WorldWideScience

Sample records for automated energy distribution

  1. Automated Energy Distribution and Reliability System (AEDR): Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buche, D. L.

    2008-07-01

    This report describes Northern Indiana Public Service Co. project efforts to develop an automated energy distribution and reliability system. The purpose of this project was to implement a database-driven GIS solution that would manage all of the company's gas, electric, and landbase objects.

  2. Automated Energy Distribution and Reliability System Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buche, D. L.; Perry, S.

    2007-10-01

    This report describes Northern Indiana Public Service Co. project efforts to develop an automated energy distribution and reliability system. The purpose of this project was to implement a database-driven GIS solution that would manage all of the company's gas, electric, and landbase objects.

  3. Automated Energy Distribution and Reliability System: Validation Integration - Results of Future Architecture Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buche, D. L.

    2008-06-01

    This report describes Northern Indiana Public Service Co. project efforts to develop an automated energy distribution and reliability system. The purpose of this project was to implement a database-driven GIS solution that would manage all of the company's gas, electric, and landbase objects. This report is second in a series of reports detailing this effort.

  4. ATLAS Distributed Computing Automation

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Borrego, C; Campana, S; Di Girolamo, A; Elmsheuser, J; Hejbal, J; Kouba, T; Legger, F; Magradze, E; Medrano Llamas, R; Negri, G; Rinaldi, L; Sciacca, G; Serfon, C; Van Der Ster, D C

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment benefits from computing resources distributed worldwide at more than 100 WLCG sites. The ATLAS Grid sites provide over 100k CPU job slots, over 100 PB of storage space on disk or tape. Monitoring of status of such a complex infrastructure is essential. The ATLAS Grid infrastructure is monitored 24/7 by two teams of shifters distributed world-wide, by the ATLAS Distributed Computing experts, and by site administrators. In this paper we summarize automation efforts performed within the ATLAS Distributed Computing team in order to reduce manpower costs and improve the reliability of the system. Different aspects of the automation process are described: from the ATLAS Grid site topology provided by the ATLAS Grid Information System, via automatic site testing by the HammerCloud, to automatic exclusion from production or analysis activities.

  5. Automated Gas Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Allen; Clark, Henry

    2012-10-01

    The cyclotron of Texas A&M University is one of the few and prized cyclotrons in the country. Behind the scenes of the cyclotron is a confusing, and dangerous setup of the ion sources that supplies the cyclotron with particles for acceleration. To use this machine there is a time consuming, and even wasteful step by step process of switching gases, purging, and other important features that must be done manually to keep the system functioning properly, while also trying to maintain the safety of the working environment. Developing a new gas distribution system to the ion source prevents many of the problems generated by the older manually setup process. This developed system can be controlled manually in an easier fashion than before, but like most of the technology and machines in the cyclotron now, is mainly operated based on software programming developed through graphical coding environment Labview. The automated gas distribution system provides multi-ports for a selection of different gases to decrease the amount of gas wasted through switching gases, and a port for the vacuum to decrease the amount of time spent purging the manifold. The Labview software makes the operation of the cyclotron and ion sources easier, and safer for anyone to use.

  6. World-wide distribution automation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaney, T.M.

    1994-12-31

    A worldwide power distribution automation system is outlined. Distribution automation is defined and the status of utility automation is discussed. Other topics discussed include a distribution management system, substation feeder, and customer functions, potential benefits, automation costs, planning and engineering considerations, automation trends, databases, system operation, computer modeling of system, and distribution management systems.

  7. Distribution system analysis and automation

    CERN Document Server

    Gers, Juan

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to techniques that allow engineers to simulate, analyse and optimise power distribution systems which combined with automation, underpin the emerging concept of the "smart grid". This book is supported by theoretical concepts with real-world applications and MATLAB exercises.

  8. Field test of distribution automation equipment at Kansas Utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution automation can be beneficial to the utilities by reducing operating cost and increasing efficiency. Since needs of most utilities are different, obtaining first hand experience with distribution automation equipment is important. In this paper experiences of Kansas City Power and Light Co., and Midwest Energy, Inc. (members of Kansas Electric Utilities Research Program) related to operation of pilot distribution automation systems are described. Data gathered on failure of equipment is also included. As a part of this project, a microcomputer program was developed for cost/benefit analysis of eight distribution automation functions. In this paper salient features of this program are discussed and results of an example are presented

  9. Electric power distribution, automation, protection, and control

    CERN Document Server

    Momoh, James A

    2007-01-01

    * Each Chapter Provides an Introduction, Illustrative Examples, and a SummaryIntroduction to Distribution Automation Systems Historical Background Distribution System Topology and Structure Distribution Automation (DA) and Control Computational Techniques for Distribution Systems Complex Power Concepts Balanced Voltage to Neutral-Connected System Power Relationship for f Y-?-Connected System Per-Unit System Calculation of Power Losses Voltage Regulation Techniques Voltage-Sag Analysis and Calculation Equipment Modeling Components Modeling Distribution System Line Model Distribution Power Flo

  10. The French market of solutions for active energy efficiency. Energy, central home automation systems, consumption monitoring software, distributed load shedding, energy performance contract... which tools will stand out?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at proposing an overview of solutions for energy efficiency and at assessing their impact on energy consumption, at identifying the growth dynamics of three market segments (assisted efficiency, automated efficiency and contract-based efficiency), at comparing the posture and strategies of the different actors present on this market (energy providers, equipment manufacturers, pure players, NTIC...), at identifying actors who are in the best position to benefit market development, and at imagining tomorrow's supply for energy efficiency. The report addresses the definition of active energy efficiency, the rationale of its development, the European regulatory and legal context, the strengthening of regulatory and environmental constraints in France, the three different market segments (examples, opportunities), and the competition context

  11. Integrated, Automated Distributed Generation Technologies Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Kevin [Atk Launch Systems Inc., Brigham City, UT (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the NETL Project was to develop a diverse combination of distributed renewable generation technologies and controls and demonstrate how the renewable generation could help manage substation peak demand at the ATK Promontory plant site. The Promontory plant site is located in the northwestern Utah desert approximately 25 miles west of Brigham City, Utah. The plant encompasses 20,000 acres and has over 500 buildings. The ATK Promontory plant primarily manufactures solid propellant rocket motors for both commercial and government launch systems. The original project objectives focused on distributed generation; a 100 kW (kilowatt) wind turbine, a 100 kW new technology waste heat generation unit, a 500 kW energy storage system, and an intelligent system-wide automation system to monitor and control the renewable energy devices then release the stored energy during the peak demand time. The original goal was to reduce peak demand from the electrical utility company, Rocky Mountain Power (RMP), by 3.4%. For a period of time we also sought to integrate our energy storage requirements with a flywheel storage system (500 kW) proposed for the Promontory/RMP Substation. Ultimately the flywheel storage system could not meet our project timetable, so the storage requirement was switched to a battery storage system (300 kW.) A secondary objective was to design/install a bi-directional customer/utility gateway application for real-time visibility and communications between RMP, and ATK. This objective was not achieved because of technical issues with RMP, ATK Information Technology Department’s stringent requirements based on being a rocket motor manufacturing facility, and budget constraints. Of the original objectives, the following were achieved: • Installation of a 100 kW wind turbine. • Installation of a 300 kW battery storage system. • Integrated control system installed to offset electrical demand by releasing stored energy from renewable sources

  12. Integrated, Automated Distributed Generation Technologies Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Kevin

    2014-09-30

    The purpose of the NETL Project was to develop a diverse combination of distributed renewable generation technologies and controls and demonstrate how the renewable generation could help manage substation peak demand at the ATK Promontory plant site. The Promontory plant site is located in the northwestern Utah desert approximately 25 miles west of Brigham City, Utah. The plant encompasses 20,000 acres and has over 500 buildings. The ATK Promontory plant primarily manufactures solid propellant rocket motors for both commercial and government launch systems. The original project objectives focused on distributed generation; a 100 kW (kilowatt) wind turbine, a 100 kW new technology waste heat generation unit, a 500 kW energy storage system, and an intelligent system-wide automation system to monitor and control the renewable energy devices then release the stored energy during the peak demand time. The original goal was to reduce peak demand from the electrical utility company, Rocky Mountain Power (RMP), by 3.4%. For a period of time we also sought to integrate our energy storage requirements with a flywheel storage system (500 kW) proposed for the Promontory/RMP Substation. Ultimately the flywheel storage system could not meet our project timetable, so the storage requirement was switched to a battery storage system (300 kW.) A secondary objective was to design/install a bi-directional customer/utility gateway application for real-time visibility and communications between RMP, and ATK. This objective was not achieved because of technical issues with RMP, ATK Information Technology Department’s stringent requirements based on being a rocket motor manufacturing facility, and budget constraints. Of the original objectives, the following were achieved: • Installation of a 100 kW wind turbine. • Installation of a 300 kW battery storage system. • Integrated control system installed to offset electrical demand by releasing stored energy from renewable sources

  13. Chattanooga Electric Power Board Case Study Distribution Automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Jim [Chattanooga Electric Power Board (EPB), TN (United States); Melin, Alexander M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Starke, Michael R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Department of Energy under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) awarded a grant to the Chattanooga, Tennessee, Electric Power Board (EPB) as part of the Smart Grid Investment Grant Program. The grant had the objective “to accelerate the transformation of the nation’s electric grid by deploying smart grid technologies.” This funding award enabled EPB to expedite the original smart grid implementation schedule from an estimated 10-12 years to 2.5 years. With this funding, EPB invested heavily in distribution automation technologies including installing over 1,200 automated circuit switches and sensors on 171 circuits. For utilities considering a commitment to distribution automation, there are underlying questions such as the following: “What is the value?” and “What are the costs?” This case study attempts to answer these questions. The primary benefit of distribution automation is increased reliability or reduced power outage duration and frequency. Power outages directly impact customer economics by interfering with business functions. In the past, this economic driver has been difficult to effectively evaluate. However, as this case study demonstrates, tools and analysis techniques are now available. In this case study, the impact on customer costs associated with power outages before and after the implementation of distribution automation are compared. Two example evaluations are performed to demonstrate the benefits: 1) a savings baseline for customers under normal operations1 and 2) customer savings for a single severe weather event. Cost calculations for customer power outages are performed using the US Department of Energy (DOE) Interruption Cost Estimate (ICE) calculator2. This tool uses standard metrics associated with outages and the customers to calculate cost impact. The analysis shows that EPB customers have seen significant reliability improvements from the implementation of distribution automation. Under

  14. New low voltage (LV) distribution automation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M.M.; Sulaiman, M. [National Technical Univ. College of Malaysia, Melaka (Malaysia)

    2007-07-01

    The challenge of supplying non-interrupted power from an electrical distribution system experiencing an electrical fault was discussed. Typically, a team of electricians is sent to the fault area to solve the problem. Since this is both time consuming and expensive, a new method called distribution automation system (DAS) has been proposed to address this challenge. The DAS is aimed at low voltage (LV) distribution systems. Under this newly developed DAS, only the consumer where the fault occurs will be affected. The automated system identifies the exact location of the fault and isolates the consumer from the rest of the power distribution system. The consumer will be reconnected to the system only after fault clearance. The system operates and controls the equipment connected at the substation and distribution line/zone/pole remotely. Linking is done by a power line communication (PLC) system with the help of a Remote Control Unit (RTU) and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system which improves the ability to monitor various equipment at the substation and at the consumer location. 5 refs., 1 tab., 18 figs.

  15. Automated Planning and Scheduling for Planetary Rover Distributed Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Paul G.; Rabideau, Gregg; Tso, Kam S.; Chien, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Automated planning and Scheduling, including automated path planning, has been integrated with an Internet-based distributed operations system for planetary rover operations. The resulting prototype system enables faster generation of valid rover command sequences by a distributed planetary rover operations team. The Web Interface for Telescience (WITS) provides Internet-based distributed collaboration, the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN) provides automated planning and scheduling, and an automated path planner provided path planning. The system was demonstrated on the Rocky 7 research rover at JPL.

  16. EDISON - research programme on electricity distribution automation 1993-1997. Interim report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M. [ed.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1997-12-31

    The report comprises a summary of the results of the first four years of the research programme EDISON on distribution automation in Finnish utilities. The five year research programme (1993-1997) is conducted under the leadership of VTT Energy, in cooperation with universities, distribution companies and the manufacturing industry. The main part of the funding is from the Technology Development Centre TEKES and from manufacturing companies. The goal of the research programme is to develop a new scheme for a complete distribution automation system, including the network automation, computer systems in the control centre and the customer associated automation functions. In addition, the techniques for demand side management are developed and integrated into the automation scheme. The final aim is to demonstrate the automation functions and systems of the scheme in real distribution systems. The results of fifteen projects are now given. These results should be considered intermediate, since most projects will be continued in 1997. (orig.) 43 refs.

  17. EDISON - research programme on electric distribution automation 1993-1997. Final report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M. [ed.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-08-01

    This report comprises a summary of the results of the five year research programme EDISON on distribution automation in Finnish utilities. The research programme (1993 - 1997) was conducted under the leadership of VTT Energy, in cooperation with universities, distribution companies and the manufacturing industry. The main part of the funding has been from the Technology Development Centre TEKES and from manufacturing companies. The goal of the research programme was to develop a new scheme for a complete distribution automation system, including the network automation, computer systems in the control centre and the customer associated automation functions. In addition, the techniques for demand side management were developed and integrated into the automation scheme. The final aim was to demonstrate the automation functions and systems of the scheme in real distribution systems. The results of nineteen projects are given in this report

  18. EDISON - research programme on electricity distribution automation 1993-1997. Interim report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M. [ed.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1996-12-31

    The report comprises a summary of the results of the first three years of the research programme EDISON on distribution automation in Finnish electrical utilities. The five year research programme (1993-1997) is conducted under the leadership of VTT Energy, in cooperation with universities, distribution companies and the manufacturing industry. The main part of funding is from the Technology Development Centre (Tekes) and from manufacturing companies. The goal of the research programme is to develop a new scheme for a complete distribution automation system, including the network automation, computer systems in the control centre and the customer automation functions. In addition, the techniques for demand side management are developed and integrated into the automation scheme. The final aim is to demonstrate the automation functions and systems of the scheme in real distribution systems. The results of thirteen projects are now given. These results should be considered intermediate, since most projects will be continued in 1996. (orig.)

  19. Automating usability of ATLAS Distributed Computing resources

    CERN Document Server

    "Tupputi, S A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The automation of ATLAS Distributed Computing (ADC) operations is essential to reduce manpower costs and allow performance-enhancing actions, which improve the reliability of the system. In this perspective a crucial case is the automatic exclusion/recovery of ATLAS computing sites storage resources, which are continuously exploited at the edge of their capabilities. It is challenging to adopt unambiguous decision criteria for storage resources who feature non-homogeneous types, sizes and roles. The recently developed Storage Area Automatic Blacklisting (SAAB) tool has provided a suitable solution, by employing an inference algorithm which processes SAM (Site Availability Test) site-by-site SRM tests outcome. SAAB accomplishes both the tasks of providing global monitoring as well as automatic operations on single sites.\

  20. Automating usability of ATLAS Distributed Computing resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupputi, S. A.; Di Girolamo, A.; Kouba, T.; Schovancová, J.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The automation of ATLAS Distributed Computing (ADC) operations is essential to reduce manpower costs and allow performance-enhancing actions, which improve the reliability of the system. In this perspective a crucial case is the automatic handling of outages of ATLAS computing sites storage resources, which are continuously exploited at the edge of their capabilities. It is challenging to adopt unambiguous decision criteria for storage resources of non-homogeneous types, sizes and roles. The recently developed Storage Area Automatic Blacklisting (SAAB) tool has provided a suitable solution, by employing an inference algorithm which processes history of storage monitoring tests outcome. SAAB accomplishes both the tasks of providing global monitoring as well as automatic operations on single sites. The implementation of the SAAB tool has been the first step in a comprehensive review of the storage areas monitoring and central management at all levels. Such review has involved the reordering and optimization of SAM tests deployment and the inclusion of SAAB results in the ATLAS Site Status Board with both dedicated metrics and views. The resulting structure allows monitoring the storage resources status with fine time-granularity and automatic actions to be taken in foreseen cases, like automatic outage handling and notifications to sites. Hence, the human actions are restricted to reporting and following up problems, where and when needed. In this work we show SAAB working principles and features. We present also the decrease of human interactions achieved within the ATLAS Computing Operation team. The automation results in a prompt reaction to failures, which leads to the optimization of resource exploitation.

  1. Automating usability of ATLAS distributed computing resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The automation of ATLAS Distributed Computing (ADC) operations is essential to reduce manpower costs and allow performance-enhancing actions, which improve the reliability of the system. In this perspective a crucial case is the automatic handling of outages of ATLAS computing sites storage resources, which are continuously exploited at the edge of their capabilities. It is challenging to adopt unambiguous decision criteria for storage resources of non-homogeneous types, sizes and roles. The recently developed Storage Area Automatic Blacklisting (SAAB) tool has provided a suitable solution, by employing an inference algorithm which processes history of storage monitoring tests outcome. SAAB accomplishes both the tasks of providing global monitoring as well as automatic operations on single sites. The implementation of the SAAB tool has been the first step in a comprehensive review of the storage areas monitoring and central management at all levels. Such review has involved the reordering and optimization of SAM tests deployment and the inclusion of SAAB results in the ATLAS Site Status Board with both dedicated metrics and views. The resulting structure allows monitoring the storage resources status with fine time-granularity and automatic actions to be taken in foreseen cases, like automatic outage handling and notifications to sites. Hence, the human actions are restricted to reporting and following up problems, where and when needed. In this work we show SAAB working principles and features. We present also the decrease of human interactions achieved within the ATLAS Computing Operation team. The automation results in a prompt reaction to failures, which leads to the optimization of resource exploitation.

  2. Wireless communication technologies in distribution automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takala, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The project examines four different wireless communication technologies: GSM short message service, NMT data calls, packet radio network, Autonet (Actionet) status message service. The targets for communication include: energy measurement, especially in the de-regulated electricity market, secondary sub-station control, fault indicators. The research concentrates on the usability of different communication technologies for different purposes. Data about response times, error rates, retry times, communication delays, costs etc. will be collected for each communication technology and comparative results will be obtained. Some field experiments and demonstrations will be made in energy measurement and distribution network remote control. The project is divided in four tasks. Each task is described briefly

  3. Wireless communication technologies in distribution automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takala, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The project started in mid 1995 and will be finished in 1997. The project examines four different wireless communication technologies: GSM short message service, NMT data calls, packet radio network and Autonet (Actionet) status message service. The targets for communication include: Energy measurement, especially in the de-regulated electricity market, secondary sub-station control and fault indicators. The research has been focused on the usability of different communication technologies for different purposes. Data about response times, reliability, error rates, retry times, communication delays, costs etc. has been collected about each communication technology and comparative results were analysed. Some field experiments and demonstrations will be made in energy measurement and distribution network remote control. The project is divided into four tasks. Each task is described briefly

  4. Automated drawing system of quantum energy levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampoultzis, M.; Sinatkas, J.; Tsakstara, V.; Kosmas, T. S.

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to derive an automated system that provides advantageous drawings of energy spectra for quantum systems (nuclei, atoms, molecules, etc.) required in various physical sciences. The automation involves the development of appropriate computational code and graphical imaging system based on raw data insertion, theoretical calculations and experimental or bibliographic data insertion. The system determines the appropriate scale to depict graphically with the best possible way in the available space. The presently developed code operates locally and the results are displayed on the screen and can be exported to a PostScript file. We note its main features to arrange and visualize in the available space the energy levels with their identity, taking care the existence in the final diagram the least auxiliary deviations. Future improvements can be the use of Java and the availability on the Internet. The work involves the automated plotting of energy levels in molecules, atoms, nuclei and other types of quantized energy spectra. The automation involves the development of an appropriate computational code and graphical imaging system.

  5. Automated drawing system of quantum energy levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to derive an automated system that provides advantageous drawings of energy spectra for quantum systems (nuclei, atoms, molecules, etc.) required in various physical sciences. The automation involves the development of appropriate computational code and graphical imaging system based on raw data insertion, theoretical calculations and experimental or bibliographic data insertion. The system determines the appropriate scale to depict graphically with the best possible way in the available space. The presently developed code operates locally and the results are displayed on the screen and can be exported to a PostScript file. We note its main features to arrange and visualize in the available space the energy levels with their identity, taking care the existence in the final diagram the least auxiliary deviations. Future improvements can be the use of Java and the availability on the Internet. The work involves the automated plotting of energy levels in molecules, atoms, nuclei and other types of quantized energy spectra. The automation involves the development of an appropriate computational code and graphical imaging system

  6. A New Approach for Automation of Distributed Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reinhard Langmann

    2004-01-01

    @@ The concept Lean Web Automation(LWA) describes a new approach for web-based operation of automation devices in distributed systems, which can be used flexible by means of compact and low-cost software without installation expense on the client side. A dynamic process data transfer in the TCP/IP network is implemented by a javabased application model. This model uses a process data proxy to create at web clients an interface to process data of a remote automation device. A first practical realization of the LWA is the software toolkit Web Access Kit for OPC, which uses OPC as the interface to the process.

  7. Control and automation, and energy system engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tai-hoon [Hannam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Adeli, Hojjat [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Stoica, Adrian [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Kang, Byeong-Ho (eds.) [Tasmania Univ., Hobart, TAS (Australia)

    2011-07-01

    This book comprises selected papers of the International Conferences, CA and CES3 2011, held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2011, in Conjunction with GDC 2011, Jeju Island, Korea, in December 2011. The papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions and focused on the various aspects of control and automation, and circuits, control, communication, electricity, electronics, energy, system, signal and simulation. (orig.)

  8. Automated Distributed Simulation in Ptolemy II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lázaro Cuadrado, Daniel; Ravn, Anders Peter; Koch, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Despite the well known advantages of distributed processing for intensive computations like simulation, frameworks often fail to exploit them. A distributed simulation is harder to develop than a sequential one, because it is necessary to interface and map activities to processors and handle the ...

  9. A Distributed Intelligent Automated Demand Response Building Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auslander, David; Culler, David; Wright, Paul; Lu, Yan; Piette, Mary

    2013-12-30

    The goal of the 2.5 year Distributed Intelligent Automated Demand Response (DIADR) project was to reduce peak electricity load of Sutardja Dai Hall at UC Berkeley by 30% while maintaining a healthy, comfortable, and productive environment for the occupants. We sought to bring together both central and distributed control to provide “deep” demand response1 at the appliance level of the building as well as typical lighting and HVAC applications. This project brought together Siemens Corporate Research and Siemens Building Technology (the building has a Siemens Apogee Building Automation System (BAS)), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (leveraging their Open Automated Demand Response (openADR), Auto-­Demand Response, and building modeling expertise), and UC Berkeley (related demand response research including distributed wireless control, and grid-­to-­building gateway development). Sutardja Dai Hall houses the Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS), which fosters collaboration among industry and faculty and students of four UC campuses (Berkeley, Davis, Merced, and Santa Cruz). The 141,000 square foot building, occupied in 2009, includes typical office spaces and a nanofabrication laboratory. Heating is provided by a district heating system (steam from campus as a byproduct of the campus cogeneration plant); cooling is provided by one of two chillers: a more typical electric centrifugal compressor chiller designed for the cool months (Nov-­ March) and a steam absorption chiller for use in the warm months (April-­October). Lighting in the open office areas is provided by direct-­indirect luminaries with Building Management System-­based scheduling for open areas, and occupancy sensors for private office areas. For the purposes of this project, we focused on the office portion of the building. Annual energy consumption is approximately 8053 MWh; the office portion is estimated as 1924 MWh. The maximum peak load

  10. Development of methods for DSM and distribution automation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerkkaeinen, S.; Kekkonen, V. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Rissanen, P. [Tietosavo Oy (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Demand-Side Management (DSM) is usually an utility (or sometimes governmental) activity designed to influence energy demand of customers (both level and load variation). It includes basic options like strategic conservation or load growth, peak clipping. Load shifting and fuel switching. Typical ways to realize DSM are direct load control, innovative tariffs, different types of campaign etc. Restructuring of utility in Finland and increased competition in electricity market have had dramatic influence on the DSM. Traditional ways are impossible due to the conflicting interests of generation, network and supply business and increased competition between different actors in the market. Costs and benefits of DSM are divided to different companies, and different type of utilities are interested only in those activities which are beneficial to them. On the other hand, due to the increased competition the suppliers are diversifying to different types of products and increasing number of customer services partly based on DSM are available. The aim of this project was to develop and assess methods for DSM and distribution automation planning from the utility point of view. The methods were also applied to case studies at utilities

  11. Energy of generalized distributions

    OpenAIRE

    González-Dávila, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    We consider the energy of smooth generalized distributions and also of singular foliations on compact Riemannian manifolds for which the set of their singularities consists of a finite number of isolated points and of pairwise disjoint closed submanifolds. We derive a lower bound for the energy of all $q$-dimensional almost regular distributions, for each $q< \\dim M,$ and find several examples of foliations which minimize the energy functional over certain sets of smooth generalized distribut...

  12. Distributed Energy Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) is an extension of the power electronics testing capabilities of the Photovoltaic System Evaluation Laboratory...

  13. Tools for the Automation of Large Distributed Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gaspar, Clara

    2005-01-01

    The new LHC experiments at CERN will have very large numbers of channels to operate. In order to be able to configure and monitor such large systems, a high degree of parallelism is necessary. The control system is built as a hierarchy of sub-systems distributed over several computers. A toolkit - SMI++, combining two approaches: finite state machines and rule-based programming, allows for the description of the various sub-systems as decentralized deciding entities, reacting is real-time to changes in the system, thus providing for the automation of standard procedures and for the automatic recovery from error conditions in a hierarchical fashion. In this paper we will describe the principles and features of SMI++ as well as its integration with an industrial SCADA tool for use by the LHC experiments and we will try to show that such tools, can provide a very convenient mechanism for the automation of large scale, high complexity, applications.

  14. Enhanced distribution automation system based on new communication technology at ENEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of extensive research aimed at the assessment of the feasibility of a cost effective two-way telecommunications system, and of the experience gained during the eighties in the field of remote control of the primary distribution network where new digital techniques were introduced, and in the field of metering apparatus, where about 7,000 HV and MV customers were equipped with Ferraris meters associated with electronic devices for the application of multirate tariffs, ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) has designed a new distribution automation system aimed at: remote control of the MV distribution network, and MV and LV customer meter service automation. This report describes the key choices that determined the architecture of the new system and the most important features of its main components, in view of: an improvement of energy usage efficiency, better service to the customers, as well as, increased simplicity and transparency in customer relationships

  15. SERVICE ORIENTATION IN DISTRIBUTED AUTOMATION AND CONTROL SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana VOICAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study shows the feasibility ofservice-oriented architectures for industrial automation and control systems even with respect to lower, real-time dependent control functions. For that purpose, general SOA-guidelines were refined in order to cover the distribution of control functions between services and the lay-out and management of devicebased sensor, actor and control services. Particular emphasis was placed on the dynamic lease-based binding of services which on the one hand provides flexible and loose coupling of system components but on the other hand has to ensure reliable communication and cooperation. The guidelines were applied to the experimental implementation of a manufacturing cell control system using a real-time version of the Java Runtime Environment. The Device Profile for Web Services (DPWS was used as basic infrastructure technology. Test and evaluation were performed under distributed simulation of technical processes and devices

  16. Quantitative Vulnerability Assessment of Cyber Security for Distribution Automation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaming Ye

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution automation system (DAS is vulnerable to cyber-attacks due to the widespread use of terminal devices and standard communication protocols. On account of the cost of defense, it is impossible to ensure the security of every device in the DAS. Given this background, a novel quantitative vulnerability assessment model of cyber security for DAS is developed in this paper. In the assessment model, the potential physical consequences of cyber-attacks are analyzed from two levels: terminal device level and control center server level. Then, the attack process is modeled based on game theory and the relationships among different vulnerabilities are analyzed by introducing a vulnerability adjacency matrix. Finally, the application process of the proposed methodology is illustrated through a case study based on bus 2 of the Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS. The results demonstrate the reasonability and effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  17. DEM - distribution energy management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A.; Kekkonen, V.; Koreneff, G. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)] [and others

    1998-08-01

    The electricity market was de-regulated in Finland at the end of 1995 and the customers can now freely choose their power suppliers. The national grid and local distribution network operators are now separated from the energy business. The network operators transmit the electric power to the customers on equal terms regardless from whom the power is purchased. The Finnish national grid is owned by one company Finnish Power Grid PLC (Fingrid). The major shareholders of Fingrid are the state of Finland, two major power companies and institutional investors. In addition there are about 100 local distribution utilities operating the local 110 kV, 20 kV and 0.4 kV networks. The distribution utilities are mostly owned by the municipalities and towns. In each network one energy supplier is always responsible for the hourly energy balance in the network (a `host`) and it also has the obligation to provide public energy prices accessible to any customer in the network`s area. The Finnish regulating authorities nominate such a supplier who has a dominant market share in the network`s area as the supplier responsible for the network`s energy balance. A regulating authority, called the Electricity Market Centre, ensures that the market is operating properly. The transmission prices and public energy prices are under the Electricity Market Centre`s control. For domestic and other small customers the cost of hourly metering (ca. 1000 US$) would be prohibitive and therefore the use of conventional energy metering and load models is under consideration by the authorities. Small customer trade with the load models (instead of the hourly energy recording) is scheduled to start in the first half of 1998. In this presentation, the problems of energy management from the standpoint of the energy trading and distributing companies in the new situation are first discussed. The topics covered are: the hourly load data management, the forecasting and estimation of hourly energy demands

  18. Present status and future aspects of distribution automation; Haiden jidoka no genjo to kongo no tenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobita, M.; Niwa, S. [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)

    1996-02-20

    The distribution facilities of electric power companies are roughly classified into a transmission system for sending electric power from a generating station to distribution substations through transmission substations, and a distribution system for supplying electric power from distribution substations to general consumers. This paper describes the basic concept of the distribution automation, and the `system for remote monitoring and controlling distribution line switches` which the electric power companies have practically adopted in common, and which is the most important basic technique for the distribution automation, taking the case of the system adopted by the Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. As the prospective technique for the future, each electric power company starts tackling comprehensive automation of machines and information necessary for the operation of the power distribution lines, including remote monitoring and controlling of various equipment constituting power distribution lines, and collection of information about the voltage and current at each point of distribution lines. This comprehensive automation is generally called `Distribution Comprehensive Automation`. When the `Distribution Total Automation` is practically applied, the flatwise extending equipment and load condition can be individually controlled, and a great decrease in the operation cost can be expected. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Research on Full Data Planning Stimulation State of Smart Distribution Automation and Stimulation Evaluating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Chang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Smart distribution automation is an important part of smart grids. In our country, power distribution network is open looped and radial. To optimize the power distribution network, this paper aims to conduct full data planning in smart distribution automation from the perspective of annual total cost to explore efficient and practical planning algorithm, and provide fundamental basis for development and completion of smart power distribution system. In this paper, firstly, we analyze the proposal background and features of smart distribution automation to prepare for limits and targets in the process of distribution network planning. Then, according to regional characteristics of smart distribution automation, we provide with appliance strategies of multi ant colony algorithm in planning of smart distribution automation and figure out the stimulation branch circuit data of full data planning in certain power supply region after 500 iterations. It turns out that the convergence of algorithm and the result of optimization are good. At last, after evaluating the result of distribution network planning, we make out an index evaluating system and come up with evaluating process of the planning results as well as algorithm principle of AHP, and finally provide fundamental basis for self-cure of smart distribution automation.

  20. Generic solutions for substation automation in wind energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckel, Juergen [Siemens AG (Germany); Niejahr, Joerg [Siemens Canada Ltd. (Canada). Business Unit Canada

    2010-07-01

    Depending on the size and the type of a wind energy plants different primary component groups were used to build the power collection grid, which link the Wind Turbine Towers and connect them to the public network, respectively: - LV/MV Transformer and fuse in each WTT (Wind Turbine Towers) with the wind turbine itself; - MV cables which link a group of WTT's to a feeder and connect them to the - MV Switchgear which connect directly to the MV public network or, depending on the size of the plant to the - MV/HV transformer and HV switchgear for connection to the HV public grid. To fulfill the requirements of the substation automation and protection for the different types e.g. onshore or offshore and sizes of wind energy plant in an economic and consistent way the design and technology must be standardized for all level of automation from the bottom in the WTT up to the HV-substation. Based on wide experience in substation automation of large and small offshore and onshore wind energy parks, generic solutions for wind power plants defines a set of typicals for the substation automation system and protection., covering the requirements of the WTT-, MV- and HV-Switchgear as well. With these construction kit for Substation Automation the complete range of different types and sizes of wind power plants are covered. The use of intelligent devices, an open IEC 61850 architecture, powerful substation computers, equipment knowledge modules and local storage assure cost efficiency, high availability and sustainability. This paper focus on the concept, components and benefits of ''generic solutions substation'' wind energy for automation and protection for all levels of the power collection grid of wind energy parks with focus on the aspects to build a seamless system for the complete windfarm. (orig.)

  1. A scheme for a future distribution automation system in Finnish utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M.; Kaerkkaeinen, S. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Partanen, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    This presentation summarizes the results of a project, the aim of which was to define the optimal set of functions for the future distribution automation (DA) systems in Finland. The general factors, which affect the automation needs, are first discussed. The benefits of various functions of DA and demand side management (DSM) are then studied. Next a computer model for a DA feasibility analysis is presented, and some computation results are given. From these, the proposed automation scheme is finally concluded

  2. A scheme for a future distribution automation system in Finnish utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M.; Kaerkkaeinen, S. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Partanen, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    This presentation summarizes the results of a project, the aim of which was to define the optimal set of functions for the future distribution automation (DA) systems in Finland. The general factors. which affect the automation needs, are first discussed. The benefits of various functions of DA and demand side management (DSM) are then studied. Next a computer model for a DA feasibility analysis is presented, and some computation results are given. From these. the proposed automation scheme is finally concluded

  3. Automated Comparison of Building Energy Simulation Engines (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polly, B.; Horowitz, S.; Booten, B.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.

    2012-08-01

    This presentation describes the BEopt comparative test suite, which is a tool that facilitates the automated comparison of building energy simulation engines. It also demonstrates how the test suite is improving the accuracy of building energy simulation programs. Building energy simulation programs inform energy efficient design for new homes and energy efficient upgrades for existing homes. Stakeholders rely on accurate predictions from simulation programs. Previous research indicates that software tends to over-predict energy usage for poorly-insulated leaky homes. NREL is identifying, investigating, and resolving software inaccuracy issues. Comparative software testing is one method of many that NREL uses to identify potential software issues.

  4. Energy conservation and management system using efficient building automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S. Faiz; Hazry, D.; Tanveer, M. Hassan; Joyo, M. Kamran; Warsi, Faizan A.; Kamarudin, H.; Wan, Khairunizam; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman A., B.; Hussain, A. T.

    2015-05-01

    In countries where the demand and supply gap of electricity is huge and the people are forced to endure increasing hours of load shedding, unnecessary consumption of electricity makes matters even worse. So the importance and need for electricity conservation increases exponentially. This paper outlines a step towards the conservation of energy in general and electricity in particular by employing efficient Building Automation technique. It should be noted that by careful designing and implementation of the Building Automation System, up to 30% to 40% of energy consumption can be reduced, which makes a huge difference for energy saving. In this study above mentioned concept is verified by performing experiment on a prototype experimental room and by implementing efficient building automation technique. For the sake of this efficient automation, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is employed as a main controller, monitoring various system parameters and controlling appliances as per required. The hardware test run and experimental findings further clarifies and proved the concept. The added advantage of this project is that it can be implemented to both small and medium level domestic homes thus greatly reducing the overall unnecessary load on the Utility provider.

  5. Distributed Wind Energy in Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, John [Boise State Univ., ID (United States); Johnson, Kathryn [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Haynes, Todd [Boise State Univ., ID (United States); Seifert, Gary [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2009-01-31

    This project is a research and development program aimed at furthering distributed wind technology. In particular, this project addresses some of the barriers to distributed wind energy utilization in Idaho.

  6. Assessing Pulmonary Perfusion in Emphysema Automated Quantification of Perfused Blood Volume in Dual-Energy CTPA

    OpenAIRE

    Meinel, Felix G.; Graef, Anita; Thieme, Sven F.; Bamberg, Fabian; Schwarz, Florian; Sommer, Wieland; Helck, Andreas D.; Neurohr, Claus; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Johnson, Thorsten R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine whether automated quantification of lung perfused blood volume (PBV) in dual-energy computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (DE-CTPA) can be used to assess the severity and regional distribution of pulmonary hypoperfusion in emphysema. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 40 consecutive patients (mean age, 67 13] years) with pulmonary emphysema, who have no cardiopulmonary comorbidities, and a DE-CTPA negative for pulmo...

  7. Development of methods for DSM and distribution automation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M.; Seppaelae, A.; Kekkonen, V.; Koreneff, G. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In the de-regulated electricity market, the power trading companies have to face new problems. The biggest challenges are caused by the uncertainty in the load magnitudes. In order to minimize the risks in power purchase and also in retail sales, the power traders should have as reliable and accurate estimates for hourly demands of their customers as possible. New tools have been developed for the distribution load estimation and for the management of energy balances of the trading companies. These tools are based on the flexible combination of the information available from several sources, like direct customer measurements, network measurements, load models and statistical data. These functions also serve as an information source for higher level activities of the electricity selling companies. These activities and the associated functions have been studied in the prototype system called DEM, which is now being developed for the operation of Finnish utilities in the newly de-regulated power market

  8. Linking Continuous Energy Management and Open Automated Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila; Ghatikar, Girish

    2008-10-03

    Advances in communications and control technology, the strengthening of the Internet, and the growing appreciation of the urgency to reduce demand side energy use are motivating the development of improvements in both energy efficiency and demand response (DR) systems. This paper provides a framework linking continuous energy management and continuous communications for automated demand response (Auto-DR) in various times scales. We provide a set of concepts for monitoring and controls linked to standards and procedures such as Open Automation Demand Response Communication Standards (Open Auto-DR or OpenADR). Basic building energy science and control issues in this approach begin with key building components, systems, end-uses and whole building energy performance metrics. The paper presents a framework about when energy is used, levels of services by energy using systems, granularity of control, and speed of telemetry. DR, when defined as a discrete event, requires a different set of building service levels than daily operations. We provide examples of lessons from DR case studies and links to energy efficiency.

  9. Solar Energy Based Automated Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Lodhi A. K.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the field of agriculture, use of proper method of irrigation is important because the main reason is the lack of rains {&} scarcity of land reservoir water. The continuous extraction of water from earth is reducing the water level due to which lot of land is coming slowly in the zones of un-irrigated land. Another very important reason of this is due to unplanned use of water due to which a significant amount of water goes waste. For this purpose; we use this automatic plant irrigation system. In this project we use solar energy which is used to operate the irrigation pump. The circuit comprises of sensor parts built using op-amp IC LM358. Op-amp are configured here as a comparator. Two stiff copper wires are inserted in the soil to sense whether the soil is wet or dry. The Microcontroller is used to control the whole system by monitoring the sensors and when sensors sense the dry condition then the microcontroller will send command to relay driver IC the contacts of which are used to switch on the motor and it will switch off the motor when all the sensors are in wet condition. The microcontroller does the above job as it receives the signal from the sensors through the output of the comparator, and these signals operate under the control of software which is stored in ROM of the Microcontroller. The condition of the pump i.e., ON/OFF is displayed on a 16X2 LCD

  10. Project Management Phases of a SCADA System for Automation of Electrical Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Najeh Lakhoua

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is, firstly, to recall the basic concepts of SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition systems, to present the project management phases of SCADA for real time implementation, and then to show the need of the automation for Electricity Distribution Companies (EDC on their distribution networks and the importance of using computer based system towards sustainable development of their services. A proposed computer based power distribution automation system is then discussed. Finally, some projects of SCADA system implementation in electrical companies over the world are briefly presented.

  11. Automation of variable low-energy positron beam experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Jayapandian, J; Amarendra, G; Venugopal-Rao, G; Purniah, B; Viswanathan, B

    2000-01-01

    By exploiting the special BIOS interrupt (INT 1CH) of PC in conjunction with a compatible high-voltage controller card and menu-driven control program, we report here the automation of variable low-energy positron beam experiments. The beam experiment consists of monitoring the Doppler broadening lineshape parameters corresponding to the annihilation 511 keV gamma-ray at various positron beam implantation energies. The variation and monitoring of the sample high voltage, which determines positron beam energy, is carried out using a controller add-on card coupled to a 0-30 kV high-voltage unit. The design features of this controller card are discussed. This controller card is housed in a PC, which also houses a multichannel analyser (MCA) card. The MCA stores the Doppler energy spectrum of the annihilation gamma-ray. The interactive control program, written in Turbo C, carries out the assigned tasks. The design features of the automation and results are presented.

  12. Distributed Microprocessor Automation Network for Synthesizing Radiotracers Used in Positron Emission Tomography [PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J. A. G.; Alexoff, D. L.; Wolf, A. P.

    1984-09-01

    This presentation describes an evolving distributed microprocessor network for automating the routine production synthesis of radiotracers used in Positron Emission Tomography. We first present a brief overview of the PET method for measuring biological function, and then outline the general procedure for producing a radiotracer. The paper identifies several reasons for our automating the syntheses of these compounds. There is a description of the distributed microprocessor network architecture chosen and the rationale for that choice. Finally, we speculate about how this network may be exploited to extend the power of the PET method from the large university or National Laboratory to the biomedical research and clinical community at large. (DT)

  13. Integration of Distributed Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpendra Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This Study proposes the feasibility of proposed restructured power system for the integration of distributed energy resources. Once the proposed power system network takes place, it will be able to provide opportunities for sustained economic growth. Main objectives of the proposed network are maximization of Distributed Generation (DGs penetration and decarbonization of electric utility. IEEE-14 bus test system with proposed configuration has been undertaken for MATLAB® Simulations, results shows that proposed power system configuration allows the operation of conventional energy generation and green energy generation efficiently. The results obtained from MATLAB ® simulations are compared with genetic algorithm based optimization approach.

  14. Value sensitive design of automated workload distribution support for traffic control teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of automated support for workload distribution in traffic control teams on human values such as security, autonomy and privacy. The paper describes a workshop in which the support system's stakeholders, their values, and the effects of the support system on these value

  15. Modeling Multiple Human-Automation Distributed Systems using Network-form Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brat, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes at a high-level the network-form game framework (based on Bayes net and game theory), which can be used to model and analyze safety issues in large, distributed, mixed human-automation systems such as NextGen.

  16. Automated Multivariate Optimization Tool for Energy Analysis: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, P. G.; Griffith, B. T.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P. A.; Crawley, D.

    2006-07-01

    Building energy simulations are often used for trial-and-error evaluation of ''what-if'' options in building design--a limited search for an optimal solution, or ''optimization''. Computerized searching has the potential to automate the input and output, evaluate many options, and perform enough simulations to account for the complex interactions among combinations of options. This paper describes ongoing efforts to develop such a tool. The optimization tool employs multiple modules, including a graphical user interface, a database, a preprocessor, the EnergyPlus simulation engine, an optimization engine, and a simulation run manager. Each module is described and the overall application architecture is summarized.

  17. Automated Anomaly Detection in Distribution Grids Using $\\mu$PMU Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Jamei, Mahdi; Roberts, Ciaran; Stewart, Emma; Peisert, Sean; McParland, Chuck; McEachern, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The impact of Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) for providing situational awareness to transmission system operators has been widely documented. Micro-PMUs ($\\mu$PMUs) are an emerging sensing technology that can provide similar benefits to Distribution System Operators (DSOs), enabling a level of visibility into the distribution grid that was previously unattainable. In order to support the deployment of these high resolution sensors, the automation of data analysis and prioritizing communication to the DSO becomes crucial. In this paper, we explore the use of $\\mu$PMUs to detect anomalies on the distribution grid. Our methodology is motivated by growing concern about failures and attacks to distribution automation equipment. The effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated through both real and simulated data.

  18. AUTOMATED WATER DISTRIBUTION AND PERFORMANCE MONITORING SYSTEM USING FPGA

    OpenAIRE

    Prof.A.R.Patil*; Prof. R. N. Rathod

    2016-01-01

    Enormous growth of residential areas has lead to over demand of water to fulfill daily activities. Without daily water nothing happens in any kind of environment. Importance of water is realized only when it is not available. People utilize water for different purposes and consume them by many ways. But there are lots of issues which arise when they consume in large amount. That is termed as water theft. It leads to scarcity of water in some areas. Among a particular water distribution unit p...

  19. Automated Vehicle Regulation: An Energy and Emissions Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron

    2016-05-18

    This presentation provides a summary of the current automated vehicles polices in the United States and how they related to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The presentation then looks at future automated vehicle trends that will increase and reduce GHG emissions and what current policies utilized in other areas of law could be adapted for automated vehicle GHG emissions.

  20. Distributed fusion and automated sensor tasking in ISR systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preden, Jurgo; Pahtma, Raido; Astapov, Sergei; Ehala, Johannes; Riid, Andri; Motus, Leo

    2014-06-01

    Modern Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) systems are increasingly being assembled from autonomous systems, so the resulting ISR system is a System of Systems (SoS). In order to take full advantage of the capabilities of the ISR SoS, the architecture and the design of these SoS should be able to facilitate the benefits inherent in a SoS approach - high resilience, higher level of adaptability and higher diversity, enabling on-demand system composition. The tasks performed by ISR SoS can well go beyond basic data acquisition, conditioning and communication as data processing can be easily integrated in the SoS. Such an ISR SoS can perform data fusion, classification and tracking (and conditional sensor tasking for additional data acquisition), these are extremely challenging tasks in this context, especially if the fusion is performed in a distributed manner. Our premise for the ISR SoS design and deployment is that the system is not designed as a complete system, where the capabilities of individual data providers are considered and the interaction paths, including communication channel capabilities, are specified at design time. Instead, we assume a loosely coupled SoS, where the data needs for a specific fusion task are described at a high level at design time and data providers (i.e., sensor systems) required for a specific fusion task are discovered dynamically at run time, the selection criteria for the data providers being the type and properties of data that can be provided by the specific data provider. The paper describes some of the aspects of a distributed ISR SoS design and implementation, bringing examples on both architectural design as well as on algorithm implementations.

  1. Energy Distribution and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the physical constraints on the growth process. In order to run, maintain and build capital energy is required to be distributed to geographically dispersed sites where investments are deemed profitable. We capture this aspect of physical reality by a network theory of elec...

  2. iLCDirac and CI: Automated testing for distributed computing

    CERN Document Server

    Ebbing, Jan Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Detector optimization studies for future high-energy physics experiments require the simulation and reconstruction of many physics processes and detector geometries. As an efficient way of accessing the necessary computational and storage resources, DIRAC has been developed and extended by iLCDirac, which is specialized for the applications used in the context of linear collider detector studies. We give a short introduction of grid computing and the concept of “High-throughput computing” behind DIRAC before explaining the unique features of DIRAC and iLCDirac. With this preparation we explain how we leveraged continuous integration to ensure smooth day-to-day operations, and that changes to the underlying code base do not cause an interruption of the service.

  3. An automated model-based aim point distribution system for solar towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzbözl, Peter; Rong, Amadeus; Macke, Ansgar; Säck, Jan-Peter; Ulmer, Steffen

    2016-05-01

    Distribution of heliostat aim points is a major task during central receiver operation, as the flux distribution produced by the heliostats varies continuously with time. Known methods for aim point distribution are mostly based on simple aim point patterns and focus on control strategies to meet local temperature and flux limits of the receiver. Lowering the peak flux on the receiver to avoid hot spots and maximizing thermal output are obviously competing targets that call for a comprehensive optimization process. This paper presents a model-based method for online aim point optimization that includes the current heliostat field mirror quality derived through an automated deflectometric measurement process.

  4. COST-WORTH ASSESSMENT OF AUTOMATED RADIAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM BASED ON RELIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vidya Sagar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Power reliability and quality are gaining their greater grounds than ever in the power and industrial market of the times. It has become an essential means for the successful dispatch of quality product, operation, services of any industry. The reliability of power distribution network can be greatly enhanced by the automation of its feeder system and other associated parts. Remotely controlled and automated restoration services can avoid the necessity of executing manual switching schedules and are bound to bring about remarkable levels of system reliability and interruption costs. The reliability cost-worth analysis is the excellent tool for evaluation of interruption costs. Reliability cost-worth analysis is very significant in the power system planning, operation, maintenance andexpansion, for it takes into account the customer concerns in the analysis. This paper deals in due detail with the reliability based cost-worth analysis of automated radial distribution network. The direct method of assessing the worth of reliability is to calculate the user costs relevant to interruptions in the power supply. By the application of failure mode effect analysis and cost-worth analysis byusing direct costing method the reliability of radial distribution network can be evaluated. The customer interruption costs’ indices of a radial distribution network calculated using the analytical method applied to an Indian utility network system with 2000KVA& sixteen nodes and the related results of the study are duly discussed in this paper.

  5. NREL Research and Thoughts on Connected and Automated Vehicle Energy Impacts; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, Jeff; Wood, Eric; Lammert, Michael

    2014-12-09

    Jeff was invited to brief the EPA Mobile Sources Technical Review Subcommittee on considerations regarding potential energy and environmental considerations for connected and automated vehicles. For more information about the MSTRS see http://www2.epa.gov/caaac/mobile-sources-technical-review-subcommittee-mstrs-caaac.

  6. Energy efficient distributed computing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Young-Choon

    2012-01-01

    The energy consumption issue in distributed computing systems raises various monetary, environmental and system performance concerns. Electricity consumption in the US doubled from 2000 to 2005.  From a financial and environmental standpoint, reducing the consumption of electricity is important, yet these reforms must not lead to performance degradation of the computing systems.  These contradicting constraints create a suite of complex problems that need to be resolved in order to lead to 'greener' distributed computing systems.  This book brings together a group of outsta

  7. Development of an automation system for a distribution operation center; Desenvolvimento de um sistema de automacao para um Centro de Operacao da Distribuicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surur, Paulo Sergio Miguel

    1996-07-01

    The great problems caused by a deficient electric energy supply, mainly referring to quality in the distribution system are widely known. The automation of the feeder and of the Distribution Operational Center, contributes to improving quality mainly concerning the restoring time of the lines during cut-outs decreasing the non-supplied energy. This paper presents an automation system of COD - Distribution Operation Center and tests performed to evaluate the system performance in a substation and in the primary network manoeuvre switch. Considerations on the hardware, software and man machine interface developed for the operator were taken aiming at justifying the adopted choice for this project. Software and hardware modules available in the Brazilian market were applied in this work. Tests of the system were done at a substation and in a laboratory. The results were satisfactory. (author)

  8. Energy conservation in electric distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chong-Jin

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses the potential for energy and power savings that exist in electric power delivery systems. These savings translate into significant financial and environmental benefits for electricity producers and consumers as well as for society in general. AlliedSignal`s knowledge and perspectives on this topic are the result of discussions with hundreds of utility executives, government officials and other industry experts over the past decade in conjunction with marketing our Amorphous Metal technology for electric distribution transformers. Amorphous metal is a technology developed by AlliedSignal that significantly reduces the energy lost in electric distribution transformers at an incremental cost of just a few cents per kilo-Watt-hour. The purpose of this paper is to discuss: Amorphous Metal Alloy Technology; Energy Savings Opportunity; The Industrial Barriers and Remedies; Worldwide Demand; and A Low Risk Strategy. I wish this presentation will help KEPCO achieve their stated aims of ensuring sound development of the national economy and enhancement of public life through the economic and stable supply of electric power. AlliedSignal Korea Ltd. in conjunction with AlliedSignal Amorphous Metals in the U.S. are here to work with KEPCO, transformer manufacturers, industry, and government agencies to achieve greater efficiency in power distribution.

  9. Towards self-healing in distribution networks operation: Bipartite graph modelling for automated switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost' alova, Alena; Carvalho, Pedro M.S. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computers, Instituto Superior Tecnico, UTL, Av. Rovisco Pais, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-01-15

    The concept of self-healing has been recently introduced in power systems. The general self-healing framework is complex and includes several aspects of networks' operation. This paper deals with automated switching in the context of autonomous operation of distribution networks. The paper presents a new network data model that allows effective reconfiguration algorithms to be designed. The model is based on bipartite graph representation of switching possibilities. The model properties and capabilities are illustrated for simple self-healing algorithms and a small real world medium voltage distribution network. (author)

  10. Comparison groups on bills: Automated, personalized energy information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Maithili; Kempton, Willett; Payne, Christopher

    2006-07-01

    A program called ``Innovative Billing?? has been developed to provide individualized energy information for a mass audience?the entireresidential customer base of an electric or gas utility. Customers receive a graph on the bill that compares that customer?s consumption with othersimilar customers for the same month. The program aims to stimulate customers to make ef?ciency improvements. To group as many as severalmillion customers into small ``comparison groups??, an automated method must be developed drawing solely from the data available to the utility.This paper develops and applies methods to compare the quality of resulting comparison groups.A data base of 114,000 customers from a utility billing system was used to evaluate Innovative Billing comparison groups, comparing fouralternative criteria: house characteristics (?oor area, housing type, and heating fuel); street; meter read route; billing cycle. Also, customers wereinterviewed to see what forms of comparison graphs made most sense and led to fewest errors of interpretation. We ?nd that good qualitycomparison groups result from using street name, meter book, or multiple house characteristics. Other criteria we tested, such as entire cycle, entiremeter book, or single house characteristics such as ?oor area, resulted in poor quality comparison groups. This analysis provides a basis forchoosing comparison groups based on extensive user testing and statistical analysis. The result is a practical set of guidelines that can be used toimplement realistic, inexpensive innovative billing for the entire customer base of an electric or gas utility.

  11. A Petri Net model for distributed energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopko, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Electrical networks need to evolve to become more intelligent, more flexible and less costly. The smart grid is the next generation power energy, uses two-way flows of electricity and information to create a distributed automated energy delivery network. Building a comprehensive smart grid is a challenge for system protection, optimization and energy efficient. Proper modeling and analysis is needed to build an extensive distributed energy system and intelligent electricity infrastructure. In this paper, the whole model of smart grid have been proposed using Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets (GSPN). The simulation of created model is also explored. The simulation of the model has allowed the analysis of how close the behavior of the model is to the usage of the real smart grid.

  12. A Petri Net model for distributed energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopko, Joanna [Warsaw University of Technology, The Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, Institute of Computer Science, Nowowiejska Street 15/19, Warsaw 00-665 (Poland)

    2015-12-31

    Electrical networks need to evolve to become more intelligent, more flexible and less costly. The smart grid is the next generation power energy, uses two-way flows of electricity and information to create a distributed automated energy delivery network. Building a comprehensive smart grid is a challenge for system protection, optimization and energy efficient. Proper modeling and analysis is needed to build an extensive distributed energy system and intelligent electricity infrastructure. In this paper, the whole model of smart grid have been proposed using Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets (GSPN). The simulation of created model is also explored. The simulation of the model has allowed the analysis of how close the behavior of the model is to the usage of the real smart grid.

  13. Automated modelling of spatially-distributed glacier ice thickness and volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, William H. M.; Carrivick, Jonathan L.

    2016-07-01

    Ice thickness distribution and volume are both key parameters for glaciological and hydrological applications. This study presents VOLTA (Volume and Topography Automation), which is a Python script tool for ArcGISTM that requires just a digital elevation model (DEM) and glacier outline(s) to model distributed ice thickness, volume and bed topography. Ice thickness is initially estimated at points along an automatically generated centreline network based on the perfect-plasticity rheology assumption, taking into account a valley side drag component of the force balance equation. Distributed ice thickness is subsequently interpolated using a glaciologically correct algorithm. For five glaciers with independent field-measured bed topography, VOLTA modelled volumes were between 26.5% (underestimate) and 16.6% (overestimate) of that derived from field observations. Greatest differences were where an asymmetric valley cross section shape was present or where significant valley infill had occurred. Compared with other methods of modelling ice thickness and volume, key advantages of VOLTA are: a fully automated approach and a user friendly graphical user interface (GUI), GIS consistent geometry, fully automated centreline generation, inclusion of a side drag component in the force balance equation, estimation of glacier basal shear stress for each individual glacier, fully distributed ice thickness output and the ability to process multiple glaciers rapidly. VOLTA is capable of regional scale ice volume assessment, which is a key parameter for exploring glacier response to climate change. VOLTA also permits subtraction of modelled ice thickness from the input surface elevation to produce an ice-free DEM, which is a key input for reconstruction of former glaciers. VOLTA could assist with prediction of future glacier geometry changes and hence in projection of future meltwater fluxes.

  14. Automated Classification of Glaucoma Images by Wavelet Energy Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Annu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. As glaucoma progresses, more optic nerve tissue is lost and the optic cup grows which leads to vision loss. This paper compiles a systemthat could be used by non-experts to filtrate cases of patients not affected by the disease. This work proposes glaucomatous image classification using texture features within images and efficient glaucoma classification based on Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN. Energy distribution over wavelet sub bands is applied to compute these texture features. Wavelet features were obtained from the daubechies (db3, symlets (sym3, and biorthogonal (bio3.3, bio3.5, and bio3.7 wavelet filters. It uses a technique to extract energy signatures obtained using 2-D discrete wavelet transform and the energy obtained from the detailed coefficients can be used to distinguish between normal and glaucomatous images. We observedan accuracy of around 95%, this demonstrates the effectiveness of these methods.

  15. Energy Efficiency in Grocery Distribution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of the development of the energy efficiency of grocery distribution from 1960 to the present in Denmark, covering both the distribution to the shops and the shopping transport (distribution from shops to individual homes)......Evaluation of the development of the energy efficiency of grocery distribution from 1960 to the present in Denmark, covering both the distribution to the shops and the shopping transport (distribution from shops to individual homes)...

  16. Integration of Energy Storage in Distribution Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Geth, Frederik; Tant, Jeroen; Haesen, Edwin; Driesen, Johan; Belmans, Ronnie

    2010-01-01

    Electrical energy storage services can bring benefit to multiple stakeholders in the distribution grid. Energy storage owners maximize their profit on an external energy market. This can cause a conflict with the distribution system operator because a grid is designed in terms of peak power, not energy. The subject of this paper is a optimization method for the siting and sizing of energy storage in distribution grids. The optimization is implemented multi-objective as to visualize the trade-...

  17. Energy Distribution in LTB Space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Salti, M; Salti, Mustafa; Havare, Ali

    2005-01-01

    Using general relativity analogs of Bergmann-Thomson, Papapetrou, Landau-Lifshitz and Einstein energy and momentum definitions, we find the energy distribution (due to matter plus fields) in the LTB Space-time. The energy distribution is found well defined and the same in all of these energy-momentum complexes.

  18. Implementation strategies for load center automation on the space station module/power management and distribution testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Karen

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Module/Power Management and Distribution (SSM/PMAD) testbed was developed to study the tertiary power management on modules in large spacecraft. The main goal was to study automation techniques, not necessarily develop flight ready systems. Because of the confidence gained in many of automation strategies investigated, it is appropriate to study, in more detail, implementation strategies in order to find better trade-offs for nearer to flight ready systems. These trade-offs particularly concern the weight, volume, power consumption, and performance of the automation system. These systems, in their present implementation are described.

  19. Automated system for kinetic analysis of particle size distributions for pharmaceutically relevant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, John-Bruce D; Carter, Phillip W; Zhang, Yingqing; Patel, Dipa; Kotha, Priyanka; Gonyon, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Detailing the kinetics of particle formation for pharmaceutically relevant solutions is challenging, especially when considering the combination of formulations, containers, and timescales of clinical importance. This paper describes a method for using commercial software Automate with a stream-selector valve capable of sampling container solutions from within an environmental chamber. The tool was built to monitor changes in particle size distributions via instrumental particle counters but can be adapted to other solution-based sensors. The tool and methodology were demonstrated to be highly effective for measuring dynamic changes in emulsion globule distributions as a function of storage and mixing conditions important for parenteral nutrition. Higher levels of agitation induced the fastest growth of large globules (≥5 μm) while the gentler conditions actually showed a decrease in the number of these large globules. The same methodology recorded calcium phosphate precipitation kinetics as a function of [Ca(2+)] and pH. This automated system is readily adaptable to a wide range of pharmaceutically relevant systems where the particle size is expected to vary with time. This instrumentation can dramatically reduce the time and resources needed to probe complex formulation issues while providing new insights for monitoring the kinetics as a function of key variables. PMID:25140276

  20. Automated System for Kinetic Analysis of Particle Size Distributions for Pharmaceutically Relevant Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John-Bruce D. Green

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailing the kinetics of particle formation for pharmaceutically relevant solutions is challenging, especially when considering the combination of formulations, containers, and timescales of clinical importance. This paper describes a method for using commercial software Automate with a stream-selector valve capable of sampling container solutions from within an environmental chamber. The tool was built to monitor changes in particle size distributions via instrumental particle counters but can be adapted to other solution-based sensors. The tool and methodology were demonstrated to be highly effective for measuring dynamic changes in emulsion globule distributions as a function of storage and mixing conditions important for parenteral nutrition. Higher levels of agitation induced the fastest growth of large globules (≥5 μm while the gentler conditions actually showed a decrease in the number of these large globules. The same methodology recorded calcium phosphate precipitation kinetics as a function of [Ca2+] and pH. This automated system is readily adaptable to a wide range of pharmaceutically relevant systems where the particle size is expected to vary with time. This instrumentation can dramatically reduce the time and resources needed to probe complex formulation issues while providing new insights for monitoring the kinetics as a function of key variables.

  1. The Localized Energy Distribution of Dark Energy Star Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Halpern; Michael Pecorino

    2013-01-01

    We examine the question of energy localization for an exact solution of Einstein's equations with a scalar field corresponding to the phantom energy interpretation of dark energy. We apply three different energy-momentum complexes, the Einstein, the Papapetrou, and the Møller prescriptions, to the exterior metric and determine the energy distribution for each. Comparing the results, we find that the three prescriptions yield identical energy distributions.

  2. Protection of Distribution Systems with Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Browne, Matthew; Calone, Roberto;

    The usage of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) in utilities around the world is expected to increase significantly. The existing distribution systems have been generally designed for unidirectional power flow, and feeders are opened and locked out for any fault within. However, in the future thi...

  3. An advanced distributed automated extraction of drainage network model on high-resolution DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mao

    2014-07-01

    distributed automated extraction of drainage network model (Adam was proposed in the study. The Adam model has two features: (1 searching upward from outlet of basin instead of sink filling, (2 dividing sub-basins on low-resolution DEM, and then extracting drainage network on sub-basins of high-resolution DEM. The case study used elevation data of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM at 3 arc-second resolution in Zhujiang River basin, China. The results show Adam model can dramatically reduce the computation time. The extracting drainage network was continuous and more accurate than HydroSHEDS (Hydrological data and maps based on Shuttle Elevation Derivatives at multiple Scales.

  4. Automated tools and techniques for distributed Grid Software Development of the testbed infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Aguado Sanchez, C

    2007-01-01

    Grid technology is becoming more and more important as the new paradigm for sharing computational resources across different organizations in a secure way. The great powerfulness of this solution, requires the definition of a generic stack of services and protocols and this is the scope of the different Grid initiatives. As a result of international collaborations for its development, the Open Grid Forum created the Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA) which aims to define the common set of services that will enable interoperability across the different implementations. This master thesis has been developed in this framework, as part of the two European-funded projects ETICS and OMII-Europe. The main objective is to contribute to the design and maintenance of large distributed development projects with the automated tool that enables to implement Software Engineering techniques oriented to achieve an acceptable level of quality at the release process. Specifically, this thesis develops the testbed concept a...

  5. Modeling the Energy Use of a Connected and Automated Transportation System (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Brown, A.

    2014-07-01

    Early research points to large potential impacts of connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) on transportation energy use - dramatic savings, increased use, or anything in between. Due to a lack of suitable data and integrated modeling tools to explore these complex future systems, analyses to date have relied on simple combinations of isolated effects. This poster proposes a framework for modeling the potential energy implications from increasing penetration of CAV technologies and for assessing technology and policy options to steer them toward favorable energy outcomes. Current CAV modeling challenges include estimating behavior change, understanding potential vehicle-to-vehicle interactions, and assessing traffic flow and vehicle use under different automation scenarios. To bridge these gaps and develop a picture of potential future automated systems, NREL is integrating existing modeling capabilities with additional tools and data inputs to create a more fully integrated CAV assessment toolkit.

  6. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Rockoff, Alexandra; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-05-11

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities for industrial refrigerated warehouses in California. The report describes refrigerated warehouses characteristics, energy use and demand, and control systems. It also discusses energy efficiency and open automated demand response opportunities and provides analysis results from three demand response studies. In addition, several energy efficiency, load management, and demand response case studies are provided for refrigerated warehouses. This study shows that refrigerated warehouses can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for open automated demand response (OpenADR) at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to OpenADR due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

  7. Validation test for automated overall power distribution system; Haiden sogo jidoka system jissho shiken eno torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, F. [Kyushu Electric Power Co. Inc., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    In a Maebara office, Kyushu Electric Company has been conducting the validation test for an automated overall power distribution system on an office scale since fiscal 1992 so as to take rapid measures against an accident and improve the distribution facility management. The facility configuration and development progress are described. This system consists of a high-speed SV/TM device installed in a substation, relays, a computer in an office, master stations, a high-speed switch (HSGB) incorporating a distribution line sensor, an HSGB slave station, and a customer terminal. The features of this system are to install the sensors detecting a ground current in each pole, plot the accident point in units of poles, and separate only the section. In this system, the sound section on the load side is interchanged when an accident occurs, and the power to ones other than the section where the accident occurred does not fail. Moreover, this system is not exposed to the contact with trees, enabling the connection and disconnection at a high speed. Functions and merits have been proved. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Power distribution automating system of Okinawa Electric Power Company; Okinawa Denryoku (kabu) haiden jidoka system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-10

    Aiming at earlier restoration of failures and further improvement of efficiency in control of power distribution system operation, Okinawa Electric Power and Fuji Electric have been proceeding with review of the specifications and functions of a power distribution automating system. Its partial operation has now begun by using a remote control system consisting mainly of remotely controlled operation of switches. The major features of the system may be summarized as follows: (1) it has two-console configuration capable of simultaneous parallel operation and continuation of operation even at server shutdown by using a man-machine workstation; (2) a simplified mapping system is adopted for indication of a distribution system chart, incorporating features of both of the mapping system and the skeleton system; (3) a simplified system operating function is employed, in which procedures of load switching and returning operations are prepared and executed automatically without a need of registering an event name; and (4) a system to memorize operation procedures for facility data maintenance is used to respond flexibly to sequence exchange of construction names and postponement of a construction. (NEDO)

  9. Actions taken on better earthquake resistance, level improvement and automation in the power distribution equipment; Haiden setsubi no taishin, kodoka, jidoka eno torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, N. [Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-07-01

    This paper summarizes measures on earthquake resistance, level improvement and automation in power distribution equipment. Earthquake resistance in supports, transformers, wires, incoming lines, and underground wire ways has been handled in Japan according to the `technical criteria for electric facilities`. This is, however, compelled of reviewing with the great earthquake in 1995 as a turning point. Points of discussions include the review on earthquake resistance (considering earthquakes that occur directly below urban areas), improvement in urban power distribution network (network expansion and embedding the transmission lines), and emergency actions upon occurrence of disasters. The contents of the level improvement and automation may be summarized as follows: monitoring and control of distribution line devices including switch operation, automatic collection of power distribution management information intended of improving efficiency in the business operation, concentrated load control to achieve leveling of power loads, automatic meter-reading on power meters, and establishment of automatic and general power distribution system aiming at making common the use of devices, transmission paths, and signaling systems. The needs on information transmission utilizing power distribution equipment include stable power supply, diverse user services, and assurance of energy security. 2 figs.

  10. The Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution automation test bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollar, Louis F.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Module Power Management And Distribution (SSM/PMAD) automation test bed project was begun at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in the mid-1980s to develop an autonomous, user-supportive power management and distribution test bed simulating the Space Station Freedom Hab/Lab modules. As the test bed has matured, many new technologies and projects have been added. The author focuses on three primary areas. The first area is the overall accomplishments of the test bed itself. These include a much-improved user interface, a more efficient expert system scheduler, improved communication among the three expert systems, and initial work on adding intermediate levels of autonomy. The second area is the addition of a more realistic power source to the SSM/PMAD test bed; this project is called the Large Autonomous Spacecraft Electrical Power System (LASEPS). The third area is the completion of a virtual link between the SSM/PMAD test bed at MSFC and the Autonomous Power Expert at Lewis Research Center.

  11. Modelling distributed energy resources in energy service networks

    CERN Document Server

    Acha, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Focuses on modelling two key infrastructures (natural gas and electrical) in urban energy systems with embedded technologies (cogeneration and electric vehicles) to optimise the operation of natural gas and electrical infrastructures under the presence of distributed energy resources

  12. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY DISTRIBUTED ENERGY STORAGE BATTERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LANDI, J.T.; PLIVELICH, R.F.

    2006-04-30

    Electro Energy, Inc. conducted a research project to develop an energy efficient and environmentally friendly bipolar Ni-MH battery for distributed energy storage applications. Rechargeable batteries with long life and low cost potentially play a significant role by reducing electricity cost and pollution. A rechargeable battery functions as a reservoir for storage for electrical energy, carries energy for portable applications, or can provide peaking energy when a demand for electrical power exceeds primary generating capabilities.

  13. Evaluation of Automated Model Calibration Techniques for Residential Building Energy Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, J.; Polly, B.; Collis, J.

    2013-09-01

    This simulation study adapts and applies the general framework described in BESTEST-EX (Judkoff et al 2010) for self-testing residential building energy model calibration methods. BEopt/DOE-2.2 is used to evaluate four mathematical calibration methods in the context of monthly, daily, and hourly synthetic utility data for a 1960's-era existing home in a cooling-dominated climate. The home's model inputs are assigned probability distributions representing uncertainty ranges, random selections are made from the uncertainty ranges to define 'explicit' input values, and synthetic utility billing data are generated using the explicit input values. The four calibration methods evaluated in this study are: an ASHRAE 1051-RP-based approach (Reddy and Maor 2006), a simplified simulated annealing optimization approach, a regression metamodeling optimization approach, and a simple output ratio calibration approach. The calibration methods are evaluated for monthly, daily, and hourly cases; various retrofit measures are applied to the calibrated models and the methods are evaluated based on the accuracy of predicted savings, computational cost, repeatability, automation, and ease of implementation.

  14. Evaluation of Automated Model Calibration Techniques for Residential Building Energy Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    and Ben Polly, Joseph Robertson [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Polly, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Collis, Jon [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This simulation study adapts and applies the general framework described in BESTEST-EX (Judkoff et al 2010) for self-testing residential building energy model calibration methods. BEopt/DOE-2.2 is used to evaluate four mathematical calibration methods in the context of monthly, daily, and hourly synthetic utility data for a 1960's-era existing home in a cooling-dominated climate. The home's model inputs are assigned probability distributions representing uncertainty ranges, random selections are made from the uncertainty ranges to define "explicit" input values, and synthetic utility billing data are generated using the explicit input values. The four calibration methods evaluated in this study are: an ASHRAE 1051-RP-based approach (Reddy and Maor 2006), a simplified simulated annealing optimization approach, a regression metamodeling optimization approach, and a simple output ratio calibration approach. The calibration methods are evaluated for monthly, daily, and hourly cases; various retrofit measures are applied to the calibrated models and the methods are evaluated based on the accuracy of predicted savings, computational cost, repeatability, automation, and ease of implementation.

  15. Water and energy management in an automated irrigation district

    OpenAIRE

    Stambouli, Talel; Faci González, José María; Zapata Ruiz, Nery

    2014-01-01

    An important modernization process providing pressurized irrigation systems to the traditional surface irrigation districts has taken place in Spain over the last 20 years However, an adverse consequence of modernization is the important increase in the energy cost in the modernized irrigation districts, which is aggravated by the current high energy prices. The Almudévar irrigation district (AID), a traditional surface irrigation district, was transformed into a pressurized sprinkler irrigat...

  16. Development of an Intelligent Energy Management Network for Building Automation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    IV. STRUCTURE OF CONTROL AND MONITORING AND MANAGEMENT IEMN adapts a three-tier distribution processing architecture for monitoring and control. These are the facility management layer, the BCMS control and monitoring layer, and the ACMC control and management layer. The facility management layer is the bottom layer of the architecture for monitoring and controlling the BACnet network.

  17. Electrical engineering complete volume. Energy- and buildings engineering - process engineering - automation engineering; Elektrotechnik Gesamtband. Energie- und Gebaeudetechnik - Betriebstechnik - Automatisierungstechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebscher, Heinrich; Dzieia, Michael; Engbarth, Georg (and others)

    2009-07-01

    Contents: Integration of technical systems in buildings using bus technology - the new guideline 6015; integrated automation and communication; roomautomation; integrations of technical solutions shown on building equipment and some examples for components and customer requirements. Main topics are: energy supply and safety; appliances, devices and components; control systems; drive systems; communications systems; facility management; planning and realization; maintenance and retrofitting; attachment with questions. (GL)

  18. IFC BIM-Based Methodology for Semi-Automated Building Energy Performance Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazjanac, Vladimir

    2008-07-01

    Building energy performance (BEP) simulation is still rarely used in building design, commissioning and operations. The process is too costly and too labor intensive, and it takes too long to deliver results. Its quantitative results are not reproducible due to arbitrary decisions and assumptions made in simulation model definition, and can be trusted only under special circumstances. A methodology to semi-automate BEP simulation preparation and execution makes this process much more effective. It incorporates principles of information science and aims to eliminate inappropriate human intervention that results in subjective and arbitrary decisions. This is achieved by automating every part of the BEP modeling and simulation process that can be automated, by relying on data from original sources, and by making any necessary data transformation rule-based and automated. This paper describes the new methodology and its relationship to IFC-based BIM and software interoperability. It identifies five steps that are critical to its implementation, and shows what part of the methodology can be applied today. The paper concludes with a discussion of application to simulation with EnergyPlus, and describes data transformation rules embedded in the new Geometry Simplification Tool (GST).

  19. Automation Power Energy Management Strategy for Mobile Telecom Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jong-Ching; Chen, Jung-Chin; Pan, Jeng-Shyang; Huang, Yi-Chao

    The aim of this research is to study the power energy cost reduction of the mobile telecom industry through the supervisor control and data acquisition (SCADA) system application during globalization and liberalization competition. Yet this management system can be proposed functions: operating monitors, the analysis on load characteristics and dropping the cost of management.

  20. Development of automated power distribution technology at Hitachi Ltd; Hitachi Seisakusho ni okeru haiden jidoka no gijutsu kaihatsu no torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayami, M.; Matsui, Y. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    The outline and its future expansion of an automated power distribution system that Hitachi is presently developing as the technology supporting the diversified power distribution operation are described. With the progress of distribution technology, a dispersed distribution power system has been recently configured based on the conventional integrated system. As the features of this system, reliability is obtained in the monitor and control sections by a real-time server, and user-friendly operation is ensured in the man-machine processing section by a general-purpose workstation. A `distribution line insulation monitor system` that detects the fore-earth generation in units of sections, a new `22 kV automation system,` and a `distribution facility plan-supported system` to which load flexibility theory was applied based on AI and fuzzy theory have been mainly developed in recent years. With the relaxation of regulations, the development of distributed power linkage equipment will be promoted in future to meet the new situation. 2 figs.

  1. Energy management and control of active distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatzadeh, Farshid

    Advancements in the communication, control, computation and information technologies have driven the transition to the next generation active power distribution systems. Novel control techniques and management strategies are required to achieve the efficient, economic and reliable grid. The focus of this work is energy management and control of active distribution systems (ADS) with integrated renewable energy sources (RESs) and demand response (DR). Here, ADS mean automated distribution system with remotely operated controllers and distributed energy resources (DERs). DER as active part of the next generation future distribution system includes: distributed generations (DGs), RESs, energy storage system (ESS), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and DR. Integration of DR and RESs into ADS is critical to realize the vision of sustainability. The objective of this dissertation is the development of management architecture to control and operate ADS in the presence of DR and RES. One of the most challenging issues for operating ADS is the inherent uncertainty of DR and RES as well as conflicting objective of DER and electric utilities. ADS can consist of different layers such as system layer and building layer and coordination between these layers is essential. In order to address these challenges, multi-layer energy management and control architecture is proposed with robust algorithms in this work. First layer of proposed multi-layer architecture have been implemented at the system layer. Developed AC optimal power flow (AC-OPF) generates fair price for all DR and non-DR loads which is used as a control signal for second layer. Second layer controls DR load at buildings using a developed look-ahead robust controller. Load aggregator collects information from all buildings and send aggregated load to the system optimizer. Due to the different time scale at these two management layers, time coordination scheme is developed. Robust and deterministic controllers

  2. Aftershock Energy Distribution by Statistical Mechanics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daminelli, R.; Marcellini, A.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of our work is to research the most probable distribution of the energy of aftershocks. We started by applying one of the fundamental principles of statistical mechanics that, in case of aftershock sequences, it could be expressed as: the greater the number of different ways in which the energy of aftershocks can be arranged among the energy cells in phase space the more probable the distribution. We assume that each cell in phase space has the same possibility to be occupied, and that more than one cell in the phase space can have the same energy. Seeing that seismic energy is proportional to products of different parameters, a number of different combinations of parameters can produce different energies (e.g., different combination of stress drop and fault area can release the same seismic energy). Let us assume that there are gi cells in the aftershock phase space characterised by the same energy released ɛi. Therefore we can assume that the Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics can be applied to aftershock sequences with the proviso that the judgment on the validity of this hypothesis is the agreement with the data. The aftershock energy distribution can therefore be written as follow: n(ɛ)=Ag(ɛ)exp(-βɛ)where n(ɛ) is the number of aftershocks with energy, ɛ, A and β are constants. Considering the above hypothesis, we can assume g(ɛ) is proportional to ɛ. We selected and analysed different aftershock sequences (data extracted from Earthquake Catalogs of SCEC, of INGV-CNT and other institutions) with a minimum magnitude retained ML=2 (in some cases ML=2.6) and a time window of 35 days. The results of our model are in agreement with the data, except in the very low energy band, where our model resulted in a moderate overestimation.

  3. Smart Distribution Boxes, Complete Energy Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platise, Uros

    2010-09-15

    Present households demand side management implementations are turning conventional appliances into smart ones to support auto demand (AutoDR) response function. Present concept features a direct link between the power meters and appliances. In this paper new concept and example of implementation of a so-called Smart Distribution Box (SmartDB) is represented for complete energy and power management. SmartDBs, as an intermediate layer, are extending smart grid power meter functionality to support AutoDR with fast and guaranteed response times, distributed power sources, and besides provide full control over energy management and extra safety functions to the consumers.

  4. Models, methods and software for distributed knowledge acquisition for the automated construction of integrated expert systems knowledge bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on an analysis of existing models, methods and means of acquiring knowledge, a base method of automated knowledge acquisition has been chosen. On the base of this method, a new approach to integrate information acquired from knowledge sources of different typologies has been proposed, and the concept of a distributed knowledge acquisition with the aim of computerized formation of the most complete and consistent models of problem areas has been introduced. An original algorithm for distributed knowledge acquisition from databases, based on the construction of binary decision trees has been developed

  5. An energy minimization approach to automated extraction of regular building footprints from airborne LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y.; Zhang, C.; Fraser, C. S.

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents an automated approach to the extraction of building footprints from airborne LiDAR data based on energy minimization. Automated 3D building reconstruction in complex urban scenes has been a long-standing challenge in photogrammetry and computer vision. Building footprints constitute a fundamental component of a 3D building model and they are useful for a variety of applications. Airborne LiDAR provides large-scale elevation representation of urban scene and as such is an important data source for object reconstruction in spatial information systems. However, LiDAR points on building edges often exhibit a jagged pattern, partially due to either occlusion from neighbouring objects, such as overhanging trees, or to the nature of the data itself, including unavoidable noise and irregular point distributions. The explicit 3D reconstruction may thus result in irregular or incomplete building polygons. In the presented work, a vertex-driven Douglas-Peucker method is developed to generate polygonal hypotheses from points forming initial building outlines. The energy function is adopted to examine and evaluate each hypothesis and the optimal polygon is determined through energy minimization. The energy minimization also plays a key role in bridging gaps, where the building outlines are ambiguous due to insufficient LiDAR points. In formulating the energy function, hard constraints such as parallelism and perpendicularity of building edges are imposed, and local and global adjustments are applied. The developed approach has been extensively tested and evaluated on datasets with varying point cloud density over different terrain types. Results are presented and analysed. The successful reconstruction of building footprints, of varying structural complexity, along with a quantitative assessment employing accurate reference data, demonstrate the practical potential of the proposed approach.

  6. A Fossilized Energy Distribution of Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasek, Matthew A.; Hurst, Marc

    2016-01-01

    When lightning strikes soil, it may generate a cylindrical tube of glass known as a fulgurite. The morphology of a fulgurite is ultimately a consequence of the energy of the lightning strike that formed it, and hence fulgurites may be useful in elucidating the energy distribution frequency of cloud-to-ground lightning. Fulgurites from sand mines in Polk County, Florida, USA were collected and analyzed to determine morphologic properties. Here we show that the energy per unit length of lightning strikes within quartz sand has a geometric mean of ~1.0 MJ/m, and that the distribution is lognormal with respect to energy per length and frequency. Energy per length is determined from fulgurites as a function of diameter, and frequency is determined both by cumulative number and by cumulative length. This distribution parallels those determined for a number of lightning parameters measured in actual atmospheric discharge events, such as charge transferred, voltage, and action integral. This methodology suggests a potential useful pathway for elucidating lightning energy and damage potential of strikes. PMID:27466230

  7. A Fossilized Energy Distribution of Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasek, Matthew A.; Hurst, Marc

    2016-07-01

    When lightning strikes soil, it may generate a cylindrical tube of glass known as a fulgurite. The morphology of a fulgurite is ultimately a consequence of the energy of the lightning strike that formed it, and hence fulgurites may be useful in elucidating the energy distribution frequency of cloud-to-ground lightning. Fulgurites from sand mines in Polk County, Florida, USA were collected and analyzed to determine morphologic properties. Here we show that the energy per unit length of lightning strikes within quartz sand has a geometric mean of ~1.0 MJ/m, and that the distribution is lognormal with respect to energy per length and frequency. Energy per length is determined from fulgurites as a function of diameter, and frequency is determined both by cumulative number and by cumulative length. This distribution parallels those determined for a number of lightning parameters measured in actual atmospheric discharge events, such as charge transferred, voltage, and action integral. This methodology suggests a potential useful pathway for elucidating lightning energy and damage potential of strikes.

  8. Automated transient identification in the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, D. A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). et al.

    2015-08-20

    We describe an algorithm for identifying point-source transients and moving objects on reference-subtracted optical images containing artifacts of processing and instrumentation. The algorithm makes use of the supervised machine learning technique known as Random Forest. We present results from its use in the Dark Energy Survey Supernova program (DES-SN), where it was trained using a sample of 898,963 signal and background events generated by the transient detection pipeline. After reprocessing the data collected during the first DES-SN observing season (2013 September through 2014 February) using the algorithm, the number of transient candidates eligible for human scanning decreased by a factor of 13.4, while only 1.0 percent of the artificial Type Ia supernovae (SNe) injected into search images to monitor survey efficiency were lost, most of which were very faint events. Here we characterize the algorithm's performance in detail, and we discuss how it can inform pipeline design decisions for future time-domain imaging surveys, such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and the Zwicky Transient Facility.

  9. US Department of Energy automated transportation management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has approximately 80 facilities throughout the United States that specialize in either scientific research, engineering, technology, production, and/or waste management activities. These facilities can best be described as Government Owned, Contractor Operated (GOCO) sites, and vary in size from very small laboratories to large industrial plant type facilities. Each of these GOCO's have varying needs for transportation of materials into and/or out of their facility. Therefore, Traffic Management operations will differ from site to site due to size and the internal or site specific mission. The DOE Transportation Management Division (TMD) has the corporate responsibility to provide a well managed transportation management program for the safe, efficient, and economical transportation of all DOE-owned materials. To achieve this mission, TMD provides oversight, and when necessary, resources to assist in ensuring regulatory compliance in the packaging and shipment of DOE-owned materials. A large part of TMD's responsibility is to develop, administer, and provide policies and guidance concerning department-wide transportation and packaging operations. This responsibility includes overall Transportation Management policies and programs for the packaging and movement of all DOE materials, including radioactive materials, other hazardous materials/substances, and hazardous wastes. TMD formulates policies and guidance that assist the DOE Field Elements and GOCO's in meeting TMD's goal for safe, efficient and economical transportation. Considering there are at least 80 shipping and receiving sites, the challenge encountered by TMD has been the difficulty in managing such a diverse transportation community

  10. Automated Transient Identification in the Dark Energy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, D A; Fischer, J A; Foley, R J; Gupta, R R; Kessler, R; Kim, A G; Nichol, R C; Nugent, P; Papadopoulos, A; Sako, M; Smith, M; Sullivan, M; Thomas, R C; Wester, W; Wolf, R C; Abdalla, F B; Banerji, M; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Rosell, A Carnero; Castander, F J; da Costa, L N; Covarrubias, R; DePoy, D L; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Doel, P; Eifler, T F; Neto, A Fausti; Finley, D A; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Frieman, J; Gerdes, D; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; James, D; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lahav, O; Li, T S; Maia, M A G; Makler, M; March, M; Marshall, J L; Martini, P; Merritt, K W; Miquel, R; Nord, B; Ogando, R; Plazas, A A; Romer, A K; Roodman, A; Sanchez, E; Scarpine, V; Schubnell, M; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Suchyta, E; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Walker, A R

    2015-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for identifying point-source transients and moving objects on reference-subtracted optical images containing artifacts of processing and instrumentation. The algorithm makes use of the supervised machine learning technique known as Random Forest. We present results from its use in the Dark Energy Survey Supernova program (DES-SN), where it was trained using a sample of 898,963 signal and background events generated by the transient detection pipeline. After reprocessing the data collected during the first DES-SN observing season (Sep. 2013 through Feb. 2014) using the algorithm, the number of transient candidates eligible for human scanning decreased by a factor of 13.4, while only 1 percent of the artificial Type Ia supernovae (SNe) injected into search images to monitor survey efficiency were lost, most of which were very faint events. Here we characterize the algorithm's performance in detail, and we discuss how it can inform pipeline design decisions for future time-domain imaging...

  11. AUTOMATED TRANSIENT IDENTIFICATION IN THE DARK ENERGY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, D. A.; Nugent, P. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, 501 Campbell Hall #3411, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); D’Andrea, C. B.; Nichol, R. C.; Papadopoulos, A. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Fischer, J. A.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Foley, R. J. [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Gupta, R. R. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Kessler, R. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Smith, M.; Sullivan, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Wester, W. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Abdalla, F. B.; Benoit-Lévy, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Banerji, M. [Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Bertin, E. [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie and CNRS UMR7095, F-75014 Paris (France); and others

    2015-09-15

    We describe an algorithm for identifying point-source transients and moving objects on reference-subtracted optical images containing artifacts of processing and instrumentation. The algorithm makes use of the supervised machine learning technique known as Random Forest. We present results from its use in the Dark Energy Survey Supernova program (DES-SN), where it was trained using a sample of 898,963 signal and background events generated by the transient detection pipeline. After reprocessing the data collected during the first DES-SN observing season (2013 September through 2014 February) using the algorithm, the number of transient candidates eligible for human scanning decreased by a factor of 13.4, while only 1.0% of the artificial Type Ia supernovae (SNe) injected into search images to monitor survey efficiency were lost, most of which were very faint events. Here we characterize the algorithm’s performance in detail, and we discuss how it can inform pipeline design decisions for future time-domain imaging surveys, such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and the Zwicky Transient Facility. An implementation of the algorithm and the training data used in this paper are available at at http://portal.nersc.gov/project/dessn/autoscan.

  12. Spectral Energy Distributions of SDSS Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H. Z. Li; L. E. Chen

    2014-09-01

    We compiled the radio, optical and X-ray data for SDSS sample, and presented broad band spectral index. The broad band energy distribution reveals that FSRQs and LBLs objects have similar spectral properties. However, HBLs have a separate distinct property. Even so, a unified scheme was also revealed from colour–colour diagram.

  13. Energy Storage and Distributed Energy Generation Project, Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwank, Johannes; Mader, Jerry; Chen, Xiaoyin; Mi, Chris; Linic, Suljo; Sastry, Ann Marie; Stefanopoulou, Anna; Thompson, Levi; Varde, Keshav

    2008-03-31

    This report serves as a Final Report under the “Energy Storage and Distribution Energy Generation Project” carried out by the Transportation Energy Center (TEC) at the University of Michigan (UM). An interdisciplinary research team has been working on fundamental and applied research on: -distributed power generation and microgrids, -power electronics, and -advanced energy storage. The long-term objective of the project was to provide a framework for identifying fundamental research solutions to technology challenges of transmission and distribution, with special emphasis on distributed power generation, energy storage, control methodologies, and power electronics for microgrids, and to develop enabling technologies for novel energy storage and harvesting concepts that can be simulated, tested, and scaled up to provide relief for both underserved and overstressed portions of the Nation’s grid. TEC’s research is closely associated with Sections 5.0 and 6.0 of the DOE "Five-year Program Plan for FY2008 to FY2012 for Electric Transmission and Distribution Programs, August 2006.”

  14. Spectral unfolding of fast neutron energy distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, Michelle; Jackman, Kevin; Engle, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    The characterization of the energy distribution of a neutron flux is difficult in experiments with constrained geometry where techniques such as time of flight cannot be used to resolve the distribution. The measurement of neutron fluxes in reactors, which often present similar challenges, has been accomplished using radioactivation foils as an indirect probe. Spectral unfolding codes use statistical methods to adjust MCNP predictions of neutron energy distributions using quantified radioactive residuals produced in these foils. We have applied a modification of this established neutron flux characterization technique to experimentally characterize the neutron flux in the critical assemblies at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and the spallation neutron flux at the Isotope Production Facility (IPF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Results of the unfolding procedure are presented and compared with a priori MCNP predictions, and the implications for measurements using the neutron fluxes at these facilities are discussed.

  15. The energy distribution of Sirius B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm-Vitense, E.

    1979-01-01

    The origin of the X-ray emission observed from the DA white dwarf Sirius B is investigated on the basis of low-resolution short wavelength IUE spectrum. Following a correction for the influence of scattered light from Sirius A, the intensity distribution of Sirius B is obtained as a function of wavelength. Comparison of the continuous energy distribution with model atmosphere energy distributions indicates an effective temperature of 25,500 K, which is not high enough to explain the observed X rays as normal photospheric radiation. In addition, with the exception of an unusual feature in the neighborhood of the C I 1657 line, no clear evidence is found of emission lines indicative of a corona, chromosphere or disk, and the origin of the X rays remains unknown.

  16. IEC 61499 as an Enabler of Distributed and Intelligent Automation: A State-of-the-Art Review—A Different View

    OpenAIRE

    Kleanthis Thramboulidis

    2013-01-01

    The industrial and research activities around the IEC 61499 architecture for distributed automation systems are discussed by Vyatkin, (2011). Research results related to the design of this kind of systems as well as to the execution of IEC 61449 on embedded devices are reviewed. It is claimed that IEC 61499 has been developed to enable intelligent automation through the distribution of software components and that the industry will benefit through its adoption from the promise of the intellig...

  17. Automated Translation and Thermal Zoning of Digital Building Models for Energy Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Nathaniel L. [Cornell University; McCrone, Colin J. [Cornell University; Walter, Bruce J. [Cornell University; Pratt, Kevin B. [Cornell University; Greenberg, Donald P. [Cornell University

    2013-08-26

    Building energy simulation is valuable during the early stages of design, when decisions can have the greatest impact on energy performance. However, preparing digital design models for building energy simulation typically requires tedious manual alteration. This paper describes a series of five automated steps to translate geometric data from an unzoned CAD model into a multi-zone building energy model. First, CAD input is interpreted as geometric surfaces with materials. Second, surface pairs defining walls of various thicknesses are identified. Third, normal directions of unpaired surfaces are determined. Fourth, space boundaries are defined. Fifth, optionally, settings from previous simulations are applied, and spaces are aggregated into a smaller number of thermal zones. Building energy models created quickly using this method can offer guidance throughout the design process.

  18. Distributed energy tapestry for heating the landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, L. A. O.; Lorente, S.; Bejan, A.

    2010-12-01

    Here we show that the production and use of heating on an area must be distributed in clusters organized such that the losses associated with centers of production are balanced by the losses associated with distribution lines. The energy needs increase in time because the population density and the individual need increase. We consider only the increase in the individual need in time. We illustrate the "distributed energy systems" concept with the production and distribution of hot water on an area. Four classes of designs are analyzed and compared: (0) individual, i.e., one water heater for one user, (r) radial, i.e., N users supplied via radial pipes from a central heater, (2) dendritic network constructed by pairing N users around a central heating, and (4) dendritic network constructed by quadrupling the elemental areas occupied by the users. We show that there is an optimal cluster size (N) as a tradeoff between central losses and distributed losses. We also discover that several distinct (abrupt) design "transitions" must exist: the recommended design changes through designs 0, r, 2, and 4, as the amount of water used by each individual increases in time with the standard of living.

  19. Foundations & principles of distributed manufacturing elements of manufacturing networks, cyber-physical production systems and smart automation

    CERN Document Server

    Kühnle, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    The book presents a coherent description of distributed manufacturing, providing a solid base for further research on the subject as well as smart implementations in companies. It provides a guide for those researching and working in a range of fields, such as smart manufacturing, cloud computing, RFID tracking, distributed automation, cyber physical production and global design anywhere, manufacture anywhere solutions. Foundations & Principles of Distributed Manufacturing anticipates future advances in the fields of embedded systems, the Internet of Things and cyber physical systems, outlining how adopting these innovations could rapidly bring about improvements in key performance indicators, which could in turn generate competition pressure by rendering successful business models obsolete. In laying the groundwork for powerful theoretical models, high standards for the homogeneity and soundness of the suggested setups are applied. The book especially elaborates on the upcoming competition in online manu...

  20. Distribution Automation Applications in Power Systems%配网自动化在电力系统的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎绍辉

    2014-01-01

    The distribution network is one of the power systems of the three systems;it can send the electricity grid electricity nearby regions will be assigned to individual users or step by step. Research and summarizes the distribution network automation system, hoping to provide theoretical support for the development of distribution grid.%配电网是电力系统的三大系统之一,它可以通过用电地区的发电网将电力就近或逐级分配给各个用户。研究和总结了自动化的配电网系统,希望能为配电网的发展提供理论支持。

  1. FabSim: facilitating computational research through automation on large-scale and distributed e-infrastructures

    CERN Document Server

    Groen, Derek; Suter, James; Hetherington, James; Zasada, Stefan; Coveney, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We present FabSim, a toolkit developed to simplify a range of computational tasks for researchers in diverse disciplines. FabSim is flexible, adaptable, and allows users to perform a wide range of tasks with ease. It also provides a systematic way to automate the use of resourcess, including HPC and distributed resources, and to make tasks easier to repeat by recording contextual information. To demonstrate this, we present three use cases where FabSim has enhanced our research productivity. These include simulating cerebrovascular bloodflow, modelling clay-polymer nanocomposites across multiple scales, and calculating ligand-protein binding affinities.

  2. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California -- Phase I Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex; Thompson, Lisa; McKane, Aimee; Song, Katherine; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-04-01

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory?s research to date in characterizing energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities for wastewater treatment facilities in California. The report describes the characteristics of wastewater treatment facilities, the nature of the wastewater stream, energy use and demand, as well as details of the wastewater treatment process. It also discusses control systems and energy efficiency and automated demand response opportunities. In addition, several energy efficiency and load management case studies are provided for wastewater treatment facilities.This study shows that wastewater treatment facilities can be excellent candidates for open automated demand response and that facilities which have implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems are well-suited to shift or shed electrical loads in response to financial incentives, utility bill savings, and/or opportunities to enhance reliability of service. Control technologies installed for energy efficiency and load management purposes can often be adapted for automated demand response at little additional cost. These improved controls may prepare facilities to be more receptive to open automated demand response due to both increased confidence in the opportunities for controlling energy cost/use and access to the real-time data.

  3. SYSTEM OF THE AUTOMATED ACCOUNTING OF ENERGY RESOURCES ON JSC «BMZ — MANAGEMENT COMPANY OF HOLDING «BMK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Demyanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The system of the automated accounting of energy resources allows to quickly obtain the data on energy consumption, to analyze consumption of energy carriers, and to find possible ways of energy economy is presented in this article.

  4. Community energy storage and distribution SCADA improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of American Electric Power (AEP) is to sustain the real time balance of energy supply and demand. Approximately 2.5 percent of energy generated in the United States (USA) is stored as pumped hydro, compressed air, or in batteries and other devices. This power point presentation discussed the use of SCADA for improving community energy storage (CES) and distribution systems. CES is a distributed fleet of small energy units connected to the transformers in order to serve houses or small commercial loads. CES is operated as a fleet offering multi-megawatt (MW) multi-hour storage. The benefits of CES include backup power, flicker mitigation, and renewable integration. Benefits to the electricity grid include power factor correct, ancillary services, and load leveling at the substation level. SCADA is being used to determine when emergency load reductions are required or when emergency inspections on fans, oil pumps or other devices are needed. An outline of AEP's monitoring system installation plan was also included. tabs., figs.

  5. Distributed GIS for automated natural hazard zonation mapping Internet-SMS warning towards sustainable society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devanjan Bhattacharya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, open systems are needed for real time analysis and warnings on geo-hazards and over time can be achieved using Open Source Geographical Information System (GIS-based platform such as GeoNode which is being contributed to by developers around the world. To develop on an open source platform is a very vital component for better disaster information management as far as spatial data infrastructures are concerned and this would be extremely vital when huge databases are to be created and consulted regularly for city planning at different scales, particularly satellite images and maps of locations. There is a big need for spatially referenced data creation, analysis, and management. Some of the salient points that this research would be able to definitely contribute with GeoNode, being an open source platform, are facilitating the creation, sharing, and collaborative use of geospatial data. The objective is development of an automated natural hazard zonation system with Internet-short message service (SMS warning utilizing geomatics for sustainable societies. A concept of developing an internet-resident geospatial geohazard warning system has been put forward in this research, which can communicate alerts via SMS. There has been a need to develop an automated integrated system to categorize hazard and issue warning that reaches users directly. At present, no web-enabled warning system exists which can disseminate warning after hazard evaluation at one go and in real time. The objective of this research work has been to formalize a notion of an integrated, independent, generalized, and automated geo-hazard warning system making use of geo-spatial data under popular usage platform. In this paper, a model of an automated geo-spatial hazard warning system has been elaborated. The functionality is to be modular in architecture having GIS-graphical user interface (GUI, input, understanding, rainfall prediction, expert, output, and warning modules. A

  6. An energy minimization approach to automated extraction of regular building footprints from airborne LiDAR data

    OpenAIRE

    He, Y; Zhang, C; Fraser, C. S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automated approach to the extraction of building footprints from airborne LiDAR data based on energy minimization. Automated 3D building reconstruction in complex urban scenes has been a long-standing challenge in photogrammetry and computer vision. Building footprints constitute a fundamental component of a 3D building model and they are useful for a variety of applications. Airborne LiDAR provides large-scale elevation representation of urban scene and as suc...

  7. Autonomy-oriented mechanisms for efficient energy distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiming; Shi, Benyun

    2010-09-15

    Due to the uneven geographical availability of energy resources, it is essential for the energy suppliers and consumers in different countries/regions to most efficiently, economically, as well as reliably distribute energy resources. In this paper, starting from a specific energy distribution problem, we present a decentralized behavior-based paradigm that draws on the methodology of autonomy-oriented computing. The goal is twofold: (i) to characterize the underlying mechanism of the energy distribution systems, (ii) to provide scalable solutions for efficient energy distribution. We conjecture that efficient energy trading markets can emerge from appropriate behavior-based mechanisms, which can autonomously improve energy distribution efficiency.

  8. Application of dual-energy x-ray techniques for automated food container inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashishekhar, N.; Veselitza, D.

    2016-02-01

    Manufacturing for plastic food containers often results in small metal particles getting into the containers during the production process. Metal detectors are usually not sensitive enough to detect these metal particles (0.5 mm or lesser), especially when the containers are stacked in large sealed shipping packages; X-ray inspection of these packages provides a viable alternative. This paper presents the results of an investigation into dual-energy X-ray techniques for automated detection of small metal particles in plastic food container packages. The sample packages consist of sealed cardboard boxes containing stacks of food containers: plastic cups for food, and Styrofoam cups for noodles. The primary goal of the investigation was to automatically identify small metal particles down to 0.5 mm diameter in size or less, randomly located within the containers. The multiple container stacks in each box make it virtually impossible to reliably detect the particles with single-energy X-ray techniques either visually or with image processing. The stacks get overlaid in the X-ray image and create many indications almost identical in contrast and size to real metal particles. Dual-energy X-ray techniques were investigated and found to result in a clear separation of the metal particles from the food container stack-ups. Automated image analysis of the resulting images provides reliable detection of the small metal particles.

  9. IEC 61499 as an Enabler of Distributed and Intelligent Automation: A State-of-the-Art Review—A Different View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleanthis Thramboulidis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The industrial and research activities around the IEC 61499 architecture for distributed automation systems are discussed by Vyatkin, (2011. Research results related to the design of this kind of systems as well as to the execution of IEC 61449 on embedded devices are reviewed. It is claimed that IEC 61499 has been developed to enable intelligent automation through the distribution of software components and that the industry will benefit through its adoption from the promise of the intelligence automation research results. In this paper, several observations are presented on the arguments that are used to prove that IEC 61499 is a solid technology for industrial automation systems development. Portability, interoperability, code modularity, reusability, and reconfigurability as well as determinism and the event-driven execution of IEC 61499 are discussed.

  10. Energy Efficiency of Distributed Environmental Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalifa, H. Ezzat; Isik, Can; Dannenhoffer, John F. III

    2011-02-23

    In this report, we present an analytical evaluation of the potential of occupant-regulated distributed environmental control systems (DECS) to enhance individual occupant thermal comfort in an office building with no increase, and possibly even a decrease in annual energy consumption. To this end we developed and applied several analytical models that allowed us to optimize comfort and energy consumption in partitioned office buildings equipped with either conventional central HVAC systems or occupant-regulated DECS. Our approach involved the following interrelated components: 1. Development of a simplified lumped-parameter thermal circuit model to compute the annual energy consumption. This was necessitated by the need to perform tens of thousands of optimization calculations involving different US climatic regions, and different occupant thermal preferences of a population of ~50 office occupants. Yearly transient simulations using TRNSYS, a time-dependent building energy modeling program, were run to determine the robustness of the simplified approach against time-dependent simulations. The simplified model predicts yearly energy consumption within approximately 0.6% of an equivalent transient simulation. Simulations of building energy usage were run for a wide variety of climatic regions and control scenarios, including traditional “one-size-fits-all” (OSFA) control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected “have-it-your-way” (HIYW) control with a thermostat at each workstation. The thermal model shows that, un-optimized, DECS would lead to an increase in building energy consumption between 3-16% compared to the conventional approach depending on the climate regional and personal preferences of building occupants. Variations in building shape had little impact in the relative energy usage. 2. Development of a gradient-based optimization method to minimize energy consumption of DECS while keeping each occupant

  11. Proceedings. Future Energy - Resources, Distribution and Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    the environment, energy and the use of resources will be an important foundation for bringing about changes in the future. The environmental effects caused by the Energy System are local as well as global. Regarding the global challenges, it is important to find solutions and incentives that are financially, politically and administratively sound, that will work across borders and give a fair distribution of burdens between rich and poor countries, at the same time giving poor countries good opportunities for development. The Proceedings from the seminar should be a useful contribution to the debate on the Energy System for both specialists and the general public. It will also be a useful background document for setting priorities for energy policies and energy research in the future. Furthermore, it should provide a useful summary of the current scientific debate for both the laymen and specialized experts in the field of energy research. This will also provide guidance for the task of setting national research priorities in the future. The seminar describes status and future prospects within different resource-, technology- and application areas globally as well as from a Norwegian perspective. International trends in the energy markets are described, and an ambitious Swiss plan to halve the consumption of fossil fuels in the future will be presented.

  12. FabSim: Facilitating computational research through automation on large-scale and distributed e-infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Derek; Bhati, Agastya P.; Suter, James; Hetherington, James; Zasada, Stefan J.; Coveney, Peter V.

    2016-10-01

    We present FabSim, a toolkit developed to simplify a range of computational tasks for researchers in diverse disciplines. FabSim is flexible, adaptable, and allows users to perform a wide range of tasks with ease. It also provides a systematic way to automate the use of resources, including HPC and distributed machines, and to make tasks easier to repeat by recording contextual information. To demonstrate this, we present three use cases where FabSim has enhanced our research productivity. These include simulating cerebrovascular bloodflow, modelling clay-polymer nanocomposites across multiple scales, and calculating ligand-protein binding affinities. Catalogue identifier: AFAO_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AFAO_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Programme Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: BSD 3-Clause No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 268282 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2791792 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python. Computer: PC or Mac. Operating system: Unix, OSX. RAM: 1 Gbytes Classification: 3, 4, 6.5. External routines: NumPy, SciPy, Fabric (1.5 or newer), PyYaml Nature of problem: Running advanced computations using remote resources is an activity that requires considerable time and human attention. These activities, such as organizing data, configuring software and setting up individual runs often vary slightly each time they are performed. To lighten this burden, we required an approach that introduced little burden of its own to set up and adapt, beyond which very substantial productivity ensues. Solution method: We present a toolkit which helps to simplify and automate the activities which surround computational science research. FabSim is aimed squarely at the experienced computational scientist, who can use the command line interface and a system of modifiable content to quickly automate sets of

  13. Determination of the surface energy distributions of different processed lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielmann, Frank; Burnett, Daniel J; Heng, Jerry Y Y

    2007-11-01

    Particulate interactions between drug and lactose carrier in dry powder inhaler formulations are affected by the heterogenous energy distribution on the surface of the individual compounds. A new method based on Inverse Gas Chromatography at finite concentration is applied to study the energy heterogeneity of untreated, milled, and recrystallized lactose of similar particle size distribution. Energy distributions for the dispersive surface energy and the specific free energy of ethanol are obtained. Milling causes an increase in surface energy due to formation of amorphous regions. Untreated and recrystallized materials have similar surface energies at low surface coverages but show clear differences in energy distribution. PMID:18058321

  14. A cellular automation model for the change of public attitude regarding nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cellular automation model was constructed to investigate how public opinion on nuclear energy in Japan depends upon the information environment and personal communication between people. From simulation with this model, the following become clear; (i) society is a highly non-linear system with a self-organizing potential: (ii) in a society composed of one type of constituent member with homogeneous characteristics, the trend of public opinion is substantially changed only when the effort to ameliorate public acceptance over a long period of time, by means such as education, persuasion and advertisement, exceeds a certain threshold, and (iii) in the case when the amount of information on nuclear risk released from the newsmedia is reduced continuously from now on, the acceptability of nuclear energy is significantly improved so far as the extent of the reduction exceeds a certain threshold. (author)

  15. Energy-conscious building automation. Phase 1 - pilot study. Main report; Energirigtig bygningsautomation. Fase 1 - Forundersoegelse. Hovedrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummelshoej, R.M.; Kaarup Olsen, P. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Brohus, H. (Aalborg Univ. (AAU), Inst. for Byggeri og Anlaeg, Aalborg (Denmark)); Olesen, Bjarne W. (Danmarks Tekniske Univ., DTU Byg. Institut for Byggeri og Anlaeg, ICIEE, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Bang Skjoedt, A.; Giliamsen, P. (TAC A/S, Herlev (Denmark))

    2009-09-15

    Building Automation is a significant and sometimes overlooked element of low-energy buildings to ensure large energy savings by e.g. demand control and to ensure optimised operation of ventilation system, cooling and heating system etc. in both new buildings and in modernisation of existing buildings. In the building design including installation, automation makes up a large part of the total construction costs. A rough figure is 3-500 DKK/m{sup 2}. It is estimated that energy-efficient building automation can reduce buildings' energy demand by about 15 kWh/m{sup 2} (electricity and heating) on average. Based on this possible reduction of building energy demand, the project deals with optimisation of control/adjustment of building installations for lighting, heating, cooling and ventilation systems. An investigated key parameter is how much it will be okay for the room temperature to 'glide' (change) during the occupied hours in a heavy and a light office building, and how this will influence the energy demand and the sensation of the indoor climate. The project shows that it is possible to save about 15 kWh/m{sup 2} primary energy by letting the temperature 'glide' +2,5 deg. C during the daily occupied hours instead of +1 deg. C. With this operation philosophy, the building constructions' thermo-active capacity can be utilised better, and there will be less requirements for automation and operation of the climate system. In the project is assessed how large a zone area can be covered by typical sensors in order to maintain a satisfactory indoor climate and the corresponding energy demand. The electricity consumption for building automation may account for up to 6 kWh/m{sup 2} per year. The project has made a preliminary basis for indicating a good practice for 1) automation of buildings with a view to good indoor climate and a low energy demand and 2) necessary equipping with meters to be able to document energy savings and energy

  16. Coordinated Collaboration between Heterogeneous Distributed Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Abdollahy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A power distribution feeder, where a heterogeneous set of distributed energy resources is deployed, is examined by simulation. The energy resources include PV, battery storage, natural gas GenSet, fuel cells, and active thermal storage for commercial buildings. The resource scenario considered is one that may exist in a not too distant future. Two cases of interaction between different resources are examined. One interaction involves a GenSet used to partially offset the duty cycle of a smoothing battery connected to a large PV system. The other example involves the coordination of twenty thermal storage devices, each associated with a commercial building. Storage devices are intended to provide maximum benefit to the building, but it is shown that this can have a deleterious effect on the overall system, unless the action of the individual storage devices is coordinated. A network based approach is also introduced to calculate some type of effectiveness metric to all available resources which take part in coordinated operation. The main finding is that it is possible to achieve synergy between DERs on a system; however this required a unified strategy to coordinate the action of all devices in a decentralized way.

  17. Advanced Energy Storage Management in Distribution Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guodong [ORNL; Ceylan, Oguzhan [ORNL; Xiao, Bailu [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Ollis, T Ben [ORNL; King, Daniel J [ORNL; Irminger, Philip [ORNL; Tomsovic, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2016-01-01

    With increasing penetration of distributed generation (DG) in the distribution networks (DN), the secure and optimal operation of DN has become an important concern. In this paper, an iterative mixed integer quadratic constrained quadratic programming model to optimize the operation of a three phase unbalanced distribution system with high penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) panels, DG and energy storage (ES) is developed. The proposed model minimizes not only the operating cost, including fuel cost and purchasing cost, but also voltage deviations and power loss. The optimization model is based on the linearized sensitivity coefficients between state variables (e.g., node voltages) and control variables (e.g., real and reactive power injections of DG and ES). To avoid slow convergence when close to the optimum, a golden search method is introduced to control the step size and accelerate the convergence. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated on modified IEEE 13 nodes test feeders with multiple PV panels, DG and ES. Numerical simulation results validate the proposed algorithm. Various scenarios of system configuration are studied and some critical findings are concluded.

  18. Smart Control of Energy Distribution Grids over Heterogeneous Communication Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Iov, Florin; Hägerling, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    The expected growth in distributed generation will significantly affect the operation and control of todays distribution grids. Being confronted with short time power variations of distributed generations, the assurance of a reliable service (grid stability, avoidance of energy losses) and the qu......The expected growth in distributed generation will significantly affect the operation and control of todays distribution grids. Being confronted with short time power variations of distributed generations, the assurance of a reliable service (grid stability, avoidance of energy losses...

  19. DA-SoC : A Testbed for Modelling Distribution Automation Applications Using Agent-Oriented Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Hägg, Staffan; Ygge, Fredrik; Gustavsson, Rune; Ottosson, Hans

    1994-01-01

    As computing systems are being applied to ever more demanding and complex domains, the infeasibility of constructing a single, monolithic problem solver becomes more apparent. Furthermore, important applications such as different types of management control systems for power generation and distribution are inherently distributed. A promising novel research direction to overcome complexity barriers in the design and maintenance of complex distributed applications is based on the view of such s...

  20. Energy Efficiency of Distributed Environmental Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalifa, H. Ezzat; Isik, Can; Dannenhoffer, John F. III

    2011-02-23

    In this report, we present an analytical evaluation of the potential of occupant-regulated distributed environmental control systems (DECS) to enhance individual occupant thermal comfort in an office building with no increase, and possibly even a decrease in annual energy consumption. To this end we developed and applied several analytical models that allowed us to optimize comfort and energy consumption in partitioned office buildings equipped with either conventional central HVAC systems or occupant-regulated DECS. Our approach involved the following interrelated components: 1. Development of a simplified lumped-parameter thermal circuit model to compute the annual energy consumption. This was necessitated by the need to perform tens of thousands of optimization calculations involving different US climatic regions, and different occupant thermal preferences of a population of ~50 office occupants. Yearly transient simulations using TRNSYS, a time-dependent building energy modeling program, were run to determine the robustness of the simplified approach against time-dependent simulations. The simplified model predicts yearly energy consumption within approximately 0.6% of an equivalent transient simulation. Simulations of building energy usage were run for a wide variety of climatic regions and control scenarios, including traditional “one-size-fits-all” (OSFA) control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected “have-it-your-way” (HIYW) control with a thermostat at each workstation. The thermal model shows that, un-optimized, DECS would lead to an increase in building energy consumption between 3-16% compared to the conventional approach depending on the climate regional and personal preferences of building occupants. Variations in building shape had little impact in the relative energy usage. 2. Development of a gradient-based optimization method to minimize energy consumption of DECS while keeping each occupant

  1. Multiplicity Distributions in QCD at Very High Energies

    OpenAIRE

    Dremin, I. M.

    1994-01-01

    Recent results in QCD on multiplicity distributions are briefly reviewed. QCD is able to predict very tiny features of multiplicity distributions which demonstrate that the negative binomial distribution (and, more generally, any infinitely divisible distribution) is inappropriate for precise description of experimental data. New fits of high energy multiplicity distributions can be derived.

  2. System Integration of Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeng, Preben

    . It is therefore investigated in this project how ancillary services can be provided by alternatives to central power stations, and to what extent these can be integrated in the system by means of market-based methods. Particular emphasis is put on automatic solutions, which is particularly relevant for small...... units, including the ICT solutions that can facilitate the integration. Specifically, the international standard "IEC 61850-7-420 Communications systems for Distributed Energy Resources" is considered as a possible brick in the solution. This standard has undergone continuous development......, and this project has actively contributed to its further development and improvements. Different types of integration methods are investigated in the project. Some are based on local measurement and control, e.g. by measuring the grid frequency, whereas others are based on direct remote control or market...

  3. Advanced Energy Efficiency and Distributed Renewables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovins, Amory

    2007-04-01

    The US now wrings twice the GDP from each unit of energy that it did in 1975. Reduced energy intensity since then now provides more than twice as much service as burning oil does. Yet still more efficient end-use of energy -- explained more fully in a companion workshop offered at 1245 -- is the largest, fastest, cheapest, most benign, least understood, and least harnessed energy resource available. For example, existing technologies could save half of 2000 US oil and gas and three-fourths of US electricity, at lower cost than producing and delivering that energy from existing facilities. Saving half the oil through efficiency and replacing the other half with saved natural gas and advanced biofuels would cost an average of only 15/barrel and could eliminate US oil use by the 2040s, led by business for profit. Efficiency techniques and ways to combine and apply them continue to improve faster than they're applied, so the ``efficiency resource'' is becoming ever larger and cheaper. As for electricity, ``micropower'' (distributed renewables plus low-carbon cogeneration) is growing so quickly that by 2005 it provided a sixth of the world's electricity and a third of its new electricity, and was adding annually 4x the capacity and 11x the capacity added by nuclear power, which it surpassed in capacity in 2002 and in output in 2006. Together, micropower and ``negawatts'' (saved electricity) now provide upwards half the world's new electrical services, due to their far lower cost and lower financial risk than the central thermal power stations that still dominate policy discussions. For oil and electricity, each of which adds about two-fifths of the world's energy-related carbon dioxide emissions, efficiency plus competitive alternative supplies can stabilize the earth's climate at a profit, as well as solving the oil and (largely) the nuclear proliferation problems. Conversely, costlier and slower options, notably nuclear power, would displace less carbon emission per

  4. Energy and angular distributions of atmospheric muons at the Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    A fair knowledge of the atmospheric muon distributions at Earth is a prerequisite for the simulations of cosmic ray setups and rare event search detectors. A modified power law is proposed for atmospheric muon energy distribution which gives good description of the cosmic muon data in low as well as high energy regime. Using this distribution, analytical forms for zenith angle ($\\theta$) distribution are obtained. Assuming a flat Earth, it leads to the $\\cos^{n-1}\\theta$ form where it is shown that the parameter $n$ is nothing but the power of the energy distribution. A new analytical form for zenith angle distribution is obtained without assuming a flat Earth which gives an improved description of the data at all angles even above $70^o$. These distributions are tested with the available atmospheric muon data of energy and angular distributions. The parameters of these distributions can be used to characterize the cosmic muon data as a function of energy, angle and altitude.

  5. An automated system for studying the power distribution of electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filarowski, C.A.

    1994-12-01

    Precise welds with an electron beam welder are difficult to reproduce because the factors effecting the electron beam current density distribution are not easily controlled. One method for measuring the power density distribution in EB welds uses computer tomography to reconstruct an image of the current density distribution. This technique uses many separate pieces of hardware and software packages to obtain the data and then reconstruct it consequently, transferring this technology between different machines and operators is difficult. Consolidating all of the hardware and software into one machine to execute the same tasks will allow for real-time measurement of the EB power density distribution and will provide a facilitated means for transferring various welding procedure between different machines and operators, thereby enhancing reproducibility of electron beam welds.

  6. FASEP ultra-automated analysis of fibre length distribution in glass-fibre-reinforced products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwich, Mark R.; Höhn, Norbert; Mayr, Helga; Sandau, Konrad; Stengler, Ralph

    2009-06-01

    Reinforced plastic materials are widely used in high sophisticated applications. The length distribution of the fibres influences the mechanical properties of the final product. A method for automatic determination of this length distribution was developed. After separating the fibres out of the composite material without any damage, and preparing them for microscopical analysis, a mosaic of microscope pictures is taken. After image processing and analysis with mathematical methods, a complete statistic of the fibre length distribution could be determined. A correlation between fibre length distribution and mechanical properties, measured e.g. with material test methods, like tensile and impact tests, was found. This is a method to optimize the process and selection of material for the plastic parts. In result this enhances customer satisfaction and, maybe much more important, reduces costs for the manufacturer.

  7. Robustness of time frequency distribution based features for automated neonatal EEG seizure detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, S B; Stevenson, N J; Marnane, W P; Boylan, G B; Lightbody, G

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we examined the robustness of a feature-set based on time-frequency distributions (TFDs) for neonatal EEG seizure detection. This feature-set was originally proposed in literature for neonatal seizure detection using a support vector machine (SVM). We tested the performance of this feature-set with a smoothed Wigner-Ville distribution and modified B distribution as the underlying TFDs. The seizure detection system using time-frequency signal and image processing features from the TFD of the EEG signal using modified B distribution was able to achieve a median receiver operator characteristic area of 0.96 (IQR 0.91-0.98) tested on a large clinical dataset of 826 h of EEG data from 18 full-term newborns with 1389 seizures. The mean AUC was 0.93. PMID:25570580

  8. Automated collection of imaging and phenotypic data to centralized and distributed data repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret D King

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate data collection at the ground level is vital to the integrity of neuroimaging research. Similarly important is the ability to connect and curate data in order to make it meaningful and sharable with other investigators. Collecting data, especially with several different modalities, can be time consuming and expensive. These issues have driven the development of automated collection of neuroimaging and clinical assessment data within COINS (Collaborative Informatics and Neuroimaging Suite. COINS is an end-to-end data management system. It provides a comprehensive platform for data collection, management, secure storage, and flexible data retrieval (Bockholt et al., 2010, Scott et al., 2011. Self Assessment (SAis an application embedded in the Assessment Manager tool in the COINS. It is an innovative tool that allows participants to fill out assessments via the web-based Participant Portal. It eliminates the need for paper collection and data entry by allowing participants to submit their assessments directly to COINS. After a queue has been created for the participant, they can access the Participant Portal via the internet to fill out their assessments. This allows them the flexibility to participate from home, a library, on site, etc. The collected data is stored in a PostgresSQL database at the Mind Research Network behind a firewall to protect sensitive data. An added benefit to using COINS is the ability to collect, store and share imaging data and assessment data with no interaction with outside tools or programs. All study data collected (imaging and assessment are stored and exported with a participant's unique subject identifier so there is no need to keep extra spreadsheets or databases to link and keep track of the data. There is a great need for data collection tools that limit human intervention and error. COINS aims to be a leader in database solutions for research studies collecting data from several different modalities

  9. Energy Distribution in Earthquakes: A Non-Extensive Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar; Posadas, A.

    2001-01-01

    By using the maximum entropy principle with Tsallis entropy and under the assumption that the gouge plays an active role in the triggering of earthquakes, we obtain a functional dependence for energy distribution function for earthquakes which fits very well with observations in the region of small energies. This distribution function is related to the size distribution function of fragments in the gouge.

  10. Sub meso scale phytoplankton distribution in the north east Atlantic surface waters determined with an automated flow cytometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thyssen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton cells in the size range ~1–50 μm were analysed in surface waters using an automated flow cytometer, the Cytosub (http://www.cytobuoy.com, from the Azores to the French Brittany during spring 2007. The Cytosub records the pulse shape of the optical signals generated by phytoplankton cells when intercepted by the laser beam. A total of 6 distinct optical groups were resolved during the whole transect, and the high frequency sampling (15 min provided evidence for the cellular cycle (based on cyclic changes in cell size and fluorescence and distribution changes linked to the different water characteristics crossed in the north east Atlantic provinces. Nutrient concentrations and mixed layer depth varied from west to east, with a decrease in the mixed layer depth and high nutrient concentrations in the middle of the transect as well as near the French coast. Data provided a link between the sub meso scale processes and phytoplankton patchiness, some abundance variations due to the cellular cycle can be pointed out. The high frequency spatial sampling encompasses temporal variations of the phytoplankton abundance, offering a better insight into phytoplankton distribution.

  11. Development of automated test bench for measurement of the field distribution in single cell elliptical superconducting cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RRCAT Indore has initiated a program for the development of superconducting cavities and establishing the required infrastructure. A fully computer controlled bench for the field distribution measurement of a 1.3 GHz prototype cavity has been developed. The setup is based on the bead perturbation method, where the acquisition of the s21 transmission coefficient phase shift is synchronized with the displacement of a bead. The measured raw data are then converted to a quantity proportional to the electromagnetic field magnitude. It is very important to measure the resonant frequency and study the field distribution in the cavity at various stages of fabrication viz; after drawing, EB welding, various cleaning processes and most important during tuning of multi cell cavities for field flatness. The bench was used to test a prototype 1.3 GHz OFE Copper elliptical cavity developed at RRCAT. The results were verified from the simulation performed on CST Microwave studio and ANSYS. The paper describes the development of mechanical setup, control system for stepper motor, data acquisition and automation and measurement results for the Copper elliptical cavity. (author)

  12. Complex automation. Energy-efficient new building of Sparkasse Hagen; Komplexe Gebaeudeautomation. Energieeffizienter Neubau der Sparkasse Hagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springe, K. auf der [THS Consulting, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    The new administrative building of Sparkasse Hagen was designed for maximum energy efficiency. It has natural ventilation as far as possible, a daylighted service hall and different types of glass and sunshades. An efficient automation system controls the technical facilities and ensures energy monitoring during operation. The bus system also takes care of the billing of auxiliary units in the same building, e.g. a restaurant, coffee bar, and shops. (orig.)

  13. Linking Automated Data Analysis and Visualization with Applications in Developmental Biology and High-Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruebel, Oliver [Technical Univ. of Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-11-20

    Knowledge discovery from large and complex collections of today's scientific datasets is a challenging task. With the ability to measure and simulate more processes at increasingly finer spatial and temporal scales, the increasing number of data dimensions and data objects is presenting tremendous challenges for data analysis and effective data exploration methods and tools. Researchers are overwhelmed with data and standard tools are often insufficient to enable effective data analysis and knowledge discovery. The main objective of this thesis is to provide important new capabilities to accelerate scientific knowledge discovery form large, complex, and multivariate scientific data. The research covered in this thesis addresses these scientific challenges using a combination of scientific visualization, information visualization, automated data analysis, and other enabling technologies, such as efficient data management. The effectiveness of the proposed analysis methods is demonstrated via applications in two distinct scientific research fields, namely developmental biology and high-energy physics.Advances in microscopy, image analysis, and embryo registration enable for the first time measurement of gene expression at cellular resolution for entire organisms. Analysis of high-dimensional spatial gene expression datasets is a challenging task. By integrating data clustering and visualization, analysis of complex, time-varying, spatial gene expression patterns and their formation becomes possible. The analysis framework MATLAB and the visualization have been integrated, making advanced analysis tools accessible to biologist and enabling bioinformatic researchers to directly integrate their analysis with the visualization. Laser wakefield particle accelerators (LWFAs) promise to be a new compact source of high-energy particles and radiation, with wide applications ranging from medicine to physics. To gain insight into the complex physical processes of particle

  14. Linking Automated Data Analysis and Visualization with Applications in Developmental Biology and High-Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruebel, Oliver

    2009-12-01

    Knowledge discovery from large and complex collections of today's scientific datasets is a challenging task. With the ability to measure and simulate more processes at increasingly finer spatial and temporal scales, the increasing number of data dimensions and data objects is presenting tremendous challenges for data analysis and effective data exploration methods and tools. Researchers are overwhelmed with data and standard tools are often insufficient to enable effective data analysis and knowledge discovery. The main objective of this thesis is to provide important new capabilities to accelerate scientific knowledge discovery form large, complex, and multivariate scientific data. The research covered in this thesis addresses these scientific challenges using a combination of scientific visualization, information visualization, automated data analysis, and other enabling technologies, such as efficient data management. The effectiveness of the proposed analysis methods is demonstrated via applications in two distinct scientific research fields, namely developmental biology and high-energy physics.Advances in microscopy, image analysis, and embryo registration enable for the first time measurement of gene expression at cellular resolution for entire organisms. Analysis of high-dimensional spatial gene expression datasets is a challenging task. By integrating data clustering and visualization, analysis of complex, time-varying, spatial gene expression patterns and their formation becomes possible. The analysis framework MATLAB and the visualization have been integrated, making advanced analysis tools accessible to biologist and enabling bioinformatic researchers to directly integrate their analysis with the visualization. Laser wakefield particle accelerators (LWFAs) promise to be a new compact source of high-energy particles and radiation, with wide applications ranging from medicine to physics. To gain insight into the complex physical processes of particle

  15. Linking Automated Data Analysis and Visualization with Applications in Developmental Biology and High-Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge discovery from large and complex collections of today's scientific datasets is a challenging task. With the ability to measure and simulate more processes at increasingly finer spatial and temporal scales, the increasing number of data dimensions and data objects is presenting tremendous challenges for data analysis and effective data exploration methods and tools. Researchers are overwhelmed with data and standard tools are often insufficient to enable effective data analysis and knowledge discovery. The main objective of this thesis is to provide important new capabilities to accelerate scientific knowledge discovery form large, complex, and multivariate scientific data. The research covered in this thesis addresses these scientific challenges using a combination of scientific visualization, information visualization, automated data analysis, and other enabling technologies, such as efficient data management. The effectiveness of the proposed analysis methods is demonstrated via applications in two distinct scientific research fields, namely developmental biology and high-energy physics.Advances in microscopy, image analysis, and embryo registration enable for the first time measurement of gene expression at cellular resolution for entire organisms. Analysis of high-dimensional spatial gene expression datasets is a challenging task. By integrating data clustering and visualization, analysis of complex, time-varying, spatial gene expression patterns and their formation becomes possible. The analysis framework MATLAB and the visualization have been integrated, making advanced analysis tools accessible to biologist and enabling bioinformatic researchers to directly integrate their analysis with the visualization. Laser wakefield particle accelerators (LWFAs) promise to be a new compact source of high-energy particles and radiation, with wide applications ranging from medicine to physics. To gain insight into the complex physical processes of particle

  16. Determination analysis of energy conservation standards for distribution transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.; McConnell, B.W.; Das, S.

    1996-07-01

    This report contains information for US DOE to use in making a determination on proposing energy conservation standards for distribution transformers as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Potential for saving energy with more efficient liquid-immersed and dry-type distribution transformers could be significant because these transformers account for an estimated 140 billion kWh of the annual energy lost in the delivery of electricity. Objective was to determine whether energy conservation standards for distribution transformers would have the potential for significant energy savings, be technically feasible, and be economically justified from a national perspective. It was found that energy conservation for distribution transformers would be technically and economically feasible. Based on the energy conservation options analyzed, 3.6-13.7 quads of energy could be saved from 2000 to 2030.

  17. Automated collection of imaging and phenotypic data to centralized and distributed data repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Margaret D; Wood, Dylan; Miller, Brittny; Kelly, Ross; Landis, Drew; Courtney, William; Wang, Runtang; Turner, Jessica A; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-01-01

    Accurate data collection at the ground level is vital to the integrity of neuroimaging research. Similarly important is the ability to connect and curate data in order to make it meaningful and sharable with other investigators. Collecting data, especially with several different modalities, can be time consuming and expensive. These issues have driven the development of automated collection of neuroimaging and clinical assessment data within COINS (Collaborative Informatics and Neuroimaging Suite). COINS is an end-to-end data management system. It provides a comprehensive platform for data collection, management, secure storage, and flexible data retrieval (Bockholt et al., 2010; Scott et al., 2011). It was initially developed for the investigators at the Mind Research Network (MRN), but is now available to neuroimaging institutions worldwide. Self Assessment (SA) is an application embedded in the Assessment Manager (ASMT) tool in COINS. It is an innovative tool that allows participants to fill out assessments via the web-based Participant Portal. It eliminates the need for paper collection and data entry by allowing participants to submit their assessments directly to COINS. Instruments (surveys) are created through ASMT and include many unique question types and associated SA features that can be implemented to help the flow of assessment administration. SA provides an instrument queuing system with an easy-to-use drag and drop interface for research staff to set up participants' queues. After a queue has been created for the participant, they can access the Participant Portal via the internet to fill out their assessments. This allows them the flexibility to participate from home, a library, on site, etc. The collected data is stored in a PostgresSQL database at MRN. This data is only accessible by users that have explicit permission to access the data through their COINS user accounts and access to MRN network. This allows for high volume data collection and

  18. Automated collection of imaging and phenotypic data to centralized and distributed data repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Margaret D; Wood, Dylan; Miller, Brittny; Kelly, Ross; Landis, Drew; Courtney, William; Wang, Runtang; Turner, Jessica A; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-01-01

    Accurate data collection at the ground level is vital to the integrity of neuroimaging research. Similarly important is the ability to connect and curate data in order to make it meaningful and sharable with other investigators. Collecting data, especially with several different modalities, can be time consuming and expensive. These issues have driven the development of automated collection of neuroimaging and clinical assessment data within COINS (Collaborative Informatics and Neuroimaging Suite). COINS is an end-to-end data management system. It provides a comprehensive platform for data collection, management, secure storage, and flexible data retrieval (Bockholt et al., 2010; Scott et al., 2011). It was initially developed for the investigators at the Mind Research Network (MRN), but is now available to neuroimaging institutions worldwide. Self Assessment (SA) is an application embedded in the Assessment Manager (ASMT) tool in COINS. It is an innovative tool that allows participants to fill out assessments via the web-based Participant Portal. It eliminates the need for paper collection and data entry by allowing participants to submit their assessments directly to COINS. Instruments (surveys) are created through ASMT and include many unique question types and associated SA features that can be implemented to help the flow of assessment administration. SA provides an instrument queuing system with an easy-to-use drag and drop interface for research staff to set up participants' queues. After a queue has been created for the participant, they can access the Participant Portal via the internet to fill out their assessments. This allows them the flexibility to participate from home, a library, on site, etc. The collected data is stored in a PostgresSQL database at MRN. This data is only accessible by users that have explicit permission to access the data through their COINS user accounts and access to MRN network. This allows for high volume data collection and

  19. Energy and angular distributions of atmospheric muons at the Earth

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    A fair knowledge of the atmospheric muon distributions at Earth is a prerequisite for the simulations of cosmic ray setups and rare event search detectors. A modified power law is proposed for atmospheric muon energy distribution which gives good description of the cosmic muon data in low as well as high energy regime. Using this distribution, analytical forms for zenith angle ($\\theta$) distribution are obtained. Assuming a flat Earth, it leads to the $\\cos^{n-1}\\theta$ form where it is show...

  20. Energy Scaling Laws for Distributed Inference in Random Fusion Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Anandkumar, Animashree; Yukich, Joseph E.; Tong, Lang; Swami, Ananthram

    2008-01-01

    The energy scaling laws of multihop data fusion networks for distributed inference are considered. The fusion network consists of randomly located sensors distributed i.i.d. according to a general spatial distribution in an expanding region. Among the class of data fusion schemes that enable optimal inference at the fusion center for Markov random field (MRF) hypotheses, the scheme with minimum average energy consumption is bounded below by average energy of fusion along the minimum spanning ...

  1. Spectral Energy Distributions of Type 1 AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Heng

    The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are essential to understand the physics of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies. This thesis present a detailed study of AGN SED shapes in the optical-near infrared bands (0.3--3microm) for 413 X-ray selected Type 1 AGNs from the XMM-COSMOS Survey. We define a useful near-IR/optical index-index ('color-color') diagram to investigate the mixture of AGN continuum, host galaxy and reddening contributions. We found that ˜90% of the AGNs lie on mixing curves between the Elvis et al. (1994) mean AGN SED (E94) and a host galaxy, with only the modest reddening [E(B-V)=0.1--0.2] expected in type 1 AGNs. Lower luminosity and Eddington ratio objects have more host galaxy, as expected. The E94 template is remarkably good in describing the SED shape in the 0.3--3microrn decade of the spectrum over a range of 3.2 dex in LOPT, 2.7 dex in L/LEdd, and for redshifts up to 3. The AGN phenomenon is thus insensitive to absolute or relative accretion rate and to cosmic time. However, 10% of the AGNs are inconsistent with any AGN+host+reddening mix. These AGNs have weak or non-existent near-IR bumps, suggesting a lack of the hot dust characteristic of AGNs. The fraction of these hot-dust-poor AGNs evolves with redshift from 6% at low redshift (z times the gravitational stability radii. Either the host-dust is destroyed (dynamically or by radiation), or is offset from the central black hole due to recoiling. Alternatively, the universality of HDP quasars in samples with different selection methods and the continuous distribution of dust covering factor in type 1 AGNs, suggest that the range of SEDs could be related to the range of tilts in warped fueling disks, as in the model of Lawrence and Elvis (2010), with HDP quasars having relatively small warps. A small number of other outliers are found with the help of the mixing diagram, which could represent quasars on different evolutionary stage

  2. The Spectral Energy Distributions of Fermi Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J. H.; Yang, J. H.; Liu, Y.; Luo, G. Y.; Lin, C.; Yuan, Y. H.; Xiao, H. B.; Zhou, A. Y.; Hua, T. X.; Pei, Z. Y.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, multiwavelength data are compiled for a sample of 1425 Fermi blazars to calculate their spectral energy distributions (SEDs). A parabolic function, {{log}}{(ν {F}ν )={P}1({{log}}ν -{P}2)}2+{P}3, is used for SED fitting. Synchrotron peak frequency ({log}{ν }{{p}}), spectral curvature (P1), peak flux ({ν }{{p}}{F}{ν {{p}}}), and integrated flux (ν {F}ν ) are successfully obtained for 1392 blazars (461 flat-spectrum radio quasars [FSRQs], 620 BL Lacs [BLs], and 311 blazars of uncertain type [BCUs]; 999 sources have known redshifts). Monochromatic luminosity at radio 1.4 GHz, optical R band, X-ray at 1 keV and γ-ray at 1 GeV, peak luminosity, integrated luminosity, and effective spectral indices of radio to optical ({α }{{RO}}) and optical to X-ray ({α }{{OX}}) are calculated. The “Bayesian classification” is employed to log {ν }{{p}} in the rest frame for 999 blazars with available redshift, and the results show that three components are enough to fit the log {ν }{{p}} distribution; there is no ultra-high peaked subclass. Based on the three components, the subclasses of blazars using the acronyms of Abdo et al. are classified, and some mutual correlations are also studied. Conclusions are finally drawn as follows: (1) SEDs are successfully obtained for 1392 blazars. The fitted peak frequencies are compared with common sources from available samples. (2) Blazars are classified as low synchrotron peak sources if log {ν }{{p}}({Hz})≤slant 14.0, intermediate synchrotron peak sources if 14.0\\lt {log} {ν }{{p}}({Hz})≤slant 15.3, and high synchrotron peak sources if {log} {ν }{{p}}({Hz})\\gt 15.3. (3) Gamma-ray emissions are strongly correlated with radio emissions. Gamma-ray luminosity is also correlated with synchrotron peak luminosity and integrated luminosity. (4) There is an anticorrelation between peak frequency and peak luminosity within the whole blazar sample. However, there is a marginally positive correlation for high

  3. Development of a semi-automated method for subspecialty case distribution and prediction of intraoperative consultations in surgical pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul S Gonzalez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In many surgical pathology laboratories, operating room schedules are prospectively reviewed to determine specimen distribution to different subspecialty services and to predict the number and nature of potential intraoperative consultations for which prior medical records and slides require review. At our institution, such schedules were manually converted into easily interpretable, surgical pathology-friendly reports to facilitate these activities. This conversion, however, was time-consuming and arguably a non-value-added activity. Objective: Our goal was to develop a semi-automated method of generating these reports that improved their readability while taking less time to perform than the manual method. Materials and Methods: A dynamic Microsoft Excel workbook was developed to automatically convert published operating room schedules into different tabular formats. Based on the surgical procedure descriptions in the schedule, a list of linked keywords and phrases was utilized to sort cases by subspecialty and to predict potential intraoperative consultations. After two trial-and-optimization cycles, the method was incorporated into standard practice. Results: The workbook distributed cases to appropriate subspecialties and accurately predicted intraoperative requests. Users indicated that they spent 1-2 h fewer per day on this activity than before, and team members preferred the formatting of the newer reports. Comparison of the manual and semi-automatic predictions showed that the mean daily difference in predicted versus actual intraoperative consultations underwent no statistically significant changes before and after implementation for most subspecialties. Conclusions: A well-designed, lean, and simple information technology solution to determine subspecialty case distribution and prediction of intraoperative consultations in surgical pathology is approximately as accurate as the gold standard manual method and requires less

  4. The ultraviolet energy distributions of late A stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm-Vitense, E.

    1981-01-01

    Observed late A star energy distributions for the wavelength range 1400-2500 A are compared. No difference is found between energy distributions of Am stars and those of normal slowly rotating A stars. The fluxes of rapidly rotating stars, however, appear to be increased for wavelengths smaller than 1530 A; this cannot be understood as an effect of pole heating or reduced gravity. In addition, the comparison of the UV energy distributions with model atmosphere energy distributions of Kurucz indicates some problems with the theoretical Si I absorption edges at 1530 A.

  5. 面向对象分布式Web自动化实现%The Implementation of Distributed and Object-oriented Web Automation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高玉军

    2013-01-01

    As the Web development projects becoming larger and larger, the importance of automated testing techniques have become increasingly prominent. The presence of automated testing technology, greatly improves the efifciency of software testing and the motivation of test staff. In this paper, the meaning of automated testing, automated testing framework types and mainstream are described;and describes an approach based on Selenium 2.0 object-oriented implementation of distributed Web automated testing.%随着Web开发项目的日益庞大,自动化测试技术的重要性日益突出。自动化测试技术的出现,大大提高了软件测试的效率和测试人员的积极性。本文对自动化测试含义、种类及主流自动化测试框架进行了阐述;并介绍了一种基于Selenium 2.0的面向对象分布式Web自动化测试的实现。

  6. Trading Strategies for Distribution Company with Stochastic Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Qi; Wang, Jianhui;

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to address the trading strategies of a proactive distribution company (PDISCO) engaged in the transmission-level (TL) markets. A one-leader multi-follower bilevel model is presented to formulate the gaming framework between the PDISCO and markets. The lower......-level (LL) problems include the TL day-ahead market and scenario-based real-time markets, respectively with the objectives of maximizing social welfare and minimizing operation cost. The upper-level (UL) problem is to maximize the PDISCO's prot across these markets. The PDISCO's strategic oers....../bids interactively in uence the outcomes of each market. Since the LL problems are linear and convex, while the UL problem is non-linear and non-convex, an equivalent primal-dual approach is used to reformulate this bilevel model to a solvable mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC...

  7. Evaluation of eruptive energy of a pyroclastic deposit applying fractal geometry to fragment size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes Marino, Joali; Morgavi, Daniele; Di Vito, Mauro; de Vita, Sandro; Sansivero, Fabio; Perugini, Diego

    2016-04-01

    Fractal fragmentation theory has been applied to characterize the particle size distribution of pyroclastic deposits generated by volcanic explosions. Recent works have demonstrated that fractal dimension on grain size distributions can be used as a proxy for estimating the energy associated with volcanic eruptions. In this work we seek to establish a preliminary analytical protocol that can be applied to better characterize volcanic fall deposits and derive the potential energy for fragmentation that was stored in the magma prior/during an explosive eruption. The methodology is based on two different techniques for determining the grain-size distribution of the pyroclastic samples: 1) dry manual sieving (particles larger than 297μm), and 2) automatic grain size analysis via a CamSizer-P4®device, the latter measure the distribution of projected area, obtaining a cumulative distribution based on volume fraction for particles up to 30mm. Size distribution data have been analyzed by applying the fractal fragmentation theory estimating the value of Df, i.e. the fractal dimension of fragmentation. In order to test our protocol we studied the Cretaio eruption, Ischia island, Italy. Results indicate that size distributions of pyroclastic fall deposits follow a fractal law, indicating that the fragmentation process of these deposits reflects a scale-invariant fragmentation mechanism. Matching the results from manual and automated techniques allows us to obtain a value of the "fragmentation energy" from the explosive eruptive events that generate the Cretaio deposits. We highlight the importance of these results, based on fractal statistics, as an additional volcanological tool for addressing volcanic risk based on the analyses of grain size distributions of natural pyroclastic deposits. Keywords: eruptive energy, fractal dimension of fragmentation, pyroclastic fallout.

  8. A METHOD OF COMPLEX AUTOMATED MONITORING OF UKRAINIAN POWER ENERGY SYSTEM OBJECTS TO INCREASE ITS OPERATION SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.I. Sokol

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an algorithm of the complex automated monitoring of Ukraine’s power energy system, aimed at ensuring safety of its personnel and equipment. This monitoring involves usage of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs for planned and unplanned registration status of power transmission lines (PTL and high-voltage substations (HVS. It is assumed that unscheduled overflights will be made in emergency situations on power lines. With the help of the UAV, pictures of transmission and HVS will be recorded from the air in the optical and infrared ranges, as well as strength of electric (EF and magnetic (MF fields will be measured along the route of flight. Usage specially developed software allows to compare the recorded pictures with pre-UAV etalon patterns corresponding to normal operation of investigated transmission lines and the HVSs. Such reference pattern together with the experimentally obtained maps of HVS’s protective grounding will be summarized in a single document – a passport of HVS and PTL. This passport must also contain the measured and calculated values of strength levels of EF and MF in the places where staff of power facilities stay as well as layout of equipment, the most vulnerable to the effects of electromagnetic interference. If necessary, as part of ongoing monitoring, recommendations will be given on the design and location of electromagnetic screens, reducing the levels of electromagnetic interference as well as on location of lightning rods, reducing probability lightning attachment to the objects. The paper presents analytic expressions, which formed the basis of the developed software for calculation of the EF strength in the vicinity of power lines. This software will be used as a base at UAV navigation along the transmission lines, as well as to detect violations in the transmission lines operation. Comparison of distributions of EF strength calculated with the help of the elaborated software with the known

  9. The quasi-Gaussian entropy theory : Free energy calculations based on the potential energy distribution function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amadei, A; Apol, MEF; DiNola, A; Berendsen, HJC

    1996-01-01

    A new theory is presented for calculating the Helmholtz free energy based on the potential energy distribution function. The usual expressions of free energy, internal energy and entropy involving the partition function are rephrased in terms of the potential energy distribution function, which must

  10. Energy Inputs Uncertainty: Total Amount, Distribution and Correlation Between Different Forms of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Describes solar energy inputs contributing to ionospheric and thermospheric weather processes, including total energy amounts, distributions and the correlation between particle precipitation and Poynting flux.

  11. Advancing automation of power distribution facilities and the cost reduction measures. Activities o technology development for advanced automation systems; Susumu haiden setsubi no jidoka, cost teigen taisaku. Jidoka system no kodoka eno gijutsu kaihatsu no torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayami, M.; Matsui, Y. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Electric power companies in Japan are making efforts to reduce the cost by improving the operation rate of existing facilities through the employment of advanced automation systems in the sector of distribution. This paper introduces the systems of Hitachi. A 22 kV-line automation system using high-speed photo-transmission line is adopted for the maintenance of widely extended distribution facilities. This system includes a 22 kV/240-415 V transformer and a 22 kV/105-210 V transformer. To supervise and control these transformers and switches, and to recover the accidents, this system consists of a computer system, a remote host station, and remote end terminals. Based on the information of distribution facilities of substations, end terminals and a host station, monitor/control of these facilities and recovery of accidents are conducted using computers. A system plan supporting system is also introduced, which aims at improvements of facility utilization factor, operation efficiency, and distribution operation efficiency. 5 figs.

  12. Distributed energy resources scheduling considering real-time resources forecast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, M.; Sousa, T.; Ramos, S.;

    2014-01-01

    Energy resource scheduling is becoming increasingly important, such as the use of more distributed generators and electric vehicles connected to the distribution network. This paper proposes a methodology to be used by Virtual Power Players (VPPs), regarding the energy resource scheduling in smar...

  13. External impact tests on communication systems for distribution automation; Gaibu impact ni taisuru jidoka system no shinraisei hyoka kenkyu (joho denso system ni tsuite)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, K.; Nakamura, O. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan); Gocho, Y. [Kansai Cable Service Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-01-31

    For the purpose of attaining high reliability in the design and construction of a distribution automation system, an evaluation was made on the reliability by grasping influence on the distribution automation system from various external impacts surrounding the system. Transmission methods then and presently used for distribution automation are the coaxial, the paired and the optical fiber cable systems; an examination was carried out on the performance limits of each system and on the ranges affected by the impacts on the system by allowing the respective equipment to be exposed to the severest possible external impacts that could be produced under testing conditions. The test items given for each system were total 59 items consisting of those for the coaxial (34 items), the paired (17 items) and the optical fiber (8 items), which were determined on the basis of the causes of fault from the actual cases in the past. The external impacts produced this time were far beyond the standards of the distribution department as well as the specifications on manufacturers` warranties, and therefore, each system was presumably of sufficient quality. Reliability assessment based on common test items (such as combustion, tensile strength, bending, submersion, etc.) ranked the optical cable system highest, the coaxial next, and the paired third. 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Plasma expansion into vacuum assuming a steplike electron energy distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Thomas; Schlegel, Theodor; Kaluza, Malte C

    2013-04-01

    The expansion of a semi-infinite plasma slab into vacuum is analyzed with a hydrodynamic model implying a steplike electron energy distribution function. Analytic expressions for the maximum ion energy and the related ion distribution function are derived and compared with one-dimensional numerical simulations. The choice of the specific non-Maxwellian initial electron energy distribution automatically ensures the conservation of the total energy of the system. The estimated ion energies may differ by an order of magnitude from the values obtained with an adiabatic expansion model supposing a Maxwellian electron distribution. Furthermore, good agreement with data from experiments using laser pulses of ultrashort durations τ(L)distribution is assumed.

  15. Dose reduction through automation of nuclear weapons dismantlement and storage procedures at the Department of Energy's Pantex Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the end of the Cold War and the subsequent break up of the Soviet Union, the number of weapons in the nuclear stockpile now greatly exceeds any foreseeable future need. To compensate for this excess an estimated 20,000 nuclear warheads have been earmarked for dismantlement and storage at the Department of Energy's Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas. It is anticipated that the majority of these warheads will arrive at the Pantex facility by the year 2000. At that time, it is estimated that current dismantlement and inventory procedures will not be adequate to control worker radiation exposure within administrative and federal dose limits. To control these exposures alternate approaches to dismantlement and inventory must be developed. One attractive approach is to automate as many activities as possible, thus reducing worker exposure. To facilitate automation of dismantlement and storage procedures, current procedures were investigated in terms of collective dose to workers, time to completion, ease of completion, and cost of automation for each task. A cost-benefit comparison was then performed in order to determine which procedures would be most cost-effective to automate

  16. Energy storage system control strategies for power distribution systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areewan Kajorndech

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage systems have been widely employed to attain several benefits, such as reliability improvement, stabilization of power systems connected with renewable energy resources, economic benefits and etc. To achieve the above objectives, the appropriate and effective control strategies for energy storage systems are needed to be developed. This research proposes energy storage system control strategies for power distribution systems equipped with a limited size of energy storage system in order to improve reliability and save energy costs by determining an optimal charging schedule of the energy storage system. Simulation results demonstrate the benefits of energy storage system applications under the different control strategies.

  17. Energy storage system control strategies for power distribution systems

    OpenAIRE

    Areewan Kajorndech; Dulpichet Rerkpreedapong

    2015-01-01

    Energy storage systems have been widely employed to attain several benefits, such as reliability improvement, stabilization of power systems connected with renewable energy resources, economic benefits and etc. To achieve the above objectives, the appropriate and effective control strategies for energy storage systems are needed to be developed. This research proposes energy storage system control strategies for power distribution systems equipped with a limited size of energy storage system ...

  18. Power distribution automating computer systems (types I and II) at Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc.; Tokyo denryoku (kabu) haiden jidoka computer system (I gata, II gata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niwa, S.; Shimizu, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Akaike, N. [The Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Soeda, T.; Yamaguchi, S. [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-09-16

    This paper introduces the summary of a power distribution automating computer systems, types I and II, used at Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. The type I is a large-scale urban area handling system to indicate power distribution systems according to topographic charts by using a graphic CRT. The type II is a medium-scale peripheral area handling system to indicate power distribution systems by using skeleton charts. The system coordinates with power transformation and supply computers via data collecting and transmitting devices, and receives and transmits the following items of information to realize an overall automation: local system failure information, distribution system failure information, requests for operating the power distribution substation devices, and information on the power distribution substation devices in work. One of the features of the system is having shortened the power line switch controlling time by means of a system operated via a distribution relaying device. The restoration work procedure preparing time was reduced by elevating the failure restoration logic levels. In order to reduce the time required for normally scheduled system preparation, the system preparation, the system uses means that power lines in the first operating scope are indicated, and the work is developed being limited to the normal event names and data maintenance event names included in the operating scope of the above lines. 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Effects of the Energy Error Distribution of Fluorescence Telescopes on the UHECR energy spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, Washington; de Souza, Vitor; 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2007.04.010

    2008-01-01

    The measurement of the ultra high energy cosmic ray (UHECR) spectrum is strongly affected by uncertainties on the reconstructed energy. The determination of the presence or absence of the GZK cutoff and its position in the energy spectrum depends not only on high statistics but also on the shape of the energy error distribution. Here we determine the energy error distribution for fluorescence telescopes, based on a Monte Carlo simulation. The HiRes and Auger fluorescence telescopes are simulated in detail. We analyze the UHECR spectrum convolved with this energy error distribution. We compare this spectrum with one convolved with a lognormal error distribution as well as with a Gaussian error distribution. We show that the energy error distribution for fluorescence detectors can not be represented by these known distributions. We conclude that the convolved energy spectrum will be smeared but not enough to affect the GZK cutoff detection. This conclusion stands for both HiRes and Auger fluorescence telescopes...

  20. Modeling nurses' attitude toward using automated unit-based medication storage and distribution systems: an extension of the technology acceptance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Rodríguez, Tomás; Romero-Alonso, María Mercedes

    2013-05-01

    This article analyzes the attitude of nurses toward the use of automated unit-based medication storage and distribution systems and identifies influencing factors. Understanding these factors provides an opportunity to explore actions that might be taken to boost adoption by potential users. The theoretical grounding for this research is the Technology Acceptance Model. The Technology Acceptance Model specifies the causal relationships between perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, attitude toward using, and actual usage behavior. The research model has six constructs, and nine hypotheses were generated from connections between these six constructs. These constructs include perceived risks, experience level, and training. The findings indicate that these three external variables are related to the perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of automated unit-based medication storage and distribution systems, and therefore, they have a significant influence on attitude toward the use of these systems.

  1. Tailoring the energy distribution and loss of 2D plasmons

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Xiao; López, Josué J; Kaminer, Ido; Chen, Hongsheng; Soljačić, Marin

    2016-01-01

    The ability to tailor the energy distribution of plasmons at the nanoscale has many applications in nanophotonics, such as designing plasmon lasers, spasers, and quantum emitters. To this end, we analytically study the energy distribution and the proper field quantization of 2D plasmons with specific examples for graphene plasmons. We find that the portion of the plasmon energy contained inside graphene (energy confinement factor) can exceed 50%, despite graphene being infinitely thin. In fact, this very high energy confinement can make it challenging to tailor the energy distribution of graphene plasmons just by modifying the surrounding dielectric environment or the geometry, such as changing the separation distance between two coupled graphene layers. However, by adopting concepts of parity-time symmetry breaking, we show that tuning the loss in one of the two coupled graphene layers can simultaneously tailor the energy confinement factor and propagation characteristics, causing the phenomenon of loss-indu...

  2. Energy-Momentum Distribution of Gravitational Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Sharif; Kanwal Nazir

    2008-01-01

    This paper has been addressed to the well-known problem of energy in gravitational waves.We have investigated the energy of cylindrical gravitational waves in the context of General Relativity and teleparallel theory of gravity.For this purpose,the prescriptions of Einstein,Landau-Lifshitz,Bergmann-Thomson,and Moller are used in both the theories.It is shown that these energy-momentum complexes do not provide equivalent results in the two theories.However,these turn out to be constant for all the prescriptions except Moller in both the theories at large distances.

  3. Observational Evidence for Small Scale Distributed Energy Release and Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilmer, Nicole

    Particle acceleration in solar flares is a challenging issue. Not only, is it necessary to convert a large fraction of the free magnetic energy to supra-thermal particles on relatively short time scales, but it is also required to produce in some flares ultra-relativistic particles on timescales of a few tens of seconds. Several approaches have been considered in the solar physics literature for acceleration models: either the acceleration takes place in large scale features (shocks or current sheets) or it occurs in small scale distributed energy release sites. I shall review here some of the observations which support the scenario of spatially distributed energy release and acceleration sites: existence of narrow-band millisecond bursts in the radio range and spatial distributions of these emissions, distribution of time scales of energy release, statistical properties of flares and HXR pulses, waiting time distributions in flares,. . .

  4. Distributed energy storage: Time-dependent tree flow design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejan, A.; Ziaei, S.; Lorente, S.

    2016-05-01

    This article proposes "distributed energy storage" as a basic design problem of distributing energy storage material on an area. The energy flows by fluid flow from a concentrated source to points (users) distributed equidistantly on the area. The flow is time-dependent. Several scenarios are analyzed: sensible-heat storage, latent-heat storage, exergy storage vs energy storage, and the distribution of a finite supply of heat transfer surface between the source fluid and the distributed storage material. The chief conclusion is that the finite amount of storage material should be distributed proportionally with the distribution of the flow rate of heating agent arriving on the area. The total time needed by the source stream to "invade" the area is cumulative (the sum of the storage times required at each storage site) and depends on the energy distribution paths and the sequence in which the users are served by the source stream. Directions for future designs of distributed storage and retrieval are outlined in the concluding section.

  5. Distributed Energy Systems with Wind Power and Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Korpås, Magnus

    2004-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the study of energy storage systems operating with wind power plants. The motivation for applying energy storage in this context is that wind power generation is intermittent and generally difficult to predict, and that good wind energy resources are often found in areas with limited grid capacity. Moreover, energy storage in the form of hydrogen makes it possible to provide clean fuel for transportation. The aim of this work has been to evaluate how local energy s...

  6. Automated bone removal in CT angiography: Comparison of methods based on single energy and dual energy scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straten, Marcel van; Schaap, Michiel; Dijkshoorn, Marcel L.; Greuter, Marcel J.; Lugt, Aad van der; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Niessen, Wiro J. [Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam (Netherlands); Departments of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam (Netherlands); Departments of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate dual energy based methods for bone removal in computed tomography angiography (CTA) images and compare these with single energy based methods that use an additional, nonenhanced, CT scan. Methods: Four different bone removal methods were applied to CT scans of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom, acquired with a second generation dual source CT scanner. The methods differed by the way information on the presence of bone was obtained (either by using an additional, nonenhanced scan or by scanning with two tube voltages at the same time) and by the way the bone was removed from the CTA images (either by masking or subtracting the bone). The phantom contained parts which mimic vessels of various diameters in direct contact with bone. Both a quantitative and qualitative analysis of image quality after bone removal was performed. Image quality was quantified by the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) normalized to the square root of the dose (CNRD). At locations where vessels touch bone, the quality of the bone removal and the vessel preservation were visually assessed. The dual energy based methods were assessed with and without the addition of a 0.4 mm tin filter to the high voltage x-ray tube filtration. For each bone removal method, the dose required to obtain a certain CNR after bone removal was compared with the dose of a reference scan with the same CNR but without automated bone removal. The CNRD value of the reference scan was maximized by choosing the lowest tube voltage available. Results: All methods removed the bone completely. CNRD values were higher for the masking based methods than for the subtraction based methods. Single energy based methods had a higher CNRD value than the corresponding dual energy based methods. For the subtraction based dual energy method, tin filtration improved the CNRD value with approximately 50%. For the masking based dual energy method, it was easier to differentiate between iodine and bone when tin filtration

  7. Energy and Isotope Dependence of Neutron Multiplicity Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Lestone, J P

    2014-01-01

    Fission neutron multiplicity distributions are known to be well reproduced by simple Gaussian distributions. Many previous evaluations of multiplicity distributions have adjusted the widths of Gaussian distributions to best fit the measured multiplicity distributions Pn. However, many observables do not depend on the detailed shape of Pn, but depend on the first three factorial moments of the distributions. In the present evaluation, the widths of Gaussians are adjusted to fit the measured 2nd and 3rd factorial moments. The relationships between the first three factorial moments are estimated assuming that the widths of the multiplicity distributions are independent of the initial excitation energy of the fissioning system. These simple calculations are in good agreement with experimental neutron induced fission data up to an incoming neutron energy of 10 MeV.

  8. Using the Beopt Automated Residential Simulation Test Suite to Enable Comparative Analysis Between Energy Simulation Engines: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares-Velasco, Paulo Cesar [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Verification and validation are crucial software quality control procedures to follow when developing and implementing models. This is particularly important because a variety of stakeholders rely on accurate predictions from building simulation programs. This study uses the BEopt Automated Residential Simulation Test Suite (BARTS) to facilitate comparison of two energy simulation engines across various building components and includes building models that isolate the impacts of specific components on annual energy consumption. As a case study, BARTS has been used to identify important discrepancies between the engines for several components of the building models. These discrepancies are caused by differences in the algorithms used by the engines or coding errors.

  9. Using the BEopt Automated Residential Simulation Test Suite to Enable Comparative Analysis Between Energy Simulation Engines: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares-Velasco, P. C.; Maguire, J.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.

    2014-09-01

    Verification and validation are crucial software quality control procedures when developing and implementing models. This is particularly important as a variety of stakeholders rely on accurate predictions from building simulation programs. This study uses the BEopt Automated Residential Simulation Test Suite (BARTS) to facilitate comparison of two energy simulation engines across various building components and includes models that isolate the impacts of specific building components on annual energy consumption. As a case study, BARTS has been used to identify important discrepancies between the engines for several components of the building models; these discrepancies are caused by differences in the models used by the engines or coding errors.

  10. Energy optimization of water distribution system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    In order to analyze pump operating scenarios for the system with the computer model, information on existing pumping equipment and the distribution system was collected. The information includes the following: component description and design criteria for line booster stations, booster stations with reservoirs, and high lift pumps at the water treatment plants; daily operations data for 1988; annual reports from fiscal year 1987/1988 to fiscal year 1991/1992; and a 1985 calibrated KYPIPE computer model of DWSD`s water distribution system which included input data for the maximum hour and average day demands on the system for that year. This information has been used to produce the inventory database of the system and will be used to develop the computer program to analyze the system.

  11. Distributed continuous energy scheduling for dynamic virtual power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents DynaSCOPE as distributed control method for continuous energy scheduling for dynamic virtual power plants (DVPP). DVPPs aggregate the flexibility of distributed energy units to address current energy markets. As an extension of the Virtual Power Plant concept they show high dynamics in aggregation and operation of energy units. Whereas operation schedules are set up for all energy units in a day-ahead planning procedure, incidents may render these schedules infeasible during execution, like deviation from prognoses or outages. Thus, a continuous scheduling process is needed to ensure product fulfillment. With DynaSCOPE, software agents representing single energy units solve this problem in a completely distributed heuristic approach. Using a stepped concept, several damping mechanisms are applied to allow minimum disturbance while continuously trying to fulfill the product as contracted at the market.

  12. A new method of distribution automation system transmitting fault information%配电自动化系统转发故障信息的新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张益嘉

    2015-01-01

    Nanning Power Supply Bureau of distribution automation system has been formally applied,the system has a cross-age signifi-cance of 10kV line fault location and isolation,but the time difference lag between the distribution automation systems and information ex-change to repair personnel, seriously affects the repair efficiency and effective using of the automation system.Forwarding fault information methodology in this paper is based on the distribution automation system forwarding interface, fast-forwarding the fault information directly to the repair personnel's mobile device port(mobile phone).It is important to shorten customer average interruption time and improve power supply reliability rate.%南宁供电局的配电自动化系统已正式应用,该系统对10kV线路故障定位和隔离具有跨时代意义,但由于配电自动化系统和抢修人员之间的信息交换存在时间差问题,严重影响抢修效率和自动化系统的使用成效。本文所研究的转发故障信息的方法是利用配电自动化系统转发接口,直接把故障信息快速转发给抢修人员移动设备端口(手机),对缩短用户平均停电时间,提高供电可靠率有重大作用。

  13. The distribution and tapping tidal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Kowalik

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Tidal power along tidal shores has been used for centuries to run small tidal mills. Generating electricity by tapping tidal power proved to be very successful only in the last century through the tidal power plant constructed in 1967 in La Rance, France. This used a large barrier to generate the sea level head necessary for driving turbines. Construction of such plants evolved very slowly because of prohibitive costs and concerns about the environmental impact. Developments in the construction of small, efficient and inexpensive underwater turbines admit the possibility of small scale operations that will use local tidal currents to bring electricity to remote locations. Since the generation of such electricity is concerned with the tidal energy in local water bodies, it is important to understand the site-specific energy balance, i.e., the energy flowing in through open boundaries, and the energy generated and dissipated within the local domain. The question is how to tap the tidal energy while keeping possible changes in the present tidal regimes to a minimum. The older approach of constructing barrages may still be quite useful in some locations. The basics of such tidal power plants constructed in a small bay are analyzed in order to understand the principal parameter for tidal plant evaluation, i.e., the power produced.     The new approach is to place turbines - devices similar to windmills - in the pathway of tidal currents. Theoretically, the amount of power available by such turbines for electricity generation is proportional to the water density and velocity cubed of the tidal flow. The naturally dissipated tidal power due to bottom friction forces is also proportional to the cube of the velocity. Because of this similarity, the exploitation of tidal energy can be directed to reinvesting the naturally dissipated power into tidal power for the generation of electricity. This approach to tidal power exploitation is better tuned

  14. Field emission energy distributions from individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, M. J.; van Rooy, Th. L.; Kruit, P.

    1999-05-01

    We measured field emission energy distributions of electrons emitted from individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes mounted on tungsten tips. The shape of the energy distribution is strongly sample dependent. Some nanotube emitters exhibit an almost metallic behaviour, while others show sharply peaked energy distributions. The smallest half-width we measured was only 0.11 eV, without correction for the broadening of the energy analyzer. A common feature of both types of carbon nanotube energy spectra is that the position of the peaks in the spectrum depends linearly on the extraction voltage, unlike metallic emitters, where the position stays in the vicinity of the Fermi level. With a small modification to the field emission theory for metals we extract the distance between the highest filled energy level of the nanotube and the vacuum potential, the field on the emitter surface, the emitter radius and the emitting area, from the energy distribution and the Fowler-Nordheim plot. The last two parameters are in good agreement with transmission electron micrographs of such samples. The sharply-peaked energy distributions from other samples indicate that resonant states can exist at the top of the nanotube.

  15. Evaluating Maximum Wind Energy Exploitation in Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siano, Pierluigi; Chen, Peiyuan; Chen, Zhe;

    2010-01-01

    The increased spreading of distributed and renewable generation requires moving towards active management of distribution networks. In this paper, in order to evaluate maximum wind energy exploitation in active distribution networks, a method based on a multi-period optimal power flow (OPF...... distribution system, confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method in evaluating the optimal applications of active management schemes to increase wind energy harvesting without costly network reinforcement for the connection of wind generation.......) analysis is proposed. Active network management schemes such as coordinated voltage control, energy curtailment and power factor control are integrated in the method in order to investigate their impacts on the maximization of wind energy exploitation. Some case studies, using real data from a Danish...

  16. Spectral energy distributions of Oe and Oef type stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanner observations of the spectral energy distributions of O, Ce, Oef and OBpe stars, carried out in the region extending from 3200 to 9800 A, have been combined with the TD-1 and OAO-2 ultraviolet spectrophotometry of the same stars. The observed energy distributions over a wide spectral range, corrected for interstellar reddening have been compared with predictions of spherical extended model atmospheres. The observed energy distributions of O supergiants and Oef stars proved to be only slightly or moderately affected by geometrical extension of the atmosphere. On the other hand the energy distribution curves of the Oe dwarfs HD 39680, HD 60848, and of the peculiar OBe star X Per is shown to flatten

  17. Electric Transport Traction Power Supply System With Distributed Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, E. Y.; Schurov, N. I.; Rozhkova, M. V.

    2016-04-01

    The paper states the problem of traction substation (TSS) leveling of daily-load curve for urban electric transport. The circuit of traction power supply system (TPSS) with distributed autonomous energy source (AES) based on photovoltaic (PV) and energy storage (ES) units is submitted here. The distribution algorithm of power flow for the daily traction load curve leveling is also introduced in this paper. In addition, it illustrates the implemented experiment model of power supply system.

  18. Energy efficiency optimization in distribution transformers considering Spanish distribution regulation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In transmission and distribution systems, the high number of installed transformers, a loss source in networks, suggests a good potential for energy savings. This paper presents how the Spanish Distribution regulation policy, Royal Decree 222/2008, affects the overall energy efficiency in distribution transformers. The objective of a utility is the maximization of the benefit, and in case of failures, to install a chosen transformer in order to maximize the profit. Here, a novel method to optimize energy efficiency, considering the constraints set by the Spanish Distribution regulation policy, is presented; its aim is to achieve the objectives of the utility when installing new transformers. The overall energy efficiency increase is a clear result that can help in meeting the requirements of European environmental plans, such as the '20-20-20' action plan.

  19. Development of a high-energy distributed energy source electromagnetic railgun with improved energy conversion efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vought Corporation in cooperation with the Center for Electromechanics at the University of Texas (CEM-UT) has developed under sponsorship by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the Army Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command (AMCCOM) a high-energy distributed energy source (DES) electromagnetic (EM) railgun accelerator. This paper discusses the development and current status of the DES railgun which has the design capability to launch projectile masses up to 60 grams to the 3-4 km/sec velocity regime with energy conversion efficiencies above 35 percent. These goals are being accomplished through utilization of scaled-energy CEM-UT railgun experiments for sequenced timing/staging and a full energy (575 kJ) design at Vought for high efficiency capability. The operational Vought single-pulse railgun forms the baseline for the full energy testing

  20. Using the Growth Models for Optimization of Energy Distributions Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pekiner, Fahri

    1996-01-01

    Energy distribution systems were developed in the recent years due to increasing population, new technologies and load demand. Alternative technical arrangements are made trouble to choose the best construction. On the other hand, system costs are affected for the new design and operating. That is, for a new distribution design or operation of an exist syatem, both technical and economical constraints must be consider. [...

  1. Fuzzy droop control loops adjustment for stored energy balance in distributed energy storage system

    OpenAIRE

    Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Wu, Dan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    The study of isolated AC microgrid has been under high interest due to the integration of renewable energy resources especially for remote areas, or to improve the local energy reliability. The current trend is oriented to distributed renewable energy sources and their corresponding energy storage system, in order to smooth the variations at the prime energy generator. In this paper, a decentralized strategy based on fuzzy logic is proposed in order to balance the state of charge of distribut...

  2. Renewable energy in distributed energy efficient content delivery clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Lawey, AQ; El-Gorashi, TEH; Elmirghani, JMH

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model to study the impact of renewable energy availability, represented by wind farms, on the location of clouds and the content replication schemes of cloud content over IP/WDM networks. In our analysis, we assume that renewable energy is only available to power clouds while the IP/WDM network is powered by non-renewable energy. Our results show that popularity based replication in clouds is the most energy efficient content...

  3. Cost allocation model for distribution networks considering high penetration of distributed energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Pereira, Fábio; Morais, Hugo;

    2015-01-01

    The high penetration of distributed energy resources (DER) in distribution networks and the competitive environment of electricity markets impose the use of new approaches in several domains. The network cost allocation, traditionally used in transmission networks, should be adapted and used in t...

  4. Energy Losses and Voltage Stability Study in Distribution Network with Distributed Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Hongwei Ren; Congying Han; Tiande Guo; Wei Pei

    2014-01-01

    With the distributed generation technology widely applied, some system problems such as overvoltages and undervoltages are gradually remarkable, which are caused by distributed generations like wind energy system (WES) and photovoltaic system (PVS) because of their probabilistic output power which relied on natural conditions. Since the impacts of WES and PVS are important in the distribution system voltage quality, we study these in this paper using new models with the probab...

  5. Optimal Operation of Energy Storage in Power Transmission and Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan Hejazi, Seyed Hossein

    In this thesis, we investigate optimal operation of energy storage units in power transmission and distribution grids. At transmission level, we investigate the problem where an investor-owned independently-operated energy storage system seeks to offer energy and ancillary services in the day-ahead and real-time markets. We specifically consider the case where a significant portion of the power generated in the grid is from renewable energy resources and there exists significant uncertainty in system operation. In this regard, we formulate a stochastic programming framework to choose optimal energy and reserve bids for the storage units that takes into account the fluctuating nature of the market prices due to the randomness in the renewable power generation availability. At distribution level, we develop a comprehensive data set to model various stochastic factors on power distribution networks, with focus on networks that have high penetration of electric vehicle charging load and distributed renewable generation. Furthermore, we develop a data-driven stochastic model for energy storage operation at distribution level, where the distribution of nodal voltage and line power flow are modelled as stochastic functions of the energy storage unit's charge and discharge schedules. In particular, we develop new closed-form stochastic models for such key operational parameters in the system. Our approach is analytical and allows formulating tractable optimization problems. Yet, it does not involve any restricting assumption on the distribution of random parameters, hence, it results in accurate modeling of uncertainties. By considering the specific characteristics of random variables, such as their statistical dependencies and often irregularly-shaped probability distributions, we propose a non-parametric chance-constrained optimization approach to operate and plan energy storage units in power distribution girds. In the proposed stochastic optimization, we consider

  6. Power supply facilities and comprehensive power distribution automation system at the Kansai International Airport; Kansai kokusai kuko ni okeru denryoku kyokyu setsubi oyobi haiden sogo jidoka system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, Y. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1995-07-01

    This paper introduces the power supply facilities and the comprehensive power distribution automation system using an optical network installed at the Kansai International Airport that has begun operation. The power supply has adopted a three-line spot network system for the 22-kV system, a system to supply power from multiple number of distribution towers using a constant reserve system for the 6-kV system, and a system to supply power from high-voltage transformers for 100 to 200 V systems. As a conduit used to deal with subsidence of the power supply cable path, a pipe was developed that combines a PE-made flexible pipe with a cable protecting expansion steel pipe. The power distribution towers were given considerations for environmental harmony, size reduction, heavy salt damage, and measures for soft soil ground. The comprehensive power distribution automation system performs remote control of switches, operation of remote detectors, and load survey. Cost reduction has been realized in the system by adopting an optical multi-drop system that uses an air blown fiber (ABF) construction method. An optical shunt having eight branches was developed for this construction method. The ABF method blows optical fibers having two to eight cores into a hollow plastic pipe by using compressed air. 10 figs.

  7. Panchromatic spectral energy distributions of Herschel sources

    CERN Document Server

    Berta, S; Santini, P; Wuyts, S; Rosario, D; Brisbin, D; Cooray, A; Franceschini, A; Gruppioni, C; Hatziminaoglou, E; Hwang, H S; Floc'h, E Le; Magnelli, B; Nordon, R; Oliver, S; Page, M J; Popesso, P; Pozzetti, L; Pozzi, F; Riguccini, L; Rodighiero, G; Roseboom, I; Scott, Douglas; Symeonidis, M; Valtchanov, I; Viero, M; Wang, L

    2013-01-01

    (abridged) Far-infrared Herschel photometry from the PEP and HerMES programs is combined with ancillary datasets in the GOODS-N, GOODS-S, and COSMOS fields. Based on this rich dataset, we reproduce the restframe UV to FIR ten-colors distribution of galaxies using a superposition of multi-variate Gaussian modes. The median SED of each mode is then fitted with a modified version of the MAGPHYS code that combines stellar light, emission from dust heated by stars and a possible warm dust contribution heated by an AGN. The defined Gaussian grouping is also used to identify rare sources. The zoology of outliers includes Herschel-detected ellipticals, very blue z~1 Ly-break galaxies, quiescent spirals, and torus-dominated AGN with star formation. Out of these groups and outliers, a new template library is assembled, consisting of 32 SEDs describing the intrinsic scatter in the restframe UV-to-submm colors of infrared galaxies. This library is tested against L(IR) estimates with and without Herschel data included, an...

  8. Using dual-energy x-ray imaging to enhance automated lung tumor tracking during real-time adaptive radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menten, Martin J., E-mail: martin.menten@icr.ac.uk; Fast, Martin F.; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe, E-mail: uwe.oelfke@icr.ac.uk [Joint Department of Physics at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SM2 5NG (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Real-time, markerless localization of lung tumors with kV imaging is often inhibited by ribs obscuring the tumor and poor soft-tissue contrast. This study investigates the use of dual-energy imaging, which can generate radiographs with reduced bone visibility, to enhance automated lung tumor tracking for real-time adaptive radiotherapy. Methods: kV images of an anthropomorphic breathing chest phantom were experimentally acquired and radiographs of actual lung cancer patients were Monte-Carlo-simulated at three imaging settings: low-energy (70 kVp, 1.5 mAs), high-energy (140 kVp, 2.5 mAs, 1 mm additional tin filtration), and clinical (120 kVp, 0.25 mAs). Regular dual-energy images were calculated by weighted logarithmic subtraction of high- and low-energy images and filter-free dual-energy images were generated from clinical and low-energy radiographs. The weighting factor to calculate the dual-energy images was determined by means of a novel objective score. The usefulness of dual-energy imaging for real-time tracking with an automated template matching algorithm was investigated. Results: Regular dual-energy imaging was able to increase tracking accuracy in left–right images of the anthropomorphic phantom as well as in 7 out of 24 investigated patient cases. Tracking accuracy remained comparable in three cases and decreased in five cases. Filter-free dual-energy imaging was only able to increase accuracy in 2 out of 24 cases. In four cases no change in accuracy was observed and tracking accuracy worsened in nine cases. In 9 out of 24 cases, it was not possible to define a tracking template due to poor soft-tissue contrast regardless of input images. The mean localization errors using clinical, regular dual-energy, and filter-free dual-energy radiographs were 3.85, 3.32, and 5.24 mm, respectively. Tracking success was dependent on tumor position, tumor size, imaging beam angle, and patient size. Conclusions: This study has highlighted the influence of

  9. Computer control system for power distribution system automation at Okinawa Electric Power Co. Inc.; Okinawa denryoku (kabu) haiden keito jidoka keisanki seigyo system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaki, K. [Okinawa Electric Power Co. Inc., Okinawa (Japan); Yamazaki, S.; Tabayashi, S.; Hirano, A. [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-09-16

    This paper introduces the summary of a computer control system for power distribution system automation used at Okinawa Electric Power Co., Inc. This system is intended to contribute to improvement of power supply reliability from a viewpoint of efficiency improvement and optimization of the system operation. The system performs automatic accommodating power distribution to healthy lines quickly during a power failure due to a distribution system failure or a planned power stoppage due to a system change, and incorporates functions characteristics to power distribution in Okinawa. The system features may be summarized as follows: a failure point is detected in a child station, and the failure point switch is released earlier than a distribution breaker is broken at the substation; therefore, only one failure occurs in the whole healthy line at an occurrence of the failure, and the failure point can be identified immediately by using a computer. Because the failure point is identified automatically from the earth fault current distribution in the failed distribution line, the failure point can be detected even after the line is reclosed successfully. The computer identifies the information on abnormality in the whole distribution line and analyzes it automatically, hence the abnormal distribution line and the abnormal point can be identified without occurring a power failure. 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Recent Ion Energy Distribution Observations on MST RFP Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jerry; Titus, J. B.; Mezonlin, E. D.; Johnson, J. A., III; Almagri, A. F.; Andeson, J. A.

    2015-11-01

    Ion energy distribution and temperature measurements have been made on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) using the Florida A&M University compact neutral particle analyzer (CNPA). The CNPA is a low energy (0.34-5.2 keV), high energy resolution (25 channels) neutral particle analyzer, with a radial view on MST. Recently, a retarding potential system was built to allow CNPA measurements to ensemble a complete ion energy distribution with high-energy resolution, providing insight into the dynamics of the bulk and fast ion populations. Recent work has also been done to improve the analysis techniques used to infer the ion temperature measurements, allowing us to understand temperature dynamics better during global magnetic reconnection events. Work supported in part by grants to FAMU and to UW from NSF and from Fusion Energy Sciences at DOE.

  11. An integrated economic and distributional analysis of energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labandeira, Xavier [Facultade de CC. Economicas, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Labeaga, Jose M. [Instituto de Estudios Fiscales, Avda. Cardenal Herrera Oria 378, 28035 Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez, Miguel [Facultade de CC. Empresariais e Turismo, University of Vigo, 32004 Ourense (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    Most public policies, particularly those in the energy sphere, have not only efficiency but also distributional effects. However, there is a trade-off between modelling approaches suitable for calculating those impacts on the economy. For the former most of the studies have been conducted with general equilibrium models, whereas partial equilibrium models represent the main approach for distributional analysis. This paper proposes a methodology to simultaneously carry out an analysis of the distributional and efficiency consequences of changes in energy taxation. In order to do so, we have integrated a microeconomic household demand model and a computable general equilibrium model for the Spanish economy. We illustrate the advantages of this approach by simulating a revenue-neutral reform in Spanish indirect taxation, with a large increase of energy taxes that serve an environmental purpose. The results show that the reforms bring about significant efficiency and distributional effects, in some cases counterintuitive, and demonstrate the academic and social utility of this approximation. (author)

  12. Distributed Sensor Coordination for Advanced Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumer, Kagan

    2013-07-31

    The ability to collect key system level information is critical to the safe, efficient and reli- able operation of advanced energy systems. With recent advances in sensor development, it is now possible to push some level of decision making directly to computationally sophisticated sensors, rather than wait for data to arrive to a massive centralized location before a decision is made. This type of approach relies on networked sensors (called “agents” from here on) to actively collect and process data, and provide key control deci- sions to significantly improve both the quality/relevance of the collected data and the as- sociating decision making. The technological bottlenecks for such sensor networks stem from a lack of mathematics and algorithms to manage the systems, rather than difficulties associated with building and deploying them. Indeed, traditional sensor coordination strategies do not provide adequate solutions for this problem. Passive data collection methods (e.g., large sensor webs) can scale to large systems, but are generally not suited to highly dynamic environments, such as ad- vanced energy systems, where crucial decisions may need to be reached quickly and lo- cally. Approaches based on local decisions on the other hand cannot guarantee that each agent performing its task (maximize an agent objective) will lead to good network wide solution (maximize a network objective) without invoking cumbersome coordination rou- tines. There is currently a lack of algorithms that will enable self-organization and blend the efficiency of local decision making with the system level guarantees of global decision making, particularly when the systems operate in dynamic and stochastic environments. In this work we addressed this critical gap and provided a comprehensive solution to the problem of sensor coordination to ensure the safe, reliable, and robust operation of advanced energy systems. The differentiating aspect of the proposed work is in shift- ing

  13. Energy efficiency analysis of reconfigured distribution system for practical loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In deregulated rate structure, the performance evaluation of distribution system for energy efficiency includes; loss minimization, improved power quality, loadability limit, reliability and availability of supply. Energy efficiency changes with the variation in loading pattern and the load behaviour. Further, the nature of load at each node is not explicitly of any one type rather their characteristics depend upon the node voltages. In most cases, load is assumed to be constant power (real and reactive. In this paper voltage dependent practical loads are represented with composite load model and the energy efficiency performance of distribution system for practical loads is evaluated in different configurations of 33-node system.

  14. Parallel Harmony Search Based Distributed Energy Resource Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceylan, Oguzhan [ORNL; Liu, Guodong [ORNL; Tomsovic, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a harmony search based parallel optimization algorithm to minimize voltage deviations in three phase unbalanced electrical distribution systems and to maximize active power outputs of distributed energy resources (DR). The main contribution is to reduce the adverse impacts on voltage profile during a day as photovoltaics (PVs) output or electrical vehicles (EVs) charging changes throughout a day. The IEEE 123- bus distribution test system is modified by adding DRs and EVs under different load profiles. The simulation results show that by using parallel computing techniques, heuristic methods may be used as an alternative optimization tool in electrical power distribution systems operation.

  15. Investigating Possible Departures from Maxwellian Energy Distributions in Nebulae using High-Resolution Emission Line Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbyfill, Amanda; Dinerstein, H. L.; Sterling, N. C.

    2014-01-01

    The derivation of ionic abundance ratios from collisionally excited emission lines in gaseous nebulae requires knowledge of the physical state of the gas, particularly the electron kinetic temperature, Te, to which the resulting abundances are highly sensitive. A long-standing problem in nebular analyses has been pervasive discrepancies among values of Te obtained from different diagnostic ratios for a single nebula. Recently, Nicholls et al. (2012, ApJ, 752, 148) have suggested that the nebular electrons may not obey an equilibrium Maxwell-Boltzmann (M-B) energy distribution, but instead follow a “κ distribution” seen in many solar system plasmas, a family of distributions for which the M-B distribution is the limiting case where κ → ∞. The high-energy tail of supra-thermal electrons in κ distributions have a disproportionate effect on strongly energy dependent quantities, such as Te diagnostics, for even modest departures from M-B distributions. We apply prescriptions given by Nicholls et al. (2013, ApJS, 207, 21) to high-resolution (R=36,700) optical spectra of 10 planetary nebulae obtained with the 2d-coudé echelle spectrograph on the 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. The advantages of these data include their broad spectral coverage and sufficiently high spectral resolution to separate blended lines and assess possible atmospheric absorption issues. The line fluxes were obtained using ROBOSPECT, an automated spectral line measurement package developed by Waters & Hollek (2013, PASP, 125, 1164). We solve both for Te under the assumption of M-B distributions, and the parameters of κ distributions consistent with the data. Our goal is to test whether the κ distribution hypothesis provides a better fit to the observed line ratios. Finally, we discuss effects on the derived ionic abundances under this alternate description of the particle energy distributions. This research was supported by NSF grant AST 0708245 and the John W

  16. Distributed sensor coordination for advanced energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumer, Kagan [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). School of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

    2015-03-12

    Motivation: The ability to collect key system level information is critical to the safe, efficient and reliable operation of advanced power systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have enabled some level of decision making directly at the sensor level. However, coordinating large numbers of sensors, particularly heterogeneous sensors, to achieve system level objectives such as predicting plant efficiency, reducing downtime or predicting outages requires sophisticated coordination algorithms. Indeed, a critical issue in such systems is how to ensure the interaction of a large number of heterogenous system components do not interfere with one another and lead to undesirable behavior. Objectives and Contributions: The long-term objective of this work is to provide sensor deployment, coordination and networking algorithms for large numbers of sensors to ensure the safe, reliable, and robust operation of advanced energy systems. Our two specific objectives are to: 1. Derive sensor performance metrics for heterogeneous sensor networks. 2. Demonstrate effectiveness, scalability and reconfigurability of heterogeneous sensor network in advanced power systems. The key technical contribution of this work is to push the coordination step to the design of the objective functions of the sensors, allowing networks of heterogeneous sensors to be controlled. By ensuring that the control and coordination is not specific to particular sensor hardware, this approach enables the design and operation of large heterogeneous sensor networks. In addition to the coordination coordination mechanism, this approach allows the system to be reconfigured in response to changing needs (e.g., sudden external events requiring new responses) or changing sensor network characteristics (e.g., sudden changes to plant condition). Impact: The impact of this work extends to a large class of problems relevant to the National Energy Technology Laboratory including sensor placement, heterogeneous sensor

  17. Distributed activation energy modelling for pyrolysis of forest waste using Gaussian distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaundiyal Alok

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the influences of some factors significant to pyrolysis of forestry biomass on the asymptotic solution of the non-isothermal nth-order distribution energy model (DAEM using Gaussian distribution. Investigated parameters are the integral upper limit, the frequency factor, and the heating rate parameters of the Gaussian distribution. The influence of these factors has been used for evaluating the kinetic parameters of the non-isothermal nth-order Gaussian distribution from thermogravimetric analysis of forest waste.

  18. Distributed energy systems with wind power and energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpaas, Magnus

    2004-07-01

    The topic of this thesis is the study of energy storage systems operating with wind power plants. The motivation for applying energy storage in this context is that wind power generation is intermittent and generally difficult to predict, and that good wind energy resources are often found in areas with limited grid capacity. Moreover, energy storage in the form of hydrogen makes it possible to provide clean fuel for transportation. The aim of this work has been to evaluate how local energy storage systems should be designed and operated in order to increase the penetration and value of wind power in the power system. Optimization models and sequential and probabilistic simulation models have been developed for this purpose. Chapter 3 presents a sequential simulation model of a general wind hydrogen energy system. Electrolytic hydrogen is used either as a fuel for transportation or for power generation in a stationary fuel cell. The model is useful for evaluating how hydrogen storage can increase the penetration of wind power in areas with limited or no transmission capacity to the main grid. The simulation model is combined with a cost model in order to study how component sizing and choice of operation strategy influence the performance and economics of the wind-hydrogen system. If the stored hydrogen is not used as a separate product, but merely as electrical energy storage, it should be evaluated against other and more energy efficient storage options such as pumped hydro and redox flow cells. A probabilistic model of a grid-connected wind power plant with a general energy storage unit is presented in chapter 4. The energy storage unit is applied for smoothing wind power fluctuations by providing a firm power output to the grid over a specific period. The method described in the chapter is based on the statistical properties of the wind speed and a general representation of the wind energy conversion system and the energy storage unit. This method allows us to

  19. Management functions for a distributed system applied in power plants and substations automation; Funcoes de gerenciamento para um sistema distribuido aplicado na automacao de usinas e subestacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Rogerio Sergio Neves de

    1988-04-01

    This work presents the management functions for a distributed computer control system, which has been developed at Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica - CEPEL with the aim to automate hydroelectric power plants and extra high voltage power substations. The initial specifications developed are based on a architecture without redundancies which initially has the objective to get the effective knowledge of the system's behaviour. In the first part is given an introduction of dependability, with two aims: to present the basic concepts and terminology, and, to present a set of techniques in the area of computing systems fault tolerance. In control system is introduced, in terms of its architecture and functionality. The third part introduces the management activities for the distributed system are introduced together with a general model. Finally, the fault diagnosis in the distributed system is discussed, where is presented a new diagnosis algorithm. (author)

  20. Effects of fissioning nuclei distributions on fragment mass distributions for high energy fission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi P C R

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the effects of fissioning nuclei mass- and energy-distributions on the formation of fragments for fission induced by high energy probes. A Monte Carlo code called CRISP was used for obtaining mass distributions and spectra of the fissioning nuclei for reactions induced by 660 MeV protons on 241Am and on 239Np, by 500 MeV protons on 208Pb, and by Bremsstrahlung photons with end-point energies at 50 MeV and 3500 MeV on 238U. The results show that even at high excitation energies, asymmetric fission may still contribute significantly to the fission cross section of actinide nuclei, while it is the dominante mode in the case of lead. However, more precise data for high energy fission on actinide are necessary in order to allow definite conclusions.

  1. Exploring Distributed Energy Alternatives to Electrical Distribution Grid Expansion in Souhern California Edison Service Territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Kingston, Tim [Gas Technology Institute

    2005-12-01

    Distributed energy (DE) technologies have received much attention for the energy savings and electric power reliability assurances that may be achieved by their widespread adoption. Fueling the attention have been the desires to globally reduce greenhouse gas emissions and concern about easing power transmission and distribution system capacity limitations and congestion. However, these benefits may come at a cost to the electric utility companies in terms of lost revenue and concerns with interconnection on the distribution system. This study assesses the costs and benefits of DE to both consumers and distribution utilities and expands upon a precursory study done with Detroit Edison (DTE)1, by evaluating the combined impact of DE, energy-efficiency, photovoltaics (a use of solar energy), and demand response that will shape the grid of the future. This study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Gas Research Institute (GRI), American Electric Power (AEP), and Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) Distributed Energy Collaborative Program (DECP). It focuses on two real Southern California Edison (SCE) circuits, a 13 MW suburban circuit fictitiously named Justice on the Lincoln substation, and an 8 MW rural circuit fictitiously named Prosper on the Washington Substation. The primary objectives of the study were threefold: (1) Evaluate the potential for using advanced energy technologies, including DE, energy-efficiency (EE), demand response, electricity storage, and photovoltaics (PV), to reshape electric load curves by reducing peak demand, for real circuits. (2) Investigate the potential impact on guiding technology deployment and managing operation in a way that benefits both utilities and their customers by: (a) Improving grid load factor for utilities; (b) Reducing energy costs for customers; and (c) Optimizing electric demand growth. (3) Demonstrate benefits by reporting on a recently installed advanced energy system at a utility customer site

  2. Automated contouring error detection based on supervised geometric attribute distribution models for radiation therapy: A general strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: One of the most critical steps in radiation therapy treatment is accurate tumor and critical organ-at-risk (OAR) contouring. Both manual and automated contouring processes are prone to errors and to a large degree of inter- and intraobserver variability. These are often due to the limitations of imaging techniques in visualizing human anatomy as well as to inherent anatomical variability among individuals. Physicians/physicists have to reverify all the radiation therapy contours of every patient before using them for treatment planning, which is tedious, laborious, and still not an error-free process. In this study, the authors developed a general strategy based on novel geometric attribute distribution (GAD) models to automatically detect radiation therapy OAR contouring errors and facilitate the current clinical workflow. Methods: Considering the radiation therapy structures’ geometric attributes (centroid, volume, and shape), the spatial relationship of neighboring structures, as well as anatomical similarity of individual contours among patients, the authors established GAD models to characterize the interstructural centroid and volume variations, and the intrastructural shape variations of each individual structure. The GAD models are scalable and deformable, and constrained by their respective principal attribute variations calculated from training sets with verified OAR contours. A new iterative weighted GAD model-fitting algorithm was developed for contouring error detection. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed in a unique way to optimize the model parameters to satisfy clinical requirements. A total of forty-four head-and-neck patient cases, each of which includes nine critical OAR contours, were utilized to demonstrate the proposed strategy. Twenty-nine out of these forty-four patient cases were utilized to train the inter- and intrastructural GAD models. These training data and the remaining fifteen testing data sets

  3. Automated contouring error detection based on supervised geometric attribute distribution models for radiation therapy: A general strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hsin-Chen; Tan, Jun; Dolly, Steven; Kavanaugh, James; Harold Li, H.; Altman, Michael; Gay, Hiram; Thorstad, Wade L.; Mutic, Sasa; Li, Hua, E-mail: huli@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Anastasio, Mark A. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Low, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: One of the most critical steps in radiation therapy treatment is accurate tumor and critical organ-at-risk (OAR) contouring. Both manual and automated contouring processes are prone to errors and to a large degree of inter- and intraobserver variability. These are often due to the limitations of imaging techniques in visualizing human anatomy as well as to inherent anatomical variability among individuals. Physicians/physicists have to reverify all the radiation therapy contours of every patient before using them for treatment planning, which is tedious, laborious, and still not an error-free process. In this study, the authors developed a general strategy based on novel geometric attribute distribution (GAD) models to automatically detect radiation therapy OAR contouring errors and facilitate the current clinical workflow. Methods: Considering the radiation therapy structures’ geometric attributes (centroid, volume, and shape), the spatial relationship of neighboring structures, as well as anatomical similarity of individual contours among patients, the authors established GAD models to characterize the interstructural centroid and volume variations, and the intrastructural shape variations of each individual structure. The GAD models are scalable and deformable, and constrained by their respective principal attribute variations calculated from training sets with verified OAR contours. A new iterative weighted GAD model-fitting algorithm was developed for contouring error detection. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was employed in a unique way to optimize the model parameters to satisfy clinical requirements. A total of forty-four head-and-neck patient cases, each of which includes nine critical OAR contours, were utilized to demonstrate the proposed strategy. Twenty-nine out of these forty-four patient cases were utilized to train the inter- and intrastructural GAD models. These training data and the remaining fifteen testing data sets

  4. Economic energy distribution and consumption in a microgrid Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahersima, Fatemeh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle;

    2014-01-01

    level energy manager is designed to distribute available power resources among the houses or sell the remainder to the electricity grid. Simulation results show the economically optimal energy consumption in the buildings and economically ecient power trading between the houses. Microgrid control...... levels is proposed. Each layer from bottom to top focus on individual energy consuming units, individual buildings, and the microgrid respectively. At the middle layer, a model predictive controller is formulated to schedule the building's energy consumption using potential load exibilities. The top...

  5. Binding-energy distribution and dephasing of localized biexcitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Umlauff, M.;

    1997-01-01

    We report on the binding energy and dephasing of localized biexciton states in narrow ZnSe multiple quantum wells. The measured binding-energy distribution of the localized biexcitons shows a width of 2.2 meV centered at 8.5 meV, and is fairly independent of the exciton localization energy. In four......-wave mixing, the biexciton photon echo decays fast and nonexponentially. This behavior results from the inhomogeneous broadening of the biexciton binding energy, as we show by a comparison with an analytical model calculation. The fast decay is thus not related to a fast microscopic biexciton dephasing....

  6. Assessment of energy supply and continuity of service in distribution network with renewable distributed generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Difficulties in assessing distribution network adequacy with DG are addressed. • Indices are proposed to assess adequacy of energy supply and service continuity. • Analytical methodology is developed to assess the proposed indices. • Concept of joint probability distribution of demand and generation is applied. - Abstract: Continuity of electricity supply with renewable distributed generation (DG) is a topical issue for distribution system planning and operation, especially due to the stochastic nature of power generation and time varying load demand. The conventional adequacy and reliability analysis methods related to bulk generation systems cannot be applied directly for the evaluation of adequacy criteria such as ‘energy supply’ and ‘continuity of service’ for distribution networks embedded with renewable DG. In this paper, new indices highlighting ‘available supply capacity’ and ‘continuity of service’ are proposed for ‘energy supply’ and ‘continuation of service’ evaluation of generation-rich distribution networks, and analytical techniques are developed for their quantification. A probability based analytical method has been developed using the joint probability of the demand and generation, and probability distributions of the proposed indices have been used to evaluate the network adequacy in energy supply and service continuation. A data clustering technique has been used to evaluate the joint probability between coincidental demand and renewable generation. Time sequential Monte Carlo simulation has been used to compare the results obtained using the proposed analytical method. A standard distribution network derived from Roy Billinton test system and a practical radial distribution network have been used to test the proposed method and demonstrate the estimation of the well-being of a system for hosting renewable DG units. It is found that renewable DG systems improve the ‘energy supply’ and

  7. Simulation of distribution of radiation energy density in water balls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Shi-Biao; MA Qing-Li; YIN Ze-Jie; TANG Yu; HUANG Huan; RAO Nan-Xia; ZHU Da-Ming

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of energy deposition density in radiate region and its surrounding areas from γ-rays was simulated and analyzed for a water-ball model with Geant4 package ( Geant4.7.0,2005 ) developed by CERN (the Center of European Research of Nucleus). The results show that the distribution depends strongly on the collimating condition of radiation beam. A well-collimated beam would reduce radiation effects on surrounding areas.

  8. Energy distribution of nanoflares in the quiet solar corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyanov, Artyom

    2012-07-01

    We present a detailed statistical analysis of flare-like events in low layer of solar corona detected with TESIS instrument onboard CORONAS-PHOTON satellite in 171 {Å} during high-cadence (5 sec) time-series. The estimated thermal energies of these small events amount to 10^{23} - 10^{26} erg. According to modern classification flare-like events with such energies are usually referred to as nanoflares. The big number of registered events (above 2000) allowed us to obtain precise distributions of geometric and physical parameters of nanoflares, the most intriguing being energy distribution. Following Aschwanden et al. (2000) and other authors we approximated the calculated energy distribution with a single power law slope: N(E)dE ˜ N^{-α}dE. The power law index was derived to be α = 2.4 ± 0.2, which is very close to the value reported by Krucker & Benz (1998): α ≈ 2.3 - 2.4. The total energy input from registered events constitute about 10^4 erg \\cdot cm^{-2} \\cdot s^{-1}, which is well beyond net losses in quiet corona (3 \\cdot 10^5 erg \\cdot cm^{-2} \\cdot s^{-1}). However, the value of α > 2 indicates that nanoflares with lower energies dominate over nanoflares with bigger energies and could contribute considerably to quiet corona heating.

  9. Intensity distribution analysis of cathodoluminescence using the energy loss distribution of electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuta, Masahiro; Inami, Wataru; Ono, Atsushi; Kawata, Yoshimasa

    2016-01-01

    We present an intensity distribution analysis of cathodoluminescence (CL) excited with a focused electron beam in a luminescent thin film. The energy loss distribution is applied to the developed analysis method in order to determine the arrangement of the dipole locations along the path of the electron traveling in the film. Propagating light emitted from each dipole is analyzed with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. CL distribution near the film surface is evaluated as a nanometric light source. It is found that a light source with 30 nm widths is generated in the film by the focused electron beam. We also discuss the accuracy of the developed analysis method by comparison with experimental results. The analysis results are brought into good agreement with the experimental results by introducing the energy loss distribution. PMID:26550930

  10. Synchrotron-Radiation Photon Distribution for Highest Energy Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Maury Cuna, GHI; Dugan, G; Zimmermann, F

    2013-01-01

    At high energies, beam-induced synchrotron radiation is an important source of heating, beam-related vacuum pressure increase, and primary photoelectrons, which can give rise to an electron cloud. The photon distribution along the beam pipe wall is a key input to codes such as ECLOUD and PyECLOUD, which model the electron cloud build-up. For future high-energy colliders, like TLEP or SHE-LHC, photon stops and antechambers are considered in order to facilitate cooling and vacuum pressure control. We use the Synrad3D code developed at Cornell to simulate the photon distribution for the LHC.

  11. Synchrotron-Radiation Photon Distributions for Highest Energy Circular Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Maury Cuna, G H I; Dugan, G; Zimmermann, F

    2013-01-01

    At high energies, beam-induced synchrotron radiation is an important source of heating, beam-related vacuum pressure increase, and primary photoelectrons, which can give rise to an electron cloud. The photon distribution along the beam pipe wall is a key input to codes such as ECLOUD and PyECLOUD, which model the electron cloud build-up. For future high-energy colliders, like TLEP or SHE-LHC, photon stops and antechambers are considered in order to facilitate cooling and vacuum pressure control. We use the Synrad3D code developed at Cornell to simulate the photon distribution for the LHC.

  12. Influence of Distributed Power Generation from Renewable Energy Sources on Reliability of Distribution Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Topić, Danijel; Šljivac, Damir; Gagro, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the impact of renewable energy sources on reliability of distribution networks. It is determined through four case studies in which reliability indices are calculated. Island mode operation in the network is allowed with several assumptions. The authors assumed that the reliability of the system can be improved by islanded operation of distributed generation and showed an advantage of proposed islanding in relation to supply availability.

  13. A retarding field energy analyser to measure the energy distributions of liquid metal ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the setup and use of a retarding field energy analyser to measure the energy distribution of LMIS will be presented. An introduction in the technology and mechanism of LMIS will be given in chapter 2. The experimental configuration of the retarding field energy analyser, together with an error estimation and a computer program, to control the energy analyser and to calculate the energy distribution, will be discussed in chapter 3. To test the energy analyser an electron source, consisting of a tungsten thermoionic cathode, will be used. Energy distribution measurements of a gallium LMIS will be presented in chapter 4. Finally in chapter 5, the accuracy of the energy analyser and suggestions for improvement will be presented. (orig.)

  14. The potential of distributed energy resources to tackle climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Marcantonini, Claudio; Labandeira, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Distributed Energy Resources (DER) are decentralised small-scale power generation sources located near end-user consumers that supply part or all of their electricity demand. DER are increasingly seen as key to the development of a sustainable low-carbon power system. DER technologies offer opportunities for the development of renewable energy but also pose challenges for their integration in the power system. Opportunities have been created by the reducing cost of DER technologies, in partic...

  15. A Bio-Based Fuel Cell for Distributed Energy Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony Terrinoni; Sean Gifford

    2008-06-30

    The technology we propose consists primarily of an improved design for increasing the energy density of a certain class of bio-fuel cell (BFC). The BFCs we consider are those which harvest electrons produced by microorganisms during their metabolism of organic substrates (e.g. glucose, acetate). We estimate that our technology will significantly enhance power production (per unit volume) of these BFCs, to the point where they could be employed as stand-alone systems for distributed energy generation.

  16. Automated fit of high-dimensional potential energy surfaces using cluster analysis and interpolation over descriptors of chemical environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, René, E-mail: renef@yorku.ca; Orel, Slava [Department of Chemistry, York University, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada)

    2013-12-21

    We present a method for fitting high-dimensional potential energy surfaces that is almost fully automated, can be applied to systems with various chemical compositions, and involves no particular choice of function form. We tested it on four systems: Ag{sub 20}, Sn{sub 6}Pb{sub 6}, Si{sub 10}, and Li{sub 8}. The cost for energy evaluation is smaller than the cost of a density functional theory (DFT) energy evaluation by a factor of 1500 for Li{sub 8}, and 60 000 for Ag{sub 20}. We achieved intermediate accuracy (errors of 0.4 to 0.8 eV on atomization energies, or, 1% to 3% on cohesive energies) with rather small datasets (between 240 and 1400 configurations). We demonstrate that this accuracy is sufficient to correctly screen the configurations with lowest DFT energy, making this function potentially very useful in a hybrid global optimization strategy. We show that, as expected, the accuracy of the function improves with an increase in the size of the fitting dataset.

  17. Distribution effects of the renewable energies act; Verteilungswirkungen des EEG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardt, Hubertus; Niehues, Judith [Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft Koeln, Koeln (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    The Renewal Energies Act has so far been one of the cornerstones of the energy revolution. As a result of the Act the production of electricity from renewable sources has been considerably increased. As the most expensive forms of renewable energies have grown fastest, average costs have not shrunk but have risen significantly. The ongoing growth led to increasing subsidies for renewable energies and growing costs for electricity consumers in business and private households. It would be insufficient to look at absolute cost developments only, as distribution effects may be critical. As electricity consumption only slightly depends on household income, higher income leads to lower significance of electricity costs. Therefore, low income households bear a relatively higher burden of costs for renewable energies. Furthermore, wealthy households could benefit from the subsidies as they can invest in renewable energy systems.

  18. Power Electronics Control of Wind Energy in Distributed Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  19. Coordinated Optimization of Distributed Energy Resources and Smart Loads in Distribution Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rui; Zhang, Yingchen

    2016-08-01

    Distributed energy resources (DERs) and smart loads have the potential to provide flexibility to the distribution system operation. A coordinated optimization approach is proposed in this paper to actively manage DERs and smart loads in distribution systems to achieve the optimal operation status. A three-phase unbalanced Optimal Power Flow (OPF) problem is developed to determine the output from DERs and smart loads with respect to the system operator's control objective. This paper focuses on coordinating PV systems and smart loads to improve the overall voltage profile in distribution systems. Simulations have been carried out in a 12-bus distribution feeder and results illustrate the superior control performance of the proposed approach.

  20. Effects of distributing wind energy generation over Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebel, G. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Using data from 60 meteorological stations distributed all over Europe in conjunction with the National Grid Model (NGM) from the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, the effects of the large-scale distribution of wind energy generation are studied. In some regions of Europe, wind energy already covers a significant proportion of the electricity demand. But the intermittence of the wind resource is always a limiting factor when penetration levels are high. Studies for single countries have shown that distributing the generation over a large area reduces the variability of the output and hence makes wind energy more appealing to utilities, since the stability requirement of the network are easier to fulfil. The data are analysed in terms of absolute highs and lows, temporal and spatial correlations. To assess the financial benefits, the NGM is used to evaluate the match of electricity demand and generation as well as the possibel savings of fossil fuel in an electricity grid incorporating various capacities of wind energy generation. To assess the value of wind energy on a trans-national scale, the European plant mix is modelled, and the NGM is used to simulate the scheduling of these plants in the presence of different penetrations of wind energy. (au) EU-JOULE-3. 11 refs.

  1. Spatial distribution of energy deposited in nitrogen by electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial distribution of the energy deposited by kilovolt electrons moving through gaseous molecular nitrogen was measured. The range of electrons of initial energy 300 eV to 5 keV was obtained and can be expressed by the formula R=K1+K2E/subA/1-K3E/subA/2, where R is the range, E is the initial energy of the electrons, and K/subi/,A/subi/ are constants. The range, in this energy interval, is greater than that determined by previous measurements. A source of error, not previously discussed, is considered. The energy region (above 1 keV) where the simpler expression R=KE/subA/ holds is discussed. It is shown that this is the energy region where the energy and range dependence of the energy deposition curve can be removed and a normalized, characteristic energy deposition curve lambda can be obtained. The efficiency of conversion of electron energy at 1 keV and 280 μ pressure to energy of photons at 3914 A was measured to be (0.28+-0.03) %

  2. Studies of influence of energy distribution on the upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Cheng

    The energy inputs into the upper atmosphere including both solar irradiation and geomagnetic energy can significantly change the upper atmosphere such as the neutral and plasma densities, velocities and temperatures. Therefore, the precise specification of the energy inputs is critical to estimate the ionosphere/thermosphere variation during both quiet and storm times. In order to improve the understanding of the energy distribution and its influence at high latitudes, specifically, we have conducted the following studies. (1) Estimation of the altitudinal distribution of Joule heating from COSMIC observations. Joule heating is the most significant way to dissipate geomagnetic energy at high latitudes. But the altitudinal distribution of Joule heating has not been studied in detail. Based on the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) observations from 2008 to 2011, the height-integrated Pedersen conductivities in both E (100-150 km) and F (150-600 km) regions and their ratio lambdaP (sumPE/sumPF) have been calculated. The result from data analysis (˜5.5) shows a smaller value than that from model (˜9), which indicates that the energy inputs into the F region may be underestimated in the model. Dependences of the ratio and the conductance in both E and F regions on the solar and geomagnetic activities have been studied as well. (2) The influence of cusp energy on the thermospheric winds has also been studied, through simulating a real event. The Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (GITM) has been run in different cases and under different resolutions to investigate the neutral dynamics around the cusp region. The results indicate that the heating added in the cusp causes the change of pressure gradient around the cusp and changes the neutral wind dynamics there. (3) Correlation of Poynting flux and soft particle precipitation in the dayside polar cap boundary regions has been investigated using DMSP satellite measurements

  3. Home Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I briefly discuss the importance of home automation system. Going in to the details I briefly present a real time designed and implemented software and hardware oriented house automation research project, capable of automating house's electricity and providing a security system to detect the presence of unexpected behavior.

  4. Automation of room temperature control and heating cost distribution and components for further development; Automatisierung der Raumtemperaturregelung und Heizkostenverteilung sowie Komponenten ihrer Weiterentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, M.; Bentscheff, S. [Dr. Riedel Automatisierungstechnik GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The paper studies how much heat energy can be saved in buildings connected to the district heat grid by using an innovative automation system. This system not only permits to cut down energy consumption; it reduces service and administrative effort as well and enhances comfort. It helps to control the temperature of individual rooms, measure heat energy consumption in detail, and allocate heating costs. In 15 000 residential units this system is already in use. (MSK) [Deutsch] Die Untersuchung zielt auf das Einsparpotential an Heizwaerme in fernwaermeversorgten Gebaeuden bei Einsatz eines innovativen Automatisierungssystems. Neben der Reduktion des Energieverbrauchs ermoeglicht das System eine Reduktion des Service- und Verwaltungsaufwands und eine Erhoehung des Komforts. Es dient sowohl der Einzelraum-Temperaturregelung und der detaillierten Messung der Heizwaermebverbraeuche als auch der Heizkostenverteilung. Derzeit wird das System bereits in 15000 Wohungen eingesetzt.

  5. Two-layer distributed optimal control for energy system integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkano, Desti

    2016-01-01

    We study how to embed dynamic agents that transform gas to power, or power to gas in the different energy grids, such as the gas, power, industry and heat grids in a distributed and optimal manner. Integrated in a community, the agents aim at controlling their supply and demand levels thereby achiev

  6. Multi-objective optimal dispatch of distributed energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longe, Ayomide

    This thesis is composed of two papers which investigate the optimal dispatch for distributed energy resources. In the first paper, an economic dispatch problem for a community microgrid is studied. In this microgrid, each agent pursues an economic dispatch for its personal resources. In addition, each agent is capable of trading electricity with other agents through a local energy market. In this paper, a simple market structure is introduced as a framework for energy trades in a small community microgrid such as the Solar Village. It was found that both sellers and buyers benefited by participating in this market. In the second paper, Semidefinite Programming (SDP) for convex relaxation of power flow equations is used for optimal active and reactive dispatch for Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Various objective functions including voltage regulation, reduced transmission line power losses, and minimized reactive power charges for a microgrid are introduced. Combinations of these goals are attained by solving a multiobjective optimization for the proposed ORPD problem. Also, both centralized and distributed versions of this optimal dispatch are investigated. It was found that SDP made the optimal dispatch faster and distributed solution allowed for scalability.

  7. Prediction of wind energy distribution in complex terrain using CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chang; Li, Chenqi; Yang, Jianchuan;

    2013-01-01

    Based on linear models, WAsP software predicts wind energy distribution, with a good accuracy for flat terrain, but with a large error under complicated topography. In this paper, numerical simulations are carried out using the FLUENT software on a mesh generated by the GAMBIT and ARGIS software to...

  8. Energy loss analysis of an integrated space power distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankam, M. David; Ribeiro, P. F.

    1992-01-01

    The results of studies related to conceptual topologies of an integrated utility-like space power system are described. The system topologies are comparatively analyzed by considering their transmission energy losses as functions of mainly distribution voltage level and load composition. The analysis is expedited by use of a Distribution System Analysis and Simulation (DSAS) software. This recently developed computer program by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) uses improved load models to solve the power flow within the system. However, present shortcomings of the software with regard to space applications, and incompletely defined characteristics of a space power system make the results applicable to only the fundamental trends of energy losses of the topologies studied. Accountability, such as included, for the effects of the various parameters on the system performance can constitute part of a planning tool for a space power distribution system.

  9. Enhanced Energy Distribution for Quantum Information Heat Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M. Diaz de la Cruz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A new scenario for energy distribution, security and shareability is presented that assumes the availability of quantum information heat engines and a thermal bath. It is based on the convertibility between entropy and work in the presence of a thermal reservoir. Our approach to the informational content of physical systems that are distributed between users is complementary to the conventional perspective of quantum communication. The latter places the value on the unpredictable content of the transmitted quantum states, while our interest focuses on their certainty. Some well-known results in quantum communication are reused in this context. Particularly, we describe a way to securely distribute quantum states to be used for unlocking energy from thermal sources. We also consider some multi-partite entangled and classically correlated states for a collaborative multi-user sharing of work extraction possibilities. In addition, the relation between the communication and work extraction capabilities is analyzed and written as an equation.

  10. Incentive Driven Distributed Generation Planning with Renewable Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAUR, S.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Renewable DGs may not be economically viable due to the stochastic generation and huge capital investment, but are an inevitable choice for sustainable energy development and future planning. An appropriate incentive scheme for clean Distributed Generation (DG technologies is able to address this issue in an economical manner and is considered in proposed distributed generation planning model. The proposed model minimizes the annualized cost with Emission Offset Incentive (EOI and the penalty for Green-house Gas (GHG emissions. A meta-heuristic approach with dynamic tuning of control parameters is adopted to improve the success and the convergence rate of optimal solutions. The algorithm provides the optimal solution in terms of type, size, and location of DG. The proposed technique is implemented on IEEE 33-bus system. Proposed model helps the Distribution Network Operators (DNOs to decide the proper DG technology from an economic prospective for eco-friendly energy planning.

  11. Energy cost saving strategies in distributed power networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tcheukam Alain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study energy cost saving strategies in power networks in presence of prosumers. Three tips are considered: (i distributed power network architecture, (ii peak energy shaving with the integration of prosumers’ contribution, (iii Electric vehicles self-charging by means of prosumers’ production. The proposed distributed power network architecture reduces significantly the transmission costs and can reduce significantly the global energy cost up to 42 percent. Different types of prosumer who use self-charging photovoltaic systems, are able to intelligently buy energy from, or sell it, to the power grid. Therein, prosumers interact in a distributed environment during the purchase or sale of electric power using a double auction with negotiation mechanism. Using a two-step combined learning and optimization scheme, each prosumer can learn its optimal bidding strategy and forecast its energy production, consumption and storage. Our simulation results, conducted for the region of Sicily in Italy, show that the integration of prosumers can reduce peak hour costs up to 19 percent and 6 percent for eligible prosumers with electric vehicles.

  12. Energy system analysis of fuel cells and distributed generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    on the energy system in which they are used. Consequently, coherent energy systems analyses of specific and complete energy systems must be conducted in order to evaluate the benefits of FC technologies and in order to be able to compare alternative solutions. In relation to distributed generation, FC...... can be used for such analyses. Moreover, the chapter presents the results of evaluating the overall system fuel savings achieved by introducing different FC applications into different energy systems. Natural gas-based and hydrogen-based micro FC-CHP, natural gas local FC-CHP plants for district...... technologies have different strengths and weaknesses in different energy systems, but often they do not have the expected effect. Specific analyses of each individual country must be conducted including scenarios of expansion of e.g. wind power in order to evaluate where and when the best use of FC...

  13. Strain energy release rate distributions for double cantilever beam specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, J. H., Jr.; Shivakumar, K. N.; Raju, I. S.

    1991-01-01

    A 24-ply composite double cantilever-beam specimen under mode I (opening) loading has been analyzed by a 3D FEM code that calculated along a straight delamination starter for several different specimen materials. An isotropic specimen was found to have a strain-energy release rate distribution which varied along its delamination front due to the boundary-layer effect and another effect associated with the anticlastic curvature of the bent specimen arms. A 0-deg graphite-reinforced epoxy specimen had a nearly-uniform strain-energy release rate distribution which dropped only near the edge, due to the boundary-layer effect, and a +/- 45-deg graphite/epoxy specimen exhibited a pronounced strain-energy release rate variation across the specimen width.

  14. Energy distribution of field emission electrons from a niobium tip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, K.; Ogawa, H.; Arai, N.; Uchiyama, S.; Yamashita, T.; Oshima, C.; Otani, S.

    1996-06-01

    We have fabricated Nb tips by electrochemical polishing from the single crystal wires along the orientation, which has been prepared by means of floating zone, spark erosion, and mechanical polishing techniques. The energy distribution of the field emission electrons from the Nb tip has been measured at room temperature using a high resolution electron spectrometer recently developed. The experiments were carried out in vacuum of ˜ 3 × 10 -9 Pa, and the tip surface was cleaned by field evaporation. The main part of the energy distribution is in agreement with the theoretical curves calculated on the basis of the Fowler-Nordheim theory. Two discrepancies are observed on low and high energy sides.

  15. Strategies for Power/Energy Saving in Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRIGORAS, G.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The power/energy losses reduction in distribution systems is an important issue during planning and operation, with important technical and economical implications. Thus, the energy losses minimization implies not only the technical improvement of the network, through its renewal with the introduction of the technological innovations in the equipment and circuit components as well as the optimal planning of the design and development of the network, but also requires the use of the methods and software tools to facilitate the operation process. The paper presents a strategy for power/energy saving which replacement of the 6 kV voltage level with 20 kV voltage level in correlation with the extent of using efficient transformers. In this line, different urban distribution networks were analyzed using fuzzy techniques.

  16. Distributed Energy Systems in the Built Environment - European Legal Framework on Distributed Energy Systems in the Built Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Pront-van Bommel, S.; Bregman, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to outline the stimuli provided by European law for promoting integrated planning of distributed renewable energy installations on the one hand and its limitations thereof on the other hand, also with regard to the role of local governments.

  17. Distributed energy resources at naval base ventura county building 1512

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the findings of a preliminary assessment of the cost effectiveness of distributed energy resources at Naval Base Ventura County (NBVC) Building 1512. This study was conducted in response to the base's request for design assistance to the Federal Energy Management Program. Given the current tariff structure there are two main decisions facing NBVC: whether to install distributed energy resources (DER), or whether to continue the direct access energy supply contract. At the current effective rate, given assumptions about the performance and structure of building energy loads and available generating technology characteristics, the results of this study indicate that if the building installed a 600 kW DER system with absorption cooling and heat capabilities chosen by cost minimization, the energy cost savings would be about 14 percent, or $55,000 per year. However, under current conditions, this study also suggests that significant savings could be obtained if Building 1 512 changed from the direct access contract to a SCE TOU-8 (Southern California Edison time of use tariff number 8) rate without installing a DER system. At current SCE TOU-8 tariffs, the potential savings from installation of a DER system would be about 4 percent, or $15,000 per year

  18. Multiplicity distribution in p+p collisions at LHC energies

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Ajay Kumar

    2009-01-01

    multiplicity distributions by Negative Binomial Distributions (NBD) at lower \\sqrt(s) to hold for LHC energies, we observe that the logarithmic \\sqrt(s) dependence of are favored by the models at midrapidity. The dN_ch/deta versus \\eta for the existing measurements are found to be reasonably well described by The multiplicity (N_ch) and pseudorapidity distribution (dN_ch/deta) of charged particles in p+p collisions at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies of \\sqrt(s) = 10 and 14 TeV are obtained from extrapolation of existing measurements at lower \\sqrt(s). These distributions are then compared to calculations from PYTHIA and PHOJET models. The existing \\sqrt(s) measurements are unable to distinguish between a logarithmic and power law dependence of the average charged particle multiplicity () on \\sqrt(s), and their extrapolation to energies accessible at LHC give very different values. Assuming a reasonably good description of inclusive charged particle a function with three parameters which accounts for the...

  19. Forest Biomass Energy Resources in China: Quantity and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important renewable and sustainable energy sources, the forest biomass energy resource has always been the focus of attention of scholars and policy makers. However, its potential is still uncertain in China, especially with respect to its spatial distribution. In this paper, the quantity and distribution of Chinese forest biomass energy resources are explored based mainly on forestry statistics data rather than forest resource inventory data used by most previous studies. The results show that the forest biomass energy resource in China was 169 million tons in 2010, of which wood felling and bucking residue (WFBR,wood processing residue (WPR, bamboo processing residue, fuel wood and firewood used by farmers accounted for 38%, 37%, 6%, 4% and 15%, respectively. The highest resource was located in East China, accounting for nearly 39.0% of the national amount, followed by the Southwest and South China regions, which accounted for 17.4% and 16.3%, respectively. At the provincial scale, Shandong has the highest distribution, accounting for 11.9% of total resources, followed by Guangxi and Fujian accounting for 10.3% and 10.2%, respectively. The actual wood-processing residue (AWPR estimated from the actual production of different wood products (considering the wood transferred between regions showed apparent differences from the local wood processing residue (LWPR, which assumes that no wood has been transferredbetween regions. Due to the large contribution of WPR to total forestry bioenergy resources, the estimation of AWPR will provide a more accurate evaluation of the total amount and the spatial distribution of forest biomass energy resources in China.

  20. A Distributed Algorithm for Energy Optimization in Hydraulic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Carsten; Wisniewski, Rafal; Jensen, Tom Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    An industrial case study in the form of a large-scale hydraulic network underlying a district heating system is considered. A distributed control is developed that minimizes the aggregated electrical energy consumption of the pumps in the network without violating the control demands. The algorithm...... is distributed in the sense that all calculations are implemented where the necessary information is available, including both parameters and measurements. A communication network between the pumps is implemented for global optimization. The local implementation of the algorithm means that the system becomes...

  1. On the Weibull distribution for wind energy assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    The two parameter Weibull distribution is traditionally used to describe the long term fluctuations in the wind speed as part of the theoretical framework for wind energy assessment of wind farms. The Weibull distribution is described by a shape and a scale parameter. Here, based on recent long......-term measurements performed by a wind lidar, the vertical profile of the shape parameter will be discussed for a sub-urban site, a coastal site and a marine site. The profile of the shape parameter was found to be substantially different over land and sea. A parameterization of the vertical behavior of the shape...

  2. Risø energy report 4. The future energy system - distributed production and use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Hans Hvidtfeldt; Sønderberg Petersen, Leif

    2005-01-01

    and the distribution of energy through grids such as those used for natural gas, electricity, districtheating and hydrogen. The focus is on industrialised countries, but the report also deals with specific points relevant to developing countries, such as isolated energy systems. The transport sector is discussed only...... technologies or fuel cells. Furthermore the following developments are expected: -closer link between supply and end-use -closer link between the various energy carriers distributed through grids such aselectricity, heat, natural gas and maybe hydrogen in the future -increased energy trade across national...

  3. Building Energy Management through a Distributed Fuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervez Hameed Shaikh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Buildings consume significant world’s energy resources, approximately 32% of the total primary energy. The rapid depletion of energy resources, has imparted researchers to focus on energy conservation and wastage. The next generation of smart buildings is becoming a trend to cope with the needs of energy and environmental ease in buildings. This advances the intelligent control of building to fulfill the occupants’ need. Intelligent system control for sustainable buildings is dynamic and highly complex. Building information accuracy with an effective controller scheme is a challenging task. This paper presents the fuzzy control system architecture (FCSA for resolving the conflict of maintaining the inhabitants comfort index and the energy consumption in buildings. It also infers the graphical relationship between energy consumption and comfort parameters. With a distributed fuzzy inference system (FIS, control has been developed for temperature, air quality and artificial lighting comfort parameters. Model simulation has been carried out and control factors have been discussed. The FIS models have also been validated with implication of change function. The presented control system is capable of achieving energy conservation in the buildings.

  4. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... distribution transformers. 431.193 Section 431.193 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures § 431.193 Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. The...

  5. Energy efficient wireless sensor networks using asymmetric distributed source coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Abhishek; Kulkarni, Murlidhar

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are networks of sensor nodes deployed over a geographical area to perform a specific task. WSNs pose many design challenges. Energy conservation is one such design issue. In literature a wide range of solutions addressing this issue have been proposed. Generally WSNs are densely deployed. Thus the nodes with the close proximity are more likely to have the same data. Transmission of such non-aggregated data may lead to an inefficient energy management. Hence the data fusion has to be performed at the nodes so as to combine the edundant information into a single data unit. Distributed Source Coding is an efficient approach in achieving this task. In this paper an attempt has been made in modeling such a system. Various energy efficient codes were considered for the analysis. System performance in terms of energy efficiency has been made.

  6. Integration of 100% Micro-Distributed Energy Resources in the Low Voltage Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Segerberg, Helena

    2014-01-01

    The existing electricity infrastructure may to a great extent limit a high penetration of the micro-sized Distributed Energy Resources (DERs), due to the physical bottlenecks, e.g. thermal capacitates of cables, transformers and the voltage limitations. In this study, the integration impacts...... of heat pumps (HPs) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) at 100% penetration level on a representative urban residential low voltage (LV) distribution network of Denmark are investigated by performing a steady-state load flow analysis through an integrated simulation setup. Three DERs integration...

  7. Computer control system for power distribution system automation at Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc.; Hokkaido denryoku (kabu) haiden keito jidoka keisanki seigyo system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, T.; Sakatani, E. [Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc., Sapporo (Japan); Soeda, T.; Tabayashi, S.; Tanaka, T. [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-09-16

    This paper introduces the summary of a computer control system for power distribution system automation used at Hokkaido Electric Power Co., Inc. This system was developed with an objective of further improving the power supply reliability in the power distribution systems, and enhancing the customer services and facility utilization factor. The system adopted an extensive scale reduction indicating function for the power distribution line charts that can display the power distribution line charts corresponding to street charts on a graphic CRT, and deal with a vast area (120-km square) characteristics to the Hokkaido district. The failure restoration operating function achieves shortening the restoration work time by means of the following operations: a failure section value received at a re-interruption upon a line reclosure is used to perform provisional power sharing calculation in advance; determination of the failure section is waited when a third line closure is finished; and an automatic restoring operation is carried out immediately. Work plans are controlled according to their names, and the switching and returning procedures of switches are prepared automatically. Change in the system chart data in association with change in the facilities is automatically complied by using the coordinate type pole numbers. Efficiency improvement in the operation works and reduction of the number of CRT units were achieved by using the multi-window indication. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Operation optimization of a distributed energy system considering energy costs and exergy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Operation optimization model of a Distributed Energy System (DES). • Multi-objective strategy to optimize energy cost and exergy efficiency. • Exergy analysis in building energy supply systems. - Abstract: With the growing demand of energy on a worldwide scale, improving the efficiency of energy resource use has become one of the key challenges. Application of exergy principles in the context of building energy supply systems can achieve rational use of energy resources by taking into account the different quality levels of energy resources as well as those of building demands. This paper is on the operation optimization of a Distributed Energy System (DES). The model involves multiple energy devices that convert a set of primary energy carriers with different energy quality levels to meet given time-varying user demands at different energy quality levels. By promoting the usage of low-temperature energy sources to satisfy low-quality thermal energy demands, the waste of high-quality energy resources can be reduced, thereby improving the overall exergy efficiency. To consider the economic factor as well, a multi-objective linear programming problem is formulated. The Pareto frontier, including the best possible trade-offs between the economic and exergetic objectives, is obtained by minimizing a weighted sum of the total energy cost and total primary exergy input using branch-and-cut. The operation strategies of the DES under different weights for the two objectives are discussed. The operators of DESs can choose the operation strategy from the Pareto frontier based on costs, essential in the short run, and sustainability, crucial in the long run. The contribution of each energy device in reducing energy costs and the total exergy input is also analyzed. In addition, results show that the energy cost can be much reduced and the overall exergy efficiency can be significantly improved by the optimized operation of the DES as compared with the

  9. Online algorithms for optimal energy distribution in microgrids

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yu; Nelms, R Mark

    2015-01-01

    Presenting an optimal energy distribution strategy for microgrids in a smart grid environment, and featuring a detailed analysis of the mathematical techniques of convex optimization and online algorithms, this book provides readers with essential content on how to achieve multi-objective optimization that takes into consideration power subscribers, energy providers and grid smoothing in microgrids. Featuring detailed theoretical proofs and simulation results that demonstrate and evaluate the correctness and effectiveness of the algorithm, this text explains step-by-step how the problem can b

  10. Balanced distribution-energy inequalities and related entropy bounds

    CERN Document Server

    Rumin, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Let $A$ be a self-adjoint operator acting over a space $X$ endowed with a partition. We give lower bounds on the energy of a mixed state $\\rho$ from its distribution in the partition and the spectral density of $A$. These bounds improve with the refinement of the partition, and generalize inequalities by Li-Yau and Lieb--Thirring for the Laplacian in $\\R^n$. They imply an uncertainty principle, giving a lower bound on the sum of the spatial entropy of $\\rho$, as seen from $X$, and some spectral entropy, with respect to its energy distribution. On $\\R^n$, this yields lower bounds on the sum of the entropy of the densities of $\\rho$ and its Fourier transform. A general log-Sobolev inequality is also shown. It holds on mixed states, without Markovian or positivity assumption on $A$.

  11. Radiation distribution and energy loss during ELM in EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Y.M., E-mail: ymduan@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China); Hu, L.Q.; Chen, K.Y.; Du, W.; Zhang, L. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2013-07-15

    The radiation distribution and radiated energy loss during ELM (Edge Localized Mode) are preliminarily investigated in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). The radiated power is measured by fast bolometer which is based on compact, multichannel photodiodes array with fast response time of ∼μs. Most of the ELMs are type-III ELMs for the present H-mode discharges. It is found that only a small part of the ELM-induced energy loss is dissipated by radiation. Radiation distribution in divertor region during ELM is compared with that of between ELMs. The radiation profiles are always peaked near the X-point. Power balance is also presented for the ELMy H-mode discharge.

  12. Modeling Plasmas with a Kappa Electron Energy Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Michael; Savin, Daniel Wolf

    2016-06-01

    Nonthermal kappa electron energy distributions have been observed in the Earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind, and are likely also present in the solar corona and in solar flares. In order to model the spectra of these plasmas, it is necessary to obtain the appropriate collision rate coefficients. We show that this can be done simply by summing appropriately weighted Maxwellian rate coefficients. The resulting data have similar or better accuracies than are obtained with other approaches. Summing Maxwellians has the additional advantages of being easy to implement and extendable to many different collision processes. We apply this technique to modeling the charge state distribution (CSD) of kappa-distribution plasmas. In particular, we examine the influence of electron impact multiple ionization on the equilibrium CSD and calculate the time variation of the CSD during a solar flare.

  13. A Decomposition Algorithm for Optimal Control of Distributed Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Leo Emil; Edlund, Kristian; Standardi, Laura;

    2013-01-01

    In economic model predictive control of distributed energy systems, the constrained optimal control problem can be expressed as a linear program with a block-angular structure. In this paper, we present an efficient Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition algorithm specifically tailored to problems of this t...... type. Simulations show that a MATLAB implementation of the algorithm is significantly faster than several state-of-the-art linear programming solvers and that it scales in a favorable way....

  14. Information Modeling for Direct Control of Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Andersen, Palle; Stoustrup, Jakob;

    2013-01-01

    a desired accumulated response. In this paper, we design such an information model based on the markets that the aggregator participates in and based on the flexibility characteristics of the remote controlled DERs. The information model is constructed in a modular manner making the interface suitable...... for a whole range of different DERs. The devised information model can serve as input to the international standardization efforts on distributed energy resources....

  15. FEA based Dissipation Energy and Temperature Distribution of Rubber Bushing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengui Zhanga ,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubber bushings used in the vehicle or aerospace can reduce the noise and vibration and absorb the shocks. The heat accumulation in the rubber components is attributed to the nonlinear mechanical behavior of rubber and leads to degeneration of mechanical properties. The viscoelastic damping is treated as the major mechanism of dissipation energy, which is heat source of temperature rising in bushing. A finite element method is expanded from elastic structure to viscoelastic structure and computes the dissipation energy distribution in the rubber core. Based on that heat source, the temperature distribution of rubber bushing under radial harmonic excitation has been calculated using finite volume method. The frequency and amplitude effect on dissipation energy and temperature distribution are described. The radial dynamic testing is carried out and the temperature is recorded using thermal imager to evaluate the simulation. As complement, the dynamic torsional testing is also carried out explore the possible failure zone of rubber bushing under different types of loading.

  16. The influence of distributed generation penetration levels on energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planning of national energy policies brings new dilemmas with the introduction of distributed generators (DG). Economic theory suggests that a perfectly competitive market would lead to efficient pricing. In the absence of competition, regulators play a fundamental role in attracting reasonably priced finance in order to maintain, refurbish and increase the infrastructure and provide services at a reasonable cost. Energy market price equilibrium is mainly dependent on suppliers, generators, energy sources and demand, represented by conventional utility grid users. Its behavior is similar to that of other commodities. As generation becomes less centralized with the increasing economic viability of renewable energy sources, new suppliers are being connected to the grid. Such evolution means the transition from a monopolistic market to a broader and more open environment, with an increasing number of competitors. We make use of variational inequalities to model a hypothetical DG market in different scenarios, from monopoly, to oligopoly, to open market. Such an approach enables different equilibrium outcomes due to different DG penetration levels. Based on these findings, we argue that energy policies for such markets must be developed according to each specific stage of the grid's lifecycle. We show how energy policies and market regulations may affect such a transition, which may be catastrophic if not managed properly, and which is dependent on the energy mix. -- Highlights: •DG affects energy markets depending on technologies, penetration and infrastructure. •Energy prices vary when the market moves from centralized to several suppliers. •Variational inequalities are presented to simulate a market under such transitions. •The increase of DG penetration level may present different energy prices variation. •If technical and political issues of smart grids are not improved, markets may crash

  17. Novel methodology for optimal reconfiguration of distribution networks with distributed energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chittur Ramaswamy, Parvathy; Tant, Jeroen; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna;

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops three novel methodologies for optimal reconfiguration of distribution networks in the presence of distributed energy resources (DERs). The novelty is in achieving a non-conservative and robust solution to grid reconfiguration. The optimal solution is the minimum......-loss-configuration of the distribution network taking into account the cost of switching and the grid operational constraints. The methods are based on the concepts of receding horizon control (RHC) and scenario analysis (SA) which inherently optimize switching costs and losses. The salient feature of incorporating RHC and SA...... benefits with respect to the objective of reconfiguration under all scenarios. Depending on the desired level of robustness and non-conservatism, one of the three methods developed in this paper can be used to find the optimal configuration. The methods can be used for planning as well as for operation...

  18. Optimal sizing and allocation of distributed generation for reliable energy distribution accounting for uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Mena, Rodrigo; Li, Yan-Fu; Hennebel, Martin; Ruiz, Carlos; Zio, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a computational framework for the integration of renewable generators DG into an electrical power distribution network. Reliability of power supply is targeted, taking into account the uncertainty of loads and renewable energy sources and, in addition to the failure behavior of the system components. The computational framework developed integrates Monte Carlo simulation for the generation of the uncertain scenarios of operation and Optimal Power Flow (MCS-OPF) into a mult...

  19. Network Capacity Assessment of CHP-based Distributed Generation on Urban Energy Distribution Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianjun

    The combined heat and power (CHP)-based distributed generation (DG) or dis-tributed energy resources (DERs) are mature options available in the present energy market, considered to be an effective solution to promote energy efficiency. In the urban environment, the electricity, water and natural gas distribution networks are becoming increasingly interconnected with the growing penetration of the CHP-based DG. Subsequently, this emerging interdependence leads to new topics meriting serious consideration: how much of the CHP-based DG can be accommodated and where to locate these DERs, and given preexisting constraints, how to quantify the mutual impacts on operation performances between these urban energy distribution networks and the CHP-based DG. The early research work was conducted to investigate the feasibility and design methods for one residential microgrid system based on existing electricity, water and gas infrastructures of a residential community, mainly focusing on the economic planning. However, this proposed design method cannot determine the optimal DG sizing and siting for a larger test bed with the given information of energy infrastructures. In this context, a more systematic as well as generalized approach should be developed to solve these problems. In the later study, the model architecture that integrates urban electricity, water and gas distribution networks, and the CHP-based DG system was developed. The proposed approach addressed the challenge of identifying the optimal sizing and siting of the CHP-based DG on these urban energy networks and the mutual impacts on operation performances were also quantified. For this study, the overall objective is to maximize the electrical output and recovered thermal output of the CHP-based DG units. The electricity, gas, and water system models were developed individually and coupled by the developed CHP-based DG system model. The resultant integrated system model is used to constrain the DG's electrical

  20. Fuzzy droop control loops adjustment for stored energy balance in distributed energy storage system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Wu, Dan; Dragicevic, Tomislav;

    2015-01-01

    system, in order to smooth the variations at the prime energy generator. In this paper, a decentralized strategy based on fuzzy logic is proposed in order to balance the state of charge of distributed energy storage systems in lowvoltage three phase AC microgrid. The proposed method weights the action...

  1. Surface energy characteristics of toner particles by automated inverse gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segeren, L.H.G.J.; Wouters, M.E.L.; Bos, M.; Berg, van den J.W.A.; Vancso, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) was applied to the surface energy study of surfaces of toner particles. The dispersive component of the surface energy was determined for three toner materials by infinite dilution IGC. The values obtained were comparable to the values obtained from contact angle exp

  2. 发展广西区域特色的节能自动化住宅%Development of energy-saving home automation with Guangxi regional characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍彬

    2013-01-01

    This article combine the theory and practice of the smart home market conditions,introduce the key technologies of the smart home and home automation.Explore the status and prospects of the development of the smart home, analyze the building automation market and put forward the idea of development of Guangxi province local energy-saving automation residential market.%  结合理论与实际,针对智能家居市场状况,介绍了智能家居与住宅自动化的关键技术,探讨智能家居的发展状况与前景,分析楼宇自动化的市场情况,并提出发展广西本地节能自动化住宅市场的设想。

  3. Creating hourly distributions at national level for various energy demands and renewable energy supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Drysdale, Dave; Hansen, Kenneth;

    2015-01-01

    being recorded over longer time horizons, for example over one day. In this paper, a methodology is presented for creating hourly distributions for energy systems analysis tools. On the demand side, hourly distributions are developed for electricity, heating, cooling, and transport while the supply side......In the future, intermittent renewables will provide much larger shares of the primary energy supply compared to today, so accommodating their fluctuations is a key challenge for future energy systems. Many researchers use computer modelling to investigate this challenge, by simulating how...... the energy system will behave with increasing amounts of intermittent renewable energy. To assess this challenge, short-term time steps at an hourly scale are often necessary. Without this, the variations in renewable energy production will be missed, since their production can increase and decrease without...

  4. A universal energy distribution function for repeating fast radio bursts?

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Assuming: fast radio bursts (FRBs) are produced by neutron stars at cosmological distances; FRB rate tracks core-collapse supernova rate; and all FRBs repeat with a universal energy distribution function (EDF) dN/dE ~ E^(-beta) with a high-end cutoff at burst energy E_max. We find that observations so far are consistent with a universal EDF with a power-law index 1.5 30 and normalization N_0 < 2 per day; where N_0 is the integrated rate above the reference burst energy E_0 = 1.2e39 f_r^(-1) erg (f_r is the radio emission efficiency). Implications of such an EDF are discussed.

  5. Taxing energy to improve the environment. Efficiency and distributional effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of environmental tax policy in a dynamic overlapping-generations model of a small open economy with environmental quality incorporated as a durable consumption good have been studied. Raising the energy tax may deliver an efficiency gain if agents care enough about the environment. The benefits are unevenly distributed across generations since capital ownership, and the capital loss induced by a tax increase, rises with age. A suitable egalitarian bond policy can be employed in order to ensure everybody gains to the same extent. With this additional instrument the optimal energy tax can be computed. The authors further considered a tax reform that simultaneously lowers labour taxation and raises the energy tax. This policy delivers qualitatively similar consequences as the first scenario, though all changes are less pronounced. A double dividend may appear soon after the reform but vanishes in the course of the transition. 22 refs

  6. Grid tie inverter energy stabilizing in smart distribution grid with energy storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秋野; 李大双; 褚恩辉; 张艺缤

    2014-01-01

    With the growing deployment of smart distribution grid, it has become urgent to investigate the smart distribution grid behavior during transient faults and improve the system stability. The feasibility of segmenting large power grids and multiple smart distribution grids interconnections using energy storage technology for improving the system dynamic stability was studied. The segmentation validity of the large power grids and smart distribution grid inverter output interconnections power system using energy storage technology was proved in terms of theoretical analysis. Then, the influences of the energy storage device location and capacity on the proposed method were discussed in detail. The conclusion is obtained that the ESD optimal locations are allocated at the tie line terminal buses in the interconnected grid, respectively. The effectiveness of the proposed method was verified by simulations in an actual power system.

  7. Development of transition equipment shared with urban CATV in distribution automated pair area; Haiden jidoka pair area ni okeru toshigata CATV tono kyoyoka iko kizai no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, H. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-04-10

    The transmission medium for remote switch control during overall distribution automation selects a coaxial cable in the area, where the CATV carrier plans, and evades the doubled transmission path and congested facilities for economical facility construction when the transmission path is shared. In the area where the switch has been already remotely controlled by a pair transmission path, however, the type of the transmission path differs from for urban CATV with the optical and coaxial transmission paths as a medium. Therefore, the transmission path cannot be shared. The transmission path is then doubled, and the aerial facilities are congested. In this study, the slave station of the switch installed for a pair transmission path is effectively used to develop the required equipment and make a field test for the subsequent shared use at minimum cost. The equipment on the substation`s slave station side is pair/optical terminal equipment (center distribution wave system) and pair/coaxial terminal equipment (substation distribution wave system). The equipment on the switch`s slave station side is a coaxial/pair conversion adapter (common). As a result of the field test, the validity was verified. 4 figs.

  8. D-MSR: a distributed network management scheme for real-time monitoring and process control applications in wireless industrial automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zand, Pouria; Dilo, Arta; Havinga, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Current wireless technologies for industrial applications, such as WirelessHART and ISA100.11a, use a centralized management approach where a central network manager handles the requirements of the static network. However, such a centralized approach has several drawbacks. For example, it cannot cope with dynamicity/disturbance in large-scale networks in a real-time manner and it incurs a high communication overhead and latency for exchanging management traffic. In this paper, we therefore propose a distributed network management scheme, D-MSR. It enables the network devices to join the network, schedule their communications, establish end-to-end connections by reserving the communication resources for addressing real-time requirements, and cope with network dynamicity (e.g., node/edge failures) in a distributed manner. According to our knowledge, this is the first distributed management scheme based on IEEE 802.15.4e standard, which guides the nodes in different phases from joining until publishing their sensor data in the network. We demonstrate via simulation that D-MSR can address real-time and reliable communication as well as the high throughput requirements of industrial automation wireless networks, while also achieving higher efficiency in network management than WirelessHART, in terms of delay and overhead.

  9. Controlling the Electron Energy Distribution Function Using an Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalrud, Scott D.; Barnat, Edward V.; Hopkins, Mathew M.

    2014-10-01

    Positively biased electrodes inserted into plasmas influence the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) by providing a sink for low energy electrons that would otherwise be trapped by ion sheaths at the chamber walls. We develop a model for the EEDF in a hot filament generated discharge in the presence of positively biased electrodes of various surface areas, and compare the model results with experimental Langmuir probe measurements and particle-in-cell simulations. In the absence of an anode, the EEDF is characterized by a cool trapped population at energies below the sheath energy, and a comparatively warm tail population associated with the filament primaries. Anodes that are small enough to collect a negligible fraction of the electrons exiting the plasma have little affect on the EEDF, but as the anode area approaches √{me /mi }Aw , where Aw is the chamber wall area, the anode collects most of the electrons leaving the plasma. This drastically reduces the density of the otherwise trapped population, causing an effective heating of the electrons and a corresponding density decrease. A global model is developed based on the EEDF model and current balance, which shows the interconnected nature of the electron temperature, density and the plasma potential. This work was supported by the Office of Fusion Energy Science at the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94SL85000, and by the University of Iowa Old Gold Program.

  10. Validated modeling of distributed energy resources at distribution voltages : LDRD project 38672.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, Mark E.; Ginn, Jerry W.

    2004-03-01

    A significant barrier to the deployment of distributed energy resources (DER) onto the power grid is uncertainty on the part of utility engineers regarding impacts of DER on their distribution systems. Because of the many possible combinations of DER and local power system characteristics, these impacts can most effectively be studied by computer simulation. The goal of this LDRD project was to develop and experimentally validate models of transient and steady state source behavior for incorporation into utility distribution analysis tools. Development of these models had not been prioritized either by the distributed-generation industry or by the inverter industry. A functioning model of a selected inverter-based DER was developed in collaboration with both the manufacturer and industrial power systems analysts. The model was written in the PSCAD simulation language, a variant of the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP), a code that is widely used and accepted by utilities. A stakeholder team was formed and a methodology was established to address the problem. A list of detailed DER/utility interaction concerns was developed and prioritized. The list indicated that the scope of the problem significantly exceeded resources available for this LDRD project. As this work progresses under separate funding, the model will be refined and experimentally validated. It will then be incorporated in utility distribution analysis tools and used to study a variety of DER issues. The key next step will be design of the validation experiments.

  11. Identification of Electrooculography Signals Frequency Energy Distribution Using Wavelet Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. Bukhari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The time frequency analysis of non-stationary signals has been the considerable research effort in recent years. Wavelet transform is one of the favored tool for the analyzing the biomedical signals. Approach: We describe the identification of Electro-Oculograph (EOG signals of eye movement potentials by using wavelet algorithm which gives a lot of information than FFT. The capability of wavelet transform was to distribute the signal energy with the change of time in different frequency bands. This will showed the characteristic of the signals since energy was an important physical variable in signal analysis. The EOG signals were captured using electrodes placed on the forehead around the eyes to record the eye movements. The wavelet features used to determine the characteristic of eye movement waveform. This technique adopted because it was a non-invasive, inexpensive and accurate. The new technology enhancement has allowed the EOG signals captured using the Neuronal EEG-9200. The recorded data was composed of an eye movement toward four directions, i.e., downward, upward, leftward and rightward. The proposed analysis for each eyes signal is analyzed by using Wavelet Transform (WT with energy algorithm and by comparing the energy distribution with the change of time and frequency of each signal. Results: A wavelet Scalogram was plotted to display the different percentages of energy for each wavelet coefficient towards different movement. Conclusion: From the result, it is proved that the different EOG signals exhibit differences in signals energy with their corresponding scale such as leftward with scale 6 (8- 16Hz, rightward with scale 8 (2-4Hz, downward with scale 9 (1-2Hz and upward with level 7 (4-8Hz. Statistically, the results in this study indicate that there are 93% (averages significance differences in the extracted features of wavelet Scalogram analysis.

  12. Adoption and supply of a distributed energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Neil Douglas

    2000-12-01

    Technical and economic developments in distributed generation (DG) represent an opportunity for a radically different energy market paradigm, and potentially significant cuts in global carbon emissions. This thesis investigates DG along two interrelated themes: (1) Early adoption and supply of the DG technology of internal combustion (IC) engine cogeneration. (2) Private and social cost implications of DG for private investors and within an energy system. IC engine cogeneration of both power and heat has been a remarkable success in the Netherlands with over 5,000 installations and 1,500MWe of installed capacity by 1997. However, the technology has struggled in the UK with an installed capacity of 110Mwe, fulfilling only 10% of its large estimated potential. An investment simulation model of DG investments in the UK and Netherlands was used, together with analysis of site level data on all DG adoptions from 1985 through 1997. In the UK over 60% of the early installations were sized too small (market and CO2 reduction regulatory policy, Dutch distributions utilities played a proactive role in DG. This involved joint ventures with engine cogen suppliers and users, offering improved electricity buy-back tariffs and lower connection costs. This has allowed flexible operation of distributed generation, especially in electricity sales to the grid. Larger units can be sized for on-site heat requirements with electricity export providing revenue and aiding in management of energy networks. A comparison of internal and external costs of three distributed and three centralized generation technologies over a range of heat to power ratios (HPR) was made. Micro-turbines were found to be the lowest cost technology, especially at higher heat loads. Engines are also very competitive providing their NOx and CO emissions are controlled. A cost optimization program was used to develop an optimal green-field supply mix for Florida and New York. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  13. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven

    2016-01-01

    This edited book comprises papers about the impacts, benefits and challenges of connected and automated cars. It is the third volume of the LNMOB series dealing with Road Vehicle Automation. The book comprises contributions from researchers, industry practitioners and policy makers, covering perspectives from the U.S., Europe and Japan. It is based on the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015 which was jointly organized by the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in July 2015. The topical spectrum includes, but is not limited to, public sector activities, human factors, ethical and business aspects, energy and technological perspectives, vehicle systems and transportation infrastructure. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  14. A Survey of Communications and Networking Technologies for Energy Management in Buildings and Home Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Aravind Kailas; Valentina Cecchi; Arindam Mukherjee

    2012-01-01

    With the exploding power consumption in private households and increasing environmental and regulatory restraints, the need to improve the overall efficiency of electrical networks has never been greater. That being said, the most efficient way to minimize the power consumption is by voluntary mitigation of home electric energy consumption, based on energy-awareness and automatic or manual reduction of standby power of idling home appliances. Deploying bi-directional smart meters and home ene...

  15. Library Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakne, B. N.; Giri, V. V; Waghmode, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    New technologies library provides several new materials, media and mode of storing and communicating the information. Library Automation reduces the drudgery of repeated manual efforts in library routine. By use of library automation collection, Storage, Administration, Processing, Preservation and communication etc.

  16. Modeling of customer adoption of distributed energy resources; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes work completed for the California Energy Commission (CEC) on the continued development and application of the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). This work was performed at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) between July 2000 and June 2001 under the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Distributed Energy Resources Integration (DERI) project. Our research on distributed energy resources (DER) builds on the concept of the microgrid ((mu)Grid), a semiautonomous grouping of electricity-generating sources and end-use sinks that are placed and operated for the benefit of its members. Although a(mu)Grid can operate independent of the macrogrid (the utility power network), the(mu)Grid is usually interconnected, purchasing energy and ancillary services from the macrogrid. Groups of customers can be aggregated into(mu)Grids by pooling their electrical and other loads, and the most cost-effective combination of generation resources for a particular(mu)Grid can be found. In this study, DER-CAM, an economic model of customer DER adoption implemented in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) optimization software is used, to find the cost-minimizing combination of on-site generation customers (individual businesses and a(mu)Grid) in a specified test year. DER-CAM's objective is to minimize the cost of supplying electricity to a specific customer by optimizing the installation of distributed generation and the self-generation of part or all of its electricity. Currently, the model only considers electrical loads, but combined heat and power (CHP) analysis capability is being developed under the second year of CEC funding. The key accomplishments of this year's work were the acquisition of increasingly accurate data on DER technologies, including the development of methods for forecasting cost reductions for these technologies, and the creation of a credible example

  17. Modeling of customer adoption of distributed energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris; Chard, Joseph S.; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Lipman, Timothy; Moezzi, Mithra M.; Ouaglal, Boubekeur; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2001-08-01

    This report describes work completed for the California Energy Commission (CEC) on the continued development and application of the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). This work was performed at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) between July 2000 and June 2001 under the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Distributed Energy Resources Integration (DERI) project. Our research on distributed energy resources (DER) builds on the concept of the microgrid ({mu}Grid), a semiautonomous grouping of electricity-generating sources and end-use sinks that are placed and operated for the benefit of its members. Although a {mu}Grid can operate independent of the macrogrid (the utility power network), the {mu}Grid is usually interconnected, purchasing energy and ancillary services from the macrogrid. Groups of customers can be aggregated into {mu}Grids by pooling their electrical and other loads, and the most cost-effective combination of generation resources for a particular {mu}Grid can be found. In this study, DER-CAM, an economic model of customer DER adoption implemented in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) optimization software is used, to find the cost-minimizing combination of on-site generation customers (individual businesses and a {mu}Grid) in a specified test year. DER-CAM's objective is to minimize the cost of supplying electricity to a specific customer by optimizing the installation of distributed generation and the self-generation of part or all of its electricity. Currently, the model only considers electrical loads, but combined heat and power (CHP) analysis capability is being developed under the second year of CEC funding. The key accomplishments of this year's work were the acquisition of increasingly accurate data on DER technologies, including the development of methods for forecasting cost reductions for these technologies, and the creation of a

  18. A Survey of Communications and Networking Technologies for Energy Management in Buildings and Home Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravind Kailas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the exploding power consumption in private households and increasing environmental and regulatory restraints, the need to improve the overall efficiency of electrical networks has never been greater. That being said, the most efficient way to minimize the power consumption is by voluntary mitigation of home electric energy consumption, based on energy-awareness and automatic or manual reduction of standby power of idling home appliances. Deploying bi-directional smart meters and home energy management (HEM agents that provision real-time usage monitoring and remote control, will enable HEM in “smart households.” Furthermore, the traditionally inelastic demand curve has began to change, and these emerging HEM technologies enable consumers (industrial to residential to respond to the energy market behavior to reduce their consumption at peak prices, to supply reserves on a as-needed basis, and to reduce demand on the electric grid. Because the development of smart grid-related activities has resulted in an increased interest in demand response (DR and demand side management (DSM programs, this paper presents some popular DR and DSM initiatives that include planning, implementation and evaluation techniques for reducing energy consumption and peak electricity demand. The paper then focuses on reviewing and distinguishing the various state-of-the-art HEM control and networking technologies, and outlines directions for promoting the shift towards a society with low energy demand and low greenhouse gas emissions. The paper also surveys the existing software and hardware tools, platforms, and test beds for evaluating the performance of the information and communications technologies that are at the core of future smart grids. It is envisioned that this paper will inspire future research and design efforts in developing standardized and user-friendly smart energy monitoring systems that are suitable for wide scale deployment in homes.

  19. Distributed DC-UPS for energy smart buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Munoz, A.; Pallares-Lopez, V.; Real-Calvo, R.J.; Gil-de-Castro, A. [Universidad de Cordoba, Area de Electronica, Dpto. Arquitectura de Computadores, Electronica y Tecnologia Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Campus de Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain); De la Rosa, Juan Jose Gonzalez [Universidad de Cadiz, Area de Electronica, Dpto. ISA, TE y Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior Avda, Ramon Puyol, S/N, E-11202 Algeciras-Cadiz (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    Energy efficiency (EE) improvement is one of the most important targets to be achieved on every society as a whole and in buildings in particular. Energy Smart Building aims to accelerate the uptake of EE, healthy buildings that by integrating smart technology and solutions consume radically little resources while enhancing the quality of life. This paper addresses how uninterruptible power supply (UPS), particularly when configured in distributed DC mode, can become an Energy Efficient (EE) solution in high tech buildings, especially when integrated with complimentary Power Quality (PQ) measures. The paper is based upon PQ audits conducted at different IT-intensive modern building. Some of the mayor objectives of the PQ studies were: detecting the main involved disturbances by PQ monitoring, identifying the power disturbances root causes, characterizing the electromagnetic compatibility level of equipments and installation and providing guidelines for implementing energy-efficiency solutions. It was found that the main problems for the equipment installed were harmonics and voltage sag (dip). Finally, this paper demonstrates the impacts of generalized electronic devices on the PQ of the buildings and the implications on energy uses. (author)

  20. The Doppler Effect and Spectral Energy Distribution of Blazars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The relativistic beaming model is adopted to discuss quantitatively the observational differences between radio-selected BL Lac objects (RBLs) and X-ray-selected BL Lac objects (XBLs), and between BL Lac objects and fiat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). The main results are the following: (1) In the Doppler cor-rected color-color (αin ro-αin ox -αox) diagram, XBLs and FSRQs occupy separated regions,while RBLs bridge the gap between them. These properties suggest that similar in- trinsic physical processes operate in all the objects under a range of intrinsic physical conditions. (2) Our results are consistent with the results of Sambruna, Maraschi and Urry (1996) from other methods. We show the αxox introduced by Sambruna to be a good index for describing the energy distribution because it represents the intrinsic energy distribution and includes the Doppler correction. (3) The Doppler effect of relativistic beaming is the main mechanism, and the physical differences (such as magnetic fields, electron energies) are also important complementary fac-tors for understanding the relation between XBLs and RBLs;

  1. Teleparallel Energy-Momentum Distribution of Locally Rotationally Symmetric Spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Amir, M Jamil

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the energy-momentum distribution of locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) spacetimes in the context of the teleparallel theory of gravity by considering the three metrics, I, II and III, representing the whole class of LRS sapcetimes. In this regard, we use the teleparallel versions of the Einstein, Landau-Lifshitz, Bergmann-Thomson, and M$\\ddot{o}$ller prescriptions. The results show that the momentum density components for the Einstein, Bergmann-Thomson, and M$\\ddot{o}$ller prescriptions turn out to be same in all cases of the metrics I, II and III, but are different from those of the Landau- Lifshitz prescription, while the energy components remain the same for these three prescriptions only in all possible cases of the metrics I and II. We mention here that the M$\\ddot{o}$ller energy-momentum distribution is independent of the coupling constant $\\lambda$; that is, these results are valid for any teleparallel models.

  2. Automated Model To Save Energy In Hand Held Communication Devices During Natural Calamities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Rajanandhini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years mobile phone communication has become a part of humans life. Although technology advances there is a lack of communication during crisis, to overcome the crisis during natural calamities hand held communication plays vital role to save the life of peoples. This paper proposes ideas to save energy in hand held devices during natural calamities such as flood, earthquake, cyclone, etc. Recharging the batteries of hand held devices is a challenging job due to supply of electric current during that time, the role of service provider in maximizing the energy is much important than the individual role with the advancement of modern technology, the service provider can restrict the service utilisation of the individual such that GPS, GPRS and multimedia facilities of their hand held devices. This paper discusses ways to handle the energy efficiency by the service provider and user.

  3. Optimized Energy Management of a Single-House Residential Micro-Grid With Automated Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Monsef, Hassan; Rahimi-Kian, Ashkan;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an intelligent multi-objective energy management system (MOEMS) is proposed for applications in residential LVAC micro-grids where households are equipped with smart appliances, such as washing machine, dishwasher, tumble dryer and electric heating and they have the capability to t...... to reduce residential energy use and improve the user’s satisfaction degree by optimal management of demand/generation sides....... to take part in demand response (DR) programs. The superior performance and efficiency of the proposed system is studied through several scenarios and case studies and validated in comparison with the conventional models. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed MOEMS has the capability...

  4. Sensitivity-Based Model of Low Voltage Distribution Systems with Distributed Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita Di Fazio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A key issue in Low Voltage(LV distribution systems is to identify strategies for the optimal management and control in the presence of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs. To reduce the number of variables to be monitored and controlled, virtual levels of aggregation, called Virtual Microgrids (VMs, are introduced and identified by using new models of the distribution system. To this aim, this paper, revisiting and improving the approach outlined in a conference paper, presents a sensitivity-based model of an LV distribution system, supplied by a Medium/Low Voltage (MV/LV substation and composed by several feeders, which is suitable for the optimal management and control of the grid and for VM definition. The main features of the proposed method are: it evaluates the sensitivity coefficients in a closed form; it provides an overview of the sensitivity of the network to the variations of each DER connected to the grid; and it presents a limited computational burden. A comparison of the proposed method with both the exact load flow solutions and a perturb-and-observe method is discussed in a case study. Finally, the method is used to evaluate the impact of the DERs on the nodal voltages of the network.

  5. Patterns of inequality: Dynamics of income distribution in USA and global energy consumption distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anand; Yakovenko, Victor

    2010-03-01

    Applying the principle of entropy maximization, we argued that the distribution of money in a closed economic system should be exponential [1], see also recent review [2]. In this talk, we show that income distribution in USA is exponential for the majority of population (about 97%). However, the high-income tail follows a power law and is highly dynamical, i.e., out of equilibrium. The fraction of income going to the tail swelled to 20% of all income in 2000 and 2006 at the peaks of speculative bubbles followed by spectacular crashes. Next, we analyze the global distribution of energy consumption per capita among different countries. In the first approximation, it is reasonably well captured by the exponential function. Comparing the data for 1990 and 2005, we observe that the distribution is getting closer to the exponential, presumably as a result of globalization of the world economy.[4pt] [1] A. A. Dragulescu and V. M. Yakovenko, Eur. Phys. J. B 17, 723 (2000). [2] V. M. Yakovenko and J. B. Rosser, to appear in Rev. Mod. Phys. (2009), arXiv:0905.1518.

  6. IEC 61850在配电自动化系统上的实用化分析%Practicability Analysis on Distribution Automation with IEC 61850

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新; 邱锡为; 王婧

    2014-01-01

    孤岛信息、海量数据、拓扑的经常性变动、在线调试等一直是配电自动化努力解决的问题。将 IEC 61850运用于配电系统,能有效解决上述问题,推进配电自动化的实用化。运用 IEC 61850的成效体现在:IEC 61850的自我描述使 DSCADA 海量信息可维护;面向对象描述给拓扑变动、在线调试带来便利;IEC 61850可实现设备互操作,使设备互换成为可能;与故障报修系统、停送电计划、地理信息系统等用电管理系统互联有标准可循。因此,将IEC 61850运用于配电系统将是电力信息发展的必然。%Isolated informations,mass data,topology change,online debugging are problems trying to solve in power distribution automation.By the use of IEC 61850,we may effectively resolve the problems mentioned above,and promote the practical of distribution automation.IEC 61850 effect is reflected in:IEC 61850 self describing makes a large amount of DSCADA information can be maintained;obj ect oriented description cause convenience to topology changes and online debugging;equipment can achieve interoperability,make equip-ment interchange becomes possible;and fault repair system,power transmission and blackout plan,GIS can be interconnected according to the standard.Therefore,the application of IEC 61850 to the distribution system is an inevitable development of power information revolution.

  7. Visual Method for Spectral Energy Distribution Calculation of Blazars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y. Huang; J. H. Fan

    2014-09-01

    In this work, we propose to use `The Geometer’s Sketchpad’ to the fitting of a spectral energy distribution of blazar based on three effective spectral indices, RO, OX, and RX and the flux density in the radio band. It can make us to see the fitting in detail with both the peak frequency and peak luminosity given immediately. We used our method to those sources whose peak frequency and peak luminosity are given and found that our results are consistent with those given in the work of Sambruna et al. (1996).

  8. Spectral distribution of auroral energy according to model representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Examples of high-altitude distributions of the auroral energy radiation in the central oval line for τG = 0 and 12 hours within the spectrum interval 0.02-0.1 μm, 0.1-0.2 μm, 0.2-0.3 μm, 0.3-0.4 μm, 0.3-0.7 μmn, 0.3-1.3 μm for various Kp-values under moderate solar activity F10.7 = 150 at the time of the winter solstice are presented. 30 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Extraction of electron plasma energy distribution function using distortion meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azooz, A. A.

    2006-06-01

    A new method for direct evaluation of the electron energy distribution function in plasmas is suggested, which involves the use of audio frequencies distortion factor meters. The amount of distortion suffered by a Langmuir probe AC current produced by superimposing a clean AC voltage on the DC probe voltage is measured. Although such distortions are proportional to the second derivative of the probe characteristic at any point when its neighborhood can be approximated by a second-degree polynomial, the instrument function is always sharper than that of harmonic differentiation. The method is analyzed theoretically, and tested experimentally. It is also shown that distortion additionally provides a direct measure of the electron temperature.

  10. Terahertz absorption spectra and potential energy distribution of liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zezhang; Jiang, Yurong; Jiang, Lulu; Ma, Heng

    2016-01-15

    In this work, the terahertz (THz) absorption spectra of a set of nematic liquid crystals were studied using the density functional theories (DFT). An accurate assignment of the vibrational modes corresponding to absorption frequencies were performed using potential energy distribution (PED) in a frequency range of 0-3 THz. The impacts of different core structures on THz absorption spectra were discussed. The results indicate that scope of application must be considered in the LC-based THz device designing. This proposed work may give a useful suggestion on the design of novel liquid crystal material in THz wave. PMID:26476072

  11. Swift GRBs: the early afterglow spectral energy distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Tagliaferri, G.; Malesani, D.; Vergani, S. D.; S. Campana; Chincarini, G.; Covino, S.; Guidorzi, C.; A. Moretti(Fermilab, Batavia, IL, USA); Romano, P; Antonelli, L.A.; Capalbi, M.; Conciatore, M. L.; Cusumano, G.; Giommi, P.; La Parola, V.

    2007-01-01

    We present the first results of a program to systematically study the optical-to-X-ray spectral energy distribution (SED) of Swift GRB afterglows with known redshift. The goal is to study the properties of the GRB explosion and of the intervening absorbing material. In this report we present the preliminary analysis on 23 afterglows. Thanks to Swift, we could build the SED at early times after the GRB (minutes to hours). We derived the Hydrogen column densities and the spectral slopes from th...

  12. Renewable energy resources for distributed generation systems in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szewczuk, Stefan

    2010-09-15

    The South African Government has objective to provide universal access of electricity for its citizens and its electrification programme has been successful but focus has moved from numbers of connections to one of achieving sustainable socio-economic benefits. First-hand understanding was obtained of the complexity of socio-economic development where CSIR undertook a project in the rural areas of South Africa to identify electrification opportunities using renewable energy linked to economic activities. Lessons formed basis of a government funding implementation of pilot hybrid mini-grids to inform a future rollout. Results informed the development of distributed generation concepts and an integrated methodology.

  13. The Spectral Energy Distribution of Fermi bright blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Abdo, A A; Ajello, M; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cavazzuti, E; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Charles, E; Chaty, S; Chekhtman, A; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Colafrancesco, S; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Costamante, L; Cutini, S; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Silva, E do Couto e; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Frailis, M; Fuhrmann, L; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Healey, S E; Horan, D; Hughes, R E; Itoh, R; Jackson, M S; Johannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, W N; Kadler, M; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knodlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Max-Moerbeck, W; Mazziotta, M N; McConville, W; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) We have conducted a detailed investigation of the broad-band spectral properties of the \\gamma-ray selected blazars of the Fermi LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). By combining our accurately estimated Fermi gamma-ray spectra with Swift, radio, infra-red, optical and other hard X-ray/gamma-ray data, collected within three months of the LBAS data taking period, we were able to assemble high-quality and quasi-simultaneous Spectral Energy Distributions (SED) for 48 LBAS blazars.The SED of these gamma-ray sources is similar to that of blazars discovered at other wavelengths, clearly showing, in the usual Log $\

  14. Distributional consequences of environmental taxes; Fordelingsvirkninger af energi- og miljoeafgifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinge Jacobsen, H.; Birr-Pedersen, K.; Wier, M.

    2001-11-01

    Environmental taxes imposed on households have been introduced in many countries. However, few countries have reached the level of environmental taxation that is seen in Denmark today, although many are considering shifting the tax burden towards the consumption that is harming the environment. The total tax burden imposed on households in Denmark in the form of taxes on energy use of all kinds, water consumption and waste production, etc., is considerable. This paper analyses the individual taxes as well as the combination of all these taxes and duties related to environmental concerns, including taxes on heating, transport fuels, electricity, water, waste, plastic bags, registration of cars, annual car use, pesticides, etc. The distributional effect of taxes is examined in relation to household income, socio-economic class, residential location and family status. The shifting of the tax structure from high marginal income tax to consumption-based taxes, especially environmental taxes, might have distributional impacts amongst income groups which have not been considered part of the tax policy. The taxes are compared with respect to distributional impact. Do the effects of the different taxes vary to such an extent that this should be considered when designing tax policies? The hypothesis is that some environmental taxes associated with luxury income are less regressive than the average environmental tax. The results suggest that in Denmark taxes on petrol and registration duties for cars are progressive, whereas most other environmental taxes are regressive, especially the green taxes on water, retail containers and CO{sup 2}. The distributional impacts are illustrated using household consumption survey data and data covering household expenditures on energy. The energy taxes and the more recently introduced green taxes are compared. The project is combining the direct and the indirect effect of taxes. The direct effect considers the taxes imposed directly on

  15. On Energy Trading Decision Methods in Distributed Energy Management Systems with Multiple Customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Toshiyuki; Sugimoto, Yohei; Mori, Kazuyuki; Kitamura, Shoichi; Yamamoto, Takaya

    This paper addresses an operation and energy purchase planning problem under the CO2 emissions regulation for corporate entities. Considering energy trading, more efficient energy consumption may be possible. We have studied an agent-based planning system, called Distributed Energy Management Systems (DEMSs), which intends to reduce energy consumption. In the DEMSs, CO2 emissions regulation is imposed on each corporate entity, and electrical and thermal energy trading among the entities are allowed. We have proposed an energy trading decision method based on the Market Oriented Programming (MOP). In this paper, we propose trading decision methods for the group composed of several customers and several suppliers. Experimental results show effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. The energy distribution structure and dynamic characteristics of energy release in electrostatic discharge process

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Qingming; Zhang, Yunming

    2015-01-01

    The detail structure of energy output and the dynamic characteristics of electric spark discharge process have been studied to calculate the energy of electric spark induced plasma under different discharge condition accurately. A series of electric spark discharge experiments were conducted with the capacitor stored energy in the range of 10J 100J and 1000J respectively. And the resistance of wire, switch and plasma between electrodes were evaluated by different methods. An optimized method for electric resistance evaluation of the full discharge circuit, three poles switch and electric spark induced plasma during the discharge process was put forward. The electric energy consumed by wire, electric switch and electric spark induced plasma between electrodes were obtained by Joules law. The structure of energy distribution and the dynamic process of energy release during the capacitor discharge process have been studied. Experiments results showed that, with the increase of capacitor released energy, the dura...

  17. The Analysis of the Advantages of Optical Fiber Communication in Distribution Automation%光纤通信在配网自动化中的应用前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜晓宇; 陈春逸; 沙杰

    2011-01-01

    With the rising of new intelligent substation, in order to achieve intelligent monitoring and management of the distribution network which makes it safe, reliable and efficient operation, Distribution automation system will face many challenges. This article introduces the main structure of the current Shanghai power grid, listes several means of communication in the main distribution network in Shanghai. The advantages of optical fiber communication in distribution automation are displayed, by comparing the features and application of carrier wave, wireless and optical fiber communication.%介绍了当前上海电网的主要架构,罗列了上海配网中主要存在的若干种通信方式,通过对比载波、无线及光纤通信的特点及适用范围,展现了光纤通信在配网自动化通信中的优势。

  18. THE STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATED INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTION OF APPLICATIONS FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE MINISTRY OF TAXES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevov A. V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the gradual development of an information system for automated distribution of applications, the development of the necessary organizational diagrams, decomposition charts, as well as constraints the design stage. With the help of a program complex, the request from the client is submitted to the Deputy Director for production, which makes the decision about treatment (accepts or cancels the request. Also via software package, the application is sent to the Deputy Director for the status of implementation, as well as the Director, the chief accountant and the client. Each Department has the ability to contact the Deputy Director for operations for the consultation when a problem occurs with the implementation of the application. After obtaining the status of completed applications in the software package, the chief accountant reports to the Director. A set of methods and techniques of organization of information processes in production systems which allow the selection and the use of an information technology solution for the synthesis of knowledge about the work situation is the content of the concept of formation of information resource management for system knowledge-intensive production. Management system information space manufacturing organizations are formed in a specific environment, which is characterized as an information resource management system – a system of organization of internal and external flows of information, as well as methods and tools for searching, processing and distribution of information in the organization

  19. A Quantum Phase Transition in the Cosmic Ray Energy Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Widom, A; Srivastava, Y

    2015-01-01

    We here argue that the "knee" of the cosmic ray energy distribution at $E_c \\sim 1$ PeV represents a second order phase transition of cosmic proportions. The discontinuity of the heat capacity per cosmic ray particle is given by $\\Delta c=0.450196\\ k_B$. However the idea of a deeper critical point singularity cannot be ruled out by present accuracy in neither theory nor experiment. The quantum phase transition consists of cosmic rays dominated by bosons for the low temperature phase E E_c$. The low temperature phase arises from those nuclei described by the usual and conventional collective boson models of nuclear physics. The high temperature phase is dominated by protons. The transition energy $E_c$ may be estimated in terms of the photo-disintegration of nuclei.

  20. Calculating fusion neutron energy spectra from arbitrary reactant distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, J.; Conroy, S.; Andersson Sundén, E.; Hellesen, C.

    2016-02-01

    The Directional Relativistic Spectrum Simulator (DRESS) code can perform Monte-Carlo calculations of reaction product spectra from arbitrary reactant distributions, using fully relativistic kinematics. The code is set up to calculate energy spectra from neutrons and alpha particles produced in the D(d, n)3He and T(d, n)4He fusion reactions, but any two-body reaction can be simulated by including the corresponding cross section. The code has been thoroughly tested. The kinematics calculations have been benchmarked against the kinematics module of the ROOT Data Analysis Framework. Calculated neutron energy spectra have been validated against tabulated fusion reactivities and against an exact analytical expression for the thermonuclear fusion neutron spectrum, with good agreement. The DRESS code will be used as the core of a detailed synthetic diagnostic framework for neutron measurements at the JET and MAST tokamaks.

  1. Energy level distribution of perturbed conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the energy level spacing of perturbed conformal minimal models in finite volume, considering perturbations of such models that are massive but not necessarily integrable. We compute their spectrum using a renormalization group improved truncated conformal spectrum approach. With this method we are able to study systems where more than 40 000 states are kept and where we determine the energies of the lowest several thousand eigenstates with high accuracy. We find, as expected, that the level spacing statistics of integrable perturbed minimal models are Poissonian while the statistics of non-integrable perturbations are GOE-like. However, by varying the system size (and so controlling the positioning of the theory between its IR and UV limits) one can induce crossovers between the two statistical distributions

  2. Energy efficiency by use of automated energy-saving windows with heat-reflective screens and solar battery for power supply systems of European and Russian buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, V. M.; Smirnov, N. N.; Tyutikov, V. V.; Flament, B.

    2015-10-01

    The new energy saving windows with heat-reflecting shields have been developed, and for their practical use they need to be integrated into the automated system for controlling heat supply in buildings and the efficiency of their use together with the existing energy-saving measures must be determined. The study was based on the results of field tests of windows with heat-reflective shields in a certified climate chamber. The method to determine the minimum indoor air temperature under standby heating using heat-reflective shields in the windows and multifunctional energy-efficient shutter with solar battery have been developed. Annual energy saving for the conditions of different regions of Russia and France was determined. Using windows with heat-reflecting screens and a solar battery results in a triple power effect: reduced heat losses during the heating season due to increased window resistance; lower cost of heating buildings due to lowering of indoor ambient temperature; also electric power generation.

  3. Automated bone removal in CT angiography : Comparison of methods based on single energy and dual energy scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Straten, Marcel; Schaap, Michiel; Dijkshoorn, Marcel L.; Greuter, Marcel J.; van der Lugt, Aad; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Niessen, Wiro J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dual energy based methods for bone removal in computed tomography angiography (CTA) images and compare these with single energy based methods that use an additional, nonenhanced, CT scan. Methods: Four different bone removal methods were applied to CT scans of an anthropomorphic

  4. Advanced Communication and Control Solutions of Distributed Energy Resources (DER)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgeirsson, Haukur; Seguin, Richard; Sherding, Cameron; de Bruet, Andre, G.; Broadwater, Robert; Dilek, Murat

    2007-01-10

    This report covers work performed in Phase II of a two phase project whose objective was to demonstrate the aggregation of multiple Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and to offer them into the energy market. The Phase I work (DE-FC36-03CH11161) created an integrated, but distributed, system and procedures to monitor and control multiple DERs from numerous manufacturers connected to the electric distribution system. Procedures were created which protect the distribution network and personnel that may be working on the network. Using the web as the communication medium for control and monitoring of the DERs, the integration of information and security was accomplished through the use of industry standard protocols such as secure SSL,VPN and ICCP. The primary objective of Phase II was to develop the procedures for marketing the power of the Phase I aggregated DERs in the energy market, increase the number of DER units, and implement the marketing procedures (interface with ISOs) for the DER generated power. The team partnered with the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO), the local ISO, to address the energy market and demonstrate the economic dispatch of DERs in response to market signals. The selection of standards-based communication technologies offers the ability of the system to be deployed and integrated with other utilities’ resources. With the use of a data historian technology to facilitate the aggregation, the developed algorithms and procedures can be verified, audited, and modified. The team has demonstrated monitoring and control of multiple DERs as outlined in phase I report including procedures to perform these operations in a secure and safe manner. In Phase II, additional DER units were added. We also expanded on our phase I work to enhance communication security and to develop the market model of having DERs, both customer and utility owned, participate in the energy market. We are proposing a two-part DER energy market model--a utility

  5. Process automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process automation technology has been pursued in the chemical processing industries and to a very limited extent in nuclear fuel reprocessing. Its effective use has been restricted in the past by the lack of diverse and reliable process instrumentation and the unavailability of sophisticated software designed for process control. The Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility was developed by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) in part to demonstrate new concepts for control of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. A demonstration of fuel reprocessing equipment automation using advanced instrumentation and a modern, microprocessor-based control system is nearing completion in the facility. This facility provides for the synergistic testing of all chemical process features of a prototypical fuel reprocessing plant that can be attained with unirradiated uranium-bearing feed materials. The unique equipment and mission of the IET facility make it an ideal test bed for automation studies. This effort will provide for the demonstration of the plant automation concept and for the development of techniques for similar applications in a full-scale plant. A set of preliminary recommendations for implementing process automation has been compiled. Some of these concepts are not generally recognized or accepted. The automation work now under way in the IET facility should be useful to others in helping avoid costly mistakes because of the underutilization or misapplication of process automation. 6 figs

  6. Coordinated Control Scheme of Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) and Distributed Generations (DGs) for Electric Distribution Grid Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei;

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a coordinated control scheme of battery energy storage system (BESS) and distributed generations (DGs) for electric distribution grid operation. The BESS is designed to stabilize frequency and voltages as a primary control after the electric distribution system enters...

  7. Global distribution of grid connected electrical energy storage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Buss

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of grid connected electrical energy storage systems worldwide, based on public available data. Technologies considered in this study are pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES, compressed air energy storage (CAES, sodium-sulfur batteries (NaS, lead-acid batteries, redox-flow batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries (NiCd and lithium-ion batteries. As the research indicates, the worldwide installed capacity of grid connected electrical energy storage systems is approximately 154 GW. This corresponds to a share of 5.5 % of the worldwide installed generation capacity. Furthermore, the article gives an overview of the historical development of installed and used storage systems worldwide. Subsequently, the focus is on each considered technology concerning the current storage size, number of plants and location. In summary it can be stated, PHES is the most commonly used technology worldwide, whereas electrochemical technologies are increasingly gaining in importance. Regarding the distribution of grid connected storage systems reveals the share of installed storage capacity is in Europe and Eastern Asia twice as high as in North America.

  8. Role for Distributed Energy Resources (DER) in the Digital Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, Thomas S [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

    2007-11-01

    A large, and growing, part of the Nation's economy either serves or depends upon the information technology industry. These high-tech or "digital" enterprises are characterized by a dependence on electronic devices, need for completely reliable power supply, and intolerance to any power quality problems. In some cases these enterprises are densely populated with electronic loads and have very high energy usage per square foot. Serving these enterprises presents both electric power and equipment cooling challenges. Traditional electric utilities are often hard-pressed to deliver power that meets the stringent requirements of digital customers, and the economic and social consequences of a service quality or reliability problem can be large. New energy delivery and control options must be developed to effectively serve a digital economy. This report explores how distributed energy resources, partnerships between utility and customer to share the responsibility for service quality, innovative facility designs, higher energy efficiencies and waste-heat utilization can be coupled to meet the needs of a growing digital economy.

  9. 基于光纤通讯的快速保护型配电自动化模式方案%Optical fiber communication based on the rapid protective mode of distribution automation program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔爱国

    2013-01-01

    该文列举目前在国内配电自动化系统应用的几种基于保护原理的配电自动化模式:常规线路保护、面保护、快速光纤纵差保护,比较分析这些模式的优缺点及其在配电自动化系统中的适应场合。综合应用了面保护及电流型配电自动化的特点,提出一种基于快速光纤通讯集中处理保护的配电自动化方案,试验及应用证明此方案不需要配电站出口断路器跳闸,大大缩短了非故障线路的停电时间,动作准确可靠。%This article is currently listed in the domestic distribution automation system application of several principles based on the protection of distribution automation modes:General line protection, face protection, fast fiber longitudinal differential protection, a comparative analysis of advantages and disadvantages of these models and its application in distribution automation system in the adaptation occasions. Integrated application of surface protection and current-mode characteristics of distribution automation is proposed based on fast fiber-optic communications to focus on the protection of power distribution automation, testing and application of this program does not require proof of export of electric sub-station circuit breaker tripping, greatly reducing the non-fault lines, power outages, action accurate and reliable.

  10. Automated calculation of surface energy fluxes with high-frequency lake buoy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolway, R Iestyn; Jones, Ian D; Hamilton, David P.; Maberly, Stephen C; Muroaka, Kohji; Read, Jordan S.; Smyth, Robyn L; Winslow, Luke A.

    2015-01-01

    Lake Heat Flux Analyzer is a program used for calculating the surface energy fluxes in lakes according to established literature methodologies. The program was developed in MATLAB for the rapid analysis of high-frequency data from instrumented lake buoys in support of the emerging field of aquatic sensor network science. To calculate the surface energy fluxes, the program requires a number of input variables, such as air and water temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and short-wave radiation. Available outputs for Lake Heat Flux Analyzer include the surface fluxes of momentum, sensible heat and latent heat and their corresponding transfer coefficients, incoming and outgoing long-wave radiation. Lake Heat Flux Analyzer is open source and can be used to process data from multiple lakes rapidly. It provides a means of calculating the surface fluxes using a consistent method, thereby facilitating global comparisons of high-frequency data from lake buoys.

  11. Towards Automated Provisioning and Emergency Handling in Renewable Energy Powered Datacenters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 王锐; 胡杨; 周睿晋; 刘铭; 刘成军; 袁景凌; 李涛; 钱德沛

    2014-01-01

    Designing eco-friendly system has been at the forefront of computing research. Faced with a growing concern about the server energy expenditure and the climate change, both industry and academia start to show high interest in computing systems powered by renewable energy sources. Existing proposals on this issue mainly focus on optimizing resource utilization or workload performance. The key supporting hardware structures for cross-layer power management and emergency handling mechanisms are often left unexplored. This paper presents GreenPod, a research framework for exploring scalable and dependable renewable power management in datacenters. An important feature of GreenPod is that it enables joint management of server power supplies and virtualized server workloads. Its interactive communication portal between servers and power supplies allows datacenter operators to perform real-time renewable energy driven load migration and power emergency handling. Based on our system prototype, we discuss an important topic: virtual machine (VM) workloads survival when facing extended utility outage and insuffcient onsite renewable power budget. We show that whether a VM can survive depends on the operating frequencies and workload characteristics. The proposed framework can greatly encourage and facilitate innovative research in dependable green computing.

  12. Power distribution automating system of Chugoku Electric Power Company (function to link with high-voltage system control); Chugoku Denryoku (kabu) haiden jidoka system. Koatsu keito kanri system tono renkei kino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-10

    Chugoku Electric Power and Fuji Electric have developed a function to save man-power in data maintenance work in power distribution systems, whose data keep changing due to everyday work, by means of linking a high-voltage system control system with a power distribution automating system. The features of this function may be summarized as follows: (1) the linkage is performed by using the standard protocol (TCP/IP); (2) high-voltage distribution facility data are linked in units of construction names in the distribution systems, making facility data maintenance of the systems possible without a need of inputting data in the power distribution automating system; (3) data are linked periodically on the number of customers in a switch section and on change in facility capacity, with renewal enabled; and (4) linked data and the data on the power distribution automating system side are compared, when consistency in switch and device attributes, network and section facility data is checked automatically. (NEDO)

  13. Distributed Energy Storage Control for Dynamic Load Impact Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian J. Zangs

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The future uptake of electric vehicles (EV in low-voltage distribution networks can cause increased voltage violations and thermal overloading of network assets, especially in networks with limited headroom at times of high or peak demand. To address this problem, this paper proposes a distributed battery energy storage solution, controlled using an additive increase multiplicative decrease (AIMD algorithm. The improved algorithm (AIMD+ uses local bus voltage measurements and a reference voltage threshold to determine the additive increase parameter and to control the charging, as well as discharging rate of the battery. The used voltage threshold is dependent on the network topology and is calculated using power flow analysis tools, with peak demand equally allocated amongst all loads. Simulations were performed on the IEEE LV European Test feeder and a number of real U.K. suburban power distribution network models, together with European demand data and a realistic electric vehicle charging model. The performance of the standard AIMD algorithm with a fixed voltage threshold and the proposed AIMD+ algorithm with the reference voltage profile are compared. Results show that, compared to the standard AIMD case, the proposed AIMD+ algorithm further improves the network’s voltage profiles, reduces thermal overload occurrences and ensures a more equal battery utilisation.

  14. Automated Demand Response Approaches to Household Energy Management in a Smart Grid Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adika, Christopher Otieno

    The advancement of renewable energy technologies and the deregulation of the electricity market have seen the emergence of Demand response (DR) programs. Demand response is a cost-effective load management strategy which enables the electricity suppliers to maintain the integrity of the power grid during high peak periods, when the customers' electrical load is high. DR programs are designed to influence electricity users to alter their normal consumption patterns by offering them financial incentives. A well designed incentive-based DR scheme that offer competitive electricity pricing structure can result in numerous benefits to all the players in the electricity market. Lower power consumption during peak periods will significantly enhance the robustness of constrained networks by reducing the level of power of generation and transmission infrastructure needed to provide electric service. Therefore, this will ease the pressure of building new power networks as we avoiding costly energy procurements thereby translating into huge financial savings for the power suppliers. Peak load reduction will also reduce the inconveniences suffered by end users as a result of brownouts or blackouts. Demand response will also drastically lower the price peaks associated with wholesale markets. This will in turn reduce the electricity costs and risks for all the players in the energy market. Additionally, DR is environmentally friendly since it enhances the flexibility of the power grid through accommodation of renewable energy resources. Despite its many benefits, DR has not been embraced by most electricity networks. This can be attributed to the fact that the existing programs do not provide enough incentives to the end users and, therefore, most electricity users are not willing to participate in them. To overcome these challenges, most utilities are coming up with innovative strategies that will be more attractive to their customers. Thus, this dissertation presents various

  15. Get smart! automate your house!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Amstel, P.; Gorter, N.; De Rouw, J.

    2016-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability This manual will help you in reducing both energy usage and costs by automating your home. It gives an introduction to a number of home automation systems that every homeowner can install.

  16. Earthquake Energy Distribution along the Earth Surface and Radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global earthquake catalog of seismic events with MW ≥ 7.0, for the time interval from 1950 to 2007, shows that the depth distribution of earthquake energy release is not uniform. The 90% of the total earthquake energy budget is dissipated in the first ∼30km, whereas most of the residual budget is radiated at the lower boundary of the transition zone (410 km - 660 km), above the upper-lower mantle boundary. The upper border of the transition zone at around 410 km of depth is not marked by significant seismic energy release. This points for a non-dominant role of the slabs in the energy budged of plate tectonics. Earthquake number and energy release, although not well correlated, when analysed with respect to the latitude, show a decrease toward the polar areas. Moreover, the radiated energy has the highest peak close to (±5o) the so-called tectonic equator defined by Crespi et al. (2007), which is inclined about 30o with respect to the geographic equator. At the same time the presence of a clear axial co- ordination of the radiated seismic energy is demonstrated with maxima at latitudes close to critical (±45o). This speaks about the presence of external forces that influence seismicity and it is consistent with the fact that Gutenberg-Richter law is linear, for events with M>5, only when the whole Earth's seismicity is considered. These data are consistent with an astronomical control on plate tectonics, i.e., the despinning (slowing of the Earth's angular rotation) of the Earth's rotation caused primarily by the tidal friction due to the Moon. The mutual position of the shallow and ∼660 km deep earthquake energy sources along subduction zones allows us to conclude that they are connected with the same slab along the W-directed subduction zones, but they may rather be disconnected along the opposed E-NE-directed slabs, being the deep seismicity controlled by other mechanisms. (author)

  17. Power electronics for renewable and distributed energy systems a sourcebook of topologies, control and integration

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Kramer, William E

    2013-01-01

    While most books approach power electronics and renewable energy as two separate subjects, Power Electronics for Renewable and Distributed Energy Systems takes an integrative approach; discussing power electronic converters topologies, controls and integration that are specific to the renewable and distributed energy system applications. An overview of power electronic technologies is followed by the introduction of various renewable and distributed energy resources that includes photovoltaics, wind, small hydroelectric, fuel cells, microturbines and variable speed generation. Energy storage s

  18. Exergy efficient production, storage and distribution of solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandnes, Bjoernar

    2003-07-01

    There are two main themes in this thesis. 1) Exergy efficient utilization of solar energy, where the introduction of alternative technologies such as photovoltaic/thermal collectors and phase change energy storage in a low temperature solar system is investigated. 2) The possibility of storing thermal energy in supercooled liquids is investigated. The introductory chapters introduce the concept of exergy, and focus on the use of solar heat as an inherently low quality source for covering low quality demands associated with space heating and hot water. The different stages of solar energy production, storage, and distribution of heat is discussed, with emphasis on exergy relevant issues. With the low temperature solar heating system as background, the introduction of some additional technologies that are investigated. A section of this thesis presents a study of a small scale PV/T collector as a possible component in a low temperature system. In another section the instrumentation that has been built for studies of full-size PV and thermal systems is described, and the possibility of using the PV unit outputs as parameters for controlling the thermal system operation is briefly discussed. It is suggested that the design of the PV/T unit in terms of whether priority should be given to electricity or heat production should be based on how consumption of high quality auxiliary energy is minimized, and not on adding up the combined exergy which is being produced. Solar combisystems require larger heat storage capacities compared to the more common solar hot water systems. Increased volumetric heat storage capacity can be achieved by latent heat storage systems where thermal energy is stored as heat of fusion in phase change materials (PCMs). A section presents a study where spherically encapsulated PCM is incorporated in a solar heat store. Solar combisystems are often complex, and have a relatively large number of interacting components. Another section describes a

  19. 77 FR 10997 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... distribution transformers (72 FR 58190). The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT 2005), Public Law 109-25, amended... transformers (77 FR 7282). Need for Correction As published, values in certain tables of the proposed rule are... February 10 NOPR. Corrections In proposed rule FR Doc. 2012-2642 appearing on page 7282 in the issue...

  20. Probability distributions in conservative energy exchange models of multiple interacting agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scafetta, Nicola [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); West, Bruce J [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2007-02-14

    Herein we study energy exchange models of multiple interacting agents that conserve energy in each interaction. The models differ regarding the rules that regulate the energy exchange and boundary effects. We find a variety of stochastic behaviours that manifest energy equilibrium probability distributions of different types and interaction rules that yield not only the exponential distributions such as the familiar Maxwell-Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution of an elastically colliding ideal particle gas, but also uniform distributions, truncated exponential distributions, Gaussian distributions, Gamma distributions, inverse power law distributions, mixed exponential and inverse power law distributions, and evolving distributions. This wide variety of distributions should be of value in determining the underlying mechanisms generating the statistical properties of complex phenomena including those to be found in complex chemical reactions.

  1. Risoe energy report 4: The future energy system - distributed production and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world is facing major challenges in providing energy services to meet the future needs of the developed world and the growing needs of developing countries. These challenges are exacerbated by the need to provide energy services with due respect to economic growth, sustainability and security of supply. Today, the world's energy system is based mainly on oil, gas and coal, which together supply around 80% of our primary energy. Only around 0.5% of primary energy comes from renewable sources such as wind, solar and geothermal. Despite the rapid development of new energy technologies, the world will continue to depend on fossil fuels for several decades to come - and global primary energy demand is forecasted to grow by 60% between 2002 and 2030. The expected post Kyoto targets call for significant CO2 reductions, increasing the demand to decouple the energy and transport systems from fossil fuels. There is a strong need for closer links between electricity, heat and other energy carriers, including links to the transport sector. On a national scale Denmark has three main characteristics. Firstly, it has a diverse and distributed energy system based on the power grid, the district heating grid and the natural gas grid. Secondly, renewable energy, especially wind power, plays an increasingly important role in the Danish energy system. Thirdly, Denmark's geographical location allows it to act as a buffer between the energy systems of the European continent and the Nordic countries. Energy systems can be made more robust by decentralising both power generation and control. Distributed generation (DG) is characterised by a variety of energy production technologies integrated into the electricity supply system, and the ability of different segments of the grid to operate autonomously. The use of a more distributed power generation system would be an important element in the protection of the consumers against power interruptions and blackouts, whether caused by

  2. Risoe energy report 4: The future energy system - distributed production and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Soenderberg Petersen, L.

    2005-10-01

    The world is facing major challenges in providing energy services to meet the future needs of the developed world and the growing needs of developing countries. These challenges are exacerbated by the need to provide energy services with due respect to economic growth, sustainability and security of supply. Today, the world's energy system is based mainly on oil, gas and coal, which together supply around 80% of our primary energy. Only around 0.5% of primary energy comes from renewable sources such as wind, solar and geothermal. Despite the rapid development of new energy technologies, the world will continue to depend on fossil fuels for several decades to come - and global primary energy demand is forecasted to grow by 60% between 2002 and 2030. The expected post Kyoto targets call for significant CO{sub 2} reductions, increasing the demand to decouple the energy and transport systems from fossil fuels. There is a strong need for closer links between electricity, heat and other energy carriers, including links to the transport sector. On a national scale Denmark has three main characteristics. Firstly, it has a diverse and distributed energy system based on the power grid, the district heating grid and the natural gas grid. Secondly, renewable energy, especially wind power, plays an increasingly important role in the Danish energy system. Thirdly, Denmark's geographical location allows it to act as a buffer between the energy systems of the European continent and the Nordic countries. Energy systems can be made more robust by decentralising both power generation and control. Distributed generation (DG) is characterised by a variety of energy production technologies integrated into the electricity supply system, and the ability of different segments of the grid to operate autonomously. The use of a more distributed power generation system would be an important element in the protection of the consumers against power interruptions and blackouts, whether

  3. Spectroscopic classification of optical transients with the SEDM (Spectral Energy Distribution Machine) on Palomar 60-inch (P60) telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagorodnova, N.; Neill, D.; Walters, R.

    2016-07-01

    The Caltech Time Domain Astronomy group reports the classification of the optical transients SN 2016czr, SN 2016ejc and AT 2016eki. The candidates were discovered by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS: http://119.78.210.3/ptss2/ ), the Gaia ESA survey (Rixon et al,2014, ATel #6593) and the All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae ASAS-SN (see Shappee et al. 2014, ApJ, 788, 48 and http://www.astronomy.ohio-state.edu/~assassin/index.shtml ). The observations were performed on 2016-07-28 and 2016-07-29 with the Palomar 60-inch (P60) telescope and the Spectral Energy Distribution Machine (SEDM) (http://www.astro.caltech.edu/sedm/, range 350-950nm, spectral resolution R~100) on Palomar 60-inch (P60) telescope.

  4. An automated classification approach to ranking photospheric proxies of magnetic energy build-up

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Ghraibah, Amani; McAteer, R T James

    2015-01-01

    We study the photospheric magnetic field of ~2000 active regions in solar cycle 23 to search for parameters indicative of energy build-up and subsequent release as a solar flare. We extract three sets of parameters: snapshots in space and time- total flux, magnetic gradients, and neutral lines; evolution in time- flux evolution; structures at multiple size scales- wavelet analysis. This combines pattern recognition and classification techniques via a relevance vector machine to determine whether a region will flare. We consider classification performance using all 38 extracted features and several feature subsets. Classification performance is quantified using both the true positive rate and the true negative rate. Additionally, we compute the true skill score which provides an equal weighting to true positive rate and true negative rate and the Heidke skill score to allow comparison to other flare forecasting work. We obtain a true skill score of ~0.5 for any predictive time window in the range 2-24hr, with ...

  5. Application of IP Network in Distribution Automation%IP网络在配电自动化中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩国政; 徐丙垠

    2011-01-01

    在分析配电自动化(DA)通信系统需求的基础上,提出了建设分层的IP通信网络的方案.将整个网络分为主干网络和分支网络,主干网络连接位于控制中心的主站与位于变电站的配电子站,分支网络连接配电子站与配电终端.对分支网络的组网技术,以及IP通信网络的性能和数据流量进行了分析.采用OPNET软件进行仿真,仿真结果和现场实际应用结果表明IP网络完全可以满足配电自动化通信的要求.%A simplification method of complex nonlinear static characteristics of fuel cell is presented on the basis of automatic piecewise linear fitting method. This method can automatically give the piecewise linear fitting simplified model which can meet the predefined error requirement and change the number of linear subsection by adjusting the error limitation, thus improves the simulation speed while ensuring the simulation precision. It is also suitable for other distributed sources with nonlinear static characteristics. The validity of this method is proved by comparison and analysis between the detailed model and the simplified model.

  6. A framework for a distributed, hybrid, multiple-ontology clinical-guideline library, and automated guideline-support tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Yuval; Young, Ohad; Shalom, Erez; Galperin, Maya; Mayaffit, Alon; Moskovitch, Robert; Hessing, Alon

    2004-10-01

    Clinical guidelines are a major tool in improving the quality of medical care. However, most guidelines are in free text, not in a formal, executable format, and are not easily accessible to clinicians at the point of care. We introduce a Web-based, modular, distributed architecture, the Digital Electronic Guideline Library (DeGeL), which facilitates gradual conversion of clinical guidelines from text to a formal representation in chosen target guideline ontology. The architecture supports guideline classification, semantic markup, context-sensitive search, browsing, run-time application, and retrospective quality assessment. The DeGeL hybrid meta-ontology includes elements common to all guideline ontologies, such as semantic classification and domain knowledge; it also includes four content-representation formats: free text, semi-structured text, semi-formal representation, and a formal representation. These formats support increasingly sophisticated computational tasks. The DeGeL tools for support of guideline-based care operate, at some level, on all guideline ontologies. We have demonstrated the feasibility of the architecture and the tools for several guideline ontologies, including Asbru and GEM.

  7. Distributed energy. Conversion, storage and their development perspectives; Dezentrale Energie. Konversion, Speicherung und deren Entwicklungsperspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daschner, Robert; Apfelbacher, Andreas; Hornung, Andreas [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)

    2015-11-01

    The energy transition (''Energiewende'') has already impact on the energy generation structure in Germany. In future, these trends are likely to intensify and distributed systems, such as wind, solar and also biomass and waste are increasingly going to generate energy. According to own simulations, it is foreseeable that the balance of energy demand increases sharply due to the high installed capacity, especially in wind power and PV systems in combination with their fluctuating generation. Due to the increasing surplus in electricity generation, energy has to be stored in the form of electricity, heat, but also chemically, because in this way, long-term storage and system transition of power to other forms of use, such as the chemical industry and mobility, can be achieved.

  8. Interacting Electrons in Parabolic Quantum Dots:. Energy Levels, Addition Energies, and Charge Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Michael; Siewert, Jens; Vojta, Thomas

    2001-08-01

    We investigate the properties of interacting electrons in a parabolic confinement. To this end we numerically diagonalize the Hamiltonian using the Hartree-Fock based diagonalization method which is related to the configuration interaction approach. We study different types of interactions, Coulomb as well as short range. In addition to the ground state energy we calculate the spatial charge distribution and compare the results to those of the classical calculation. We find that a sufficiently strong screened Coulomb interaction produces energy level bunching for classical as well as for quantum-mechanical dots. Bunching in the quantum-mechanical system occurs due to an interplay of kinetic and interaction energy, moreover, it is observed well before reaching the limit of a Wigner crystal. It also turns out that the shell structure of classical and quantum mechanical spatial charge distributions is quite similar.

  9. Automated method for determination of dissolved organic carbon-water distribution constants of structurally diverse pollutants using pre-equilibrium solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripszam, Matyas; Haglund, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) plays a key role in determining the environmental fate of semivolatile organic environmental contaminants. The goal of the present study was to develop a method using commercially available hardware to rapidly characterize the sorption properties of DOC in water samples. The resulting method uses negligible-depletion direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Its performance was evaluated using Nordic reference fulvic acid and 40 priority environmental contaminants that cover a wide range of physicochemical properties. Two SPME fibers had to be used to cope with the span of properties, 1 coated with polydimethylsiloxane and 1 coated with polystyrene divinylbenzene polydimethylsiloxane, for nonpolar and semipolar contaminants, respectively. The measured DOC-water distribution constants showed reasonably good reproducibility (standard deviation ≤ 0.32) and good correlation (R(2)  = 0.80) with log octanol-water partition coefficients for nonpolar persistent organic pollutants. The sample pretreatment is limited to filtration, and the method is easy to adjust to different DOC concentrations. These experiments also utilized the latest SPME automation that largely decreases total cycle time (to 20 min or shorter) and increases sample throughput, which is advantageous in cases when many samples of DOC must be characterized or when the determinations must be performed quickly, for example, to avoid precipitation, aggregation, and other changes of DOC structure and properties. The data generated by this method are valuable as a basis for transport and fate modeling studies. PMID:25393710

  10. Energy distributions for ionization in ion-atom collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Amaya-Tapia, A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how through the process of applying the Fourier transform to solutions of the Schr\\"odinger equation in the Close Coupling approach, good results for the ionization differential cross section in energy for electrons ejected in ion-atom collisions are obtained. The differential distributions are time dependent and through their time average, the comparison with experimental and theoretical data reported in the literature can be made. The procedure is illustrated with reasonable success in two systems, $p+H$ and $p+He$, and is expected to be extended without inherent difficulties to more complex systems. This allows advancing in the understanding of the calculation of ionization processes in ion-atom collisions.

  11. AGN Spectral Energy Distributions of GLAST Telescope Network Program Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Jeff; Lacy, Mark; Daou, Doris; Rapp, Steve; Stefaniak, Linda

    2005-03-01

    The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) has a proposed observing list that includes AGNs and Polars bright enough to be observed optically by amateurs and students. This observing list is maintained by the "GLAST Telescope Network" (GTN) and includes a number of objects that have yet to be observed by the Spitzer Space Telescope. Our project will observe one of these objects with the Spitzer MIPS and the IRAC instruments to determine their Spectral Energy Distribution (SED), which will be compared to a computer model of disk emission in order to determine what component of the SED is due to the disk and what component is due to synchrotron radiation induced by the jets. In addition we will observe our program objects prior to, simultaneously with, and after Spitzer observes them. This gives a direct connection from Spitzer research to student activities in the classroom.

  12. Passive Safety Small Reactor for Distributed Energy Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Toshihisa; Sawada, Ken-Ichi; Odano, Naoteru

    The purpose of this paper is to study the core performance of passive safety small reactor for distributed energy supply by changing the heavy water (D2O) concentration in the mixed coolant together with the fuel pitch. The long core life with conditions of the excessive reactivity of 2 %Δk/k, the reactivity shutdown margin of 1 %Δk/k and the negative coolant temperature reactivity coefficient is attained for the case of D2O concentration of 60% with 10% enrichment gadolinia (Gd2O3) doped fuel rods. This D2O core has a shorter core life 4.14 years than the original light water (H2O) core 4.76 years, while it needs a larger core size. However, changing the D2O concentration on the way during the burn-up shows a possibility of extending more the core life than that of the original H2O core.

  13. Evaluation Framework and Tools for Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumerman, Etan Z.; Bharvirkar, Ranjit R.; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Marnay , Chris

    2003-02-01

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 2002 Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) forecast anticipates the need for 375 MW of new generating capacity (or about one new power plant) per week for the next 20 years, most of which is forecast to be fueled by natural gas. The Distributed Energy and Electric Reliability Program (DEER) of the Department of Energy (DOE), has set a national goal for DER to capture 20 percent of new electric generation capacity additions by 2020 (Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 2000). Cumulatively, this amounts to about 40 GW of DER capacity additions from 2000-2020. Figure ES-1 below compares the EIA forecast and DEER's assumed goal for new DER by 2020 while applying the same definition of DER to both. This figure illustrates that the EIA forecast is consistent with the overall DEER DER goal. For the purposes of this study, Berkeley Lab needed a target level of small-scale DER penetration upon which to hinge consideration of benefits and costs. Because the AEO2002 forecasted only 3.1 GW of cumulative additions from small-scale DER in the residential and commercial sectors, another approach was needed to estimate the small-scale DER target. The focus here is on small-scale DER technologies under 500 kW. The technology size limit is somewhat arbitrary, but the key results of interest are marginal additional costs and benefits around an assumed level of penetration that existing programs might achieve. Berkeley Lab assumes that small-scale DER has the same growth potential as large scale DER in AEO2002, about 38 GW. This assumption makes the small-scale goal equivalent to 380,000 DER units of average size 100 kW. This report lays out a framework whereby the consequences of meeting this goal might be estimated and tallied up. The framework is built around a list of major benefits and a set of tools that might be applied to estimate them. This study lists some of the major effects of an emerging paradigm shift away from

  14. Data intensive high energy physics analysis in a distributed cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that distributed Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) compute clouds can be effectively used for the analysis of high energy physics data. We have designed a distributed cloud system that works with any application using large input data sets requiring a high throughput computing environment. The system uses IaaS-enabled science and commercial clusters in Canada and the United States. We describe the process in which a user prepares an analysis virtual machine (VM) and submits batch jobs to a central scheduler. The system boots the user-specific VM on one of the IaaS clouds, runs the jobs and returns the output to the user. The user application accesses a central database for calibration data during the execution of the application. Similarly, the data is located in a central location and streamed by the running application. The system can easily run one hundred simultaneous jobs in an efficient manner and should scale to many hundreds and possibly thousands of user jobs.

  15. Distributional and regional economic impact of energy taxes in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyse the macroeconomic and distributional effects of increased oil excises in Belgium by combining a regional Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model with a microsimulation framework that exploits the rich detail of household-level data. The link between the CGE model and the microlevel is top–down, feeding changes in commodity prices, factor returns and employment by sector into a microsimulation model. The results suggest that policymakers face an equity-efficiency trade-off driven by the choice of revenue recycling options. When the additional revenue is used to raise welfare transfers to households, the reform is beneficial for lower income groups, but output levels decrease in all regions. However, when the energy tax revenue is used to lower distortionary labour taxes, the tax shift is slightly regressive. In this case, national GDP is hardly affected but regional production levels diverge. The impact of the environmental tax reform on income distribution depends strongly on changes in factor prices and welfare payments, whereas sector composition is an important determinant for regional impact variation. - Highlights: • We study the impact of oil excises across regions and households in Belgium. • Lower income groups gain if the revenue is used to raise welfare payments. • If labour taxes are reduced, the reform is only slightly regressive. • The differential impact across households is driven by factor price changes. • Sector composition is a crucial determinant for impact variation across regions

  16. A modal approach to modeling spatially distributed vibration energy dissipation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segalman, Daniel Joseph

    2010-08-01

    The nonlinear behavior of mechanical joints is a confounding element in modeling the dynamic response of structures. Though there has been some progress in recent years in modeling individual joints, modeling the full structure with myriad frictional interfaces has remained an obstinate challenge. A strategy is suggested for structural dynamics modeling that can account for the combined effect of interface friction distributed spatially about the structure. This approach accommodates the following observations: (1) At small to modest amplitudes, the nonlinearity of jointed structures is manifest primarily in the energy dissipation - visible as vibration damping; (2) Correspondingly, measured vibration modes do not change significantly with amplitude; and (3) Significant coupling among the modes does not appear to result at modest amplitudes. The mathematical approach presented here postulates the preservation of linear modes and invests all the nonlinearity in the evolution of the modal coordinates. The constitutive form selected is one that works well in modeling spatially discrete joints. When compared against a mathematical truth model, the distributed dissipation approximation performs well.

  17. Data Intensive High Energy Physics Analysis in a Distributed Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Sobie, R J; Anderson, M; Armstrong, P; Fransham, K; Gable, I; Harris, D; Leavett-Brown, C; Paterson, M; Penfold-Brown, D; Vliet, M; Charbonneau, A; Impey, R; Podaima, W

    2011-01-01

    We show that distributed Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) compute clouds can be effectively used for the analysis of high energy physics data. We have designed a distributed cloud system that works with any application using large input data sets requiring a high throughput computing environment. The system uses IaaS-enabled science and commercial clusters in Canada and the United States. We describe the process in which a user prepares an analysis virtual machine (VM) and submits batch jobs to a central scheduler. The system boots the user-specific VM on one of the IaaS clouds, runs the jobs and returns the output to the user. The user application accesses a central database for calibration data during the execution of the application. Similarly, the data is located in a central location and streamed by the running application. The system can easily run one hundred simultaneous jobs in an efficient manner and should scale to many hundreds and possibly thousands of user jobs.

  18. Guest Editorial Advanced Distributed Control of Energy Conversion Devices and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoudi, Ali; Guerrero, Josep M.; Lewis, Frank;

    2014-01-01

    The papers in this special issue on advanced distributed control of energy conversion devices and systems are loosely grouped into three categories: 1) ac energy conversion systems; 2) dc energy conversion systems; and 3) optimization and standards.......The papers in this special issue on advanced distributed control of energy conversion devices and systems are loosely grouped into three categories: 1) ac energy conversion systems; 2) dc energy conversion systems; and 3) optimization and standards....

  19. Optimal Buildings’ Energy Consumption Calculus through a Distributed Experiment Execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Fonseca i Casas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculus of building energy consumption is a demanding task because multiple factors must be considered during experimentation. Additionally, the definition of the model and the experiments is complex because the problem is multidisciplinary. When we face complex models and experiments that require a considerable amount of computational resources, the application of solutions is imperative to reduce the amount of time needed to define the model and the experiments and to obtain the answers. In this paper, we first address the definition and the implementation of an environmental model that describes the behavior of a building from a sustainability point of view and enables the use of several simulations and calculus engines in a cosimulation scenario. Second, we define a distributed experimental framework that enables us to obtain results in an accurate amount of time. This methodology has been applied to the energy consumption calculation, but it can also be applied to other modeling problems that usually require a considerable amount of resources by reducing the amount of time needed to perform modeling, implementation, verification, and experimentation.

  20. The self-energy of a charged particle in the presence of a topological defect distribution

    CERN Document Server

    De Carvalho, A M M; Furtado, C; Moraes, Fernando; Furtado, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    In this work we study a charged particle in the presence of both a continuous distribution of disclinations and a continuous distribution of edge dislocations in the framework of the geometrical theory of defects. We obtain the self-energy for a single charge both in the internal and external regions of either distribution. For both distributions the result outside the defect distribution is the self-energy that a single charge experiments in the presence of a single defect.

  1. Design and application of the secondary safety protection for distribution automation main station system%配电自动化主站系统二次安防的设计应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑铁军; 胡强晖

    2015-01-01

    针对配电自动化主站二次系统的安全防护问题,基于“安全分区,网络专用,横向隔离,纵向认证”的二次系统安全防护原则,采用对主站系统的安全分区和在系统边界部署安全防护等措施,对宁东供电公司配电自动化主站系统进行了安全防护设计。应用结果表明:该二次安全防护方案有效保证了配电自动化系统和配电网的安全,稳定运行。%Aiming at the problem of the secondary system security for power distribution automation master station,based on the secondary system security principle of‘safe partition,network dedicated server,split horizon and longitudinal certification’,adopts the measures to make safe partition for the master station system and to dispose security protection at the system margin,designs the secondary system security protection of power distribution automation master station in Ningdong Power Supply Company. The application result shows that the secondary system security protection schemes can ensure effectively the safe and steady operation of power distribution automation system and distribution network.

  2. A smart monitoring infrastructure design for distributed renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A smart grid model for renewable energy sources is proposed in this study. • The renewable energy conversion system is constituted with solar plants and full bridge inverter. • The power line communication is performed with QPSK modulation. • The transmission line that has 25 km length is modelled with real-time parameters. • The efficiency of system is analysed by comparing transmitted and received data. - Abstract: The automatic meter reading is essentially required in renewable grids as in conventional grids. It is intended to propose a reliable measurement system that is validated in a photovoltaic power system to meet the requirement of a renewable grid. In the presented study, the photovoltaic plants are controlled by using a widely known maximum power point tracking algorithm that is named as “Perturb and Observe”. The distribution line at the output of inverter is modelled according to realistic parameters of 25 km line. Besides carrying the generated line voltage, the grid is used as a transmission medium for the generated power measurements of photovoltaic plants and power consumptions of load plants separately. The modem constituting the power line communication manages the dual-channel transfer and transmits the consumed energy ratios of the load plants. One of the modems is located at the output of voltage source inverter and the other one of the load plants. The power consumption values of each load plants are individually measured and successfully transmitted to monitoring section in the modelled system. The obtained data that is only used for monitoring in this application can also be evaluated for automatic meter reading applications

  3. A Multiagent-based Consensus Algorithm for Distributed Coordinated Control of Distributed Generators in the Energy Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Qiuye; Han, Renke; Zhang, Huaguang;

    2015-01-01

    providing accurate power-sharing and minimizing circulating currents. Finally, the Energy Internet can be integrated into the Main-Grid seamlessly if necessary. Hence the Energy Internet can be operated as a spinning reserve system. Simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed......With the bidirectional power flow provided by the Energy Internet, various methods are promoted to improve and increase the energy utilization between Energy Internet and Main-Grid. This paper proposes a novel distributed coordinated controller combined with a multi-agent-based consensus algorithm...... which is applied to distributed generators in the Energy Internet. Then, the decomposed tasks, models, and information flow of the proposed method are analyzed. The proposed coordinated controller installed between the Energy Internet and the Main-Grid keeps voltage angles and amplitudes consensus while...

  4. ARES (Automated Residential Energy Standard) 1.2: User`s guide, in support of proposed interim energy conservation voluntary performance standards for new non-federal residential buildings: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-09-01

    The ARES (Automated Residential Energy Standard) User`s Guide is designed to the user successfully operate the ARES computer program. This guide assumes that the user is familiar with basic PC skills such as using a keyboard and loading a disk drive. The ARES computer program was designed to assist building code officials in creating a residential energy standard based on local climate and costs.

  5. Design of a New Type of Distribution Valve for Hydraulic Breaker and Analysis of Energy Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Energy consumed by distribution valves causes an energy loss for the output energy of hydraulic breakers, which has a significant influence on its efficiency. A new type of distribution valve used for hydraulic breakers, designed to reduce energy consumption, is analyzed on the basis of the operating principle and energy loss of the current distribution valve. The new distribution valve adopts a cone valve and the optimization technique of unequal open degree for the valve port. Theoretical calculations and analyses have proven that the new distribution valve can reduce energy loss by 9.0127J, or energy consumption by 31%, during an impact cycle and the efficiency of the hydraulic breaker can be raised by 4.5%. It has the following characteristics: little leakage, little pressure loss and low energy consumption.

  6. Automating Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John

    2007-01-01

    In past years, higher education's financial management side has been riddled with manual processes and aging mainframe applications. This article discusses schools which had taken advantage of an array of technologies that automate billing, payment processing, and refund processing in the case of overpayment. The investments are well worth it:…

  7. Systematic properties of the Tsallis distribution: Energy dependence of parameters in high energy p–p collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleymans, J., E-mail: jean.cleymans@gmail.com [UCT-CERN Research Centre and Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape (South Africa); Lykasov, G.I. [JINR, Dubna, 141980 Moscow region (Russian Federation); Parvan, A.S. [JINR, Dubna, 141980 Moscow region (Russian Federation); Institute of Applied Physics, Moldova Academy of Sciences, MD-2028 Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Sorin, A.S.; Teryaev, O.V. [JINR, Dubna, 141980 Moscow region (Russian Federation); Worku, D. [UCT-CERN Research Centre and Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape (South Africa)

    2013-06-25

    Changes in the transverse momentum distributions with beam energy are studied using the Tsallis distribution as a parameterization. The dependence of the Tsallis parameters q, T and the volume are determined as a function of beam energy. The Tsallis parameter q shows a weak but clear increase with beam energy with the highest value being approximately 1.15. The Tsallis temperature and volume are consistent with being independent of beam energy within experimental uncertainties.

  8. Dictionary of electrical engineering, power engineering and automation. Pt. 2. English-German. 6. rev. and enl. ed.; Woerterbuch Elektrotechnik, Energie- und Automatisierungstechnik. T. 2. Englisch - Deutsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This dictionary can be recommended as the standard reference manual for translators, engineers, and technical writers who are looking for a comprehensive and reliable compilation of terms from the fields of power generation, transmission and distribution, drive engineering, automation, switchgear and installation engineering, power electronics as well as measurement and test engineering. For this edition, the dictionary has been updated and enlarged by about 40%. In the translation direction English-German, it now contains about 115,000 entries and 156,000 translations. The book is clearly structured, and the required information is quickly accessible (orig.)

  9. Dictionary of electrical engineering, power engineering and automation. Pt. 1. German-English. 6. rev. and enl. ed.; Woerterbuch Elektrotechnik, Energie- und Automatisierungstechnik. T. 1. Deutsch-Englisch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This dictionary is the standard work for translators, engineers, and technical writers requiring a comprehensive and reliable compilation of terms from the fields of power generation, transmission and distribution, drive engineering, automation, switchgear and installation engineering, power electronics as well as measurement and test engineering. For this edition, the dictionary has been updated and enlarged by about 40 %. In the translation direction German-English (Volume 1), it now contains 121,000 entries and 166,000 translations, in the translation direction English-German 115,000 entries and 156,000 translations. (orig.)

  10. 16 CFR Table 4 to Part 1512 - Relative Energy Distribution of Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relative Energy Distribution of Sources 4... SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR BICYCLES Pt. 1512, Table 4 Table 4 to Part 1512—Relative Energy Distribution of Sources Wave length (nanometers) Relative energy 380 9.79 390 12.09 400 14.71 410 17.68 420...

  11. Recipe creation for automated defect classification with a 450mm surface scanning inspection system based on the bidirectional reflectance distribution function of native defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yathapu, Nithin; McGarvey, Steve; Brown, Justin; Zhivotovsky, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    This study explores the feasibility of Automated Defect Classification (ADC) with a Surface Scanning Inspection System (SSIS). The defect classification was based upon scattering sensitivity sizing curves created via modeling of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF). The BRDF allowed for the creation of SSIS sensitivity/sizing curves based upon the optical properties of both the filmed wafer samples and the optical architecture of the SSIS. The elimination of Polystyrene Latex Sphere (PSL) and Silica deposition on both filmed and bare Silicon wafers prior to SSIS recipe creation and ADC creates a challenge for light scattering surface intensity based defect binning. This study explored the theoretical maximal SSIS sensitivity based on native defect recipe creation in conjunction with the maximal sensitivity derived from BRDF modeling recipe creation. Single film and film stack wafers were inspected with recipes based upon BRDF modeling. Following SSIS recipe creation, initially targeting maximal sensitivity, selected recipes were optimized to classify defects commonly found on non-patterned wafers. The results were utilized to determine the ADC binning accuracy of the native defects and evaluate the SSIS recipe creation methodology. A statistically valid sample of defects from the final inspection results of each SSIS recipe and filmed substrate were reviewed post SSIS ADC processing on a Defect Review Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Native defect images were collected from each statistically valid defect bin category/size for SEM Review. The data collected from the Defect Review SEM was utilized to determine the statistical purity and accuracy of each SSIS defect classification bin. This paper explores both, commercial and technical, considerations of the elimination of PSL and Silica deposition as a precursor to SSIS recipe creation targeted towards ADC. Successful integration of SSIS ADC in conjunction with recipes created via BRDF

  12. Spectral Energy Distributions and Multiwavelength Selection of Type 1 Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, G T; Budavari, T; Fan, X; Gallagher, S C; Hall, P B; Hines, D C; Jester, S; Lacy, M; Papovich, C; Schneider, D P; Storrie-Lombardi, L J; Szalay, A S; Trammell, G B; Vanden Berk, Daniel E; Vestergaard, M; York, D G; Anderson, Scott F.; Berk, Daniel E. Vanden; Budavari, Tamas; Fan, Xiaohui; Hall, Patrick B.; Hines, Dean C.; Jester, Sebastian; Lacy, Mark; Papovich, Casey; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa J.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Trammell, George B.; Vestergaard, Marianne; York, Donald G.

    2006-01-01

    We present an analysis of the mid-infrared (MIR) and optical properties of type 1 (broad-line) quasars detected by the Spitzer Space Telescope. The MIR color-redshift relation is characterized to z=3, with predictions to z=7. We demonstrate how combining MIR and optical colors can yield even more efficient selection of active galactic nuclei (AGN) than MIR or optical colors alone. Composite spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are constructed for 259 quasars with both Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Spitzer photometry, supplemented by near-IR, GALEX, VLA and ROSAT data where available. We discuss how the spectral diversity of quasars influences the determination of bolometric luminosities and accretion rates; assuming the mean SED can lead to errors as large as a factor of 2 for individual quasars. Finally, we show that careful consideration of the shape of the mean quasar SED and its redshift dependence leads to a lower estimate of the fraction of reddened/obscured AGNs missed by optical surveys as compared to ...

  13. Mean Spectral Energy Distributions and Bolometric Corrections for Luminous Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Krawczyk, Coleman M; Mehta, Sajjan S; Vogeley, Michael S; Gallagher, S C; Leighly, Karen M; Ross, Nicholas P; Schneider, Donald P; 10.1088/0067-0049/206/1/4

    2013-01-01

    We explore the mid-infrared (mid-IR) through ultraviolet (UV) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 119,652 luminous broad-lined quasars with 0.0641.6; the latter is a possible indicator of the strength of the accretion disk wind, which is expected to be SED dependent. Luminosity-dependent mean SEDs show that, relative to the high-luminosity SED, low-luminosity SEDs exhibit a harder (bluer) far-UV spectral slope, a redder optical continuum, and less hot dust. Mean SEDs constructed instead as a function of UV emission line properties reveal changes that are consistent with known Principal Component Analysis (PCA) trends. A potentially important contribution to the bolometric correction is the unseen extream-UV (EUV) continuum. Our work suggests that lower-luminosity quasars and/or quasars with disk-dominated broad emission lines may require an extra continuum component in the EUV that is not present (or much weaker) in high-luminosity quasars with strong accretion disk winds. As such, we consider four possib...

  14. Modelling and interpreting spectral energy distributions of galaxies with BEAGLE

    CERN Document Server

    Chevallard, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    We present a new-generation tool to model and interpret spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies, which incorporates in a consistent way the production of radiation and its transfer through the interstellar and intergalactic media. This flexible tool, named BEAGLE (for BayEsian Analysis of GaLaxy sEds), allows one to build mock galaxy catalogues as well as to interpret in terms of physical parameters any combination of photometric and spectroscopic galaxy observations. The current version of the tool includes the versatile modeling of the emission from stars and photoionized gas, attenuation by dust and the accounting for different instrumental effects. We show a first application of the BEAGLE tool to the interpretation of broadband SEDs of a published sample of ${\\sim}10^4$ galaxies at redshifts $0.1 \\lesssim z\\lesssim8$. We find that the constraints derived on photometric redshifts using this multi-purpose tool are comparable to those obtained using public, dedicated photometric-redshift codes and ...

  15. The Spectral Energy Distribution of the Coldest Known Brown Dwarf

    CERN Document Server

    Luhman, K L

    2016-01-01

    WISE J085510.83-071442.5 (hereafter WISE 0855-0714) is the coldest known brown dwarf (~250 K) and the fourth closest known system to the Sun (2.2 pc). It has been previously detected only in the J band and two mid-IR bands. To better measure its spectral energy distribution (SED), we have performed deep imaging of WISE 0855-0714 in six optical and near-IR bands with Gemini Observatory, the Very Large Telescope, and the Hubble Space Telescope. Five of the bands show detections, although one detection is marginal (S/N~3). We also have obtained two epochs of images with the Spitzer Space Telescope for use in refining the parallax of the brown dwarf. By combining astrometry from this work and previous studies, we have derived a parallax of 0.449+/-0.008" (2.23+/-0.04 pc). We have compared our photometry for WISE 0855-0714 to data for known Y dwarfs and to the predictions of three suites of models by Saumon et al. (2012) and Morley et al. (2012, 2014) that are defined by the presence or absence of clouds and non-e...

  16. Advanced Power Electronics Interfaces for Distributed Energy Workshop Summary: August 24, 2006, Sacramento, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treanton, B.; Palomo, J.; Kroposki, B.; Thomas, H.

    2006-10-01

    The Advanced Power Electronics Interfaces for Distributed Energy Workshop, sponsored by the California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research program and organized by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, was held Aug. 24, 2006, in Sacramento, Calif. The workshop provided a forum for industry stakeholders to share their knowledge and experience about technologies, manufacturing approaches, markets, and issues in power electronics for a range of distributed energy resources. It focused on the development of advanced power electronic interfaces for distributed energy applications and included discussions of modular power electronics, component manufacturing, and power electronic applications.

  17. Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, David P.; Donnelly, Matthew K.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2006-12-12

    Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.

  18. Lifetime optimization of wireless sensor network by a better nodes positioning and energy distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, J. M.; Murad, N. M.

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a method of energy distribution on a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). Nodes are randomly positioned and the sink is placed at the centre of the surface. Simulations show that relay nodes around the sink are too much requested to convey data, which substantially reduces their lifetime. So, several algorithmic solutions are presented to optimize the energy distribution on each node, compared to the classical uniform energy distribution. Their performance is discussed in terms of failure rate of data transmission and network lifetime. Moreover, the total energy distributed on all nodes before the deployment is invariable and some non-uniform energy distributions are created. Finally, simulations show that every energy distributions greatly improve the WSN lifetime and decrease the failure rate of data transmission.

  19. TECHNICAL AND ENERGY PARAMETERS IMPROVEMENT OF DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES THROUGH THE INTRODUCTION OF AUTOMATED CONTROL SYSTEMS OF A DIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Kapitsa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Today the issue, connected with diesel traction remains relevant for the majority of industrial enterprises and Ukrainian railways and diesel engine continues to be the subject of extensive research and improvements. Despite the intensive process of electrification, which accompanies Railway Transport of Ukraine the last few years, diesel traction continues to play an important role both in the main and in the industrial railway traction rolling stock. Anyway, all kinds of maneuvering and chores are for locomotives, they are improved and upgraded relentlessly and hourly. This paper is focused on finding the opportunities to improve technical and energy parameters of diesels due to the development of modern control method of the fuel equipment in the diesel engine. Methodology. The proposed method increases the power of locomotives diesel engines in the range of crankshaft rotation (from idle running to maximum one. It was based on approach of mixture ignition timing up to the top «dead» center of piston position. Findings. The paper provides a brief historical background of research in the area of operating cycle in the internal combustion engine (ICE. The factors affecting the process of mixing and its quality were analyzed. The requirements for fuel feed system in to the cylinder and the «weak points» of the process were presented. A variant of the modification the fuel pump drive, which allows approaching to the regulation of fuel feed system from the other hand and to improve it was proposed. Represents a variant of embodiment of the complex system with specification of mechanical features and control circuits. The algorithm of the system operation was presented and its impact on the performance of diesel was made. Originality. The angle regulating system of fuel supply allows automating the process of fuel injection advance angle into the cylinder. Practical value. At implementation the angle regulating system of fuel supply

  20. Communication infrastructure and data management for operating smart distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunner, C.; Buchholz, B.M.; Gelfand, A.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Naumann, A.

    2012-01-01

    The enhancement of distribution networks into smart grids is based on three pillars: • Energy management on distribution level, • Distribution system automation, • Involvement of the consumers into the market for electricity by smart metering All these functions require an intensive exchange of data

  1. Development of a High-Speed Static Switch for Distributed Energy and Microgrid Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Pink, C.; Lynch, J.; John, V.; Meor Daniel, S.; Benedict, E.; Vihinen, I.

    2007-01-01

    Distributed energy resources can provide power to local loads in the electric distribution system and benefits such as improved reliability. Microgrids are intentional islands formed at a facility or in an electrical distribution system that contains at least one distributed resource and associated loads. Microgrids that operate both electrical generation and loads in a coordinated manner can offer additional benefits to the customer and local utility. The loads and energy sources can be disconnected from and reconnected to the area or local utility with minimal disruption to the local loads, thereby improving reliability. This paper details the development and testing of a highspeed static switch for distributed energy and microgrid applications.

  2. Spin distribution measurement for 64Ni + 100Mo at near and above barrier energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Varinderjit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spin distribution measurements were performed for the reaction 64Ni + 100Mo at three beam energies ranging from 230 to 260 MeV. Compound nucleus (CN spin distributions were obtained channel selective for each evaporation residue populated by the de-excitation cascade. A comparison of the spin distribution at different beam energies indicates that its slope becomes steeper and steeper with increasing beam energy. This change in slope of the spin distribution is mainly due to the onset of fission competition with particle evaporation at higher beam energies.

  3. Modelling and interpreting spectral energy distributions of galaxies with BEAGLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallard, Jacopo; Charlot, Stéphane

    2016-10-01

    We present a new-generation tool to model and interpret spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies, which incorporates in a consistent way the production of radiation and its transfer through the interstellar and intergalactic media. This flexible tool, named BEAGLE (for BayEsian Analysis of GaLaxy sEds), allows one to build mock galaxy catalogues as well as to interpret any combination of photometric and spectroscopic galaxy observations in terms of physical parameters. The current version of the tool includes versatile modelling of the emission from stars and photoionized gas, attenuation by dust and accounting for different instrumental effects, such as spectroscopic flux calibration and line spread function. We show a first application of the BEAGLE tool to the interpretation of broad-band SEDs of a published sample of ˜ 10^4 galaxies at redshifts 0.1 ≲ z ≲ 8. We find that the constraints derived on photometric redshifts using this multipurpose tool are comparable to those obtained using public, dedicated photometric-redshift codes and quantify this result in a rigorous statistical way. We also show how the post-processing of BEAGLE output data with the PYTHON extension PYP-BEAGLE allows the characterization of systematic deviations between models and observations, in particular through posterior predictive checks. The modular design of the BEAGLE tool allows easy extensions to incorporate, for example, the absorption by neutral galactic and circumgalactic gas, and the emission from an active galactic nucleus, dust and shock-ionized gas. Information about public releases of the BEAGLE tool will be maintained on http://www.jacopochevallard.org/beagle.

  4. Optimal Combination of Distributed Energy System in an Eco-Campusof Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yongwen; Gao, Weijun; Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris

    2006-06-14

    In this study, referring to the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) which was developed by the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), E-GAMS programmer is developed with a research of database of energy tariffs, DER (Distributed Energy Resources) technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption in Japan. E-GAMS is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills. In this research, by using E-GAMS, we present a tool to select the optimal combination of distributed energy system for an Ecological-Campus, Kitakyushu, Science and Research Park (KSRP). We discuss the effects of the combination of distributed energy technologies on the energy saving, economic efficiency and environmental benefits.

  5. Automation Security

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzoev, Dr. Timur

    2014-01-01

    Web-based Automated Process Control systems are a new type of applications that use the Internet to control industrial processes with the access to the real-time data. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks contain computers and applications that perform key functions in providing essential services and commodities (e.g., electricity, natural gas, gasoline, water, waste treatment, transportation) to all Americans. As such, they are part of the nation s critical infrastructu...

  6. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-05-31

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC.

  7. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC

  8. Home Network Technologies and Automating Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McParland, Charles

    2009-12-01

    Over the past several years, interest in large-scale control of peak energy demand and total consumption has increased. While motivated by a number of factors, this interest has primarily been spurred on the demand side by the increasing cost of energy and, on the supply side by the limited ability of utilities to build sufficient electricity generation capacity to meet unrestrained future demand. To address peak electricity use Demand Response (DR) systems are being proposed to motivate reductions in electricity use through the use of price incentives. DR systems are also be design to shift or curtail energy demand at critical times when the generation, transmission, and distribution systems (i.e. the 'grid') are threatened with instabilities. To be effectively deployed on a large-scale, these proposed DR systems need to be automated. Automation will require robust and efficient data communications infrastructures across geographically dispersed markets. The present availability of widespread Internet connectivity and inexpensive, reliable computing hardware combined with the growing confidence in the capabilities of distributed, application-level communications protocols suggests that now is the time for designing and deploying practical systems. Centralized computer systems that are capable of providing continuous signals to automate customers reduction of power demand, are known as Demand Response Automation Servers (DRAS). The deployment of prototype DRAS systems has already begun - with most initial deployments targeting large commercial and industrial (C & I) customers. An examination of the current overall energy consumption by economic sector shows that the C & I market is responsible for roughly half of all energy consumption in the US. On a per customer basis, large C & I customers clearly have the most to offer - and to gain - by participating in DR programs to reduce peak demand. And, by concentrating on a small number of relatively

  9. Development of a prototype of a Master Central Unit (MCU) for the automation of Distribution Control Centers; Desarrollo de un prototipo de Unidad Central Maestra (UCM) para la automatizacion de Centros de Control de Distribucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uribe Blanco, Carlos Eduardo; Mata Almanza, Rafael; Picasso Blanquel, Cuitlahuac [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    For the purpose of contributing to the strategic plan and to the improvement of productivity and competitiveness levels, the Federal Electric Commission (CFE, Spanish acronym) is making a significant investment in human resources and materials to modernize electric energy supply systems, including monitoring, protection and automatic control for operating all the elements of the electrical process, from generating plants to transmission lines, distribution systems and commercial applications. With this modernization, the CFE is also creating the infrastructure for the interoperability and interconnectivity of the above systems, in such a way to enable it to broaden, continue and complement the functional integration of the linked institutional systems of the latest generation. The total integration of the systems will allow the CFE to move toward Intelligent Electric Networks. Therefore, the CFE requested help from the Electric Research Institute (IIE, Spanish acronym) to develop part of the infrastructure to modernize the automation of distribution. This consists of the development of a prototype of the supervision and control system, using interoperable open technology owned by the CFE which enables using the functions of a SCADA system (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) to supervise and control electric distribution networks. [Spanish] Con el proposito de contribuir al plan estrategico y mejoramiento de los niveles de productividad y competitividad, la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) esta invirtiendo fuertemente en recursos humanos y materiales para la modernizacion de los sistemas de suministro de energia electrica, incluyendo el monitoreo, proteccion y control automatico para la operacion de todos los elementos del proceso electrico, desde los centros de generacion hasta las lineas de transmision, los sistemas de distribucion y las aplicaciones de comercializacion. Con dicha modernizacion, la CFE tambien esta generando la infraestructura para la

  10. Investigation the Annual Inflation Rate of Each Energy Source on Optimal Sizing of Distributed Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Fathi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an investigation of Inflation Rate of each Energy Source on the optimized design of Hybrid Power System (HPS in a distribution system including sources like, photovoltaic array, fuel cell and battery bank.In this research, an algorithm has been developed for evaluation and cost optimization HPS. The costs include capital cost, replacement cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cost and production cost for HPS and DG power during different load profile. Then an objective function with aim to minimizing of total costs has been considered. A genetic algorithm approach is employed to obtain the best cost value of HPS construction.

  11. A Distributed Energy Optimized Routing Using Virtual Potential Field in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Haifeng Jiang; Yanjing Sun; Renke Sun; Wei Chen; Shanshan Ma; Jing Gao

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an extremely critical resource for battery-powered wireless sensor networks. Since data transmission typically consumes more energy than any other activities on a sensor node, it is of great importance to design energy optimized routing algorithm to achieve both energy efficiency and energy balance together, in order to prolong the network lifetime. In this paper, with the help of the concept of potential field in physics, we design a distributed energy optimized routing by construc...

  12. Sustainable or Distributed Energy—or both? Clarifying the Basic Concepts of Reforming the Energy Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Pekka Peura; Patrik Sjöholm

    2015-01-01

    This paper clarifies the concepts of Sustainable Energy (SE) and Distributed Energy (DE) including their related synonyms, by discussing, analyzing and presenting recommendations. This is important because these concepts are crucial in the on-going transformation from the fossil carbon based to renewable energy based societies, but still the use of the concepts has been confusing. SE consists of the integration of rational use of energy (energy saving, energy efficiency, use of renewable ener...

  13. Review of Congestion Management Methods for Distribution Networks with High Penetration of Distributed Energy Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Liu, Zhaoxi;

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the existing congestion management methods for distribution networks with high penetration of DERs documented in the recent research literatures. The congestion management methods for distribution networks reviewed can be grouped into two categories – market methods and direct...... control methods. The market methods consist of dynamic tariff, distribution capacity market, shadow price and flexible service market. The direct control methods are comprised of network reconfiguration, reactive power control and active power control. Based on the review of the existing methods...

  14. Distributed technologies in California's energy future: A preliminary report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, M.; Craig, P.; McGuire, C.B.; Simmons, M. (eds.)

    1977-09-01

    The chapters in Volume 2 of Distributed Energy Systems in California's Future are: Environmental Impacts of Alternative Energy Technologies for California; Land Use Configurations and the Utilization of Distributive Energy Technology; Land Use Implications of a Dispersed Energy Path; Belief, Behavior, and Technologies as Driving Forces in Transitional Stages--The People Problem in Dispersed Energy Futures; Development of an Energy Attitude Survey; Interventions to Influence Firms Toward the Adoption of ''Soft'' Energy Technology; The Entry of Small Firms into Distributed Technology Energy Industries; Short-Term Matching of Supply and Demand in Electrical Systems with Renewable Sources; Vulnerability of Renewable Energy Systems; and District Heating for California.

  15. Incident energy dependence of the mean kinetic energy, flow and temperature azimuthal distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The squeeze-out phenomena initially predicted by hydrodynamical calculations has been extensively studied experimentally. A unified representation of the observed trends can be done in terms of the azimuthal distribution of the total mass or kinetic energy. Previously reported comprehensive description of the squeeze-out phenomena in the range 0.25 - 1.15 A · GeV was based on the parametrization of the total mass spectra with an expression characteristic for radially symmetric shell expansion. As far as such a situation can hardly be encountered in heavy ion collisions and is not specific at all for mid-central geometries, we prefer to present also the experimental information free of any model which can be used to extract it. Due to this reasons we report also the results on azimuthal distribution of the mean kinetic energy (kincm>) besides the ones corresponding to β and T values. The azimuthal distributions of kincm>, β and T can be fit with the following expression: (kincm>, β,T) = (kincm>, β,T)0 - (Δ kincm>, Δβ, ΔT) ·cos2Φ. The excitation functions of (kincm>, β,T)max and (kincm>, β,T)min from 90 A · MeV to 400 A · MeV are given. The ellipsoidal character of the flow with the major axis perpendicular to the reaction plane constantly enhances from 90 to 400 A· MeV. At 90 A · MeV the two values are very similar. The lower slope in (E,β,T)min is due to the fact that the violence of the expansion increases faster as a function of incident energy than the decrease of the passage time. At higher incident energy the relativistic contraction and the gradient of the thermal pressure in the reaction plane due to the confinement created by the spectator matter are increasing. The two slopes reverse and a crossing point is expected. It would correspond to an elliptic flow with the major axis aligned in the reaction plane. A larger modulation in the mean kinetic energy or flow relative to temperature can be explained by the larger variation of the

  16. Comprehensive automation and monitoring of MV grids as the key element of improvement of energy supply reliability and continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Kubacki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the issue of comprehensive automation and monitoring of medium voltage (MV grids as a key element of the Smart Grid concept. The existing condition of MV grid control and monitoring is discussed, and the concept of a solution which will provide the possibility of remote automatic grid reconfiguration and ensure full grid observability from the dispatching system level is introduced. Automation of MV grid switching is discussed in detail to isolate a faulty line section and supply electricity at the time of the failure to the largest possible number of recipients. An example of such automation controls’ operation is also presented. The paper’s second part presents the key role of the quick fault location function and the possibility of the MV grid’s remote reconfiguration for improving power supply reliability (SAIDI and SAIFI indices. It is also shown how an increase in the number of points fitted with faulted circuit indicators with the option of remote control of switches from the dispatch system in MV grids may affect reduction of SAIDI and SAIFI indices across ENERGA-OPERATOR SA divisions.

  17. Sustainable or Distributed Energy—or both? Clarifying the Basic Concepts of Reforming the Energy Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Peura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper clarifies the concepts of Sustainable Energy (SE and Distributed Energy (DE including their related synonyms, by discussing, analyzing and presenting recommendations. This is important because these concepts are crucial in the on-going transformation from the fossil carbon based to renewable energy based societies, but still the use of the concepts has been confusing. SE consists of the integration of rational use of energy (energy saving, energy efficiency, use of renewable energy sources and sustainability management for anticipating, avoiding and reducing adverse impacts. The best consensus for defining DE is “facilities connected to the distribution network or on the customer side of the meter”. Devices using fossil fuels but otherwise falling under this umbrella cannot be excluded from DE. This paper explores definitions of wind power in relation to its grid connections via DE. SE is more comprehensive embracing the whole field of energy management, with the exception of distributed fossil generation. SE is valuable for understanding, planning and implementing energy strategies in the transition process of the energy sector. SE also includes centralized energy. It is useful for planning at national or sub-national geographic regions. The combination Sustainable Distributed Energy (SDE is excellent for regional contexts and for creating regional renewable energy self-sufficiency, integrated with society-wide energy saving and energy efficiency programs.

  18. SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF LOCAL LUMINOUS AND ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminous (LIRGs; log (LIR/L☉) = 11.00-11.99) and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs; log (LIR/L☉) = 12.00-12.99) are the most extreme star-forming galaxies in the universe. The local (U)LIRGs provide a unique opportunity to study their multi-wavelength properties in detail for comparison with their more numerous counterparts at high redshifts. We present common large aperture photometry at radio through X-ray wavelengths and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for a sample of 53 nearby (z IR/L☉) = 11.14-12.57 from the flux-limited (f60μm > 5.24 Jy) Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey. The SEDs for all objects are similar in that they show a broad, thermal stellar peak (∼0.3-2 μm), and a dominant FIR (∼40-200 μm) thermal dust peak, where νLν(60 μm)/νLν(V) increases from ∼2 to 30 with increasing LIR. When normalized at IRAS 60 μm, the largest range in the luminosity ratio, R(λ) ≡ log[νLν(λ)/νLν(60 μm)], observed over the full sample is seen in the hard X-rays (HX = 2-10 keV), where ΔRHX = 3.73 (R-barHX= -3.10). A small range is found in the radio (1.4 GHz), ΔR1.4GHz = 1.75, where the mean ratio is largest, (R-bar1.4GHz= -5.81). Total infrared luminosities, LIR(8-1000 μm), dust temperatures, and dust masses were computed from fitting thermal dust emission modified blackbodies to the mid-infrared (MIR) through submillimeter SEDs. The new results reflect an overall ∼0.02 dex lower luminosity than the original IRAS values. Total stellar masses were computed by fitting stellar population synthesis models to the observed near-infrared (NIR) through ultraviolet (UV) SEDs. Mean stellar masses are found to be log (M*/M☉) = 10.79 ± 0.40. Star formation rates have been determined from the infrared (SFRIR ∼ 45 M☉ yr–1) and from the monochromatic UV luminosities (SFRUV ∼ 1.3 M☉ yr–1), respectively. Multi-wavelength active galactic nucleus (AGN) indicators have be used to select putative AGNs: About 60% of the ULIRGs

  19. MEAN SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND BOLOMETRIC CORRECTIONS FOR LUMINOUS QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawczyk, Coleman M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Mehta, Sajjan S.; Vogeley, Michael S. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Gallagher, S. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Leighly, Karen M. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Ross, Nicholas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    We explore the mid-infrared (mid-IR) through ultraviolet (UV) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 119,652 luminous broad-lined quasars with 0.064 < z < 5.46 using mid-IR data from Spitzer and WISE, near-infrared data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and UKIDSS, optical data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and UV data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The mean SED requires a bolometric correction (relative to 2500 A) of BC{sub 2500A} =2.75 {+-} 0.40 using the integrated light from 1 {mu}m-2 keV, and we further explore the range of bolometric corrections exhibited by individual objects. In addition, we investigate the dependence of the mean SED on various parameters, particularly the UV luminosity for quasars with 0.5 {approx}< z {approx}< 3 and the properties of the UV emission lines for quasars with z {approx}> 1.6; the latter is a possible indicator of the strength of the accretion disk wind, which is expected to be SED-dependent. Luminosity-dependent mean SEDs show that, relative to the high-luminosity SED, low-luminosity SEDs exhibit a harder (bluer) far-UV spectral slope ({alpha}{sub UV}), a redder optical continuum, and less hot dust. Mean SEDs constructed instead as a function of UV emission line properties reveal changes that are consistent with known Principal Component Analysis trends. A potentially important contribution to the bolometric correction is the unseen extreme UV (EUV) continuum. Our work suggests that lower-luminosity quasars and/or quasars with disk-dominated broad emission lines may require an extra continuum component in the EUV that is not present (or much weaker) in high-luminosity quasars with strong accretion disk winds. As such, we consider four possible models and explore the resulting bolometric corrections. Understanding these various SED-dependent effects will be important for accurate determination of quasar accretion rates.

  20. The Spectral Energy Distribution of the Coldest Known Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhman, K. L.; Esplin, T. L.

    2016-09-01

    WISE J085510.83-071442.5 (hereafter WISE 0855-0714) is the coldest known brown dwarf (˜250 K) and the fourth-closest known system to the Sun (2.2 pc). It has been previously detected only in the J band and two mid-IR bands. To better measure its spectral energy distribution (SED), we have performed deep imaging of WISE 0855-0714 in six optical and near-IR bands with Gemini Observatory, the Very Large Telescope, and the Hubble Space Telescope. Five of the bands show detections, although one detection is marginal (S/N ˜ 3). We also have obtained two epochs of images with the Spitzer Space Telescope for use in refining the parallax of the brown dwarf. By combining astrometry from this work and previous studies, we have derived a parallax of 0.449 ± 0.008″ (2.23 ± 0.04 pc). We have compared our photometry for WISE 0855-0714 to data for known Y dwarfs and to the predictions of three suites of models by Saumon et al. and Morley et al. that are defined by the presence or absence of clouds and nonequilibrium chemistry. Our estimates of Y - J and J - H for WISE 0855-0714 are redder than colors of other Y dwarfs, confirming a predicted reversal of near-IR colors to redder values at temperatures below 300-400 K. In color-magnitude diagrams, no single suite of models provides a clearly superior match to the sequence formed by WISE 0855-0714 and other Y dwarfs. Instead, the best-fitting model changes from one diagram to the next. Similarly, all of the models have substantial differences from the SED of WISE 0855-0714. As a result, we are currently unable to constrain the presence of clouds or nonequilibrium chemistry in its atmosphere. Based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, Gemini Observatory, and the ESO Telescopes at Paranal Observatory.

  1. Ion energy distributions and densities in the plume of Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Shotaro; Cravens, Thomas E.; Omidi, Nojan; Perry, Mark E.; Waite, J. Hunter

    2016-10-01

    Enceladus has a dynamic plume that is emitting gas, including water vapor, and dust. The gas is ionized by solar EUV radiation, charge exchange, and electron impact and extends throughout the inner magnetosphere of Saturn. The charge exchange collisions alter the plasma composition. Ice grains (dust) escape from the vicinity of Enceladus and form the E ring, including a portion that is negatively charged by the local plasma. The inner magnetosphere within 10 RS (Saturn radii) contains a complex mixture of plasma, neutral gas, and dust that links back to Enceladus. In this paper we investigate the energy distributions, ion species and densities of water group ions in the plume of Enceladus using test particle and Monte Carlo methods that include collisional processes such as charge exchange and ion-neutral chemical reactions. Ion observations from the Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) for E07 are presented for the first time. We use the modeling results to interpret observations made by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) and the INMS. The low energy ions, as observed by CAPS, appear to be affected by a vertical electric field (EZ=-10 μV/m) in the plume. The EZ field may be associated with the charged dust and/or the pressure gradient of plasma. The model results, along with the results of earlier models, show that H3O+ ions created by chemistry are predominant in the plume, which agrees with INMS and CAPS data, but the INMS count rate in the plume for the model is several times greater than the data, which we do not fully understand. This composition and the total ion count found in the plume agree with INMS and CAPS data. On the other hand, the Cassini Langmuir Probe measured a maximum plume ion density more than 30,000 cm-3, which is far larger than the maximum ion density from our model, 900 cm-3. The model results also demonstrate that most of the ions in the plume are from the external magnetospheric flow and are not generated by local

  2. Macronutrient distribution over a period of 23 years in relation to energy intake and body fatness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, L.L.J.; Boon, N.; Nooyens, A.C.J.; Mechelen, W. van; Saris, W.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of the four macronutrients is associated with energy intake and body fatness according to short-term interventions. The present study involves macronutrient distribution in relation to energy intake and body fatness over a period of 23 years in individuals who have ad libitum access

  3. Quasi-Local Energy Distribution and Thermodynamics of Reissner-Nordstrom Black Hole Surrounded by Quintessence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahamat Saleh; Bouetou Bouetou Thomas; Timoleon Crepin Kofane

    2011-01-01

    We investigate quasi-local energy distribution and thermodynamics of the Reissner-Nordstrom black hole space-time surrounded by quintessence.We use the quasi-local energy distribution from Einstein energy-momentum complex.We plot the variation of the energies, temperature and heat capacity with the state parameter related to the quintessence ωq.We show that due to the presence of quintessence, the total energy of the outer region as well as the temperature and heat capacity decreases with the increase of the density of quintessence, while the total energy of the black hole region increases.

  4. Transactive control: a framework for operating power systems characterized by high penetration of distributed energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Yang, Guangya; Kok, Koen;

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of distributed energy resources connected to power systems raises operational challenges for the network operator, such as introducing grid congestion and voltage deviations in the distribution network level, as well as increasing balancing needs at the whole system level....... Control and coordination of a large number of distributed energy assets requires innovative approaches. Transactive control has received much attention due to its decentralized decision-making and transparent characteristics. This paper introduces the concept and main features of transactive control...... by a high penetration of distributed energy resources....

  5. Measurements and Monte Carlo calculations of photon energy distributions in MAYAK PA workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanin, M; Vasilenko, E; Semenov, M; Xanthos, S; Takoudis, G; Clouvas, A; Silva, J; Potiriadis, C

    2008-01-01

    Photon energy distributions were measured in different workplaces of the Mayak Production Association (MPA), which was the first plutonium production plant in the former Soviet Union. In situ gamma spectrometry measurements were performed with a portable germanium detector. The spectral stripping method is used for the conversion of the in situ gamma-ray spectra to photon fluence rate energy distribution. This method requires the simulation of the portable germanium detector, which has been performed based on the MCNP code of Los Alamos. Measured photon fluence rate energy distributions were compared with calculated photon energy distributions (with the MCNP code) in two different workplaces: in the first workplace the geometry exposure was known. On the contrary, in the second workplace, as in most workplaces of MPA, the exposure geometry was unknown. The results obtained from the comparison between the experimental and calculated photon fluence rate energy distributions are presented and discussed. PMID:18682405

  6. THE FEATURES OF LASER EMISSION ENERGY DISTRIBUTION AT MATHEMATIC MODELING OF WORKING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    A. Avsiyevich; O. Devoino; A. Kocherov; A. Pilipchuk

    2014-01-01

    The space laser emission energy distribution of different continuous operation settings depends from many factors, first on the settings design. For more accurate describing of multimode laser emission energy distribution intensity the experimental and theoretic model, which based on experimental laser emission distribution shift presentation with given accuracy rating in superposition basic function form, is proposed. This model provides the approximation error only 2,2 percent as compared w...

  7. Scheduling of distributed energy storage for passive contribution in the imbalance settlement system of the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Lampropoulos, Ioannis; Garoufalis, Panagiotis; Kling, Wil L.

    2014-01-01

    The subject addressed in this paper is the intra-hour scheduling of a distributed battery energy storage system (BESS). The case study is about a lithium-ion BESS integrated in a low voltage (LV) distribution system with residential customers and photovoltaic (PV) generation in the Netherlands. The BESS has been developed to enable field-testing and research of energy storage technologies in LV distribution grids, with emphasis on network support functions. As part of the research related to ...

  8. Concentrated vs. distributed energy: employment based community level differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, L. J.; Santini, D. J.; Smeltzer, K. K.; Stenehjem, E. J.

    1980-01-01

    Consideration is given to the differences between concentrated options (central station electric, synfuels) and distributed options (SHACOB) for residential space conditioning. Employment, geographic location, community stability, and locational equity are the factors discussed.

  9. On the Use of the Tsallis Distribution at LHC Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Cleymans, J

    2016-01-01

    Numerous papers have appeared recently showing fits to transverse momentum ($p_T$) spectra measured at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in proton - proton collisions.This talk focuses on the fits extending to very large values of the transverse momentum with $p_T$ values up to 200 GeV/c as measured by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 0.9 and 7 TeV. A thermodynamically consistent form of the Tsallis distribution is used for fitting the transverse momentum spectra at mid-rapidity. The fits based on the proposed distribution provide an excellent description over 14 orders of magnitude. Despite this success, an ambiguity is noted concerning the determination of the parameters in the Tsallis distribution. This prevents drawing firm conclusions as to the universality of the parameters appearing in the Tsallis distribution.

  10. Energy storage management system with distributed wireless sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Bandhauer, Todd M.

    2015-12-08

    An energy storage system having a multiple different types of energy storage and conversion devices. Each device is equipped with one or more sensors and RFID tags to communicate sensor information wirelessly to a central electronic management system, which is used to control the operation of each device. Each device can have multiple RFID tags and sensor types. Several energy storage and conversion devices can be combined.

  11. Terminal energy distribution of blast waves from bursting spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, A. A.; Strehlow, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    The calculation results for the total energy delivered to the surroundings by the burst of an idealized massless sphere containing an ideal gas are presented. The logic development of various formulas for sphere energy is also presented. For all types of sphere bursts the fraction of the total initial energy available in the sphere that is delivered to the surroundings is shown to lie between that delivered for the constant pressure addition of energy to a source region and that delivered by isentropic expansion of the sphere. The relative value of E sub/Q increases at fixed sphere pressure/surrounding pressure as sphere temperature increases because the velocity of sound increases.

  12. Calculational-theoretical studies of the system of local automated regulators and lateral ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of engineering synthesis of the systems for nuclear reactor local automated power regulation and radial-azimuthal energy distribution stabilization operating according to lateral ionization chamber signals are described. Results of calculational-theoretical investigations into the system efficiency and peculiarities of its reaction to some perturbations typical of the RBMK type reactors are considered

  13. Total kinetic energy distribution of fission fragments in 6,7Li + 238U reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shape and width of fission-fragment (FF) mass and kinetic energy distribution provides a lot of information on the fission reaction mechanism and the structure of the compound nucleus (CN), the fragments as well as the interacting nuclei. The shape of the mass distribution of the fission fragments for the actinides induced by the proton or neutron is known to change with the incident energy. At low energies, it shows a double humped distribution which changes slowly to a single humped distribution as energy increases. However, for a reaction involving a weakly bound projectile (i.e., 6Li + 232Th), a sharp change in the shape of the mass distribution with energy was observed. The sharp increase in the peak to valley ratio (P:V) in the fission-fragment mass distribution in 6Li + 232Th reaction by Itkis et al. and in 6,7Li + 238U reactions by Santra et al. was concluded to be due to the reduced energy transfer to the composite system caused by incomplete fusion (ICF) of alpha or deuteron/triton followed by fissions. Total Kinetic Energy (TKE) distribution of fission fragments is another important observable on which the effect of projectile breakup is not explored yet. In this contribution, the study of breakup/transfer effect on average TKE distribution for 6,7Li + 238U reactions is presented

  14. Modelling Framework and the Quantitative Analysis of Distributed Energy Resources in Future Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xue; Sandels, Claes; Zhu, Kun;

    2013-01-01

    , comprising distributed generation, active demand and electric vehicles. Subsequently, quantitative analysis was made on the basis of the current and envisioned DER deployment scenarios proposed for Sweden. Simulations are performed in two typical distribution network models for four seasons. The simulation...... results show that in general the DER deployment brings in the possibilities to reduce the power losses and voltage drops by compensating power from the local generation and optimizing the local load profiles....

  15. Distributed energy resources and benefits to the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akorede, Mudathir Funsho; Hizam, Hashim; Pouresmaeil, Edris

    2010-01-01

    The recently released report of the International Energy Outlook (IEO2009) projects an increase of 44% in the world energy demand from 2006 to 2030, and 77% rise in the net electricity generation worldwide in the same period. However, threatening in the said report is that 80% of the total genera...

  16. Wireless Information and Power Transfer Design for Energy Cooperation Distributed Antenna Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Fangchao; Jin, Shi; Wong, Kai-Kit; Zhu, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Distributed antenna systems (DAS) have been widely implemented in state-of-the-art cellular communication systems to cover dead spots. Recent studies have also indicated that DAS have advantages in wireless energy transfer (WET). In this paper, we study simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) for a multiple-input single-output (MISO) DAS in the downlink which consists of arbitrarily distributed remote antenna units (RAUs). In order to save the energy cost, we adopt energy...

  17. DC Distributed Power Systems - Analysis, Design and Control for a Renewable Energy System

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Per

    2002-01-01

    Renewable energy systems are likely to become wide spread in the future due to environmental demands. As a consequence of the dispersed nature of renewable energy systems, this implies that there will be a distributed generation of electric power. Since most of the distributed electrical energy sources do not provide their electric power at line frequency and voltage, a DC bus is a useful common connection for several such sources. Due to the differences in output voltage among the sources, d...

  18. The perspectives of fusion energy: The roadmap towards energy production and fusion energy in a distributed energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, Volker; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Korsholm, Søren Bang

    2014-01-01

    Controlled thermonuclear fusion has the potential of providing an environmentally friendly and inexhaustible energy source for mankind. Fusion energy, which powers our sun and the stars, is released when light elements, such as the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium, fuse together. This occurs...... at very high temperature where all matter is in the plasma state as the involved energies are orders of magnitude higher than typical chemical binding energies. It is one of the great science and engineering challenges to construct a viable power plant based on fusion energy. Fusion research is a world......-wide international collaboration and is in a crucial new phase with the construction of the international fusion experimental reactor, ITER, in Cadarache, France, which will be largest energy experiment in the world, and a milestone on the way to fusion energy. The recently adopted European Roadmap to fusion energy...

  19. Bayes Node Energy Polynomial Distribution to Improve Routing in Wireless Sensor Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumoorthy Palanisamy

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network monitor and control the physical world via large number of small, low-priced sensor nodes. Existing method on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN presented sensed data communication through continuous data collection resulting in higher delay and energy consumption. To conquer the routing issue and reduce energy drain rate, Bayes Node Energy and Polynomial Distribution (BNEPD technique is introduced with energy aware routing in the wireless sensor network. The Bayes Node Energy Distribution initially distributes the sensor nodes that detect an object of similar event (i.e., temperature, pressure, flow into specific regions with the application of Bayes rule. The object detection of similar events is accomplished based on the bayes probabilities and is sent to the sink node resulting in minimizing the energy consumption. Next, the Polynomial Regression Function is applied to the target object of similar events considered for different sensors are combined. They are based on the minimum and maximum value of object events and are transferred to the sink node. Finally, the Poly Distribute algorithm effectively distributes the sensor nodes. The energy efficient routing path for each sensor nodes are created by data aggregation at the sink based on polynomial regression function which reduces the energy drain rate with minimum communication overhead. Experimental performance is evaluated using Dodgers Loop Sensor Data Set from UCI repository. Simulation results show that the proposed distribution algorithm significantly reduce the node energy drain rate and ensure fairness among different users reducing the communication overhead.

  20. Bayes Node Energy Polynomial Distribution to Improve Routing in Wireless Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, Thirumoorthy; Krishnasamy, Karthikeyan N

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Network monitor and control the physical world via large number of small, low-priced sensor nodes. Existing method on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) presented sensed data communication through continuous data collection resulting in higher delay and energy consumption. To conquer the routing issue and reduce energy drain rate, Bayes Node Energy and Polynomial Distribution (BNEPD) technique is introduced with energy aware routing in the wireless sensor network. The Bayes Node Energy Distribution initially distributes the sensor nodes that detect an object of similar event (i.e., temperature, pressure, flow) into specific regions with the application of Bayes rule. The object detection of similar events is accomplished based on the bayes probabilities and is sent to the sink node resulting in minimizing the energy consumption. Next, the Polynomial Regression Function is applied to the target object of similar events considered for different sensors are combined. They are based on the minimum and maximum value of object events and are transferred to the sink node. Finally, the Poly Distribute algorithm effectively distributes the sensor nodes. The energy efficient routing path for each sensor nodes are created by data aggregation at the sink based on polynomial regression function which reduces the energy drain rate with minimum communication overhead. Experimental performance is evaluated using Dodgers Loop Sensor Data Set from UCI repository. Simulation results show that the proposed distribution algorithm significantly reduce the node energy drain rate and ensure fairness among different users reducing the communication overhead. PMID:26426701

  1. 16.7 Hz traction power supply and automated reporting in the main system control centre of DB Energie; 16,7-Hz-Traktionsenergieversorgung und automatisiertes Berichtswesen in der Hauptschaltleitung der DB Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaarschmidt, J. [DB Energie GmbH, I.EBV 1, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Nestler, S. [Teleteam Concepts GmbH, Simmozheim (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    It is of great importance in a centralized network to provide an optimum supply of 16.7 Hz traction power through the systematic use of the power and control stations. The methods used by DB Energie to ensure this goal have been working successfully since almost ten years. The process data collected in the DataWareHouse must be automated and made available directly for reporting. Furthermore, the information must be transmitted and received reliably and without delay. DB Energie makes use of powerful software tools for this purpose. (orig.)

  2. Metrology for the persevering production, distribution, and usage of energy; Metrologie fuer die nachhaltige Erzeugung, Verteilung und Nutzung von Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Klaus-Dieter [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany). Abt. ' Chemische Physik und Explosionsschutz'

    2012-12-15

    The author describes the metrological challenges given by the necessarily effective production, transport, distribution, consumption, conservation, and storage of energy, the latter is considered in connection with mobility. Finally the activities of the PTB in this connection are listed. (HSI)

  3. The mapping of electronic energy distributions using experimental electron density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirelson, Vladimir G

    2002-08-01

    It is demonstrated that the approximate kinetic energy density calculated using the second-order gradient expansion with parameters of the multipole model fitted to experimental structure factors reproduces the main features of this quantity in a molecular or crystal position space. The use of the local virial theorem provides an appropriate derivation of approximate potential energy density and electronic energy density from the experimental (model) electron density and its derivatives. Consideration of these functions is not restricted by the critical points in the electron density and provides a comprehensive characterization of bonding in molecules and crystals. PMID:12149553

  4. The mapping of electronic energy distributions using experimental electron density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirelson, Vladimir G

    2002-08-01

    It is demonstrated that the approximate kinetic energy density calculated using the second-order gradient expansion with parameters of the multipole model fitted to experimental structure factors reproduces the main features of this quantity in a molecular or crystal position space. The use of the local virial theorem provides an appropriate derivation of approximate potential energy density and electronic energy density from the experimental (model) electron density and its derivatives. Consideration of these functions is not restricted by the critical points in the electron density and provides a comprehensive characterization of bonding in molecules and crystals.

  5. Peak of spectral energy distribution play an important role in intra-day variability of Blazars?

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Alok C.; Kalita, Nibedita; Gaur, Haritma; Duorah, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    Blazars can be divided into two sub-classes namely high energy and low energy peaked blazars. In spectral energy distribution, the first synchrotron hump of the former class peaks in UV/X-rays and in IR/optical bands for the latter class. The peak of the spectral energy distribution seems to be responsible for variability properties of these classes of blazars in X-ray and optical bands. Since, in low energy peaked blazars, the X-ray bands lies well below the synchrotron hump, one expects tha...

  6. THE FEATURES OF LASER EMISSION ENERGY DISTRIBUTION AT MATHEMATIC MODELING OF WORKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Avsiyevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The space laser emission energy distribution of different continuous operation settings depends from many factors, first on the settings design. For more accurate describing of multimode laser emission energy distribution intensity the experimental and theoretic model, which based on experimental laser emission distribution shift presentation with given accuracy rating in superposition basic function form, is proposed. This model provides the approximation error only 2,2 percent as compared with 24,6 % and 61 % for uniform and Gauss approximation accordingly. The proposed model usage lets more accurate take into consideration the laser emission and working surface interaction peculiarity, increases temperature fields calculation accuracy for mathematic modeling of laser treatment processes. The method of experimental laser emission energy distribution studying for given source and mathematic apparatus for calculation of laser emission energy distribution intensity parameters depended from the distance in radial direction on surface heating zone are shown.

  7. Fuzzy Performance between Surface Fitting and Energy Distribution in Turbulence Runner

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongwei Liang; Xiaochu Liu; Bangyan Ye; Richard Kars Brauwer

    2012-01-01

    Because the application of surface fitting algorithms exerts a considerable fuzzy influence on the mathematical features of kinetic energy distribution, their relation mechanism in different external conditional parameters must be quantitatively analyzed. Through determining the kinetic energy value of each selected representative position coordinate point by calculating kinetic energy parameters, several typical algorithms of complicated surface fitting are applied for constructing microkine...

  8. Fuzzy Logic based Coordinated Control of Battery Energy Storage System and Dispatchable Distributed Generation for Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Wang, Chengshan;

    2015-01-01

    Microgrid is an efficient solution to integraterenewable energy sources (RES) into power systems. Inorder to deal with the intermittent characteristics of therenewable energy based distributed generation (DG) units,a fuzzy-logic based coordinated control strategy of thebattery energy storage system...

  9. Entropy and multifractal analysis of multiplicity distributions from pp simulated events up to LHC energies

    CERN Document Server

    Suleymanov, M K; Zborovský, I

    2003-01-01

    Using three different Monte Carlo generators of high energy proton-proton collisions (HIJING, NEXUS, and PSM) we study the energy dependence of multiplicity distributions of charged particles including the LHC energy range. Results are used for calculation of the information entropy, Renyi's dimensions and other multifractal characteristics of particle production.

  10. Radial Flux Distribution of Low-Energy Neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higinbotham, J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to illustrate the basic principle involved in the process of moderation of fast neutrons by water, and the monitoring of the low-energy neutron flux using indium as a probe. (GA)

  11. Investigation the Interest Rate of Each Energy Source on Optimal Sizing of Distributed Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Fathi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research the effect of variation of interest rate of each energy source on optimal results are investigated. This study presents an optimized design of Hybrid Power System in a distribution system including sources like, photovoltaic array, fuel cell and battery bank. In this study, an algorithm has been developed for evaluation and cost optimization Hybrid Power System. The costs include capital cost, replacement cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cost and production cost for Hybrid Power System and DG power during different load profile. Then an objective function with aim to minimizing of total costs has been considered. A genetic algorithm approach is employed to obtain the best cost value of Hybrid Power System construction.

  12. Energy of W distribution in top quark decays

    OpenAIRE

    Jeżabek, M.; Jünger, C.

    1993-01-01

    A relatively simple analytical formula is derived for the energy spectrum of $W$ boson in top quark decays $t\\to Wb$ including ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_s)$ radiative corrections. We discuss the accuracy of this formula and compare it to a more general albeit more complicated one derived in \\cite{CJK}~. A Monte Carlo algorithm for generation of $W$ energy spectrum is briefly described.

  13. Energy Efficient Distributed Data Fusion In Multihop Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    This thesis addresses a transmission energy problem for wireless sensor networks. There are two types of wireless sensor networks. One is single-hop sensor network where data from each sensor is directly transmitted to a fusion center, and the other is multihop sensor network where data is relayed through adjacent sensors. In the absence of a moving agent for data collection, multihop sensor network is typically much more energy efficient than single-hop sensor network since the former avoids...

  14. Measures in progress for distribution facilities automation and cost reduction. Future image of distribution facilities; Susumu haiden setsubi no jidoka, cost teigen taisaku. Kongo no ryutsu setsubi no arikata ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    Summarized herein is an interim report on how power distribution facilities should be in the future and on measures for their cost reduction complied by the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy power distribution facilities deliberation subcommittee at the end of fiscal 1997. Between Japan and the U.S., there is approximately a 5-fold difference in cost of power distributed per amount of power sold. When the frequency and duration of accidental supply interruptions are compared between Japan and the U.S. or European countries, power supply in general is more reliable in Japan than in other countries. Japan should exert thorough efforts for cost reduction without ruining the high trust it has earned for its uninterrupted supply. Measures for utilities to take in this connection include the standardization and internationalization of the equipment they own, reduction in investment in facilities, formulation of appropriate plans, review of requests for construction works, establishment of flexibility in independent safety-related systems, and the promotion of automatization. The Government is up to simplify various procedures, enhance deregulation, and rationalize systems concerned. The schedule of implementation of various plans suggests that cost reduction tangible to consumers will realize in power distribution comparable to that in power generation where competition is being introduced. 4 figs.

  15. Amorphous metal distribution transformers: The energy-efficient alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrity, T.F. [GE Power Systems, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Amorphous metal distribution transformers have been commercially available for the past 13 years. During that time, they have realized the promise of exceptionally high core efficiency as compared to silicon steel transformer cores. Utility planners today must consider all options available to meet the requirements of load growth. While additional generation capacity will be added, many demand-side initiatives are being undertaken as complementary programs to generation expansion. The efficiency improvement provided by amorphous metal distribution transformers deserves to be among the demand-side options. The key to understanding the positive impact of amorphous metal transformer efficiency is to consider the aggregate contribution those transformers can make towards demand reduction. It is estimated that distribution transformer core losses comprise at least 1% of the utility`s peak demand. Because core losses are continuous, any significant reduction in their magnitude is of great significance to the planner. This paper describes the system-wide economic contributions amorphous metal distribution transformers can make to a utility and suggests evaluation techniques that can be used. As a conservation tool, the amorphous metal transformer contributes to reduced power plant emissions. Calibration of those emissions reductions is also discussed in the paper.

  16. Spatial monitoring of groundwater drawdown and rebound associated with quarry dewatering using automated time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography and distribution guided clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, J. E.; Meldrum, P.I.; P. B. Wilkinson; Ward, W.; Jackson, C; Matthews, B.; Joel, P; Kuras, O.; Bai, L.; S. Uhlemann; Gunn, D

    2015-01-01

    Dewatering systems used for mining and quarrying operations often result in highly artificial and complex groundwater conditions, which can be difficult to characterise and monitor using borehole point sampling approaches. Here automated time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ALERT) is considered as a means of monitoring subsurface groundwater dynamics associated with changes in the dewatering regime in an operational sand and gravel quarry. We considered two scenarios: the first was u...

  17. Energy Loss Distribution in the Taylor-Couette Flow between Concentric Rotating Cylinders

    CERN Document Server

    Dou, H S; Phan-Thien, N; Yeo, K S; Dou, Hua-Shu; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Phan-Thien, Nhan; Yeo, Khoon Seng

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of energy loss due to viscosity friction in plane Couette flow and Taylor-Couette Flow between concentric rotating cylinders are studied in detail for various flow conditions. The energy loss is related to the industrial processes in some fluid delivery devices and has significant influence on the flow efficiency, flow stability, turbulent transition, mixing, and heat transfer behaviours, etc. Therefore, it is very helpful to know about the energy loss distribution in the flow domain and to know its influence on the flow for understanding the flow physics. The calculation method of the energy loss distribution in the Taylor-Couette Flow between concentric rotating cylinders has not been found in open literature. In this note, the principle and the calculation are given for single cylinder rotating of inner or outer cylinder, and counter and same direction rotating of two cylinders. For comparison, the distribution of energy loss in a plane Couette flow is also derived for various flow conditi...

  18. Automated Budget System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  19. Force distribution in granular media studied by an energy method based on statistical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Galindo-Torres, S A

    2010-01-01

    In the present letter a method to find a proper expression for the force distribution inside a granular sample in static equilibrium is proposed. The method is based in statistical mechanics and the force distribution is obtained by studying how the potential elastic energy is divided among the different contacts between grains. It is found with DEM simulations with spheres that the elastic potential energy distribution follows a Bose Einstein law from which the force distribution is deduced. The present letter open a way in which granular materials can be studied with the tools provided by statistical mechanics.

  20. Market performance and distributional effects on renewable energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A renewable obligation (RO) combined with tradable renewable energy certificates is a market-based instrument used to promote the production of electricity from renewable energy sources. A renewable obligation is an alternative for subsidies. A renewable obligation will only be an efficient instrument if certificate markets are efficient. This requires that there is no market power and no anti-competitive behaviour on the certificate market. If the current developments in Dutch renewable energy production continue, market power on a future renewable certificate market in the Netherlands will probably not be an issue, even if the RO should only rest on the retail market instead of on the whole electricity market. A renewable obligation will raise the retail price for consumers, thereby reducing consumer surplus. Simulations show that the retail electricity price increases with 30 euro per MWh to a level of 104 euro per MWh in case of a 30% renewable target. Consumer surplus is reduced with 19% compared to the baseline scenario. In contrast, a subsidy such as the Dutch SDE (Promoting Renewable Energy scheme or 'Stimulering Duurzame Energie') which is financed from the state budget has the effect to (slightly) lower the retail electricity price, thereby increasing consumer surplus. It should however be realised that the costs of the subsidy will indirectly affect electricity consumers through their tax payments.

  1. Angular distribution of sputtered atoms induced by low-energy heavy ion bombardment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lai; ZHANG Zhu-Lin

    2004-01-01

    The sputtering yield angular distributions have been calculated based on the ion energy dependence of total sputtering yields for Ni and Motargets bombarded by low-energy Hg+ ion. The calculated curves show excellent agreement with the corresponding Wehner's experimental results of sputtering yield angular distribution. The fact clearly demonstrated the intrinsic relation between the ion energy dependence of total sputtering yields and the sputtering yield angular distribution. This intrinsic relation had been ignored in Yamamura's papers (1981,1982) due to some obvious mistakes.

  2. A two-stage stochastic programming model for the optimal design of distributed energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The optimal design of distributed energy systems under uncertainty is studied. ► A stochastic model is developed using genetic algorithm and Monte Carlo method. ► The proposed system possesses inherent robustness under uncertainty. ► The inherent robustness is due to energy storage facilities and grid connection. -- Abstract: A distributed energy system is a multi-input and multi-output energy system with substantial energy, economic and environmental benefits. The optimal design of such a complex system under energy demand and supply uncertainty poses significant challenges in terms of both modelling and corresponding solution strategies. This paper proposes a two-stage stochastic programming model for the optimal design of distributed energy systems. A two-stage decomposition based solution strategy is used to solve the optimization problem with genetic algorithm performing the search on the first stage variables and a Monte Carlo method dealing with uncertainty in the second stage. The model is applied to the planning of a distributed energy system in a hotel. Detailed computational results are presented and compared with those generated by a deterministic model. The impacts of demand and supply uncertainty on the optimal design of distributed energy systems are systematically investigated using proposed modelling framework and solution approach.

  3. Fuzzy Performance between Surface Fitting and Energy Distribution in Turbulence Runner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhongwei; Liu, Xiaochu; Ye, Bangyan; Brauwer, Richard Kars

    2012-01-01

    Because the application of surface fitting algorithms exerts a considerable fuzzy influence on the mathematical features of kinetic energy distribution, their relation mechanism in different external conditional parameters must be quantitatively analyzed. Through determining the kinetic energy value of each selected representative position coordinate point by calculating kinetic energy parameters, several typical algorithms of complicated surface fitting are applied for constructing microkinetic energy distribution surface models in the objective turbulence runner with those obtained kinetic energy values. On the base of calculating the newly proposed mathematical features, we construct fuzzy evaluation data sequence and present a new three-dimensional fuzzy quantitative evaluation method; then the value change tendencies of kinetic energy distribution surface features can be clearly quantified, and the fuzzy performance mechanism discipline between the performance results of surface fitting algorithms, the spatial features of turbulence kinetic energy distribution surface, and their respective environmental parameter conditions can be quantitatively analyzed in detail, which results in the acquirement of final conclusions concerning the inherent turbulence kinetic energy distribution performance mechanism and its mathematical relation. A further turbulence energy quantitative study can be ensured. PMID:23213287

  4. Big Pylons: Mixed signals for transmission. Spatial planning for energy distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effective delivery of a sustainable energy future raises many challenges in relation to energy distribution where a new understanding of spatial planning is needed in relation to energy production, consumption and storage. Understanding the emergent low carbon energy economy in terms of its production, distribution and consumption characteristics has prompted a deliberate spatial planning interest. This paper examines issues relating to spatial planning, regulation, political legitimacy and accountability in the current and future systems for energy distribution. In particular it examines the Beauly Denny public inquiry in Scotland as a case study in terms of demonstrating the changing state–market–civil relations in an energy transition context with differentiated values and interests. The case study highlights implications for the regulation in the public interest of highly contested spaces, places and development schemes, together with a synopsis of government structure and change that is influencing the future of spatial planning and energy distribution in particular. - Highlights: • We examine links between spatial planning and regulation of energy distribution. • We examine the Beauly Denny public inquiry in Scotland. • We highlight challenges surrounding the development of a resilient energy system. • We highlight links between spatial planning and infrastructural development

  5. Fuzzy Performance between Surface Fitting and Energy Distribution in Turbulence Runner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwei Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Because the application of surface fitting algorithms exerts a considerable fuzzy influence on the mathematical features of kinetic energy distribution, their relation mechanism in different external conditional parameters must be quantitatively analyzed. Through determining the kinetic energy value of each selected representative position coordinate point by calculating kinetic energy parameters, several typical algorithms of complicated surface fitting are applied for constructing microkinetic energy distribution surface models in the objective turbulence runner with those obtained kinetic energy values. On the base of calculating the newly proposed mathematical features, we construct fuzzy evaluation data sequence and present a new three-dimensional fuzzy quantitative evaluation method; then the value change tendencies of kinetic energy distribution surface features can be clearly quantified, and the fuzzy performance mechanism discipline between the performance results of surface fitting algorithms, the spatial features of turbulence kinetic energy distribution surface, and their respective environmental parameter conditions can be quantitatively analyzed in detail, which results in the acquirement of final conclusions concerning the inherent turbulence kinetic energy distribution performance mechanism and its mathematical relation. A further turbulence energy quantitative study can be ensured.

  6. Site energy distribution analysis of Cu (Ⅱ) adsorption on sediments and residues by sequential extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qiang; Yang, Yan; Dong, Xianbin; Fang, Jimin

    2016-01-01

    Many models (e.g., Langmuir model, Freundlich model and surface complexation model) have been successfully used to explain the mechanism of metal ion adsorption on the pure mineral materials. These materials usually have a homogeneous surface where all sites have the same adsorption energies. However, it's hardly appropriate for such models to describe the adsorption on heterogeneous surfaces (e.g., sediment surface), site energy distribution analysis can be to. In the present study, the site energy distribution analysis was used to describe the surface properties and adsorption behavior of the non-residual and residual components extracted from the natural aquatic sediment samples. The residues were prepared "in-situ" by using the sequential extraction procedure. The present study is intended to investigate the roles of different components and the change of site energy distribution at different temperatures of the sediment samples in controlling Cu (Ⅱ) adsorption. The results of the site energy distribution analysis indicated firstly, that the sorption sites of iron/manganese hydrous oxides (IMHO) and organic matter (OM) have higher energy. Secondly, light fraction (LF) and carbonates have little influence on site energy distribution. Finally, there was increase in site energies with the increase of temperature. Specially, low temperature (5 °C) significantly influenced the site energies of IMHO and OM, and also had obvious effect on the energy distribution of the sediments after removing target components. The site energy distribution analysis proved to be a useful method for us to further understand the energetic characteristics of sediment in comparison with those previously obtained. PMID:26552542

  7. Energy Efficient Distributed Fault Identification Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Panda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A distributed fault identification algorithm is proposed here to find both hard and soft faulty sensor nodes present in wireless sensor networks. The algorithm is distributed, self-detectable, and can detect the most common byzantine faults such as stuck at zero, stuck at one, and random data. In the proposed approach, each sensor node gathered the observed data from the neighbors and computed the mean to check whether faulty sensor node is present or not. If a node found the presence of faulty sensor node, then compares observed data with the data of the neighbors and predict probable fault status. The final fault status is determined by diffusing the fault information from the neighbors. The accuracy and completeness of the algorithm are verified with the help of statistical model of the sensors data. The performance is evaluated in terms of detection accuracy, false alarm rate, detection latency and message complexity.

  8. Efficient energy-constrained distribution of context in mobile systems

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Florian

    2011-01-01

    The recent improvements in smartphones nowadays offer a widespread application of sensor-based services. Each mobile phone is equipped with several sensors like a GPS module, a gyroscope, or a high-resolution camera. As a result of this sensor integration, a whole new way of usage is opened up for the end-user, like a location-based search or people-centric sensing. The main drawback related to a smartphone is an overall high energy consumption, combined with a limited energy capacity. Due to...

  9. Distributed continuous energy scheduling for dynamic virtual power plants; Verteilte kontinuierliche Einsatzplanung in Dynamischen Virtuellen Kraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niesse, Astrid

    2015-04-17

    This thesis presents DynaSCOPE as distributed control method for continuous energy scheduling for dynamic virtual power plants (DVPP). DVPPs aggregate the flexibility of distributed energy units to address current energy markets. As an extension of the Virtual Power Plant concept they show high dynamics in aggregation and operation of energy units. Whereas operation schedules are set up for all energy units in a day-ahead planning procedure, incidents may render these schedules infeasible during execution, like deviation from prognoses or outages. Thus, a continuous scheduling process is needed to ensure product fulfillment. With DynaSCOPE, software agents representing single energy units solve this problem in a completely distributed heuristic approach. Using a stepped concept, several damping mechanisms are applied to allow minimum disturbance while continuously trying to fulfill the product as contracted at the market.

  10. The Development of Automated Detection Techniques for Passive Acoustic Monitoring as a Tool for Studying Beaked Whale Distribution and Habitat Preferences in the California Current Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yack, Tina M.

    The objectives of this research were to test available automated detection methods for passive acoustic monitoring and integrate the best available method into standard marine mammal monitoring protocols for ship based surveys. The goal of the first chapter was to evaluate the performance and utility of PAMGUARD 1.0 Core software for use in automated detection of marine mammal acoustic signals during towed array surveys. Three different detector configurations of PAMGUARD were compared. These automated detection algorithms were evaluated by comparing them to the results of manual detections made by an experienced bio-acoustician (author TMY). This study provides the first detailed comparisons of PAMGUARD automated detection algorithms to manual detection methods. The results of these comparisons clearly illustrate the utility of automated detection methods for odontocete species. Results of this work showed that the majority of whistles and click events can be reliably detected using PAMGUARD software. The second chapter moves beyond automated detection to examine and test automated classification algorithms for beaked whale species. Beaked whales are notoriously elusive and difficult to study, especially using visual survey methods. The purpose of the second chapter was to test, validate, and compare algorithms for detection of beaked whales in acoustic line-transect survey data. Using data collected at sea from the PAMGUARD classifier developed in Chapter 2 it was possible to measure the clicks from visually verified Baird's beaked whale encounters and use this data to develop classifiers that could discriminate Baird's beaked whales from other beaked whale species in future work. Echolocation clicks from Baird's beaked whales, Berardius bairdii, were recorded during combined visual and acoustic shipboard surveys of cetacean populations in the California Current Ecosystem (CCE) and with autonomous, long-term recorders at four different sites in the Southern

  11. Distributed Energy Resources in the Liberalized Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Det danske elsystem er under stor forandring, idet andelen af ikke-styrbar vedvarende energi øges kraftigt, mens de konventionelle kulkraftværker fases ud. Det sker som en del af den danske 2020 målsætning om 50% vind i elsektoren. I 2050 er det målet, at samtlige energisektorer skal forsynes...... udelukkende af vedvarende energi. Idet vindenergi er den primære kilde i Danmark til vedvarende energi, er det ønskeligt at elektrificere varme- og transportsektoren. Derfor forventes det, at elforbruget vil øges over de kommende år. Den øgede mængde vedvarende energi og det øgede elforbrug udfordrer det...... nuværende danske elsystem. Større mængder produktion fx fra vindmøller og solanlæg vil øge mængden af fluktuationer i elnettet, hvilket vil forårsage et stigende behov for systemstabiliserende reserver. De nuværende leverandører af sådanne reserver er imidlertid de konventionelle kraftværker, som er ved...

  12. Heat savings in energy systems with substantial distributed generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2004-01-01

    The integration of flutuating wind power is an important issue for the future development of sustainable energy systems. In Denmark, the integration is affected by a large amount of cogeneration of heat and power. This gives possibilities as well as sets restraints. The paper shows that with...

  13. A parametrisation of the energy loss distributions of charged particles and its applications for silicon detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sikler, Ferenc

    2012-01-01

    The energy loss distribution of charged particles in silicon is approximated by a simple analytical parametrization. Its use is demonstrated through several examples. With the help of energy deposits in sensing elements of the detector, the position of track segments and the corresponding deposited energy are estimated with improved accuracy and less bias. The parametrization is successfully used to estimate the energy loss rate of charged particles, and it is applied to detector gain calibration tasks.

  14. Assessment of grid-friendly collective optimization framework for distributed energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pensini, Alessandro; Robinson, Matthew; Heine, Nicholas; Stadler, Michael; Mammoli, Andrea

    2015-11-04

    Distributed energy resources have the potential to provide services to facilities and buildings at lower cost and environmental impact in comparison to traditional electric-gridonly services. The reduced cost could result from a combination of higher system efficiency and exploitation of electricity tariff structures. Traditionally, electricity tariffs are designed to encourage the use of ‘off peak’ power and discourage the use of ‘onpeak’ power, although recent developments in renewable energy resources and distributed generation systems (such as their increasing levels of penetration and their increased controllability) are resulting in pressures to adopt tariffs of increasing complexity. Independently of the tariff structure, more or less sophisticated methods exist that allow distributed energy resources to take advantage of such tariffs, ranging from simple pre-planned schedules to Software-as-a-Service schedule optimization tools. However, as the penetration of distributed energy resources increases, there is an increasing chance of a ‘tragedy of the commons’ mechanism taking place, where taking advantage of tariffs for local benefit can ultimately result in degradation of service and higher energy costs for all. In this work, we use a scheduling optimization tool, in combination with a power distribution system simulator, to investigate techniques that could mitigate the deleterious effect of ‘selfish’ optimization, so that the high-penetration use of distributed energy resources to reduce operating costs remains advantageous while the quality of service and overall energy cost to the community is not affected.

  15. Spatial distributions of the energy and energy flux density of partially coherent electromagnetic beams in atmospheric turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianlong; Lü, Baida; Zhu, Shifu

    2009-07-01

    The formulas of the energy and energy flux density of partially coherent electromagnetic beams in atmospheric turbulence are derived by using Maxwell's equations. Expressions expressed by elements of electric cross spectral density matrixes of the magnetic and the mutual cross spectral density matrix are obtained for the partially coherent electromagnetic beams. Taken the partially coherent Cosh-Gaussian (ChG) electromagnetic beam as a typical example, the spatial distributions of the energy and energy flux density in atmospheric turbulence are numerically calculated. It is found that the turbulence shows a broadening effect on the spatial distributions of the energy and energy flux density. Some interesting results are obtained and explained with regard to their physical nature.

  16. An Application of the Market-Oriented Programming to Energy Trading Decision Method in Distributed Energy Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakire, Koji; Miyamoto, Toshiyuki; Kumagai, Sadatoshi; Mori, Kazuyuki; Kitamura, Shoichi; Yamamoto, Takaya

    A control of CO2 emissions which is the main factor of global warming is one of the most important problems in the 21st century about preservation of earth environment. Therefore, efficient supply and use of energy are indispensable. We have proposed distributed energy management systems (DEMSs), where we are to obtain optimal plans that minimize both of costs and CO2 emissions through electrical and thermal energy trading. A DEMS consists of the plural entities that seek their own economic profits. In this paper, we propose a trading method that gives competitive equilibrium resource distribution by applying the market-oriented programming (MOP) to DEMSs.

  17. Universal lateral distribution of energy deposit in air showers and its application to shower reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Gora, D; Heck, D; Homola, P; Klages, H; Pekala, J; Risse, M; Wilczynska, B; Wilczynski, H

    2006-01-01

    The light intensity distribution in a shower image and its implications to the primary energy reconstructed by the fluorescence technique are studied. Based on detailed CORSIKA energy deposit simulations, a universal analytical formula is derived for the lateral distribution of light in the shower image and a correction factor is obtained to account for the fraction of shower light falling into outlying pixels in the detector. The expected light profiles and the corresponding correction of the primary shower energy are illustrated for several typical event geometries. This correction of the shower energy can exceed 10%, depending on shower geometry.

  18. Nuclear parton distribution functions and energy loss effect in the Drell-Yan reaction off nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, ChunGui; Song, Lihua; Wang, ShuoHe; Li, Guanglie

    2006-01-01

    The energy loss effect in nuclear matter is another nuclear effect apart from the nuclear effects on the parton distribution as in deep inelastic scattering process. The quark energy loss can be measured best by the nuclear dependence of the high energy nuclear Drell-Yan process. By means of two typical kinds of quark energy loss parametrization and the different sets of nuclear parton distribution functions, we present a analysis of the E866 experiments on the nuclear dependence of Drell-Yan...

  19. Experimental Validation of Energy Resources Integration in Microgrids via Distributed Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantovani, Giancarlo; Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Marinelli, Mattia;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative control scheme for the management of energy consumption in commercial build- ings with local energy production, such as photovoltaic panels or wind turbine and an energy storage unit. The presented scheme is based on distributed model predictive controllers, which...... manage the storage system and the building space heating and cooling. The proposed approach is implemented and tested in SYSLAB, the experimental facility for distributed energy systems at the Techni- cal University of Denmark, Risø Campus. The experimental setup consists of wind and solar renewable...

  20. Optimal Scheduling of a Battery Energy Storage System with Electric Vehicles’ Auxiliary for a Distribution Network with Renewable Energy Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqing Yang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With global conventional energy depletion, as well as environmental pollution, utilizing renewable energy for power supply is the only way for human beings to survive. Currently, distributed generation incorporated into a distribution network has become the new trend, with the advantages of controllability, flexibility and tremendous potential. However, the fluctuation of distributed energy resources (DERs is still the main concern for accurate deployment. Thus, a battery energy storage system (BESS has to be involved to mitigate the bad effects of DERs’ integration. In this paper, optimal scheduling strategies for BESS operation have been proposed, to assist with consuming the renewable energy, reduce the active power loss, alleviate the voltage fluctuation and minimize the electricity cost. Besides, the electric vehicles (EVs considered as the auxiliary technique are also introduced to attenuate the DERs’ influence. Moreover, both day-ahead and real-time operation scheduling strategies were presented under the consideration with the constraints of BESS and the EVs’ operation, and the optimization was tackled by a fuzzy mathematical method and an improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO algorithm. Furthermore, the test system for the proposed strategies is a real distribution network with renewable energy integration. After simulation, the proposed scheduling strategies have been verified to be extremely effective for the enhancement of the distribution network characteristics.

  1. Distributed Energy Resources and Dynamic Microgrid: An Integrated Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Duo Rick

    The overall goal of this thesis is to improve understanding in terms of the benefit of DERs to both utility and to electricity end-users when integrated in power distribution system. To achieve this goal, a series of two studies was conducted to assess the value of DERs when integrated with new power paradigms. First, the arbitrage value of DERs was examined in markets with time-variant electricity pricing rates (e.g., time of use, real time pricing) under a smart grid distribution paradigm. This study uses a stochastic optimization model to estimate the potential profit from electricity price arbitrage over a five-year period. The optimization process involves two types of PHEVs (PHEV-10, and PHEV-40) under three scenarios with different assumptions on technology performance, electricity market and PHEV owner types. The simulation results indicate that expected arbitrage profit is not a viable option to engage PHEVs in dispatching and in providing ancillary services without more favorable policy and PHEV battery technologies. Subsidy or change in electricity tariff or both are needed. Second, it examined the concept of dynamic microgrid as a measure to improve distribution resilience, and estimates the prices of this emerging service. An economic load dispatch (ELD) model is developed to estimate the market-clearing price in a hypothetical community with single bid auction electricity market. The results show that the electricity market clearing price on the dynamic microgrid is predominantly decided by power output and cost of electricity of each type of DGs. At circumstances where CHP is the only source, the electricity market clearing price in the island is even cheaper than the on-grid electricity price at normal times. Integration of PHEVs in the dynamic microgrid will increase electricity market clearing prices. It demonstrates that dynamic microgrid is an economically viable alternative to enhance grid resilience.

  2. Options for Energy Conservation and Emission Reductions in Transportation Means for Goods Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1996-01-01

    The report contains an analysis of the technological options and potentials for development of transportation means with low energy consumption and emissions. The main focus is on transportation means utilised in the distribution of groceries....

  3. The Energy Distribution of a Noncommutative Reissner—Nordström Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourosh, Nozari; Yazdani, A.

    2013-09-01

    We study the energy distribution of a noncommutative Reissner—Nordström black hole. We consider both Einstein and Møller prescriptions, and compare our results with the corresponding results obtained recently for a Schwarzschild black hole.

  4. DYNAMIC ENERGY SAVING IN BUILDINGS WITH UNDERFLOOR AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM – EXPERIMENTAL AND SIMULATION STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study is aimed at seeking a better understanding of the thermodynamics involved with the air distribution strategies associated with UFAD systems and its impact on the energy saving dynamics. Thus objectives are: Experiment...

  5. The Broadband Spectral Energy Distribution of the MOJAVE Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, C S; Kadler, M; Aller, M F; Aller, H D; Angelakis, E; Fuhrmann, L; Nestoras, I; Ungerechts, H

    2010-01-01

    We are constructing the broadband SED catalog of the MOJAVE sample from the radio to the gamma-ray band using MOJAVE, Swift UVOT/XRT/BAT, and Fermi/LAT data, in order to understand the emission mechanism of extragalactic outflows and to investigate the site of high-energy emission in AGN. Since the launch of Fermi gamma-ray Space Telescope in August 2008, two thirds of the MOJAVE sources have been detected by Fermi/LAT. Combining the results of high-resolution VLBI, X-ray, and gamma-ray observations of the jet-dominated AGN sample, we want to pin down the origin of high-energy emission in relativistic jets. Here we present our overall project and preliminary results for 6 selected sources.

  6. Highly efficient distributed generation and high-capacity energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmes, Kas; Guerrero, Josep M.; Zhelev, Toshko

    2012-01-01

    With the growing amount of decentralized power production the design and operation of the grid has to be reconsidered. New problems include the two-way flow of electricity and maintaining the power balance given the increased amount of uncertain and fluctuating renewable energy sources like wind...... and solar that deliver electricity to the grid. Solution directions are the development of smart grids, demand side management, virtual power plants and storage of electricity. These are directions that, rightly so, are already attracting a lot of attention and R&D funding. In this paper critical issues...... are identified and specified. However, we will also explore new solution directions based on an integrative approach as proposed by the Dutch Royal Academy of Science foresight committee on renewable energy conversions. These alternative solutions include flexible coproduction and local production of chemicals...

  7. Fragment kinetic energy distributions in ion induced CO2 fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dissociation of CO3+2 formed in heavy ion induced ionization of CO2 has been studied using the technique of time of flight mass spectroscopy with position sensitive ion detector, with 5 MeV/u Si12+ ions as projectiles. The kinetic energy released in the CO3+2→ C+ + O+ + O+ is measured and compared to theoretical ab initio calculations as well as photoionization results.

  8. Influence of Renewable Energy Sources on Distribution Network Availability

    OpenAIRE

    Mikulec, Ana; Mikuličić, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of production facilities from renewable energy sources which especially influence the power system with variable production. The paper describes some basic ways of connection and technical data relevant for the design of production plants, as well as the most important influences on the power system, especially with respect to the following: voltage, short circuit current, operation of the system, losses and power quality. Basic concepts of reliability, mathe...

  9. Universal lateral distribution of energy deposit in air showers and its application to shower reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Gora, D.; Engel, R.; Heck, D.; Homola, P.; Klages, H.; Pekala, J.; Risse, M.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.

    2005-01-01

    The light intensity distribution in a shower image and its implications to the primary energy reconstructed by the fluorescence technique are studied. Based on detailed CORSIKA energy deposit simulations, a universal analytical formula is derived for the lateral distribution of light in the shower image and a correction factor is obtained to account for the fraction of shower light falling into outlying pixels in the detector. The expected light profiles and the corresponding correction of th...

  10. Distribution Characteristics of Dirac Energy Levels in Non-Kerr Space-time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪特; 杨树政

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of Dirac energy levels in a non-Kerr black hole space-time is related to an arbitrary set ofmultiple moments determined by the parameters αn. A singular point appears on the event horizon of the black hole, at which the Dirac energy levels have obvious distribution characteristics and are different from those in the space-time of the Kerr black hole.

  11. Distributed Multi-Commodity Network Flow Algorithm for Energy Optimal Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    OpenAIRE

    Trdlicka, J.; Hanzalek, Z.

    2010-01-01

    This work proposes a distributed algorithm for energy optimal routing in a wireless sensor network. The routing problem is described as a mathematical problem by the minimum-cost multi-commodity network flow problem. Due to the separability of the problem, we use the duality theorem to derive the distributed algorithm. The algorithm computes the energy optimal routing in the network without any central node or knowledge of the whole network structure. Each node only needs to know the flow whi...

  12. Unfolding the fission prompt gamma-ray energy and multiplicity distribution measured by DANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chyzh, A; Wu, C Y; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Jandel, M; Ullmann, J; Laptev, A

    2010-10-16

    The nearly energy independence of the {gamma}-ray efficiency and multiplicity response for the DANCE array, the unusual characteristic elucidated in our early technical report (LLNL-TR-452298), gives one a unique opportunity to derive the true prompt {gamma}-ray energy and multiplicity distribution in fission from the measurement. This unfolding procedure for the experimental data will be described in details and examples will be given to demonstrate the feasibility of reconstruction of the true distribution.

  13. Unfolding the fission prompt γ-ray energy and multiplicity distribution measured by DANCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nearly energy independence of the γ-ray efficiency and multiplicity response for the DANCE array, the unusual characteristic elucidated in our early technical report (LLNL-TR-452298), gives one a unique opportunity to derive the true prompt γ-ray energy and multiplicity distribution in fission from the measurement. This unfolding procedure for the experimental data will be described in details and examples will be given to demonstrate the feasibility of reconstruction of the true distribution.

  14. Newly-Constructed Single Phase Multilevel Inverter for Distributed Energy Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh, R.; M.Balasubramani; Gowrishankar, J

    2013-01-01

    Distributed energy resources systems are small power generation tools used to afford substitute solution or added enrichment of traditional electric power system. This paper is mainly concentrated on 1Ø multi-level inverter for Distributed Energy Resources. The objective of this paper is to reduce switches with increase in multi-level outputs which inherently reduces the cost & harmonics. Seven-level inverter with 6 switches and thirteen-level inverter with 8 switches are carried out using MA...

  15. Imaging the potential distribution of charged adsorbates on graphene by low-energy electron holography

    CERN Document Server

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Escher, Conrad; Fink, Hans-Werner

    2016-01-01

    While imaging individual atoms can routinely be achieved in high resolution transmission electron microscopy, visualizing the potential distribution of individually charged adsorbates leading to a phase shift of the probing electron wave is still a challenging task. Since low-energy electrons are sensitive to localized potential gradients, we employed this tool in the 30 eV kinetic energy range to visualize the potential distribution of localized charged adsorbates present on free-standing graphene.

  16. Multi-Period Optimal Distribution Model of Energy Medium and Its Application%Multi-Period Optimal Distribution Model of Energy Medium and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qi; TI Wei; CAI Jiu-ju; DU Tao; WANG Ai-hua

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model of optimal energy medium distribution in steelmaking process is formulated. In this model, three kinds of important energy mediums including byproduct gases, steam and electricity are considered, and the objective function accounts for both the change of generation and consumption of the byproduct gases and the demand of low (or middle) pressure steam and electricity for each period to maximize the benefit of products cost and minimize the consumption of energy. The results indicate that the optimal distribution scheme of byproduct gases, middle pressure steam, low pressure steam and electricity is achieved and case study shows that 6% of operation cost is reduced by using the proposed model comparing with the previous model.

  17. Scheduling of distributed energy storage for passive contribution in the imbalance settlement system of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lampropoulos, Ioannis; Garoufalis, Panagiotis; Kling, Wil L.

    2014-01-01

    The subject addressed in this paper is the intra-hour scheduling of a distributed battery energy storage system (BESS). The case study is about a lithium-ion BESS integrated in a low voltage (LV) distribution system with residential customers and photovoltaic (PV) generation in the Netherlands. The

  18. Calibration of a distributed hydrology and land surface model using energy flux measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Jensen, Karsten H.;

    2016-01-01

    radiation. In general, the distributed calibration approach improved model results substantially compared to using default values (no calibration) or calibration of the one-dimensional models only. For the distributed model simulations, the assumption regarding the energy balance closure had a substantial...

  19. First-passage time distribution for a random walker on a random forcing energy landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analytical approximation scheme for the disordered average first-passage time distribution on a finite interval of a random walker on a random forcing energy landscape. The approximation scheme captures the behavior of the distribution over all timescales in the problem. The results are carefully checked against numerical simulations

  20. Extrapolation of multiplicity distribution in p+p(\\bar{p}) collisions to LHC energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Ajay Kumar; Mohanty, Bedangadas

    2010-02-01

    The multiplicity (Nch) and pseudorapidity distribution (dNch/dη) of primary charged particles in p + p collisions at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies of \\sqrt{s} = 10 and 14 TeV are obtained from extrapolation of existing measurements at lower \\sqrt{s}. These distributions are then compared to calculations from PYTHIA and PHOJET models. The existing \\sqrt{s} measurements are unable to distinguish between a logarithmic and power law dependence of the average charged particle multiplicity (langNchrang) on \\sqrt{s}, and their extrapolation to energies accessible at LHC give very different values. Assuming a reasonably good description of inclusive charged particle multiplicity distributions by negative binomial distribution (NBD) at lower \\sqrt{s} to hold for LHC energies, we observe that the logarithmic \\sqrt{s} dependences of langNchrang are favored by the models at midrapidity. The dNch/dη versus η distributions for the existing measurements are found to be reasonably well described by a function with three parameters which accounts for the basic features of the distribution, height at midrapidity, central rapidity plateau and the higher rapidity fall-off. Extrapolation of these parameters as a function of \\sqrt{s} is used to predict the pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles at LHC energies. dNch/dη calculations from PYTHIA and PHOJET models are found to be lower compared to those obtained from the extrapolated dNch/dη versus η distributions for a broad η range.

  1. Radiochemical measurement of mass distribution in 16O+238U reaction at sub-barrier energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present, radiochemical study of the mass distribution in 16O+238U has been carried out at sub-barrier energy to investigate the nature of mass distribution in CFF and TF channels. In addition, cross sections of evaporation residues formed in one nucleon transfer/pick-up reactions have also been measured

  2. Equalization Algorithm for Distributed Energy Storage Systems in Islanded AC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a centralized strategy for equalizing the state of charge of distributed energy storage systems in an islanded ac microgrid. The strategy is based on a simple algorithm denoted as equalization algorithm, which modifies the charge or discharge ratio on the time, for distributed...

  3. Electron energy distribution in a helium plasma created by nuclear radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, R. H.; Miley, G. H.

    1974-01-01

    An integral balance technique for calculation of the electron energy distribution in a radiation-induced plasma is described. Results predict W-values reasonably well and compare favorably with more complicated Monte-Carlo calculations. The distribution found differs from that in a normal electrical discharge and is of interest in radiation-pumped laser research.

  4. A method for the assessment of specific energy distribution in a model tumor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noska, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    Due to the short range of alpha particles in tissue, the calculation of dose from internally deposited alpha emitters requires a detailed analysis of the microscopic distribution of the radionuclide in order to determine the spatial distribution of energy emission events and, from this, the spatial distribution of dose. In the present study, the authors used quantitative autoradiography (QAR) to assess the microdistribution of a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody (MAb) fragment in human glioma xenografts in mice.

  5. A method for the assessment of specific energy distribution in a model tumor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the short range of alpha particles in tissue, the calculation of dose from internally deposited alpha emitters requires a detailed analysis of the microscopic distribution of the radionuclide in order to determine the spatial distribution of energy emission events and, from this, the spatial distribution of dose. In the present study, the authors used quantitative autoradiography (QAR) to assess the microdistribution of a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody (MAb) fragment in human glioma xenografts in mice

  6. Effects of the Electron Energy Distribution Function on Modeled X-ray Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlyaptseva, A S; Hansen, S B

    2004-02-19

    This paper presents the results of a broad investigation into the effects of the electron energy distribution function on the predictions of non-LTE collisional-radiative atomic kinetics models. The effects of non-Maxwellian and suprathermal (''hot'') electron distributions on collisional rates (including three-body recombination) are studied. It is shown that most collisional rates are fairly insensitive to the functional form and characteristic energy of the electron distribution function as long as the characteristic energy is larger than the threshold energy for the collisional process. Collisional excitation and ionization rates, however, are highly sensitive to the fraction of hot electrons. This permits the development of robust spectroscopic diagnostics that can be used to characterize the electron density, bulk electron temperature, and hot electron fraction of plasmas with non-equilibrium electron distribution functions (EDFs). Hot electrons are shown to increase and spread out plasma charge state distributions, amplify the intensities of emission lines fed by direct collisional excitation and radiative cascades, and alter the structure of satellite features in both K- and L-shell spectra. The characteristic energy, functional form, and spatial properties of hot electron distributions in plasmas are open to characterization through their effects on high-energy continuum and line emission and on the polarization of spectral lines.

  7. A distributed multi-agent linear bi-objective algorithm for energy flow optimization in microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm, Robert; Top, Soren; Matefi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    A distributed linear bi-objective optimization algorithm for management of energy flow in a microgrid with individual agents is introduced. In contrast to widely used centralized approaches for energy management a distributed multi-agent scheme for optimization of energy flow within a microgrid...... consisting of local energy resources and storage capacities is presented which is based on the auction algorithm for assignment problems originally introduced by Bertsekas in 1979 [1]. It is shown that the topology of a microgrid can be represented as a bipartite graph and mathematically be described...... as a classical transportation problem. This allows applying an auction algorithm scheme in a distributed way where each energy supply system node is either a source or a sink and is represented by an individual acting agent. The single-objective approach is extended towards bi-objectivity to build a framework...

  8. Electrons with continuous energy distribution from energetic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties and origin of continuous electron spectrum emitted in high energy heavy ion collisions are reviewed. The basic processes causing the characteristic regions of the continuous spectrum are described. The contribution of electrons ejected from the target and from the projectile are investigated in detail in the cases of light and heavy projectiles. The recently recognized mechanisms, electron-capture-to-continuum (ECC) and electron-loss-to-continuum (ELC), leading to a cusp in forward direction, and their theoretical interpretations are discussed. The importance of data from ion-atom collisions in the field of atomic physics and in applications are briefly summarized. (D.Gy)

  9. Equilibrium charge state distributions of high energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equilibrium charge state fractions have been measured for N, O, Ne, S, Ar and Kr ions at 1.04 MeV/nucleon after passing through various stripping materials. Further data were obtained at higher energy for S ions (4.12 MeV/nucleon) and Ar ions (4.12 and 9.6 MeV/nucleon). The mean charge fractions can be fitted to universal curves for both solid and gaseous strippers. Measurements of the equilibrium fraction of krypton ions at 1.04 MeV/nucleon passing through heavy vapours have shown that a higher average charge state is obtained than for lighter gaseous strippers. (Auth.)

  10. Design automation, languages, and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    As the complexity of electronic systems continues to increase, the micro-electronic industry depends upon automation and simulations to adapt quickly to market changes and new technologies. Compiled from chapters contributed to CRC's best-selling VLSI Handbook, this volume covers a broad range of topics relevant to design automation, languages, and simulations. These include a collaborative framework that coordinates distributed design activities through the Internet, an overview of the Verilog hardware description language and its use in a design environment, hardware/software co-design, syst

  11. Measurement and simulation of lineal energy distribution at the CERN high energy facility with a tissue equivalent proportional counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollet, S; Autischer, M; Beck, P; Latocha, M

    2007-01-01

    The response of a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) in a mixed radiation field with a neutron energy distribution similar to the radiation field at commercial flight altitudes has been studied. The measurements have been done at the CERN-EU High-Energy Reference Field (CERF) facility where a well-characterised radiation field is available for intercomparison. The TEPC instrument used by the ARC Seibersdorf Research is filled with pure propane gas at low pressure and can be used to determine the lineal energy distribution of the energy deposition in a mass of gas equivalent to a 2 microm diameter volume of unit density tissue, of similar size to the nuclei of biological cells. The linearity of the detector response was checked both in term of dose and dose rate. The effect of dead-time has been corrected. The influence of the detector exposure location and orientation in the radiation field on the dose distribution was also studied as a function of the total dose. The microdosimetric distribution of the absorbed dose as a function of the lineal energy has been obtained and compared with the same distribution simulated with the FLUKA Monte Carlo transport code. The dose equivalent was calculated by folding this distribution with the quality factor as a function of linear energy transfer. The comparison between the measured and simulated distributions show that they are in good agreement. As a result of this study the detector is well characterised, thanks also to the numerical simulations the instrument response is well understood, and it's currently being used onboard the aircrafts to evaluate the dose to aircraft crew caused by cosmic radiation.

  12. Deriving star formation histories from photometry using energy balance spectral energy distribution modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Daniel J B

    2015-01-01

    Panchromatic spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting is a critical tool for determining the physical properties of distant galaxies, such as their stellar mass and star formation rate. One widely used method is the publicly available MAGPHYS code. We build on our previous analysis (Hayward & Smith 2015) by presenting some modifications which enable MAGPHYS to automatically estimate galaxy star formation histories (SFHs), including uncertainties, based on ultra-violet to far-infrared photometry. We use state-of-the art synthetic photometry derived by performing three-dimensional dust radiative transfer on hydrodynamic simulations of isolated disc and merging galaxies to test how well the modified MAGPHYS is able to recover SFHs under idealised conditions, where the true SFH is known. We find that while the SFH of the model with the best fit to the synthetic photometry is a poor representation of the true SFH (showing large variations with the line-of-sight to the galaxy and spurious bursts of star forma...

  13. Collaborative Technologies for Distributed Science - Fusion Energy and High-Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large-scale experiments, needed for fusion energy sciences (FES) and high-energy physics (HEP) research, are staffed by correspondingly large, geographically dispersed teams. At the same time, theoretical work has come to rely increasingly on complex numerical simulations developed by distributed teams of scientists and applied mathematicians and run on massively parallel computers. These trends will only accelerate. Operation of the most powerful accelerator ever built, the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, will begin next year and will dominate experimental high-energy physics. The fusion program will be increasingly oriented toward the ITER where even now, a decade before operation begins, a large portion of national programs efforts are organized around coordinated efforts to develop promising operational scenarios. While both FES and HEP have a significant track record for developing and exploiting remote collaborations, with such large investments at stake, there is a clear need to improve the integration and reach of the tools available. These challenges are being addressed by the creation and deployment of advanced collaborative software and hardware tools. Grid computing, to provide secure on-demand access to data analysis capabilities and related functions, is being deployed as an alternative to traditional resource sharing among institutions. Utilizing public-key based security that is recognized worldwide, numerous analysis and simulation codes are securely available worldwide in a service-oriented approach. Traditional audio teleconferencing is being augmented by more advanced capabilities including videoconferencing, instant messaging, presentation sharing, applications sharing, large display walls, and the virtual-presence capabilities of Access Grid and VRVS. With these advances, remote real-time experimental participation has begun as well as remote seminars, working meetings, and design review meetings. Work continues to focus on reducing the

  14. Distributed generation and demand response dispatch for a virtual power player energy and reserve provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria, Pedro; Soares, Tiago; Vale, Zita;

    2014-01-01

    operators, utilities and consumers must adopt strategies and methods to take full advantage of demand response and distributed generation. This requires that all the involved players consider all the market opportunities, as the case of energy and reserve components of electricity markets. The present paper...... proposes a methodology which considers the joint dispatch of demand response and distributed generation in the context of a distribution network operated by a virtual power player. The resources’ participation can be performed in both energy and reserve contexts. This methodology contemplates...

  15. Improving Power Quality in Low-Voltage Networks Containing Distributed Energy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Sumit; Ghosh, Arindam; Zare, Firuz

    2013-05-01

    Severe power quality problems can arise when a large number of single-phase distributed energy resources (DERs) are connected to a low-voltage power distribution system. Due to the random location and size of DERs, it may so happen that a particular phase generates excess power than its load demand. In such an event, the excess power will be fed back to the distribution substation and will eventually find its way to the transmission network, causing undesirable voltage-current unbalance. As a solution to this problem, the article proposes the use of a distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM), which regulates voltage at the point of common coupling (PCC), thereby ensuring balanced current flow from and to the distribution substation. Additionally, this device can also support the distribution network in the absence of the utility connection, making the distribution system work as a microgrid. The proposals are validated through extensive digital computer simulation studies using PSCADTM.

  16. Automation infrastructure and operation control strategy in a stand-alone power system based on renewable energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziogou, Chrysovalantou; Ipsakis, Dimitris; Elmasides, Costas; Stergiopoulos, Fotis; Papadopoulou, Simira; Seferlis, Panos; Voutetakis, Spyros

    The design of the automation system and the implemented operation control strategy in a stand-alone power system in Greece are fully analyzed in the present study. A photovoltaic array and three wind generators serve as the system main power sources and meet a predefined load demand. A lead-acid accumulator is used to compensate the inherent power fluctuations (excess or shortage) and to regulate the overall system operation, based on a developed power management strategy. Hydrogen is produced by using system excess power in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer and is further stored in pressurized cylinders for subsequent use in a PEM fuel cell in cases of power shortage. A diesel generator complements the integrated system and is employed only in emergency cases, such as subsystems failure. The performance of the automatic control system is evaluated through the real-time operation of the power system where data from the various subsystems are recorded and analyzed using a supervised data acquisition unit. Various network protocols were used to integrate the system devices into one central control system managing in this way to compensate for the differences between chemical and electrical subunits. One of the main advantages is the ability of process monitoring from distance where users can perform changes to system principal variables. Furthermore, the performance of the implemented power management strategy is evaluated through simulated scenarios by including a case study analysis on system abilities to meet higher than expected electrical load demands.

  17. Quantifying the potential of automated dynamic solar shading in office buildings through integrated simulations of energy and daylight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Vraa; Svendsen, Svend; Bjerregaard Jensen, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    them with various window heights and orientations. Their performance was evaluated on the basis of the building’s total energy demand, its energy demand for heating, cooling and lighting, and also its daylight factors. Simulation results comparing the three façade alternatives show potential...... for significant energy reduction, but greater differences and conflicting tendencies were revealed when the energy needed for heating, cooling and artificial lighting were considered separately. Moreover, the use of dynamic solar shading dramatically improved the amount of daylight available compared to fixed...

  18. Day-ahead distributed energy resource scheduling using differential search algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, J.; Lobo, C.; Silva, M.;

    2015-01-01

    The number of dispersed energy resources is growing every day, such as the use of more distributed generators. This paper deals with energy resource scheduling model in future smart grids. The methodology can be used by virtual power players (VPPs) considering day-ahead time horizon. This method ...

  19. Multiple Distributed Smart Microgrids with a Self-Autonomous, Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero, Josep M.; Kheng Tan, Yen

    2012-01-01

    The chapter covers the smart wireless sensors for microgrids, as well as the energy harvesting technology used to sustain the operations of these sensors. Last, a case study on the multiple distributed smart microgrids with a self-autonomous, energy harvesting wireless sensor network is presented....

  20. Hierarchical predictive control scheme for distributed energy storage integrated with residential demand and photovoltaic generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lampropoulos, I.; Garoufalis, P.; van den Bosch, P.P.J.; Kling, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    A hierarchical control scheme is defined for the energy management of a battery energy storage system which is integrated in a low-voltage distribution grid with residential customers and photovoltaic installations. The scope is the economic optimisation of the integrated system by employing predict