakai, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Keijirou; Sakata, Takao; Abe, Haruhiko; Sugi, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    To reduce myocardial damage caused by implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shock, the left axilla was studied as an alternative pulse generator implantation site, and compared with the traditional implantation site, the left anterior chest. Computer simulation was used to study the defibrillation conduction pattern and estimate the simulated defibrillation threshold (DFT) and myocardial damage when pulse generators were placed in the left axilla and left anterior chest, respectively; pulse generators were also newly implanted in the left axilla (n=30) and anterior chest (n=40) to compare the corresponding DFT. On simulation, when ICD generators were implanted in the left axilla, compared with the left anterior chest, the whole heart may be defibrillated with a lower defibrillation energy (left axilla 6.4 J vs. left anterior chest 12.0 J) and thus the proportion of cardiac myocardial damage may be reduced (2.1 vs. 4.2%). Clinically, ventricular fibrillation was successfully terminated with a defibrillation output ≤5 J in 86.7% (26/30) of the left axillary group, and in 27.5% (11/40) of the left anterior group (P<0.001). Clinically and theoretically, the left axilla was shown to be an improved ICD implantation site that may reduce DFT and lessen myocardial damage due to shock. Lower DFT also facilitates less myocardial damage, as a result of the lower shock required.

  6. An entirely subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H. Bardy (Gust); W.M. Smith (Warren); A.M. Hood (Margaret); I.G. Crozier (Ian); I.C. Melton (Iain Craig); L.J.L.M. Jordaens (Luc); D.A.M.J. Theuns (Dominic); E. Park (Robert); D.J. Wright (David Justin); D.T. Connelly (Derek); S.P. Fynn (Simon Patrick); F.D. Murgatroyd (Francis); J. Sperzel (Johannes); J. Neuzner (Jörg); S.G. Spitzer (Stefan); A.V. Ardashev (Andrey); A. Oduro (Amo); L. Boersma (Lucas); A.H. Maass (Alexander); I.C. van Gelder (Isabelle); A.A.M. Wilde (Arthur); P.F.H.M. van Pascal; R.E. Knops (Reinoud); C.S. Barr (Craig); P. Lupo (Pierpaolo); R. Cappato (Riccardo); A.A. Grace (Andrew)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) prevent sudden death from cardiac causes in selected patients but require the use of transvenous lead systems. To eliminate the need for venous access, we designed and tested an entirely subcutaneous ICD system. METHODS: First,

  7. Analyzing cardiac rhythm in the presence of chest compression artifact for automated shock advisory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeizadeh, Saeed; Firoozabadi, Reza; Han, Chengzong; Helfenbein, Eric D

    2014-01-01

    Defibrillation is often required to terminate a ventricular fibrillation or fast ventricular tachycardia rhythm and resume a perfusing rhythm in sudden cardiac arrest patients. Automated external defibrillators rely on automatic ECG analysis algorithms to detect the presence of shockable rhythms before advising the rescuer to deliver a shock. For a reliable rhythm analysis, chest compression must be interrupted to prevent corruption of the ECG waveform due to the artifact induced by the mechanical activity of compressions. However, these hands-off intervals adversely affect the success of treatment. To minimize the hands-off intervals and increase the chance of successful resuscitation, we developed a method which asks for interrupting the compressions only if the underlying ECG rhythm cannot be accurately determined during chest compressions. Using this method only a small percentage of cases need compressions interruption, hence a significant reduction in hands-off time is achieved. Our algorithm comprises a novel filtering technique for the ECG and thoracic impedance waveforms, and an innovative method to combine analysis from both filtered and unfiltered data. Requiring compression interruption for only 14% of cases, our algorithm achieved a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 99%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Do clinical examination gloves provide adequate electrical insulation for safe hands-on defibrillation? I: Resistive properties of nitrile gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Charles D; Lee-Shrewsbury, Victoria; Hogg, Kitwani; Petley, Graham W

    2013-07-01

    Uninterrupted chest compressions are a key factor in determining resuscitation success. Interruptions to chest compression are often associated with defibrillation, particularly the need to stand clear from the patient during defibrillation. It has been suggested that clinical examination gloves may provide adequate electrical resistance to enable safe hands-on defibrillation in order to minimise interruptions. We therefore examined whether commonly used nitrile clinical examination gloves provide adequate resistance to current flow to enable safe hands-on defibrillation. Clinical examination gloves (Kimberly Clark KC300 Sterling nitrile) worn by members of hospital cardiac arrest teams were collected immediately following termination of resuscitation. To determine the level of protection afforded by visually intact gloves, electrical resistance across the glove was measured by applying a DC voltage across the glove and measuring subsequent resistance. Forty new unused gloves (control) were compared with 28 clinical (non-CPR) gloves and 128 clinical (CPR) gloves. One glove in each group had a visible tear and was excluded from analysis. Control gloves had a minimum resistance of 120 kΩ (median 190 kΩ) compared with 60 kΩ in clinical gloves (both CPR (median 140 kΩ) and non-CPR groups (median 160 kΩ)). Nitrile clinical examination gloves do not provide adequate electrical insulation for the rescuer to safely undertake 'hands-on' defibrillation and when exposed to the physical forces of external chest compression, even greater resistive degradation occurs. Further work is required to identify gloves suitable for safe use for 'hands-on' defibrillation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A shocking past: a walk through generations of defibrillation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutbrod, Sarah R; Efimov, Igor R

    2014-05-01

    Defibrillation is one of the most successful and widely recognized applications of electrotherapy. Yet the historical road to its first successful application in a patient and the innovative adaptation to an implantable device is marred with unexpected turns, political and personal setbacks, and public and scientific condemnation at each new idea. Driven by dedicated scientists and ever-advancing creative applications of new technologies, from electrocardiography to high density mapping and computational simulations, the field of defibrillation persevered and continued to evolve to the life-saving tool it is today. In addition to critical technological advances, the history of defibrillation is also marked by the plasticity of the theory of defibrillation. The advancing theories of success have propelled the campaign for reducing the defibrillation energy requirement, instilling hope in the development of a painless and harmless electrical defibrillation strategy.

  10. Modeling Defibrillation of the Heart: Approaches and Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trayanova, Natalia; Constantino, Jason; Ashihara, Takashi; Plank, Gernot

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac defibrillation, as accomplished nowadays by automatic, implantable devices (ICDs), constitutes the most important means of combating sudden cardiac death. While ICD therapy has proved to be efficient and reliable, defibrillation is a traumatic experience. Thus, research on defibrillation mechanisms, particularly aimed at lowering defibrillation voltage, remains an important topic. Advancing our understanding towards a full appreciation of the mechanisms by which a shock interacts with the heart is the most promising approach to achieve this goal. The aim of this paper is to assess the current state-of-the-art in ventricular defibrillation modeling, focusing on both numerical modeling approaches and major insights that have been obtained using defibrillation models, primarily those of realistic ventricular geometry. The paper showcases the contributions that modeling and simulation have made to our understanding of the defibrillation process. The review thus provides an example of biophysically based computational modeling of the heart (i.e., cardiac defibrillation) that has advanced the understanding of cardiac electrophysiological interaction at the organ level and has the potential to contribute to the betterment of the clinical practice of defibrillation. PMID:22273793

  11. Reliability systems for implantable cardiac defibrillator batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Esther S.

    The reliability of the power sources used in implantable cardiac defibrillators is critical due to the life-saving nature of the device. Achieving a high reliability power source depends on several systems functioning together. Appropriate cell design is the first step in assuring a reliable product. Qualification of critical components and of the cells using those components is done prior to their designation as implantable grade. Product consistency is assured by control of manufacturing practices and verified by sampling plans using both accelerated and real-time testing. Results to date show that lithium/silver vanadium oxide cells used for implantable cardiac defibrillators have a calculated maximum random failure rate of 0.005% per test month.

  12. Use of the Wearable Cardioverter Defibrillator in High-Risk Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Madhab; Safadi, Abdul; Surapaneni, Phani; Salehi, Negar; Thakur, Ranjan K

    2016-08-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration has approved the wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD) for use in patients who are at high risk for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) and who do not yet have an established indication for an implantation cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) or have contraindications for device implantation for various reasons. The WCD is typically used for primary prevention in (1) high-risk patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤35 % after recent acute myocardial infarction (MI) during the 40-day ICD waiting period, (2) before and after coronary artery bypass graft or percutaneous coronary intervention during the 90-day ICD waiting period, (3) after recently diagnosed nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NICM) during the 3- to 9-month medical therapy optimization period, or (4) for those with inherited proarrhythmic conditions such as long QT syndrome or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Unlike the automatic external defibrillator, the WCD does not require assistance from bystanders for therapy and conscious patients can delay or avert therapy with the use of response buttons. The WCD exhibits a small risk of inappropriate shock, mostly due to supraventricular tachycardia and/or electrical noise. Multiple non-randomized observational studies have shown high efficacy in detection and appropriate shock therapy for sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias. This paper discusses the use of the WCD for prevention of SCA in patients with various cardiac substrates.

  13. Availability and use of public access defibrillators in Busan Metropolitan City, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Chang Guk; Jeong, Jinwoo; Kwon, In Ho; Lee, Jae Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is considered an important health issue worldwide, and early defibrillation is a key element for a favourable prognosis. In South Korea, public access defibrillation (PAD) programmes were initiated in 2007. However, the impact of PAD programmes on OHCA survival rates remains unclear. This study evaluated the deployment and maintenance status of public automatic external defibrillators (AED), including how frequently they were used, in Busan Metropolitan City, South Korea. Managers of possible AED sites were first contacted by telephone and asked to confirm the possession of an AED. AED suppliers were contacted for AED sales records to identify missing AED sites. AEDs located in ambulances and medical institutions were not included. Investigators visited confirmed AED sites and completed a checklist on AED maintenance and use. In total, 206 AEDs were located, indicative of an AED density of 0.268 AED/km(2) and a prevalence of 6.07 per 100,000 in Busan Metropolitan City. We found that public AEDs had been used for resuscitation only 15 times, an average rate of use of once every 26.3 years. Our results indicate that AEDs in Busan Metropolitan City are underused according to the guidelines, and several are in low-priority locations. We believe that AED deployment based on cardiac arrest statistics is important to optimise layperson AED training and utilisation.

  14. Fast Electrocardiogram Amplifier Recovery after Defibrillation Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dotsinsky

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A procedure for fast ECG amplifier recovery after defibrillation shocks was developed and simulated in the MATLAB environment. Exponentially decaying post-shock voltages have been recorded. Signals from the AHA database are taken and mixed with the recorded exponential disturbances. The algorithm applies moving averaging (comb filter on the compound input signal, thereby obtaining the samples of the disturbance. They are currently subtracted from the input signal. The results obtained show that its recovery is practically instantaneous.

  15. Concerns about the implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; van Domburg, Ron T; Theuns, Dominic A M J

    2005-01-01

    Patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) are at increased risk of anxiety disorders. In turn, anxiety has been identified as a precipitant of ventricular arrhythmias. Anxiety may in part be attributed to concerns about the ICD firing, but the relationship between ICD concerns......, psychological morbidity, and shocks has not been systematically investigated. We examined the relative importance of experienced shocks versus subjective concerns about the ICD as determinants of anxiety and depressive symptoms in ICD patients....

  16. The effect of gap junctional distribution on defibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, James P.

    1998-03-01

    We summarize a mathematical theory for direct activation and defibrillation of cardiac tissue. We show that the direct stimulus and defibrillation thresholds are likely to be strongly affected by the gap junctional distribution and density, suggesting an indirect experimental test of the theory.

  17. The best timing for defibrillation in shockable cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scapigliati, A; Ristagno, G; Cavaliere, F

    2013-01-01

    High quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR, i.e. chest compressions and ventilations) and prompt defibrillation when appropriate (i.e. in ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia, VF/VT) are currently the best early treatment for cardiac arrest (CA). In cases of prolonged CA due to shockable rhythms, it is reasonable to presume that a period of CPR before defibrillation could partially revert the metabolic and hemodynamic deteriorations imposed to the heart by the no flow state, thus increasing the chances of successful defibrillation. Despite supporting early evidences in CA cases in which Emergency Medical System response time was longer than 5 minutes, recent studies have failed to confirm a survival benefit of routine CPR before defibrillation. These data have imposed a change in guidelines from 2005 to 2010. To take in account all the variables encountered when treating CA (heart condition before CA, time elapsed, metabolic and hemodynamic changes, efficacy of CPR, responsiveness to defibrillation attempt), it would be very helpful to have a real-time and non invasive tool able to predict the chances of defibrillation success. Recent evidences have suggested that ECG waveform analysis of VF, such as the derived Amplitude Spectrum Area, can fit the purpose of monitoring the CPR effectiveness and predicting the responsiveness to defibrillation. While awaiting clinical studies confirming this promising approach, CPR performed according to high quality standard and with minimal interruptions together with early defibrillation are the best immediate way to achieve resuscitation in CA due to shochable rhythms..

  18. Double Sequential Defibrillation for Refractory Ventricular Fibrillation: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybeck, Aurora M; Moy, Hawnwan Philip; Tan, David K

    2015-01-01

    A 40-year-old male struck his chest against a pole during a basketball game and had sudden out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. After bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, fire and emergency medical services personnel provided six defibrillation attempts prior to emergency department arrival. A 7th attempt in the emergency department using a different vector was unsuccessful. On the 8th attempt, using a second defibrillator with defibrillator pads placed adjacent to the primary set of defibrillator pads, two shocks were administered in near simultaneous fashion. The double sequential defibrillation was successful and the patient had return of spontaneous circulation at the next pulse check. He recovered in the intensive care unit, was discharged home 1 month later, and continues to follow up in clinic over 1 year later with a Cerebral Performance Category score of 1 (short-term memory deficits).

  19. Long-term stability of defibrillation thresholds with intrapericardial defibrillator patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, R; Brodman, R; Furman, S; Gross, J; Kim, S G; Ferrick, K; Roth, J; Hollinger, I; Fisher, J D

    1993-01-01

    From March 1982 to May 1, 1992, 105 consecutive patients underwent initial implant of cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) at our institution. Twenty-nine patients (23 male and 6 female, average ejection fraction 32.24%) with ICD systems implanted via thoracotomy and either intra- or extrapericardial patches, had one or more revisions including 56 generator changes or staged implant procedures, three patch revisions, one patch lead fracture without revision, and one sensing lead revision. The time between pulse generator revisions averaged 19.5 months. Initial defibrillation threshold mean was 12.8 joules (n = 25); at first revision, 14.46 joules (n = 29), (P = NS); by fifth revision, 15.0 joules (n = 2), (P = NS). One patch was noted to be crinkled at 70 months; one patch had migrated by 39 months, and two patch leads had fractured at the costal margin by 69 and 90 months. One patient with marginal defibrillation thresholds had an additional patch placed at revision to an upgraded ICD unit. Once acceptable defibrillation threshold (DFT) is obtained, the long-term intrapericardial DFT remains stable unless a specific problem occurs. As a small, nonstatistically significant increase in DFT may occur, caution must be exercised in patients with marginal DFTs.

  20. Circadian variation in defibrillation energy requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, F J; John, R M; Hull, M; Tofler, G H; Shahian, D M; Martin, D T

    1996-10-01

    Reports have demonstrated a circadian variation in the incidence of acute myocardial infarction, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. We tested the hypothesis that a similar circadian variation exists for defibrillation energy requirements in humans. We reviewed the time of defibrillation threshold (DFT) measurements in 134 patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) who underwent 345 DFT measurements. The DFT was determined in 130 patients at implantation, in 121 at a 2 months, and in 94 at 6 months. All patients had nonthoracotomy systems. The morning DFT (8 AM to 12 noon) was 15.1 +/- 1.2 J compared with 13.1 +/- 0.9 J in the midafternoon (12 noon to 4 PM) and 13.0 +/- 0.7 J in the late afternoon (4 to 8 PM), P < .02. In a separate group of 930 patients implanted with an ICD system with date and time stamps for each therapy, we reviewed 1238 episodes of ventricular tachyarrhythmias treated with shock therapy. To corroborate the hypothesis that energy requirements for arrhythmia termination vary during the course of the day, we plotted the failed first shock frequency for all episodes per hour. There was a significant peak in failed first shocks in the morning compared with other time intervals (P = .02). There is a morning peak in DFT and a corresponding morning peak in failed first shock frequency. This morning peak resembles the peaks seen in other cardiac events, specifically sudden cardiac death. These findings have important implications for appropriate ICD function, particularly in patients with marginal DFTs.

  1. From defibrillation theory to clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irnich, Werner

    2010-07-01

    Our defibrillation theory claims that the mean voltage threshold is a hyperbolic function of pulse duration and that voltages below rheobase should be avoided as being counterproductive. Truncation of the pulse just at rheobase level yields minimal stored energy thresholds. To verify or falsify this theory, animal experiments were carried out. In two animal experiments, 212 defibrillation thresholds in 22 swine were determined with different biphasic pulses of which 92 were optimally truncated in phase 1. Step-up test procedure was used with the first successful shock defined as "threshold." Experimental proof is gained that truncation according to "rheobase condition" shows lowest stored energy. A ranking order of stored energy thresholds demonstrates that (1) lower output capacitances reduce needed energy, and (2) pulse durations shorter or longer than optimal increase needed energy. The voltage-pulse-content threshold is linearly correlated with pulse duration. Truncation above or below rheobase increases the stored energy threshold. Voltage averaged during pulse duration is a hyperbolic function of pulse duration. The stored energy is reduced with decreasing output capacitance. The experimental results do not only fully verify our theory, they also suggest clinical implications: (1) the current usage of the "constant tilt concept" in implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) should be abandoned in favor of "optimal truncation concept," (2) an algorithm developed for calculating optimal truncation proved to be useful so that incorporation into ICD for automatic adjustment is recommended, and (3) the output capacitance should be reduced from about 100 microF to 60 to 70 microF.

  2. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  3. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) plus delayed defibrillation versus immediate defibrillation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; He, Qing; Yang, Li J; Liu, Guan J; Jones, Alexander

    2014-09-12

    Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is a common health problem associated with high levels of mortality. Cardiac arrest is caused by three groups of dysrhythmias: ventricular fibrillation (VF) or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VT), pulseless electric activity (PEA) and asystole. The most common dysrhythmia found in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is VF. During VF or VT, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) provides perfusion and oxygenation to the tissues, whilst defibrillation restores a viable cardiac rhythm. Early successful defibrillation is known to improve outcomes in VF/VT. However, it has been hypothesized that a period of CPR before defibrillation creates a more conducive physiological environment, increasing the likelihood of successful defibrillation. The order of priority of CPR versus defibrillation therefore remains in contention. As previous studies have remained inconclusive, we conducted a systematic review of available evidence in an attempt to draw conclusions on whether CPR plus delayed defibrillation or immediate defibrillation resulted in better outcomes in OHCA. To examine whether an initial one and one-half to three minutes of CPR administered by paramedics before defibrillation versus immediate defibrillation on arrival influenced survival rates, neurological outcomes or rates of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in OHCA. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials (CENTRAL) (2013, Issue 6); MEDLINE (Ovid) (1948 to May 2013); EMBASE (1980 to May 2013); the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Science (1980 to May 2013) and the China Academic Journal Network Publishing Database (China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), 1980 to May 2013). We included studies published in all languages. We also searched the Current Controlled Trials and Clinical Trials databases for ongoing trials. We screened the references lists of studies included in our review against the reference

  4. The wearable cardioverter-defibrillator: current technology and evolving indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reek, Sven; Burri, Haran; Roberts, Paul R; Perings, Christian; Epstein, Andrew E; Klein, Helmut U; Lip, Gregory; Gorenek, Bulent; Sticherling, Christian; Fauchier, Laurent; Goette, Andreas; Jung, Werner; Vos, Marc A; Brignole, Michele; Elsner, Christian; Dan, Gheorghe-Andrei; Marin, Francisco; Boriani, Giuseppe; Lane, Deirdre; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina; Savelieva, Irina

    2017-03-01

    The wearable cardioverter-defibrillator has been available for over a decade and now is frequently prescribed for patients deemed at high arrhythmic risk in whom the underlying pathology is potentially reversible or who are awaiting an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. The use of the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator is included in the new 2015 ESC guidelines for the management of ventricular arrhythmias and prevention of sudden cardiac death. The present review provides insight into the current technology and an overview of this approach. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Extended charge banking model of dual path shocks for implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosdall, Derek J; Sweeney, James D

    2008-08-01

    Single path defibrillation shock methods have been improved through the use of the Charge Banking Model of defibrillation, which predicts the response of the heart to shocks as a simple resistor-capacitor (RC) circuit. While dual path defibrillation configurations have significantly reduced defibrillation thresholds, improvements to dual path defibrillation techniques have been limited to experimental observations without a practical model to aid in improving dual path defibrillation techniques. The Charge Banking Model has been extended into a new Extended Charge Banking Model of defibrillation that represents small sections of the heart as separate RC circuits, uses a weighting factor based on published defibrillation shock field gradient measures, and implements a critical mass criteria to predict the relative efficacy of single and dual path defibrillation shocks. The new model reproduced the results from several published experimental protocols that demonstrated the relative efficacy of dual path defibrillation shocks. The model predicts that time between phases or pulses of dual path defibrillation shock configurations should be minimized to maximize shock efficacy. Through this approach the Extended Charge Banking Model predictions may be used to improve dual path and multi-pulse defibrillation techniques, which have been shown experimentally to lower defibrillation thresholds substantially. The new model may be a useful tool to help in further improving dual path and multiple pulse defibrillation techniques by predicting optimal pulse durations and shock timing parameters.

  6. The ethics of unilateral implantable cardioverter defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator deactivation: patient perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeschler, Margaret; Verdino, Ralph J; Kirkpatrick, James N

    2017-08-01

    Decisions about deactivation of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are complicated. Unilateral do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders (against patient/family wishes) have been ethically justified in cases of medical futility. Unilateral deactivation of ICDs may be seen as a logical extension of a unilateral DNR order. However, the ethical implications of unilateral ICD deactivation have not been explored. Sixty patients who had an ICD or cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) were interviewed at a quaternary medical centre outpatient electrophysiology practice. Survey questions addressed whether deactivation of defibrillator function was included in advanced directives, whether deactivation constitutes physician-assisted suicide, and whether unilateral deactivation can be ethically justified. Responses were elicited to scenarios in which defibrillation function was deactivated in different contexts (including patient request to deactivate, existing DNR, and unilateral deactivation). Only 15% of respondents had thought about device deactivation if they were to develop a serious illness from which they were not expected to recover. A majority (53%) had advance directives, but only one mentioned what to do with the device. However, a majority (78%) did not consider deactivation of an ICD shocking function against patients' wishes to be ethical or moral. Management of ICDs and CRT-Ds as patients near the end of their lives creates ethical dilemmas. Few patients consider device deactivation at end-of-life, although a large majority believes that unilateral deactivation is not ethical/moral, even in the setting of medical futility. Advance care planning for these patients should address device deactivation. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Higher defibrillation threshold in methamphetamine cardiomyopathy patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Malhotra

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Identification of patients with an increased risk of high defibrillation thresholds (DFTs is important in planning implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD procedures. Clinical observations have suggested that patients with methamphetamine cardiomyopathy (MACMP have significantly elevated defibrillation thresholds. We hypothesized that MACMP patients would have higher DFT thresholds than controls and would require procedural changes during ICD implantation to accommodate higher thresholds. Methods: We identified consecutive patients with MACMP undergoing ICD implantation at the academic center from 2003 to 2007. We then compared DFTs against age-and sex-matched controls. Results: The MACMP (n = 10 group showed significantly increased DFT thresholds (23.7 ± 6.7 J compared with age and sex-matched controls (14.5 ± 4.6 J, p < 0.005. Additionally, patients with MACMP had evidence of more severe congestive heart failure, with increased B-type natrieutic protein (BNP levels (1173 ± 784 vs 260 ± 349, p = 0.02 and decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF (17.8 ± 9.4 vs 35.9 ± 15.2, p = 0.02. MACMP patients required high output devices than controls (50% versus 0%, p = 0.03. Differences between groups remained significant despite adjusting for LVEF. Conclusions: Planning for ICD implantation should take into consideration a history of methamphetamine abuse, mandating DFT testing and empiric consideration of high output devices for such patients. Keywords: Methamphetamine cardiomyopathy, Implantable cardioverter-defibrillatior, Defibrillation threshold testing, B-type natriuretic peptide, Ejection fraction

  8. Kinetics of defibrillation shock-induced response: design implications for the optimal defibrillation waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowrey, K A; Cheng, Y; Tchou, P J; Efimov, R

    2002-01-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy is a well-established therapy for treating patients at high risk for sudden cardiac death. Recently formulated virtual electrode polarization theory is a promising foundation for the theory of defibrillation. Yet, continuing optimization of defibrillation therapy is limited to primarily empirical methods due to difficulties in assessing kinetics of cellular response in whole heart models of defibrillation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of the myocardium in the context of virtual electrode polarization. We used a Langendorff-perfused rabbit heart model of ICD therapy and voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye imaging in order to map kinetics of trans membrane potential during both mono- and biphasic shocks applied at various phases of the QT-interval. Cellular response was fitted to a single exponential function using the Levenberg-Marquardt method. Time constants (tau) were measured in 45 288 optical records from 17 hearts. We found that cellular response depends upon both QT-phase of application, intensity, polarity, and phase of the biphasic waveform. Shocks of larger strengths produce a faster response. The tau of the first-phase negatively polarizing response was significantly larger compared with the positively polarizing response at intensities below 200 V, but smaller at 200 V and above. The tau of the second phase negatively polarizing response was always slower than the positively polarizing response, regardless of amplitude, and timing. Overall, tau ranged from 1.6 ms to 14.2 ms. The time constant of the membrane depends on the field, action potential phase and the shock polarity, but exceeds 1 msec. Therefore, we suggest using a slower shock leading edge, since the membrane cannot follow potentially damaging faster waveforms.

  9. Influence of body position on defibrillation thresholds of nonthoracotomy implantable defibrillators: a prospective randomized evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauerte, P; Diem, B; Ziegert, K; Franke, A; Hanrath, P; Stellbrink, C

    1998-07-01

    Defibrillation thresholds (DFTs) usually are determined with the patient in the supine position. However, patients may be in the upright position when a shock is delivered during follow-up, which may explain some first shock failures observed clinically. This study investigated whether body posture affects defibrillation energy requirements of nonthoracotomy implantable cardioverter defibrillators with biphasic shocks. Using a step up-down protocol, DFTs were compared intraindividually in 52 patients ("active-can" sytems in 41 patients, two-lead systems in 11 patients) for the supine and upright positions as achieved by a tilt table. The mean DFT was 7.3 +/- 4.2 J in the supine versus 9.2 +/- 4.8 J in the upright position (P = 0.002). Repeated comparison in reversed order 3 months after implantation in 22 patients revealed thresholds of 6.2 +/- 2.5 J (supine) versus 8.4 +/- 3.7 J (upright; P body positions from 1 week to 3 months after implantation (P body position. (2) Differences remain significant 3 months after implantation. For both body positions, DFT decreases significantly from 1 week to 3 months after implantation. These findings have important implications for programming first shock energy to lower than maximal values or for development of devices with lower maximal stored energy.

  10. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation in children in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Harkel, ADJ; Blom, NA; Reimer, AG; Tukkie, R; Sreeram, N; Bink-Boelkens, MTE

    To evaluate the indications, underlying cardiac disorders, efficacy and complications involved with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) in paediatric patients in The Netherlands, the records of all patients aged 18 years or younger who underwent ICD placement were reviewed

  11. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation in children in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Harkel, A. Derk Jan; Blom, Nico A.; Reimer, Annette G.; Tukkie, Raymond; Sreeram, Narayanswami; Bink-Boelkens, Margreet T. E.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the indications, underlying cardiac disorders, efficacy and complications involved with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) in paediatric patients in The Netherlands, the records of all patients aged 18 years or younger who underwent ICD placement were reviewed

  12. Sleep disturbance in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habibović, M; Mudde, L; Pedersen, S S

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in patients with cardiac diseases and associated with poor health outcomes. However, little is known about sleep disturbance in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. AIMS: We examined the prevalence and predictors of sleep...... disturbance and the impact on perceived health status in a Dutch cohort of implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients. METHODS: Patients ( n=195) enrolled in the Web-based distress program for implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients (WEBCARE) trial completed questionnaires at the time...... of implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation, three, six and 12 months afterwards. Sleep disturbance was assessed with the corresponding item #3 of the Patient Health Questionnaire 9. RESULTS: At baseline, 67% ( n=130) reported sleep disturbance (cut off ≥1). One year later, the prevalence was 57% ( n...

  13. A patch in the pectoral position lowers defibrillation threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, P; Solomon, A; Verdino, R; Moore, H; Rodak, D; Hannan, R; Fletcher, R

    1997-06-01

    Implantable pacemaker cardioverter defibrillators are now available with biphasic waveforms, which have been shown to markedly improve defibrillation thresholds (DFTs). However, in a number of patients the DFT remains high. Also, DFT may increase after implantation, especially if antiarrhythmic drugs are added. We report on the use of a subcutaneous patch in the pectoral position in 15 patients receiving a transvenous defibrillator as a method of easily reducing the DFT. A 660-mm2 patch electrode was placed beneath the generator in a pocket created on the pectoral fascia. The energy required for defibrillation was lowered by 56% on average, and the system impedance was lowered by a mean of 25%. This maneuver allowed all patients to undergo a successful implant with adequate safety margin.

  14. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation in children in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkel, A.D. Ten; Blom, N.A.; Reimer, A.G.; Tukkie, R.; Sreeram, N.; Bink-Boelkens, M.T.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the indications, underlying cardiac disorders, efficacy and complications involved with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) in paediatric patients in The Netherlands, the records of all patients aged 18 years or younger who underwent ICD placement were reviewed

  15. Bystander defibrillation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Public vs Residential Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steen Møller; Hansen, Carolina Malta; Folke, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    in bystander defibrillation and subsequent survival according to a public or a residential location of the cardiac arrest after nationwide initiatives in Denmark to facilitate bystander-mediated resuscitative efforts, including bystander defibrillation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationwide study......). Conclusions and Relevance: Initiatives to facilitate bystander defibrillationwere associated with a marked increase in bystander defibrillation in public locations, whereas bystander defibrillation remained limited in residential locations. Concomitantly, survival increased after bystander defibrillation......, 2016. Exposures: Nationwide initiatives to facilitate bystander resuscitative efforts, including bystander defibrillation, consisted of resuscitation training of Danish citizens, dissemination of on-site AEDs, foundation of an AED registry linked to emergency medical dispatch centers, and dispatcher...

  16. Minor Variations in Electrode Pad Placement Impact Defibrillation Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esibov, Alexander; Chapman, Fred W; Melnick, Sharon B; Sullivan, Joseph L; Walcott, Gregory P

    2016-01-01

    Defibrillation is essential for resuscitating patients with ventricular fibrillation (VF), but shocks often fail to defibrillate. We hypothesized that small variations in pad placement affect shock success, and that defibrillation waveform and shock dose could compensate for suboptimal pad placement. In 10 swine experiments, electrode pads were attached at 3 adjacent anterolateral positions, less than 3 centimeters apart. At each position, 24 episodes of VF were induced and shocked, 8 episodes for each of 3 defibrillation therapies. This resulted in 9 tested combinations of pad position and defibrillation therapy, with 80 episodes of VF for each combination. An episode consisted of 15 seconds of untreated VF, followed by a first shock and, if necessary, a repeat shock. Episodes were separated by four minutes of recovery. Both electrode pad position and therapy order were randomized by experiment. Primary outcome was defined as successful VF termination after the first shock; secondary outcome was the cumulative success of the first and second shocks. First shock efficacy varied widely across the 9 tested combinations of pad position and defibrillation therapy, ranging from 11.3% to 86.3%. When grouped by therapy, first shock efficacy varied significantly between the 3 pad positions: 38.3%, 48.3%, 36.7% (p = 0.02, ANOVA), and, when grouped by pad position, it varied significantly between therapies: 15.0%, 32.5%, 75.8% (p defibrillation shock efficacy. However, anatomical variation between individuals and the challenging conditions of real-world resuscitations make optimal pad placement impractical. Suboptimal pad placement can be overcome with defibrillation waveform and shock dose.

  17. Gender differences in anxiety and concerns about the cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Helle; Johansen, Jens B; Andersen, Kirsten Krogh

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about gender differences in the response to implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy. We compared female and male ICD patients on anxiety, depression, health-related quality of life (HRQL), ICD concerns, and ICD acceptance.......Little is known about gender differences in the response to implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy. We compared female and male ICD patients on anxiety, depression, health-related quality of life (HRQL), ICD concerns, and ICD acceptance....

  18. Psychosocial issues of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Sandra B

    2005-07-01

    Use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators has become standard therapy for patients at high risk for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Although acceptance of the device is generally high among patients and their families, quality of life and psychosocial issues associated with use of the defibrillators deserve greater attention to improve outcomes. Psychosocial issues, their ramifications, and theory-and evidence-based approaches to improving outcomes are described.

  19. Test and Evaluation of the Zoll Medical Inc., PD2OOO Cardiac Monitor/Pacemaker/Defibrillator System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hade, Edward

    1997-01-01

    The Zoll PD2000 is a portable cardiac monitor, defibrillator and pacemaker that offers synchronized defibrillation, electrocardiogram monitoring, noninvasive temporary pacing and advisory capability...

  20. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator oversensing due to electric shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurčević Ružica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We described the first case of oversensing due to electric shock in Serbia, in a 54-year-old man who had implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD. Case Outline. In July 2002, the patient had acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction and ventricular fibrillation (VF which was terminated with six defibrillation shocks of 360 J. Coronary angiography revealed 30% stenosis of circumflex artery, the left anterior descending coronary artery was recanalized and the right coronary artery was without stenosis. Left ventricular ejection fraction was 20%. In December 2003, an electrophysiology study was performed and ventricular tachycardia (VT was induced and terminated with 200 J defibrillation shock. Single chamber ICD Medtronic Gem III VR was implanted in January 2004 and defibrillation threshold was 12 J. The patient was followed up during three years every three months and there were no VT/VF episodes and VT/VF therapies. In December 2007, the patient experienced electric shock through the fork while he was making barbecue on the electric grill. ICD recognized this event in VF zone (oversensing and delivered defibrillation shock of 18 J. The electrogram of the episode showed ventricular sensing - intrinsic sinus rhythm with electric shock potentials which were misidentified as VF. After charge time of 3.16 seconds, ICD delivered defibrillation shock and sinus rhythm was still present. Conclusion. Oversensing of ICD has different aetiology and the most common cause is supraventricular tachyarrhythmia.

  1. Low Energy Defibrillation in Human Cardiac Tissue: A Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Stuart W.; Plank, Gernot; Biktasheva, Irina V.; Biktashev, Vadim N.

    2009-02-01

    We aim to assess the effectiveness of feedback controlled resonant drift pacing as a method for low energy defibrillation. Antitachycardia pacing is the only low energy defibrillation approach to have gained clinical significance, but it is still suboptimal. Low energy defibrillation would avoid adverse side effects associated with high voltage shocks and allow the application of ICD therapy where it is not tolerated today. We present results of computer simulations of a bidomain model of cardiac tissue with human atrial ionic kinetics. Re-entry was initiated and low energy shocks were applied with the same period as the re-entry, using feedback to maintain resonance. We demonstrate that such stimulation can move the core of re-entrant patterns, in the direction depending on location of electrodes and a time delay in the feedback. Termination of re-entry is achieved with shock strength one order of magnitude weaker than in conventional single-shock defibrillation. We conclude that resonant drift pacing can terminate re-entry at a fraction of the shock strength currently used for defibrillation and can potentially work where antitachycardia pacing fails, due to the feedback mechanisms. Success depends on a number of details which these numerical simulations have uncovered. \\emph{Keywords} Re-entry; Bidomain model; Resonant drift; ICD; Defibrillation; Antitachycardia pacing; Feedback.

  2. Models of defibrillation of cardiac tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinsky, V.; Pumir, A.

    1998-03-01

    Heterogeneities, such as gap junctions, defects in periodical cellular lattices, intercellular clefts and fiber curvature allow one to understand the effect of an electric field in cardiac tissue. They induce membrane potential variations even in the bulk of the myocardium, with a characteristic sawtooth shape. The sawtooth potential, induced by heterogeneities at large scales (tissue strands) can be more easily observed, and lead to stronger effects than the one induced at the cellular level. In the generic model of propagation in cardiac tissue (FitzHugh), 4 mechanisms of defibrillation were found, two mechanisms based on excitation (EA,EM), and two—on de-excitation (DA,DM). The lowest electric field is required by an EM mechanism. In the Beeler-Reuter ionic model, mechanism DM is impossible. We critically review the experimental basis of the theory and propose new experiments.

  3. Externally Verifiable Oblivious RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gancher Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the idea of externally verifiable oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our goal is to allow a client and server carrying out an ORAM protocol to have disputes adjudicated by a third party, allowing for the enforcement of penalties against an unreliable or malicious server. We give a security definition that guarantees protection not only against a malicious server but also against a client making false accusations. We then give modifications of the Path ORAM [15] and Ring ORAM [9] protocols that meet this security definition. These protocols both have the same asymptotic runtimes as the semi-honest original versions and require the external verifier to be involved only when the client or server deviates from the protocol. Finally, we implement externally verified ORAM, along with an automated cryptocurrency contract to use as the external verifier.

  4. Advancement of the methodology for automated integration of external hazards into level 1 PSA modeling. Technical report; Weiterentwicklung der Methodik zur automatisierten Integration uebergreifender Einwirkungen in PSA-Modelle der Stufe 1. Technischer Fachbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, Nadine; Herb, Joachim

    2017-03-15

    In the course of the research and development project RS1539 funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economics and Energy (BMWi) the methodology for the automated integration of hazards in Level 1 PSA models has been enhanced. Thereby, the analysis tool pyRiskRobot provides the methodological framework for mapping a generic spectrum of internal and external hazards onto complex PSA plant models. The reimplementation of the software tool via the programming language python extends the applicability and facilitates the handling of pyRiskRobot in comparison to the previous Ruby-based version RiskRobot. Moreover, the development of functions to perform the topological modelling of fault trees and the probabilistic specification of modified fault tree elements have been continued. Due to the reimplementation and further developments, the tool enables to systematically generate fault trees of varying complexity, to flexibly integrate fault trees in existing PSA models and to automatically duplicate interconnected topologies. Thus, pyRiskRobot allows the efficient and traceable realization of hazard specific, usually laborious modifications of PSA models. In addition, pyRiskRobot has been extended to serve as a functional interface between the data compilations comprising the potential influences of hazards on PSA relevant components and the data base of a PSA plant model. Based on this conceptual design, additional analyses of the data can be carried out prior to the integration within the PSA model topology. The reimplemented functionalities of pyRiskRobot have been validated with respect to reference applications, such as the modelling of an internal fire scenario, against the previous version RiskRobot. The existing method collection for the automated modification of fault tree topologies has been extended based on the requirements for further applications, among others the modelling of an external flooding scenario. The deduced hazard specific modelling approaches

  5. Pre-discharge defibrillation testing: Is it still justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempa, Maciej; Królak, Tomasz; Drelich, Łukasz; Budrejko, Szymon; Daniłowicz-Szymanowicz, Ludmiła; Lewicka, Ewa; Kozłowski, Dariusz; Raczak, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is routinely used to prevent sudden cardiac death. Since the introduction of that device into clinical practice, a defibrillation test (the so-called pre-discharge test [PDT]) has been an inseparable part of the ICD implantation procedure. Recently, the usefulness of PDT has been called into question. The aim of this research was to analyze ICD tests performed within two time periods: in years 1995-2001 (period I) and 2007-2010 (period II), in order to compare the results of tests and solutions to all the problems with ICD systems revealed by means of PDT. During period I, 193 tests were performed, among which the ICD system malfunction was observed in 16 cases. Those included: sensing issues, specifically R-wave undersensing during ventricular fibrillation (VF) (7 patients) and T-wave oversensing (4 patients), as well as high defibrillation threshold (DFT) (2 patients) and ICD-pacemaker interaction (3 patients). During period II, among 561 tests, system malfunction was observed in 15 cases. In 1 patient it was VF undersensing, and in the remaining 14 it was high DFT. All the above problems were solved by means of appropriate ICD reprogramming, repositioning of the endocardial defibrillation lead or implantation of an additional subcutaneous defibrillation lead. Contemporary ICD technical solutions, compared to older systems, in most cases allow to avoid sensing problems. The key rationale behind ICD testing is the ability to confirm the efficacy of high-voltage therapy. Despite the increasing maximal defibrillation out-put of devices, and all possible adjustments to the characteristics of the impulse, there is still a group of patients that require additional procedures to ensure the appropriate defibrillation efficacy.

  6. Computational cardiology: the bidomain based modified Hill model incorporating viscous effects for cardiac defibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansız, Barış; Dal, Hüsnü; Kaliske, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Working mechanisms of the cardiac defibrillation are still in debate due to the limited experimental facilities and one-third of patients even do not respond to cardiac resynchronization therapy. With an aim to develop a milestone towards reaching the unrevealed mechanisms of the defibrillation phenomenon, we propose a bidomain based finite element formulation of cardiac electromechanics by taking into account the viscous effects that are disregarded by many researchers. To do so, the material is deemed as an electro-visco-active material and described by the modified Hill model (Cansız et al. in Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 315:434-466, 2017). On the numerical side, we utilize a staggered solution method, where the elliptic and parabolic part of the bidomain equations and the mechanical field are solved sequentially. The comparative simulations designate that the viscoelastic and elastic formulations lead to remarkably different outcomes upon an externally applied electric field to the myocardial tissue. Besides, the achieved framework requires significantly less computational time and memory compared to monolithic schemes without loss of stability for the presented examples.

  7. Impact of carvedilol and metoprolol on inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin H; Abu-Zeitone, Abeer; Jons, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of carvedilol and metoprolol on the endpoint of inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in the MADIT-CRT (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy) study.......The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of carvedilol and metoprolol on the endpoint of inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in the MADIT-CRT (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy) study....

  8. Pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators - general and anesthetic considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy G. Rapsang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A pacemaking system consists of an impulse generator and lead or leads to carry the electrical impulse to the patient's heart. Pacemaker and implantable cardioverter defibrillator codes were made to describe the type of pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator implanted. Indications for pacing and implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation were given by the American College of Cardiologists. Certain pacemakers have magnet-operated reed switches incorporated; however, magnet application can have serious adverse effects; hence, devices should be considered programmable unless known otherwise. When a device patient undergoes any procedure (with or without anesthesia, special precautions have to be observed including a focused history/physical examination, interrogation of pacemaker before and after the procedure, emergency drugs/temporary pacing and defibrillation, reprogramming of pacemaker and disabling certain pacemaker functions if required, monitoring of electrolyte and metabolic disturbance and avoiding certain drugs and equipments that can interfere with pacemaker function. If unanticipated device interactions are found, consider discontinuation of the procedure until the source of interference can be eliminated or managed and all corrective measures should be taken to ensure proper pacemaker function should be done. Post procedure, the cardiac rate and rhythm should be monitored continuously and emergency drugs and equipments should be kept ready and consultation with a cardiologist or a pacemaker-implantable cardioverter defibrillator service may be necessary.

  9. Experimental verification of theoretical predictions concerning the optimum defibrillation waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, Robert A; Jackson, Stephanie R; Nguyen, Jennifer; Yang, Zhao; Guan, Dongxu

    2006-08-01

    The efficacy of electrical therapy at terminating ventricular fibrillation is highly dependent on the waveform used. We present experimental results which test one theory for defibrillation waveform dependence. Forty-four defibrillation waveforms (22 monophasic, 22 biphasic) were designed according to the theoretical construct of Fishier (2000). The waveforms were then tested on 67 male guinea pigs (46 for monophasic, 21 for biphasic waveforms) using a custom designed defibrillator and 12-mm subcutaneous disc electrodes. There was considerable agreement between the theoretical and experimental results. For example, as predicted, the ascending exponential waveform of 1 ms proved to be the most effective (86.4%) monophasic waveform, where efficacy is the number of successful shocks divided by the total number delivered. In addition, the efficacy decrease with duration increase was accurately predicted by the model for monophasic waveforms. For biphasic waveforms, as predicted by the model, when the first phase was optimized, an increase in second phase duration caused an increase in defibrillation efficacy (10 of 11 tested duration pairs). We conclude that the theoretical framework adequately explains the mechanism by which the defibrillation waveform affects efficacy for monophasic waveforms and, in at least one aspect, biphasic waveforms.

  10. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator knowledge and end-of-life device deactivation: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvedy, Samantha M; Cameron, Jan; Lugg, Eugene; Miller, Jennifer; Haedtke, Chris; Hammash, Muna; Biddle, Martha J; Lee, Kyoung Suk; Mariani, Justin A; Ski, Chantal F; Thompson, David R; Chung, Misook Lee; Moser, Debra K

    2018-01-01

    End-of-life implantable cardioverter defibrillator deactivation discussions should commence before device implantation and be ongoing, yet many implantable cardioverter defibrillators remain active in patients' last days. To examine associations among implantable cardioverter defibrillator knowledge, patient characteristics and attitudes to implantable cardioverter defibrillator deactivation. Cross-sectional survey using the Experiences, Attitudes and Knowledge of End-of-Life Issues in Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Patients Questionnaire. Participants were classified as insufficient or sufficient implantable cardioverter defibrillator knowledge and the two groups were compared. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients ( n = 270, mean age 61 ± 14 years; 73% male) were recruited from cardiology and implantable cardioverter defibrillator clinics attached to two tertiary hospitals in Melbourne, Australia, and two in Kentucky, the United States. Participants with insufficient implantable cardioverter defibrillator knowledge ( n = 77, 29%) were significantly older (mean age 66 vs 60 years, p = 0.001), less likely to be Caucasian (77% vs 87%, p  = 0.047), less likely to have received implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks (26% vs 40%, p = 0.031), and more likely to have indications of mild cognitive impairment (Montreal Cognitive Assessment score defibrillator knowledge was associated with attitudes suggesting unwillingness to discuss implantable cardioverter defibrillator deactivation, even during the last days towards end of life ( p defibrillator recipients, especially those who are older or have mild cognitive impairment, often have limited knowledge about implantable cardioverter defibrillator deactivation. This study identified several potential teachable moments throughout the patients' treatment trajectory. An interdisciplinary approach is required to ensure that discussions about implantable cardioverter

  11. Impact of basic life-support training on the attitudes of health-care workers toward cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; Alnasser, Manal A; Berhanu, Alamin N; Al-Turaif, Deema A; Alfayez, Abdulrhman I

    2017-09-22

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) increases the probability of survival of a person with cardiac arrest. Repeating training helps staff retain knowledge in CPR and in use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs). Retention of knowledge and skills during and after training in CPR is difficult and requires systematic training with appropriate methodology. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of basic life-support (BLS) training on the attitudes of health-care providers toward initiating CPR and on use of AEDs, and to investigate the factors that influence these attitudes. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in two groups: health-care providers who had just attended a BLS-AED course (post-BLS group, n = 321), and those who had not (pre-BLS group, n = 421). All participants had previously received BLS training. Both groups were given a validated questionnaire to evaluate the status of life-support education and certification, attitudes toward use of CPR and AED and concerns regarding use of CPR and AED. Multiple linear regression analyses were applied to identify significant predictors of the attitude and concern scores. Overall positive attitudes were seen in 53.4% of pre-BLS respondents and 64.8% of post-BLS respondents (χ 2  = 9.66, p = 0.002). Positive attitude was significantly predicted by the recent completion of BLS training (β = 5.15, p < 0.001), the number of previous BLS training courses (β = 2.10, p = 0.008) and previous exposure to cardiac-arrest cases (β = 3.44, p = 0.018), as well as by low concern scores, (β = -0.09, p < 0.001). Physicians had significantly lower concern scores than nurses (β = -10.45, p = 0.001). Concern scores decreased as the duration of work experience increased (t = 2.19, p = 0.029). Repeated educational programs can improve attitudes toward CPR performance and the use of AEDs. Training that addressed the concerns of health-care workers could further improve these

  12. Use a defibrillator, save a life

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    With the work for Long Shutdown 1 looming on the horizon, the CERN Fire Brigade is anticipating a heavy workload: more people working at CERN means more call-outs. So the more trained first-aiders around to help out before the paramedics arrive, the better. Would you know what to do in a medical emergency?   It could happen at any time: two colleagues are having a coffee at work, when one suddenly clutches his or her chest and falls to the floor unconscious. What would you do? Run to find a first-aider? Call the ambulance and wait, finishing your coffee? Neither response is entirely correct. On Monday 11 June in Building 40 the CMS safety group, in collaboration with the Fire Brigade and the Medical Service, demonstrated the recommended, potentially life-saving response to cardiac arrest (see the video), including the correct use of a defibrillator, ten of which were recently installed in key CERN locations (the Bulletin reported).     “In countries where...

  13. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Bozena; Przybylski, Andrzej; Kucińska, Beata; Lewandowski, Michał; Szwed, Hanna; Wróblewska-Kałuzewska, Maria

    2004-03-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) have been increasingly used in adult patients for the prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD). The usefulness and feasibility of ICD implantation in children have been less well established. To analyse indications, results and safety of ICD therapy in children. ICDs were implanted in seven children, aged from 6 to 17 years. All patients underwent cardiological evaluation which included analysis of medical history, physical examination, chest X-ray, standard ECG, 24-hour Holter ECG monitoring and echocardiography. In five children devices were implanted due to aborted sudden death (ventricular fibrillation) whereas in the remaining two - as a primary prevention of SCD. Three children had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, one - dilated cardiomyopathy, one - mitral valve prolapse and QT prolongation, one - congenital long QT syndrome and the remaining patient - idiopathic ventricular tachycardia. Single-chamber devices were implanted in six children, and dual-chamber system - in one patient. In all patients endocardial leads were implanted and ICD pocket was formed under the greater pectoral muscle. During follow-up ranging between four months to 5.4 years, four children developed ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia which were terminated by appropriate ICD discharges. 1. ICD implantation in children is effective in the prevention of SCD. 2. In our population, the most frequent indications for device implantation were life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias occurring in patients with cardiomyopathy. 3. Cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation may occur in children without a history of aborted SCD. 4. ICD implantation in children is feasible and safe.

  14. Lung injury and pneumothorax after defibrillation as demonstrated with computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüş, Terman; Yıldırım, Düzgün; Uçar, Gökhan

    2013-06-01

    Many patients present for emergency services after electric injuries or require defibrillation during emergency services. Although the defibrillation process is safe, skin burns and myocardial injuries are reported after defibrillation procedures. There are limited data about the complications of defibrillation. In the case reported here, a lung injury and a small pneumothorax were observed after defibrillation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case in which computed tomography is used to demonstrate that a trace of electric current passed through the lung. Computed tomography may be an excellent diagnostic modality to demonstrate the severity and extent of electric injuries to the lung.

  15. Praehospital-hjertestopbehandling med semiautomatisk defibrillator--Heartstart 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonsmark, L; Sandøe, E; Kastrup, J

    1989-01-01

    In order to test the efficacy of a semiautomatic defibrillator (Heartstart 2000) in connection with cardiac arrest outside hospital, the apparatus was installed in two of the ambulances belonging to the Copenhagen Fire Service. The ambulance district involved was also equipped with an ambulance...... staffed by a doctor. A total of 48 patients with cardiac arrest were found and 16 of these had ventricular fibrillation. Six of the 16 patients have since been discharged from hospital (37.5%). The defibrillator had a high diagnostic certainty with a sensitivity of 96.5% and a specificity of 100......%. No practical problems of note occurred in connection with employment of the defibrillator. The ambulance staffs underwent six hours of training and this appeared to be adequate. It is concluded that Heartstart 2000 functions well and effectively in connection with revival of patients with cardiac arrest...

  16. Praehospital-hjertestopbehandling med semiautomatisk defibrillator--Heartstart 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonsmark, L; Sandøe, E; Kastrup, J

    1989-01-01

    In order to test the efficacy of a semiautomatic defibrillator (Heartstart 2000) in connection with cardiac arrest outside hospital, the apparatus was installed in two of the ambulances belonging to the Copenhagen Fire Service. The ambulance district involved was also equipped with an ambulance...... staffed by a doctor. A total of 48 patients with cardiac arrest were found and 16 of these had ventricular fibrillation. Six of the 16 patients have since been discharged from hospital (37.5%). The defibrillator had a high diagnostic certainty with a sensitivity of 96.5% and a specificity of 100...... outside hospital....

  17. Electrical Stimulation of the Heart: Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Defibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Bradley J.

    2000-03-01

    Electrical stimulation of the heart underlies cardiac pacing and defibrillation. The "bidomain model" describes the anisotropic electrical properties of cardiac tissue. In particular, this model predicts mechanisms by which applied electric fields change the transmembrane potential of the myocardial cells. During unipolar stimulation, the bidomain model can explain "make" and "break" stimulation. Furthermore, it elucidates the cause of the "dip" in the anodal strength-interval curve, and predicts the initiation of novel quatrefoil reentry patterns. These results are beginning to shed light on the mechanisms of arrhythmia induction and defibrillation.

  18. [Optimization of electrode location and size on simulation in electric field distribution of atrial defibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Yang, Shengjun; Zheng, Yi; Wu, Xiaomei; Wang, Qunshan; Wei, Daming

    2014-03-01

    A distributed simulation method of electric field based on the atrial defibrillation of the heart modeling and finite element solution is proposed in this study. In order to solve the problem that ordinary clinical trials could not measure the actual distribution of the defibrillation electric field in the heart accurately, this method provides a research tool for electrical defibrillation. A complete atrial anatomical structure in the heart model is used in the research, the finite element method is proceeded to solve; Three parameters: defibrillation threshold voltage, the high field strength rate and the defibrillation threshold energy are set to evaluate the effect of defibrillation. The heart electric field distributions of transvenous atrial defibrillation with different electrode locations or sizes are simulated. The simulation results and the reported results match fairly well, which initially verify the feasibility of this method.

  19. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy in paediatric practice: a single-centre UK experience with focus on subcutaneous defibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griksaitis, Michael J; Rosengarten, James A; Gnanapragasam, James P; Haw, Marcus P; Morgan, John M

    2013-04-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) risk can be managed by implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD). Defibrillation shocks can be delivered via ICD generator and/or intracardiac or subcutaneous coil configurations. We present our single-centre use of childhood ICDs. Twenty-three patients had ICD implantation, with median age and weight of 12.96 years and 41.35 kg. Indications included eight long QT; four hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; three Brugada syndrome; two idiopathic ventricular fibrillation; two post-congenital heart repair; two family history of SCD with abnormal repolarization; one catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia; and one left ventricle non-compaction. Twelve had out of hospital cardiac arrests prior to implantation. Techniques included 13 conventional ICD implants (pre-pectoral device with endocardial leads), 7 with subcutaneous defibrillation coils (sensing via epicardial or endocardial leads tunnelled to the ICD), and 3 with exclusive subcutaneous ICD (sensing and defibrillation via the same subcutaneous lead). Satisfactory defibrillation efficacy and ventricular arrhythmia sensing was confirmed at implantation. Follow-up ranged from 0.17 to 11.08 years. One child died with the ICD in situ. Ten children received appropriate shocks; five on more than one occasion. Five received inappropriate shocks (for inappropriate recognition of sinus tachycardia or supraventricular tachycardia). Five children underwent six further interventions; all had intracardiac leads. Innovative shock delivery systems can be used in children requiring an ICD. The insertion technique and device used need to accommodate the age and weight of the child, and concomitant need for pacing therapy. We have demonstrated effective defibrillation with shocks delivered via configurations employing subcutaneous coils in children.

  20. Depressive symptoms in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S; Andersen, Christina M; Denollet, Johan

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and co-morbid depression are at greater risk of poor quality of life and premature death. We examined if treatment expectations predict depressive symptoms 12months post implant. METHODS: First-time implant patients from...

  1. Phantom shocks in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Selina Kikkenborg; Moons, Philip; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to assess a combined rehabilitation intervention including an exercise training component and a psycho-educational component in patients treated with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). The hypothesis was that the intervention would reduce the occurrence...

  2. Worldwide experience with a totally subcutaneous implantable defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambiase, Pier D; Barr, Craig; Theuns, Dominic A M J

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: The totally subcutaneous implantable-defibrillator (S-ICD) is a new alternative to the conventional transvenous ICD system to minimize intravascular lead complications. There are limited data describing the long-term performance of the S-ICD. This paper presents the first large international...

  3. Defibrillator Implantation in Patients with Nonischemic Systolic Heart Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køber, Lars; Thune, Jens J; Nielsen, Jens C

    2016-01-01

    Background The benefit of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) in patients with symptomatic systolic heart failure caused by coronary artery disease has been well documented. However, the evidence for a benefit of prophylactic ICDs in patients with systolic heart failure that is not due...

  4. Behavioral interventions in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habibović, Mirela; Burg, Matthew M; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2013-01-01

    The implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is the first-line treatment for primary and secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death. A subgroup of patients experience psychological distress postimplant, and no clear evidence base exists regarding how best to address patients' needs. The aim...

  5. Risk of chronic anxiety in implantable defibrillator patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; den Broek, Krista C van; Theuns, Dominic A M J

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of chronic anxiety in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). In a multi-center, prospective study, we examined 1) the prevalence of chronic anxiety (i.e., patients anxious at implantation and 12 months), and 2) predictors of chronic...

  6. Testing of Anesthesia Machines and Defibrillators in Healthcare Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbeta, Lejla; Dzemic, Zijad; Bego, Tamer; Sejdic, Ervin; Badnjevic, Almir

    2017-09-01

    To improve the quality of patient treatment by improving the functionality of medical devices in healthcare institutions. To present the results of the safety and performance inspection of patient-relevant output parameters of anesthesia machines and defibrillators defined by legal metrology. This study covered 130 anesthesia machines and 161 defibrillators used in public and private healthcare institutions, during a period of two years. Testing procedures were carried out according to international standards and legal metrology legislative procedures in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The results show that in 13.84% of tested anesthesia machine and 14.91% of defibrillators device performance is not in accordance with requirements and should either have its results be verified, or the device removed from use or scheduled for corrective maintenance. Research emphasizes importance of independent safety and performance inspections, and gives recommendations for the frequency of inspection based on measurements. Results offer implications for adequacy of preventive and corrective maintenance performed in healthcare institutions. Based on collected data, the first digital electronical database of anesthesia machines and defibrillators used in healthcare institutions in Bosnia and Herzegovina is created. This database is a useful tool for tracking each device's performance over time.

  7. Psychological intervention following implantation of an implantable defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; van den Broek, Krista C; Sears, Samuel F

    2007-01-01

    The medical benefits of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) are unequivocal, but a subgroup of patients experiences emotional difficulties following implantation. For this subgroup, some form of psychological intervention may be warranted. This review provides an overview of current...... evidence on the efficacy of psychological intervention in ICD patients and recommendations for future research....

  8. Pacemakers and Implantable Defibrillators: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ClinicalTrials.gov: Pacemaker, Artificial (National Institutes of Health) Journal Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National ... Leadless Cardiac Pacemakers: The Next Evolution in Pacemaker Technology. ... on Pacemakers and Implantable Defibrillators is the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Other Languages Find health information in languages other than English on Pacemakers and ...

  9. The role of cardiac tissue structure in defibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trayanova, Natalia; Skouibine, Kirill; Aguel, Felipe

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between cardiac tissue structure, applied electric field, and the transmembrane potential induced in the process of defibrillation. It outlines a general understanding of the structural mechanisms that contribute to the outcome of a defibrillation shock. Electric shocks defibrillate by changing the transmembrane potential throughout the myocardium. In this process first and foremost the shock current must access the bulk of myocardial mass. The exogenous current traverses the myocardium along convoluted intracellular and extracellular pathways channeled by the tissue structure. Since individual fibers follow curved pathways in the heart, and the fiber direction rotates across the ventricular wall, the applied current perpetually engages in redistribution between the intra- and extracellular domains. This redistribution results in changes in transmembrane potential (membrane polarization): regions of membrane hyper- and depolarization of extent larger than a single cell are induced in the myocardium by the defibrillation shock. Tissue inhomogeneities also contribute to local membrane polarization in the myocardium which is superimposed over the large-scale polarization associated with the fibrous organization of the myocardium. The paper presents simulation results that illustrate various mechanisms by which cardiac tissue structure assists the changes in transmembrane potential throughout the myocardium.

  10. Advantage of four-electrode over two-electrode defibrillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragard, J.; Šimić, A.; Laroze, D.; Elorza, J.

    2015-12-01

    Defibrillation is the standard clinical treatment used to stop ventricular fibrillation. An electrical device delivers a controlled amount of electrical energy via a pair of electrodes in order to reestablish a normal heart rate. We propose a technique that is a combination of biphasic shocks applied with a four-electrode system rather than the standard two-electrode system. We use a numerical model of a one-dimensional ring of cardiac tissue in order to test and evaluate the benefit of this technique. We compare three different shock protocols, namely a monophasic and two types of biphasic shocks. The results obtained by using a four-electrode system are compared quantitatively with those obtained with the standard two-electrode system. We find that a huge reduction in defibrillation threshold is achieved with the four-electrode system. For the most efficient protocol (asymmetric biphasic), we obtain a reduction in excess of 80% in the energy required for a defibrillation success rate of 90%. The mechanisms of successful defibrillation are also analyzed. This reveals that the advantage of asymmetric biphasic shocks with four electrodes lies in the duration of the cathodal and anodal phase of the shock.

  11. Evolution of the optimum bidirectional (+/- biphasic) wave for defibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, L A; Havel, W

    2000-01-01

    Introduction of the asymmetric bidirectional (+/- biphasic) current waveform has made it possible to achieve ventricular defibrillation with less energy and current than are needed with a unidirectional (monophasic) waveform. The symmetrical bidirectional (sinusoidal) waveform was used for the first human-heart defibrillation. Subsequent studies employed the underdamped and overdamped sine waves, then the trapezoidal (monophasic) wave. Studies were then undertaken to investigate the benefit of adding a second identical and inverted wave; little success rewarded these efforts until it was discovered that the second inverted wave needed to be much less in amplitude to lower the threshold for defibrillation. However, there is no physiologic theory that explains the mechanism of action of the bidirectional wave, nor does any theory predict the optimum amplitude and time dimensions for the second inverted wave. The authors analyze the research that shows that the threshold defibrillation energy is lowest when the charge in the second, inverted phase is slightly more than a third of that in the first phase. An ion-flux, spatial-K+ summation hypothesis is presented that shows the effect on myocardial cells of adding the second inverted current pulse.

  12. Subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Lead Failure due to Twiddler Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooiman, Kirsten M.; Brouwer, Tom F.; van Halm, Vokko P.; Knops, Reinoud E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of Twiddler syndrome in a patient with a subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (S-ICD). The patient presented herself to the outpatient clinic with pain in the left chest. Chest x-ray confirmed Twiddler syndrome and ICD read-out revealed lead failure resulting in

  13. Daily remote monitoring of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindricks, Gerhard; Varma, Niraj; Kacet, Salem

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Remote monitoring of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators may improve clinical outcome. A recent meta-analysis of three randomized controlled trials (TRUST, ECOST, IN-TIME) using a specific remote monitoring system with daily transmissions [Biotronik Home Monitoring (HM)] demonstrated...

  14. Advances in sudden death prevention: the emerging role of a fully subcutaneous defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majithia, Arjun; Estes, N A Mark; Weinstock, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    Randomized clinical trials support the use of implantable defibrillators for mortality reduction in specific populations at high risk for sudden cardiac death. Conventional transvenous defibrillator systems are limited by implantation-associated complications, infection, and lead failure, which may lead to delivery of inappropriate shocks and diminish survival. The development of a fully subcutaneous defibrillator may represent a valuable addition to therapies targeted at sudden death prevention. The PubMed database was searched to identify all clinical reports of the subcutaneous defibrillator from 2000 to the present. We reviewed all case series, cohort analyses, and randomized trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of subcutaneous defibrillators. The subcutaneous defibrillator is a feasible development in sudden cardiac death therapy and may be useful particularly to extend defibrillator therapy to patients with complicated anatomy, limited vascular access, and congenital disease. The subcutaneous defibrillator should not be considered in patients with an indication for cardiac pacing or who have ventricular tachycardia responsive to antitachycardia pacing. Further investigation is needed to compare long-term, head-to-head performance of subcutaneous defibrillators and conventional transvenous defibrillator systems. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Implantation of looped epicardial cardioverter defibrillator coil on the surface of the right ventricular outflow tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyuksel, Arda; Ersoy, Cihangir; Akdeniz, Celal; Akcevin, Atif; Turkoglu, Halil; Tuzcu, Volkan

    2015-04-01

    We present the early results of looped epicardial cardioverter defibrillator coil implantation on the anterior surface of right ventricular outflow tract in infants and children. Patients with a surgical history of an epicardial implantable cardioverter defibrillator system between 2013 and 2014 were included in the study. Patient age, gender, body weight, indications for a cardioverter defibrillator system implantation, defibrillation threshold values, and defibrillation therapies were retrospectively evaluated. There were eight patients with a mean age of 4.4 ± 2.9 years and a mean body weight of 19.5 ± 11.7 kg. Five of the patients had been diagnosed with long QT syndrome, one patient had been diagnosed with genetic channelopathy and noncompaction of the left ventricle, and two patients had been diagnosed with univentricle physiology. The implantable cardioverter defibrillator system was composed of pace-sense leads, an abdominal active can, and a defibrillation coil placed below the pulmonary valve annulus on the anterior surface of the heart. The mean defibrillation threshold was 6.6 ± 2.3 joules. There were four appropriate therapies in two patients in a mean follow-up of 9 ± 6.5 months. The significantly low defibrillation thresholds with the defibrillation coils located below the pulmonary valve annulus are encouraging. However, a larger patient series will be necessary to evaluate the safety and reliability of this technique. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Esophageal electric fields are predictive of atrial defibrillation thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, David A; Soberman, Judith; De Jongh Curry, Amy L

    2012-03-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia characterized by disorganized cardiac electrical activity. Defibrillation electrode placement has been shown to affect the amount of energy and number of shocks required to defibrillate. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between esophageal electric fields (EEFs) and atrial defibrillation thresholds (ADFTs) to determine the feasibility of using EEFs during a low-strength shock to predict patient-specific defibrillation electrode placements. AF was induced and defibrillated according to a Bayesian four-shock protocol for 12-electrode placements in six pigs. EEFs were measured during each of the four shocks of the protocol and during a 1-J shock for each electrode placement. Squared EEFs (EEF(2) s) during all shocks were compared to the ADFTs using a linear regression. There was a negative relationship between EEF(2) s during the 1-J shocks and ADFTs, with median R(2) values of 0.863 and 0.840 for anterior-anterior (AA) and anterior-posterior (AP) electrode placements, respectively. There was a strong, positive relationship between applied energy and EEF(2) s, with median R(2) values of at least 0.866 for all animals. The placement with the highest EEF(2) resulted in the lowest ADFT for both AA and AP placements in four of six pigs. In the other two animals, this held for one electrode set but not both. There was a strong negative relationship between EEF(2) s during 1-J shocks and ADFTs for both AA and AP electrode placements. These preliminary results suggest that using EEF(2) s to predict patient-specific electrode placements is feasible. ©2011, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Refractory Ventricular Fibrillation Successfully Cardioverted With Dual Sequential Defibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, Rodney C; Eldrich, Samuel; Pescatore, Richard M; Mazzarelli, Anthony; Byrne, Richard G

    2016-09-01

    Current guidelines for the treatment of adult patients in cardiac arrest are supplied by the American Heart Association through basic life support and advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS) provider courses. When treatments defined by the ACLS guidelines are unsuccessful in terminating a lethal dysrhythmia, the use of alternative strategies may prove useful. In this case, two defibrillators were used to deliver a greater than normal energy waveform over an extended time interval to return a patient to a normal sinus rhythm. A 56-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with complaints of chest pain, nausea, and vomiting. The patient's initial work-up, including an electrocardiogram and cardiac troponin, did not show evidence of acute ischemia, and she was admitted to the observation unit for further evaluation. While in the emergency department, the patient developed ventricular fibrillation, and ACLS was initiated. After four unsuccessful defibrillation attempts, a second defibrillator was placed on the patient, and the two were activated almost simultaneously. The patient had immediate return of spontaneous circulation, underwent cardiac catheterization, and was discharged home 1 week later. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: This case shows that dual sequential defibrillation may be a successful method for terminating refractory ventricular fibrillation. Further investigation on cardiac resuscitation should be conducted to standardize the dual sequential defibrillation delivery procedure. Until such guidelines are established, physicians should take this treatment into consideration when standard ACLS measures have failed to successfully terminate refractory ventricular fibrillation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial-Subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (MADIT S-ICD): Design and clinical protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kutyifa, Valentina; Beck, Christopher; Brown, Mary W.; Cannom, David; Daubert, James; Estes, Mark; Greenberg, Henry; Goldenberg, Ilan; Hammes, Stephen; Huang, David; Klein, Helmut; Knops, Reinoud; Kosiborod, Mikhail; Poole, Jeanne; Schuger, Claudio; Singh, Jagmeet P.; Solomon, Scott; Wilber, David; Zareba, Wojciech; Moss, Arthur J.

    2017-01-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus, prior myocardial infarction, older age, and a relatively preserved left ventricular ejection fraction remain at risk for sudden cardiac death that is potentially amenable by the subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator with a good risk-benefit profile. The

  19. The association between biventricular pacing and cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator efficacy when compared with implantable cardioverter defibrillator on outcomes and reverse remodelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Kutyifa, Valentina; Ruwald, Martin H

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Previous studies on biventricular (BIV) pacing and cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator (CRT-D) efficacy have used arbitrarily chosen BIV pacing percentages, and no study has employed implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) patients as a control group. METHODS AND RESULTS...

  20. Implante de cardio-desfibrilador em gestantes com cardiomiopatia hipertrófica Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator in pregnant women with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Jorge Cordeiro de Paula; Henrique Barbosa Ribeiro; Roberto Márcio de Oliveira Júnior; Kátia Regina da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Descrevemos os casos de duas gestantes portadoras de cardiomiopatia hipertrófica com alto risco de morte súbita arrítmica, que foram submetidas a implante de cardioversor-desfibrilador automático (CDI) no intercurso da gestação. O momento para a realização do procedimento e os cuidados necessários para o implante do CDI durante a gestação são discutidos e foram os principais objetivos deste relato.We describe the successful implantation of a cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) in two pregnant wo...

  1. Performance of dedicated versus integrated bipolar defibrillator leads with CRT-defibrillators: results from a Prospective Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Roger A; Petrakian, Alex; Boyce, Ker; Haffajee, Charles; Val-Mejias, Jesus E; Oza, Ashish L

    2009-02-01

    Right ventricular (RV) anodal stimulation may occur in cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators (CRT-D) when left ventricular (LV) pacing is configured between the LV lead and an electrode on the RV defibrillator lead. RV defibrillator leads can have a dedicated proximal pacing ring electrode (dedicated bipolar) or utilize the distal shocking coil as the proximal pacing electrode (integrated bipolar). This study compares the performance of integrated versus dedicated leads with respect to anodal stimulation incidence, sensing, and inappropriate ventricular tachyarrhythmia detection in patients implanted with CRT-D. Two hundred ninety-two patients were randomly assigned to receive dedicated or integrated bipolar RV leads at the time of CRT-D implantation. Patients were followed for 6 months. Patients with dedicated bipolar RV leads exhibited markedly higher rates of anodal stimulation than did patients with integrated leads. The incidence of anodal stimulation was 64% at implant for dedicated bipolar RV leads compared to 1% for integrated bipolar RV leads. The likelihood of anodal stimulation in patients with dedicated leads fell progressively during the 6-month follow-up (51.5%), but always exceeded the incidence of anodal stimulation in patients with integrated leads (5%). Clinically detectable undersensing and oversensing were very unusual and did not differ significantly between lead designs. There were no inappropriate ventricular tachyarrhythmia detections for either lead type. Integrated bipolar RV defibrillator leads had a significantly lower incidence of RV anodal stimulation when compared to dedicated bipolar RV defibrillation leads, with no clinically detectable oversensing or undersensing, and with no inappropriate ventricular tachyarrhythmia detections for either lead type.

  2. Initial dynamics of the EKG during an electrical defibrillation of the heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikov, I. I.; Chebotarov, Y. P.; Nikolaev, V. G.

    1980-01-01

    In tests on 11 mature dogs, immobilized by means of an automatic blocking and synchronization system, artefact free EKG were obtained, beginning 0.04-0.06 sec after passage of a defibrillating current. Different versions of the start of fibrillation were noted, in application of the defibrillating stimulus in the early phase of the cardiac cycle. A swinging phenomenon, increasing amplitude, of fibrillation was noted for 0.4-1.5 sec after delivery of a subthreshold stimulus. Conditions for a positive outcome of repeated defibrillation were found, and a relationship was noted between the configuration of the exciting process with respect to the lines of force of the defibrillating current and the defibrillation threshold. It was shown that the initial EKG dynamics after defibrillation is based on a gradual shift of the pacemaker from the myocardium of the ventricles to the sinus node, through phases of atrioventricular and atrial automatism.

  3. New insights into defibrillation of the heart from realistic simulation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trayanova, Natalia A; Rantner, Lukas J

    2014-05-01

    Cardiac defibrillation, as accomplished nowadays by automatic, implantable devices, constitutes the most important means of combating sudden cardiac death. Advancing our understanding towards a full appreciation of the mechanisms by which a shock interacts with the heart, particularly under diseased conditions, is a promising approach to achieve an optimal therapy. The aim of this article is to assess the current state-of-the-art in whole-heart defibrillation modelling, focusing on major insights that have been obtained using defibrillation models, primarily those of realistic heart geometry and disease remodelling. The article showcases the contributions that modelling and simulation have made to our understanding of the defibrillation process. The review thus provides an example of biophysically based computational modelling of the heart (i.e. cardiac defibrillation) that has advanced the understanding of cardiac electrophysiological interaction at the organ level, and has the potential to contribute to the betterment of the clinical practice of defibrillation.

  4. Factors associated with delayed defibrillation in cardiopulmonary resuscitation: A prospective simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Castan

    Full Text Available Early defibrillation is an important factor of survival in cardiac arrest. However, novice resuscitators often struggle with cardiac arrest patients. We investigated factors leading to delayed defibrillation performed by final-year medical students within a simulated bystander cardiac arrest situation.Final-year medical students received a refresher lecture and basic life support training before being confronted with a simulated cardiac arrest situation in a simulation ambulance. The scenario was analyzed for factors leading to delayed defibrillation. We compared the time intervals the participants needed for various measures with a benchmark set by experienced resuscitators. After training, the participants were interviewed regarding challenges and thoughts during the scenario.The median time needed for defibrillation was 158 s (n = 49, interquartile range: 107-270 s, more than six-fold of the benchmark time. The major part of total defibrillation time (49%; median, n = 49 was between onset of ventricular fibrillation and beginning to prepare the defibrillator, more specifically the time between end of preparation of the defibrillator and actual delivery of the shock, with a mean proportion of 26% (n = 49, SD = 17% of the overall time needed for defibrillation (maximum 67%. Self-reported reasons for this delay included uncertainty about the next step to take, as reported by 73% of the participants. A total of 35% were unsure about which algorithm to follow. Diagnosing the patient was subjectively difficult for 35% of the participants. Overall, 53% of the participants felt generally confused.Our study shows that novice resuscitators rarely achieve guideline-recommended defibrillation times. The most relative delays were observed when participants had to choose what to do next or which algorithm to follow, and thus i.e. performed extensive airway management before a life-saving defibrillation. Our data provides a first insight in the process of

  5. Patient perceptions of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Jane MacIver; Alana Tibbles; Filio Billia; Heather Ross

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a class I recommendation for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions to occur between physicians and heart failure patients. Few studies have reported the patient?s perspective on the timing of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions. Aim: To determine patient awareness, preferences and timing of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions. Design: Grounded theory was used to collect and analyze interview...

  6. Live defibrillation in simulation-based medical education--a survey of simulation center practices and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turban, Joseph W; Peters, Deborah P; Berg, Benjamin W

    2010-02-01

    Resuscitation from cardiac arrhythmia, requiring cardioversion/defibrillation is a common simulation training scenario. Use of live defibrillation enhances simulation fidelity but is not without risk. This survey was conducted to describe the prevalence of live defibrillation use during training scenarios in healthcare simulation centers, and when used, if safety training was required before using live defibrillation. A convenience sample of attendees at the 7th annual International Meeting on Simulation in Healthcare (January 2007) was surveyed using a closed-ended 23-item survey instrument. Survey domains included responder and simulation center demographics, simulation center defibrillation safety policies, and attitudes toward defibrillation practices in simulation training environments. Fifty-seven individuals representing 39 simulation centers returned surveys, 29 of which were in the United States. Live defibrillation was used in 35 of the 39 centers (90%). A defibrillation safety training policy was in effect at 14 of 39 centers (36%). Formal training before using live defibrillation was considered necessary by 48 of 55 responders (87%). Forty-eight of 54 responders (89%) strongly agreed or agreed with the statement, "I feel using live defibrillation plays an important role in simulation-based education." Although most responders consider use of live defibrillation important and believe formal defibrillator safety training should be conducted before use, only about one third of the centers had a training policy in effect. It remains to be determined whether safety training before the use of live defibrillation during simulation-based education increases user safety.

  7. A Grouped Up-and-Down Method Used for Efficacy Comparison Between Two Different Defibrillation Waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Danian; Wang, Jianjie; Yang, Kecheng; Wang, Kaifa; Quan, Weilun; Herken, Ulrich; Li, Yongqin

    2016-02-01

    Electrical defibrillation, which consists of delivering a therapeutic dose of the electrical current to the fibrillating heart with the aid of a defibrillator, is still the only effective way to treat life-threatening ventricular fibrillation (VF). However, the efficacy of electrical therapy for terminating VF is highly dependent on the waveform applied. When new defibrillation waveforms or techniques are developed, their efficacy needs to be accurately evaluated and compared to those in use. A common method for the comparison of defibrillation efficacy is to estimate and compare the individual defibrillation threshold (DFT) by constructing dose response curves or using an up-and-down method. Since DFT is calculated by repetitive and sequential shocks, there will be variability for each measurement and for each individual. This creates a considerable uncertainty for paired comparison. In this paper, a novel grouped up-and-down method is developed for the comparison of defibrillation efficacy between two different defibrillation waveforms or techniques. The efficacy of two commonly used biphasic defibrillation waveforms was compared in a porcine model of cardiac arrest using the developed method. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is more sensitive for efficacy comparison and requires less defibrillation attempts compared with traditional DFT methods.

  8. Management of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Recipients: Care Beyond Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippon, François; Sterns, Laurence D; Nery, Pablo B; Parkash, Ratika; Birnie, David; Rinne, Claus; Mondesert, Blandine; Exner, Derek; Bennett, Matthew

    2017-08-01

    This companion article is intended to address common clinical scenarios in patients with implantable defibrillators that were not addressed in the 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society/Canadian Heart Rhythm Society implantable cardioverter defibrillator guidelines including recommendations for device programming to improve detection, to minimize shocks (appropriate and inappropriate), and to minimize ventricular pacing. Important issues at the time of replacement such as device prescription, technical aspects (vascular access, extraction), and management of components on advisories are also discussed. Finally, common clinical scenarios such as management of patients with terminal illnesses, recurrent ventricular tachycardia, electrical storms, catheter ablation for ventricular tachycardia, and system infection management are considered. The management of these patients requires a team approach and comprehensive knowledge surrounding these common clinical scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Test and Evaluation of the Hewlett-Packard CodeMaster 100 Cardiac Monitor/Pacemaker/Defibrillator System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hade, Edward

    1997-01-01

    The CodeMaster 100 is a portable cardiac monitor, defibrillator and pacemaker that offers synchronized defibrillation, electrocardiogram monitoring, noninvasive temporary pacing and pulse oximetery (SpO2) capabilities...

  10. Testing and Evaluation of the Medical Research Laboratories, Inc., 360SLX Cardiac Monitor/Pacemaker/Defibrillator System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hade, Edward

    1998-01-01

    The Medical Research Laboratories (MRL), Inc., model 360 SLx is a portable cardica monitor, defibrillator, and pacemaker that offers synchronized defibrillator, electrocardiogram monitoring, and non-invasive temporary pacing...

  11. Risk Factors for Inadequate Defibrillation Safety Margins Vary With the Underlying Cardiac Disease: Implications for Selective Testing Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnes, J.L.; Westra, S.W.; Bouwels, L.H.; Boer, M.J. de; Brouwer, M.A.; Smeets, J.L.R.M.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In view of the shift from routine toward no or selective defibrillation testing, optimization of the current risk stratification for inadequate defibrillation safety margins (DSMs) could improve individualized testing decisions. Given the pathophysiological differences in myocardial

  12. Low-energy defibrillation research using a rabbit ventricular model: optimizing the potential gradient distribution using multiple epicardial electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianfei Wang; Lian Jin; Xiaomei Wu; Biao Song; Li Qian; Weiqi Wang

    2016-08-01

    Cardiac potential gradient distribution directly affects defibrillation efficacy, and the electrode configuration that ensures optimal distribution is yet to be determined. In this study, a rabbit ventricular finite element conductor model containing blood perfusion in ventricular cavities was developed. The electric field was solved on the model by using 95% myocardial volume potential gradient higher than 5 V/cm as the successful defibrillation threshold (DFT). Multiple epicardial electrodes (MEE) protocols and a SCAN protocol were used to identify the optimum defibrillation method. Results showed that when using the SCAN protocol, DFT energy reduced to 4.3% that of the control group which had the traditional implantable cardioverter defibrillator current path. Rapidly switching scanning stimuli generated using MEE pairs is a promising low-energy defibrillation method. For multiple electrodes defibrillation, the distribution of the electrode pairs determine the defibrillation efficacy, and the counteraction effect has negative effect on defibrillation. These findings can provide suggestions for clinical applications.

  13. Lingular pneumonia obscured by implanted cardioverter-defibrillator: Lateral thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Laura; Harries, Ivan; Chandrasekaran, Barinathan

    2015-01-01

    A 56-year-old female with an implanted cardioverter-defibrillator was admitted with a short history suggestive of a diagnosis of pneumonia. An AP radiograph did not identify an area of consolidation. A subsequent lateral radiograph highlighted an extensive left-lingular-lobe consolidation that had been obscured by the cardiac device. This case highlights the fact that large devices can obscure significant pathology, and that lateral or cross-sectional imaging may be helpful in reaching a diagnosis.

  14. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator infection caused by Tsukamurella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almehmi, Ammar; Pfister, Alfred K; McCowan, Ronald; Matulis, Susie

    2004-01-01

    Human infections with Tsukamurella are very rare with only 13 reported cases in the literature. Certain conditions, such as immunosuppression, an indwelling foreign body, and postoperative wounds predispose humans to Tsukamurella infections. The rarity of Tsukamurella infection in humans makes its diagnosis and treatment very difficult. This article describes the first case of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) infection related to Tsukamurella in the literature.

  15. Percutaneous Extraction of Transvenous Permanent Pacemaker/Defibrillator Leads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianos Paraskevaidis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Widespread use of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices has inevitably increased the need for lead revision/replacement. We report our experience in percutaneous extraction of transvenous permanent pacemaker/defibrillator leads. Methods. Thirty-six patients admitted to our centre from September 2005 through October 2012 for percutaneous lead extraction were included. Lead removal was attempted using Spectranetics traction-type system (Spectranetics Corp., Colorado, CO, USA and VascoExtor countertraction-type system (Vascomed GmbH, Weil am Rhein, Germany. Results. Lead extraction was attempted in 59 leads from 36 patients (27 men, mean ± SD age 61±5 years, with permanent pacemaker (n=25, defibrillator (n=8, or cardiac resynchronisation therapy (n=3 with a mean ± SD implant duration of 50±23 months. The indications for lead removal included pocket infection (n=23, endocarditis (n=2, and ventricular (n=10 and atrial lead dysfunction (n=1. Traction device was used for 33 leads and countertraction device for 26 leads. Mean ± SD fluoroscopy time was 4±2 minutes/lead for leads implanted 48 months (n=21, P=0.03. Complete procedural success rate was 91.7% and clinical procedural success rate was 100%, while lead procedural success rate was 95%. Conclusions. In conclusion, percutaneous extraction of transvenous permanent pacemaker/defibrillator leads using dedicated removal tools is both feasible and safe.

  16. High Defibrillation Threshold: The Science, Signs and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sony Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Defibrillation threshold (DFT testing has traditionally been an integral part of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD implantation. With the increasing number of patients receiving ICDs, physicians are encountering high DFT more often than before. Tackling the problem of high DFT, warrants an in-depth understanding of the science of defibrillation including the key electrophysiological concepts and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Numerous factors have been implicated in the causation of high DFT. Due consideration to the past medical history, pharmacotherapy, laboratory data and cardiac imaging, help in assessing the pre-procedural risk for occurrence of high DFT. Drugs, procedural changes, type and location of ICD lead system are some of the key players in predicting DFT during implantation. In the event of encountering an unacceptably high DFT, we recommend to follow a step-wise algorithm. Ruling out procedural complications like pneumothorax and tamponade is imperative before embarking on a search for potentially reversible clinical or metabolic derangements. Finally, if these attempts fail, the electrophysiologist must choose from a wide range of options for device adjustment and system modification. Although this review article is meant to be a treatise on the science, signs and solutions for high DFT, it is bound by limitations of space and scope of the article.

  17. Electrical exposure risk associated with hands-on defibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemkin, Daniel L; Witting, Michael D; Allison, Michael G; Farzad, Ali; Bond, Michael C; Lemkin, Mark A

    2014-10-01

    The use of hands-on defibrillation (HOD) to reduce interruption of chest compression after cardiac arrest has been suggested as a means of improving resuscitation outcomes. The potential dangers of this strategy in regard to exposing rescuers to electrical energy are still being debated. This study seeks to determine the plausible worst-case energy-transfer scenario that rescuers might encounter while performing routine resuscitative measures. Six cadavers were acquired and prepared for defibrillation. A custom instrumentation-amplifier circuit was built to measure differential voltages at various points on the bodies. Several skin preparations were used to determine the effects of contact resistance on our voltage measurements. Resistance and exposure voltage data were acquired for a representative number of anatomic landmarks and were used to map rescuers' voltage exposure. A formula for rescuer-received dose (RRD) was derived to represent the proportion of energy the rescuer could receive from a shock delivered to a patient. We used cadaver measurements to estimate a range of RRD. Defibrillation resulted in rescuer exposure voltages ranging from 827V to ∼200V, depending on cadaver and anatomic location. The RRD under the test scenarios ranged from 1 to 8J, which is in excess of accepted energy exposure levels. HOD using currently available personal protective equipment and resuscitative procedures poses a risk to rescuers. The process should be considered potentially dangerous until equipment and techniques that will protect rescuers are developed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Network-based automation for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parizi, Mohammad Shahabeddini; Radziwon, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    with other members of the same regional ecosystem. The findings highlight two main automation related areas where manufacturing SMEs could leverage on external sources on knowledge – these are assistance in defining automation problem as well as appropriate solution and provider selection. Consequently...

  19. Library Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakne, B. N.; Giri, V. V; Waghmode, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    New technologies library provides several new materials, media and mode of storing and communicating the information. Library Automation reduces the drudgery of repeated manual efforts in library routine. By use of library automation collection, Storage, Administration, Processing, Preservation and communication etc.

  20. A case of defibrillator-associated infective endocarditis due to Campylobacter fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sękowska, A; Fabiszak, T; Mikucka, A; Andrzejewska, M; Kruszyńska, E; Gospodarek, E; Klawe, J

    2016-11-01

    Campylobacter spp. are Gram-negative, spiral motile bacteria. Infections caused by Campylobacter fetus are frequently of invasive character, but they are very rare. The described case of infection of a cardioverter defibrillator implantation site was effectively cured with antibiotics, but it required removal of the cardioverter defibrillator.

  1. Association between myocardial substrate, implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks and mortality in MADIT-CRT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sood, Nitesh; Ruwald, Anne-Christine H; Solomon, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess a possible association between myocardial substrate, implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks, and subsequent mortality.......The aim of the present study was to assess a possible association between myocardial substrate, implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks, and subsequent mortality....

  2. Low-Energy Defibrillation Failure Correction is Possible Through Nonlinear Analysis of Spatiotemporal Arrhythmia Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonotto, Jennifer; Furman, Michael; Beaver, Thomas; Spano, Mark; Kavanagh, Katherine; Iden, Jason; Hu, Gang; Ditto, William

    2004-03-01

    Explanted Porcine hearts were Langendorff-perfused, administered a voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye (Di-4-ANEPPS) and illuminated with a ND:Yag laser (532 nm); the change in fluorescence resulting from electrical activity on the heart surface was recorded with an 80 x 80 pixel CCD camera at 1000 frames per second. The heart was put into fibrillation with rapid ventricular pacing and shocks were administered close to the defibrillation threshold. Defibrillation failure data was analyzed using synchronization, space-time volume plots and recurrence quantification. Preliminary spatiotemporal synchronization results reveal a short window of time ( 1 second) after defibrillation failure in which the disordered electrical activity becomes ordered; this ordered period occurs 4-5 seconds after the defibrillation shock. Recurrence analysis of a single time series confirmed these results, thus opening the avenue for dynamic defibrillators that can detect an optimal window for cardioversion.

  3. Peer-led training in basic life support and resuscitation using an automatic external defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løfgren, Bo; Petersen, Christina Børlum; Mikkelsen, Ronni

    2009-01-01

    Peer-led training has been identified as a useful tool for delivering undergraduate healthcare training. In this paper we describe the implementation of the European Resuscitation Council BLS/AED Course as a peer-led training program for medical students....

  4. Process automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    Process automation technology has been pursued in the chemical processing industries and to a very limited extent in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Its effective use has been restricted in the past by the lack of diverse and reliable process instrumentation and the unavailability of sophisticated software designed for process control. The Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility was developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in part to demonstrate new concepts for control of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A demonstration of fuel reprocessing equipment automation using advanced instrumentation and a modern, microprocessor-based control system is nearing completion in the facility. This facility provides for the synergistic testing of all chemical process features of a prototypical fuel reprocessing plant that can be attained with unirradiated uranium-bearing feed materials. The unique equipment and mission of the IET facility make it an ideal test bed for automation studies. This effort will provide for the demonstration of the plant automation concept and for the development of techniques for similar applications in a full-scale plant. A set of preliminary recommendations for implementing process automation has been compiled. Some of these concepts are not generally recognized or accepted. The automation work now under way in the IET facility should be useful to others in helping avoid costly mistakes because of the underutilization or misapplication of process automation. 6 figs

  5. Impact of defibrillation testing on predicted ICD shock efficacy: implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Karel; Virag, Nathalie; Swerdlow, Charles D

    2013-05-01

    Lack of consensus regarding defibrillation testing methods for implantable cardioverter-defibrillators relates to risks of repeated fibrillation episodes. To provide recommendations for testing protocols, repeating testing of patients with high defibrillation threshold (DFT), and interpreting testing after implantable cardioverter-defibrillator system revision. We constructed a computer model of defibrillation probability-of-success curves using data from 564 patients. Then, we compared 13 safety margin (SM) or DFT protocols in 50,000 simulated patients to identify those with the best balance of sensitivity and predictive value for detecting patients at high risk for failed defibrillation. Conditional retesting of patients with high DFT was simulated, both without and with revision that lowered defibrillation energy by one-third. SM protocols were more efficient than DFT protocols; 2/2 successes at 20 J or 1/1 at 16 J performed best. Patients who failed testing had a mean probability of defibrillation of 94% at 35 J, but great uncertainty regarding that probability (range 67.0%-100%). When they repeated testing, 62% passed, with 48% owing to regression to the mean. If system revision was performed before retesting, 84% passed; the fraction of patients at high risk reduced (4.7% to 2.7%, with 43% relative reduction); but 3.5% underwent unnecessary revisions. Testing and revision of patients with high DFT benefitted 2.5% of the patients. SM protocols are superior to DFT protocols for implant testing. For patients who fail testing, there is substantial uncertainty in defibrillation efficacy. After a system revision that does not alter defibrillation efficacy, 62% of these patients pass retesting. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Barriers in the implementation of the Resuscitation Guidelines: European survey of defibrillation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Paweł; Kononowicz, Andrzej A; Andres, Janusz

    2016-03-11

    The European Resuscitation Council (ERC) Guidelines recommend providing chest compressions during defibrillator charging and using adhesive pads for defibrillation to increase the effectiveness of resuscitation. However, the most common defibrillation technique in each European country is unknown, as are the potential barriers in implementation of the guidelines. The aim of this study was to assess the techniques of defibrillation procedures performed by professional European healthcare providers and to estimate how frequently adhesive pads are used. We sent an online questionnaire to the ERC National Representatives that contained 12 questions regarding the techniques of defibrillation and monitoring heart rhythm during cardiac arrest. We also evaluated the frequency and indications of manual paddles use. We collected questionnaires from 27 out of 33 invited ERC member countries. The response rate was 82%. Seventeen (17/27; 63%) declared the use of adhesive pads. The leading cause for not using adhesive pads was economic reason (9/17; 53%). Some respondents declared resistance to using adhesive pads by healthcare providers or tradition connected with manual paddles use. We found three leading techniques of defibrillation with manual paddles: Charging paddles keeping them on the defibrillator during chest compressions being delivered (9/21; 43%), Charging paddles keeping them on the patient chest during chest compressions being delivered (6/21; 29 %), Charging paddles on the patient chest without chest compressions (5/21; 24%). Respondents from 11 countries declared the use of gel or electrode pastes during defibrillation with manual paddles. This study collected preliminary data showing how defibrillation is performed in Europe. It revealed the recommeded techniques underuse and identyfied barriers in the Resuscitation Guidelines implementation. The survey should be open to a wider group of respondents. in each country in future. There are limitations and barriers

  7. Patient perceptions of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane MacIver

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a class I recommendation for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions to occur between physicians and heart failure patients. Few studies have reported the patient’s perspective on the timing of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions. Aim: To determine patient awareness, preferences and timing of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions. Design: Grounded theory was used to collect and analyze interview data from 25 heart failure patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Setting and participants: Patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, from the Heart Function Clinic at University Health Network (Toronto, Canada. Results: The sample (n = 25 was predominately male (76% with an average age of 62 years. Patients identified three stages where they felt implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation should be discussed: (1 prior to implantation, (2 with any significant deterioration but while they were of sound mind to engage in and communicate their preferences and (3 at end of life, where patients wished further review of their previously established preferences and decisions about implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation. Most patients (n = 17, 68% said they would consider deactivation, six (24% were undecided and two (8% were adamant they would never turn it off. Conclusion: The patient preferences identified in this study support the need to include information on implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation at implant, with change in clinical status and within broader discussions about end-of-life treatment preferences. Using this process to help patients determine and communicate their implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation preferences may reduce the number of patients experiencing distressing implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks at end of life.

  8. Patient perceptions of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIver, Jane; Tibbles, Alana; Billia, Filio; Ross, Heather

    2016-01-01

    There is a class I recommendation for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions to occur between physicians and heart failure patients. Few studies have reported the patient's perspective on the timing of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions. To determine patient awareness, preferences and timing of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions. Grounded theory was used to collect and analyze interview data from 25 heart failure patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, from the Heart Function Clinic at University Health Network (Toronto, Canada). The sample (n = 25) was predominately male (76%) with an average age of 62 years. Patients identified three stages where they felt implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation should be discussed: (1) prior to implantation, (2) with any significant deterioration but while they were of sound mind to engage in and communicate their preferences and (3) at end of life, where patients wished further review of their previously established preferences and decisions about implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation. Most patients (n = 17, 68%) said they would consider deactivation, six (24%) were undecided and two (8%) were adamant they would never turn it off. The patient preferences identified in this study support the need to include information on implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation at implant, with change in clinical status and within broader discussions about end-of-life treatment preferences. Using this process to help patients determine and communicate their implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation preferences may reduce the number of patients experiencing distressing implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks at end of life.

  9. Pre-implantation implantable cardioverter defibrillator concerns and Type D personality increase the risk of mortality in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; van den Broek, Krista C; Erdman, Ruud A M

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of psychological factors on prognosis in implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) patients. We examined the influence of the distressed personality (Type D) and pre-implantation device concerns on short-term mortality in ICD patients.......Little is known about the influence of psychological factors on prognosis in implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) patients. We examined the influence of the distressed personality (Type D) and pre-implantation device concerns on short-term mortality in ICD patients....

  10. Homeland Security Planning for Urban Area Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Victoroff also argues that political psychology theory advises that the better a target group understands the terrorist mindset, the better...educational programs that can be delivered to school personnel including cardiopulmonary resuscitation, first aid, and automated external defibrillator use...in CPR, First Aid and Automated External Defibrillator (AED) use. 94 In the response component, FCPS has not established a formal information

  11. Gender-Related and Age-Related Differences in Implantable Defibrillator Recipients: Results From the Pacemaker and Implantable Defibrillator Leads Survival Study ("PAIDLESS").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Alyssa M; Kersten, Daniel J; Chung, Jessica A; Asheld, Wilbur J; Germano, Joseph; Islam, Shahidul; Cohen, Todd J

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of gender and age on defibrillator lead failure and patient mortality. The specific influences of gender and age on defibrillator lead failure have not previously been investigated. This study analyzed the differences in gender and age in relation to defibrillator lead failure and mortality of patients in the Pacemaker and Implantable Defibrillator Leads Survival Study ("PAIDLESS"). PAIDLESS includes all patients at Winthrop University Hospital who underwent defibrillator lead implantation between February 1, 1996 and December 31, 2011. Male and female patients were compared within each age decile, beginning at 15 years old, to analyze lead failure and patient mortality. Statistical analyses were performed using Wilcoxon rank-sum test, Fisher's exact test, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and multivariable Cox regression models. Pdefibrillator lead failure and patient mortality in relation to gender and age deciles at a single large implanting center. Within the 45 to 54 years group, leads implanted in women failed faster than in men. Male gender was found to be an independent protective factor in lead survival. This study emphasizes the complex interplay between gender and age with respect to implantable defibrillator lead failure and mortality.

  12. Why the Authors Use Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy with Defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Edward; Daubert, James P

    2015-12-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves left ventricular function, especially in patients with left bundle branch block or those receiving chronic right ventricular pacing. CRT is typically accomplished by placing a right ventricular endocardial pacing lead and a left ventricular pacing lead via the coronary sinus to a coronary vein overlying the lateral or posterolateral left ventricle. CRT can be combined with an implantable defibrillator or with a pacemaker. Limited data are available to compare these two versions of CRT head to head. This review summarizes the relevant trials and meta-analyses regarding these two forms of CRT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Inadvertent transarterial insertion of atrial and ventricular defibrillator leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Ziad F; Rumman, Syeda S; Mullin, James C

    2009-01-01

    Inadvertent placement of pacemaker and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads in the left ventricle (LV) is a rare but well-recognized complication of device implantation [1]. We report a case of inadvertent transarterial implantation of dual-chamber ICD leads; the ventricular lead positioned in the LV and the atrial lead positioned in the aortic root. The tip of the atrial lead migrated across the aortic wall and captured the epicardial surface of the left atrium. The diagnosis was made 5 years after the implantation procedure with no apparent adverse events directly related to left heart lead placement.

  14. Lingular pneumonia obscured by implanted cardioverter-defibrillator: Lateral thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sewell, MD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old female with an implanted cardioverter-defibrillator was admitted with a short history suggestive of a diagnosis of pneumonia. An AP radiograph did not identify an area of consolidation. A subsequent lateral radiograph highlighted an extensive left-lingular-lobe consolidation that had been obscured by the cardiac device. This case highlights the fact that large devices can obscure significant pathology, and that lateral or cross-sectional imaging may be helpful in reaching a diagnosis.

  15. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator specific rehabilitation improves health cost outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kikkenborg Berg, Selina; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Koch, Mette Bjerrum

    2015-01-01

    of the rehabilitation group for exercise capacity, general and mental health. The aim of this paper is to explore the long-term health effects and cost implications associated with the rehabilitation programme; more specifically, (i) to compare implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy history and mortality...... was -6,789 USD/-5,593 Euro in favour of rehabilitation. Conclusion: No long-term health outcome benefits were found for the rehabilitation programme. However, the rehabilitation programme resulted in a reduction in total attributable direct costs....

  16. Patients, intimate partners and family experiences of implantable cardioverter defibrillators: qualitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Losa-Iglesias, Marta E; Alvarez-López, Cristina; Cachón-Pérez, Miguel; Reyes, Rosalie Ann R; Salvadores-Fuentes, Paloma; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2011-12-01

    This paper is a report of an interpretive review of qualitative research on how an implantable cardioverter defibrillator affects adult recipients and their significant others. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator detects pathological cardiac rhythms and automatically converts the rhythm with electrical counter shocks. A systematic literature search was conducted for qualitative research papers published between January 1999 and January 2009. PubMed, Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge and CINAHL databases were searched with the following key words: internal defibrillator, implantable defibrillator and qualitative research. Twenty-two papers were included. The critical appraisal skills programme and prompts were used to appraise studies. Thematic analysis and synthesis approaches were used to interpret evidence. People with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator were found to experience physical, psychological and social changes. Shocks produce fear and anxiety, affecting relationships and sexual relations. The use of support groups and the use of the Internet are important in helping adjustment to an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Women's responses to an implantable cardioverter defibrillator appear different than men's responses and include concerns about physical appearance and relationship issues. Postdischarge follow-up and educational programmes are still underdeveloped. Patients need additional education, support and follow-up care after hospital discharge. Patients and significant others benefit from collaboration between patient associations and healthcare professional societies. Future research is needed to identify the specific challenges that women recipients face. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Achieving safe hands-on defibrillation using electrical safety gloves--a clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Charles D; Thomsen, Jakob E; Løfgren, Bo; Petley, Graham W

    2015-05-01

    Safe hands-on defibrillation (HOD) will allow uninterrupted chest compression during defibrillation and may improve resuscitation success. We tested the ability of electrical insulating gloves to protect the rescuer during HOD using a 'worst case' electrical scenario. Leakage current flowing from the patient to the 'rescuer' during antero-lateral defibrillation of patients undergoing elective cardioversion was measured. The 'rescuer' maintained firm (20 kgf) contact with the patient during defibrillation, wearing Class 1 electrical insulating gloves while simulating an inadvertent contact with the patient, through an additional wired contact between 'rescuer' and patient. Data from 61 shocks from 43 different patients were recorded. The median leakage current from all defibrillations was 20.0 μA, (range: 2.0-38.5). In total, 18 of the shocks were delivered at 360 J and had a median leakage current of 27.0 μA (range: 14.3-38.5). When using Class 1 electrical insulating gloves for hands-on defibrillation, rescuer leakage current is significantly below the 1 mA safe threshold, allowing safe hands-on defibrillation if the rescuer makes only one other point of contact with the patient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Defibrillation testing in everyday medical practice during implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation in France: analysis from the LEADER registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoul, Nicolas; Defaye, Pascal; Mouton, Elisabeth; Bizeau, Olivier; Dupuis, Jean-Marc; Blangy, Hugues; Delarche, Nicolas; Blanc, Jean-Jacques; Lazarus, Arnaud

    2013-11-01

    Defibrillation testing (DT) is usually performed during implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation. We conducted a multicentre prospective study to determine the DT procedures used in everyday practice, to compare the characteristics of patients with or without DT, and to compare severe adverse events in these two populations during implantation and follow-up. The LEADER registry enrolled 904 patients included for primo-implantation of a single (n=261), dual (n=230) or triple (n=429) defibrillation system in 42 French centres. Baseline characteristics of patients (62.0 ± 13.5 years; 88% men; primary indication 62%) who underwent ventricular fibrillation (VF) induction (VF induction group, n=810) and those who did not (untested group, n=94, representing 10.4% of the entire study population) revealed that the untested group were older (P<0.01), had a lower left ventricular ejection fraction, a wider QRS complex and a higher New York Heart Association class and were more often implanted for primary prevention (P<0.001 for all). The main reason given for not performing ICD testing was poor haemodynamic condition (59/94). At 1 year, the cumulative survival rate was 95% in tested patients and 85% in untested patients (P<0.001), mainly because of heart failure deaths. There was one sudden cardiac death in the VF induction group and none in the untested group (P=1.000). In this study, more than 10% of ICD patients were implanted without VF induction. Untested patients appeared to be sicker than tested patients, with a more severe long-term outcome, but without any difference in mortality due to arrhythmic events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigating the role of the coronary vasculature in the mechanisms of defibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Martin J; Plank, Gernot; Vigmond, Edward

    2012-02-01

    The direct role of coronary vessels in defibrillation, although hypothesized to be important, remains to be elucidated. We investigated how vessel-induced virtual electrode polarizations assist reentry termination. A highly anatomically detailed rabbit ventricular slice bidomain computer model was constructed from 25-μm magnetic resonance data, faithfully representing both structural and electric properties of blood vessels. For comparison, an equivalent simplified model with intramural cavities filled in was also built. Following fibrillation induction, 6 initial states were selected, and biphasic shocks (5-70 V) were applied using a realistic implanted cardioverter-defibrillator electrode configuration. A fundamental mechanism of biphasic defibrillation was uncovered in both models, involving successive break excitations (after each shock phase) emanating from opposing myocardial surfaces (in septum and left ventricle), which rapidly closed down excitable gaps. The presence of vessels accelerated this process, achieving more-rapid and successful defibrillation. Defibrillation failed in 5 cases (all because of initiation of new activity) compared with 8 with the simplified model (5/8 failures because of surviving activity). At stronger shocks, virtual electrodes formed around vessels, rapidly activating intramural tissue because of break excitations, assisting the main defibrillation mechanism, and eliminating all activity 200 μm in diameter participated through this mechanism. Consequently, wavefronts could survive intramurally in the simplified model, leading to reentry and shock failure. We provide new insight into defibrillation mechanisms by showing how intramural blood vessels facilitate more-effective elimination of existing wavefronts, rapid closing down of excitable gaps, and successful defibrillation and give guidance toward the required resolution of cardiac imaging and model generation endeavors for mechanistic defibrillation analysis.

  20. Reconstructing unpredictability: experiences of living with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morken, Ingvild Margreta; Severinsson, Elisabeth; Karlsen, Bjørg

    2010-02-01

    The experience of living with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator over time is still poorly understood. Few qualitative studies have investigated this phenomenon. To explore implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients' experiences of living with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator over time. Qualitative. Semi-structured interviews were performed with 16 persons living with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. The constant comparative method of grounded theory was used for data collection and analysis. The core category was defined as 'Reconstructing the unpredictability of living with an ICD' and illustrated by four categories: 'losing control'; 'regaining control'; 'lacking support'; and 'seeking support'. The category 'losing control' encompassed experiences of unpredictability leading to uncertainty as a result of the triggering of the device. Reduced activity to avoid shocks played a major role. In the category 'regaining control', wellbeing increased as time elapsed after the shock and the implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients reconstructed the unpredictability by adapting to life changes, trusting the implantable cardioverter defibrillator as a life saver and accepting uncertainty. The category labelled 'lacking support' highlighted the implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients' experiences of lack of appropriate support and advice from health care professionals. The final category 'seeking support' illustrates the implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients' attempts to obtain guidance and support from family members and health care professionals and the importance of these aspects for the recovery process. Living with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator over time was characterised by unpredictability and uncertainty associated with the triggering of the device. Despite coping with uncertainty by means of several strategies, a new onset of arrhythmia could reinforce the feeling of losing control. An

  1. [Spanish implantable cardioverter-defibrillator registry. Seventh official report of the spanish society of cardiology working group on implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (2010)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzueta, Javier; Fernández, José Maria

    2011-11-01

    The authors summarize the findings of the Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Registry for 2010 compiled by the Spanish Society of Cardiology Working Group on Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators. Members of the Spanish Society of Cardiology were prospectively surveyed; data were recorded voluntarily by each implantation team on one-page questionnaires. In total, 4627 device implantations were reported, comprising 85.6% of the overall estimated number of implantations. The reported implantation rate was 100.61 per million population and the estimated total implantation rate was 117.50 per million. The proportion of first implantations was 73.87%. We collected data from 143 hospitals (9 more than in 2009). The majority of the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantations were performed in men (81%). The mean age was 62.5 ± 13 years. Most of the patients had severe or moderate-to-severe ventricular dysfunction and were in New York Heart Association functional class II. Ischemic heart disease was the most frequent underlying cardiac condition, followed by dilated cardiomyopathy. The number of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantations indicated for primary prevention increased over the previous year and now accounts for 65.6% of first implantations. In all, 76.1% of the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantations were performed by cardiac electrophysiologists. The 2010 Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Registry includes data on almost 86% of all the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantations performed in Spain. Although the number has continued to increase, it still remains far lower than the European average. There has been a significant increase in the number of implantations indicated for primary prevention. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Prophylactic lead extraction at implantable cardioverter-defibrillator generator change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, G Stuart; Saba, Samir

    2014-04-01

    Current implantable cardiac devices have a finite battery life of ≈3 to 7 years for implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. It is current practice to reuse all properly functioning intravascular leads. We tested the hypothesis that a strategy of prophylactic lead removal at the time of device change would be superior under some conditions to the current practice of lead reuse. Using currently available data and a Monte Carlo microsimulation trial, we calculated the risks of leaving an indwelling lead until extraction is indicated because of malfunction versus an aggressive management strategy of prophylactic serial extraction at time of generator change. With a serial lead exchange strategy of leads at generator change, there is reduced overall extraction-related mortality because of fewer late complications attributable to extraction of leads with high dwell time because of infection, recall, or subsequent lead failure. This finding is limited to young patients or those with high expected indwell time of lead. This trend reverses for leads with extraction performance and device longevity. In all cases, serial extraction would be expected to lead to increased adverse events related to the more complex procedure. A strategy of serial lead extraction, given best available current parameters, yields a lower procedural mortality risk in the long-term management of indwelling implantable cardioverter-defibrillator leads in young patients (>40-year estimated dwell time) driven by high aggregate anticipated risk of lifetime lead complication.

  3. Should Single-Coil Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Leads Be Used in all Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almehmadi, Fahad; Manlucu, Jaimie

    2018-03-01

    The historical preference for dual-coil implantable cardioverter defibrillator leads stems from high defibrillation thresholds associated with old device platforms. The high safety margins generated by contemporary devices have rendered the modest difference in defibrillation efficacy between single- and dual-coil leads clinically insignificant. Cohort data demonstrating worse lead extraction outcomes and higher all-cause mortality have brought the incremental utility of an superior vena cava coil into question. This article summarizes the current literature and re-evaluates the utility of dual-coil leads in the context of modern device technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Successful intermuscular implantation of subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator in a Japanese patient with pectus excavatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Kondo, M.D., Ph.D.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The entirely subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD system was developed to provide a life-saving defibrillation therapy that does not affect the heart and vasculature. The subcutaneous ICD is preferred over the transvenous ICD for patients with a history of recurrent infection presenting major life-threatening rhythms. In this case report, we describe the first successful intermuscular implantation of a completely subcutaneous ICD in a Japanese patient with pectus excavatum. There were no associated complications with the device implantation or lead positioning. Further, the defibrillation threshold testing did not pose any problem with the abnormal anatomy of the patient.

  5. Defibrillation via the Elimination of Spiral Turbulence in a Model for Ventricular Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sitabhra; Pande, Ashwin; Pandit, Rahul

    2001-04-01

    Ventricular fibrillation, the major reason behind sudden cardiac death, is turbulent cardiac electrical activity in which rapid, irregular disturbances in the spatiotemporal electrical activation of the heart make it incapable of any concerted pumping action. Methods of controlling ventricular fibrillation include electrical defibrillation as well as injected medication. Electrical defibrillation, though widely used, involves subjecting the whole heart to massive, and often counterproductive, electrical shocks. We propose a defibrillation method that uses a very low-amplitude shock (of order mV) applied for a brief duration (of order 100 ms) and over a coarse mesh of lines on our model ventricle.

  6. Defibrillation beliefs of rural nurses: focus group discussions guided by the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, T A; Mosel Williams, L; Mummery, K

    2005-01-01

    The endorsement of the chain of survival concept and early defibrillation has challenged health professionals to reconsider their beliefs about how they respond to in-hospital resuscitation. In the rural context, where 24 hour coverage is not available nurse-initiated defibrillation is expected. Despite literature and policy change in Australia to allow nurses to initiate defibrillation, there is no current research that uses a systemic theoretical approach to investigate the specific beliefs of nurses and their use of defibrillators. The purpose of this study was to elicit a beginning understanding of the defibrillation beliefs of rural nurses. This research used focus groups within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior to describe the defibrillation beliefs of rural registered nurses. The sites selected for this study were two acute care hospitals in rural Australia (RRMA Classification). Each of these hospitals was in located 'other rural areas' (RRMA Classification) in separate towns and had 25 and 30 beds. The study sample consisted of 10 females and two males. Focus group questions were designed to elicit salient beliefs within the theoretical framework. Three constructs of behavioral, normative and control beliefs guided the development of the question and analysis of the discussions. In accordance with the authors of the theoretical framework, content analysis was used to analyse the data from the study. Two behavioral beliefs, four control beliefs and four normative belief categories were elicited. Two behavioral beliefs categories emerged from the open-ended question: 'What, if any are the advantages of you being able to use a defibrillator?' Participants were congruent when discussing the advantages of nurses initiating defibrillation. The two categories were 'quicker response times' (15 responses) and 'increased success with resuscitation' (8 responses). Participants were asked to identify any events that might influence their decision to use

  7. The Effect of Compressor-administered Defibrillation on Peri-shock Pauses in a Simulated Cardiac Arrest Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Joshua; Lehman, Erik; Terndrup, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Coordination of the tasks of performing chest compressions and defibrillation can lead to communication challenges that may prolong time spent off the chest. The purpose of this study was to determine whether defibrillation provided by the provider performing chest compressions led to a decrease in peri-shock pauses as compared to defibrillation administered by a second provider, in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario. Methods This was a randomized, controlled study measuring pauses in chest compressions for defibrillation in a simulated cardiac arrest model. We approached hospital providers with current CPR certification for participation between July, 2011 and October, 2011. Volunteers were randomized to control (facilitator-administered defibrillation) or experimental (compressor-administered defibrillation) groups. All participants completed one minute of chest compressions on a mannequin in a shockable rhythm prior to administration of defibrillation. We measured and compared pauses for defibrillation in both groups. Results Out of 200 total participants, we analyzed data from 197 defibrillations. Compressor-initiated defibrillation resulted in a significantly lower pre-shock hands-off time (0.57 s; 95% CI: 0.47–0.67) compared to facilitator-initiated defibrillation (1.49 s; 95% CI: 1.35–1.64). Furthermore, compressor-initiated defibrillation resulted in a significantly lower peri-shock hands-off time (2.77 s; 95% CI: 2.58–2.95) compared to facilitator-initiated defibrillation (4.25 s; 95% CI: 4.08–4.43). Conclusion Assigning the responsibility for shock delivery to the provider performing compressions encourages continuous compressions throughout the charging period and decreases total time spent off the chest. However, as this was a simulation-based study, clinical implementation is necessary to further evaluate these potential benefits. PMID:24672620

  8. The Effect of Compressor-Administered Defibrillation on Peri-shock Pauses in a Simulated Cardiac Arrest Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Glick

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Coordination of the tasks of performing chest compressions and defibrillation can lead to communication challenges that may prolong time spent off the chest. The purpose of this study was to determine whether defibrillation provided by the provider performing chest compressions led to a decrease in peri-shock pauses as compared to defibrillation administered by a second provider, in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario. Methods: This was a randomized, controlled study measuring pauses in chest compressions for defibrillation in a simulated cardiac arrest model. We approached hospital providers with current CPR certification for participation between July, 2011 and October, 2011. Volunteers were randomized to control (facilitator-administered defibrillation or experimental (compressor-administered defibrillation groups. All participants completed one minute of chest compressions on a mannequin in a shockable rhythm prior to administration of defibrillation. We measured and compared pauses for defibrillation in both groups. Results: Out of 200 total participants, we analyzed data from 197 defibrillations. Compressor-initiated defibrillation resulted in a significantly lower pre-shock hands-off time (0.57 s; 95% CI: 0.47-0.67 compared to facilitator-initiated defibrillation (1.49 s; 95% CI: 1.35-1.64. Furthermore, compressor-initiated defibrillation resulted in a significantly lower peri-shock hands-off time (2.77 s; 95% CI: 2.58-2.95 compared to facilitator-initiated defibrillation (4.25 s; 95% CI: 4.08-4.43. Conclusion: Assigning the responsibility for shock delivery to the provider performing compressions encourages continuous compressions throughout the charging period and decreases total time spent off the chest. However, as this was a simulation-based study, clinical implementation is necessary to further evaluate these potential benefits. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(2:246–250.

  9. The effect of compressor-administered defibrillation on peri-shock pauses in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Joshua; Lehman, Erik; Terndrup, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Coordination of the tasks of performing chest compressions and defibrillation can lead to communication challenges that may prolong time spent off the chest. The purpose of this study was to determine whether defibrillation provided by the provider performing chest compressions led to a decrease in peri-shock pauses as compared to defibrillation administered by a second provider, in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario. This was a randomized, controlled study measuring pauses in chest compressions for defibrillation in a simulated cardiac arrest model. We approached hospital providers with current CPR certification for participation between July, 2011 and October, 2011. Volunteers were randomized to control (facilitator-administered defibrillation) or experimental (compressor-administered defibrillation) groups. All participants completed one minute of chest compressions on a mannequin in a shockable rhythm prior to administration of defibrillation. We measured and compared pauses for defibrillation in both groups. Out of 200 total participants, we analyzed data from 197 defibrillations. Compressor-initiated defibrillation resulted in a significantly lower pre-shock hands-off time (0.57 s; 95% CI: 0.47-0.67) compared to facilitator-initiated defibrillation (1.49 s; 95% CI: 1.35-1.64). Furthermore, compressor-initiated defibrillation resulted in a significantly lower peri-shock hands-off time (2.77 s; 95% CI: 2.58-2.95) compared to facilitator-initiated defibrillation (4.25 s; 95% CI: 4.08-4.43). Assigning the responsibility for shock delivery to the provider performing compressions encourages continuous compressions throughout the charging period and decreases total time spent off the chest. However, as this was a simulation-based study, clinical implementation is necessary to further evaluate these potential benefits.

  10. Correlation of geomagnetic activity with implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks and antitachycardia pacing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ebrille, E.; Konecny, T.; Konecny, D.; Špaček, R.; Jones, P.; Ambrož, Pavel; DeSimone, C.V.; Powel, B.D.; Hayes, D.L.; Friedman, P.A.; Asirvatham, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 2 (2015), s. 202-208 ISSN 0025-6196 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : geomagnetic activity * implantable cardioverter defibrillator Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 5.920, year: 2015

  11. Monitoring device acceptance in implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients using the Florida Patient Acceptance Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, Henneke; Starrenburg, Annemieke; Denollet, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Patient device acceptance might be essential in identifying patients at risk for adverse patient-reported outcomes following implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). We examined the validity and reliability of the Florida Patient Acceptance Scale (FPAS) and identified...

  12. Somatosensory amplification mediates sex differences in psychological distress among cardioverter-defibrillator patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, Henneke; Baumert, Jens; Kolb, Christof

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether female patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) report more psychological distress than male patients, and whether somatosensory amplification mediates this relationship. Design: Consecutive ICD patients (N = 241; 33% women) participating...

  13. Epicardial Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator In A Child With Symptomatic Bugada Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltedo, Jose M; Abello, Mauricio; Gustavo, Sivori; Javier, Celada; Delucis, Pablo Garcia

    2011-01-01

    An 18 month old 14 kg male with symptomatic Brugada syndrome underwent placement of an epicardial automatic implantable cardiac defibrillator using a single coil transvenous lead sutured to the anterolateral aspect of the left ventricle. PMID:21760684

  14. Effects of postshock atrial pacing on atrial defibrillation outcome in the isolated sheep heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skanes, A. C.; Gray, R. A.; Zuur, C. L.; Jalife, J.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Failed atrial defibrillation shocks are associated with organization of postshock activity and a substantial postshock electrical quiescence. We investigated the ability of a train of pacing stimuli to capture or locally entrain atrial myocardium during the quiescent period after

  15. Defibrillation success is not associated with near field electrogram complexity or shock timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigmond, Edward J; Kimber, Shane; Suzuki, Go; Faris, Peter; Leon, L Joshua

    2013-09-01

    It has been suggested that more-complex fibrillation requires higher energy shocks to terminate. Furthermore, animal studies have demonstrated that shock timing also plays a role. The objective of this study was to test these assertions in a clinical context. Near- and far-field electrograms were collected during defibrillation threshold testing. Fibrillation complexity was measured by quantifying the organization in the signals with wavelet-based methods, scaling exponent, and cross-correlation analysis. Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to determine predictive value. The effect of the phase at which defibrillation shocks were applied was also determined. No measure was able to classify whether a particular shock would be successful. All performed very poorly. Shock timing played no role in defibrillation outcome. Signal organization of a local electrogram and phase of shock delivery do not relate to minimum defibrillation shock energy immediately after ventricular fibrillation onset. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sleep disturbance in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator : Prevalence, predictors and impact on health status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibović, M; Mudde, L; Pedersen, S S; Schoormans, D.; Widdershoven, J.W.M.G.; Denollet, J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in patients with cardiac diseases and associated with poor health outcomes. However, little is known about sleep disturbance in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Aims: We examined the prevalence and predictors of sleep

  17. Library Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husby, Ole

    1990-01-01

    The challenges and potential benefits of automating university libraries are reviewed, with special attention given to cooperative systems. Aspects discussed include database size, the role of the university computer center, storage modes, multi-institutional systems, resource sharing, cooperative system management, networking, and intelligent…

  18. Prognostic importance of distressed (Type D) personality and shocks in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denollet, Johan; Tekle, Fetene B; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical trials have shown the benefit of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) treatment. In this study, we examined the importance of chronic psychological distress and device shocks among ICD patients seen in clinical practice.......Clinical trials have shown the benefit of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) treatment. In this study, we examined the importance of chronic psychological distress and device shocks among ICD patients seen in clinical practice....

  19. Defibrillator charging before rhythm analysis significantly reduces hands-off time during resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L. K.; Folkestad, L.; Brabrand, M.

    2013-01-01

    tachycardia and asystole were presented randomly to all participants in a simulation setting. A manikin (Resusci Anne; Laerdal Scandinavia A/S, Stavanger, Norway) and a defibrillator (LIFEPACK 12; Physio-Control, Inc, Redmond, WA, USA) were used. In ALT, chest compressions were only interrupted...... was observed in either of the asystole scenarios. CONCLUSION: In a simulation setting, we demonstrated that charging of the defibrillator before rhythm analysis significantly reduced hands-off time compared with the ERC 2005 and ERC 2010 guidelines....

  20. Anxiety and risk of ventricular arrhythmias or mortality in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habibović, Mirela; Pedersen, Susanne S.; van den Broek, Krista C

    2013-01-01

    A subgroup of patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) experiences anxiety after device implantation. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether anxiety is predictive of ventricular arrhythmias and all-cause mortality 1 year post ICD implantation.......A subgroup of patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) experiences anxiety after device implantation. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether anxiety is predictive of ventricular arrhythmias and all-cause mortality 1 year post ICD implantation....

  1. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation before defibrillation in the out-of-hospital setting: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winship, Christian; Williams, Brett; Boyle, Malcolm J

    2012-10-01

    Many studies over the past decade have investigated delaying initial defibrillation to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), as it has been associated with increased rates of restoration of spontaneous circulation and/or survival. Since 2006, a number of studies have investigated these procedures. The objective of this study was to undertake a literature review examining the commencement of CPR before defibrillation in the out-of-hospital setting. A literature review was undertaken using the electronic medical databases Ovid Medline, EMBASE, CINHAL Plus, Cochrane Systematic Review and Meditext, from their commencement to the end of June 2011. Keywords used in the search included: CPR, defibrillation, ventricular fibrillation, VF, EMS, EMT, paramedic, emergency medical service, emergency medical technician, prehospital, out-of-hospital and ambulance. References of relevant articles were also reviewed. Of the 3079 articles located, 10 met the inclusion criteria. The results of these studies showed conflicting results. All retrospective studies (n=6) indicated a benefit in performing pre-shock CPR on patients with ventricular fibrillation for durations between 90 and 180 s. Conversely, all randomised controlled trials demonstrated no benefit from providing CPR before defibrillation compared with immediate defibrillation for return of spontaneous circulation, neurological outcome and/or survival to hospital discharge. However, none of the studies reported evidence that CPR before defibrillation is harmful. Conflicting evidence remains regarding the benefit of CPR before defibrillation. The establishment of a consistent timeframe of chest compressions before defibrillation in the out-of-hospital setting will provide uniformity in standards in clinical practice and education and training.

  2. Comparison of defibrillation efficacy between two pads placements in a pediatric porcine model of cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristagno, Giuseppe; Yu, Tao; Quan, Weilun; Freeman, Gary; Li, Yongqin

    2012-06-01

    The placement of defibrillation pads at ideal anatomical sites is one of the major determinants of transthoracic defibrillation success. However, the optimal pads position for ventricular defibrillation is still undetermined. In the present study, we compared the effects of two different pads positions on defibrillation success rate in a pediatric porcine model of cardiac arrest. Eight domestic male pigs weighing 12-15 kg were randomized to receive shocks using either the anterior-posterior (AP) or the anterior-lateral (AL) position with pediatric pads. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was electrically induced and untreated for 30 s. A sequence of randomized biphasic electrical shocks ranging from 10 to 100 J was attempted. If the defibrillation failed to terminate VF, a 100 J rescuer shock was then delivered. After a recovery interval of 5 min, the sequence was repeated for a total of approximately 30 test shocks were attempted for each animal. The dose response curves were constructed and the defibrillation thresholds were compared between groups. The aggregated success rate was 65.6% for AP placement and 43.0% for AL one (p=0.0005) when shock energy was between 10 and 70 J. A significantly lower 50% defibrillation threshold was obtained for AP pads placement compared with traditional AL pads position (2.1±0.4 J/kg vs. 3.6±0.9 J/kg, p=0.041). In this pediatric porcine model of cardiac arrest, the anterior-posterior placement of pediatric pads yielded a higher success rate by lowering defibrillation threshold compared to the anterior-lateral position. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Real world utilization and impact of the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator in a community setting

    OpenAIRE

    Naniwadekar, Aditi; Alnabelsi, Talal; Joshi, Kamal; Obasare, Edinrin; Greenspan, Allan; Mainigi, Sumeet

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) is used in patients at risk for sudden cardiac death (SCD) but not immediate candidates for intracardiac defibrillator (ICD) implantation. Methods: We performed a single center retrospective study of patients prescribed WCD upon hospital discharge from January 2002 to October 2015. Clinical characteristics were obtained from the hospital electronic database and device data from Zoll LifeVest database. Results: Of 140 patients, ...

  4. Clinical profile and incidence of ventricular arrhythmia in patients undergoing defibrillator generator replacement in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenla, Adolfo; López Gil, María; Martínez Ferrer, José; Alzueta, Javier; Fernández Lozano, Ignacio; Viñolas, Xavier; Rodríguez, Aníbal; Fernández de la Concha, Joaquín; Anguera, Ignasi; Arribas, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators reduce mortality in some patients with heart disease. Battery replacement is a frequent occurrence in clinical practice and is required in up to 30% of implants. The benefit/risk ratio of defibrillators varies over time and should be reevaluated at the time of replacement. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics and incidence of defibrillator therapies in patients who underwent generator replacement. This multicenter retrospective study involved patients from the UMBRELLA national registry who underwent replacement due to defibrillator battery depletion. The incidence of ventricular arrhythmias was determined via remote monitoring. Risk factors for sustained ventricular arrhythmia after replacement were analyzed. A total of 354 patients were included (mean age [standard deviation], 61.8 [14.5] years; men, 80%; secondary prevention, 42%; ventricular arrhythmias in the explanted generator, 62%). After a 25-month follow-up, 70 patients (20%) received appropriate therapies and 8 (2.3%) received inappropriate discharges. Male sex, structural heart disease, heart failure, and the absence of resynchronization were independent predictors of ventricular arrhythmia occurrence. One-fifth of patients had appropriate defibrillator therapies in the first 2 years after generator replacement. Determination of the factors associated with arrhythmia occurrence after replacement may be useful to optimize implantable cardioverter-defibrillator treatment. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Development and Evaluation of a Learning Intervention Targeting First-Year Resident Defibrillation Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Justin; Eppich, Walter; Trainor, Jennifer; Mobley, Bonnie; Adler, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate an educational intervention targeting the acquisition and retention of critical core skills of defibrillation in first-year pediatric residents using simulation-based training and deliberate practice. From January 2011 to April 2012, a total of 23 first-year pediatric residents participated in a pretest-posttest study. An initial survey evaluated previous experience, training, and comfort. The scoring tool was designed and validated using a standard setting procedure and 60% was determined to be the minimum passing score. The 1-hour educational intervention included a brief video describing the defibrillator, 10 to 15 minutes of hands-on time with the defibrillator, and 30 minutes of simulation-based scenarios using deliberate practice with real-time feedback. The number of subjects who achieved competency in defibrillation skills increased from 8 to 16 of 23 (35% vs 70%, P defibrillation (282-189 s, P defibrillation skills by first-year pediatric residents. In the process, we uncovered educational gaps in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and other resuscitation skills that need to be addressed in future educational interventions and training.

  6. The Significance of Shocks in Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Anthony; Kaura, Amit; Sunderland, Nicholas; Dhillon, Paramdeep S

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) trials have unequivocally shown a reduction in mortality in appropriately selected patients with heart failure and depressed left ventricular function. However, there is a strong association between shocks and increased mortality in ICD recipients. It is unclear if shocks are merely a marker of a more severe cardiovascular disease or directly contribute to the increase in mortality. The aim of this review is to examine the relationship between ICD shocks and mortality, and explore possible mechanisms. Data examining the effect of shocks in the absence of spontaneous arrhythmias as well as studies of non-shock therapy and strategies to reduce shocks are analysed to try and disentangle the shocks versus substrate debate. PMID:27617089

  7. Pacing and Defibrillators in Complex Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Henry; O’Neill, Mark; Rosenthal, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Device therapy in the complex congenital heart disease (CHD) population is a challenging field. There is a myriad of devices available, but none designed specifically for the CHD patient group, and a scarcity of prospective studies to guide best practice. Baseline cardiac anatomy, prior surgical and interventional procedures, existing tachyarrhythmias and the requirement for future intervention all play a substantial role in decision making. For both pacing systems and implantable cardioverter defibrillators, numerous factors impact on the merits of system location (endovascular versus non-endovascular), lead positioning, device selection and device programming. For those with Fontan circulation and following the atrial switch procedure there are also very specific considerations regarding access and potential complications. This review discusses the published guidelines, device indications and the best available evidence for guidance of device implantation in the complex CHD population. PMID:27403295

  8. [Experience with the use of an implantable automatic cardioverter defibrillator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórticos, F; Zayas, R; Dorantes, M; Tain, J; Bueno, J; Carballido, J; Sainz, H

    1990-01-01

    An automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator with pacemaker was implanted in Cuba, in ten patients with malignant ventricular arrhythmias, sudden cardiac collapse, and ventricular tachycardia with syncope, after a previous electrophysiological study for analysis of the arrhythmia and pharmacological evaluation. The patients were 9 males, ranging in age from 23 a 70 years, with a mean of 48 years, and an ejection fraction of 32% (18-62%). The etiologies were: an old myocardial infarction (7 cases) and dilated cardiomyopathy (3 cases). During the follow-up, mean from 2 to 25 months, four patients received effective shocks for rapid palpitations and presyncope. Two patients died, one due to incessant ventricular tachycardia and one of a cause unrelated to device. We concluded that the GUARDIAN 4201 and 4202 device are useful to prevent sudden cardiac death in high risk patients who experienced a life threatening arrhythmia.

  9. Approximate solution to the bidomain equations for defibrillation problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Salil G.; Roth, Bradley J.

    2005-02-01

    The bidomain model can be used for calculating the electrical potential in the heart during defibrillation. However, this model consists of a coupled system of two partial differential equations that are, in general, difficult and time consuming to solve. In this paper, we present an approximate, iterative method of solving the bidomain equations. After working out the general method, we apply it to four problems: (i) a cylindrical strand in a uniform electric field, (ii) a nonuniform electric field applied to tissue with straight fibers, (iii) a spherical heart in a uniform electric field, and (iv) a two-dimensional sheet of cardiac tissue with curving fibers. Finally, we analyze the general case of three dimensions.

  10. Tricuspid Valve Dysfunction Following Pacemaker or Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, James D; Manning, Warren J; Ebrille, Elisa; Zimetbaum, Peter J

    2017-05-09

    The potential for cardiac implantable electronic device leads to interfere with tricuspid valve (TV) function has gained increasing recognition as having hemodynamic and clinical consequences associated with incremental morbidity and death. The diagnosis and treatment of lead-related (as distinct from functional) tricuspid regurgitation pose unique challenges. Because of pitfalls in routine diagnostic imaging, a high level of clinical suspicion must be maintained to avoid overlooking the possibility that worsening heart failure is a consequence of mechanical interference with TV leaflet mobility or coaptation and is amenable to lead extraction or valve repair or replacement. The future of cardiac implantable electronic devices includes pacing and perhaps defibrillation without a lead traversing the TV. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Implantation of automatic cardioverter-defibrillators via median sternotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodman, R; Fisher, J D; Furman, S; Johnston, D R; Kim, S G; Matos, J A; Waspe, L E

    1984-11-01

    15 AICD (automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator) Model B units were implanted in 10 patients. The median sternotomy is our preferred surgical approach using a right atrial patch electrode, a left ventricular apex patch electrode, and two closely placed epicardial sensing electrodes. Follow-up is 109 patient months and all patients are alive. AICD units discharged for ventricular tachycardia, ventricular flutter, and ventricular fibrillation. Discharges also occurred for sinus tachycardia and atrial fibrillation above the rate limit in three units. Premature pulse generator depletion has occurred in four AICD-B units 3 to 18 months postimplant and appears due to a defect in original battery design. Discharge of the AICD for supraventricular tachycardia is a problem that will remain until a better means of differentiating supraventricular tachycardia from ventricular tachyarrhythmias is found. The AICD appears to prevent sudden death from ventricular tachyarrhythmias.

  12. Use of the wearable cardioverter defibrillator in high-risk cardiac patients: data from the Prospective Registry of Patients Using the Wearable Cardioverter Defibrillator (WEARIT-II Registry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyifa, Valentina; Moss, Arthur J; Klein, Helmut; Biton, Yitschak; McNitt, Scott; MacKecknie, Bonnie; Zareba, Wojciech; Goldenberg, Ilan

    2015-10-27

    Prospective data on the safety and efficacy of the wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD) in a real-world setting are lacking. The Prospective Registry of Patients Using the Wearable Defibrillator (WEARIT-II) Registry was designed to provide real-world data on the WCD as a strategy during a period of risk stratification. The WEARIT-II Registry enrolled 2000 patients with ischemic (n=805, 40%), or nonischemic cardiomyopathy (n=927, 46%), or congenital/inherited heart disease (n=268) prescribed WCD between August 2011 and February 2014. Clinical data, arrhythmia events, implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation, and improvement in ejection fraction were captured. The median age was 62 years; the median ejection fraction was 25%. The median WCD wear time was 90 days, with median daily use of 22.5 hours. There was a total of 120 sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias in 41 patients, of whom 54% received appropriate WCD shock. Only 10 patients (0.5%) received inappropriate WCD therapy. The rate of sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias by 3 months was 3% among patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and congenital/inherited heart disease, and 1% among nonischemic patients (P=0.02). At the end of WCD use, 840 patients (42%) were implanted with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. The most frequent reason not to implant an implantable cardioverter defibrillator following WCD use was improvement in ejection fraction. The WEARIT-II Registry demonstrates a high rate of sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias at 3 months in at-risk patients who are not eligible for an implantable cardioverter defibrillator, and suggests that the WCD can be safely used to protect patients during this period of risk assessment. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. A Study on Performance and Safety Tests of Defibrillator Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli Golpaygani, A.; Movahedi, M.M.; Reza, M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays, more than 10,000 different types of medical devices can be found in hospitals. This way, medical electrical equipment is being employed in a wide variety of fields in medical sciences with different physiological effects and measurements. Hospitals and medical centers must ensure that their critical medical devices are safe, accurate, reliable and operational at the required level of performance. Defibrillators are critical resuscitation devices. The use of reliable defibirillators has led to more effective treatments and improved patient safety through better control and management of complications during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR). Materials and Methods: The metrological reliability of twenty frequent use, manual defibrillators in use ten hospitals (4 private and 6 public) in one of the provinces of Iran according to international and national standards was evaluated. Results: Quantitative analysis of control and instrument accuracy showed the amount of the obtained results in many units are critical which had less value over the standard limitations especially in devices with poor battery. For the accuracy of delivered energy analysis, only twelve units delivered acceptable output values and the precision in the output energy measurements especialy in weak battry condition, after activation of discharge alarm, were low. Conclusion: Obtained results indicate a need for new and severe regulations on periodic performance verifications and medical equipment quality control program especially for high risk instruments. It is also necessary to provide training courses on the fundumentals of operation and performane parameters for medical staff in the field of meterology in medicine and how one can get good accuracy results especially in high risk medical devices. PMID:29445716

  14. Short ECG segments predict defibrillation outcome using quantitative waveform measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coult, Jason; Sherman, Lawrence; Kwok, Heemun; Blackwood, Jennifer; Kudenchuk, Peter J; Rea, Thomas D

    2016-12-01

    Quantitative waveform measures of the ventricular fibrillation (VF) electrocardiogram (ECG) predict defibrillation outcome. Calculation requires an ECG epoch without chest compression artifact. However, pauses in CPR can adversely affect survival. Thus the potential use of waveform measures is limited by the need to pause CPR. We sought to characterize the relationship between the length of the CPR-free epoch and the ability to predict outcome. We conducted a retrospective investigation using the CPR-free ECG prior to first shock among out-of-hospital VF cardiac arrest patients in a large metropolitan region (n=442). Amplitude Spectrum Area (AMSA) and Median Slope (MS) were calculated using ECG epochs ranging from 5s to 0.2s. The relative ability of the measures to predict return of organized rhythm (ROR) and neurologically-intact survival was evaluated at different epoch lengths by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) using the 5-s epoch as the referent group. Compared to the 5-s epoch, AMSA performance declined significantly only after reducing epoch length to 0.2s for ROR (AUC 0.77-0.74, p=0.03) and with epochs of ≤0.6s for neurologically-intact survival (AUC 0.72-0.70, p=0.04). MS performance declined significantly with epochs of ≤0.8s for ROR (AUC 0.78-0.77, p=0.04) and with epochs ≤1.6s for neurologically-intact survival (AUC 0.72-0.71, p=0.04). Waveform measures predict defibrillation outcome using very brief ECG epochs, a quality that may enable their use in current resuscitation algorithms designed to limit CPR interruption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Study on Performance and Safety Tests of Defibrillator Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavakoli Golpaygani A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, more than 10,000 different types of medical devices can be found in hospitals. This way, medical electrical equipment is being employed in a wide variety of fields in medical sciences with different physiological effects and measurements. Hospitals and medical centers must ensure that their critical medical devices are safe, accurate, reliable and operational at the required level of performance. Defibrillators are critical resuscitation devices. The use of reliable defibirillators has led to more effective treatments and improved patient safety through better control and management of complications during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR. Materials and Methods: The metrological reliability of twenty frequent use, manual defibrillators in use ten hospitals (4 private and 6 public in one of the provinces of Iran according to international and national standards was evaluated. Results: Quantitative analysis of control and instrument accuracy showed the amount of the obtained results in many units are critical which had less value over the standard limitations especially in devices with poor battery. For the accuracy of delivered energy analysis, only twelve units delivered acceptable output values and the precision in the output energy measurements especialy in weak battry condition, after activation of discharge alarm, were low. Conclusion: Obtained results indicate a need for new and severe regulations on periodic performance verifications and medical equipment quality control program especially for high risk instruments. It is also necessary to provide training courses on the fundumentals of operation and performane parameters for medical staff in the field of meterology in medicine and how one can get good accuracy results especially in high risk medical devices.

  16. A Study on Performance and Safety Tests of Defibrillator Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli Golpaygani, A; Movahedi, M M; Reza, M

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, more than 10,000 different types of medical devices can be found in hospitals. This way, medical electrical equipment is being employed in a wide variety of fields in medical sciences with different physiological effects and measurements. Hospitals and medical centers must ensure that their critical medical devices are safe, accurate, reliable and operational at the required level of performance. Defibrillators are critical resuscitation devices. The use of reliable defibirillators has led to more effective treatments and improved patient safety through better control and management of complications during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR). The metrological reliability of twenty frequent use, manual defibrillators in use ten hospitals (4 private and 6 public) in one of the provinces of Iran according to international and national standards was evaluated. Quantitative analysis of control and instrument accuracy showed the amount of the obtained results in many units are critical which had less value over the standard limitations especially in devices with poor battery. For the accuracy of delivered energy analysis, only twelve units delivered acceptable output values and the precision in the output energy measurements especialy in weak battry condition, after activation of discharge alarm, were low. Obtained results indicate a need for new and severe regulations on periodic performance verifications and medical equipment quality control program especially for high risk instruments. It is also necessary to provide training courses on the fundumentals of operation and performane parameters for medical staff in the field of meterology in medicine and how one can get good accuracy results especially in high risk medical devices.

  17. Complications of third-generation implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, W; Menz, V; Hoffmann, J; Timmann, U; Funck, R; Moosdorf, R; Maisch, B

    1999-01-01

    To determine the incidence of complications of third-generation implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy, 144 patients were prospectively studied who underwent first implant of third-generation devices (i.e., ICD systems with biphasic shocks, ECG storage capability, and nonthoracotomy lead systems). During 21 +/- 15 months of follow-up, 41 (28%) patients had one or more complications. No patient died perioperatively (30 days) and no ICD infection was observed during follow-up. Complications included bleeding or pocket hematoma (hemoglobin drop > 2 g/dL) in 5 (3%) patients, prolonged reversible ischemic neurological deficit in 1 (1%) patient, postoperative deep venous thrombosis of leg in 1 (1%) patient, pneumothorax in 2 (1%) patients, difficulty to defibrillate ventricular fibrillation intraoperatively in 2 (1%) patients, generator malfunction in 1 (1%) patient, arthritis of the shoulder in 3 (2%) patients, and allergic reaction to prophylactic antibiotics in 2 (1%) patients. A total of seven lead related complications were observed in six (4%) patients including endocardial lead migration in four (3%) patients. Twenty-three (16%) patients received inappropriate shocks for supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (n = 13), non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) (n = 7), or myopotential oversensing (n = 3). We conclude that serious complications such as perioperative death or ICD infection are rare in patients with third-generation ICDs. Lead-related problems and inappropriate shocks during follow-up are the most frequent complications of third-generation ICD therapy. Recognition of these complications should promote advances in ICD technology and management strategies to avoid their recurrence.

  18. The effect of intermittent atrial tachyarrhythmia on heart failure or death in cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator versus implantable cardioverter-defibrillator patients: a MADIT-CRT substudy (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Pietrasik, Grzegorz; Goldenberg, Ilan; Kutyifa, Valentina; Daubert, James P; Ruwald, Martin H; Jons, Christian; McNitt, Scott; Wang, Paul; Zareba, Wojciech; Moss, Arthur J

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of both history of intermittent atrial tachyarrhythmias (IAT) and in-trial IAT on the risk of heart failure (HF) or death comparing cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) to implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) treatment in mildly symptomatic HF patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB). Limited data exist regarding the benefit of CRT-D in patients with IAT. The benefit of CRT-D in reducing the risk of HF/death was evaluated using multivariate Cox models incorporating the presence of, respectively, a history of IAT at baseline and time-dependent development of in-trial IAT during follow-up in 1,264 patients with LBBB enrolled in the MADIT-CRT (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy) study. The overall beneficial effect of CRT-D versus ICD on the risk of HF/death was not significantly different between LBBB patients with or without history of IAT (HR: 0.50, p = 0.028, and HR: 0.46, p Defibrillator Implantation Trial With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy; NCT00180271). Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sustaining cyborgs: sensing and tuning agencies of pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Nelly

    2015-02-01

    Recently there has been a renewed interest in cyborgs, and particularly in new and emerging fusions of humans and technologies related to the development of human enhancement technologies. These studies reflect a trend to follow new and emerging technologies. In this article, I argue that it is important to study 'older' and more familiar cyborgs as well. Studying 'the old' is important because it enables us to recognize hybrids' embodied experiences. This article addresses two of these older hybrids: pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators inserted in the bodies of people suffering from heart-rhythm disturbances. My concern with hybrid bodies is that internal devices seem to present a complex and neglected case if we wish to understand human agency. Their 'users' seem to be passive because they cannot exert any direct control over the working of their devices. Technologies inside bodies challenge a longstanding tradition of theorizing human-technology relations only in terms of technologies external to the body. Cyborg theory is problematic as well because most studies tend to conceptualize the cyborg merely as a discursive entity and silence the voices of people living as cyborgs. Inspired by feminist research that foregrounds the materiality of the lived and intimate relations between bodies and technologies, I argue that creating these intimate relations requires patients' active involvement in sustaining their hybrid bodies. Based on observations of these monitoring practices in a Dutch hospital and interviews with patients and technicians, the article shows that heart cyborgs are far from passive. On the contrary, their unique experience in sensing the entangled agencies of technologies and their own heart plays a crucial role in sustaining their hybrid bodies.

  20. Clinical evaluation of defibrillation efficacy with a new single-capacitor biphasic waveform in patients undergoing implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugada, J; Herse, B; Sandsted, B; Michel, U; Schubert, B D; Hahn, S J

    2001-10-01

    Improvements in the size and shape of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) might be obtained by using one capacitor instead of the series connection of two capacitors traditionally used in ICDs. The aim of this study was to determine whether a biphasic waveform delivered from a single 336 microF capacitor had the same defibrillation efficacy as a standard biphasic waveform. Randomized, paired defibrillation threshold testing was acutely performed in 54 patients undergoing ICD implantation. A standard 140 microF 80% tilt biphasic waveform (two 280 microF capacitors connected in series) was compared with an experimental biphasic waveform delivered from a single 336 microF capacitor at either 60% tilt (33 patients) or 80% tilt (21 patients). All waveforms had a 60/40 phase1/phase2 duration ratio. Compared with the standard waveform, the 60% tilt experimental waveform had a lower delivered energy (6.7 +/- 2.8 vs 7.9 +/- 3.3 joules, Pvoltage (218 +/- 43 vs 333 +/- 68 V, Pvoltage (234 +/- 44 vs 302 +/- 51 V, P<0.01) and a much longer pulse duration (25.7 +/- 2.5 vs 1.13 +/- 1 ms, P<0.01). Waveforms delivered from a large capacitance are feasible but require a lower tilt. This technique may allow smaller, thinner ICDs without jeopardizing defibrillation success.

  1. Intra-operative defibrillation testing and clinical shock efficacy in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators: the NORDIC ICD randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bänsch, Dietmar; Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Brandt, Johan; Bode, Frank; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Táborský, Miloš; Kuster, Stefan; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina; Felk, Angelika; Hauser, Tino; Suling, Anna; Wegscheider, Karl

    2015-10-01

    This trial was designed to test the hypothesis that shock efficacy during follow-up is not impaired in patients implanted without defibrillation (DF) testing during first implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation. Between February 2011 and July 2013, 1077 patients were randomly assigned (1 : 1) to first time ICD implantation with (n = 540) or without (n = 537) DF testing. The intra-operative DF testing was standardized across all participating centres, and all ICD shocks were programmed to 40 J irrespective of DF test results. The primary end point was the average first shock efficacy (FSE) for all true ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation (VT/VF) episodes during follow-up. The secondary end points included procedural data, serious adverse events, and mortality. During a median follow-up of 22.8 months, the model-based FSE was found to be non-inferior in patients with an ICD implanted without a DF test, with a difference in FSE of 3.0% in favour of the no DF test [confidence interval (CI) -3.0 to 9.0%, Pnon-inferiority Defibrillation efficacy during follow-up is not inferior in patients with a 40 J ICD implanted without DF testing. Defibrillation testing during first time ICD implantation should no longer be recommended for routine left-sided ICD implantation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  2. Implantable defibrillator early after primary percutaneous intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction: rationale and design of the Defibrillator After Primary Angioplasty (DAPA) trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottervanger, Jan Paul; Ramdat Misier, Anand R.; Zijlstra, Felix; Schalij, Martin J.; Wever, Eric; Jordaens, Luc J. L. M.; Henriques, Jose P. S.; de Boer, Menko-Jan; Robbe, Hindrik W. J.; Wellens, Hein J. J.

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown that an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) may be beneficial when added to optimal drug treatment in patients with reduced left ventricular function who survive a myocardial infarction (MI). However, it is not known whether patients with increased risk of death after

  3. A Comparative Study of Defibrillator Leads at a Large-Volume Implanting Hospital: Results From the Pacemaker and Implantable Defibrillator Leads Survival Study ("PAIDLESS").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Todd J; Asheld, Wilbur J; Germano, Joseph; Islam, Shahidul; Patel, Dhimesh

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine survival in the implantable defibrillator subset of implanted leads at a large-volume implanting hospital. Implantable lead survival has been the subject of many multicenter studies over the past decade. Fewer large implanting volume single-hospital studies have examined defibrillator lead failure as it relates to patient survival and lead construction. This investigator-initiated retrospective study examined defibrillator lead failure in those who underwent implantation of a defibrillator between February 1, 1996 and December 31, 2011. Lead failure was defined as: failure to capture/sense, abnormal pacing and/or defibrillator impedance, visual insulation defect or lead fracture, extracardiac stimulation, cardiac perforation, tricuspid valve entrapment, lead tip fracture and/or lead dislodgment. Patient characteristics, implant approach, lead manufacturers, lead models, recalled status, patient mortality, and core lead design elements were compared using methods that include Kaplan Meier analysis, univariate and multivariable Cox regression models. A total of 4078 defibrillator leads were implanted in 3802 patients (74% male; n = 2812) with a mean age of 70 ± 13 years at Winthrop University Hospital. Lead manufacturers included: Medtronic: [n = 1834; 801 recalled]; St. Jude Medical: [n = 1707; 703 recalled]; Boston Scientific: [n = 537; 0 recalled]. Kaplan-Meier analysis adjusted for multiple comparisons revealed that both Boston Scientific's and St. Jude Medical's leads had better survival than Medtronic's leads (Pdefibrillation coil, and recalled lead status all contributed to lead failure. This study demonstrated a significantly improved lead performance in the Boston Scientific and St. Jude leads as compared with Medtronic leads. Some lead construction variables (insulation and number of coils) also had a significant impact on lead failure, which was independent of the manufacturer. Recalled St. Jude leads performed

  4. Biphasic versus monophasic waveforms for transthoracic defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faddy, Steven C; Jennings, Paul A

    2016-02-10

    Transthoracic defibrillation is a potentially life-saving treatment for people with ventricular fibrillation (VF) and haemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia (VT). In recent years, biphasic waveforms have become more commonly used for defibrillation than monophasic waveforms. Clinical trials of internal defibrillation and transthoracic defibrillation of short-duration arrhythmias of up to 30 seconds have demonstrated the superiority of biphasic waveforms over monophasic waveforms. However, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) involves a duration of VF/VT of several minutes before defibrillation is attempted. To determine the efficacy and safety of biphasic defibrillation waveforms, compared to monophasic, for resuscitation of people experiencing out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We searched the following electronic databases for potentially relevant studies up to 10 September 2014: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE. Also we checked the bibliographies of relevant studies and review articles, contacted authors of published reviews and reviewed webpages (including those of device manufacturers) relevant to the review topic. We handsearched the abstracts of conference proceedings for the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, European Society of Cardiology, European Resuscitation Council, Society of Critical Care Medicine and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. Regarding language restrictions, we did not apply any. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared biphasic and monophasic waveform defibrillation in adults with OHCA. Two review authors independently screened the literature search results. Two review authors independently extracted data from the included trials and performed 'Risk of bias' assessments. We resolved any disagreements by discussion and consensus. The primary outcome was the risk of failure to achieve return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC

  5. Automation from pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozubal, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    The state transition diagram (STD) model has been helpful in the design of real time software, especially with the emergence of graphical computer aided software engineering (CASE) tools. Nevertheless, the translation of the STD to real time code has in the past been primarily a manual task. At Los Alamos we have automated this process. The designer constructs the STD using a CASE tool (Cadre Teamwork) using a special notation for events and actions. A translator converts the STD into an intermediate state notation language (SNL), and this SNL is compiled directly into C code (a state program). Execution of the state program is driven by external events, allowing multiple state programs to effectively share the resources of the host processor. Since the design and the code are tightly integrated through the CASE tool, the design and code never diverge, and we avoid design obsolescence. Furthermore, the CASE tool automates the production of formal technical documents from the graphic description encapsulated by the CASE tool. (author)

  6. Influence of patients' age at implantation on mortality and defibrillator shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Samir; Adelstein, Evan; Wold, Nicholas; Stein, Kenneth; Jones, Paul

    2017-05-01

    Patients have increasing comorbidities and competing causes of death with advancing age, raising questions about the effectiveness of the implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) in older age. We therefore investigated the effect of patients' age at initial device implantation on all-cause mortality and on the risk of ICD shocks in single-chamber (V-ICD), dual-chamber (D-ICD), and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D) recipients. We reviewed de-identified records of 67 128 ICD recipients enrolled in the Boston Scientific ALTITUDE database of remote monitored patients [V-ICD (n = 11 422), D-ICD (n = 23 974), and CRT-D (n = 31 732)]. Over a mean follow-up of 2.3 ± 1.4 years, patients in all ICD groups had increased all-cause mortality but decreased risk of defibrillator shocks and/or anti-tachycardia pacing per 10 year increase in age. Compared with the youngest age group (defibrillators have higher mortality but fewer ICD shocks and/or therapies compared with younger patients. These data highly suggest less benefit of ICD therapy with increasing age, presumably because of competing risks of non-arrhythmic mortality. The role of defibrillator therapy in older patients may need to be evaluated with randomized controlled trials. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Sawtooth first phase biphasic defibrillation waveform: a comparison with standard waveform in clinical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Y; Brewer, J E; Mowrey, K A; Kroll, M W; Donohoo, A M; Wilkoff, B L; Tchou, P J

    1997-05-01

    A major limitation in a conventional truncated exponential waveform is the rapid drop in current that results in short duration of high current or longer duration with a lower average current. We hypothesized that increasing the first phase average current by boosting the decaying waveform prior to phase reversal may improve defibrillation efficacy. To better simulate a "rectangular" waveform during the first phase, a "sawtooth" defibrillation waveform was constructed using "parallel-series" switching of capacitances (each 30 microF) during the first phase. This permitted a boost in the voltage late in the first phase. This sawtooth biphasic waveform (sawtooth) was compared to two clinical waveforms: a 135-microF capacitance (control-1) and a 90-microF capacitance (control-2) waveform. Defibrillation threshold (DFT) parameters were evaluated in 13 anesthetized pig models using a system consisting of a transvenous right ventricular apex lead (anode) and a left pectoral "hot can" electrode (cathode) system. DFT was determined by a "down-up down-up" protocol. The stored energy for sawtooth, control-1, and control-2 was 10.5 +/- 2.8 J, 12.3 +/- 3.7 J*, and 12.2 +/- 2.8 J*, respectively (*P series" switching system of smaller capacitors can improve defibrillation efficacy. A higher average current in the first phase generated by such a waveform may contribute to more efficient defibrillation by facilitating myocyte capture.

  8. Current practice and perspective of hands-free defibrillation in Hungary - Investigating the obstacles of implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diószeghy, Csaba; Molnár, Noémi

    2014-06-01

    Defibrillation with self-adhesive pads is the gold standard method during resuscitation as it allows minimal interruptions of chest compressions. Unfortunately, the implementation of the new recommendations often requires the purchase of new equipment. We have conducted a nationwide survey by telephone interviews with senior clinicians in order to investigate the current position of the implementation and to identify possible obstacles. We have audited 56 hospitals and 92 departments across the country and interviewed the senior consultants of the intensive care units (ICUs) and emergency departments (EDs). Only 6.5% of all responders were using hands-free defibrillation routinely at the time of the survey. According to 67.4% of respondents, purchasing of new equipment was not likely within 2 years. The major obstacle was the perceived higher costs (59.8%); however, the majority of clinicians (92.4%) were aware of the potential benefits of hands-free defibrillation. Our results suggest that the implementation of the new guidelines is slower than expected due to the unavailability of hands-free defibrillators. The major obstacle is the perceived cost-efficiency concerns. The need for an interim recommendation for safe delivery of defibrillation using hard paddles might be considered to enhance the chance of survival for a large number of patients.

  9. NON-UNIFORMITY OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRICAL TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIALS IN CARDIAC DEFIBRILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Gudkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for emergency cessation of ventricular fibrillation is one of the problems of modern reanimatology. In spite of searches for novel methods, there is the only effective method — electrical cardiac defibrillation.Objective: to investigate the effect of different forms of pulses on cell membranes in a model experiment and to assess their use for effective cardiac defibrillation.Materials and methods. The Maxwell model was used for theoretical analysis of the spatial distribution of an electric field in the red blood cell membrane. The electric effect on a single cell was calculated using the experimental findings and the equivalent electrical circuit of the myocardial structure during a defibrillation procedure. The cardiomyocyte membrane potential upon exposure to defibrillator discharge was estimated. Exposure of the red blood cell membrane to single, two unipolar and two heteropolar pulses was examined.Results. There is non-additivity of speeds upon double exposure as compared to single one. Single pulse causes a lower effect of electroporation than two double pulses. Hyperpolarization and depolarization processes in the cardiomyocyte membranes occur successively during electrical cardiac defibrillation.Conclusion. Two heteropolar pulses cause an effect of biological membrane electroporation with a greater probability than two unipolar ones.

  10. Effect of Metoprolol Versus Carvedilol on Outcomes in MADIT-CRT (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin H; Ruwald, Anne-Christine H; Jøns, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to compare the effects of metoprolol and carvedilol in the MADIT-CRT (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy) study.......This study sought to compare the effects of metoprolol and carvedilol in the MADIT-CRT (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy) study....

  11. Automated Student Aid Processing: The Challenge and Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    To utilize automated technology for student aid processing, it is necessary to work with multi-institutional offices (student aid, admissions, registration, and business) and to develop automated interfaces with external processing systems at state and federal agencies and perhaps at need-analysis organizations and lenders. (MLW)

  12. Fatigue and voluntary utilization of automation in simulated driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Catherine; Matthews, Gerald; Langheim, Lisa; Saxby, Dyani

    2012-10-01

    A driving simulator was used to assess the impact on fatigue, stress, and workload of full vehicle automation that was initiated by the driver. Previous studies have shown that mandatory use of full automation induces a state of "passive fatigue" associated with loss of alertness. By contrast, voluntary use of automation may enhance the driver's perceptions of control and ability to manage fatigue. Participants were assigned to one of two experimental conditions, automation optional (AO) and nonautomation (NA), and then performed a 35 min, monotonous simulated drive. In the last 5 min, automation was unavailable and drivers were required to respond to an emergency event. Subjective state and workload were evaluated before and after the drive. Making automation available to the driver failed to alleviate fatigue and stress states induced by driving in monotonous conditions. Drivers who were fatigued prior to the drive were more likely to choose to use automation, but automation use increased distress, especially in fatigue-prone drivers. Drivers in the AO condition were slower to initiate steering responses to the emergency event, suggesting optional automation may be distracting. Optional, driver-controlled automation appears to pose the same dangers to task engagement and alertness as externally initiated automation. Drivers of automated vehicles may be vulnerable to fatigue that persists when normal vehicle control is restored. It is important to evaluate automated systems' impact on driver fatigue, to seek design solutions to the issue of maintaining driver engagement, and to address the vulnerabilities of fatigue-prone drivers.

  13. Individual differences in the calibration of trust in automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Vlad L; Shrewsbury, Alex; Durso, Francis T

    2015-06-01

    The objective was to determine whether operators with an expectancy that automation is trustworthy are better at calibrating their trust to changes in the capabilities of automation, and if so, why. Studies suggest that individual differences in automation expectancy may be able to account for why changes in the capabilities of automation lead to a substantial change in trust for some, yet only a small change for others. In a baggage screening task, 225 participants searched for weapons in 200 X-ray images of luggage. Participants were assisted by an automated decision aid exhibiting different levels of reliability. Measures of expectancy that automation is trustworthy were used in conjunction with subjective measures of trust and perceived reliability to identify individual differences in trust calibration. Operators with high expectancy that automation is trustworthy were more sensitive to changes (both increases and decreases) in automation reliability. This difference was eliminated by manipulating the causal attribution of automation errors. Attributing the cause of automation errors to factors external to the automation fosters an understanding of tasks and situations in which automation differs in reliability and may lead to more appropriate trust. The development of interventions can lead to calibrated trust in automation. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  14. Autonomous Systems: Habitat Automation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Habitat Automation Project Element within the Autonomous Systems Project is developing software to automate the automation of habitats and other spacecraft. This...

  15. An Automation Planning Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Marion

    1988-01-01

    This brief planning guide for library automation incorporates needs assessment and evaluation of options to meet those needs. A bibliography of materials on automation planning and software reviews, library software directories, and library automation journals is included. (CLB)

  16. Automated Budget System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  17. Battery longevity in cardiac resynchronization therapy implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mian Bilal; Munir, Muhammad Bilal; Rattan, Rohit; Flanigan, Susan; Adelstein, Evan; Jain, Sandeep; Saba, Samir

    2014-02-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) deliver high burden ventricular pacing to heart failure patients, which has a significant effect on battery longevity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether battery longevity is comparable for CRT-ICDs from different manufacturers in a contemporary cohort of patients. All the CRT-ICDs implanted at our institution from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010 were included in this analysis. Baseline demographic and clinical data were collected on all patients using the electronic medical record. Detailed device information was collected on all patients from scanned device printouts obtained during routine follow-up. The primary endpoint was device replacement for battery reaching the elective replacement indicator (ERI). A total of 646 patients (age 69 ± 13 years), implanted with CRT-ICDs (Boston Scientific 173, Medtronic 416, and St Jude Medical 57) were included in this analysis. During 2.7 ± 1.5 years follow-up, 113 (17%) devices had reached ERI (Boston scientific 4%, Medtronic 25%, and St Jude Medical 7%, P battery was significantly worse for Medtronic devices compared with devices from other manufacturers (94% for Boston scientific, 67% for Medtronic, and 92% for St Jude Medical, P battery longevity by manufacturer was independent of pacing burden, lead parameters, and burden of ICD therapy. There are significant discrepancies in CRT-ICD battery longevity by manufacturer. These data have important implications on clinical practice and patient outcomes.

  18. Antitachycardia pacing programming in implantable cardioverter defibrillator: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maria, Elia; Giacopelli, Daniele; Borghi, Ambra; Modonesi, Letizia; Cappelli, Stefano

    2017-05-26

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) programming involves several parameters. In recent years antitachycardia pacing (ATP) has gained an increasing importance in the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias, whether slow or fast. It reduces the number of unnecessary and inappropriate shocks and improves both patient's quality of life and device longevity. There is no clear indication regarding the type of ATP to be used, except for the treatment of fast ventricular tachycardias (188 bpm-250 bpm) where it has been shown a greater efficacy and safety of burst compared to ramp; 8 impulses in each sequence of ATP appears to be the best programming option in this setting. Beyond ATP use, excellent clinical results were obtained with programming standardization following these principles: extended detection time in ventricular fibrillation (VF) zone; supraventricular discrimination criteria up to 200 bpm; first shock in VF zone at the maximum energy in order to reduce the risk of multiple shocks. The MADIT-RIT trial and some observational registries have also recently demonstrated that programming with a widespread use of ATP, higher cut-off rates or delayed intervention reduces the number of inappropriate and unnecessary therapies and improves the survival of patients during mid-term follow-up.

  19. Trend in implantable cardioverter defibrillators and relation to need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammaria, Massimo; Bruna, Claudio; Gnavi, Roberto

    2010-04-01

    Rates of implantation of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) have increased continuously ever since they were first introduced. Notwithstanding guidelines endorsed by international scientific organizations, their use varies greatly across industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to assess whether variations in temporal trends and geographical distribution in the use of ICD devices across Piedmont, Northern Italy, are related to variations in need. We calculated ICD implantation rates in the 19 local health units of Piedmont from 1999 to 2006, and correlated their temporal trend with four proxy indicators of need: coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, CHD hospital discharge rates, cardiac heart failure discharge rates and bisoprolol or carvedilol prescription rates. The ICD implantation rate increased five-fold between 1999-2000 and 2005-2006, mainly among the elderly. Implantation rates were five-fold higher in men compared to women for the entire duration of the study. There were significant differences between local health units, which increased over time. Among men there was only a statistically significant correlation with coronary heart disease mortality (r = 0.66) in the period from 2005 to 2006, and with the use of bisoprolol and carvedilol starting from 2001 to 2002. No significant correlation with need indicators was found in women. The use of ICD devices increased in apparent response to new research evidence, and, at least in part, in response to need. However, this process only involved men; ICD devices are largely underused in women and without apparent relation to need.

  20. Implanted Cardiac Defibrillator Care in Radiation Oncology Patient Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelblum, Daphna Y.; Amols, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To review the experience of a large cancer center with radiotherapy (RT) patients bearing implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) to propose some preliminary care guidelines as we learn more about the devices and their interaction with the therapeutic radiation environment. Methods and Materials: We collected data on patients with implanted ICDs treated with RT during a 2.5-year period at any of the five Memorial Sloan-Kettering clinical campuses. Information regarding the model, location, and dose detected from the device, as well as the treatment fields, fraction size, and treatment energy was collected. During this time, a new management policy for these patients had been implemented requiring treatment with low-energy beams (6 MV) and close surveillance of the patients in partnership with their electrophysiologist, as they received RT. Results: During the study period, 33 patients were treated with an ICD in place. One patient experienced a default of the device to its initial factory setting that was detected by the patient hearing an auditory signal from the device. This patient had initially been treated with a 15-MV beam. After this episode, his treatment was replanned to be completed with 6-MV photons, and he experienced no further events. Conclusion: Patients with ICDs and other implanted computer-controlled devices will be encountered more frequently in the RT department, and proper management is important. We present a policy for the safe treatment of these patients in the radiation oncology environment.

  1. Radiation tolerance of contemporary implantable cardioverter-defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollerus, Michael; Naslund, Leslee; Lipinski, Margaret; Meyer, Anne; Libey, Bruce; Dornfeld, Ken

    2014-03-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are complex instruments using integrated circuit technology. Previous studies suggested risk to the device when exposed to a radiation environment. Little data is available on contemporary ICD systems. The purpose of the present study was to assess the ability of contemporary ICD designs to resist the damaging effects of direct exposure to therapeutic doses of radiation. Four contemporary ICDs and four legacy ICDs devices were exposed to escalating doses of photon irradiation (XRT) from a 6-MV linear accelerator. Escalating doses were administered over 8 days to a maximum cumulative dose of 131.11 Gy or catastrophic failure. Each legacy device had catastrophic failure following the 6th XRT session, characterized by failure to deliver shock therapy. All four contemporary devices remained fully functional following the 8th and final XRT session (P = 0.03). The cumulative, survived radiation dose was significantly different between the contemporary and legacy groups (131.11 vs. 41.11 Gy, P = 0.01). Changes seen in the legacy devices were sudden and not anticipated by trends in prior sessions. The results of this study suggest that contemporary ICD designs may be more robust than earlier designs in a radiation environment.

  2. [Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator and Perioperative Magnet Application: A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Miho; Tokuhira, Natsuko; Sawa, Teiji; Ibuki, Takae

    2015-02-01

    An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) can falsely recognize noise by monopolar electrocautery as tachyarrhythmia and deliver inappropriate antitachycardia therapy. Application of a clinical magnet on an ICD suspends antitachycardia therapy, but it has not been widely used for this purpose. A 67-year-old male underwent laryngopharyngectomy, cervical esophagectomy, right neck dissection, tracheostomy and reconstruction with free jejunal transplant for recurrent hypopharyngeal cancer. He had an ICD (PARADYM DR8550, Sorin) implanted below the left clavicle for ventricular tachycardia and prolonged QT syndrome. During the operation, a clinical magnet was left on the ICD to disable antitachycardia therapy. The magnet mode of the ICD provided asynchronous AAI pacing at 96 beats x min(-1). The surgery proceeded uneventfully. No episode of ventricular tachyarrythmia or pacing inhibition by electromagnetic interference was observed on electrocardiogram. This case illustrated the potential role of a clinical magnet as an alternative to reprogramming of an ICD by a programmer in the perioperative management of a patient with an ICD when a technical expert to operate a programmer is not available.

  3. Automation 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Zieliński, Cezary; Kaliczyńska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    This book consists of papers presented at Automation 2017, an international conference held in Warsaw from March 15 to 17, 2017. It discusses research findings associated with the concepts behind INDUSTRY 4.0, with a focus on offering a better understanding of and promoting participation in the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Each chapter presents a detailed analysis of a specific technical problem, in most cases followed by a numerical analysis, simulation and description of the results of implementing the solution in a real-world context. The theoretical results, practical solutions and guidelines presented are valuable for both researchers working in the area of engineering sciences and practitioners looking for solutions to industrial problems. .

  4. Marketing automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TODOR Raluca Dania

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The automation of the marketing process seems to be nowadays, the only solution to face the major changes brought by the fast evolution of technology and the continuous increase in supply and demand. In order to achieve the desired marketing results, businessis have to employ digital marketing and communication services. These services are efficient and measurable thanks to the marketing technology used to track, score and implement each campaign. Due to the technical progress, the marketing fragmentation, demand for customized products and services on one side and the need to achieve constructive dialogue with the customers, immediate and flexible response and the necessity to measure the investments and the results on the other side, the classical marketing approached had changed continue to improve substantially.

  5. Patients' perception of implantable cardioverter defibrillator deactivation at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Loreena; McIlfatrick, Sonja; Taylor, Brian; Dixon, Lana; Harbinson, Mark; Fitzsimons, Donna

    2015-04-01

    Individualised care at the end of life requires professional understanding of the patient's perception of implantable cardioverter defibrillator deactivation. The aim was to evaluate the evidence on patients' perception of implantable cardioverter defibrillator deactivation at end of life. Systematic narrative review of empirical studies was published during 2008-2014. Data were collected from six databases, citations from relevant articles and expert recommendations. In all, 18 studies included with collective population of n = 5810. Concept mapping highlighted three themes: (1) Diverse preferences regarding discussion and deactivation. Deactivation was rarely discussed pre-implantation, with some studies demonstrating patients' reluctance to discuss implantable cardioverter defibrillator deactivation at any stage. Two studies found the majority of patients valued such discussions. Diversity was reflected in patients' willingness to deactivate, ranging from 12% (n = 9) in Irish cohort to 79% (n = 195) in Dutch study. (2) Ethical and legal considerations were predominant in Canadian and American literature as patients wanted to contribute but felt the decision should be a doctor's responsibility. Advance directives were uncommon in Europe, and where they existed the implantable cardioverter defibrillator was not mentioned. (3) 'Living in the now' was evident as despite deteriorating symptoms many patients maintained a positive outlook and anticipated surviving more than 10 years. Several studies asserted living longer was more important than quality of life. Patients regard the implantable cardioverter defibrillator as a complex and solely beneficial device, with little insight regarding its potential impact on a peaceful death. This review confirms the need for professionals to discuss with patients and families implantable cardioverter defibrillator functionality and deactivation at appropriate opportunities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Large change in voltage at phase reversal improves biphasic defibrillation thresholds. Parallel-series mode switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Y; Mowrey, K A; Nadzam, G R; Hills, D G; Kroll, M W; Brewer, J E; Donohoo, A M; Wilkoff, B L; Tchou, P J

    1996-10-01

    Multiple factors contribute to an improved defibrillation threshold of biphasic shocks. The leading-edge voltage of the second phase may be an important factor in reducing the defibrillation threshold. We tested two experimental biphasic waveforms with large voltage changes at phase reversal. The phase 2 leading-edge voltage was twice the phase 1 trailing-edge voltage. This large voltage change was achieved by switching two capacitors from parallel to series mode at phase reversal. Two capacitors were tested (60/15 microfarads [microF] and 90/22.5 microF) and compared with two control biphasic waveforms for which the phase 1 trailing-edge voltage equaled the phase 2 leading-edge voltage. The control waveforms were incorporated into clinical (135/135 microF) or investigational devices (90/90 microF). Defibrillation threshold parameters were evaluated in eight anesthetized pigs by use of a nonthoracotomy transvenous lead to a can electrode system. The stored energy at the defibrillation threshold (ion joules) was 8.2 +/- 1.5 for 60/15 microF (P voltage changes at phase reversal caused by parallel-series mode switching appeared to improve the ventricular defibrillation threshold in a pig model compared with a currently available biphasic waveform. The 60/15-microF capacitor performed as well as the 90/ 22.5-microF capacitor in the experimental waveform. Thus, smaller capacitors may allow reduction in device size without sacrificing defibrillation threshold energy requirements.

  7. Defibrillation in the movies: a missed opportunity for public health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgbako, Ofole U; Ha, Yoonhee P; Ranard, Benjamin L; Hypolite, Kendra A; Sellers, Allison M; Nadkarni, Lindsay D; Becker, Lance B; Asch, David A; Merchant, Raina M

    2014-12-01

    To characterize defibrillation and cardiac arrest survival outcomes in movies. Movies from 2003 to 2012 with defibrillation scenes were reviewed for patient and rescuer characteristics, scene characteristics, defibrillation characteristics, additional interventions, and cardiac arrest survival outcomes. Resuscitation actions were compared with chain of survival actions and the American Heart Association (AHA) Emergency Cardiovascular Care (ECC) 2020 Impact Goals. Cardiac arrest survival outcomes were compared with survival rates reported in the literature and targeted by the AHA ECC 2020 Impact Goals. Thirty-five scenes were identified in 32 movies. Twenty-five (71%) patients were male, and 29 (83%) rescuers were male. Intent of defibrillation was resuscitation in 29 (83%) scenes and harm in 6 (17%) scenes. Cardiac arrest was the indication for use in 23 (66%) scenes, and the heart rhythm was made known in 18 scenes (51%). When the heart rhythm was known, defibrillation was appropriately used for ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation in 5 (28%) scenes and inappropriately used for asystole in 7 (39%) scenes. In 8 scenes with in-hospital cardiac arrest, 7 (88%) patients survived, compared to survival rates of 23.9% reported in the literature and 38% targeted by an AHA ECC 2020 Impact Goal. In 12 movie scenes with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, 8 (67%) patients survived, compared to survival rates of 7.9-9.5% reported in peer-reviewed literature and 15.8% targeted by an AHA ECC 2020 Impact Goal. In movies, defibrillation and cardiac arrest survival outcomes are often portrayed inaccurately, representing missed opportunities for public health education. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A randomized control hands-on defibrillation study-Barrier use evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampler, David; Kharod, Chetan; Bolleter, Scotty; Burkett, Alison; Gabehart, Caitlin; Manifold, Craig

    2016-06-01

    Chest compressions and defibrillation are the only therapies proven to increase survival in cardiac arrest. Historically, rescuers must remove hands to shock, thereby interrupting chest compressions. This hands-off time results in a zero blood flow state. Pauses have been associated with poorer neurological recovery. This was a blinded randomized control cadaver study evaluating the detection of defibrillation during manual chest compressions. An active defibrillator was connected to the cadaver in the sternum-apex configuration. The sham defibrillator was not connected to the cadaver. Subjects performed chest compressions using 6 barrier types: barehand, single and double layer nitrile gloves, firefighter gloves, neoprene pad, and a manual chest compression/decompression device. Randomized defibrillations (10 per barrier type) were delivered at 30 joules (J) for bare hand and 360J for all other barriers. After each shock, the subject indicated degree of sensation on a VAS scale. Ten subjects participated. All subjects detected 30j shocks during barehand compressions, with only 1 undetected real shock. All barriers combined totaled 500 shocks delivered. Five (1%) active shocks were detected, 1(0.2%) single layer of Nitrile, 3(0.6%) with double layer nitrile, and 1(0.2%) with the neoprene barrier. One sham shock was reported with the single layer nitrile glove. No shocks were detected with fire gloves or compression decompression device. All shocks detected barely perceptible (0.25(±0.05)cm on 10cm VAS scale). Nitrile gloves and neoprene pad prevent (99%) responder's detection of defibrillation of a cadaver. Fire gloves and compression decompression device prevented detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Posttraumatic stress and anxiety in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habibović, Mirela; Denollet, J; Pedersen, S S

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy is first-line treatment for the primary and secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death. Despite the unequivocal medical benefits, living with an ICD may affect patients' psychological functioning and general well-being. We examined...... CARdioverter dEfibrillator patients (WEBCARE) study. Data were analyzed using Latent class analyses, with trajectories of PTSD symptomatology and anxiety examined between baseline and 12 months follow-up. RESULTS: The mean age of the sample was 58.9±9.8, with the majority being male (82%). Latent Class...

  10. Minimally invasive, pericardial implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement in a young child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakana Maki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the successful minimally invasive placement of a pericardial implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD in a 16-kg child. A transvenous ICD dual coil was advanced through a small subxiphoid incision and screwed into the oblique sinus pericardium under fluoroscopic guidance. An additional sense-pace lead was sutured onto the right ventricular apex, and the generator was placed in the upper abdominal wall through the same incision. Threshold testing demonstrated successful defibrillation at 15 J. After implantation, the patient had two episodes of appropriate shock for ventricular fibrillation. The ICD system continues to show stable impedance at 6 months of follow-up.

  11. Fabry cardiomyopathy presenting with a high defibrillation threshold: A short case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kanda, MD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fabry disease is an X-linked recessive glycosphingolipid storage disorder caused by a deficiency of lysosomal enzyme α-galactosidase A. It is recognized that Fabry disease patients often have ventricular arrhythmias. Although the effectiveness of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD therapy in patients with ventricular fibrillation is established, there is little evidence regarding ICD therapy for Fabry disease. Here, we report the case of patient with Fabry disease who was treated with an ICD and presented with high defibrillation thresholds.

  12. Hands-on defibrillation during active chest compressions: eliminating another interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, William; Berlat, Joshua A

    2016-11-01

    After decades of research, effective chest compressions have emerged as a key component of high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for cardiac arrest patients. Minimizing interruptions in chest compressions is garnering increasing attention as a method to improve CPR quality and outcomes. Hands-on defibrillation has been suggested as both a safe and effective means of reducing interruptions in chest compressions. This article discusses the safety and efficacy of a novel and controversial method to reduce interruptions: hands-on defibrillation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Implantation of a Resynchronization Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator in a Patient with Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Antonelli

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Implantation of resynchronization implantable cardioverter defibrillator was performed in a patient with persistent left superior vena cava. A dual coil defibrillation lead was inserted in the right ventricle apex via a small innominate vein. Left ventricular and atrial leads were implanted through persistent left superior vena cava. Left ventricular lead was easily implanted into the postero lateral vein. Pacing thresholds and sensing values were excellent and remained stable at 18 months follow-up. Presence of persistent left superior vena cava generally makes transvenous lead implantation difficult. However when a favorable coronary sinus anatomy is also present, it may facilitate left ventricular lead positioning in the coronary sinus branches.

  14. The role of bystanders, first responders, and emergency medical service providers in timely defibrillation and related outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: Results from a statewide registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Carolina Malta; Kragholm, Kristian; Granger, Christopher B; Pearson, David A; Tyson, Clark; Monk, Lisa; Corbett, Claire; Nelson, R Darrell; Dupre, Matthew E; Fosbøl, Emil L; Strauss, Benjamin; Fordyce, Christopher B; McNally, Bryan; Jollis, James G

    2015-11-01

    Defibrillation by bystanders and first responders has been associated with increased survival, but limited data are available from non-metropolitan areas. We examined time from 911-call to defibrillation (according to who defibrillated patients) and survival in North Carolina. Through the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival, we identified 1732 defibrillated out-of-hospital cardiac arrests from counties with complete case capture (population 2.7 million) from 2010 to 2013. Most patients (60.9%) were defibrillated in > 10 min. A minority (8.0%) was defibrillated defibrillated by first responders (51.8%) and bystanders (33.1%), independent of location of arrest (residential or public). Bystanders initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in 49.0% of cases and defibrillated 13.4% of those. Survival decreased with increasing time to defibrillation ( 10 min: 13.2%). Odds of survival with favorable neurologic outcome adjusted for age, sex, and bystander CPR improved with faster defibrillation ( 10 min: reference). Bystanders and first responders were mainly responsible for defibrillation within 5 min, independent of location of arrest. Bystanders initiated CPR in half of the cardiac arrest cases but only defibrillated a minority of those. Timely defibrillation and defibrillation by bystanders and/or first responders were strongly associated with increased survival. Strategic efforts to increase bystander and first-responder defibrillation are warranted to increase survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Automated Clutch of AMT Vehicle Based on Adaptive Generalized Minimum Variance Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the influence of non-linear dynamic characteristic of clutch, external disturbance and parameter variation, the automated clutch is hard to control precisely during the engaging process of the automated clutch of automatic mechanical transmission vehicle. In this paper, adaptive generalized minimum variance controller is applied to the automated clutch which is driven by a brushless DC motor. The simulation results showed that the proposed controller is effective and robust to the parametric variation and external disturbance.

  16. Both Automation and Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Royal

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the concept of a paperless society and the current situation in library automation. Various applications of automation and telecommunications are addressed, and future library automation is considered. Automation at the Monroe County Public Library in Bloomington, Indiana, is described as an example. (MES)

  17. Psychological effects of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator leads under advisory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatherly, Steven J; Simmons, Tony; Fitzgerald, David M; Mitchell, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are standard therapy for patients at high risk of sudden cardiac death. Device implantation is a stressful event that has been associated with patient and anticipatory anxiety. While the psychological effects of normally functioning ICDs are known, only a dearth of literature evaluates how a warning about the potential for malfunction of an ICD lead, related to a device advisory, influences the degree of psychological distress. These effects are evaluated in a patient population with the Medtronic Sprint Fidelis defibrillation lead 6949 (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA). A sample of 413 patients were studied. Groups included 158 with an advisory Medtronic 6949 and 255 with an ICD that had no current advisories. Patients were administered a validated disease-specific metric assessing concerns over ICDs, as well as a demographics questionnaire. The primary outcome was the total score on the ICD concerns (ICDC). Analysis was with one-way Analysis of Variance with preplanned orthogonal contrasts and multivariate regression. The advisory group tended to have higher numbers of high school and college graduates. The average length of device implant in the nonadvisory group was higher at 4.29 years versus 3.99 years in the advisory group (t = 0.901, P ≤ 0.5). A higher percentage of those with an advisory experienced more shocks (39% vs 32%; z =-1.51, P ≤ 0.5). Average ICDC scores in the advisory group with previous shock were significantly higher than in the nonadvisory group with prior shock ([27.7 standard deviation (SD) ± 14.5] vs [18.5 SD ± 12.5], P = 0.0001) . Average ICDC score in the advisory group without shock was also significantly elevated compared to the nonadvisory group (18.5 SD ± 14.5 vs 10.8, SD ± 12.5, P = 0.0001). There was a significant effect of having an advisory on total ICDC scores (F = 21.32, P ≤ 0.0001). History of shock also significantly increased total ICDC scores (F = 20.07, P

  18. Fuzzy logic-based diagnostic algorithm for implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárdossy, András; Blinowska, Aleksandra; Kuzmicz, Wieslaw; Ollitrault, Jacky; Lewandowski, Michał; Przybylski, Andrzej; Jaworski, Zbigniew

    2014-02-01

    The paper presents a diagnostic algorithm for classifying cardiac tachyarrhythmias for implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). The main aim was to develop an algorithm that could reduce the rate of occurrence of inappropriate therapies, which are often observed in existing ICDs. To achieve low energy consumption, which is a critical factor for implantable medical devices, very low computational complexity of the algorithm was crucial. The study describes and validates such an algorithm and estimates its clinical value. The algorithm was based on the heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. The input data for our algorithm were: RR-interval (I), as extracted from raw intracardiac electrogram (EGM), and in addition two other features of HRV called here onset (ONS) and instability (INST). 6 diagnostic categories were considered: ventricular fibrillation (VF), ventricular tachycardia (VT), sinus tachycardia (ST), detection artifacts and irregularities (including extrasystoles) (DAI), atrial tachyarrhythmias (ATF) and no tachycardia (i.e. normal sinus rhythm) (NT). The initial set of fuzzy rules based on the distributions of I, ONS and INST in the 6 categories was optimized by means of a software tool for automatic rule assessment using simulated annealing. A training data set with 74 EGM recordings was used during optimization, and the algorithm was validated with a validation data set with 58 EGM recordings. Real life recordings stored in defibrillator memories were used. Additionally the algorithm was tested on 2 sets of recordings from the PhysioBank databases: MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database and MIT-BIH Supraventricular Arrhythmia Database. A custom CMOS integrated circuit implementing the diagnostic algorithm was designed in order to estimate the power consumption. A dedicated Web site, which provides public online access to the algorithm, has been created and is available for testing it. The total number of events in our training and validation sets was 132. In

  19. Cardiogenic Shock and Lung Injury as a Complication of Defibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Serdar Kıhtır

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Local burns, embolism, and arrhythmia are the most common side effects observed after electrical shock treatments. However, systolic function may be rarely affected and pulmonary edema may develop. The cases of pulmonary edema after electrical shock treatments have been reported since 1960s and the proposed mechanism is the inadequacy of the left atrium cuff and ventricle. It was learned that a 7-year-old-girl without any known disease except vesicoureteral reflux had a ventricular fibrillation during general anesthesia induction and defibrillation at 2 joule/kg was attempted. It was also learned that the procedure was delayed and the patient was diagnosed with a long QT (QTc: 0.47 ms and had respiratory distress and circulatory disturbances after four hours. Pulmonary edema and heart failure was determined, and due to hipoxemia (SpO2 <88% not getting any better with non-invasive ventilation, the patient was intubated and followed with mechanical ventilation. A thermodilution catheter was inserted into the femoral artery and a low cardiac index (CI: 1.58 L/min/m2, elevated extravascular lung water index (EVLWI: 18 mL/kg and high pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI: 7.6 were determined. The patient was treated by mechanical ventilation and vasoactive/inotropic management and discharged at the fifth day of hospitalization without any sequela. Having high EVLWI with high PVPI suggest that the pulmonary edema mechanism may also be caused by alveolocapillary membrane damage, which is not accompanied by heart failure alone. This case is presented to show that it is the first child in the literature and that the results of transpulmonary thermodilution can also give information about lung function as well as cardiac function.

  20. Community socioeconomic status and public access defibrillators: A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Young; Do, Young Kyung; Shin, Sang Do; Park, Yong Joo; Ro, Young Sun; Lee, Eui Jung; Lee, Kyoung Won; Lee, Yu Jin

    2017-11-01

    Although current guidelines recommend that distribution of public-access defibrillators (PADs) should take into account area-level risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), community socioeconomic status (SES) can unduly influence policy implementation in positioning PADs. Using recent, complete data from Seoul Metropolitan City, Korea, this study aims to examine whether community SES is associated with distribution of PADs, in terms of per capita count and risk-grid coverage. A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted using three sources of administrative data: (1) PAD registry data (2007-2015), (2) OHCA database (2010-2014), and (3) community socioeconomic characteristics of two sub-city levels (neighborhoods nested in districts). We examined the relationship between neighborhood per capita tax, an SES proxy, with each of the two outcome variables. After examining per capita number of PADs and risk-grid coverage by neighborhood tax quartile, multilevel linear regression analysis was conducted to account for the nested nature of data and also to control for OHCA risk in the model. A total of 6609 PADs in 405 neighborhoods were included in the analysis. The average number of positioned PADs per 10,000 persons was 7.45, showing a gradient by neighborhood SES (4.92 in the lowest SES quartile vs 12.66 in the highest). Risk-grid coverage was around 10% across all neighborhood SES quartiles. These findings remained valid in the multilevel analysis: per capita number of PADs was still positively associated with neighborhood SES, while risk-grid coverage of PADs was not. More affluent neighborhoods in Seoul exhibit higher per capita PADs, even accounting for OHCA risk, while risk-grid coverage is generally low regardless of community SES. Seoul's ongoing program aimed to increase PAD coverage should also pay attention to improving community-level inequality as well as distributional efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Implantation of cardioverter-defibrillator: effects on shoulder function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemberger, Igor; Pegreffi, Francesco; Mazzotti, Andrea; Foschi, Elia; Martignani, Cristian; Belli, Guido; Biffi, Mauro; Ziacchi, Matteo; Branzi, Angelo; Grigioni, Francesco; Maietta Latessa, Pasqualino; Porcellini, Giuseppe; Tentoni, Claudio; Boriani, Giuseppe

    2013-09-20

    Subcutaneous almost substituted subpectoral approach of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation as a less invasive surgical technique. However, the impact of this change in placement site on procedure-related shoulder impairment is poorly understood. Candidates for ICD implantation were prospectively evaluated at baseline, 2-weeks and 3-months after the procedure. Assessment of shoulder function included: Constant Score, Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) for pain and the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scoring method. The Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire was adopted for quality of life. Fifty consecutive patients were enrolled (21 single-chamber, 5 dual-chamber and 24 biventricular ICD). Significant changes in the short term were observed: physical component summary (regarding SF-36) decreased from 44.5 ± 9.1 to 41.8 ± 11.4 (p=0.016), patients with NRS >1 increased from 14% to 44% (p<0.001), DASH score increased from 1.29 [interquartile range 0.00-10.34] to 30.60 [interquartile range 12.93-46.34] (p<0.001). Notably, only the shoulder ipsilateral to implantation site presented a decrease in Constant Score (76.00 [interquartile range 61.37-86.87] vs. 95.75 [interquartile range 91.37-98.00]; p<0.001). After three months most of the parameters seemed to have recovered, except for range of motion. Procedure-related increase in pain (i.e. NRS increase ≥ 1 point) was the most important independent predictor of shoulder impairment, in terms of Constant Score modification (r=0.570; p<0.001). ICD implantation is frequently associated with ipsilateral shoulder impairment which tends to recover within 3-months. These data positively compare with the subpectoral approach and should be considered for future research regarding impact of ICD implant on physical well-being and quality of life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Survival of patients with the automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercando, A D; Furman, S; Johnston, D; Frame, R; Brodman, R; Kim, S G; Fisher, J D

    1988-11-01

    Between May 1982 and May 1988, 37 patients (28 males and 9 females, mean age 57.6, range 16-76 years) of approximately 600 evaluated for sustained ventricular tachycardia and/or fibrillation (VT/VF) were treated with an automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD). Twenty-eight of the patients had coronary artery disease, 7 had nonischemic cardiomyopathy, 1 had amyloid heart disease, and 1 had rheumatic heart disease. The mean ejection fraction was 32.2 +/- 12.9% (range, 9-64%). Eleven patients have died at a mean of 16.7 months after implantation. The cumulative survival rate was 81% at 1 year, 77% at 2 years, 68% at 3 years, and 53% at 4, 5, and 6 years. Considering only sudden deaths, the survival was 97% at 1 and 2 years, 90% at 3 years, and 80% at 4, 5, and 6 years. Twenty-one of the 37 patients received spontaneous shocks. If the first shock marks the time to death in the absence of an AICD, the cumulative survival rate would have been 56% at 1 year, 42% at 2 years, 29% at 3 years, and 14% at 4, 5, and 6 years. The maximum amount of time to a first appropriate shock was 39.7 months. Thirty-nine devices have been explanted: 28 for battery depletion; 5 for infections; 3 for improper sensing; 2 for electronic failure; and 1 at the time of cardiac transplantation. The average time to failure of the 28 units removed for battery depletion was 19.8 +/- 6.9 months.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. The effect of intermittent atrial tachyarrhythmia on heart failure or death in cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator versus implantable cardioverter-defibrillator patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Pietrasik, Grzegorz; Goldenberg, Ilan

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the effect of both history of intermittent atrial tachyarrhythmias (IAT) and in-trial IAT on the risk of heart failure (HF) or death comparing cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) to implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD......) treatment in mildly symptomatic HF patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB). BACKGROUND: Limited data exist regarding the benefit of CRT-D in patients with IAT. METHODS: The benefit of CRT-D in reducing the risk of HF/death was evaluated using multivariate Cox models incorporating the presence of......-D versus ICD on the risk of HF/death was not significantly different between LBBB patients with or without history of IAT (HR: 0.50, p = 0.028, and HR: 0.46, p

  4. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P.; Hongisto, M.; Siitonen, S.; Johansson, M.

    1999-01-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  5. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  6. ZP123 reduces energy required for defibrillation by preventing connexin43 remodeling during prolonged ventricular fibrillation in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shao-lei; Zhong, Jing-quan; Zhang, Jing; Su, Guo-ying; Li, Jing-sha; Liu, Hong-zhen; Zhang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    In ventricular fibrillation, the uncoupling of gap junctions slows conduction velocity and increases action-potential dispersion, which slows and diminishes defibrillation. We studied how the peptide ZP123, a gap-junction enhancer, might lower defibrillation-energy requirements during ventricular fibrillation in live pigs. We randomly assigned 33 pigs into 3 groups: ZP123 (receiving a 1-µg/kg bolus and 10 µg/kg/hr of ZP123), control (receiving saline solution), and sham (undergoing a sham operation). After a 30-min administration of agents, ventricular fibrillation was induced and left untreated for 8 min. Biphasic defibrillation of 50 J was increased by 50-J increments as necessary. Defibrillation-energy requirements were defined as the lowest energy required to achieve defibrillation. Electrocardiographic values were obtained before and after the administration of agents. Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses were performed on ventricular myocardial samples. All but one pig survived. The ZP123 treatment did not alter electrocardiographic variables. In the ZP123 group, the average required defibrillation energy was lower than that in the control group (327.28±269.6 vs 610±192.64 J; P=0.015), and the cumulative percentage of successful defibrillation at upper energy levels was higher (Pdefibrillation-energy requirements by preventing connexin43 remodeling during prolonged ventricular fibrillation.

  7. Temporal Influence of Heart Failure Hospitalizations Prior to Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator or Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy With Defibrillator on Subsequent Outcome in Mild Heart Failure Patients (from MADIT-CRT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Andy Y; Moss, Arthur J; Ruwald, Martin H

    2015-01-01

    and effects on subsequent outcomes and benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy with a defibrillator (CRT-D). Multivariate Cox models were used to determine the temporal influence of previous HF hospitalization on the end point of HF or death within all left bundle branch block implantable cardioverter-defibrillator...... (ICD) and CRT-D patients enrolled in the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial-Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (MADIT-CRT) trial (n = 1,250) and to evaluate the clinical benefit of CRT-D implantation, comparing CRT-D patients with ICD patients within each previous HF hospitalization...

  8. Association between patient activity and long-term cardiac death in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuang; Chen, Keping; Su, Yangang; Hua, Wei; Chen, Silin; Liang, Zhaoguang; Xu, Wei; Dai, Yan; Liu, Zhimin; Fan, Xiaohan; Hou, Cuihong; Zhang, Shu

    2017-05-01

    Background Patient activity (PA) has been demonstrated to predict all-cause mortality. However, the association between PA and cardiac death is unclear. Aims The aims of this study were to determine whether PA can predict cardiac death and what is the cut-off of PA to discriminate cardiac death, as well as the mechanism underlying the relationship between PA and survival in patients with home monitoring. Methods This study retrospectively analysed clinical and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator/cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator device data in 845 patients. Data regarding PA and PP variability during the first 30-60 days of home monitoring were collected, and mean values were calculated. The primary endpoint was cardiac death, and the secondary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Results The mean PA percentage was 11 ± 5.8%. Based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, we determined that a PA cut-off value of 7.84% (113 min) can predict cardiac death. During a mean follow-up period of 31.1 ± 12.9 months (ranging from three to 60 months), PA ≤ 7.84% was associated with increased risks of cardiac death in an unadjusted analysis; after adjusting in a multivariate Cox model, the relationship remained significant between PA≤7.84% and cardiac death (hazard ratio = 3.644, 95% confidence interval = 2.424-5.477, p defibrillator/cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator implantation. PA had a sizable effect on heart rate variability, reflecting autonomic function.

  9. Spanish implantable cardioverter-defibrillator registry. Eighth official report of the Spanish Society of Cardiology Working Group on Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzueta, Javier; Fernández, José María

    2012-11-01

    To summarize the findings of the Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Registry for 2011 compiled by the Electrophysiology and Arrhythmia Section of the Spanish Society of Cardiology. Each implantation team voluntarily and prospectively recorded data on a data collection form, which was then sent to the Spanish Society of Cardiology. Overall, 4481 device implantations were notified, representing 83.6% of the estimated total number of implantations. The notified implantation rate was 97 per million population and the estimated total implantation rate was 116.2 per million. First implantations accounted for 70.2% of the total notified. Data were collected from 167 hospitals (22 more than in 2010). Most implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantations took place in men (82.1%). The mean age was 62.4 (14.1) years. Most patients had severe or moderate-to-severe ventricular dysfunction and were in New York Heart Association functional class II. The most frequent underlying cardiac condition was ischemic heart disease, followed by dilated cardiomyopathy. The number of indications for primary prevention increased over the previous year and accounted for 70.6% of first implantations. Overall, 78.4% of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators were implanted by cardiac electrophysiologists. The 2011 Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Registry includes data on almost 84% of all implantations of these devices performed in Spain. This was the first year in which the number of implants decreased slightly from the previous year, as also occurred in the rest of Europe. The percentage of implants for primary prevention continued to increase. Full English text available from:www.revespcardiol.org. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Wearable cardioverter defibrillators for the prevention of sudden cardiac arrest: a health technology assessment and patient focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettinger S

    2017-11-01

    -to-medium term, but the quality of existing evidence is very low. AEs and SAEs need to be more appropriately reported in order to further evaluate the safety of the device. High-quality comparative evidence and well-described disease groups are required to assess the effectiveness of the WCD and to determine which patient groups may benefit most from the intervention. Keywords: sudden cardiac arrest, ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, cardioverter defibrillator, external, wearable, patient involvement

  11. [Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Registry. Fourth Official Report of the Spanish Society of Cardiology Working Group on Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators (2007)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinado Peinado, Rafael; Torrecilla, Esteban G; Ormaetxe, José; Alvarez, Miguel

    2008-11-01

    This article presents the 2007 findings of the Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (ICD) Registry, established by the Working Group on Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators, Electrophysiology and Arrhythmia Section, Spanish Society of Cardiology. The Spanish Society of Cardiology received prospective data recorded on a single-page questionnaire on 96.6% of device implantations. Overall, 3,291 implantations were reported (90.1% of the estimated total). The reported implantation rate was 72.8 per million inhabitants, and 77.1% were first implantations. The majority of ICDs were implanted in males (mean age, 61 [12] years) in functional class II with severe or moderate-to-severe left ventricular dysfunction. The most frequent form of heart disease was ischemic heart disease, followed by dilated cardiomyopathy. Indications for primary prevention remained unchanged relative to the previous year and now account for half of all first implantations, with an increasing number of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. The number of ICDs incorporating cardiac resynchronization therapy has increased slightly and now comprises 30.1% of the total. Around 70% of ICD implantations were performed in an electrophysiology laboratory by a cardiac electrophysiologist. The incidence of complications was very low. The 2007 Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Registry contains data on more than 90% of all ICD implantations performed in Spain, thereby confirming that it has become increasingly representative in recent years. The number of implantations has continued to grow, though the proportion carried out for primary prevention has stabilized at around 50%.

  12. ASH External Web Portal (External Portal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASH External Web Portal is a web-based portal that provides single sign-on functionality, making the web portal a single location from which to be authenticated...

  13. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy for prevention of sudden cardiac death in children in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heersche, Jogien H. M.; Blom, Nico A.; van de Heuvel, Freek; Blank, Christiaan; Reimer, Annette G.; Clur, Sally-Ann; Witsenburg, Maarten; ten Harkel, A. Derk Jan

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy is increasingly used in children. The purpose of this multicenter study is to evaluate mid-term clinical outcome and to identify predictors for device discharge in pediatric ICD recipients. METHODS AND RESULTS: From 1995 to 2006, 45

  14. SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH AND THE USE OF IMPLANTABLE CARDIOVERTER-DEFIBRILLATORS IN PEDIATRIC-PATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SILKA, MJ; KRON, J; DUNNIGAN, A; DICK, M; BINKBOELKENS, M; ERICKSON, CC; JEDEIKIN, R; WETZEL, GT; VANHARE, GF; CAMPBELL, R; WALSH, E; SAUL, JP; SCHAFFER, MS; KARPAWICH, P; VOGEL, RL; BENSON, DW; DEAL, B; SCAGLIOTTI, D; STERBA, R; HORDOF, AJ; KRONGRAD, E; KANTER, RJ; EPSTEIN, M; COHEN, M; BEDER, S; HAMILTON, R; FOURNIER, A; HUBBARD, J; CHRISTIANSEN, JL; JENNINGS, J; VILLAFANE, J; PORTER, CBJ; CASE, C; GILLETTE, PC; BELAND, M; KUGLER, JD; OCONNOR, BK; ALLENDER, H; HERNDON, SP; SMITH, RT; BURTON, D; KURER, CC; BYRUM, C; GUAM, WE; FRIEDMAN, R; PERRY, JC; SCOTT, W; MEHTA, AV; PICKHOFF, AS; FISH, F; YEAGER, S; KAWABORI, [No Value; TRIPPLE, M; ROSENFELD, LE

    Background. During the past decade. the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) has emerged as the primary therapeutic option for survivors of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Investigation of the clinical efficacy of these devices has primarily assessed outcome in adults with coronary artery

  15. Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Therapy for Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death in Children in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heersche, Jogien H. M.; Blom, Nico A.; Van De Heuvel, Freek; Blank, Christiaan; Reimer, Annette G.; Clur, Sally-Ann; Witsenburg, Maarten; Ten Harkel, A. Derk Jan

    Introduction: Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy is increasingly used in children. The purpose of this multicenter study is to evaluate mid-term clinical outcome and to identify predictors for device discharge in pediatric ICD recipients. Methods and Results: From 1995 to 2006, 45

  16. Sex differences in outcomes of primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sticherling, Christian; Arendacka, Barbora; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

    2018-01-01

    Aims: Therapy with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is established for the prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in high risk patients. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of primary prevention ICD therapy by analysing registry data from 14 centres in 11 European countries...

  17. Employment Status and Sick Leave After First-Time Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Øhlers, Anne Alexandrine; Zwisler, Ann Dorthe

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: In the Copenhagen Outpatient Programme–Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (COPE-ICD) Trial, a positive effect from a cost-saving, comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation program was found on physical and mental health in patients with ICDs. OBJECTIVE:: In the context of the COPE...

  18. Illness perceptions in patients with heart failure and an implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, I.; Versteeg, H.; Meine, Mathias M

    2017-01-01

    and clinical and psychological correlates of the B-IPQ in Dutch, French and German patients with heart failure and an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Method European heart failure patients (n=585) participating in the REMOTE-CIED study completed a set of questionnaires 1–2weeks post ICD...

  19. Emotional distress in partners of patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broek, Krista C; Habibović, Mirela; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2010-01-01

    Both patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and their partners face challenges when adapting to the ICD. Distress is a burden on its own for partners but may also affect well being and health of patients. This review provides a systematic overview of the literature on psych...

  20. Anxiety and risk of ventricular arrhythmias or mortality in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibovic, M.; Pedersen, S.S.; van den Broek, K.C.; Theuns, D.A.M.J.; Jordaens, L.; van der Voort, P.H.J.; Alings, M.; Denollet, J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A subgroup of patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) experiences anxiety after device implantation. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether anxiety is predictive of ventricular arrhythmias and all-cause mortality 1 year post ICD implantation.

  1. Undertreatment of anxiety and depression in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogwegt, Madelein T; Kupper, Nina; Theuns, Dominic A M J

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-five to 33% of patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) experience anxiety and depression, but it is not known whether their symptoms are adequately treated. We investigated (a) whether patients with clinically relevant symptoms of distress received appropriate treatment...

  2. Psychometric analysis of the Patient Health Questionnaire in Danish patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Mathiasen, Kim; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the psychometric properties of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), a measure of depressive symptoms, in a large Danish national cohort of patients with heart disease, implanted with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), using item response theory. METHODS...

  3. Gender disparities in anxiety and quality of life in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habibović, Mirela; van den Broek, Krista C; Theuns, Dominic A M J

    2011-01-01

    A paucity of studies in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) patients has examined gender disparities in patient-reported outcomes, such as anxiety and quality of life (QoL). We investigated (i) gender disparities in anxiety and QoL and (ii) the magnitude of the effect of gender vs. New...

  4. Emotional distress, positive affect, and mortality in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, K.C.; Tekle, F.B.; Habibovic, M.; Alings, M.; van der Voort, P.H.; Denollet, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the relationship between emotional distress and mortality in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Our aim was to examine the predictive value of general negative and positive affect, and depressive symptoms (including its components somatic

  5. Long-Term Clinical Outcomes of Subcutaneous Versus Transvenous Implantable Defibrillator Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Tom F.; Yilmaz, Dilek; Lindeboom, Robert; Buiten, Maurits S.; Olde Nordkamp, Louise R. A.; Schalij, Martin J.; Wilde, Arthur A.; van Erven, Lieselot; Knops, Reinoud E.

    2016-01-01

    Transvenous implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (TV-ICDs) improve survival in patients at risk for sudden cardiac death, but complications remain an important drawback. The subcutaneous ICD (S-ICD) was developed to overcome lead-related complications. Comparison of clinical outcomes of both

  6. Clinical effects and implications of cardiac rehabilitation for implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Selina Kikkenborg; Moons, Philip; Christensen, Anne Vingaard

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: The Copenhagen Outpatient ProgrammE-Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator trial was a randomized clinical trial that compared a complex rehabilitation intervention including exercise training and psychoeducational interventions with usual care. A significant difference between rehab...... and death and regain trust in their bodies. CONCLUSION:: The program has a clinical effect and is perceived as beneficial through supportive coping....

  7. Pre implantation psychological functioning preserved in majority of implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients 12 months post implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Hoogwegt, Madelein T; Jordaens, Luc

    2013-01-01

    The impact of ICD therapy on patient well being has typically focused on mean differences between groups, thereby neglecting changes within individuals. Using an intra-individual approach, we examined (i) the prevalence of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) patients maintaining their pre...... implantation level of psychological functioning at 12 months, and (ii) factors associated with deterioration in functioning....

  8. Experiences of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator in Turkey: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Aslan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There has been an increase in the number of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD. It isimportant to understand ICD patients’ experiences with it.Aim. The aim of this study was to describe experiences of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD.Methodology. A qualitative approach was used. Focus group interviews were used to obtain data from 19 patients whowere implanted cardioverter defibrillator at two centers in Izmir, Turkey. The patients were assigned into four groups. Thedata was analyzed using qualitative content analysis.Results. The analysis revealed six main themes: activities of daily living, social life, familial relationships, emotionalchanges, implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks and experiences with receiving information and counselling fromhealth care providers.Conclusions. It can be concluded that patients with ICD experience physical and psychological problems and are not offeredthe education they need. To reduce the fears of the patients and their families and to prepare them for possible life stylechanges, comprehensive training programs that start in the pre-implantation period and continue into the post-implantationperiod should be organized.

  9. Cardiac Arrest During Medically-Supervised Exercise Training: A Report of Fifteen Successful Defibrillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyfer, Howard R.; And Others

    The Cardio-Pulmonary Research Institute conducted an exercise program for men with a history of coronary heart disease. Over 7 years, there were 15 cases of cardiac arrest during exercise (one for every 6,000 man-hours of exercise). Trained medical personnel were present in all cases, and all were resuscitated by electrical defibrillation with no…

  10. Dual defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A retrospective cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Elliot M; Redman, Theodore T; Harper, Stephen A; Mapp, Julian G; Wampler, David A; Miramontes, David A

    2016-09-01

    The goal of our study is to determine if prehospital dual defibrillation (DD) is associated with better neurologically intact survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. This study is a retrospective cohort analysis of prospectively collected Quality Assurance/Quality Improvement data from a large urban fire based EMS system out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) database between Jan 2013 and Dec 2015. Our inclusion criteria were administration of DD or at least four conventional 200J defibrillations for cases of recurrent and refractory ventricular fibrillation (VF). We excluded any case with incomplete data. The primary outcome for our study was neurologically intact survival (defined as Cerebral Performance Category 1 and 2). A total of 3470 cases of OHCA were treated during the time period of Jan 2013 to Dec 2015. There were 302 cases of recurrent and refractory VF identified. Twenty-three cases had incomplete data. Of the remaining 279 cases, 50 were treated with DD and 229 received standard single shock 200J defibrillations. There was no statistically significant difference in the primary outcome of neurologically intact survival between the DD group (6%) and the standard defibrillation group (11.4%) (p=0.317) (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.15-1.72). Our retrospective cohort analysis on the prehospital use of DD in OHCA found no association with neurologically intact survival. Case-control studies are needed to further evaluate the efficacy of DD in the prehospital setting. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Ventricular fibrillation and transient arrhythmias after defibrillation in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, R. H.; Koster, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Ventricular fibrillation (VF) and transient arrhythmias after defibrillation were analyzed from the recordings of 28 patients containing at least one episode of ventricular fibrillation. An R-on-T extrasystole initiated VF in 60% of the episodes. Other initiating factors were a late premature beat

  12. Psychosocial impact of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) in young adults with Tetralogy of Fallot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opic, Petra; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.; Moons, Philip; Theuns, Dominic A. M. J.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; Hoendermis, Elke S.; Vliegen, Hubert W.; de Groot, Natasja M. S.; Witsenburg, Maarten; Schalij, Martin; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.

    To investigate the psychosocial impact of having an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) in adults with Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF). Included were 26 ToF-patients with an ICD (age 44 +/- A 12 years), and two control groups consisting of 28 ToF-patients without an ICD (age 40 +/- A 10 years)

  13. Psychosocial impact of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) in young adults with Tetralogy of Fallot.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opic, P.; Utens, E.M.; Moons, P.; Theuns, D.A.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Hoendermis, E.S.; Vliegen, H.W.; Groot, N.M. de; Witsenburg, M.; Schalij, M.; Roos-Hesselink, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the psychosocial impact of having an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) in adults with Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF). METHODS: Included were 26 ToF-patients with an ICD (age 44 +/- 12 years), and two control groups consisting of 28 ToF-patients without an ICD (age 40

  14. Psychosocial impact of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) in young adults with Tetralogy of Fallot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Opic (Petra); E.M.W.J. Utens (Elisabeth); P. Moons (Philip); D.A.M.J. Theuns (Dominic); A.P.J. van Dijk (Arie); E.S. Hoendermis (Elke); H.W. Vliegen (Hubert); N.M.S. de Groot (Natasja); M. Witsenburg (Maarten); M.J. Schalij (Martin Jan); J.W. Roos-Hesselink (Jolien)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective To investigate the psychosocial impact of having an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) in adults with Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF). Methods Included were 26 ToF-patients with an ICD (age 44 ± 12 years), and two control groups consisting of 28 ToF-patients without an ICD

  15. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator treatment : benefits and pitfalls in the currently indicated population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borleffs, Carel Jan Willem

    2010-01-01

    On one hand, clinicians have expressed concern that the number-needed-to-treat for primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) might be too high and that the population eligible for primary prevention ICD treatment is of such magnitude that ICD therapy will strain financial

  16. Combined leadless pacemaker and subcutaneous implantable defibrillator therapy: feasibility, safety, and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong, F. V. Y.; Brouwer, T. F.; Smeding, L.; Kooiman, K. M.; de Groot, J. R.; Ligon, D.; Sanghera, R.; Schalij, M. J.; Wilde, A. A. M.; Knops, R. E.

    2016-01-01

    The subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) and leadless pacemaker (LP) are evolving technologies that do not require intracardiac leads. However, interactions between these two devices are unexplored. We investigated the feasibility, safety, and performance of combined LP and

  17. How to program pulse duration or tilt in implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irnich, Werner

    2003-01-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are available with independently programmable duration and tilt of the shock pulse waveform. Manufacturers do not, however, commonly advise how these parameters can be programmed for optimal clinical benefit. From theoretical considerations, the author recommends programming both parameters based on the measured lead system resistance R into which the shock is delivered. Assuming that the defibrillation pulse decline below the defibrillation threshold rheobase is undesirable because of the possibility of refibrillation. Mathematical relationships expressing optimal pulse duration and tilt as functions of the output time constant can be derived that are valid for monophasic pulses and the first phase of biphasic pulses. Two ICD manufacturers provide for programmable tilt (Medtronic GEM III, atrial channel) or both tilt T and pulse duration PD. (St. Jude Medical newest devices). Considering its output capacitance, it is recommended that the Medtronic Gem III should be programmed for T = 50% when R defibrillation, but it is suggested that this can best be accomplished by programming these parameters with the guidance of theory as described in this discussion.

  18. Right ventricular pacing and the risk of heart failure in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Marcelle D.; Van Dessel, Pascal F. H. M.; Nieuwland, Wybe; Wiesfeld, Ans C. P.; Tan, Eng S.; Anthonio, Rutger L.; Van Erven, Lieselot; Van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Van Gelder, Isabelle C.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Right ventricular (RV) pacing in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) patients may have detrimental effects on morbidity and mortality, in particular by inducing heart failure (HF). OBJECTIVE We investigated whether RV pacing increases the risk of HF in an asymptomatic ICD

  19. Psychological Indices as Predictors for Phantom Shocks in Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starrenburg, Annemieke H.; Kraaier, Karin; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Scholten, Marcoen; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background A phantom shock—the sensation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) discharge in the absence of an actual discharge—is a phenomenon that can occur in ICD patients. Little is known about the influence of psychological factors on the incidence of phantom shocks. We evaluated

  20. Incidence and predictors of phantom shocks in implantable cardioverter defibrilator recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaier, K.; Starrenburg, A.H.; Verheggen, R.M.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Scholten, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are designed to deliver shocks or antitachycardia pacing (ATP) in the event of ventricular arrhythmias. During follow-up, some ICD recipients experience the sensation of ICD discharge in the absence of an actual discharge (phantom shock). The

  1. Psychological indices as predictors for phantom shocks in implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starrenburg, A.; Kraaier, K.; Pedersen, S.S.; Scholten, M.; van der Palen, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background A phantom shock—the sensation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) discharge in the absence of an actual discharge—is a phenomenon that can occur in ICD patients. Little is known about the influence of psychological factors on the incidence of phantom shocks. We evaluated

  2. Increased anxiety in partners of patients with a cardioverter-defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; VAN DEN Berg, Martha; Erdman, Ruud A M

    2009-01-01

    The partner of the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) patient serves as an important source of support for the patient, which may be hampered if the partner experiences increased distress. We examined (1) potential differences in anxiety and depressive symptoms in ICD patients compared...

  3. Clinical evaluation of the safety of repetitive intraoperative defibrillation threshold testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, R; Brodman, R; Furman, S; Kim, S G; Roth, J; Ferrick, K; Hollinger, I; Gross, J; Fisher, J D

    1992-06-01

    One goal of the initial implantation procedure for a cardioverter defibrillator is determination of the configuration and patch location with the lowest defibrillation threshold (DFT). To determine the safety of multiple defibrillation tests, an analysis of the intraoperative defibrillation threshold tests (DFTT) in our patients was performed. In 84 patients, the mean number of DFT trials was 5.27; the mean number of joules received was 275.0. The maximum number of shocks in one implant procedure was 50 for a total of 4,895 joules without complications. Four patients received 30 or more DFT shocks without complication. There were two complications related directly to the DFTT: one patient with severe noninflammatory cardiomyopathy developed electromechanical dissociation and was subsequently resuscitated and survived; the second patient with severe triple vessel coronary artery disease suffered an intraoperative myocardial infarction during testing and eventually died 22 days postoperatively. All patients received an ICD unit; six patients had DFTs of greater than 20 joules. Based on our experience, we followed the clinical status (heart rate, blood pressure, ECG changes, fluid status, total anesthesia time) during the DFTT to determine the extent and duration of our testing protocol. Multiple shocks due to repositioning of the leads in a stable patient should not prohibit extensive testing as adverse consequences do not appear to be cumulative.

  4. The External Nasal Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Grant S

    2017-05-01

    The external nasal valve is a complex entity comprised of multiple structures and tissue types. As such, there is no single operation that can address all problems of the external valve. This article reviews the relevant anatomy, pathologic conditions, and treatments for external nasal valve dysfunction, including a detailed review of the nasal muscles and their contribution to external nasal valve patency. Surgical and nonsurgical options for treatment and the evidence supporting the importance of proper external nasal valve function on quality-of-life measures are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Stepped defibrillation waveform is substantially more efficient than the 50/50% tilt biphasic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Karlheinz; Denman, Russell A; Moulder, J Christopher; Mouchawar, Gabriel; Stoeppler, Christoph; Becker, Torsten; Weise, Udo; Anskey, Emma J; Burnett, Helen E; Kroll, Mark W

    2006-12-01

    Even with biphasic waveforms, patients with high defibrillation thresholds (DFTs) still are seen; thus, improved defibrillation waveforms may be of clinical utility. The stepped waveform has three parts: the first portion is positive with two capacitors in parallel, the second is positive with the capacitors in series, and the last portion is negative, also with the capacitors in series. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical utility of improved defibrillation waveforms. We measured the delivered energy DFT in 20 patients in a dual-site study using the stepped waveform and a 50/50% tilt biphasic truncated exponential as the control. All shocks were delivered using an arbitrary waveform defibrillator, which was programmed to mimic two 220-microF capacitors (110 microF in series and 440 microF in parallel). The peak voltage at DFT was reduced in 19 of the 20 patients. The median peak voltage was reduced by 32.0%, from 472 V to 321 V (P voltage and energy were reduced by 25.3% and 20.2%, respectively. On average, the stepped waveform was able to defibrillate as well as the 50/50% tilt biphasic, with 33% more energy. The benefit was more pronounced in patients with either a lower ejection fraction or a superior vena cava coil. The benefit of the stepped waveform had an inverse quadratic correlation with the resistance (r(2) = 0.47), suggesting that the capacitance values chosen for the stepped waveform were close to optimal for a 35-Omega resistance. The stepped waveform reduced the DFT compared to the 50/50% tilt waveform in this preliminary study.

  6. Comparison of defibrillation efficacy using biphasic waveforms delivered from various capacitances/pulse widths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J H; Stotts, L J; Rosborough, J P; Frederick, H

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy of the biphasic waveform shock for the defibrillation of the ventricular myocardium has been reported by researchers and physicians. Although many authors have suggested that biphasic waveforms delivered from lower capacitances and shorter pulse widths could result in the reduction of the energy required for successful defibrillation, no report has described the smallest capacitance and pulse width yielding the lowest DFT. In this study, we compared efficacies of the biphasic waveform shocks and DFT safety margins among five different capacitances (175 mu f, 125 mu f. 100 mu f. 75 mu f, and 50 mu f) combined with 1-3 pulse widths. These experiments performed in six dogs used an endocardial lead/subcutaneous patch defibrillation electrode system. The average DFTs at E50 for 175 mu f (6.5/3.5 ms), 125 mu f (6.5/3.5 ms), 100 mu f (6.0/3.0 ms), 75 mu f (4.0/2.0) ms, and 50 mu f (3.0/2.0 ms) were 8.5, 10.0, 11.0, 14.0, and 16.5), respectively. These results indicate that a biphasic waveform delivered from a larger capacitance with a proper pulse width could achieve a higher defibrillation efficacy. All DFTs at E50 for all waveforms were compared to their deliverable energies and maximum stored energies. This comparison indicated a narrow DFT safety margin with capacitances below 100 mu f. Therefore, it is concluded that higher energy and higher leading edge voltage are required for a biphasic waveform delivered from a smaller capacitance with a shorter pulse width. Since the current capacitor technology provides a maximum voltage of 750 V using two capacitors in series, with the electrode impedance system used in this study, smaller capacitors appear to have a decreased probability of defibrillation success at a given energy.

  7. The effects of second and third phase duration on defibrillation efficacy of triphasic rectangle waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ce; Wang, Pei; Gong, Yushun; Wei, Liang; Li, Yongqin; Zhang, Shaoxiang

    2016-05-01

    Biphasic waveforms are superior to monophasic waveforms for the termination of ventricular fibrillation (VF). However, whether triphasic waveforms are more effective than biphasic ones is still controversial. In the present study, we investigated the effects of second and third phase duration of triphasic rectangle waveform on defibrillation efficacy in a rabbit model of VF. VF was electrically induced and untreated for 30s in 20 New Zealand rabbits. A defibrillatory shock was applied with one of the 7 waveforms: 6 triphasic rectangle waveforms and a biphasic rectangle waveform. The triphasic waveforms had identical first duration but with different second and third phase durations. A 5 step up-and-down protocol was utilized for determining the defibrillation threshold (DFT). After a 5min interval, the procedure was repeated. A total of 35 cardiac arrest events and defibrillations were investigated for each animal. Two triphasic waveforms with identical first and second phase duration but shorter third phase duration had significantly lower DFT energy than biphasic waveform (0.57±0.18J vs. 0.80±0.28J, p=0.001; 0.60±0.18J vs. 0.80±0.28J, p=0.003). However, no statistical difference in DFT energy was observed between the two triaphsic waveforms that had identical phase duration but different voltages (0.57±0.18J vs. 0.60±0.18J, p=0.638). Phase durations played a main role on defibrillation success for triphasic rectangle waveforms. The optimal triphasic rectangle waveforms that composed of identical second and first phase durations but with shorter third pulse were superior to biphasic rectangle waveform for ventricular defibrillation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Implantable Cardioverter-defibrillator Therapy for Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Usefulness in Primary and Secondary Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrias, Axel; Galve, Enrique; Sabaté, Xavier; Moya, Àngel; Anguera, Ignacio; Núñez, Elaine; Villuendas, Roger; Alcalde, Óscar; García-Dorado, David

    2015-06-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a frequent cause of sudden death. Clinical practice guidelines indicate defibrillator implantation for primary prevention in patients with 1 or more risk factors and for secondary prevention in patients with a history of aborted sudden death or sustained ventricular arrhythmias. The aim of the present study was to analyze the follow-up of patients who received an implantable defibrillator following the current guidelines in nonreferral centers for this disease. This retrospective observational study included all patients who underwent defibrillator implantation between January 1996 and December 2012 in 3 centers in the province of Barcelona. The study included 69 patients (mean age [standard deviation], 44.8 [17] years; 79.3% men), 48 in primary prevention and 21 in secondary prevention. The mean number of risk factors per patient was 1.8 in the primary prevention group and 0.5 in the secondary prevention group (P=.029). The median follow-up duration was 40.5 months. The appropriate therapy rate was 32.7/100 patient-years in secondary prevention and 1.7/100 patient-years in primary prevention (P<.001). Overall mortality was 10.1%. Implant-related complications were experienced by 8.7% of patients, and 13% had inappropriate defibrillator discharges. In patients with a defibrillator for primary prevention, the appropriate therapy rate is extremely low, indicating the low predictive power of the current risk stratification criteria. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Sleep disturbance in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator: Prevalence, predictors and impact on health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibović, M; Mudde, L; Pedersen, S S; Schoormans, D; Widdershoven, J; Denollet, J

    2017-12-01

    Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in patients with cardiac diseases and associated with poor health outcomes. However, little is known about sleep disturbance in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. We examined the prevalence and predictors of sleep disturbance and the impact on perceived health status in a Dutch cohort of implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients. Patients ( n=195) enrolled in the Web-based distress program for implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients (WEBCARE) trial completed questionnaires at the time of implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation, three, six and 12 months afterwards. Sleep disturbance was assessed with the corresponding item #3 of the Patient Health Questionnaire 9. At baseline, 67% ( n=130) reported sleep disturbance (cut off ≥1). One year later, the prevalence was 57% ( n=112). Younger age (odds ratio=0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.92-0.99; p=0.012) and high negative affectivity/low social inhibition (odds ratio=4.47, 95% confidence interval 1.52-13.17; p=0.007) were associated with sleep disturbance at 12 months in adjusted analyses. Sleep disturbance was not associated with health status at 12 months. Charlson Comorbidity Index, anxiety, Type D personality and high negative affectivity/low social inhibition were associated with impaired health status at follow-up. Sleep disturbance was highly prevalent in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Younger age and high negative affectivity predicted sleep disturbance 12 months post-implantation independent of other demographic, clinical, intervention and psychological covariates. Sleep disturbance was not associated with impaired health status at the 12-month follow-up.

  10. Influence of diabetes mellitus on inappropriate and appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy and mortality in the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial-Reduce Inappropriate Therapy (MADIT-RIT) Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin H.; Zareba, Wojciech; Jons, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between diabetes mellitus and risk of inappropriate or appropriate therapy in patients receiving an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) and resynchronization therapy has not been investigated thoroughly. The effect of innovative ICD programming on therapy delivery...

  11. Implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Prophylactic use: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The use of implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) to prevent sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest or documented dangerous ventricular arrhythmias (secondary prevention of SCD) is an insured service. In 2003 (before the establishment of the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee), the Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a health technology policy assessment on the prophylactic use (primary prevention of SCD) of ICDs for patients at high risk of SCD. The Medical Advisory Secretariat concluded that ICDs are effective for the primary prevention of SCD. Moreover, it found that a more clearly defined target population at risk for SCD that would be likely to benefit from ICDs is needed, given that the number needed to treat (NNT) from recent studies is 13 to 18, and given that the per-unit cost of ICDs is $32,000, which means that the projected cost to Ontario is $770 million (Cdn). Accordingly, as part of an annual review and publication of more recent articles, the Medical Advisory Secretariat updated its health technology policy assessment of ICDs. SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH IS CAUSED BY THE SUDDEN ONSET OF FATAL ARRHYTHMIAS, OR ABNORMAL HEART RHYTHMS: ventricular tachycardia (VT), a rhythm abnormality in which the ventricles cause the heart to beat too fast, and ventricular fibrillation (VF), an abnormal, rapid and erratic heart rhythm. About 80% of fatal arrhythmias are associated with ischemic heart disease, which is caused by insufficient blood flow to the heart. Management of VT and VF with antiarrhythmic drugs is not very effective; for this reason, nonpharmacological treatments have been explored. One such treatment is the ICD. An ICD is a battery-powered device that, once implanted, monitors heart rhythm and can deliver an electric shock to restore normal rhythm when potentially fatal arrhythmias are detected. The use of ICDs to prevent SCD in patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest or documented dangerous ventricular

  12. Multicentre comparison Of shock efficacy using single-vs. Dual-coil lead systems and Anodal vs. cathodaL polarITY defibrillation in patients undergoing transvenous cardioverter-defibrillator implantation. The MODALITY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccillieri, Maria Stella; Gasparini, Gianni; Benacchio, Luca; Zorzi, Alessandro; Marras, Elena; Zerbo, Francesca; Tomasi, Luca; Vaccari, Diego; Pastore, Gianni; Bonanno, Carlo; Molon, Giulio; Zanotto, Gabriele; Fusco, Antonio; Carasi, Massimo; Zorzi, Andrea; Calzolari, Vittorio; Ignatiuk, Barbara; Cannas, Sergio; Vaglio, Alessandro; Al Bunni, Muhamad; Pedrini, Antonella; Olivieri, Armando; Rampazzo, Roberta; Minicuci, Nadia; Corrado, Domenico; Verlato, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    An optimal active-can lead configuration during implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) placement is important to obtain an adequate defibrillation safety margin. The purpose of this multicenter study was to evaluate the rate of the first shock success at defibrillation testing according to the type of lead implant (single vs. dual coil) and shock polarity (cathodal and anodal) in a large series of consecutive patients who received transvenous ICDs. This was a multicenter study enrolling 469 consecutive patients. Single- versus dual-coil leads and cathodal versus anodal polarity were evaluated at defibrillation testing. In all cases, the value of the energy for the first shock was set to 20 J less than the maximum energy deliverable from the device. A total of 469 patients underwent defibrillation testing: 158 (34 %) had dual-coil and 311 (66 %) had single-coil lead systems configuration, 254 (54 %) received anodal shock and 215 (46 %) received cathodal shock. In 35 (7.4 %) patients, the shock was unsuccessful. No significant differences in the outcome of defibrillation testing using single- versus dual-coil lead were observed but the multivariate analysis showed an increased risk of shock failure using cathodal shock polarity (OR 2.37, 95 % CI 1.12-5.03). Both single- and dual-coil transvenous ICD lead systems were associated with high rates of successful ICD implantation, and we found no significant differences in ventricular arrhythmias interruption between the two ICD lead systems configuration. Instead, anodal defibrillation was more likely to be successful than cathodal defibrillation.

  13. The utilisation of Generalised Audit Software (GAS) by external auditors

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmi, A; Kent, S

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Generalized Audit Software (GAS) is the tool use by auditors to automate various audit tasks. As most accounting transactions are now computerized, auditing of accounting data is also expected to be computerized as well. While GAS is the most popular Computer Assisted Audit Tools and Technique (CAATTs), research shows that there is little evidence that GAS has been universally adopted by external auditors. This study seeks to investigate the utilization of GAS by external auditors i...

  14. Risk of pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator after radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer in Denmark, 1982-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehammar, Jens Christian; Johansen, Jens Brock; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To examine the risk of cardiac conduction abnormalities or severe ventricular arrhythmias requiring implantation of a cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED), either a pacemaker or an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, subsequent to breast cancer (BC) radiotherapy...

  15. Optimising the dichotomy limit for left ventricular ejection fraction in selecting patients for defibrillator therapy after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yap, Yee Guan; Duong, Trinh; Bland, J Martin

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The selection of patients for prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrilator (ICD) treatment after myocardial infarction (MI) remains controversial. AIM: To determine the optimum left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) dichotomy limit for ICD treatment in patients with a history...

  16. Low-energy multistage atrial defibrillation therapy terminates atrial fibrillation with less energy than a single shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenwen; Janardhan, Ajit H; Fedorov, Vadim V; Sha, Qun; Schuessler, Richard B; Efimov, Igor R

    2011-12-01

    Implantable device therapy of atrial fibrillation (AF) is limited by pain from high-energy shocks. We developed a low-energy multistage defibrillation therapy and tested it in a canine model of AF. AF was induced by burst pacing during vagus nerve stimulation. Our novel defibrillation therapy consisted of 3 stages: stage (ST) 1 (1-4 low-energy biphasic [BP] shocks), ST2 (6-10 ultralow-energy monophasic [MP] shocks), and ST3 (antitachycardia pacing). First, ST1 testing compared single or multiple MP and BP shocks. Second, several multistage therapies were tested: ST1 versus ST1+ST3 versus ST1+ST2+ST3. Third, 3 shock vectors were compared: superior vena cava to distal coronary sinus, proximal coronary sinus to left atrial appendage, and right atrial appendage to left atrial appendage. The atrial defibrillation threshold (DFT) of 1 BP shock was defibrillation at or below the pain threshold.

  17. Late Ratchet syndrome involving isolated left ventricular lead dislodgement post-cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator generator change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Vern Hsen; Wong, Kelvin

    2018-04-01

    Lead dislodgement following cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) generator change is rare. We report a case including the postulate mechanism of an isolated left ventricular lead dislodgement 3 months after cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator pulse generator change.

  18. Monitoring treatment expectations in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator using the EXPECT-ICD scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibovic, M.; Pedersen, S.S.; van den Broek, K.C.; Denollet, J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Patient treatment expectations may affect cardiac outcomes; however, till date, no validated instruments have been developed to monitor treatment expectations in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). This study evaluates the predictive value of the newly developed

  19. CPR - adult and child 9 years and older

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as 4 to 6 minutes later. Machines called automated external defibrillators (AEDs) can be found in many ... to swim. Teach your child to watch for cars and ride bikes safely. Teach your child firearm ...

  20. Ventricular Fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the heart with a device called an automated external defibrillator (AED). Treatments to prevent sudden cardiac ... number of places, such as in airplanes, police cars and shopping malls. They can even be purchased ...

  1. CPR - infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as 4 to 6 minutes later. Machines called automated external defibrillators (AEDs) can be found in many ... side down. Follow the guidelines for using infant car seats. Teach your baby the meaning of "don' ...

  2. Spatiotemporal Stability of Public Cardiac Arrests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirtas, Derya; Brooks, Steven C.; Morrison, Laurie J.; Chan, Timothy C.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Public access automated external defibrillator (AED) deployment and community cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) programs should target geographical areas with high risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Although these long-term, location-based interventions implicitly assume

  3. Integration of Attributes from Non-Linear Characterization of Cardiovascular Time-Series for Prediction of Defibrillation Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandilya, Sharad; Kurz, Michael C; Ward, Kevin R; Najarian, Kayvan

    2016-01-01

    The timing of defibrillation is mostly at arbitrary intervals during cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR), rather than during intervals when the out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOH-CA) patient is physiologically primed for successful countershock. Interruptions to CPR may negatively impact defibrillation success. Multiple defibrillations can be associated with decreased post-resuscitation myocardial function. We hypothesize that a more complete picture of the cardiovascular system can be gained through non-linear dynamics and integration of multiple physiologic measures from biomedical signals. Retrospective analysis of 153 anonymized OOH-CA patients who received at least one defibrillation for ventricular fibrillation (VF) was undertaken. A machine learning model, termed Multiple Domain Integrative (MDI) model, was developed to predict defibrillation success. We explore the rationale for non-linear dynamics and statistically validate heuristics involved in feature extraction for model development. Performance of MDI is then compared to the amplitude spectrum area (AMSA) technique. 358 defibrillations were evaluated (218 unsuccessful and 140 successful). Non-linear properties (Lyapunov exponent > 0) of the ECG signals indicate a chaotic nature and validate the use of novel non-linear dynamic methods for feature extraction. Classification using MDI yielded ROC-AUC of 83.2% and accuracy of 78.8%, for the model built with ECG data only. Utilizing 10-fold cross-validation, at 80% specificity level, MDI (74% sensitivity) outperformed AMSA (53.6% sensitivity). At 90% specificity level, MDI had 68.4% sensitivity while AMSA had 43.3% sensitivity. Integrating available end-tidal carbon dioxide features into MDI, for the available 48 defibrillations, boosted ROC-AUC to 93.8% and accuracy to 83.3% at 80% sensitivity. At clinically relevant sensitivity thresholds, the MDI provides improved performance as compared to AMSA, yielding fewer unsuccessful defibrillations. Addition

  4. Integration of Attributes from Non-Linear Characterization of Cardiovascular Time-Series for Prediction of Defibrillation Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Shandilya

    Full Text Available The timing of defibrillation is mostly at arbitrary intervals during cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR, rather than during intervals when the out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOH-CA patient is physiologically primed for successful countershock. Interruptions to CPR may negatively impact defibrillation success. Multiple defibrillations can be associated with decreased post-resuscitation myocardial function. We hypothesize that a more complete picture of the cardiovascular system can be gained through non-linear dynamics and integration of multiple physiologic measures from biomedical signals.Retrospective analysis of 153 anonymized OOH-CA patients who received at least one defibrillation for ventricular fibrillation (VF was undertaken. A machine learning model, termed Multiple Domain Integrative (MDI model, was developed to predict defibrillation success. We explore the rationale for non-linear dynamics and statistically validate heuristics involved in feature extraction for model development. Performance of MDI is then compared to the amplitude spectrum area (AMSA technique.358 defibrillations were evaluated (218 unsuccessful and 140 successful. Non-linear properties (Lyapunov exponent > 0 of the ECG signals indicate a chaotic nature and validate the use of novel non-linear dynamic methods for feature extraction. Classification using MDI yielded ROC-AUC of 83.2% and accuracy of 78.8%, for the model built with ECG data only. Utilizing 10-fold cross-validation, at 80% specificity level, MDI (74% sensitivity outperformed AMSA (53.6% sensitivity. At 90% specificity level, MDI had 68.4% sensitivity while AMSA had 43.3% sensitivity. Integrating available end-tidal carbon dioxide features into MDI, for the available 48 defibrillations, boosted ROC-AUC to 93.8% and accuracy to 83.3% at 80% sensitivity.At clinically relevant sensitivity thresholds, the MDI provides improved performance as compared to AMSA, yielding fewer unsuccessful defibrillations

  5. Autonomy and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Jay

    2017-01-01

    A significant level of debate and confusion has surrounded the meaning of the terms autonomy and automation. Automation is a multi-dimensional concept, and we propose that Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) automation should be described with reference to the specific system and task that has been automated, the context in which the automation functions, and other relevant dimensions. In this paper, we present definitions of automation, pilot in the loop, pilot on the loop and pilot out of the loop. We further propose that in future, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) RPAS Panel avoids the use of the terms autonomy and autonomous when referring to automated systems on board RPA. Work Group 7 proposes to develop, in consultation with other workgroups, a taxonomy of Levels of Automation for RPAS.

  6. An automated swimming respirometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    STEFFENSEN, JF; JOHANSEN, K; BUSHNELL, PG

    1984-01-01

    An automated respirometer is described that can be used for computerized respirometry of trout and sharks.......An automated respirometer is described that can be used for computerized respirometry of trout and sharks....

  7. Configuration Management Automation (CMA) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Configuration Management Automation (CMA) will provide an automated, integrated enterprise solution to support CM of FAA NAS and Non-NAS assets and investments. CMA...

  8. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 1. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Berry, J.

    1995-01-01

    There is a growing requirement for policy analysts to take account of the environment in their decision making and to undertake the specified cost-benefit analysis. Within the European Union this is reflected in the 5th Environmental Action Programme, and the Commission's White Paper entitled 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and the ways forward to the 21st century'. This has led to a need for evaluation of environmental externalities. The ExternE Project commenced in 1991 as the European part of a collaborative study between the European Commission and the US Department of Energy. It aims to be the first systematic approach to the evaluation of external costs of a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project will result in an operational accounting framework for the quantification and monetarisation of priority environmental and other externalities. This framework will allow the calculation of the marginal external costs and benefits for specific power plants, at specific sites using specified technologies. There are three major phases in the project. Phase 1 was undertaken in collaboration with the US Department of Energy. In this phase the teams jointly developed the conceptual approach and methodology and shared scientific information for application to a number of fuel cycles. On the European side work concentrated on the nuclear and coal fuel cycles which together were expected to raise many of the fundamental issues in fuel cycle analysis. The project is currently nearing completion of Phase 2. During this phase the methodology has been applied to a wide range of different fossil, nuclear and renewable fuel cycles for power generation and energy conservation options. Also a series of National Implementation Programmes is underway in which the methodology and accounting framework are being applied to reference sites throughout Europe. In addition the general methodology is being extended to address the evaluation of externalities associated with

  9. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Berry, J.

    1994-01-01

    There is a growing requirement for policy analysts to take account of the environment in their decision making and to undertake the specified cost-benefit analysis. Within the European Union this is reflected in the 5th Environmental Action Programme, and the Commission's White Paper entitled 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and the ways forward to the 21st century'. This has led to a need for evaluation of environmental externalities. The ExternE Project commenced in 1991 as the European part of a collaborative study between the European Commission and the US Department of Energy. It aims to be the first systematic approach to the evaluation of external costs of a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project will result in an operational accounting framework for the quantification and monetarisation of priority environmental and other externalities. This framework will allow the calculation of the marginal external costs and benefits for specific power plants, at specific sites using specified technologies. There are three major phases in the project. Phase I was undertaken in collaboration with the US Department of Energy. In this phase the teams jointly developed the conceptual approach and methodology and shared scientific information for application to a number of fuel cycles. On the European side work concentrated on the nuclear and coal fuel cycles which together were expected to raise many of the fundamental issues in fuel cycle analysis. The project is currently nearing completion of Phase 2. During this phase the methodology has been applied to a wide range of different fossil, nuclear and renewable fuel cycles for power generation and energy conservation options. Also a series of National Implementation Programmes are underway in which the methodology and accounting framework are being applied to reference sites throughout Europe. In addition the general methodology is being extended to address the evaluation of externalities associated with

  10. Automation in College Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werking, Richard Hume

    1991-01-01

    Reports the results of a survey of the "Bowdoin List" group of liberal arts colleges. The survey obtained information about (1) automation modules in place and when they had been installed; (2) financing of automation and its impacts on the library budgets; and (3) library director's views on library automation and the nature of the…

  11. Ensaio pré-clínico com desfibrilador externo = Pre-clinical trial with external defibrillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira, Amanda Assunção

    2014-01-01

    Conclusões: O desfibrilador protótipo, quando aplicado com energia 100 J, demonstrou maior eficácia na reversão da fibrilação ventricular e apresentou menor injúria que o desfibrilador de referência com a mesma energia. Este estudo ajudará a elevar o padrão tecnológico e a ampliar a oferta qualificada de equipamentos para a saúde produzidos no Brasil, substituindo e/ou diminuindo importações e oferecendo um dispositivo seguro de última geração

  12. Ensaio pré-clínico com desfibrilador externo = Pre-clinical trial with external defibrillator

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Amanda Assunção

    2014-01-01

    Objetivos: Avaliar a eficácia da desfibrilação em resposta à fibrilação ventricular induzida e descrever as mudanças macroscópicas ocorridas nos corações de suínos após choque de descarga capacitiva exponencial truncada aplicado por protótipo de desfibrilador produzido no Brasil e por um desfibrilador de referência, líder de mercado internacional Métodos: Dezesseis suínos foram agrupados em quatro grupos de quatro animais, para verificar a eficácia da desfibrilação em resposta à fibrilação...

  13. Can a Self-Diagnostic Digitally Controlled Pacemaker/Defibrillator Device be Used for Alerting Military Personnel When a Soldier Health Condition Becomes Compromised Out in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-26

    function. In 1947 Dr. Claude Beck defibrillated the first human heart. Dr. John Hopps’ concepts, innovation, and theory of the pacemaker came to...5000 ABSTRACT The Self-Diagnostic Digitally Controlled Pacemaker/ Defibrillator Device (SDDCPDD) has several features that I think may be...very useful to the Armed Services. Even though this device is designed as a pacemaker/ defibrillator device; its applications can be used as a

  14. Shockable rhythms and defibrillation during in-hospital pediatric cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Núñez, Antonio; López-Herce, Jesús; del Castillo, Jimena; Bellón, José María

    2014-03-01

    To analyze the results of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) that included defibrillation during in-hospital cardiac arrest (IH-CA) in children. A prospective multicenter, international, observational study on pediatric IH-CA in 12 European and Latin American countries, during 24 months. Data from 502 children between 1 month and 18 years were collected using the Utstein template. Patients with a shockable rhythm that was treated by electric shock(s) were included. The primary endpoint was survival at hospital discharge. Univariate logistic regression analysis was performed to find outcome factors. Forty events in 37 children (mean age 48 months, IQR: 7-15 months) were analyzed. An underlying disease was present in 81.1% of cases and 24.3% had a previous CA. The main cause of arrest was a cardiac disease (56.8%). In 17 episodes (42.5%) ventricular fibrillation (VF) or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (pVT) was the first documented rhythm, and in 23 (57.5%) it developed during CPR efforts. In 11 patients (27.5%) three or more shocks were needed to achieve defibrillation. Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was obtained in 25 cases (62.5%), that was sustained in 20 (50.0%); however only 12 children (32.4%) survived to hospital discharge. Children with VF/pVT as first documented rhythm had better sustained ROSC (64.7% vs. 39.1%, p=0.046) and survival to hospital discharge rates (58.8% vs. 21.7%, p=0.02) than those with subsequent VF/pVT. Survival rate was inversely related to duration of CPR. Clinical outcome was not related to the cause or location of arrest, type of defibrillator and waveform, energy dose per shock, number of shocks, or cumulative energy dose, although there was a trend to better survival with higher doses per shock (25.0% with 4Jkg(-1)) and worse with higher number of shocks and cumulative energy dose. The termination of pediatric VF/pVT in the IH-CA setting is achieved in a low percentage of instances with one electrical shock at 4Jkg(-1

  15. Pacemaker System Malfunction Resulting from External Electrical Cardioversion: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Nishida, MD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In May 2005 a 68-year-old woman received a VDD pacemaker implantation in the right pectoral region at our hospital for the treatment of complete atrioventricular block. In July 2008, she was diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy based on histological testing. In November 2008, she developed syncope due to ventricular tachycardia while at another hospital. She underwent external electrical cardioversion with an anterior-lateral paddle position using a single shock of 100 J. This shock led to severe bradycardia resulting in a transfer to our hospital. The physician who provided the shock could not have been aware that the patient had an implanted pacemaker. The skin above the pulse generator was burned. The electrocardiogram showed no pacing spikes or ventricular escape rhythm. Investigation of the pacemaker 3 hours after cardioversion revealed reprogramming of the device and a marked rise in the lead impedance (>3,000 ohm. Removal of the generator and implantation of a biventricular cardioverter defibrillator were required. The emergency situation, the small size of the generator, the small incision made using the buried suture method, and the patient's obesity all probably contributed to the physician's not noticing the implanted pacemaker. It is important to increase awareness of the severe consequences that may follow if the physician administering external defibrillation does not know about the patient's implanted pacemaker.

  16. 78 FR 1162 - Cardiovascular Devices; Reclassification of External Cardiac Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... adjunctive use with manual CPR (e.g., during transport-- to assure more consistent and continuous therapy; or..., pneumatically, or electrically and (2) devices that aid the emergency medical professional in delivering manual... adjunctive use with manual CPR and CPR Aid devices into class II with special controls. Automated external...

  17. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 5. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Tort, V.; Manen, P.

    1995-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, there has been increased interest in the environmental impacts that are caused by the generation of electricity. The comparative risk assessment studies at that time used mainly deaths and injuries as impact indicators. By the end of the 1980s studies changed to the assessment of the costs imposed on society and the environment that were not included in the market price of the energy produced, the so-called external costs. The preliminary studies that were published set the conceptual basis, grounded in neo-classical economics, for the valuation of the health and environmental impacts that could be assessed. As a consequence of the many questions raised by the methodologies employed by these early studies, Directorate General XII (DG XII) of the Commission of the European Communities established a collaborative research programme with the United States Department of Energy to identify an appropriate methodology for this type of work. Following the completion of this collaboration, the DG XII programme has continued as the ExternE project. The main objective of the work carried out at CEPN was to develop an impact pathway methodology for the nuclear fuel cycle that would be consistent with the methodologies developed for other fuel cycles, without loosing the nuclear-specific techniques required for a proper evaluation. In this way, comparisons between the different fuel cycles would be possible. This report presents the methodology and demonstration of the results in the context of the French nuclear fuel cycle. The United States team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has previously issued a draft report on the results of their assessment. The French fuel cycle was broken down into 8 separate stages. Reference sites and 1990s technology were chosen to represent the total nuclear fuel cycle, as it exists today. In addition, the transportation of material between the sites was considered. The facilities are assessed for routine operation, except

  18. Evaluation of the preparedness of the children's emergency rooms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In all the centres, the CHER had a side laboratory, well stocked emergency drug shelf, pulse oximeters, oxygen cylinders, electrical and manual suction machines, ambu bags and nebulizers. However, none of the centres has functional manual defibrillator or an Automated External Defibrillator (AED). In 5 (55.6%) of the ...

  19. Predictors of long-term mortality in Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial II (MADIT II) patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Gillespie, John; Zareba, Wojciech; Brown, Mary W; Goldenberg, Ilan; Klein, Helmut; McNitt, Scott; Polonsky, Slava; Andrews, Mark; Dwyer, Edward M; Hall, W Jackson; Moss, Arthur J

    2009-04-01

    Data on long-term follow-up and factors influencing mortality in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) recipients are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate mortality during long-term follow-up and the predictive value of several risk markers in the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial II (MADIT II) patients with implanted cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). The study involved U.S. patients from the MADIT II trial randomized to and receiving ICD treatment. Data regarding long-term mortality were retrieved from the National Death Registry. Several clinical, biochemical, and electrocardiogram variables were tested in a multivariate Cox model for predicting long-term mortality, and a score identifying high-, medium-, and lower risk patients was developed. The study population consisted of 655 patients, mean age 64 +/- 10 years. During a follow-up of up to 9 years, averaging 63 months, 294 deaths occurred. The 6-year cumulative probability of death was 40%, with evidence of a constant risk of about 8.5% per year among survivors. Median survival was estimated at 8 years. Multivariate analysis identified age >65 years, New York Heart Association class 3-4, diabetes, non-sinus rhythm, and increased levels of blood urea nitrogen as independent risk predictors of mortality. Patients with three or more of these risk factors were characterized by a 6-year mortality rate of 68%, compared with 43% in those with one to two risk factors and 19% in patients with no risk factors. A combination of a few readily available clinical variables indicating advanced disease and comorbid conditions identifies ICD patients at high risk of mortality during long-term follow-up.

  20. Automation in Clinical Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the trend toward automation in clinical pathology laboratories has largely bypassed the clinical microbiology laboratory. In this article, we review the historical impediments to automation in the microbiology laboratory and offer insight into the reasons why we believe that we are on the cusp of a dramatic change that will sweep a wave of automation into clinical microbiology laboratories. We review the currently available specimen-processing instruments as well as the total laboratory automation solutions. Lastly, we outline the types of studies that will need to be performed to fully assess the benefits of automation in microbiology laboratories. PMID:23515547

  1. Automation of industrial bioprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyeler, W; DaPra, E; Schneider, K

    2000-01-01

    The dramatic development of new electronic devices within the last 25 years has had a substantial influence on the control and automation of industrial bioprocesses. Within this short period of time the method of controlling industrial bioprocesses has changed completely. In this paper, the authors will use a practical approach focusing on the industrial applications of automation systems. From the early attempts to use computers for the automation of biotechnological processes up to the modern process automation systems some milestones are highlighted. Special attention is given to the influence of Standards and Guidelines on the development of automation systems.

  2. Automated imaging system for single molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David Charles; Runnheim, Rodney; Forrest, Daniel

    2012-09-18

    There is provided a high throughput automated single molecule image collection and processing system that requires minimal initial user input. The unique features embodied in the present disclosure allow automated collection and initial processing of optical images of single molecules and their assemblies. Correct focus may be automatically maintained while images are collected. Uneven illumination in fluorescence microscopy is accounted for, and an overall robust imaging operation is provided yielding individual images prepared for further processing in external systems. Embodiments described herein are useful in studies of any macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, peptides and proteins. The automated image collection and processing system and method of same may be implemented and deployed over a computer network, and may be ergonomically optimized to facilitate user interaction.

  3. Regulating multiple externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldo, Staffan; Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max

    2016-01-01

    Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory...... instruments. However, solving the open-access externality problem also affects CO2 emissions. By using a bio-economic model covering Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and the Faroe Islands, it is shown that regulations of the open-access externality problem have a large effect on both economic performance...... and CO2 emissions, while an additional CO2 regulation only has minor effects. The second-best solution achieved by only regulating open access reduces emissions by approximately 50% compared to current fisheries, with the exception of Iceland, which already has a well-developed fisheries management...

  4. [The wearable cardioverter/defibrillator : Temporary protection from sudden cardiac death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, D; Bauersachs, J; Veltmann, C

    2016-09-01

    In the majority of cases sudden cardiac death (SCD) is caused by ventricular tachyarrhythmia. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) represent an evidence-based and established method for prevention of SCD. For patients who do not fulfill the criteria for guideline-conform implantation of an ICD but still have an increased, e.g. transient risk for SCD, a wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) vest was developed to temporarily prevent SCD. Numerous studies have shown the safety and efficacy of the WCD, although there is still a gap in evidence concerning a reduction in overall mortality and improvement in prognosis. This article gives an overview on the currently available literature on WCD, the indications, potential risks and complications.

  5. Intensity of primary emotions in patients after implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoier, Louise; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Berg, Selina Kikkenborg

    2013-01-01

    Background: Experienced emotions can affect the outcome of, and adherence to a cardiac rehabilitation program, and patients coping with an illness. With more awareness of the expressed emotions, health professionals might be better able to understand the reactions of patients and to improve...... the support needed for coping. Living with an Implantable Cardi- overter Defibrillator can lead to anxiety and depression. Focus on the intensity of the primary emotions might be a potential to prevent development of these psychological states. Objectives: The aim of this paper are 1) to describe...... the intensity of primary emotions in patients after implantation of an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator and 2) to compare them with both the intensity of primary emotions in patients with a recent Myocardial Infarction and with a healthy population. Method: The intensity of primary emotions in patients...

  6. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator failure unmasked by a “lucky” shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim K. Eng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A young woman with placement of a dual-chamber implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD and a history of prior cardiac arrest due to congenital long QT syndrome presented with defibrillation caused by a ventricular fibrillation arrest. Routine device interrogation revealed significant lead dysfunction. During device revision, breaches were detected in the insulation of both leads within the pre-pectoral pocket and an “arc mark” was observed on the ICD generator casing; these findings were consistent with a high-voltage discharge through a short circuit between the denuded right ventricular lead and the casing. In this case, system failure was unmasked only by interrogation after appropriate device activation, which highlights the importance of thorough evaluation after all ICD activations.

  7. Comparison of mechanism of break up and cycle length in defibrillation success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkus, Natalya; Puwal, Steffan

    2012-10-01

    Heart fibrillation is an often fatal condition which can be modeled by chaotic electrical activity; spiral waves of electrical activity rotate, break-up, and meander on tissue. As they do, they produce a chaotic distribution of electrical activity, negatively affecting physical contraction (blood pumping). Fenton, et al. studied several mechanisms of this wave breakup, including ``far from tip'' and ``Doppler shift.'' We used Fenton et al.'s mathematical model and the different modes of breakup proposed by Fenton to simulate fibrillation and to determine if the cycle length of the activity or the type of mechanism was more significant in defibrillation. Our data supports the conclusion that the cycle length is the more important factor in defibrillation.

  8. Wearable cardioverter defibrillator: A life vest till the life boat (ICD arrives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Francis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD is a life saving device ensuring protection against life threatening ventricular arrhythmias. But there are certain situations like a recent myocardial infarction where the standard guidelines do not recommend the implantation of an ICD while the patient can still be at a risk of demise due to a life threatening ventricular arrhythmia. There could also be a temporary indication for protection while explanting an infected ICD system. The wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD is a device which comes to the rescue in such situations. In this brief review, we discuss the historical aspects of the development of a WCD, technical aspects as well as the clinical trial data and real world scenario of its use.

  9. Overview of implantable cardioverter defibrillator and cardiac resynchronisation therapy in heart failure management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Pow-Li; Foo, David

    2016-01-01

    Clinical trials have established the benefits of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) and cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) in the treatment of heart failure patients. As adjuncts to guideline-directed medical therapy, ICDs confer mortality benefits from sudden cardiac arrest, while CRT reduces mortality, hospitalisation rates and improves functional capacity. This review discusses the use of ICDs and CRT devices in heart failure management, outlining the evidence supporting their use, indications and contraindications. PMID:27440409

  10. Healthcare Utilization and Expenditures Associated With Appropriate and Inappropriate Implantable Defibrillator Shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turakhia, Mintu P; Zweibel, Steven; Swain, Andrea L; Mollenkopf, Sarah A; Reynolds, Matthew R

    2017-02-01

    In patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, healthcare utilization (HCU) and expenditures related to shocks have not been quantified. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators identified from commercial and Medicare supplemental claims databases linked to adjudicated shock events from remote monitoring data. A shock event was defined as ≥1 spontaneous shocks delivered by an implanted device. Shock-related HCU was ascertained from inpatient and outpatient claims within 7 days following a shock event. Shock events were adjudicated and classified as inappropriate or appropriate, and HCU and expenditures, stratified by shock type, were quantified. Of 10 266 linked patients, 963 (9.4%) patients (61.3±13.6 years; 81% male) had 1885 shock events (56% appropriate, 38% inappropriate, and 6% indeterminate). Of these events, 867 (46%) had shock-related HCU (14% inpatient and 32% outpatient). After shocks, inpatient cardiovascular procedures were common, including echocardiography (59%), electrophysiology study or ablation (34%), stress testing (16%), and lead revision (11%). Cardiac catheterization was common (71% and 51%), but percutaneous coronary intervention was low (6.5% and 5.0%) after appropriate and inappropriate shocks. Expenditures related to appropriate and inappropriate shocks were not significantly different. After implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shock, related HCU was common, with 1 in 3 shock events followed by outpatient HCU and 1 in 7 followed by hospitalization. Use of invasive cardiovascular procedures was substantial, even after inappropriate shocks, which comprised 38% of all shocks. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks seem to trigger a cascade of health care. Strategies to reduce shocks could result in cost savings. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Factors associated with anxiety and depression among patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mei Fung Florence

    2017-05-01

    To identify factors associated with anxiety and depression of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator is effective to increase survival from life-threatening arrhythmias, but it lowers health-related quality of life. Anxiety and depression had significant negative association with health-related quality of life. However, knowledge about factors associated with these two negative emotions in this specific population is inadequate. A cross-sectional descriptive design was conducted. Secondary analysis was performed to address the aim. A convenience sampling of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators was performed. Anxiety and depression were measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale through face-to-face interview. Stepwise multivariable regression results showed that older age (aged 60-69 and ≥70: B = 2·08 and 3·31, p = 0·039 and defibrillator are identified. Older age (aged ≥60) and more self-care dependence have positive, but being married and having ischaemic heart disease have negative association with depression. Strategies to reduce psychological distress are highlighted. The study findings direct the care to improve health-related quality of life by reducing and controlling vulnerabilities arising from depression. Patients who are older people (≥aged 60) and more self-care dependent perceive higher depression. Nursing strategies are suggested to reduce depression especially for those who are older people and more self-care dependent. Early screening is essential to provide immediate care for reducing vulnerabilities arising from depression. Performing comprehensive assessment for self-care ability and providing adequate assistance are crucial. Family involvement may reduce depression through providing physical and psychosocial support. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Defibrillation success with high frequency electric fields is related to degree and location of conduction block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Seth H; Chang, Kelly C; Zhu, Renjun; Tandri, Harikrishna; Berger, Ronald D; Trayanova, Natalia A; Tung, Leslie

    2013-05-01

    We recently demonstrated that high frequency alternating current (HFAC) electric fields can reversibly block propagation in the heart by inducing an oscillating, elevated transmembrane potential (Vm) that maintains myocytes in a refractory state for the field duration and can terminate arrhythmias, including ventricular fibrillation (VF). To quantify and characterize conduction block (CB) induced by HFAC fields and to determine whether the degree of CB can be used to predict defibrillation success. Optical mapping was performed in adult guinea pig hearts (n = 14), and simulations were performed in an anatomically accurate rabbit ventricular model. HFAC fields (50-500 Hz) were applied to the ventricles. A novel power spectrum metric of CB-the loss of spectral power in the 1-30 Hz range, termed loss of conduction power (LCP)-was assessed during the HFAC field and compared with defibrillation success and VF vulnerability. LCP increased with field strength and decreased with frequency. Optical mapping experiments conducted on the epicardial surface showed that LCP and the size of CB regions were significantly correlated with VF initiation and termination. In simulations, subsurface myocardial LCP and CB sizes were more closely correlated with VF termination than surface values. Multilinear regression analysis of simulation results revealed that while CB on both the surface and the subsurface myocardium was predictive, subsurface myocardial CB was the better predictor of defibrillation success. HFAC fields induce a field-dependent state of CB, and defibrillation success is related to the degree and location of the CB. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Beam Profile Disturbances from Implantable Pacemakers or Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossman, Michael S., E-mail: mgossman@tsrcc.com [Tri-State Regional Cancer Center, Medical Physics Section, Ashland, KY (United States); Comprehensive Heart and Vascular Associates, Heart and Vascular Center, Ashland, KY (United States); Medtronic, Inc., External Research Program, Mounds View, MN (United States); Nagra, Bipinpreet; Graves-Calhoun, Alison; Wilkinson, Jeffrey [Tri-State Regional Cancer Center, Medical Physics Section, Ashland, KY (United States); Comprehensive Heart and Vascular Associates, Heart and Vascular Center, Ashland, KY (United States); Medtronic, Inc., External Research Program, Mounds View, MN (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The medical community is advocating for progressive improvement in the design of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and implantable pacemakers to accommodate elevations in dose limitation criteria. With advancement already made for magnetic resonance imaging compatibility in some, a greater need is present to inform the radiation oncologist and medical physicist regarding treatment planning beam profile changes when such devices are in the field of a therapeutic radiation beam. Treatment plan modeling was conducted to simulate effects induced by Medtronic, Inc.-manufactured devices on therapeutic radiation beams. As a continuation of grant-supported research, we show that radial and transverse open beam profiles of a medical accelerator were altered when compared with profiles resulting when implantable pacemakers and cardioverter-defibrillators are placed directly in the beam. Results are markedly different between the 2 devices in the axial plane and the sagittal planes. Vast differences are also presented for the therapeutic beams at 6-MV and 18-MV x-ray energies. Maximum changes in percentage depth dose are observed for the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator as 9.3% at 6 MV and 10.1% at 18 MV, with worst distance to agreement of isodose lines at 2.3 cm and 1.3 cm, respectively. For the implantable pacemaker, the maximum changes in percentage depth dose were observed as 10.7% at 6 MV and 6.9% at 18 MV, with worst distance to agreement of isodose lines at 2.5 cm and 1.9 cm, respectively. No differences were discernible for the defibrillation leads and the pacing lead.

  14. A support vector machine for predicting defibrillation outcomes from waveform metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Andrew; Escalona, Omar J; Di Maio, Rebecca; Massot, Bertrand; Cromie, Nick A; Darragh, Karen M; Adgey, Jennifer; McEneaney, David J

    2014-03-01

    Algorithms to predict shock success based on VF waveform metrics could significantly enhance resuscitation by optimising the timing of defibrillation. To investigate robust methods of predicting defibrillation success in VF cardiac arrest patients, by using a support vector machine (SVM) optimisation approach. Frequency-domain (AMSA, dominant frequency and median frequency) and time-domain (slope and RMS amplitude) VF waveform metrics were calculated in a 4.1Y window prior to defibrillation. Conventional prediction test validity of each waveform parameter was conducted and used AUC>0.6 as the criterion for inclusion as a corroborative attribute processed by the SVM classification model. The latter used a Gaussian radial-basis-function (RBF) kernel and the error penalty factor C was fixed to 1. A two-fold cross-validation resampling technique was employed. A total of 41 patients had 115 defibrillation instances. AMSA, slope and RMS waveform metrics performed test validation with AUC>0.6 for predicting termination of VF and return-to-organised rhythm. Predictive accuracy of the optimised SVM design for termination of VF was 81.9% (± 1.24 SD); positive and negative predictivity were respectively 84.3% (± 1.98 SD) and 77.4% (± 1.24 SD); sensitivity and specificity were 87.6% (± 2.69 SD) and 71.6% (± 9.38 SD) respectively. AMSA, slope and RMS were the best VF waveform frequency-time parameters predictors of termination of VF according to test validity assessment. This a priori can be used for a simplified SVM optimised design that combines the predictive attributes of these VF waveform metrics for improved prediction accuracy and generalisation performance without requiring the definition of any threshold value on waveform metrics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Electroporation induced by internal defibrillation shock with and without recovery in intact rabbit hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yves T.; Efimov, Igor R.

    2012-01-01

    Defibrillation shocks from implantable cardioverter defibrillators can be lifesaving but can also damage cardiac tissues via electroporation. This study characterizes the spatial distribution and extent of defibrillation shock-induced electroporation with and without a 45-min postshock period for cell membranes to recover. Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts (n = 31) with and without a chronic left ventricular (LV) myocardial infarction (MI) were studied. Mean defibrillation threshold (DFT) was determined to be 161.4 ± 17.1 V and 1.65 ± 0.44 J in MI hearts for internally delivered 8-ms monophasic truncated exponential (MTE) shocks during sustained ventricular fibrillation (>20 s, SVF). A single 300-V MTE shock (twice determined DFT voltage) was used to terminate SVF. Shock-induced electroporation was assessed by propidium iodide (PI) uptake. Ventricular PI staining was quantified by fluorescent imaging. Histological analysis was performed using Masson's Trichrome staining. Results showed PI staining concentrated near the shock electrode in all hearts. Without recovery, PI staining was similar between normal and MI groups around the shock electrode and over the whole ventricles. However, MI hearts had greater total PI uptake in anterior (P < 0.01) and posterior (P < 0.01) LV epicardial regions. Postrecovery, PI staining was reduced substantially, but residual staining remained significant with similar spacial distributions. PI staining under SVF was similar to previously studied paced hearts. In conclusion, electroporation was spatially correlated with the active region of the shock electrode. Additional electroporation occurred in the LV epicardium of MI hearts, in the infarct border zone. Recovery of membrane integrity postelectroporation is likely a prolonged process. Short periods of SVF did not affect electroporation injury. PMID:22730387

  16. Capsule Endoscopy in a Patient with an Implanted CCM System and an Implantable Defibrillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Streitner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless video capsule endoscopy (CE is a modern diagnostic tool. Because of its use of digital radiofrequency, it is still relatively contraindicated in patients with implanted cardiac devices. We report the case of a patient with an Optimizer III system delivering cardiac contractility modulating signals (CCM for heart failure therapy and an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD who underwent CE. No interferences between the devices were found.

  17. Decay-Delay Technology for Management of Defibrillator T-wave Oversensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Aslani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate sensing is indispensable for appropriate functioning ofimplantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD. Oversensing is a major clinicaldilemma in patients with ICD leading to inappropriate ventricular arrhythmiadetection and therapy. T-wave oversensing is an important clinical problemleading to QRS double counting with inappropriate therapy, in particular. Wepresent a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy and intermittent T waveoversensing by an ICD which could be resolved by device reprogramming.

  18. Charge-burping theory correctly predicts optimal ratios of phase duration for biphasic defibrillation waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, C D; Fan, W; Brewer, J E

    1996-11-01

    For biphasic waveforms, it is accepted that the ratio of the duration of phase 2 to the duration of phase 1 (phase-duration ratio) should be theory postulates that the beneficial effects of phase 2 are maximal when it completely removes the charge delivered by phase 1. It predicts that the phase-duration ratio should be defibrillation system (tau s) exceeds the time constant of the cell membrane (tau m) but > 1 when tau s defibrillator capacitance and pathway resistance). In a canine model of transvenous defibrillation (n = 8), we determined stored-energy defibrillation thresholds (DFTs) for biphasic waveforms from conventional capacitors (140 microF. tau s = 7.1 +/- 0.8 ms) and very small capacitors (40 microF. tau s = 2.0 +/- 0.2 ms). Each capacitance was tested with phase-duration ratios of 0.5, 1, 2, and 3. The duration of phase 1 approximated the optimal monophasic waveform, 6.3 +/- 0.7 ms for 140-microF waveforms and 2.8 +/- 0.2 ms for 40-microF waveforms. For 140-microF waveforms, the DFT was lower for phase-duration ratios 1 (P = .0003). The reverse was true for 40-microF capacitors (P = .0008). There was a significant interaction between the effects of capacitance and phase-duration ratio on DFT (P = .0002). The lowest DFT for 40-microF waveforms was less than the lowest DFT for 140-microF waveforms (4.9 +/- 2.5 versus 6.4 +/- 2.4 J, P 1 for small capacitors. This supports the predictions of the charge-burping theory.

  19. Preparation of Cellulose Nanofibrils from Bamboo Pulp by Mechanical Defibrillation for Their Applications in Biodegradable Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Mario; Botaro, Vagner Roberto; Novack, Kátia Monteiro; Neto, Wilson Pires Flauzino; Mendes, Lourival Marin; Tonoli, Gustavo H D

    2015-09-01

    There is a growing interest in cellulose nanofibrils from renewable sources for various industrial applications. However, there is a lack of information on cellulose arising from bamboo pulps. Nanofibrils from refined bamboo pulps, including bleached, unbleached, and unrefined/unbleached, were obtained by mechanical defibrillation for use in biodegradable composites. The influence of industrial processes, such as pulping and refining of unbleached pulps, as well as of alkali pretreatments and bleaching of refined pulps, on the chemical composition of the samples was analyzed. Morphological, structural, thermal, optical and viscometric properties were investigated as a function of the number of passages of refined/bleached suspensions through a defibrillator. For the unbleached suspensions, the effects of refining and bleaching on the properties of nanofibrils were evaluated, fixing the number of passages through the defibrillator. Microscopic studies demonstrated that nanoscale cellulose fibers were obtained from both pulps, with a higher yield for the refined/bleached and refined/unbleached pulp, at the expense of the unbleached/unrefined pulps. The study showed that, in addition to the effectiveness of the pre-treatments, there was an increase in the production efficiency of nanofibrils, as well as in the transparency of the bleached suspensions, while viscosity, thermal stability and crystallinity had reduced levels as the number of passages through the defibrillator increased, showing a gradual improvement in the transition from the micro- to the nano-scale. The present study contributed to the different methods that are available for the production of bamboo cellulose nanofibrils, which can be used in the production of biodegradable composites for various applications.

  20. Comparison of long-term outcomes of patients treated with nonthoracotomy and thoracotomy implantable defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S G; Pathapati, R; Fisher, J D; Rameneni, A; Nagabhairu, R; Ferrick, K J; Roth, J A; Ben-Zur, U; Gross, J; Brodman, R; Furman, S

    1996-11-15

    In 193 consecutive patients treated with implantable defibrillators at our institution, thoracotomy approaches were used in 87 patients and nonthoracotomy approaches in 106 patients. Long-term outcomes of the 2 groups were compared by the intention-to-treat analysis. Surgical mortality (30-day mortality) rates were 5.7% in the thoracotomy group and 0% in the nonthoracotomy group. Six of 106 patients who underwent nonthoracotomy implantation had a high defibrillation threshold and did not receive nonthoracotomy defibrillators. The duration of follow-up was 52 +/- 31 months in the thoracotomy group, and 23 +/- 15 months in nonthoracotomy group. Actuarial survival rates at 6 and 24 months were, respectively, 90% and 81% in nonthoracotomy patients and 89% and 80% in thoracotomy patients (p = NS). In patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <30%, surgical mortality was 0% by the nonthoracotomy and 10% by the thoracotomy approach. Despite the 10% difference in 30-day mortality, survival rates at 6 months were 85% in nonthoracotomy patients and 81% in thoracotomy patients. At 24 months they were 73% in nonthoracotomy patients and 74% in thoracotomy patients. Thus, this nonrandomized study suggests that while short-term survival is better in nonthoracotomy patients than thoracotomy patients, the difference in survival diminishes quickly during the first few months and disappears by 6 months. The results were similar in patients with severe ventricular dysfunction. Several important implantable-cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) trials initially utilized thoracotomy ICDs. Although questions may be raised with regard to applicability of such a trial in the era of nonthoracotomy ICDs, this study suggests that the results of such ICD trials will be largely applicable to patients treated with nonthoracotomy ICDs.