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Sample records for automated endothelial keratoplasty

  1. Comparison of Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty and Penetrating Keratoplasty in a Patient with Fuchs Endothelial Dystrophy

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    Alime Güneş

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To report a patient with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy (FED who underwent Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK on one eye and penetrating keratoplasty (PK on the fellow eye. A 74-year-old female patient with diagnosis of FED underwent uncomplicated cataract surgeries of both eyes, but developed bullous keratopathy eventually. The right eye underwent DSAEK and the left eye underwent PK. After 3 years of follow-up, the right eye had an uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA of 20/40 and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA of 20/20 with spectacle correction (+2.25(-0.50x20°. Graft was clear with endothelial cell density (ECD of 1532 cells/mm2 (donor ECD was 3215 cells/mm2 and central corneal thickness (CCT was 674 µm. After 1 year of follow-up, the left eye had UCVA of 20/200, spectacle corrected (-3.50x100° visual acuity of 20/125, and BCVA of 20/40 with rigid contact lens correction. Graft was also clear with ECD of 1785 cells/mm2 (donor ECD was 3100 cells/mm2 and CCT was 610 : This case report represents the advantages and disadvantages of two surgical techniques (PK and DASEK applied on fellow eyes of a patient with FED (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 202-4

  2. Confocal microscopy findings in deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty performed after Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty

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    Pang A

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Audrey Pang,1,2 Karim Mohamed-Noriega,1 Anita S Chan,1,3–5 Jodbhir S Mehta1,3 1Singapore National Eye Centre, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 3Singapore Eye Research Institute, 4Department of Histopathology, Pathology, Singapore General Hospital, 5Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore Background: This study describes the in vivo confocal microscopy findings in two patients who had deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK following Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK. Methods: The study reviewed the cases of two patients who first underwent DSAEK followed by DALK when their vision failed to improve due to residual stromal scarring. In the first case, a DSAEK was performed for a patient with pseudophakic bullous keratopathy. After surgery, the patient's vision failed to improve satisfactorily due to residual anterior stromal opacity and irregularity. Subsequently, the patient underwent a DALK. The same two consecutive operations were performed for a second patient with keratoconus whose previous penetrating keratoplasty had failed and had secondary graft ectasia. In vivo confocal microscopy was performed 2 months after the DALK surgery in both cases. Results: At 3 months after DALK, the best-corrected visual acuity was 6/30 in case 1 and 6/24 in case 2. In vivo confocal microscopy in both cases revealed the presence of quiescent keratocytes in the stroma layers of the DSAEK and DALK grafts, which was similar in the central and peripheral cornea. There was no activated keratocytes or haze noted in the interface between the grafts. Conclusion: Our short-term results show that performing a DALK after a DSAEK is an effective way of restoring cornea clarity in patients with residual anterior stromal opacity. In vivo confocal microscopy showed that there were no activated keratocytes seen in the interface of the grafts, which suggests

  3. The results descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty at bullous keratopathy

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    S. V. Trufanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate outcomes of the descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty using eye drops Kombinil-Duo dur- ing postoperative period.Methods: 26 patients suffered from bullous keratopathy underwent descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty using our own technique. We applied eye drops Kombinil-Duo during postoperative period.Results: 25 patients had clear corneas whole period of observation. Graft rejection occurred in 1 eye. Mean BSCVA was 0.47±0.21.Conclusion: Kombinil-Duo has been allowed to avoid infectious complication and to increase efficiency of the operative interven-tion during postoperative period.

  4. Donor disc attachment assessment with intraoperative spectral optical coherence tomography during descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty

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    Edward Wylegala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography has already been proven to be useful for pre- and post-surgical anterior eye segment assessment, especially in lamellar keratoplasty procedures. There is no evidence for intraoperative usefulness of optical coherence tomography (OCT. We present a case report of the intraoperative donor disc attachment assessment with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in case of Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK surgery combined with corneal incisions. The effectiveness of the performed corneal stab incisions was visualized directly by OCT scan analysis. OCT assisted DSAEK allows the assessment of the accuracy of the Descemet stripping and donor disc attachment.

  5. Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty for vitrectomized cases with traumatic aniridia and aphakic bullous keratopathy

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    Eguchi H

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hiroshi Eguchi, Tatsuro Miyamoto, Fumika Hotta, Machiko Tomida, Masayuki Inoue, Yoshinori MitamuraDepartment of Ophthalmology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima, JapanAbstract: The surgical indication for Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK is largely limited to phakic or pseudophakic cases of endothelial dysfunction with normal pupils, because the endothelial lenticule is generally attached to the recipient cornea by use of gas tamponade into the anterior chamber. Although it may be desirable for vitrectomized cases with aniridia and aphakic bullous keratopathy without capsule support to undergo DSAEK, one of the major problems is lenticule detachment during surgery or in the postoperative period. To perform DSAEK in such cases, special surgical techniques are needed in order to facilitate adhesion of the lenticule. Herein, we describe a suture technique for attaching the endothelial lenticule in DSAEK for aniridic and aphakic cases that have undergone vitrectomy for traumatic vitreoretinal disease.Keywords: traumatic aniridia, aphakic bullous keratopathy, Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty, vitrectomy

  6. Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty in Fuchs′ endothelial dystrophy versus pseudophakic bullous keratopathy

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    Mohammad Ali Javadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare clinical and confocal scan outcomes after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK performed for Fuchs′ endothelial dystrophy (FED versus pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (PBK. Methods: This retrospective comparative study included 47 consecutive eyes of 39 patients with the diagnosis of FED (n = 29, group 1 or PBK (n = 18, group 2 that underwent DSAEK. Clinical outcomes were compared between the study groups. At the final follow-up examination, confocal microscopy was used to measure and compare central corneal and graft thickness as well as endothelial cell density and morphology between the two groups. Results: Mean age at the time of surgery was 65.2 ± 11.8 and 69.4 ± 12.5 years in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.27. Follow-up period was 23.6 ± 14.0 months in group 1 and 25.6 ± 15.7 months in group 2 (P = 0.79. Postoperative best spectacle-corrected visual acuity was significantly better in group 1 than in group 2 until postoperative month 6. Afterwards, the two study groups were comparable in this regard. At the final follow-up examination, spherical equivalent refractive error was + 0.39 ± 1.46 diopters (D in group 1 and + 0.80 ± 1.47 D in group 2 (P = 0.45. Postoperative keratometric astigmatism was 1.02 ± 0.83 D and 2.36 ± 0.67 D, respectively (P < 0.001. Mean central graft thickness was 98.0 ± 33.3 μm in group 1 and 107.6 ± 28.0 μm in group 2 (P = 0.45. No statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of the postoperative endothelial cell density. Conclusion: The outcomes of DSAEK surgery were comparable between FED and PBK. All grafts were clear despite the lower than normal endothelial cell counts.

  7. Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty in Fuchs’ Endothelial Dystrophy versus Pseudophakic Bullous Keratopathy

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    Javadi, Mohammad Ali; Feizi, Sepehr; Jafari, Roya; Mirbabaee, Firooz; Ownagh, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To compare clinical and confocal scan outcomes after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) performed for Fuchs’ endothelial dystrophy (FED) versus pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (PBK). Methods: This retrospective comparative study included 47 consecutive eyes of 39 patients with the diagnosis of FED (n = 29, group 1) or PBK (n = 18, group 2) that underwent DSAEK. Clinical outcomes were compared between the study groups. At the final follow-up examination, confocal microscopy was used to measure and compare central corneal and graft thickness as well as endothelial cell density and morphology between the two groups. Results: Mean age at the time of surgery was 65.2 ± 11.8 and 69.4 ± 12.5 years in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.27). Follow-up period was 23.6 ± 14.0 months in group 1 and 25.6 ± 15.7 months in group 2 (P = 0.79). Postoperative best spectacle-corrected visual acuity was significantly better in group 1 than in group 2 until postoperative month 6. Afterwards, the two study groups were comparable in this regard. At the final follow-up examination, spherical equivalent refractive error was + 0.39 ± 1.46 diopters (D) in group 1 and + 0.80 ± 1.47 D in group 2 (P = 0.45). Postoperative keratometric astigmatism was 1.02 ± 0.83 D and 2.36 ± 0.67 D, respectively (P < 0.001). Mean central graft thickness was 98.0 ± 33.3 μm in group 1 and 107.6 ± 28.0 μm in group 2 (P = 0.45). No statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of the postoperative endothelial cell density. Conclusion: The outcomes of DSAEK surgery were comparable between FED and PBK. All grafts were clear despite the lower than normal endothelial cell counts. PMID:27994806

  8. A sliding technique to load thin endothelial donor lamella onto Busin glide for Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty

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    Kobayashi A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Akira Kobayashi, Hideaki Yokogawa, Kazuhisa SugiyamaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, JapanAbstract: We describe a modified technique for loading donor corneal endothelial lamella onto a Busin glide® without causing wrinkles, as part of the procedure of Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty. Briefly, after punching out a composite of the donor-endothelial lamella and a microkeratome-dissected cap, several drops of dispersive ophthalmic viscosurgical device are placed onto the endothelial surface. The Busin glide surface is then wetted with several drops of balanced salt solution. After the composite is transferred onto the Busin glide, hydrodissection of the potential space between the donor-endothelial lamella and the microkeratome-dissected cap is carefully performed to enable smooth detachment of these two lamellae. Whereas simply dragging the donor-endothelial lamella directly onto the glide can cause wrinkling or folding of the donor lamella, this technique enables smooth detachment of the composite without wrinkle or fold formation, and results in less endothelial cell damage.Keywords: DSAEK, Busin glide, endothelial keratoplasty

  9. Non-Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty for bullous keratopathy secondary to iridoschisis

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    Minezaki T

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Teruumi Minezaki, Takaaki Hattori, Hayate Nakagawa, Shigeto Kumakura, Hiroshi GotoDepartment of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Medical University, Shinjukuku, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: To report a case of bullous keratopathy secondary to iridoschisis treated by non-Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (nDSAEK.Case report: A 79-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with loss of vision in the left eye. Slit lamp examination of her left eye showed a shallow anterior chamber with cataract and schisis in the inferior quadrant of iris stroma. Bullous keratopathy secondary to iridoschisis was diagnosed. Cataract surgery with iridectomy succeeded to deepen the anterior chamber and remove the floating iris leaf, although corneal edema remained. Four days later, nDSAEK was performed, which resolved corneal edema and restored visual acuity.Conclusion: The two-step surgery of cataract surgery plus iridectomy followed by nDSAEK may be an effective strategy for treating bullous keratopathy secondary to iridoschisis.Keywords: iridoschisis, bullous keratopathy, non-Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty

  10. Graft Suturing for Lenticule Dislocation after Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty

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    Wai-Kwan Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the mid-term outcomes of graft suturing in a patient with lenticule dislocation after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK. Case Report: A 78-year old woman was found to have graft dislocation involving the nasal half of the cornea after uneventful DSAEK. Graft repositioning, refilling the anterior chamber with air, and placement of four full-thickness 10/0 nylon sutures over the detached area were performed two weeks after the initial surgery. The sutures were removed 6 weeks later. Serial specular microscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography were performed. At 18 months, there was good lenticule apposition and a clear graft. Conclusion: Anchoring sutures seem to be effective for management of graft detachment following DSAEK.

  11. Hydrophilic Acrylic Intraocular Lens Opacification after Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty

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    Norouzpour, Amir; Zarei-Ghanavati, Siamak

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To report hydrophilic acylic intraocular lens (IOL) opacification after Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty (DSAEK) in an eye with multiple prior intraocular surgeries and iatrogenic aniridia. Case Report: A 34-year-old woman with history of penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) for advanced keratoconus and subsequent Urrets-Zavalia Syndrome (UZS) underwent phacoemulsification and hydrophilic acrylic IOL implantation for her cataract. In order to control post-PKP glaucoma, multiple glaucoma surgeries including two glaucoma drainage implants were performed. As the original corneal graft failed, the patient subsequently underwent re-PKP. Four years later, she underwent DSAEK for treatment of the second graft failure. Ten months after DSAEK, a double semi-circular pattern of IOL opacification was observed on the anterior surface of the IOL. The patient did not report any complaints and we decided not to exchange the IOL. Conclusion: In an eye with UZS and iatrogenic aniridia, IOL opacification may result from direct contact between the IOL surface and exogenous air. Aniridia can be a risk factor for development of IOL opacification after DSAEK. Further studies are required to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:27413506

  12. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Keratitis after Descemet's Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty

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    Tatsuro Miyamoto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA keratitis after Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK. Case Report: An 87-year-old woman who had undergone a DSAEK 4 months previously was referred to Tokushima University Hospital with a diagnosis of infectious keratitis after DSAEK. A white abscess and infiltration in the inferior cornea of the right eye were observed. We started an empiric therapy using topical levofloxacin and chloramphenicol on the basis of the microscopic findings of the corneal scraping concurrently with cultivation of the cornea. Results: A strain of MRSA was isolated from the corneal sample. Although the strain was susceptible to chloramphenicol, it was resistant to quinolone. The keratitis improved rapidly due to empiric therapy, and topical steroids could be resumed 6 days after initiation of the empiric therapy. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first case of MRSA keratitis, and the second case of bacterial keratitis, after DSAEK. MRSA keratitis can occur following uneventful DSAEK. The empiric therapy on the basis of results from a light microscopic examination of a Gram-stained corneal scraping and restarting topical steroids in the early stages of medication contributed to the good clinical course of this case.

  13. Endothelial keratoplasty: evolution and horizons

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    Gustavo Teixeira Grottone

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial keratoplasty has been adopted by corneal surgeons worldwide as an alternative to penetrating keratoplasty (PK in the treatment of corneal endothelial disorders. Since the first surgeries in 1998, different surgical techniques have been used to replace the diseased endothelium. Compared with penetrating keratoplasty, all these techniques may provide faster and better visual rehabilitation with minimal change in refractive power of the transplanted cornea, minimal induced astigmatism, elimination of suture-induced complications and late wound dehiscence, and a reduced demand for postoperative care. Translational research involving cell-based therapy is the next step in work on endothelial keratoplasty. The present review updates information on comparisons among different techniques and predicts the direction of future treatment.

  14. Two cases of ultrathin Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty utilizing a graft that had undergone radial keratotomy

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    Nahum, Yoav; Ponzin, Diego; Busin, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    This is a report of two cases in which tissue that had undergone radial keratotomy (RK) was utilized for double-pass ultrathin Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (UT-DSAEK). Postoperative slit-lamp examination, visual acuity, anterior segment optical coherence tomography, and specular microscopy were available 30 months after surgery. Both corneas from a donor, who had undergone RK several years before his demise, and were otherwise suitable for endothelial keratoplasty were prepared for UT-DSAEK using double-pass dissection using first a 300 mm microkeratome head and then a 130μm microkeratome head (ALTK system, Moria, Antony, France). After the second cut, the tissue was punched to 9.0 mm and transplanted in two eyes with endothelial decompensation according to standard technique. As early as 3 months after surgery, both patients had 20/25 best-corrected visual acuity, which remained stable for the following 27 months. Postoperative endothelial cell loss was 34% and 57% at 2.5 years. In conclusion, post-RK donor tissue can be used for UT-DSAEK. PMID:27050357

  15. Graft stability after endothelial keratoplasty

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    Jovanović Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Techniques for replacing the corneal endothelium have been improved. The host-graft interface is the key to graft adhesion and visual recovery. The aim of this study was to establish graft stability after Descemet stripping with endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK, compare it to the graft stability after endothelial keratoplasty with the intact posterior corneal layers (nDSEK in the rabbit cornea, and to investigate the nature of wound healing. Methods. Adult white rabbits (n = 20 were divided in two experimental groups: ten rabbits underwent monocular DSEK, and ten rabbits underwent endothelial keratoplasty without Descemet stripping (nDSEK. On the second postoperative day a horizontal dislocation of the graft was tried using the Lindstrom roller in each animal. Corneas were processed for the light microscopy study. Results. Rolling the Lindstrom instrument over the corneal surface did not cause horizontal dislocation in any of the operated eyes. In the DSEK group light microscopy revealed the lack of inflammation and fibrosis at the clearly distinctive donor-recipient interface (DRI. Retrocorneal membrane was found in two eyes. In nDSEK group, the host Descemet` s membrane (DM was intact without endothelial cells, with good graft apposition, without inflammation, fibrosis, or retrocorneal membrane. Conclusion. This study suggests that there is no difference in graft stability in DSEK compared to nDSEK in rabbit corneas. Wounds healed at DRI by hypocellular scarring only in both experimental groups.

  16. The clinical characteristics of fungal keratitis in eyes after Descemet’s stripping and automated endothelial keratoplasty

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    Araki-Sasaki K

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kaoru Araki-Sasaki,1,2 Atsuko Fukumoto,1 Yasuhiro Osakabe,3 Hideya Kimura,1 Shinichiro Kuroda1 1Nagata Eye Clinic, Nara, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Japan Community Health Care Organization, Hoshigaoka Medical Center, Osaka, Japan; 3Department of Molecular Pathology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of fungal keratitis caused by Candida albicans in an eye after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK. A 72-year-old male with a history of three trabeculectomies, cataract surgery, and two DSAEK procedures developed a corneal ulcer in his right eye two years after his last DSAEK. Fungal keratitis was most likely related to the immunosuppressive conditions that occurred due to the previous operations, the continuous use of steroid eye drops, and the use of disposable soft contact lenses. A smear and culture from the ulcer detected Candida albicans. Slit-lamp examination showed the characteristic feature was the presence of interface infiltrates located between the host and the graft cornea and in the enlarged area around the ulcer. Two weeks after intense antimycotic treatments with voriconazole, miconazole, and natamycin, perforation of the cornea occurred and further therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty was required. Histological analysis revealed an accumulation of infiltrated cells and fibrotic tissue. The poor prognosis for fungal keratitis that occurs in eyes after undergoing DSAEK may be related to the rapid expansion of inflammatory cells through the interface between the host and the graft. In eyes that develop fungal keratitis after DSAEK, special attention should be paid to the possibility that perforation could occur in these patients. Keywords: DSAEK, Candida albicans, fungal keratitis, keratomycosis, post-operative infection

  17. Challenges in pediatric endothelial keratoplasty

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    Vikas Mittal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed endothelial keratoplasty (EK in three eyes of two siblings (2.5 years, male and 3.5 years, female with congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED and report the intraoperative and postoperative difficulties. Repeated iris prolapse, apprehension of crystalline lens touch due to positive vitreous pressure, and need for frequent air injections to attach the graft were intraoperative challenges in all three eyes. These were addressed by use of Sheet′s glide instead of Busin′s glide during graft insertion and suturing of main and side ports before air injection. One eye had graft dislocation on second postoperative day due to eye rubbing by the child. Graft was repositioned with air and a venting incision was created. Postoperative examination required repeated general anesthesia. Corneal edema resolved completely in all three eyes. Present case series highlights the possible intraoperative and postoperative challenges and their solutions in pediatric EK for CHED.

  18. Suture pull-through insertion techniques for Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty in Chinese phakic eyes: outcomes and complications.

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    Ying Hong

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the outcomes and complications of suture pull-through insertion techniques for Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK in Chinese phakic eyes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective case series. Included in the study were all Chinese patients with phakic eyes who underwent DSAEK at Peking University Third Hospital from August 2008 to August 2011. All ocular diseases of the patients were recorded. Distance visual acuity (DVA, near visual acuity (NVA, intraocular pressure (IOP, anterior chamber depth (ACD, central corneal thickness (CCT, and corneal endothelial cell density (ECD were compared prior to and 12 months after DSAEK. The DSAEK success rate, endothelial cell loss (ECL, complications, and prognosis were analyzed. All patients had at least 12 months of follow up. RESULTS: Twenty-one eyes of 16 patients were included (11 males and 5 females. Ages ranged from 2 to 47 years with an average age of 29.8 years. The average follow up was 15.4 months (ranging from 12 to 36 months. Diagnoses included 7 eyes (4 patients with corneal endothelial dystrophy and 14 eyes (12 patients with bullous keratopathy. Presurgical DVA and NVA (LogMAR were 1.7 ± 0.7 and 1.2 ± 0.4; postsurgical DVA and NVA were 0.8 ± 0.6 and 0.7 ± 0.5; Z = -3.517, -2.764; P<0.001 and P = 0.006 respectively. Presurgical IOP was 15.8 ± 3.7 mm Hg; postsurgical IOP was 15.2 ± 2.6 mm Hg; Z = -0.505, P = 0.614. Presurgical ACD was 3.00 ± 0.74 mm; postsurgical ACD was 2.72 ± 0.59 mm; Z = -0.524, P = 0.600. Donor ECD was 2992 ± 163 cells/mm(2, ECD was 1836 ± 412 cells/mm(2 with a 12-month postsurgical ECL of 39%. Success rate was 86%. Surgery complications included pupillary block-induced hypertension in 5 eyes (24%, graft detachment in 3 eyes (14%, and graft dislocation in 1 eye (5%. CONCLUSIONS: DSAEK on Chinese phakic eyes can significantly improve DVA and NVA by preserving the patient's own crystalline lens

  19. New continuous air pumping technique to improve clinical outcomes of descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty in asian patients with previous ahmed glaucoma valve implantation.

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    Chang-Min Liang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To evaluate the outcomes of Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK with the use of continuous air pumping technique in Asian eyes with previous Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation. METHODS: The DSAEK procedure was modified in that complete air retention of the anterior chamber was maintained for 10 min using continuous air pumping at 30 mm Hg. The primary outcome measurement was graft survival, and postoperative clinical features including, rate of graft detachment, endothelial cell count, intraocular pressure (IOP, surgical time and cup/disc ratio were also recorded. RESULTS: A total of 13 eyes of 13 patients which underwent modified DSAEK and 6 eyes of 6 patients which underwent conventional DSAEK were included. There was a significant difference in graft survival curves between two groups (P = 0.029; the 1-year graft survival rates were estimated as 100% and 66.7% for patients with modified DSAEK and those with traditional DSAEK, respectively. The rate of graft detachment were 0% and 33.3% for the modified DSAEK and conventional DSAEK groups, respectively (P = 0.088. The significantly lowered surgical time for air tamponade was noted in the modified DSAEK group compared to that in the conventional DSAEK group [median (IQR: 10.0 (10.0, 10.0 min vs. 24.5 (22.0, 27.0 min; P<0.001] Postoperatively, patients in the modified DSAEK group had significantly lower IOP as compared to the conventional DSAEK group [12.0 (11.0, 15.0 mm Hg vs. 16.0 (15.0, 18.0 mm Hg; P = 0.047]. Modified DSAEK patients had higher endothelial cell counts as compared to conventional DSAEK patients [2148.0 (1964.0, 2218.0 vs. 1529.0 (713.0, 2014.0], but the difference did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.072. CONCLUSIONS: New continuous air pumping technique in DSAEK can be performed safely and effectively in patients with prior GDDs placement who have corneal failure.

  20. In vivo ultrathin Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty with a low-energy and high-frequency femtosecond laser

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    Gustavo Victor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the production of an ultrathin endothelial donor corneal lamella using a femtosecond laser with low energy and a high frequency. In addition, we report its use in vivo in an eye with pseudophakic bullous keratopathy. The outcomes were observed 3 months after surgery in terms of the change in endothelial donor lamella and full cornea thickness (including pachymetric mapping, visual acuity, and endothelial cell count.

  1. Reproducibility of Corneal Graft Thickness measurements with COLGATE in patients who have undergone DSAEK (Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty

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    Wong Melissa HY

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The CorneaL GrAft Thickness Evaluation (COLGATE system was recently developed to facilitate the evaluation of corneal graft thickness from OCT images. Graft thickness measurement can be a surrogate indicator for detecting graft failure or success. The purpose of this study was to determine the reproducibility of the COLGATE system in measuring DSAEK graft area between two observers. Methods This was a prospective case series in which 50 anterior segment OCT images of patients who had undergone DSAEK in either eye were analysed. Two observers (MW, AC independently obtained the image analysis for the graft area using both semi automated and automated method. One week later, each observer repeated the analysis for the same set of images. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to analyze inter and intra observer agreement. Results There was strong intraobserver correlation between the 2 semi automated readings obtained by both observers. (r = 0.936 and r = 0.962. Intraobserver ICC for observer 1 was 0.936 (95% CI 0.890 to 0.963 and 0.967 (95% CI 0.942 to 0.981 for observer 2. Likewise, there was also strong interobserver correlation (r = 0.913 and r = 0.969. The interobserver ICC for the first measurements was 0.911 (95% CI 0.849 to 0.949 and 0.968 (95% CI 0.945 to 0.982 for the second. There was statistical difference between the automatic and the semi automated readings for both observers (p = 0.006, p = 0.003. The automatic readings gave consistently higher values than the semi automated readings especially in thin grafts. Conclusion The analysis from the COLGATE programme can be reproducible between different observers. Care must be taken when interpreting the automated analysis as they tend to over estimate measurements.

  2. Preliminary results of femtosecond laser-assisted descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Yanny Y. Y.; Hendrikse, Fred; Pels, Elisabeth; Wijdh, Robert-Jan; van Cleynenbreugel, Hugo; Eggink, Cathariena A.; van Rij, Gabriel; Rijneveld, Wilhelmina J.; Nuijts, Rudy M. M. A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the preliminary visual results of femtosecond laser-assisted descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (FS-DSEK). keratoplasty (FS-DSEK). Methods: We prospectively analyzed results of 20 consecutive patients with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy or aphakic/pseudophakic bullous ke

  3. Preliminary results of femtosecond laser-assisted descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Y.Y.; Hendrikse, F.; Pels, E.; Wijdh, R.J.; Cleynenbreugel, H. van; Eggink, C.A.; Rij, G. van; Rijneveld, W.J.; Nuijts, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the preliminary visual results of femtosecond laser-assisted Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (FS-DSEK). METHODS: We prospectively analyzed results of 20 consecutive patients with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy or aphakic/pseudophakic bullous keratopathy who underwent

  4. Simultaneous bilensectomy and endothelial keratoplasty for angle-supported phakic intraocular lens-induced corneal decompensation

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    Vikas Mittal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old lady presented with severe endothelial cell loss in both eyes 14 years after angle-supported phakic intraocular lens (AS PIOL implantation. The left eye had severe corneal edema with bullous keratopathy. The right eye had markedly reduced endothelial cell count (655 cells/mm 2 although the cornea was clear. She underwent simultaneous bilensectomy (AS PIOL explantation and phacoemulsification and Descemet′s stripping and endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK in the left eye. Explanted AS PIOL was identified as ZSAL-4 (Morcher, Stuttgart, Germany model. Corneal edema cleared completely in 2 months with a best corrected visual acuity (-2.25 D sph of 20/60. No intervention was done in the right eye. The present case illustrates that AS PIOL-induced endothelial decompensation can be effectively managed by simultaneous bilensectomy and endothelial keratoplasty.

  5. 角膜后弹力层剥除自动角膜刀取材内皮移植术后植片脱位的处理%Management of dislocated graft after Descemet's stripping with automated endothelial keratoplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪晶; 郝燕生; 彭荣梅; 马志中

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨角膜后弹力层剥除自动角膜刀取材内皮移植(Descemet's stripping with automatedendothelial keratoplasty,DSAEK)术后植片脱位的原因和处理的方法.方法 回顾性研究,在接受DSAEK的48只眼中发生植片脱位的有10例患者,其中2例为晶体摘除后无晶体眼无后囊的病例、8例为人工晶状体眼虹膜缺损的病例.7例患者既往有青光眼的病史.DSAEK术后应用裂隙灯显微镜和前节OCT观察植片的位置.植片复位的方法有气泡复位法和黏弹剂复位法,即将气泡或黏弹剂注入到植片的下方,将植片顶起与植床相贴.结果 10例患者全部复位成功,其中2例晶体缺如但虹膜正常的患者应用气泡复位成功;另8例人工晶状体眼虹膜缺损的患者应用黏弹剂复位成功.术后早期所有患者眼压均正常,但有3例患者复位手术3周后发生眼压升高.结论 DSAEK术后植片脱位是最常见的并发症,气泡复位是最常应用的方法,但对于晶体虹膜隔异常的患者,黏弹剂复位是一种有效地手段.%Objective To survey the management of dislocaed graft after Descemet' s Stripping with Automated Endothelium Keratoplasty (DSAEK).To provide experience for DSAEK developing in china. Method Outcomes of 48 DSAEK cases were reviewed retrospoctively.10 patients had dislocation of donor graft after DSAEK.Among these, 2 patients were aphakic with integrity iris, while 8 patients were pseudophakic with iris defect.7 patients had history of glaucoma.The position of the graft was checked by slit-lamp microscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomogmphy.The methods of reposition included bubble and viscoelastic, the procedure was that bubble or viscoelastic was injected to appose the graft further to the recipient sufface.Resttlts 10 patients were successfully repositioned.The rebubbling was applied in 2 aphakic cases and the viscoelastic was done in 8 cases who pseudophakic with iris defect.The intraocular

  6. Endothelial keratoplasty for corneal decompensation leaded by a dexamethasone implant dislocation in anterior chamber

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    Fernanda Pacella

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dexamethasone intravitreal implant (DEX largely showed his safety and efficacy for the treatment of cases of macular edema. Even if uncommon, delivery dislocation in anterior chamber has been described in Literaure as complication of the injection procedure, leading to irreversible endothelial cell loss in the majority of cases. We report a case of a 66-year-old man with pain and vision loss in his left eye. The anamnesis revealed a recent intravitreal injection of DEX implant for a persistent cystoid macular edema related to central retinal vein occlusion. Anterior segment examination showed corneal edema and the rod implant adherent to corneal endothelium. A large peripheral iridectomy was evident with retroillumination and IOL appeared good centered in the bag. The implant was removed but corneal decompensation was irreversible. One month later, an endothelial keratoplasty was successfully performed restoring corneal transparency. DEX intravitreal implant can migrate from vitreous cavity to anterior chamber and lead to irreversible corneal decompensation by mechanical and chemical toxicity on corneal endothelium. Removeal of the implant is necessary to avoid total endothelial decompensation. Despite this, in some cases endothelial keratoplasty had to be performed.

  7. Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty with a stromal rim in the treatment of posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy

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    Pavel Studeny

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old patient, diagnosed with posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy, developed corneal edema for which he underwent Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty with a stromal rim (DMEK-S in the right eye. No intra- or postoperative complications were noted. At the last follow-up 2 years and 9 months after the procedure, the best corrected visual acuity was 1.0 and endothelial cell density declined from 3533 cells/mm 2 to 1012 cells/mm 2 . Despite the endothelial cell loss, DMEK-S appears to be a good alternative to other surgical techniques for the treatment of corneal endotheliopathies, and it may be of benefit to young patients.

  8. Validation of an endothelial roll preparation for Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty by a cornea bank using "no touch" dissection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Anne-Sophie; Burillon, Carole; Desanlis, Adeline; Damour, Odile; Kocaba, Viridiana; Auxenfans, Céline

    2016-06-01

    Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty (DMEK) selectively replaces the damaged posterior part of the cornea. However, the DMEK technique relies on a manually-performed dissection that is time-consuming, requires training and presents a potential risk of endothelial graft damages leading to surgery postponement when performed by surgeons in the operative room. To validate precut corneal tissue preparation for DMEK provided by a cornea bank in order to supply a quality and security precut endothelial tissue. The protocol was a technology transfer from the Netherlands Institute for Innovative Ocular Surgery (NIIOS) to Lyon Cornea Bank, after formation in NIIOS to the DMEK "no touch" dissection technique. The technique has been validated in selected conditions (materials, microscope) and after a learning curve, cornea bank technicians prepared endothelial tissue for DMEK. Endothelial cells densities (ECD) were evaluated before and after preparation, after storage and transport to the surgery room. Microbiological and histological controls have been done. Twenty corneas were manually dissected; 18 without tears. Nineteen endothelial grafts formed a double roll. The ECD loss after cutting was 3.3 % (n = 19). After transportation 7 days later, we found an ECD loss of 25 % (n = 12). Three days after cutting and transportation, we found 2.1 % of ECD loss (n = 7). Histology found an endothelial cells monolayer lying on Descemet membrane. The mean thickness was 12 ± 2.2 µm (n = 4). No microbial contamination was found (n = 19). Endothelial roll stability has been validated at 3 days in our cornea bank. Cornea bank technicians trained can deliver to surgeons an ECD controlled, safety and ready to use endothelial tissue, for DMEK by "no touch" technique, allowing time saving, quality and security for surgeons.

  9. Complications and management in Descemet′s stripping endothelial keratoplasty: Analysis of consecutive 430 cases

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    Samar K Basak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze the complications and their managements in Descemet′s stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK in consecutive 430 cases by single surgeon in a tertiary eye hospital. Materials and Methods: 430 eyes of 366 patients with endothelial dysfunctions scheduled for DSEK, were analyzed retrospectively. In all cases donor dissection was performed manually, and ′Taco′ insertion and unfolding technique was used. Intra-operative and postoperative complications with their managements and outcomes were reviewed retrospectively. Periodic endothelial cell density was analyzed for each patient till the last visit. Follow-up period was between 3 to 60 months (mean 18.7 months. Results: 13 (3.0% eyes had operative complications during donor dissection and 16 (3.7% had during recipient procedure. In 7 (1.6% eyes, donor lenticule was replaced with a new one during the surgery. In early postoperative period, 21 (4.9% eyes had donor dislocation and 12 (2.8% eyes had air-induced pupillary block; and they were managed immediately. 2 cases had primary graft failure and in 1 case had postoperative bacterial endophthalmitis requiring evisceration. In late postoperative period, 48 (11.3% eyes had secondary glaucoma and 14 (3.3% eyes had late secondary graft failure. Endothelial rejection occurred in 5 (1.2% cases. Mean endothelial cell loss was 19.7% after 3 months and 54.2% after 5 years. Total graft failure in this series was 31 (7.2% and in 17 cases re-DSEK was performed successfully. Conclusions: Both operative and postoperative complications do occur in DSEK. Most of these complications can be managed by medical or appropriate surgical means. Some of the complications can be avoided and reduced with experience.

  10. Corneal endothelial rejection after penetrating keratoplasty treated with intravenous and topic corticosteroid: one year follow up

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    Ricardo Yuji Abe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the recovery of visual acuity (VA and graft survival after first episode of endothelial rejection in penetrating keratoplasty (PKP treated with intravenous (IV and topic corticosteroid. METHODS: Interventional, prospective, non-comparative case series study evolving 32 PKP patients in one year follow up, who presented first episode of corneal endothelial rejection. The patients were submitted to 500 mg IV injection of methylprednisolone in association with topical prednisolone. Main outcome measures included VA recovery and corneal edema regression. Second outcome included new rejections and graft failure. Multivariate analysis techniques were used to estimate rates of graft outcome events and the impact of risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 32 eyes from 32 patients (13 male and 19 female were included in the study. The mean VA (in number of letters before rejection was 48 (22 to 88 letters. Patients treated within 7 days or less of initial symptoms had better VA recovery, corneal edema regression and less graft failure (p<0.001. Patients with previous ocular surgery had worse VA recovery and more graft failure (p<0.047. CONCLUSION: The association between the other risk factors and the outcomes did not reach statistical significance in the multivariate model because of the small numbers of patients. Methylprednisolone in association with topical prednisolone is an alternative treatment for graft rejection. Our study showed that patients treated within 7 days of symptoms and no previous anterior segment surgery had better visual outcome and graft survival after treatment.

  11. Precut cornea for Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty: experience at a single eye bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ashik; Chaurasia, Sunita; Chandragiri, Venkataswamy; Kandhibanda, Srinivas; Gunnam, Srinivas; Garg, Prashant

    2016-07-20

    The aim of the study is to describe the experience with precut facility for endothelial keratoplasty at a single eye bank affiliated to a tertiary eye care center in India. Data on precut tissues from Nov 2012 to Dec 2014 were retrospectively reviewed from the electronic database of the eye bank of a tertiary eye care center in South India. Donor characteristic data including donor age, precut and postcut endothelial cell density (ECD), recipient age, and thickness of graft were collected. The number of precuts increased from 42 in 2012 (Nov and Dec) and 422 in 2013 to 584 in 2014. Of the total of 1048 precuts, seven (0.67 %) were miscut and could not be utilized for transplants. The donor age ranged from 2 to 89 years. A mean change of 43.6 ± 325.2 cells/mm(2) in ECD was noted after cut, proportional increase in mean being 1.9 %. The change in ECD after cut was negatively correlated with ECD before cut. The recipient age ranged from 1 to 89 years. The median thickness of donor lenticule after cut was 148 µm (interquartile range 131-166 µm). Analysis of precut donor corneas from a single eye bank shows that the ECD of the processed tissues was excellent for transplantation. The tissue wastage in the hands of eye bank personal was minimal.

  12. Electrospun nanofibrous SF/P(LLA-CL membrane: a potential substratum for endothelial keratoplasty

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    Chen JZ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Junzhao Chen,1,* Chenxi Yan,1,* Mengyu Zhu,1,* Qinke Yao,1 Chunyi Shao,1 Wenjuan Lu,1 Jing Wang,2 Xiumei Mo,2 Ping Gu,1 Yao Fu,1 Xianqun Fan1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 2Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Cornea transplant technology has progressed markedly in recent decades, allowing surgeons to replace diseased corneal endothelium by a thin lamellar structure. A thin, transparent, biocompatible, tissue-engineered substratum with corneal endothelial cells for endothelial keratoplasty is currently of interest. Electrospinning a nanofibrous structure can simulate the extracellular matrix and have beneficial effects for cell culture. Silk fibroin (SF has good biocompatibility but poor mechanical properties, while poly(L-lactic acid-co-Ɛ-caprolactone (P(LLA-CL has good mechanical properties but poor biocompatibility. Blending SF with P(LLA-CL can maintain the advantages of both these materials and overcome their disadvantages. Blended electrospun nanofibrous membranes may be suitable for regeneration of the corneal endothelium. The aim of this study was to produce a tissue-engineered construct suitable for endothelial keratoplasty.Methods: Five scaffolds containing different SF:P(LLA-CL blended ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, 0:100 were manufactured. A human corneal endothelial (B4G12 cell line was cultured on the membranes. Light transmission, speed of cell adherence, cell viability (live-dead test, cell proliferation (Ki-67, BrdU staining, and cell monolayer formation were detected on membranes with the different blended ratios, and expression of some functional genes was also detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: Different blended ratios of scaffolds

  13. Quantitative & qualitative analysis of endothelial cells of donor cornea before & after penetrating keratoplasty in different pathological conditions

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    Aruna K.R. Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Endothelial cells of the donor cornea are known to be affected quantitatively and qualitatively in different pathological conditions after penetrating keratoplasty (PK and this has direct effect on the clarity of vision obtained after PK. This study was undertaken to analyze the qualitative and quantitative changes in donor endothelial cells before and after PK in different pathological conditions. Methods: A prospective investigational analysis of 100 consecutive donor corneas used for penetrating keratoplasty between June 2006 and June 2008, was conducted. The patients were evaluated on the first day, at the end of first week, first month, third and six months and one year. Results: A decrease was observed in endothelial cell count in all pathological conditions. After one year of follow up the loss was 33.1 per cent in corneal opacity, 45.9 per cent in acute infective keratitis (AIK, 58.5 per cent in regrafts, 28.5 per cent in pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (PBK, 37 per cent in descemetocele, 27 per cent in keratoconus and 35.5 per cent in aphakic bullous keratopathy (ABK cases. Interpretation & conclusions: The endothelial cell loss was highest in regraft cases which was significant (P<0.05, while the least endothelial cell loss was seen in keratoconus cases. The cell loss was associated with increase in coefficient of variation (CV, i.e. polymegathism and pleomorphism. Inspite of this polymegathism and pleomorphism, the clarity of the graft was maintained.

  14. Effectiveness and safety of endothelial keratoplasty for pseudophakic and aphakic bullous keratopathy: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and cohort studies

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    Bruno Harfuch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: For nearly a century, penetrating keratoplasty has been the surgical technique of choice in the management of corneal changes. However, in recent years, several lamellar keratoplasty techniques have been developed, modified or improved, especially techniques for replacing the posterior portion, for the correction of bullous keratopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of endothelial keratoplasty versus penetrating keratoplasty for pseudophakic and aphakic bullous keratopathy. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was carried out, and the main electronic databases were searched. The date of the most recent search was from the inception of the electronic databases to December 11, 2015. Two authors independently selected relevant clinical trials, assessed their methodological quality and extracted data. Results: The electronic search yielded a total of 893 published papers from the electronic databases. Forty-four full-text articles were retrieved for further consideration. Of these 44 full-text articles, 33 were excluded because they were all case series studies; therefore, ten studies (with one further publication met the inclusion criteria: one randomized clinical trial with two publications; three controlled studies; and six cohort studies. The clinical and methodological diversity found in the included studies meant that it was not possible to combine studies in a metaanalysis. Conclusions: There is no robust evidence that endothelial keratoplasty is more effective and safe than penetrating keratoplasty for improving visual acuity and decreasing corneal rejection for pseudophakic and aphakic bullous keratopathy. There is a need for further randomized controlled trials.

  15. Recurrent progressive anterior segment fibrosis syndrome following a descemet-stripping endothelial keratoplasty in an infant with congenital aniridia

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    Mihir Kothari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive anterior segment fibrosis syndrome (ASFS, after intraocular surgery in older children (≥9 years and adults with congenital aniridia, is described in the literature. In this report, we describe an unique case of ASFS in an infant with congenital aniridia following a combined trabeculotomy-ectomy and its recurrence after a descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty. The ophthalmologists should be well aware of this entity and warn the parents about its possibilities. Use of immunomodulators or prolonged anti-inflammatory therapy may be considered to prevent its occurrence.

  16. Comparison of 20% sulfur hexafluoride with air for intraocular tamponade in Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK

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    Benjamin Botsford

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the effect of 20% sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 with that of air on graft detachment rates for intraocular tamponade in Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK. Methods: Forty-two eyes of patients who underwent DMEK by a single surgeon (A.S.J. at Wilmer Eye Institute between January 2012 and 2014 were identified; 21 received air for intraocular tamponade and the next consecutive 21 received SF6. The main outcome measure was the graft detachment rate; univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results: The graft detachment rate was 67% in the air group and 19% in the SF6 group (p<0.05. No complete graft detachments occurred, and all partial detachments underwent intervention with injection of intraocular air. The percentages of eyes with 20/25 or better vision were not different between the groups (67% vs. 71%. Univariate analysis showed significantly higher detachment rates with air tamponade (OR, 8.50; p<0.005 and larger donor graft size (OR, 14.96; p<0.05. Multivariate analysis with gas but not graft size included showed that gas was an independent statistically significant predictor of outcome (OR, 6.65; p<0.05. When graft size was included as a covariate, gas was no longer a statistically significant predictor of detachment but maintained OR of 7.81 (p=0.063 similar to the results of univariate and multivariate analyses without graft size. Conclusion: In comparison with air, graft detachment rates for intraocular tamponade in DMEK were significantly reduced by 20% SF6.

  17. Preparation, preservation, and morphological evaluation of the donor graft for descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty: an experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yiqian; Peng Rongmei; Hong Jing

    2014-01-01

    Background Though there have been various methods for harvesting and preserving descemet membrane (DM) and intact endothelium,there is no literature about the morphological evaluation of endothelium after graft preparation for descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK).The aim of this study was to establish and improve a simple method for preparing,preserving,and morphologically evaluating the donor graft for DMEK.Methods To obtain a donor graft,an air bubble was formed by injecting a 29 G needle with 1 ml sterile air into a small edge created outside the Schwalbe line.Another needle was inserted into the bubble through the stroma to aspirate the air or replace half the air with organ culture medium.Trypan blue was used to mark the location for small incision to improve the success rate.Frozen sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE).Based on the air bubble,DM grafts were divided into four groups:group A (normal control),graft without any operative technique; group B,graft with zero-pressure air bubble; group C,graft with full-pressure air bubble; group D,graft with half-pressure air bubble.The four groups of grafts were preserved for 24 hours to observe the effect of bubbles on cells.The gross and ultrastructure morphologies were evaluated using alizarin red and scanning electron microscopy (SEM),respectively.Results Donor grafts were harvested via the air bubble technique,facilitated by prior trypan blue staining.HE-stained sections revealed a pure graft without stroma.There were no significant changes under light microscope.In group A,SEM revealed a confluent layer of polygonal endothelium with distributed microvilli exhibiting characteristics of interdigitating junctions.In group B,intercellular borders became thinner.In group C,interdigitations were almost flat and microvilli were observed less frequently.In group D,other than less microvilli,there were minimal changes.Conclusions The donor graft preparation method appears to be effective

  18. Techniques for posterior lamellar keratoplasty through a scleral incision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melles, GRJ; Kamminga, N

    2003-01-01

    Purpose. To describe several techniques for posterior lamellar keratoplasty through a scleral incision, for management of corneal endothelial disorders like pseudophacic bullous keratopathy and Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy, and to report the mid-term clinical results. Methods. Three techniques have

  19. Hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens opacification after descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty

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    Amir Norouzpour

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: In an eye with UZS and iatrogenic aniridia, IOL opacification may result from direct contact between the IOL surface and exogenous air. Aniridia can be a risk factor for development of IOL opacification after DSAEK. Further studies are required to confirm this hypothesis.

  20. Indications of Optical Coherence Tomography in Keratoplasties: Literature Review

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    Thiago Trindade Nesi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT of the anterior segment, in particular corneal OCT, has become a reliable tool for the cornea specialist, as it provides the acquisition of digital images at high resolution with a noncontact technology. In penetrating or lamellar keratoplasties, OCT can be used to assess central corneal thickness and pachymetry maps, as well as precise measurements of deep stromal opacities, thereby guiding the surgeon to choose the best treatment option. OCT has also been used to evaluate the keratoplasty postoperative period, for early identification of possible complications, such as secondary glaucoma or donor disc detachments in endothelial keratoplasties. Intraoperatively, OCT can be used to assess stromal bed regularity and transparency in anterior lamellar surgeries, especially for those techniques in which a bare Descemet’s membrane is the goal. The purpose of this paper is to review and discuss the role of OCT as a diagnostic tool in various types of keratoplasties.

  1. Femtosecond laser-assisted lamellar keratoplasty Transplante lamelar auxiliado pelo laser de fentosegundo

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    Hunson Kaz Soong

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Lamellar keratoplasty consists of transplanting partial-thickness donor cornea onto a complementary recipient bed. Manual lamellar dissection is technically very difficult, time-consuming, and imprecise. Also, the manually-dissected lamellar interface often has topographical irregularities that may optically degrade the best-corrected visual acuity. The femtosecond clinical laser (IntraLase FS LaserTM, Irvine, CA is a recent innovation that can be programmed to produce bladeless, precise lamellar cuts at any depth with accompanying trephination cuts for both anterior and posterior lamellar transplantion. Posterior laser cuts may be used to assist in deep lamellar endothelial keratoplasty or Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty.A ceratoplastia lamelar consiste em transplante de espessura parcial da córnea doadora em um leito receptor complementar. A dissecção lamelar manual é técnica de difícil realização, imprecisa e que demanda tempo. Além disso, a interface lamelar freqüentemente apresenta irregularidade topográfica que pode comprometer a acuidade visual final. O laser clínico "femtosecond" (IntraLase FS LaserTM, Irvine, CA é uma recente inovação que pode ser utilizado para produzir cortes lamelares precisos em qualquer profundidade da córnea, acompanhados de cortes verticais tanto para transplantes lamelares anteriores como posteriores sem a utilização de lâminas. Os cortes posteriores podem ser utilizados para a realização de ceratoplastia endotelial lamelar profunda ou ceratoplastia endotelial com remoção da membrana de Descemet.

  2. Automated quantification reveals hyperglycemia inhibits endothelial angiogenic function.

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    Anthony R Prisco

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus (DM has reached epidemic levels globally. A contributing factor to the development of DM is high blood glucose (hyperglycemia. One complication associated with DM is a decreased angiogenesis. The Matrigel tube formation assay (TFA is the most widely utilized in vitro assay designed to assess angiogenic factors and conditions. In spite of the widespread use of Matrigel TFAs, quantification is labor-intensive and subjective, often limiting experiential design and interpretation of results. This study describes the development and validation of an open source software tool for high throughput, morphometric analysis of TFA images and the validation of an in vitro hyperglycemic model of DM.Endothelial cells mimic angiogenesis when placed onto a Matrigel coated surface by forming tube-like structures. The goal of this study was to develop an open-source software algorithm requiring minimal user input (Pipeline v1.3 to automatically quantify tubular metrics from TFA images. Using Pipeline, the ability of endothelial cells to form tubes was assessed after culture in normal or high glucose for 1 or 2 weeks. A significant decrease in the total tube length and number of branch points was found when comparing groups treated with high glucose for 2 weeks versus normal glucose or 1 week of high glucose.Using Pipeline, it was determined that hyperglycemia inhibits formation of endothelial tubes in vitro. Analysis using Pipeline was more accurate and significantly faster than manual analysis. The Pipeline algorithm was shown to have additional applications, such as detection of retinal vasculature.

  3. Fully automated corneal endothelial morphometry of images captured by clinical specular microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucht, Curry; Söderberg, Per; Manneberg, Göran

    2010-02-01

    The corneal endothelium serves as the posterior barrier of the cornea. Factors such as clarity and refractive properties of the cornea are in direct relationship to the quality of the endothelium. The endothelial cell density is considered the most important morphological factor of the corneal endothelium. Pathological conditions and physical trauma may threaten the endothelial cell density to such an extent that the optical property of the cornea and thus clear eyesight is threatened. Diagnosis of the corneal endothelium through morphometry is an important part of several clinical applications. Morphometry of the corneal endothelium is presently carried out by semi automated analysis of pictures captured by a Clinical Specular Microscope (CSM). Because of the occasional need of operator involvement, this process can be tedious, having a negative impact on sampling size. This study was dedicated to the development and use of fully automated analysis of a very large range of images of the corneal endothelium, captured by CSM, using Fourier analysis. Software was developed in the mathematical programming language Matlab. Pictures of the corneal endothelium, captured by CSM, were read into the analysis software. The software automatically performed digital enhancement of the images, normalizing lights and contrasts. The digitally enhanced images of the corneal endothelium were Fourier transformed, using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and stored as new images. Tools were developed and applied for identification and analysis of relevant characteristics of the Fourier transformed images. The data obtained from each Fourier transformed image was used to calculate the mean cell density of its corresponding corneal endothelium. The calculation was based on well known diffraction theory. Results in form of estimated cell density of the corneal endothelium were obtained, using fully automated analysis software on 292 images captured by CSM. The cell density obtained by the

  4. Hybrid Technique of Lamellar Keratoplasty (DMEK-S

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    Pavel Studeny

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of the hybrid technique of posterior lamellar keratoplasty (DMEK-S. Materials and Methods: 71 eyes of 55 patients enrolled in a single-center study underwent posterior lamellar keratoplasty with a hybrid lamella DMEK-S implanted using a solution implantation technique, owing to endothelial dysfunction. The outcome measures studied were visual acuity and endothelial cell density. Results: The rate of endothelial cell loss caused by surgery was 43.8%. During followups, we observed the stabilization of postoperative findings, or at minimum a very low rate of corneal endothelial cell loss. The UCDVA and BCDVA dramatically improved postoperatively. The rebubbling rate in our group of patients was 61.9%. We replaced the lamella due to its failure or malfunction in 17 patients (23.9%. Conclusion: In summary, DMEK-S combines the advantages of DSEK/DSAEK and DMEK. The central zone of bare Descemet’s membrane and endothelium allows for very good visual outcomes, and the peripheral rim allows for better manipulation of the lamella during implantation. It is an effective method of treating the endothelial dysfunction of various etiologies, but the high complication rate needs to be addressed before widespread implementation of the technique in the future.

  5. [Treatment of corneal endothelial disorders by DMEK and UT-DSAEK. Indications, complications, results and follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, B; Schaub, F; Cursiefen, C

    2016-03-01

    Various techniques for posterior lamellar keratoplasty have been established for the clinical routine and continuously improved during the last 15 years so that an extremely rapid recovery of vision is possible due to very thin transplants. Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) is the method of choice for simple corneal endothelial diseases and has already been applied in complex conditions of the anterior segment. The learning curve for DMEK is comparatively long and the risk of complications in complex anterior segment pathologies is higher than in Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK); however, DMEK results in better visual outcome and less graft rejections than DSAEK. The latest evolution in posterior lamellar transplant surgery is ultrathin DSAEK (UT-DSAEK), where the grafted lamella is much thinner than in conventional DSAEK. Currently available data suggest that the resulting visual acuity after UT-DSAEK is close to the visual acuity seen after DMEK; however, studies comparing the results after DMEK and UT-DSAEK are so far lacking. Whether the transplantation of these very thin DSAEK grafts also results in endothelial cell densities and graft rejection rates comparable to DMEK has to be proven.

  6. Corneal endothelium after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty and penetrating keratoplasty for keratoconus: A four-year comparative study

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    Anil Kubaloglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the status of corneal endothelium and central corneal thickness within the first four postoperative years after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK and penetrating keratoplasty (PK in patients with keratoconus. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine eyes (Group A which had PK and 44 eyes (Group B which had DALK for the treatment of keratoconus were included in this retrospective study. The endothelial cell density (ECD, the mean endothelial cell area and the coefficient of variation of cell area were assessed with a non-contact specular microscope, and the central corneal thickness (CCT was measured with an ultrasound pachymeter. Results: Mean ECD loss rate at two years was 36.24% in Group A and 18.12% in Group B (P<0.001. Mean ECD loss rate at four years was 47.82% in Group A and 21.62% in Group B (P<0.001. Mean annual ECD loss rate was calculated 14.12% per year in Group A and 5.78% per year in Group B. In the PK group, increase in mean CCT was 15.60% in two years and 15.03% in four years, while in the DALK group, mean CCT increased by 8.05% in two years and 9.31% in four years. Conclusions: As the majority of ectatic disorders such as keratoconus occur in young people, long-term endothelial cell survival following treatment with keratoplasty is essential for the long-term visual ability. Our finding that corneal endothelial cell loss in the DALK group occurs at a slower rate than in the PK group suggests DALK as a safer alternative to PK in these selected patients.

  7. Refractive keratoplasty. Keratophakia and keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troutman, R C; Swinger, C

    1982-01-01

    Early experience with the refractive keratoplasty techniques of José Barraquer--keratophakia and hypermetropic keratomileusis is presented. In contradistinction to the alloplastic lens substitutes currently being employed for the integral correction of aphakia, Barraquer's techniques would seem to offer a more permanent, more physiologic, full-time optical correction of the aphakic state. Their use is limited only by the condition of the patient's cornea and, in fact, may be applied not only in aphakia but also in phakic eyes with higher degrees of hyperopia or myopia. In the opinion of the authors, the refractive keratoplasty techniques of Barraquer can be performed by any well-instructed ophthalmic surgeon. These techniques offer to many patients a satisfactory, and potentially a physiologically superior alternative to alloplastic lens substitute for aphakic correction.

  8. Refractive keratoplasty: keratophakia and keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troutman, R C; Swinger, C

    1978-01-01

    We have presented our early experience with the refractive keratoplasty techniques of Doctor Jose Barraquer--keratophakia and hypermetropic keratomileusis. In contradistinction to the alloplastic lens substitutes currently being employed for the integral correction of aphakia, his techniques would seem to offer a more permanent, more physiologic, full-time optical correction of the aphakic state. Their use is limited only by the condition of the patient's corneaa and, in fact, may be applied not only in aphakia but also in phakic eyes with higher degrees of hyperopia or myopia. In the opinion of the authors, the refractive keratoplasty techniques of Barraquer can be perfored by any well-instructed ophthalmic surgeon. These techniques offer to many patients a satisfactory and potentially a physiologically superior alternative to alloplastic lens substitute for aphakic correction.

  9. Analysis of the changes in keratoplasty indications and preferred techniques.

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    Stefan J Lang

    Full Text Available Recently, novel techniques introduced to the field of corneal surgery, e.g. Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK and corneal crosslinking, extended the therapeutic options. Additionally contact lens fitting has developed new alternatives. We herein investigated, whether these techniques have affected volume and spectrum of indications of keratoplasties in both a center more specialized in treating Fuchs' dystrophy (center 1 and a second center that is more specialized in treating keratoconus (center 2.We retrospectively reviewed the waiting lists for indication, transplantation technique and the patients' travel distances to the hospital at both centers.We reviewed a total of 3778 procedures. Fuchs' dystrophy increased at center 1 from 17% (42 to 44% (150 and from 13% (27 to 23% (62 at center 2. In center 1, DMEK increased from zero percent in 2010 to 51% in 2013. In center 2, DMEK was not performed until 2013. The percentage of patients with keratoconus slightly decreased from 15% (36 in 2009 vs. 12% (40 in 2013 in center 1. The respective percentages in center 2 were 28% (57 and 19% (51. In both centers, the patients' travel distances increased.The results from center 1 suggest that DMEK might increase the total number of keratoplasties. The increase in travel distance suggests that this cannot be fully attributed to recruiting the less advanced patients from the hospital proximity. The increase is rather due to more referrals from other regions. The decrease of keratoconus patients in both centers is surprising and may be attributed to optimized contact lens fitting or even to the effect corneal crosslinking procedure.

  10. Candida albicans interface infection after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty

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    Mohammad Reza Sedaghat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical features of interface Candida keratitis after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK, may imitate rejection or crystalline keratopathy. We report here an 18-year-old woman presented with red eye, 4 months after undergoing DALK. Slit lamp examination revealed keratic precipitates (KPs and cojunctival injection. She was prescribed corticosteroid treatment for endothelial rejection by another ophthalmologist because of misdiagnosis, but suffered a recurrence of symptoms after reduction of the corticosteroid treatment. At that time, she was referred to our office. The recurrence persisted despite antibiotic and antifungal therapies. Ten days after treatment with interface irrigation with amphotericin, the infiltration and hypopyon were resolved. Topical steroid was added after 3 months of antifungal monotherapy. Irrigant cultures confirmed the presence of Candida albicans. The corneal graft appeared semi-clear with no signs of infection at 17-month follow-up. We recommend a close follow-up and a timely intervention to prevent the need for more invasive treatment such as penetrating keratoplasty.

  11. Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty in the management of keratoconus

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    Rajesh Fogla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced cases of keratoconus often require surgical intervention to restore corneal anatomy and improve eyesight. Penetrating keratoplasty (PK although commonly performed has potential risk of immunological rejection and is now no longer automatically the first choice of surgery. DALK procedures have evolved, which allows surgical replacement of recipient′s corneal stroma, leaving behind healthy descemet membrane (DM and endothelium. This reduces the risk of allograft endothelial rejection and late graft failure. In recent times, DALK techniques have led to significant improvements in visual outcome and current results are comparable to PK. Big bubble technique of DALK has become the most popular among the various surgical techniques described. Manual near DM DALK also gives good outcome although the visual recovery is often delayed. Future integration of femtosecond laser technology along with diagnostic imaging technology is likely to further improve outcomes of DALK in keratoconus.

  12. Traumatic wound dehiscence after corneal keratoplasty

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    Patrick Frensel Tzelikis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To assess patient characteristics, risk factors, outcomes, and the treatment of wound dehiscence (WD in patients after corneal keratoplasty.Methods:Retrospective chart review of 11 eyes of 11 patients with corneal grafts who underwent repair of WD from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2012 at Hospital Oftalmologico de Brasilia.Results:Eight (72.7% patients were men and three were women. Six (54.5% patients had deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK and 5 had penetrating keratoplasty. The mean age at trauma was 31.1 years. The mean time from corneal keratoplasty to WD was 12.82 months (range, 3-33 months. The mean best-corrected visual acuity of patients before trauma was 20/60 (0.48 logMAR and after final treatment was 20/160 (0.90 logMAR (P=0.15. In one case, visual acuity decreased to no light perception because of retinal detachment and phthisis bulbi. Accidental blunt trauma and fall were the most common causes of WD.Conclusion:Patients who undergo corneal keratoplasty have a life-long risk of WD. The full-thickness rupture at the graft-host junction in our study suggests that the junction remains vulnerable, even following DALK, and can rupture with trauma. In our series, depending upon the severity of the trauma, postkeratoplastic WD can be associated with a good visual prognosis.

  13. Avaliação da exeqüibilidade, eficácia e segurança do transplante lamelar semi-automatizado de córnea Evaluation of performance, efficacy and safety of semi-automated lamellar keratoplasty

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    Núbia Cristina de Freitas Maia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a exeqüibilidade, eficácia e segurança do uso de microcerátomo e câmara anterior artificial para o transplante lamelar (sistema ALTK®. MÉTODOS: 21 olhos com opacidades corneanas superficiais foram submetidos ao transplante lamelar semi-automatizado de córnea. Nos olhos receptores a ceratectomia foi realizada de modo semelhante a uma cirurgia refrativa. As lamelas doadoras foram obtidas a partir de botões esclero-corneanos utilizando o mesmo microcerátomo e uma câmara anterior artificial. As medidas das espessuras corneanas foram feitas através da biomicroscopia ultra-sônica. RESULTADOS: As cirurgias obtiveram êxito em 19 olhos. Em 80% das lamelas obtidas em córneas doadoras e em 84,2% das lamelas em olhos receptores houve uma variação de até 0,5 mm do diâmetro desejado. Verificou-se alta semelhança entre as espessuras das lamelas obtidas nos olhos receptores e lamelas doadoras. Obteve-se acuidade visual corrigida pós-operatória igual ou superior a 20/40 em 52,6% dos olhos. Foram observadas complicações como diâmetro inadequado da lamela, perfuração intra-operatória no olho receptor e ectasia corneana pós-operatória (um caso. CONCLUSÕES: O transplante lamelar semi-automatizado de córnea mostrou-se exequível pela reprodutibilidade das espessuras e diâmetros das lamelas; eficaz pela melhora da acuidade visual pós-operatória e seguro, devido ao baixo índice de complicações cirúrgicas.PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and safety of a manual microkeratome and an artificial anterior chamber for lamellar keratoplasty (ALTK® system. METHODS: Twenty-one eyes with superficial corneal opacities were submitted to semi-automated lamellar keratectomy. In recipient eyes keratectomy was performed as in refractive surgery. The donor flap was removed from the preserved corneal shell using the same microkeratome and an artificial anterior chamber. Lamella thickness was measured through

  14. Corneal endothelial rejection after penetrating keratoplasty treated with intravenous and topic corticosteroid: one year follow up Tratamento da rejeição endotelial pós-ceratoplastia penetrante através da associação do pulso de metilprednisolona intravenosa com acetato de prednisolona tópico: seguimento de um ano

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    Ricardo Yuji Abe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the recovery of visual acuity (VA and graft survival after first episode of endothelial rejection in penetrating keratoplasty (PKP treated with intravenous (IV and topic corticosteroid. METHODS: Interventional, prospective, non-comparative case series study evolving 32 PKP patients in one year follow up, who presented first episode of corneal endothelial rejection. The patients were submitted to 500 mg IV injection of methylprednisolone in association with topical prednisolone. Main outcome measures included VA recovery and corneal edema regression. Second outcome included new rejections and graft failure. Multivariate analysis techniques were used to estimate rates of graft outcome events and the impact of risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 32 eyes from 32 patients (13 male and 19 female were included in the study. The mean VA (in number of letters before rejection was 48 (22 to 88 letters. Patients treated within 7 days or less of initial symptoms had better VA recovery, corneal edema regression and less graft failure (pOBJETIVO: Analisar a recuperação da acuidade visual (AV e sobrevivência do enxerto após primeiro episódio de rejeição endotelial em ceratoplastia penetrante (PK em pacientes submetidos ao corticóide intravenoso (IV associado ao tópico. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo, prospectivo, tipo série de casos envolvendo 32 pacientes com PK tratados com 2 doses de 500mg de metilprednisolona IV (com intervalo de 1 semana associado ao acetato de prednisolona 1%. O parâmetro principal analisado foi a recuperação da AV e a regressão do edema corneano. O parâmetro secundário utilizado foi a recorrência das rejeições e a falência do enxerto. RESULTADOS: Um total de 32 olhos de 32 pacientes foram incluídos no estudo (13 homens e 19 mulheres. A média da AV (em número de letras foi 48. Pacientes tratados dentro de 7 dias ou menos após o surgimento dos sintomas apresentaram melhor recuperação da AV e

  15. Femtosecond laser enabled keratoplasty for advanced keratoconus

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    Yathish Shivanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To assess the efficacy and advantages of femtosecond laser enabled keratoplasty (FLEK over conventional penetrating keratoplasty (PKP in advanced keratoconus. Materials and Methods: Detailed review of literature of published randomized controlled trials of operative techniques in PKP and FLEK. Results: Fifteen studies were identified, analyzed, and compared with our outcome. FLEK was found to have better outcome in view of better and earlier stabilization uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, and better refractive outcomes with low astigmatism as compared with conventional PKP. Wound healing also was noticed to be earlier, enabling early suture removal in FLEK. Conclusions: Studies relating to FLEK have shown better results than conventional PKP, however further studies are needed to assess the safety and intraoperative complications of the procedure.

  16. Diffuse epithelial ingrowth after perforating keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, M; Kirchhof, B; Hartmann, C

    1987-01-01

    Diffuse epithelial ingrowth was observed in 2 patients after perforating keratoplasty. Both cases involved a corneal graft after perforating injury with aphakia. In the first patient, the epithelial invasion was probably stimulated by a spatula synecholysis. In this case, the diagnosis was only made by histological investigation after enucleation. In the second patient the epithelial ingrowth was observed 8 months after keratoplasty. The clinical diagnosis was made on the basis of the typical slitlamp findings. In this case, the epithelial invasion led to hypotension with high resistance of outflow measured by electrotonography. In a very close chronological relation to the probable fall of chamber fluid secretion, development of a band-shaped keratopathy was observed.

  17. Outcome of therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty in a tertiary eye care center in Nepal

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    Bajracharya L

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leena Bajracharya, Reeta Gurung Department of Cornea, Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology, Kathmandu, Nepal Background: Corneal ulcer is an important cause of blindness in developing countries. Therapeutic keratoplasty for infective keratitis is a frequently performed surgery in these countries.Objective: To find out the outcome of therapeutic keratoplasty for infective keratitis.Methods: Records of 5 years were reviewed of patients who underwent therapeutic keratoplasty from 2006 to 2010. Data collected included demographic parameters, indications for surgery, microbiology of the ulcers, type of surgery performed, and donor tissue details. In the follow-up period, ocular status was evaluated in terms of eradication of disease, anatomic success, graft clarity, visual acuity, and development of glaucoma and cataract.Results: In all, 180 eyes of 180 patients were enrolled in the study; 59.4% of the patients were male. Average age was 44.4±16.7 years. Overall, 71% of infective keratitis was perforated. A total of 101 (56% eyes were positive for organisms of which 49 showed pure fungus and 49 showed pure bacteria. The commonest fungus and bacteria isolated were Aspergillus and Streptococcus, respectively. Average follow-up period was 29±23 months. Overall cure rate of infection was 88.8%, anatomical success rate was 89.5%, and graft clarity was 37.2%. Overall, 43.4% had secondary glaucoma. In the postoperative course, 65.8% of phakic eyes had developed cataract. In all, 38.6% of graft had endothelial failure and 24% of the graft failed due to late infective keratitis. Overall functional success with a visual acuity above 6/60 was 25.4%. Bacterial keratitis had a significantly higher cure rate, anatomical success, and graft clarity compared to fungal keratitis.Conclusion: Therapeutic keratoplasty is an important procedure to save the eye and preserve vision in severe infective keratitis. There is a high incidence of postoperative glaucoma

  18. Eye-Tracker-Guided Non-Mechanical Excimer Laser Assisted Penetrating Keratoplasty

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    Achim Langenbucher

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to implement a new eye tracking mask which could be used to guide the laser beam in automated non-mechanical excimer laser assisted penetrating keratoplasty. Materials and methods: A new trephination mask design with an elevated surface geometry has been proposed with a step formation between conical and flat interfaces. Two recipient masks of 7.5/8.0 mm have been manufactured and tested. The masks have outer diameter of 12.5 mm, step formation at 10.5 mm, and slope of conical surfaces 15°. Its functionality has been tested in different lateral positions and tilts on a planar surface, and pig eye experiments. After successful validation on porcine eyes, new masks have been produced and tested on two patients. Results: The build-in eye tracking software of the MEL 70 was always able to capture the masks. It has been shown that the unwanted pigmentation/pattern induced by the laser pulses on the mask surface does not influence the eye-tracking efficiency. The masks could be tracked within the 18 × 14 mm lateral displacement and up to 12° tilt. Two patient cases are demonstrated. No complications were observed during the surgery, although it needs some attention for aligning the mask horizontally before trephination. Stability of eye tracking masks is emphasized by inducing on purpose movements of the patient head. Conclusion: Eye-tracking-guided penetrating keratoplasty was successfully applied in clinical practice, which enables robust tracking criteria within an extended range. It facilitates the automated trephination procedure of excimer laser-assisted penetrating keratoplasty.

  19. Femtosecond laser-assisted deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty for keratoconus and keratectasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; Lu; Yu-Hua; Shi; Li-Ping; Yang; Yi-Rui; Ge; Xiang-Fei; Chen; Yan; Wu; Zhen-Ping; Huang

    2014-01-01

    ·AIM: To describe the initial outcomes and safety of femtosecond laser-assisted deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty(DALK) for keratoconus and post-LASIK keratectasia.·METHODS: In this non-comparative case series, 10 eyes of 9 patients underwent DALK procedures with a femtosecond laser(Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Jena,Germany). Of the 9 patients, 7 had keratoconus and 2had post-LASIK keratectasia. A 500 kHz VisuMax femtosecond laser was used to perform corneal cuts on both donor and recipient corneas. The outcome measures were the uncorrected visual acuity(UCVA),best-corrected visual acuity(BCVA), corneal thickness,astigmatism, endothelial density count(EDC), and corneal power.·RESULTS: All eyes were successfully treated. Early postoperative evaluation showed a clear graft in all cases. Intraoperative complications included one case of a small Descemet’s membrane perforation.Postoperatively, there was one case of stromal rejection,one of loosened sutures, and one of wound dehiscence.A normal corneal pattern topography and transparency were restored, UCVA and BCVA improved significantly,and astigmatism improved slightly. There was no statistically significant decrease in EDC.· CONCLUSION: Our early results indicate that femtosecond laser-assisted deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty could improve UCVA and BCVA in patients with anterior corneal pathology. This approach shows promise as a safe and effective surgical choice in the treatment of keratoconus and post-LASIK keratectasia.

  20. Development prospects of keratoplasty in Moscow

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    E. M. Kildyushov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective analysis of the statistical data for the years 2010‑2012 on mortality and the donor selection of the Bureau of Forensic Pathology of Moscow, Department of Forensic Pathology of Pirogov N. I. Russian National Research Medical University and ILab Eye Bank in order to determine the possible number of keratoplastic surgeries. The results of statistical data analysis testify to the fact that the number of available donor material is not sufficient to meet the needs for keratoplastic material and it is necessary to create eye banks, which would have provided this need. It is necessary to create eye banks, that possess a clear logistics chain of intake donor tissue, preliminary assessment of the donor tissue, laboratory diagnostics of the donor’s blood and delivery of tissue to the Bank. Theeye bank should not only produce preserved material for keratoplasty, but also carry out full morpho-functional assessment of material and its subsequent delivery to consumers in health facilities.

  1. Spontaneous wound dehiscence after penetrating keratoplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alireza; Foroutan; Seyed; Ali; Tabatabaei; Mahmoud; Jabbarvand; Behrouz; Reza; Zarei; Mohammad; Soleimani

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous wound separation may be developed even months after suture removal especially in the context of long-term corticosteroid therapy. A 68-yearold Caucasian woman presented to our cornea clinic with spontaneous wound dehiscence after her third penetrating keratoplasty(PKP) which was performed three years ago. An Ahmed glaucoma valve(New World Medical, Ranchos Cucamonga, CA) was inserted ten months after the third PKP, which successfully controlled intraocular pressure(IOP). At the examination, the last sutures were removed eight months ago and she was using flourometholone 0.1%(Sina Darou, Tehran, Iran)with a dose of once a day. There was one quadrant of wound dehiscence from 8 to 11 o`clock associated with anterior wound gape and severe corneal edema.Resuturing was performed for the patient. At the one month examination, the corneal edema was resolved and best corrected visual acuity was 20/200 mainly due to previous glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Caution about the prolonged use of corticosteroids is necessary. Topical immunosuppressives could be a promising choice in this field.

  2. Development prospects of keratoplasty in Moscow

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    E. M. Kildyushov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective analysis of the statistical data for the years 2010‑2012 on mortality and the donor selection of the Bureau of Forensic Pathology of Moscow, Department of Forensic Pathology of Pirogov N. I. Russian National Research Medical University and ILab Eye Bank in order to determine the possible number of keratoplastic surgeries. The results of statistical data analysis testify to the fact that the number of available donor material is not sufficient to meet the needs for keratoplastic material and it is necessary to create eye banks, which would have provided this need. It is necessary to create eye banks, that possess a clear logistics chain of intake donor tissue, preliminary assessment of the donor tissue, laboratory diagnostics of the donor’s blood and delivery of tissue to the Bank. Theeye bank should not only produce preserved material for keratoplasty, but also carry out full morpho-functional assessment of material and its subsequent delivery to consumers in health facilities.

  3. Contact Lens Visual Rehabilitation in Keratoconus and Corneal Keratoplasty

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    Yelda Ozkurt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratoconus is the most common corneal distrophy. It’s a noninflammatory progressive thinning process that leads to conical ectasia of the cornea, causing high myopia and astigmatism. Many treatment choices include spectacle correction and contact lens wear, collagen cross linking, intracorneal ring segments implantation and finally keratoplasty. Contact lenses are commonly used to reduce astigmatism and increase vision. There are various types of lenses are available. We reviewed soft contact lenses, rigid gas permeable contact lenses, piggyback contact lenses, hybrid contact lenses and scleral-semiscleral contact lenses in keratoconus management. The surgical option is keratoplasty, but even after sutur removal, high astigmatism may stil exists. Therefore, contact lens is an adequate treatment option to correct astigmatism after keratoplasty.

  4. Simultaneous Penetrating Keratoplasty and Cataract Surgery

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    Mohammad-Ali Javadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the clinical outcomes of simultaneous penetrating keratoplasty (PK, cataract removal and intraocular lens implantation (triple procedure, and to compare the safety and efficacy of two different cataract extraction techniques during the course of PK. Methods: This retrospective comparative study was conducted on patients who had undergone a triple procedure. The technique of cataract extraction was either opensky extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE or phacoemulsification (PE. In the ECCE group, the posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL was implanted in the ciliary sulcus, while in the PE group PCIOLs were fixated within the capsular bag. Outcome measures included best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA, refractive results, graft clarity and complications. Results: Seventy-six eyes of 69 consecutive patients with mean age of 61.4±14.2 years were enrolled. Mean follow-up period was 61.4±37.2 months over which mean BSCVA was significantly improved from 1.40±0.68 to 0.44±0.33 LogMAR (P<0.001. Mean postoperative spherical equivalent refractive error was -2.13±3.02 D, which significantly differed from the target refraction (-0.73±0.29 D, P=0.004. At final follow-up, 89.5% of the corneal grafts remained clear. Conclusion: The triple procedure is a safe and effective approach to restore vision in patients with coexisting corneal pathologies and cataracts. However, unacceptable postoperative refractive error can be anticipated.

  5. Secondary implantation of a double intraocular lens after penetrating keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, J L

    1998-02-01

    Penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) patients often have severe, visually disabling refractive errors. Astigmatism can be addressed by refractive surgery; however, correcting hyperopia is more problematic. Although pseudophakic PKP patients can have a lens exchange, it can be traumatic in this population. In this pseudophakic PKP patient, I added a second posterior chamber intraocular lens, correcting the hyperopia and resolving visual complaints.

  6. Ceratoplastia penetrante e glaucoma Penetrating keratoplasty and glaucoma

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    Márcio Eulálio Barreto Soares

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir os conhecimentos atuais sobre a abordagem clínica e terapêutica da ceratoplastia penetrante e do glaucoma a ela associado.The aim of this article is to make a review about glaucoma associated with penetrating keratoplasty, describing since its incidence and risk factors until the different options for treatment.

  7. MERSILENE (POLYESTER), A NEW SUTURE FOR PENETRATING KERATOPLASTY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RAMSELAAR, JAM; BEEKHUIS, WH; RIJNEVELD, WJ; VANANDEL, MV; DIJK, F; JONGEBLOED, WL

    1992-01-01

    Mersilene (polyester monofilament) seems to be suitable for penetrating keratoplasty because it is strong, shows no degradation by ultraviolet light, is insoluble, so that it can be left in situ, and offers the possibility of regulating postoperative astigmatism by suture adjustment. In 12 patients

  8. Contrast sensitivity in deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty versus penetrating keratoplasty Sensibilidade ao contraste entre transplante lamelar anterior profundo e transplante penetrante de córnea

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    Carlos Anchieta Castro Cardoso da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the measurements of contrast sensitivity at a distance in patients submitted to penetrating keratoplasty versus patients submitted to deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty for keratoconus treatment. METHODS: Contrast sensitivity of 15 subjects submitted to penetrating keratoplasty and 15 subjects submitted to deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty have been analyzed through the Functional Acuity Contrast Test (F.A.C.T® 301. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the measurements for penetrating keratoplasty and deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty. CONCLUSION: Contrast sensitivity was similar among the subjects submitted to penetrating keratoplasty and to deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty for keratoconus treatment.OBJETIVO: Comparar as medidas de sensibilidade ao contraste à distância entre pacientes submetidos à ceratoplastia penetrante e pacientes submetidos à ceratoplastia lamelar anterior profunda para tratamento do ceratocone. MÉTODOS: Sensibilidades ao contraste de 15 pacientes submetidos à ceratoplastia penetrante e de 15 pacientes submetidos à ceratoplastia lamelar anterior profunda foram analisadas através do Functional Acuity Contrast Test (F.A.C.T® 301. RESULTADOS: Não existiu diferença estatisticamente significante entre as medidas em ceratoplastia penetrante e ceratoplastia lamelar anterior profunda. CONCLUSÃO: Sensibilidade ao contraste foi similar entre os pacientes submetidos à ceratoplastia penetrante e à ceratoplastia lamelar anterior profunda para tratamento do ceratocone.

  9. MMSC-LIKE LIMBAL CELLS COTRANSPLANTATION PROMOTES LOCAL IMMUNOCORRECTION AND CORNEAL GRAFT TRANSPARENT RETENTION IN HIGH RISK KERATOPLASTY

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    S. A. Borzenok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim was to evaluate clinical results of donor corneal graft survival in high-risk recipients in co-transplantation of preserved allogenic limbal grafts. Materials and methods. Two types of penetrative keratoplasties were carried out in patients with corneal graft opacities and high risk of rejection (n = 69. Co-transplantation of donor cornea and allogenic MMSC-like limbal cells in the form of limbal transplants was carried out in the 1st group (n = 36; in the 2nd group (n = 33 only the cornea was transplanted. Results. Observation of the patients during one year after surgery showed that the rate of transparent cornea engraftment increased in the 1st group (86,1 against 69,7% in the 2nd group. The density of endothelial cells was also higher in the 1st group (85,9 against 76,2% in the 2nd group. At the same time, progressive decreasing of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IFNγ, TNFα and increasing of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, IL-1RA, TGFβ along with higher level of HLA-G5 were revealed in the recipients’ tear fluid in the 1st group in comparison to the 2nd group. Conclusion. Simultaneous transplantation of preserved limbal grafts with corneal graft in high-risk keratoplasty favors the transparent cornea engraftment, obviously, this is due to immunoregulatory activity of the MMSC-like limbal cells. 

  10. Relaxing incision for control of postoperative astigmatism following keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troutman, R C; Swinger, C

    1980-02-01

    A new technique has been presented which provides a second surgical approach to correct excessive residual astigmatism following keratoplasty. The relaxing incision procedure has advantages over wedge resection in that it can be performed at the slit lamp, it gives no initial overcorrection, and it has a much shorter postoperative course while giving rapid results without suturing. Since this technique does not appear to produce significant hyperopia and may produce a tendency toward myopia, the corneal surgeon would thus have alternative techniques from which to choose, depending, in part, on the spherical component of the refraction.

  11. [Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in a patient with previous penetrating keratoplasty (clinical case)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcea, M; Muşat, O; Gheorghe, Andreea; Mahdi, Labib; Colta, Diana; Cernat, Corina; Mansour, Agajani

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a 54 year old patient diagnosed with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and perforating keratoplasty. Surgery is recommended and we performed posterior vitrectomy, endolaser, and internal heavy oil tamponade. The post-operative course was favorable.

  12. A case of acute postoperative keratitis after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty by multidrug resistant Klebsiella

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    Leena Bajracharya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A healthy lady of 42 years underwent deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty for granular dystrophy. The very next day, it was complicated by development of infectious keratitis. The organism was identified as multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. Donor corneal button may be implicated in the transmission of infection in an otherwise uneventful surgery and follow-up. Nosocomial infections are usually severe, rapidly progressive and difficult to treat. Finally, the lady had to undergo therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty for complete resolution of infection.

  13. Safety of prophylactic intracameral moxifloxacin ophthalmic solution after cataract surgery in patients with penetrating keratoplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osman; Sevki; Arslan; Ceyhun; Arici; Mustafa; Unal; Erdogan; Cicik; Mehmet; Serhat; Mangan; Eray; Atalay

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To determine the safety of prophylactic intracameral moxifloxacin after cataract surgery in patients with penetrating keratoplasty(PKP).METHODS:In this retrospective study of consecutive patients who had phacoemulsification cataract surgery after PKP, were treated with intracameral moxifloxacin0.5% ophthalmic solution(0.5 mg/0.1 mL). The main outcome measures were anterior chamber reaction, best corrected visual acuity(BCVA), corneal endothelial cell count(ECC), and central corneal thickness(CCT).RESULTS:Fifty-five patients were recruited(26 males,29 females). The mean age was 54.36±4.97y(range 45-64y).All eyes had improved postoperative BCVA. The mean BCVA was 0.25 preoperatively and 0.57 postoperatively,which was statistically significant(P <0.001). One eye had 3+, 7 eyes had 2+, 12 eyes had 1+ and 8 eyes had trace amount of aqueous cells on the first day after surgery. All eyes had no anterior chamber cells at subsequent follow up examinations. Effective phacoemulsification time was 4.33 ±1.01 s. The mean ECC was 2340.20 cells/mm2 preoperatively and 1948.75 cells/mm21 mo postoperatively(P <0.001). The increase of21.09 μm in postoperative pachymetry 1mo after surgery was statistically significant(P <0.001).CONCLUSION:Nountowardeffectswereobservedafter intracameral injection of moxifloxacin(0.5 mg/0.1 mL) in terms of anterior chamber reaction, CCT, ECC, and visual rehabilitation at the conclusion of cataract surgery in patients with PKP.

  14. Clinical application of TICL implantation for ametropia following deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty for keratoconus

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    Qin, Qin; Yang, Liping; He, Zifang; Huang, Zhenping

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: This study aimed to investigate the clinical application of phakic toric intraocular collamer lens (TICL) implantation in treating ametropia following deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) for patients with keratoconus, especially the effectiveness and safety of high astigmatism and indications of TICL implantation after corneal transplantation. Methods: Using the self-controlled case series observation approach, 9 patients with ametropia (9 eyes) who underwent DALK surgery for keratoconus 1.5 years ago with stitches removed 3 months ago were kept under observation from May 2013 to April 2014 in Ophthalmic Center of Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital affiliated to Nanjing Medical University. TICL implantation was performed in all patients. The uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were examined before surgery and 1 week, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after surgery. Corneal astigmatism, corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, corneal endothelial cell density (ECD), and preoperative and postoperative intraocular pressures at different time points were measured. Intraoperative or postoperative complications of TICL implantation were observed, and the safety of the operation was evaluated. Results: The UCVA and BCVA in all operated eyes were better 6 months after surgery than before surgery. The spherical diopter and cylindrical diopter decreased to different degrees after surgery. Six months after surgery, the deviation of TICL axis in all operated eyes was less than 10 degrees, tending to be stable. No severe intraoperative or postoperative complication occurred. Conclusion: TICL implantation was an optional choice for ametropia correction after DALK surgery, especially in patients with high astigmatism. PMID:28225492

  15. Can we overcome the challenges of sutures in lamellar keratoplasty?

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    Anita Panda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lamellar keratoplasty (LK is a technique which can be followed for both tectonic and optical purposes. We describe a technique of sutureless anterior LK by fixing the donor lenticule to the recipient bed using fibrin glue. LK was performed in an eye with corneal opacity using the manual dissection method. The donor lenticule was cut with a microkeratome after fixing the corneoscleral rim in an artificial anterior chamber. The size of the donor lenticule was 8.5 mm and fixed to the recipient bed with fibrin glue. The surgical time was reduced significantly with this technique. There was an uneventful postoperative period during the follow-up of 12 months. Best corrected visual acuity improved from hand movement to 20/60. Thus, the use of fibrin glue for fixing the anterior lamellar lenticule is a viable option for both optical and anatomical purposes.

  16. Complications and Management of Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty

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    Banu Torun Acar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To report the intraoperative and postoperative follow-up complications and management of these in deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK surgery. Materials and Methods: Two hundred eighty-four eyes of 252 patients followed up in our cornea clinic who underwent DALK using Anwar’s big-bubble technique with healthy Descemet’s membrane and endothelium were included in this study. Intraoperative and postoperative complications as well as the management and treatment of these complications were evaluated. Results: Big bubble was created in 220 (77.5% eyes of 284 eyes, and lamellar dissection was performed in 64 (22.5% eyes. Perforation occurred during trephination in 4 eyes, and the procedure was accomplished by penetrating keratoplasty (PK. Intraoperative microperforation occurred in 44 eyes. Perforation enlarged in 4 eyes and PK was performed. Operation was continued in 40 eyes with air injection into the anterior chamber. In postopertive follow-up period, double anterior chamber (DAC occurred in 32 of 40 eyes. DAC spontaneously regressed in 8 eyes, and air was given into the anterior chamber with a second surgical intervention in 24 eyes. DAC improved in 20 eyes. Four eyes underwent PK. Fungal keratitis evolved at the interface in one eye, because of no healing during the follow-up period, this eye underwent PK under antifungal therapy. Eyes with interface haze and Descemet’s membrane folds were followed. Conclusion: DALK is a difficult technique with a steep learning curve. In addition to the complications seen in PK, specific complications can occur in lamellar surgery. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 337-40

  17. Outcomes of Penetrating Keratoplasty for Macular Corneal Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, Farid; Baradaran-Rafii, Ali-Reza; Feizi, Sepehr; Zare, Mohammad; Jafarinasab, Mohammad-Reza; Javadi, Mohammad-Ali; Mirdehghan, S. Ali; Einollahi, Bahram

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To report the outcomes of penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) in patients with macular corneal dystrophy (MCD). Methods This retrospective case series includes consecutive patients with MCD who underwent PKP from 1986 to 2006 with at least 6 months’ follow-up. Main outcome measures included best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), postoperative astigmatism and graft survival. Results Sixty-two eyes of 39 patients with mean age of 34.0±10.5 (range 13–58) years at the time of keratoplasty were included for analysis. After a mean follow-up period of 52.0±47.3 (range 6–190) months, BSCVA improved from 1.4±0.4 logMAR (4/100) preoperatively to 0.2±0.3 logMAR (20/32) at final follow-up (P<0.001).Mean postoperative BSCVA was 0.15±0.40 logMAR in patients (36 eyes) aged less than 35 years at the time of surgery as compared to 0.26±0.25 logMAR in subjects (26 eyes) older than 35 years (P=0.005). Final astigmatism was comparable with different suturing techniques including separate, continuous, and combined sutures (P=0.9). All grafts were clear at final follow-up except a single case of MCD with visually insignificant recurrence.Episodes of immunologic graft rejection occurred in 12 eyes (19.4%) but none led to graft failure. Conclusion PKP for MCD entails favorable outcomes in terms of graft survival and visual improvement. Final visual acuity seems to be better when transplantation is performed before the age of 35 years. PMID:23056668

  18. Novel spatula and dissector for safer deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty

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    Gustavo ,2,3 Bonfadini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We describe a novel spatula and dissector to facilitate the big-bubble technique in deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK. Methods: A 29-year-old man who was diagnosed with bilateral keratoconus underwent deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK. After 350μm partial thickness incision of the recipient cornea, the Bonfadini dissector was inserted at the deepest point in the peripheral incision and could be advanced to the center of the cornea safely because of its "semi-sharp" tip. After achieving the big-bubble (BB separation of Descemet membrane (DM from the overlying stroma, the anterior stromal disc was removed. Viscoelastic material was placed on the stromal bed to prevent uncontrolled collapse and perforation of DM during the paracentesis blade incision into the BB. We could detect the safe opening of the BB using the Bonfadini dissector by the leakage of air bubbles into the viscoelastic material. After injecting viscoelastic material into the BB space, we inserted the Bonfadini spatula into the bigbubble safely because of its curved profile and blunt edges. The groove along the length of the Bonfadini spatula enables safe and efficient incision or the residual stromal tissue using the pointed end of a sharp blade while protecting the underlying DM. After removal of posterior stroma, the donor button was sutured with 16 interrupted 10-0 nylon sutures. Results: This technique and the use of the Bonfadini spatula and dissector facilitate exposure of Descemet membrane. Conclusion: The smooth Bonfadini DALK spatula and dissector facilitate safe and efficient completion of DALK surgery.

  19. N-Isopropylacrylamide-co-glycidylmethacrylate as a Thermoresponsive Substrate for Corneal Endothelial Cell Sheet Engineering

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    Bernadette K. Madathil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial keratoplasty is a recent shift in the surgical treatment of corneal endothelial dystrophies, where the dysfunctional endothelium is replaced whilst retaining the unaffected corneal layers. To overcome the limitation of donor corneal shortage, alternative use of tissue engineered constructs is being researched. Tissue constructs with intact extracellular matrix are generated using stimuli responsive polymers. In this study we evaluated the feasibility of using the thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-glycidylmethacrylate polymer as a culture surface to harvest viable corneal endothelial cell sheets. Incubation below the lower critical solution temperature of the polymer allowed the detachment of the intact endothelial cell sheet. Phase contrast and scanning electron microscopy revealed the intact architecture, cobble stone morphology, and cell-to-cell contact in the retrieved cell sheet. Strong extracellular matrix deposition was also observed. The RT-PCR analysis confirmed functionally active endothelial cells in the cell sheet as evidenced by the positive expression of aquaporin 1, collagen IV, Na+-K+ ATPase, and FLK-1. Na+-K+ ATPase protein expression was also visualized by immunofluorescence staining. These results suggest that the in-house developed thermoresponsive culture dish is a suitable substrate for the generation of intact corneal endothelial cell sheet towards transplantation for endothelial keratoplasty.

  20. Comparison of Outcomes in Patients Who Underwent Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty and Those Converted to Penetrating Keratoplasty

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    Yusuf Koçluk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare clinical outcomes of cases who underwent deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK and cases who were converted to penetrating keratoplasty (PKP from DALK surgery. Materials and Methods: The records of 54 patients for whom DALK surgery was planned and were operated for different diagnoses between March 2013 and June 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (PKP group consisted of 23 cases who were converted to PKP due to Descemet’s membrane perforation at any stage of surgery; group 2 (DALK group consisted of 31 patients whose surgery could be completed as DALK. Preoperative and postoperative follow-up results were evaluated in each group. Results: Corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA increased in the postoperative period according to baseline in both groups. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the rates of CDVA increase between the groups (p=0.142. The mean astigmatism measured by corneal topography at final examination was 5.8±2.3 diopters in group 1 and 5.4±1.8 diopters in group 2. The difference between groups was not statistically significant (p=0.430. The groups were not statistically different regarding postoperative pachymetry (p=0.453. The grafts in all 54 patients (100% were clear at final postoperative examination. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of postoperative complications. Conclusion: Similar clinical outcomes were obtained in our study for patients who underwent DALK and those whose procedure was converted from DALK to PKP.

  1. Comparison of Outcomes in Patients Who Underwent Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty and Those Converted to Penetrating Keratoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçluk, Yusuf; Alyamaç Sukgen, Emine; Burcu, Ayşe

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To compare clinical outcomes of cases who underwent deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) and cases who were converted to penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) from DALK surgery. Materials and Methods: The records of 54 patients for whom DALK surgery was planned and were operated for different diagnoses between March 2013 and June 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (PKP group) consisted of 23 cases who were converted to PKP due to Descemet’s membrane perforation at any stage of surgery; group 2 (DALK group) consisted of 31 patients whose surgery could be completed as DALK. Preoperative and postoperative follow-up results were evaluated in each group. Results: Corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) increased in the postoperative period according to baseline in both groups. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the rates of CDVA increase between the groups (p=0.142). The mean astigmatism measured by corneal topography at final examination was 5.8±2.3 diopters in group 1 and 5.4±1.8 diopters in group 2. The difference between groups was not statistically significant (p=0.430). The groups were not statistically different regarding postoperative pachymetry (p=0.453). The grafts in all 54 patients (100%) were clear at final postoperative examination. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of postoperative complications. Conclusion: Similar clinical outcomes were obtained in our study for patients who underwent DALK and those whose procedure was converted from DALK to PKP.

  2. Outcomes of Penetrating Keratoplasty for Macular Corneal Dystrophy

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    Farid Karimian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To report the outcomes of penetrating keratoplasty (PKP in patients with macular corneal dystrophy (MCD. METHODS: This retrospective case series includes consecutive patients with MCD who underwent PKP from 1986 to 2006 with at least 6 months' follow-up. Main outcome measures included best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA, postoperative astigmatism and graft survival. RESULTS: Sixty-two eyes of 39 patients with mean age of 34.0±10.5 (range 13-58 years at the time of keratoplasty were included for analysis. After a mean follow-up period of 52.0±47.3 (range 6-190 months, BSCVA improved from 1.4±0.4 logMAR (4/100 preoperatively to 0.2±0.3 logMAR (20/32 at final follow-up (P < 0.001. Mean postoperative BSCVA was 0.15±0.40 logMAR in patients (36 eyes aged less than 35 years at the time of surgery as compared to 0.26±0.25 logMAR in subjects (26 eyes older than 35 years (P=0.005. Final astigmatism was comparable with different suturing techniques including separate, continuous, and combined sutures (P=0.9. All grafts were clear at final follow-up except a single case of MCD with visually insignificant recurrence. Episodes of immunologic graft rejection occurred in 12 eyes (19.4% but none led to graft failure. CONCLUSION: PKP for MCD entails favorable outcomes in terms of graft survival and visual improvement

  3. Evaluation of corneal biomechanical properties following penetrating keratoplasty using ocular response analyzer

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    Vanathi Murugesan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate corneal biomechanical properties in eyes that has undergone penetrating keratoplasty (PK. Materials and Methods: Retrospective observational study in a tertiary care centre. Data recorded included ocular response analyzer (ORA values of normal and post-keratoplasty eyes [corneal hysteresis (CH, corneal resistance factor (CRF, Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg, and cornea-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc], corneal topography, and central corneal thickness (CCT. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to analyze the difference in ORA parameter between post-PK eyes and normal eyes. Correlation between parameters was evaluated with Spearman′s rho correlation. Results: The ORA study of 100 eyes of 50 normal subjects and 54 post-keratoplasty eyes of 51 patients showed CH of 8.340 ± 1.85 and 9.923 ± 1.558, CRF of 8.846 ± 2.39 and 9.577 ± 1.631 in post-PK eyes and normal eyes, respectively. CH and CRF did not correlate with post-keratoplasty astigmatism (P = 0.311 and 0.276, respectively while a significant correlation was observed with IOPg (P = 0.004 and IOPcc (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Biomechanical profiles were significantly decreased in post-keratoplasty eyes with significant correlation with higher IOP as compared with that in normal eyes.

  4. Comparison of visual and topographic outcomes of deep-anterior lamellar keratoplasty and penetrating keratoplasty in keratoconus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Bora; Kandemir, Baran; Uzunel, Umut Duygu; Çelik, Ozan; Ceylan, Sezgin; Küsbeci, Tuncay

    2017-01-01

    AIM To compare visual, surgical and topographic outcomes of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) and penetrating keratoplasty (PK) for keratoconus (KC). METHODS In this multicenter, prospective, randomized clinical trial 76 eyes of 71 KC patients operated between January 2011 and July 2014 in 2 tertiary referral hospitals were included. Consecutive patients were alternately selected to receive one of the two surgical methods. Thirty eight eyes underwent DALK with the big-bubble technique and 38 eyes underwent PK. RESULTS Mean best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) at the first postoperative week (P=0.012) and the first postoperative month (P<0.001) was statistically significantly higher in DALK group. The mean BSCVA at 12mo was not significantly different for DALK (0.30±1.99 logMAR) versus PK (0.40±0.33 logMAR) (P=0.104). The 76.3% of the eyes had a BSCVA over 0.5 in DALK and 47.4% in PK group (P=0.009). The 7.9% of the eyes had a BSCVA of 1.0 in DALK and 5.3% in PK group (P=0.644). Mean spherical equivalent was -2.94 D in DALK and -3.09 D in PK group. Mean topographic astigmatism was 4.62 D and 4.18 D respectively. Regular topographic patterns were observed in 31 (81.6%) of DALK and 29 (76.3%) of PK (P=0.574). The most frequent topographic pattern was oblate asymmetric bow tie, seen in 39.5% in DALK and 23.7% in PK. CONCLUSION Big bubble DALK provides an earlier visual improvement compare to PK. However, visual and topographic outcomes are similar to those in PK at 1y. Postoperative complications including rejection and intraocular pressure elevation are more frequent in PK. DALK is a safer alternative to PK for KC. However, intraoperative perforation of the Descemet's membrane is a significant complication.

  5. Femtosecond laser-assisted keratoplasty in a child with corneal opacity:case report

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    E. Yu. Markova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal opacities are the fourth cause of blindness world-wide. Over the past two centuries, various corneal transplantation (i.e., keratoplasty methods have been developed and improved. Nowadays, femtolaserssisted keratoplasty is one of most promising techniques. Femtosecond laser have several advantages that provide additional surgical benefits. Among them, no thermal injury, the ability to cut deeply on a single plane and to perform various corneal profiles should be mentioned. In children, corneal disorders are of special importance while femtosecondassisted keraatoplasty case reports are rare. Here, we describe femtosecond laserssisted penetrating keratoplasty in a girl with a rough central corneal opacity.

  6. Fungal interface keratitis by Candida orthopsilosis following deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty.

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    Wessel, Julia M; Bachmann, Björn O; Meiller, Ralph; Kruse, Friedrich E

    2013-01-23

    A 39-year-old male patient underwent uncomplicated deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty due to keratoconus. On day 5 after surgery, small whitish infiltrates developed in the corneal interface. The diagnosis of fungal keratitis was made when the culture medium of the graft grew Candida after the surgical intervention. Despite intensive antimycotic treatment and irrigation of the interface, the infiltrates persisted and eventually enlarged. Therefore, revision surgery with penetrating keratoplasty was performed. Microbiological analysis showed Candida orthopsilosis in the culture of the excised graft button. Histopathological staining of the excised graft showed periodic acid-Schiff-positive and Grocott methenamine silver-positive clusters of yeast between Descemet's membrane and the deep corneal stroma with focal perforations through Descemet's membrane. The treatment of mycotic keratitis caused by C orthopsilosis is challenging. Antimycotic treatment was unsuccessful in this case. Progression of the keratitis and perforation of Descemet's membrane suggest that early surgical intervention by penetrating keratoplasty is required.

  7. Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty for the management of iatrogenic keratectasia occurring after hexagonal keratotomy

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    Paras Mehta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Iatrogenic keratectasia has been reported subsequent to refractive surgery or trauma. Hexagonal keratotomy (HK is a surgical incisional technique to correct hyperopia. A number of complications have been reported following this procedure, including irregular astigmatism, wound healing abnormalities and corneal ectasia. When visual acuity is poor because of ectasia or irregular astigmatism and contact lens fitting is not possible, penetrating or lamellar keratoplasty can be performed. Since incisions in refractive keratotomy are set at 90-95% depth of cornea, intraoperative microperforations are known to occur and lamellar keratoplasty may become difficult. We describe deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK used to successfully manage keratectasia after HK. Pre DALK vision was 20/400 and post DALK vision was 20/30 two months after surgery. This report aims to show improved visual outcome in corneal ectasia secondary to HK. DALK can be a procedure of choice with proper case selection.

  8. Clinical picture and problems of keratoplasty in Richner-Hanhart syndrome (tyrosinemia type II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, R B; von Domarus, D; Schäfer, H J; Beckenkamp, G

    1988-01-01

    The Richner-Hanhart syndrome seen in a middle-aged woman is described. The patient had the typical clinical manifestations of tyrosinemia II with a bilateral keratopathy, palmar and plantar hyperkeratosis. The patient was subjected to a specific diet and to perforating keratoplasty. Postoperative systemic therapy with steroids had a negative influence on the clinical manifestations; dendritic lesions which developed on the corneal graft disappeared after interruption of the systemic steroid therapy. This suggests that cortisone treatment after keratoplasty should be avoided in this special metabolic disorder.

  9. Simultaneous Phacoemulsification and Graft Refractive Surgery in Penetrating Keratoplasty Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Sepehr; Zare, Mohammad; Einollahi, Bahram

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To report outcomes of graft refractive surgery (GRS) along with clear-cornea phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) eyes. Methods. Fourteen eyes of 13 patients who had received PKP underwent simultaneous GRS (relaxing incisions with or without counter-quadrant compression sutures) and clear-cornea phacoemulsification with IOL implantation. To calculate IOL power, preoperative keratometry readings and the SRK-T formula were used. Results. Mean patient age and follow-up period were 50.5 ± 14.4 years and 14.6 ± 7.1 months, respectively. A significant increase was observed in best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (from 0.55 ± 0.18 logMAR to 0.33 ± 0.18 logMAR, P = 0.001). There was a significant decrease in vector keratometric astigmatism by 6.22 D (P = 0.03). Spherical equivalent refraction was reduced from −3.31 ± 3.96 D to −1.69 ± 2.38 D (P = 0.02) which did not significantly differ from the target refraction (−0.76 ± 0.14 D, P = 0.20). No complications developed and all the grafts remained clear at the final examination. Conclusion. Simultaneous phacoemulsification and GRS is a safe and effective method to address post-PKP astigmatism and lens opacity. IOL power can be calculated from preoperative keratometry readings with an acceptable accuracy. However, patients should be informed about the possibility of high refractive errors postoperatively. PMID:24527227

  10. Phototherapeutic keratectomy for recurrent granular dystrophy in postpenetrating keratoplasty eyes

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    Varsha M Rathi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose is to assess the clinical and visual outcome after phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK procedure in eyes with prior penetrating keratoplasty (PKP for granular corneal dystrophy (GCD and the time of performance of repeat PTK for recurrence. Methods: PTK was performed for visually significant recurrence: A reduction in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA by >2 lines over BCVA before recurrence was considered as visually significant recurrence. Three eyes had amniotic membrane patch performed with PTK. The main outcome measures were a recurrence of GCD, clinical course, and visual outcome. Intervals between repeat PTK procedures were noted. Results: Six patients (n = 10 eyes; males: 4, mean age 39 ± 13.97 years underwent PTK. The mean pachymetry before first PTK was 527.1 ± 34 microns. The mean duration between PKP and first PTK was 85.1 months (range: 37–108 months. Two and three PTK procedures were done for seven and five eyes, respectively. Mean duration between first and second and second and third PTK was 62.12 ± 34.41 and 42.8 ± 13.54 months respectively. The average cut depth was 43.66 ± 19.57, 75 ± 43.30 and 39 ± 19.79 microns after the first, second and third PTK procedures, respectively. All eyes had a corneal haze. Pre first PTK mean BCVA was 20/200 and improved significantly after the first two PTK procedures to 20/40 and after the third PTK procedure to 20/32 (P < 0.001. Five eyes had hyperopia. One acute graft rejection was managed successfully at 5 months with medical therapy. Conclusion: Multiple PTK procedures can be performed safely with improved visual acuity in grafts without compromising graft survival.

  11. Effect of oral acyclovir after penetrating keratoplasty for herpetic keratitis: a placebo-controlled multicenter trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, J.G.M. van; Rijneveld, W.J.; Remeijer, L.; Volker-Dieben, H.J.; Eggink, C.A.; Geerards, A.J.; Mulder, P.G.H.; Doornenbal, P.; Beekhuis, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prophylactic effect of oral acyclovir on the recurrence rate of herpetic eye disease after penetrating keratoplasty. DESIGN: A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-eight consecutive patients (68 eyes) with corneal opacities

  12. Infectious crystalline keratopathy caused by Cladosporium sp. after penetrating keratoplasty: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ricardo Alexandre; Bonamigo, Elcio Luiz; Cadore, Emeline; Oechsler, Rafael Allan

    2016-01-01

    Background Infectious crystalline keratopathy is a rare, progressive infection characterized by the insidious progression of branches and crystalline corneal opacities with minimal or no inflammation. This case report describes the evolution of an infectious crystalline keratopathy caused by Cladosporium sp., which developed after tectonic keratoplasty in a patient with a history of ocular trauma. Case presentation A 40-year-old Brazilian male was the victim of firework-induced trauma to the left eye, which resulted in a corneal laceration that could not be sutured as well as a severe traumatic cataract. The patient underwent penetrating keratoplasty and phacoemulsification. During postoperative follow-up, another therapeutic keratoplasty was required because unresponsive infectious keratitis was observed. The infiltrate’s characteristics were suggestive of infectious crystalline keratopathy; in particular, the infiltrate was insidious and progressive, and grayish-white branches appeared in the anterior corneal stroma. As different therapies were administered, inflammatory reactions ranging from mild to severe were observed. The infection was unresponsive to typical antifungal drugs. This lack of response most likely occurred due to steroid treatment and the diffuse corneal spread of an atypical microorganism, which was subsequently identified in culture as Cladosporium sp. After the second therapeutic keratoplasty, the patient’s eye integrity was successfully reestablished. Conclusion This study likely provides the first report describing a case of infectious crystalline keratopathy caused by Cladosporium sp. This case emphasizes the clinical characteristics and outcome of this type of keratitis. PMID:27621671

  13. Infectious crystalline keratopathy caused by Cladosporium sp. after penetrating keratoplasty: a case report

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    Stock RA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ricardo Alexandre Stock,1 Elcio Luiz Bonamigo,2 Emeline Cadore,3 Rafael Allan Oechsler4 1Corneal Transplant Section, Santa Terezinha University Hospital, 2Department of Ophthalmology and Bioethics, 3University of Western Santa Catarina, Joaçaba, 4Cornea Department, Oftalmo Center Blumenau, Blumenau, Santa Catarina, Brazil Background: Infectious crystalline keratopathy is a rare, progressive infection characterized by the insidious progression of branches and crystalline corneal opacities with minimal or no inflammation. This case report describes the evolution of an infectious crystalline keratopathy caused by Cladosporium sp., which developed after tectonic keratoplasty in a patient with a history of ocular trauma.Case presentation: A 40-year-old Brazilian male was the victim of firework-induced trauma to the left eye, which resulted in a corneal laceration that could not be sutured as well as a severe traumatic cataract. The patient underwent penetrating keratoplasty and phacoemulsification. During postoperative follow-up, another therapeutic keratoplasty was required because unresponsive infectious keratitis was observed. The infiltrate’s characteristics were suggestive of infectious crystalline keratopathy; in particular, the infiltrate was insidious and progressive, and grayish-white branches appeared in the anterior corneal stroma. As different therapies were administered, inflammatory reactions ranging from mild to severe were observed. The infection was unresponsive to typical antifungal drugs. This lack of response most likely occurred due to steroid treatment and the diffuse corneal spread of an atypical microorganism, which was subsequently identified in culture as Cladosporium sp. After the second therapeutic keratoplasty, the patient’s eye integrity was successfully reestablished.Conclusion: This study likely provides the first report describing a case of infectious crystalline keratopathy caused by Cladosporium sp. This case

  14. Pediatric penetrating keratoplasty in Shanghai: a retrospective multiple centre study from 2003 to 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Jia-xu; XU Jian-jiang; SHENG Min-jie; LIU Yan; ZHU Li

    2008-01-01

    Background With advances in pediatric keratoplasty over the last two decades, the success rate of surgery has increased remarkably. However, few epidemiological studies in this field have been performed in China. The present study investigated the indications and characteristics of pediatric penetrating keratoplasty in Shanghai.Methods All records of pediatric keratoplasty performed on 156 eyes in 149 children (<14 years) at four ophthalmic units in Shanghai during a 5-year period (2003-2007) were used for this retrospective study. Patients were from the Eye,Ear, Nose & Throat Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai No.10 People's Hospital, Shanghai No.1 People's Hospital,and Shanghai Peace Ophthalmology Hospital; and included mostly school-age children (97 boys and 59 girls).Results The median age at surgery was 9 years with an interval quartile range of 6-12 years. Scarring after keratitis (29.5%, 46/156) and traumatic corneal scar (19.2%, 30/156) were the most common indications. Best Corrected Snellen visual acuity (BCSVA) was reported only in 72% (112/156) of cases. Visual acuity outcomes were significantly better for keratoplasty 1 year postoperatively compared to preoperative visual acuity (P=0.001). Of all patients, 13% (14/112) achieved a BCSVA of 6/18 or better. None of the indications was associated with a higher rate of failure compared to after 1 year follow-up.Conclusion We obtained valuable information on pediatric keratoplasty in Shanghai. There was no significant difference in graft survival rate among the two indications. Vision outcomes after corneal transplantation in Chinese children were significantly better compared with pre-operation status. In conclusion, corneal graft survival can be achieved in childhood.

  15. Current Situation of Lamellar Keratoplasty for Fungal Keratitis%板层角膜移植术治疗真菌性角膜炎的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄迪(综述); 吴敏; 胡竹林(审校)

    2015-01-01

    Fungal keratitis is a commonly encountered disease of ophthalmology with very high blinding rate and its incidence has been increasing year by year. Partial or systemic use of effective antifungal drugs combined with appropriate surgical methods are the consensus of treatment for fungal keratitis. The common surgical ways include traditional penetrating lamellar keratoplasty, lamellar keratoplasty and deep lamellar keratoplasty. The latter two surgeries are becoming more and more popular due to the advantages of having less adverse reactions such as corneal endothelial failure,rejections,and the clinical application is becoming more and more prominent.%真菌性角膜炎是一种致盲率极高且发病率逐年上升的眼科常见病。局部或全身使用有效的抗真菌药物,并选择恰当的手术方式已成为治疗真菌性角膜炎的共识,手术方式包括传统穿透性角膜移植术、板层角膜移植术和深板层角膜移植术。其中,板层角膜移植术和深板层角膜移植术因能显著减少角膜移植术后的角膜内皮功能衰竭、排斥等不良反应的发生,在临床上的应用日益突出。

  16. Changing indications for lamellar keratoplasty in Shandong,1993-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Li-jun; XIE Li-xin

    2010-01-01

    Background With the advancement of microsurgical techniques, lamellar keratoplasty (LK) has been more valued and performed to treat corneal blindness. This study aimed to evaluate the indications and changing trends for LK during the past 16 years in Shandong Eye lnstitute, an eye center in China.Methods A total of 1529 eyes, predominantly from male (70.7%) patients undergoing LK between January 1993 and December 2008, were enrolled in this study. Data were collected by reviewing patient medical records for demographic characteristics, clinical diagnosis, laboratory findings and risk factors. Surgical times, initial diagnoses and causes of regrafting were recorded. All LKs were sequentially divided into period 1 (from 1993 to 2000) and period 2 (from 2001 to 2008).Results Rural-dwelling patients in this study numbered 1089 (71.2%); in all cases of infectious keratitis, rural patients accounted for 90.5%. The leading indications for LK were infectious keratitis (31.0%), corneal trauma (21.1%),keratoconus (18.7%), corneal dystrophy and degeneration (7.3%), regrafting (7.1%), immunologic disorders (6.7%),congenital abnormalities and corneal tumor (4.1%) and corneal scarring (3.1%). The most common subcategory of infectious keratitis was fungal keratitis (67.5%). Fusarium solani was the most morbigenous fungi. Among the patients,73.1% of thermal burns were caused by hot molten metal, and 47.8% of alkali burns by lime. Dermoid was the most common indication for congenital abnormalities. The two main initial diagnoses from 109 regrafting cases were corneal trauma (45.9%) and Mooren's ulcer (27.5%). The most common cause for regrafting was immune rejection (35.8%).lnfectious keratitis was the most common indication for LK from 16.0% in period 1 to 41.1% in period 2, followed by keratoconus (16.8%) and corneal trauma (14.5%).Conclusions During the past 16 years, there have been major changes in the constituent ratios of leading indications for LK in Shangdong. Infectious

  17. Three-dimensional growth of human endothelial cells in an automated cell culture experiment container during the SpaceX CRS-8 ISS space mission - The SPHEROIDS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Jessica; Gass, Samuel; Nebuloni, Stefano; Echegoyen, David; Riwaldt, Stefan; Baake, Christin; Bauer, Johann; Corydon, Thomas J; Egli, Marcel; Infanger, Manfred; Grimm, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    Human endothelial cells (ECs) were sent to the International Space Station (ISS) to determine the impact of microgravity on the formation of three-dimensional structures. For this project, an automatic experiment unit (EU) was designed allowing cell culture in space. In order to enable a safe cell culture, cell nourishment and fixation after a pre-programmed timeframe, the materials used for construction of the EUs were tested in regard to their biocompatibility. These tests revealed a high biocompatibility for all parts of the EUs, which were in contact with the cells or the medium used. Most importantly, we found polyether ether ketones for surrounding the incubation chamber, which kept cellular viability above 80% and allowed the cells to adhere as long as they were exposed to normal gravity. After assembling the EU the ECs were cultured therein, where they showed good cell viability at least for 14 days. In addition, the functionality of the automatic medium exchange, and fixation procedures were confirmed. Two days before launch, the ECs were cultured in the EUs, which were afterwards mounted on the SpaceX CRS-8 rocket. 5 and 12 days after launch the cells were fixed. Subsequent analyses revealed a scaffold-free formation of spheroids in space.

  18. AcrySof toric intraocular lens for post-keratoplasty astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 63-year-old male who had undergone left eye optical penetrating keratoplasty for central leucomatous corneal opacity 10 years earlier. The eye had clear donor graft with residual astigmatism of −6.50 diopter cylinder (DC at 30°. The patient underwent clear corneal phacoemulsification with implantation of +6.0 D spherical equivalent AcrySof SN60T9 intraocular lens (IOL. Postoperatively, at 10 months, the patient had distance corrected visual acuity of 20/30 with −2.00 DC at 20°. AcrySof toric IOL offers an effective treatment option for post-keratoplasty high corneal astigmatism in patients with cataract.

  19. Tectonic deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty in impending corneal perforation using cryopreserved cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji Hye; Chang, Sung Dong

    2011-04-01

    We report a case of tectonic corneal transplantation for impending corneal perforation to preserve anatomic integrity using cryopreserved donor tissue. An 82-year-old woman exhibiting impending corneal perforation suffered from moderate ocular pain in the left eye for one week. After abnormal tissues around the impending perforation area were carefully peeled away using a Crescent blade and Vannas scissors, the patient received tectonic deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty using a cryopreserved cornea stored in Optisol GS® solution at -70℃ for four weeks. At six months after surgery, the cornea remained transparent and restored the normal corneal thickness. There were no complications such as corneal haze or scars, graft rejection, recurrent corneal ulcer, and postoperative rise of intraocular pressure. Cryopreserved donor lamellar tissue is an effective substitute in emergency tectonic lamellar keratoplasty, such as impending corneal perforation and severe necrotic corneal keratitis.

  20. Demonstration of cornea Dua's layer at a deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Kocluk; Ayse Burcu; Emine Alyamac Sukgen

    2016-01-01

    The authors aimed to present a deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) surgery case with mixed type bubble demonstrating Dua′s layer (DL). This was a reported case of DALK surgery. The authors encountered cornea DL structure at DALK surgery while cleaning the remaining stromal pieces. We also observed perforation in the central part of DL. However, DALK surgery could be completed. It is possible to encounter DL in a DALK surgery performed with mixed type big-bubble.

  1. Demonstration of cornea Dua′s layer at a deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Kocluk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors aimed to present a deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK surgery case with mixed type bubble demonstrating Dua′s layer (DL. This was a reported case of DALK surgery. The authors encountered cornea DL structure at DALK surgery while cleaning the remaining stromal pieces. We also observed perforation in the central part of DL. However, DALK surgery could be completed. It is possible to encounter DL in a DALK surgery performed with mixed type big-bubble.

  2. Keratorefractive Effect of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Keratoplasty on Rabbit Eyes

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    Zhiyu Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU as an innovation and noninvasive technique to correct presbyopia by altering corneal curvature in the rabbit eye. Methods. Eighteen enucleated rabbit eyes were treated with a prototype HIFU keratoplasty. According to the therapy power, these eyes were divided three groups: group 1 (1 W, group 2 (2 W, and group 3 (3 W. The change in corneal power was quantified by a Sirius Scheimpflug camera. Light microscopy (LM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM were performed to determine the effect on the corneal stroma. Results. In the treated eyes, the corneal curvature increases from 49.42 ± 0.30 diopters (D and 48.00 ± 1.95 D before procedure to 51.37 ± 1.11 D and 57.00 ± 1.84 D after HIFU keratoplasty application in groups 1 and 3, respectively. The major axis and minor axis of the focal region got longer when the powers of the HIFU got increased; the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05. LM and TEM showed HIFU-induced shrinkage of corneal stromal collagen with little disturbance to the underlying epithelium. Conclusions. We have preliminarily exploited HIFU to establish a new technique for correcting presbyopia. HIFU keratoplasty will be a good application prospect for treating presbyopia.

  3. Diagnosis and Management of Iridocorneal Endothelial Syndrome

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    Marta Sacchetti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The iridocorneal endothelial (ICE syndrome is a rare ocular disorder that includes a group of conditions characterized by structural and proliferative abnormalities of the corneal endothelium, the anterior chamber angle, and the iris. Common clinical features include corneal edema, secondary glaucoma, iris atrophy, and pupillary anomalies, ranging from distortion to polycoria. The main subtypes of this syndrome are the progressive iris atrophy, the Cogan-Reese syndrome, and the Chandler syndrome. ICE syndrome is usually diagnosed in women in the adult age. Clinical history and complete eye examination including tonometry and gonioscopy are necessary to reach a diagnosis. Imaging techniques, such as in vivo confocal microscopy and ultrasound biomicroscopy, are used to confirm the diagnosis by revealing the presence of “ICE-cells” on the corneal endothelium and the structural changes of the anterior chamber angle. An early diagnosis is helpful to better manage the most challenging complications such as secondary glaucoma and corneal edema. Treatment of ICE-related glaucoma often requires glaucoma filtering surgery with antifibrotic agents and the use of glaucoma drainage implants should be considered early in the management of these patients. Visual impairment and pain associated with corneal edema can be successfully managed with endothelial keratoplasty.

  4. Effect of Topical FK506 Used alone or Combined with Keratoplasty on Patients with Recurrent Mooren's Corneal Ulcer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanping Xie; Jiaqi Chen; Yueshen Lin; Yongming Liu; Chentian Ye; Shiyou Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of topical 0.1% FK506 used alone or combined with keratoplasty on patients with recurrent Mooren's ulcer.Methods: This is a retrospective interventional consecutive case series. Nine patients(15 eyes) with recurrent Mooren's ulcer were treated with topical 0.1% FK506 alone or combined with keratoplasty. Two eyes with ulcers involving less than half the corneal limbus were treated with topical 0.1% FK506. Of the other 13 eyes with ulcers involving more than half the limbus, twelve were treated with excision of the ulcer and adjacent conjunctiva combined with lamellar keratoplasty. One eye with a central impending corneal perforation was treated with penetrating keratoplasty.Topical0.1% FK506 was given post-operatively to all thirteen eyes after re-epithelia-lisation of the cornea. FK506 levels in the surgically resected cornea and conjunctiva of the operated eyes were measured using enzyme immunoassay procedures. Twelve patients(17 eyes) with recurrent Mooren's ulcer treated with lamellar keratoplasty combined with topical 0.1% dexamethasone were taken as the control. The main measure of the outcome was the recurrence of Mooren's ulcer in the patients.Results: Nine patients (15 eyes) with recurrent Mooren's ulcer were all successfully treated. Vision in 5 eyes improved by two lines or better after treatment. No recurrence was observed during the follow up period of 12 to 22 months. After topical application of 0.1% FK506, concentrations of 30~350 ng/g of FK506 were found in the cornea and conjunctiva. Seven eyes of Mooren's ulcer in the control group recurred during the follow up period. Conclusion: Topical 0.1% FK506 used alone or combined with keratoplasty is a safe and effective therapy for patients with recurrent Mooren's ulcer.

  5. Comparison the post operative refractive errors in same size corneal transplantation through deep lamellar keratoplasty and penetrating keratoplasty methods after sutures removing in keratoconus patients

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    Hasan Razmjoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Corneal transplantation is a surgery in which cornea is replaced by a donated one and can be completely penetrating keratoplasty (PK or included a part of cornea deep lamellar keratoplasty (DLK. Although the functional results are limited by some complications, it is considered as one of the most successful surgeries. This study aimed to compare the refractive errors after same size corneal transplantation through DLK and PK methods in keratoconus patients over 20 years. Materials and Methods: This descriptive, analytical study was conducted in Feiz Hospital, Sadra and Persian Clinics of Isfahan in 2013–2014. In this study, 35 patients underwent corneal transplantation by PK and 35 patients by DLK, after removing the sutures, the patients were compared in terms of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and refractive errors. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and t Student tests by SPSS software. Results: The BCVA mean in DLK and PK groups was 6/10 ± 2/10 and 5/10 ± 2/10, respectively, with no significant difference (P = 0.4. The results showed 9 cases of DLK and 6 cases of PK had normal (8/10 ≤ BCVA visual acuity (25.7% vs. 17.1%, 24 cases of DLK and 27 cases of PK had mild vision impairment (68.6% vs. 77.1% and 2 cases of the DLK group and 2 cases of PK had moderate vision impairment, (5.7% vs. 5.7%, there was no significant difference in “BCVA” (P = 0.83. Conclusions: Both methods were acceptably effective in improving BCVA, but according to previous articles (5,9,10 the DLK method due to fewer complications and less risk of rejection was superior to another method and in the absence of any prohibition this method is recommended.

  6. Femtosecond laser assisted design of sutureless intrastromal graft as an alternative to partial thickness keratoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Durkee, Heather; Pini, Roberto; Canovetti, Annalisa; Malandrini, Alex; Lenzetti, Ivo; Rubino, Pierangela; Leaci, Rosachiara; Neri, Alberto; Scaroni, Patrizia; Menabuoni, Luca; Macaluso, Claudio

    2014-02-01

    Minimally invasive laser assisted surgery in ophthalmology is continuously developing in order to find new surgical approaches, preserve patient tissue and improve surgical results in terms of cut precision, restoration of visual acuity, and invasiveness. In order to achieve these goals, the current approach in corneal transplant is lamellar keratoplasty, where only the anterior or posterior part of the patient's cornea is substituted depending on the lesion or pathology. In this work, we present a novel alternative approach: a case study of intrastromal sutureless transplant, where a portion of the anterior stroma of a donor cornea was inserted into the stroma of the recipient cornea, aiming to restore the correct thickness of the patient's cornea. The patient cornea was paracentrally thin, as the result of a trophic ulcer due to ocular pemphigoid. A discoid corneal graft from the anterior stroma of a donor eye was prepared: a femtosecond laser cut with a trapezoidal profile (thickness was 300 μm, minor and major basis were 3.00 and 3.50 mm, respectively). In the recipient eye, an intrastromal cut was also performed with the femtosecond laser using a specifically designed mask; the cut position was 275 μm in depth. The graft was loaded into an injector and inserted as an intrastromal presbyopic implant. The postoperative analysis evidenced a clear and stable graft that selectively restored corneal thickness in the thinned area. Intrastromal corneal transplant surgery is a minimally invasive alternative to anterior or posterior lamellar keratoplasty in select cases. We believe that Sutureless Intrastromal Laser Keratoplasty (SILK) could open up new avenues in the field of corneal transplantation by fully utilizing the potential and precision of existing lasers.

  7. Effects of Cataract Surgery on Endothelium in Transplanted Corneal Grafts: Comparison of Extracapsular Cataract Extraction and Phacoemulsification for Complicated Cataract after Penetrating Keratoplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Wei Zhou; Li-Xin Xie

    2016-01-01

    Background:The endothelium should be carefully evaluated when choosing a surgical technique for cataract removal.Therefore,we aimed to study the effects of different cataract surgery techniques on endothelial cell loss in transplanted comeal grafts.Methods:A total of 54 patients who received complicated cataract surgery in post-penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) eyes at the Shandong Eye Institute between February 2001 and June 2014 were included,and clinical records were reviewed.Baseline demographic details,clinical characteristics,endothelial cell density (ECD),and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were recorded.Wilcoxon rank-sum test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to test the equality of medians.A regression model was constructed to compare the reduced rate of ECD.Results:Of the 54 eyes included in this study,extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) was performed in 34 eyes of 33 patients (ECCE group) whereas phacoemulsification was performed in 20 eyes of 20 patients (phacoemulsification group).There was no significant difference in the median age (P =0.081) or preoperative ECD (P =0.585) between the two groups.At 6 months after cataract surgery,ECD in ECCE group was significantly higher than that in phacoemulsification group (P =0.043).In addition,the endothelial cell loss rate in ECCE group was significantly lower than that in phacoemulsification group at 2 months (P =0.018),4 months (P < 0.001),and 6 months (P < 0.001) after cataract surgery.Endothelial cell loss rate after cataract surgery increased over the 6-month study duration in both ECCE group (P < 0.00 l) and phacoemulsification group (P < 0.001),but phacoemulsification resulted in a greater reduction in ECD than that of ECCE in transplanted corneal grafts (P < 0.001).There was no significant difference in postoperative BCVA between the two groups (P =0.065).Conclusion:ECCE is more suitable than phacoemulsification in cataract surgery in complicated cataract after PKP.

  8. Differentiating type 1 from type 2 big bubbles in deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dua HS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Harminder S Dua,1 Tarek Katamish,2 Dalia G Said,1 Lana A Faraj1 1Section of Academic Ophthalmology, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Cairo University, Cairo, EgyptWe read with interest the paper by Anwar et al.1 The authors have described a technique to bare Descemet’s membrane (DM by multiple lamellar dissection of the deep corneal stroma when stromal injection of air fails to achieve a big bubble (BB in deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK.Read the original article

  9. 强力霉素抑制角膜移植后的新生血管%Doxycycline inhibits corneal angiogenesis after keratoplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎韦华; 徐建刚; 张雪菲; 凌士奇

    2009-01-01

    能抑制角膜移植后角膜新生血管的生长,延长植片的生存时间.%BACKROUND:Corneal hemangiogenesis occurs in 40%-60%patients after keratoplasty.Blood vessel is one of the high risk factors for corneal immunological rejection.To inhibit corneal hemangiogenesis would prolong the survival time of the grafts and promote the successful rate of the keratoplasty.OBJECTIVE:To explore the inhibitive effects of doxycycline on corneal angiogenesis after keratoplasty.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A randomized controlled animal experiment was performed at the State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology(No.2006DA105054),Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center,Sun Yat-sen University from March to August 2007.MATERIALS:A total of 48 healthy dean Sprague Dawley rats served as recipients(right eye)and 24 Wistar rats as donors(both eyes).CD31-PEfluorescent antibody was obtained from Sigma,USA.Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA)kit for vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF)was brought from RapidBio,USA.METHODS:Corneal allogenic transplantation models were established in rats.Recipients were equally and randomly divided into 2 groups:saline control group and doxycycline group.Twenty minutes prior to surgery,mydriasis was performed using 1%atropine,with a diameter of 2.75 mm of implant and 2.5 mm of implant bed.In the saline control group,conjunctiva of the right eye received saline,three times a day,following surgery.In the doxycycline group,conjunctiva of the right eye received 1%doxycycline,three times a day,till 30 days following surgery.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The following parameters were measured:corneal angiogenesis using immunofluorescence,expression of VEGF protein by using ELISA.RESULTS:Compared with the survival time of saline control group[(9.67±2.73)days],the mean survival time of doxycycline group[(20.67±3.01)days]was significantly prolonged(P<0.01).The mean percentages of neovascularized corneal area in the saline control group were(4.00±1.00)%,(14.33±4

  10. Intracameral air following pneumatic noncontact tonometry in a recently post–perforating keratoplasty patient

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    Vámosi P

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Péter VámosiDepartment of Ophthalmology, Péterfy Sándor Hospital, Budapest, Department of Ophthalmology, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, HungaryPurpose: The purpose of this report is to highlight the potential risk of noncontact tonometry after routine uncomplicated penetrating keratoplasty (PK.Case report: After uncomplicated PK for keratoconus, routine noncontact tonometry was performed on the second postoperative day. In spite of the adequately closed wound and the tight suture, temporary wound dehiscence occurred, and two-thirds of the anterior chamber was occupied by air. The running suture remained intact, and the Seidel test was negative. One week postoperatively, the patient’s corrected distance visual acuity was 0.4 (0.4 logMAR, and the air bubble had absorbed.Conclusion: This is the first report to conclude that noncontact tonometry may not be sufficiently safe in the early postoperative period in normal PK cases. To prevent possible wound opening, we suggest the use of other tonometry methods during the first several months after PK.Keywords: wound dehiscence, penetrating keratoplasty

  11. "Double bubble" deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty for management of corneal stromal pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhanji, Vishal; Beltz, Jacqueline; Sharma, Namrata; Graue, Enrique; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2011-08-01

    'Big Bubble' deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) is becoming an accepted corneal transplantation technique for keratoconus and other anterior stromal corneal pathologies that spare the Descemet's membrane (DM) and endothelium. However, it is not always possible to conclusively recognise formation and identification of the 'Big Bubble'. We describe the surgical technique of DALK called 'Double Bubble' technique that allows the surgeon to definitely and immediately identify the formation of an adequate big bubble. DALK was performed using the 'Double Bubble' technique in twelve eyes of twelve patients with corneal stromal pathologies (keratoconus, 9 eyes; macular corneal dystrophy, 2 eyes; postinfectious keratitis corneal stromal scar, 1 eye) at the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, Melbourne. Big bubble was successfully formed in 10 eyes. Maximum-depth deep lamellar keratoplasty was performed in two eyes. There were no instances of intraoperative perforation of the DM. All grafts were clear at last follow-up. Best-corrected visual acuity of ≥20/40 was achieved in all the cases at last follow-up (6-12 months). 'Double Bubble' DALK helps in identification of the big bubble and has the potential to increase the success of standard 'Big Bubble' DALK in patients with corneal stromal pathologies sparing the DM and endothelium.

  12. The complementary benefit of anterior segment optical coherence tomography in penetrating keratoplasty

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    Yenerel NM

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nursal Melda Yenerel,1 Raciha Beril Kucumen,2 Ebru Gorgun3 1Haydarpasa Numune Research and Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Ophthalmology, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Dunya Goz Eye Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Purpose: To evaluate the utility of anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT assessment in the pre- and postsurgical management of full-thickness corneal grafts. Methods: Seventy eyes of 58 patients who had penetrating keratoplasty were included in the study. High resolution AS-OCT scans of the cornea and the anterior segment were performed before and after transplantation in 17 eyes with the VisanteTM optical coherence tomography. Fifty-three eyes were examined in the late postoperative period. Results: The mean follow-up was 4.3 years (range, 1–15 years. Six different graft–host junctions were identified. Three patients with graft rejection, four patients with anterior synechia, and three patients with corneal ulcer were evaluated. Preoperative evaluation of eyes with semiopaque and totally opaque corneas revealed important information about anterior segment structures additional to slit-lamp findings. Conclusion: AS-OCT is a useful complementary tool for the evaluation of penetrating corneal transplantation surgery and in the management of its postoperative complications. Keywords: anterior segment optical coherence tomography, imaging techniques, penetrating keratoplasty

  13. Warehouse automation

    OpenAIRE

    Pogačnik, Jure

    2017-01-01

    An automated high bay warehouse is commonly used for storing large number of material with a high throughput. In an automated warehouse pallet movements are mainly performed by a number of automated devices like conveyors systems, trolleys, and stacker cranes. From the introduction of the material to the automated warehouse system to its dispatch the system requires no operator input or intervention since all material movements are done automatically. This allows the automated warehouse to op...

  14. Phacoemulsification after penetrating keratoplasty with autologous limbal transplant and amniotic membrane transplant in chemical burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Ritu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a patient who had earlier penetrating keratoplasty with amniotic membrane transplant and autologous limbal cell transplant for chemical injury who underwent cataract surgery by phacoaspiration. A posterior limbal incision with corneal valve was made superotemporally with extreme caution to avoid damage to the limbal graft. Aspiration flow rates and vacuum were kept low to avoid any turbulence during surgery. A 6.0 mm optic diameter acrylic foldable intraocular lens was inserted in the bag. The patient achieved a best-corrected visual acuity of 6/12 at 10 months′ follow-up with a clear corneal graft. We conclude that caution during wound construction and phacoaspiration can help preserve corneal and limbal graft integrity in patients undergoing cataract surgery after corneal graft and limbal transplantation.

  15. Staged Penetrating Sclerokeratoplasty and Penetrating Keratoplasty for Management of Advanced Acquired Anterior Staphyloma

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    Enrique de la Torre-Gonzalez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we describe a staged surgical technique consisting of penetrating sclerokeratoplasty (PSKP followed by penetrating keratoplasty (PKP and present its clinical course and complications over two years of follow-up. A 23-year-old man presented with cosmetically unacceptable protrusion of the globe corresponding to the cornea and sclera. PSKP was performed transplanting a full-thickness beveled 13 mm corneoscleral tectonic graft. Hypotony developed subsequently and was successfully managed medically, however corneal graft failure occurred. After 15 months, a 7.5 mm PKP was performed for optical reasons, which subsequently remained clear with a healthy epithelium. In this particular case, cosmetic, tectonic, therapeutic, and optical requirements were met. PSKP is a surgical procedure which entails a high rate of complications but may be the only alternative when the main goal of intervention is restoration of the globe in complicated cases such as our patient.

  16. Accounting Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril1

    2017-01-01

    Accounting Automation   Click Link Below To Buy:   http://hwcampus.com/shop/accounting-automation/  Or Visit www.hwcampus.com Accounting Automation” Please respond to the following: Imagine you are a consultant hired to convert a manual accounting system to an automated system. Suggest the key advantages and disadvantages of automating a manual accounting system. Identify the most important step in the conversion process. Provide a rationale for your response. ...

  17. Quantification of collagen ultrastructure after penetrating keratoplasty - implications for corneal biomechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Boote

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To quantify long-term changes in stromal collagen ultrastructure following penetrating keratoplasty (PK, and evaluate their possible implications for corneal biomechanics. METHODS: A pair of 16 mm post-mortem corneo-scleral buttons was obtained from a patient receiving bilateral penetrating keratoplasty 12 (left/28 (right years previously. Small-angle x-ray scattering quantified collagen fibril spacing, diameter and spatial order at 0.5 mm or 0.25 mm intervals along linear scans across the graft margin. Corresponding control data was collected from two corneo-scleral buttons with no history of refractive surgery. Wide-angle x-ray scattering quantified collagen fibril orientation at 0.25 mm (horizontal×0.25 mm (vertical intervals across both PK specimens. Quantification of orientation changes in the graft margin were verified by equivalent analysis of data from a 13 year post-operative right PK specimen obtained from a second patient in a previous study, and comparison made with new and published data from normal corneas. RESULTS: Marked changes to normal fibril alignment, in favour of tangentially oriented collagen, were observed around the entire graft margin in all PK specimens. The total number of meridional fibrils in the wound margin was observed to decrease by up to 40%, with the number of tangentially oriented fibrils increasing by up to 46%. As a result, in some locations the number of fibrils aligned parallel to the wound outnumbered those spanning it by up to five times. Localised increases in fibril spacing and diameter, with an accompanying reduction in matrix order, were also evident. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal collagen fibril size and spatial order within the PK graft margin are indicative of incomplete stromal wound remodelling and the long term persistence of fibrotic scar tissue. Lasting changes in collagen fibril orientation in and around PK wounds may alter corneal biomechanics and compromise the integrity of the graft

  18. Outcome of optical penetrating keratoplasties at a tertiary care eye institute in Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa A Joshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the indications, risk factors, postoperative course, and long-term survival of corneal transplants done for optical purposes. Design: Retrospective case series. Materials and Methods: Data were obtained by reviewing the records of 181 patients operated at our institute (H.V. Desai Eye Hospital between October 2005 and October 2007 for optical penetrating keratoplasty. Patients with less than one year of follow up, pediatric cases, therapeutic, tectonic, and lamellar keratoplasties were excluded. Kaplan Meier survival analysis was used to calculate median survival time of grafts and to see correlation between nine variables viz. age, gender, corneal vascularization, previous failed grafts, previous Herpes Simplex keratitis, post-perforation corneal scars, donor tissue quality, graft size, type of surgery and follow-up. These variables were also used for univariate and multivariate analysis using Cox Proportional Hazard Regression Modeling. Results: Median survival of the cohort was 27 months (95% confidence interval: 20.47-33.52. One- and two-year survival rates were 65% and 52.5%, respectively. Median survival was significantly lower in poor prognosis cases (14 months than good prognosis cases (27 months, P = 0.0405. Graft survival was lower in vascularized corneas (18.55 months, P = 0.030 and in post-perforation corneal scars (17.96 months, P = 0.09, borderline significance. Multivariate analysis showed that the same factors were predictive of graft failure. Conclusion: Long-term survival of grafts at our center is different from centers in western world. More high-risk cases, paucity of excellent quality donor corneas, and differences in patient profile could be the contributory factors.

  19. Home Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I briefly discuss the importance of home automation system. Going in to the details I briefly present a real time designed and implemented software and hardware oriented house automation research project, capable of automating house's electricity and providing a security system to detect the presence of unexpected behavior.

  20. Femtosecond laser-assisted keratoplasty combined with cataract extraction in a patient with keratoconus and oculocutaneous albinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorottya Pásztor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a case of a 58-year-old male patient with oculocutaneous albinism, keratoconus, total cataract, and glaucoma originating from father-daughter incest. He underwent femtosecond laser-assisted keratoplasty with “open-sky” cataract extraction and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. One week after surgery his uncorrected visual acuity improved from hand motion to 20/200. Six months later corneal K values were 49.1 D in the flat and 50.0 D in the steep meridian. The graft had a central corneal thickness of 488 µm and was well fitted. The patient's quality of life improved substantially due to the surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the association of albinism with advanced keratoconus, total cataract, and glaucoma. Moreover, no previous report on femtosecond laser-assisted keratoplasty using VisuMax femtosecond laser system with “open-sky” cataract extraction is available in the literature. The VisuMax femtosecond laser-assisted keratoplasty ensures fast patient rehabilitation in such challenging cases.

  1. Femtosecond laser-assisted keratoplasty combined with cataract extraction in a patient with keratoconus and oculocutaneous albinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, Dorottya; Kolozsvári, Bence Lajos; Losonczy, Gergely; Fodor, Mariann

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we present a case of a 58-year-old male patient with oculocutaneous albinism, keratoconus, total cataract, and glaucoma originating from father-daughter incest. He underwent femtosecond laser-assisted keratoplasty with “open-sky” cataract extraction and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. One week after surgery his uncorrected visual acuity improved from hand motion to 20/200. Six months later corneal K values were 49.1 D in the flat and 50.0 D in the steep meridian. The graft had a central corneal thickness of 488 µm and was well fitted. The patient's quality of life improved substantially due to the surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the association of albinism with advanced keratoconus, total cataract, and glaucoma. Moreover, no previous report on femtosecond laser-assisted keratoplasty using VisuMax femtosecond laser system with “open-sky” cataract extraction is available in the literature. The VisuMax femtosecond laser-assisted keratoplasty ensures fast patient rehabilitation in such challenging cases. PMID:27146942

  2. 深板层角膜移植术与穿透角膜移植术治疗圆锥角膜临床疗效的Meta分析%Meta analysis of deep lamellar keratoplasty and penetrating keratoplasty for keratoconus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施节亮; 冯一帆; 郁继国; 王勤美

    2012-01-01

    Background Nowadays,keratoplasty is widely used in the treatment of keratoconus.Deep lamellar keratoplasty(DLKP)is one of the research hotspots.However,its effacacy and safety are still concerned.Objective This paper was to evaluate and compare the therapeutic outcomes between DLKP and penetrating keratoplasty(PKP) for keratoconus.Methods The peer-reviewed and published literature was searched from PubMed database,Cochrane Library,EMBase and CNKI to identify relevant trails comparing DLKP with PKP for keratoconus.Methodological quality and Meta-analysis were carried out according to the principle of evidence-based medicine.The statistical analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.0 software.Results Eleven studies with 2950 eyes were identified that compared the results of DLKP and PKP procedures for keratoconus directly.Of those studies reporting vision and refractive data,less patients underwent DLKP achieved a best corrected visual acuity (BCVA)of≥0.5 than DLKP(RR=0.91,95% CI:0.84-0.99,P=0.030) ;patients with DALK had severer myopia that those with PKP(RR =-0.60,95% CI:-1.43-0.23,P =0.150),but the astigmatism was comparative (WMD =0.21,95% CI:-0.48-0.91,P =0.550).Endothelial cell density values were higher in the DLKP group and the differences were significant.Endothelial immune graft rejection did not occur after DALK,and PKP had a higher overall graft rejection rate than DLKP(RR=0.06,95% CI:0.01-0.31,P=0.001).Conclusions According to the available data,PKP can imporve the BCVA and refractive results,but DLKP can avoid the risk of endothelial rejection and reduce the risk of late endothelial failure for keratconus.%背景 临床上正在广泛开展各种角膜移植术以治疗圆锥角膜,其中深板层角膜移植术(DLKP)是目前的研究热点之一,但其临床疗效及安全性备受关注. 目的 探讨临床研究中DLKP和穿透角膜移植术(PKP)治疗圆锥角膜的有效性与安全性.方法 应用循证医学的研究方法,检

  3. [Evaluation of corneal biomechanics before and after up-to-date keratoplasty in patients with bullous keratopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trufanov, S V; Antonov, A A; Malozhen, S A; Siplivyi, V I

    2015-01-01

    Цель — изучить биомеханические особенности роговицы у пациентов с буллезной кератопатией до и после кератопластики. Материал и методы. На основании данных пневмотонометрии с динамической двунаправленной апланацией роговицы изучили биомеханические свойства роговой оболочки глаза до и после кератопластики у 37 больных (37 глаз) буллезной кератопатией. В 17 случаях провели эндотелиальную кератопластику с удалением десцеметовой мембраны в модификации UTDSAEK (Ultrathin Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty), в 13 случаях — автоматизированную эндотелиальную кератопластику с фиксацией трансплантата под поверхностным лоскутом роговицы реципиента (ЭК-Л), в 7 случаях — мануальную частичную обратную грибовидную кератопластику (ЧОГКП). Исследование проводили до операции, через 1, 2, 6 мес и 1, 2, 3, 5 лет после кератопластики. Результаты. Показатели роговичного гистерезиса (Corneal Hysteresis, СН) и фактора резистентности роговицы (Corneal Resistance Factor, CRF) были достоверно снижены на глазах с буллезной кератопатией по сравнению со здоровыми глазами (p<0,05). После ЭК-Л, UTDSAEK и ЧОГКП биомеханические свойства роговицы к 6 мес

  4. [Vascular endothelial Barrier Function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A N; Puchinyan, D M; Norkin, I A

    2015-01-01

    Endothelium is an important regulator of selective permeability of the vascular wall for different molecules and cells. This review summarizes current data on endothelial barrier function. Endothelial glycocalyx structure, its function and role in the molecular transport and leukocytes migration across the endothelial barrier are discussed. The mechanisms of transcellular transport of macromolecules and cell migration through endothelial cells are reviewed. Special section of this article addresses the structure and function of tight and adherens endothelial junction, as well as their importance for the regulation of paracellular transport across the endothelial barrier. Particular attention is paid to the signaling mechanism of endothelial barrier function regulation and the factors that influence on the vascular permeability.

  5. Library Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakne, B. N.; Giri, V. V.; Waghmode, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    New technologies library provides several new materials, media and mode of storing and communicating the information. Library Automation reduces the drudgery of repeated manual efforts in library routine. By use of library automation collection, Storage, Administration, Processing, Preservation and communication etc.

  6. Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty of dog eyes using the big-bubble technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soohyun; Kwak, Ji Yoon; Jeong, Manbok

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish the feasibility of corneal transplantation using the big-bubble technique (BBT) to perform deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) in three dogs. After the cornea was trephined 750 µm, 4 mL of air was injected, and the blanched stroma was removed to expose Descemet's membrane (DM). The donor corneal button, which was gently stripped off the DM, was sutured onto the bare DM of the recipient cornea. The dogs received topical antibiotics every 6 h for 7 days and 2% cyclosporine ointment every 12 h for 1 month. The eyes were examined post-operatively at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 150 days. The central portion of the transplanted cornea stayed transparent while corneal haze developed around the transplanted margin. Menace response was normal even though the transplanted cornea was edematous until 3 weeks after surgery. A marginal haze was rarely observed between the donor and recipient corneas at 150 days after the operation. A spotted haze developed in the central part of the deep stroma near the DM. Upon histopathological examination, the stroma and epithelium of the donor cornea had normal structures. Corneal transplantation using DALK with BBT can be performed in dogs preserving the healthy endothelium. PMID:26645335

  7. Laser welding in penetrating keratoplasty and cataract surgery of pediatric patients: early results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Pini, Roberto; Menabuoni, Luca; Malandrini, Alex; Canovetti, Annalisa; Lenzetti, Ivo; Capozzi, Paolo; Valente, Paola; Buzzonetti, Luca

    2013-03-01

    Diode laser welding of ocular tissues is a procedure that enables minimally invasive closure of a corneal wound. This procedure is based on a photothermal effect: a water solution of Indocyanine Green (ICG) is inserted in the surgical wound, in order to stain the corneal tissue walls. The stained tissue is then irradiated with a low power infrared diode laser, delivering laser light through a 300-μm core diameter optical fiber. This procedure enables an immediate closure of the wounds: it is thus possible to reduce or to substitute the use of surgical threads. This is of particular interest in children, because the immediate closure improves refractive outcome and anti-amblyopic effect; moreover this procedure avoids several general anaesthesia for suture management. In this work, we present the first use of diode laser welding procedure in paediatric patients. 5 selected patients underwent cataract surgery (Group 1), while 4 underwent fs-laserassisted penetrating keratoplasty (Group 2). In Group 1 the conventional surgery procedure was performed, while no stitches were used for the closure of the surgical wounds: these were laser welded and immediately closed. In Group 2 the donor button was sutured upon the recipient by 8 single stitches, instead of 16 single stitches or a running suture. The laser welding procedure was performed in order to join the donor tissue to the recipient bed. Objective observations in the follow up study evidenced a perfect adhesion of the laser welded tissues, no collateral effects and an optimal restoration of the treated tissues.

  8. Delayed-Onset Post-Keratoplasty Endophthalmitis Caused by Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Hernandez-Camarena

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE endophthalmitis after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP is very rare, the management is a challenge due to both the pattern of antibiotic resistance and the aggressive nature of the infectious process. We report the first delayed-onset case of VRE endophthalmitis after PKP. Materials and Methods: Case report of a 51-year-old female with a 7-week history of PKP who arrived at the emergency room with signs and symptoms of endophthalmitis. Initial visual acuity was light perception, and a posterior pole exam was not possible due to the intense vitreous reaction. Mode B ultrasound was used to assess the posterior pole. The patient underwent pars plana vitrectomy and received intravitreous antibiotics. Results: Vitreous stains and cultures were positive for Enterococcus faecium resistant to vancomycin. Donor rim cultures and viral PCR were negative. Treatment was carried out by repeated intravitreal antibiotics and systemic linezolid. Clinical improvement was seen after the second dose of intravitreous antibiotics and systemic linezolid, but visual acuity remained at light perception consistent with the ischemic changes observed in the posterior pole. Conclusion: VRE endophthalmitis might be associated with positive donor rim cultures. Prompt use of systemic linezolid in addition to intravitreous antibiotics is recommendable, but even with prompt treatment, visual prognosis is guarded.

  9. The treatment of acute corneal hydrops by subtotal penetrating keratoplasty. Clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Loskutov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical case of acute hydrops treatment using subtotal penetrating keratoplasty (PK is presented. The diagnosis of acute hydrops was based on clinical and functional evaluations including optical coherent tomography (OCT. A part of diseased cornea was removed and examined under a light microscope. These studies revealed morphological changes in almost all corneal layers. OCT and histology demonstrated that PK was indicated to this patient. Recent literature data on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of acute hydrops are presented. This rare disease results from tears in the Descemet’s membrane that allow aqueous humor to enter the stroma. Current treatment is aimed to suppress corneal inflammation, restore endothelium and Descemet’s membrane integrity and drain stromal cysts to optimize cornea healing. In this case, subtotal PK was performed due to the significant corneal thinning and a high risk of its melting. «Material for corneal graft» (iLab, Moscow, Russia was used as a donor material.

  10. Late spontaneous resolution of a double anterior chamber post deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Passani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 31-year-old healthy male underwent deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty with big-bubble technique for treatment of keratoconus in his right eye. One week after surgery, he presented with detachment of the endothelium-Descemet complex with formation of a double anterior chamber, despite the apparent absence of an intraoperative Descemet membrane rupture. A subsequent intervention with the intent to relocate the corneal graft button was not effective, because the detachment appeared again one day later. The authors hypothesized that, at the time of the stromal dissection with big bubble technique, a small amount of air penetrated into the anterior chamber, creating a false pathway through the trabecular meshwork. The aqueous humor then penetrated the graft flowing through the false pathway, causing the endothelium-Descemet detachment. The persistence of that pathway, even after the intervention of graft repositioning, caused the failure of the latter procedure and persistence of the double chamber. We decided to wait and observe. The double anterior chamber spontaneously resolved in approximately three months.

  11. Laser Scanning In Vivo Confocal Microscopy of Clear Grafts after Penetrating Keratoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dai; Song, Peng; Wang, Shuting; Sun, Dapeng; Wang, Yuexin; Zhang, Yangyang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the changes of keratocytes and dendritic cells in the central clear graft by laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy after penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Methods. Thirty adult subjects receiving PK at Shandong Eye Institute and with clear grafts and no sign of immune rejection after surgery were recruited into this study, and 10 healthy adults were controls. The keratocytes and dendritic cells in the central graft were evaluated by laser scanning confocal microscopy, as well as epithelium cells, keratocytes, corneal endothelium cells, and corneal nerves (especially subepithelial plexus nerves). Results. Median density of subepithelial plexus nerves, keratocyte density in each layer of the stroma, and density of corneal endothelium cells were all lower in clear grafts than in controls. The dendritic cells of five (16.7%) patients were active in Bowman's membrane and stromal membrane of the graft after PK. Conclusions. Activated dendritic cells and Langerhans cells could be detected in some of the clear grafts, which indicated that the subclinical stress of immune reaction took part in the chronic injury of the clear graft after PK, even when there was no clinical rejection episode. PMID:27034940

  12. Laser Scanning In Vivo Confocal Microscopy of Clear Grafts after Penetrating Keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the changes of keratocytes and dendritic cells in the central clear graft by laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy after penetrating keratoplasty (PK. Methods. Thirty adult subjects receiving PK at Shandong Eye Institute and with clear grafts and no sign of immune rejection after surgery were recruited into this study, and 10 healthy adults were controls. The keratocytes and dendritic cells in the central graft were evaluated by laser scanning confocal microscopy, as well as epithelium cells, keratocytes, corneal endothelium cells, and corneal nerves (especially subepithelial plexus nerves. Results. Median density of subepithelial plexus nerves, keratocyte density in each layer of the stroma, and density of corneal endothelium cells were all lower in clear grafts than in controls. The dendritic cells of five (16.7% patients were active in Bowman’s membrane and stromal membrane of the graft after PK. Conclusions. Activated dendritic cells and Langerhans cells could be detected in some of the clear grafts, which indicated that the subclinical stress of immune reaction took part in the chronic injury of the clear graft after PK, even when there was no clinical rejection episode.

  13. Delayed-Onset Post-Keratoplasty Endophthalmitis Caused by Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Camarena, Julio C.; Bautista-de Lucio, Victor M.; Navas, Alejandro; Ramirez-Miranda, Arturo; Graue-Hernandez, Enrique O.

    2012-01-01

    Background Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) endophthalmitis after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) is very rare, the management is a challenge due to both the pattern of antibiotic resistance and the aggressive nature of the infectious process. We report the first delayed-onset case of VRE endophthalmitis after PKP. Materials and Methods Case report of a 51-year-old female with a 7-week history of PKP who arrived at the emergency room with signs and symptoms of endophthalmitis. Initial visual acuity was light perception, and a posterior pole exam was not possible due to the intense vitreous reaction. Mode B ultrasound was used to assess the posterior pole. The patient underwent pars plana vitrectomy and received intravitreous antibiotics. Results Vitreous stains and cultures were positive for Enterococcus faecium resistant to vancomycin. Donor rim cultures and viral PCR were negative. Treatment was carried out by repeated intravitreal antibiotics and systemic linezolid. Clinical improvement was seen after the second dose of intravitreous antibiotics and systemic linezolid, but visual acuity remained at light perception consistent with the ischemic changes observed in the posterior pole. Conclusion VRE endophthalmitis might be associated with positive donor rim cultures. Prompt use of systemic linezolid in addition to intravitreous antibiotics is recommendable, but even with prompt treatment, visual prognosis is guarded. PMID:23185179

  14. Automation or De-automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlach, Igor; Wessel, Oliver

    2008-09-01

    In the global automotive industry, for decades, vehicle manufacturers have continually increased the level of automation of production systems in order to be competitive. However, there is a new trend to decrease the level of automation, especially in final car assembly, for reasons of economy and flexibility. In this research, the final car assembly lines at three production sites of Volkswagen are analysed in order to determine the best level of automation for each, in terms of manufacturing costs, productivity, quality and flexibility. The case study is based on the methodology proposed by the Fraunhofer Institute. The results of the analysis indicate that fully automated assembly systems are not necessarily the best option in terms of cost, productivity and quality combined, which is attributed to high complexity of final car assembly systems; some de-automation is therefore recommended. On the other hand, the analysis shows that low automation can result in poor product quality due to reasons related to plant location, such as inadequate workers' skills, motivation, etc. Hence, the automation strategy should be formulated on the basis of analysis of all relevant aspects of the manufacturing process, such as costs, quality, productivity and flexibility in relation to the local context. A more balanced combination of automated and manual assembly operations provides better utilisation of equipment, reduces production costs and improves throughput.

  15. Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion in the Transcription Factor 4 (TCF4) Gene Leads to Widespread mRNA Splicing Changes in Fuchs' Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieben, Eric D.; Aleff, Ross A.; Tang, Xiaojia; Butz, Malinda L.; Kalari, Krishna R.; Highsmith, Edward W.; Jen, Jin; Vasmatzis, George; Patel, Sanjay V.; Maguire, Leo J.; Baratz, Keith H.; Fautsch, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To identify RNA missplicing events in human corneal endothelial tissue isolated from Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). Methods Total RNA was isolated and sequenced from corneal endothelial tissue obtained during keratoplasty from 12 patients with FECD and 4 patients undergoing keratoplasty or enucleation for other indications. The length of the trinucleotide repeat (TNR) CTG in the transcription factor 4 (TCF4) gene was determined using leukocyte-derived DNA analyzed by a combination of Southern blotting and Genescan analysis. Commercial statistical software was used to quantify expression of alternatively spliced genes. Validation of selected alternative splicing events was performed by using RT-PCR. Gene sets identified were analyzed for overrepresentation using Web-based analysis system. Results Corneal endothelial tissue from FECD patients containing a CTG TNR expansion sequence in the TCF4 gene revealed widespread changes in mRNA splicing, including a novel splicing event involving FGFR2. Differential splicing of NUMA1, PPFIBP1, MBNL1, and MBNL2 transcripts were identified in all FECD samples containing a TNR expansion. The differentially spliced genes were enriched for products that localize to the cell cortex and bind cytoskeletal and cell adhesion proteins. Conclusions Corneal endothelium from FECD patients harbors a unique signature of mis-splicing events due to CTG TNR expansion in the TCF4 gene, consistent with the hypothesis that RNA toxicity contributes to the pathogenesis of FECD. Changes to the endothelial barrier function, a known event in the development of FECD, was identified as a key biological process influenced by the missplicing events. PMID:28118661

  16. Combining femtosecond laser ablation and diode laser welding in lamellar and endothelial corneal transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Roberto; Rossi, Francesca; Matteini, Paolo; Ratto, Fulvio; Menabuoni, Luca; Lenzetti, Ivo; Yoo, Sonia H.; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2008-02-01

    Based on our previous clinical experiences in minimally invasive diode laser-induced welding of corneal tissue in penetrating keratoplasty (PK), i.e. full-thickness transplant of the cornea, we combined this technique with the use of a femtosecond laser for applications in lamellar (LK) and endothelial (EK) keratoplasty. In LK, the femtosecond laser was used to prepare donor button and recipient corneal bed; the wound edges were stained with a water solution of Indocyanine Green (ICG) and then irradiated with a diode laser emitting in CW mode to induce stromal welding. Intraoperatory observations and follow-up results up to 6 months indicated the formation of a smooth stromal interface, total absence of edema as well as inflammation, and reduction of post-operative astigmatism, as compared with conventional suturing procedures. In EK the femtosecond laser was used for the preparation of a 100 μm thick, 8.5mm diameter donor corneal endothelium flap. The flap stromal side was stained with ICG. After stripping the recipient Descemet's membrane and endothelium, the donor flap was positioned in the anterior chamber on the inner face of the cornea by an air bubble and secured to the recipient cornea by diode laser pulses delivered by means of a fiberoptic contact probe introduced in the anterior chamber, which produced welding spots of 200 μm diameter. Femtosecond laser sculpturing of the donor cornea provided lamellar and endothelial flaps of preset and constant thickness. Diode laserinduced welding showed a unique potential to permanently secure the donor flap in place, avoiding postoperative displacement and inflammation reaction.

  17. [Endothelial cell adhesion molecules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A N; Norkin, I A; Puchin'ian, D M; Shirokov, V Iu; Zhdanova, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The review presents current data concerning the functional role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules belonging to different structural families: integrins, selectins, cadherins, and the immunoglobulin super-family. In this manuscript the regulatory mechanisms and factors of adhesion molecules expression and distribution on the surface of endothelial cells are discussed. The data presented reveal the importance of adhesion molecules in the regulation of structural and functional state of endothelial cells in normal conditions and in pathology. Particular attention is paid to the importance of these molecules in the processes of physiological and pathological angiogenesis, regulation of permeability of the endothelial barrier and cell transmigration.

  18. Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty in Keratoconic Patients with versus without Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, Sepehr; Javadi, Mohammad Ali; Javadi, Fatemeh; Jafarinasab, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the clinical outcomes of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) for keratoconus in patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) versus those without VKC. Methods: In this retrospective comparative study, records of 262 eyes with keratoconus (Group 1) and 28 keratoconic eyes with VKC (Group 2) that had undergone DALK were compiled. Reviewed parameters included length of follow-up, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), refractive error, complications and cumulative graft survival. Results: Mean duration of follow-up was 38.6 ± 20.2 and 34.4 ± 20.9 months in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.21). Mean post-operative BCVA was 0.19 ± 0.11 and 0.20 ± 0.15 logMAR, in groups 1 and 2 (P = 0.79). BCVA≥20/40 was achieved in 91.6 and 88.5% of eyes in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.48). Epithelial problems were encountered in 31.3 and 42.9% of operated eyes, respectively (P = 0.16). Vascularization of suture tracts and stitch abscesses were encountered more frequently in the eyes with VKC (P = 0.01 and <0.001, respectively). At the 33-month follow-up examination, rejection-free graft survival rates were 56.0% in group 1 and 33.3% in group 2, with mean durations of 41.0 and 32.1 months, respectively (P = 0.15). Graft survival rates were 98.1% in group 1 and 95.0% in group 2, with mean durations of 88.6 and 88.4 months, respectively (P = 0.74). Conclusion: Clinical outcomes of DALK in keratoconic eyes with VKC were comparable to those in eyes with keratoconus alone. However, complications such as suture tract vascularization and stitch abscesses were more common when VKC coexisted, necessitating closer monitoring. PMID:26425311

  19. Penetrating keratoplasty in eThekwini Health District 2011–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monawwar Khan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Penetrating keratoplasty (PK – corneal transplantation or full-thickness corneal graft remains the primary sight-restoring procedure for corneal blindness. South Africa is experiencing a shortage of donor corneas, resulting in long waiting times for a corneal transplant. A corneal graft protocol has been drawn up in the eThekwini Health District to triage prospective corneal graft recipients.Aim: To describe the clinical and demographic profiles of patients on the elective corneal graft waiting list, the waiting time for PK and the scoring system prioritisation process of corneal graft allocation.Setting: All patients on the elective corneal graft waiting list in the eThekwini Health District.Methods: An observational, descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted for a 3-year period between April 2011 and March 2014.Results: A total of 104 patients were on the elective corneal graft waiting list for PK during the study period. Only 20% (n = 21 of patients received a corneal graft during the 3-year period. Amongst those that received a corneal graft, the median waiting period was 280 days (interquartile range 143–520 days. The majority of patients on the waiting list (67% were younger than 41 years of age. The commonest indication for PK was keratoconus (64%. Patients with higher pro forma scores are more likely to receive a corneal graft when a donor cornea becomes available.Conclusion: With a shortage of donor corneas, very few patients receive a corneal graft. Educational programmes are vital to increase awareness of corneal blindness and the value of corneal donations.

  20. Visual outcomes after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty using donor corneas without removal of Descemet membrane and endothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Moura Bastos Prazeres

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: The optical quality of the interface after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK using the big-bubble technique has been shown to be excellent, leading to results comparable to penetrating keratoplasty. However, there is little in the literature with respect to the controversy surrounding the preparation of the donor cornea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate visual acuity (VA in patients with keratoconus who underwent DALK without removal of the donor graft endothelium. Methods: The records of 90 patients who underwent DALK without the removal of the Descemet membrane (DM and endothelium were retrospectively reviewed. Data collected included uncorrected VA (UCVA and spectacle-corrected VA (SCVA at 7, 30, 180 days, and 1 year postoperatively. Contact lens-corrected visual acuity (CLVA was evaluated after 1 year of the procedure. Results: UCVA was significantly better than preoperative values at 7 days (p<0.001, 30 days (p<0.001, 180 days (p<0.001, and 1 year (p<0.001 after surgery. The 1-year postoperative mean SCVA and CLVA also improved when compared with preoperative SCVA (p<0.001 for both. Conclusions: DALK utilizing donor corneas with attached Descemet membrane and endothelium results in satisfactory VA in patients with keratoconus.

  1. 穿透性角膜移植的手术配合%The Cooperative Nursing to Penetrating Keratoplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕群; 肖秀英; 程梅; 史小红

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To summarize the cooperative nursing experience of vacuum trephine applied in penetrating keratoplasty.Methods:Good preoperative preparations and clinical cooperation and observation under strict nursing rules for 21 cases who received penetrating keratoplasty with vacuum trephine.Results:The surgeries progressed well without any accidents and achieved satisfactory results.Conclusion: Nurses should be skilled of the cooperative techniques.Good preoperative preparations and dose clinical cooperation guarantee a successful surgery.%总结21例应用真空环钻行穿透性角膜移植术的手术配合经验.包括术前准备、术中配合与观察,术后护理等.认为护士应有熟练的配合技巧,术前做好患者的准备和物品准备,术中密切配合,是手术顺利完成的保证.

  2. Automating Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John

    2007-01-01

    In past years, higher education's financial management side has been riddled with manual processes and aging mainframe applications. This article discusses schools which had taken advantage of an array of technologies that automate billing, payment processing, and refund processing in the case of overpayment. The investments are well worth it:…

  3. Heating automation

    OpenAIRE

    Tomažič, Tomaž

    2013-01-01

    This degree paper presents usage and operation of peripheral devices with microcontroller for heating automation. The main goal is to make a quality system control for heating three house floors and with that, increase efficiency of heating devices and lower heating expenses. Heat pump, furnace, boiler pump, two floor-heating pumps and two radiator pumps need to be controlled by this system. For work, we have chosen a development kit stm32f4 - discovery with five temperature sensors, LCD disp...

  4. Automation Security

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzoev, Dr. Timur

    2014-01-01

    Web-based Automated Process Control systems are a new type of applications that use the Internet to control industrial processes with the access to the real-time data. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks contain computers and applications that perform key functions in providing essential services and commodities (e.g., electricity, natural gas, gasoline, water, waste treatment, transportation) to all Americans. As such, they are part of the nation s critical infrastructu...

  5. Marketing automation

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Dania TODOR

    2017-01-01

    The automation of the marketing process seems to be nowadays, the only solution to face the major changes brought by the fast evolution of technology and the continuous increase in supply and demand. In order to achieve the desired marketing results, businessis have to employ digital marketing and communication services. These services are efficient and measurable thanks to the marketing technology used to track, score and implement each campaign. Due to the...

  6. Optimization of Human Corneal Endothelial Cells for Culture: The Removal of Corneal Stromal Fibroblast Contamination Using Magnetic Cell Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary S. L. Peh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The culture of human corneal endothelial cells (CECs is critical for the development of suitable graft alternative on biodegradable material, specifically for endothelial keratoplasty, which can potentially alleviate the global shortage of transplant-grade donor corneas available. However, the propagation of slow proliferative CECs in vitro can be hindered by rapid growing stromal corneal fibroblasts (CSFs that may be coisolated in some cases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a strategy using magnetic cell separation (MACS technique to deplete the contaminating CSFs from CEC cultures using antifibroblast magnetic microbeads. Separated “labeled” and “flow-through” cell fractions were collected separately, cultured, and morphologically assessed. Cells from the “flow-through” fraction displayed compact polygonal morphology and expressed Na+/K+ATPase indicative of corneal endothelial cells, whilst cells from the “labeled” fraction were mostly elongated and fibroblastic. A separation efficacy of 96.88% was observed. Hence, MACS technique can be useful in the depletion of contaminating CSFs from within a culture of CECs.

  7. Automated Budget System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  8. Automation 2017

    CERN Document Server

    Zieliński, Cezary; Kaliczyńska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    This book consists of papers presented at Automation 2017, an international conference held in Warsaw from March 15 to 17, 2017. It discusses research findings associated with the concepts behind INDUSTRY 4.0, with a focus on offering a better understanding of and promoting participation in the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Each chapter presents a detailed analysis of a specific technical problem, in most cases followed by a numerical analysis, simulation and description of the results of implementing the solution in a real-world context. The theoretical results, practical solutions and guidelines presented are valuable for both researchers working in the area of engineering sciences and practitioners looking for solutions to industrial problems. .

  9. Marketing automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TODOR Raluca Dania

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The automation of the marketing process seems to be nowadays, the only solution to face the major changes brought by the fast evolution of technology and the continuous increase in supply and demand. In order to achieve the desired marketing results, businessis have to employ digital marketing and communication services. These services are efficient and measurable thanks to the marketing technology used to track, score and implement each campaign. Due to the technical progress, the marketing fragmentation, demand for customized products and services on one side and the need to achieve constructive dialogue with the customers, immediate and flexible response and the necessity to measure the investments and the results on the other side, the classical marketing approached had changed continue to improve substantially.

  10. A comparative, retrospective, observational study of the clinical and microbiological profiles of post-penetrating keratoplasty keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I.-Huang; Chang, Yi-Sheng; Tseng, Sung-Huei; Huang, Yi-Hsun

    2016-09-01

    Infectious keratitis after penetrating keratoplasty (PK) is a devastating condition that may result in graft failure and poor visual outcome. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent PK between 2009 and 2014, and recorded those who developed infectious keratitis. We compared the predisposing factors and organisms isolated to those identified in our previous study, conducted between 1989 and 1994. The incidence of post-PK infectious keratitis decreased from 11.6% (41 out of 354 cases, 1989-1994) to 6.5% (9 out of 138 cases, 2009-2014). Graft epithelial defect and suture-related problems remained the leading two risk factors of infectious keratitis after PK. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial infection decreased from 58.5% and 46.3% to 11.1% and 22.2%, respectively (P = 0.023 and P = 0.271). In contrast, fungus infection increased from 9.8% to 66.7% (P = 0.001) fungi have become the major pathogen for post-PK infectious keratitis. In conclusion, while the incidence of post-PK infectious keratitis has decreased over time, the number and frequency of fungal infections have significantly increased in the recent study period. Clinicians should be aware of the shifting trend in pathogens involved in post-PK infectious keratitis.

  11. Late occurrence of granular dystrophy in bilateral keratoconus: Penetrating keratoplasty and long-term follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha M Rathi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of keratoconus with granular dystrophy with a follow-up of two decades, documenting the sequential presentation of two diseases confirmed by histology and genetic studies. A 13-year-old boy was diagnosed in 1988 with keratoconus in both eyes (BE based on slit-lamp biomicroscopy findings of corneal ectasia in BE accompanied by Fleischer′s ring, Vogt′s striae, a small, old, healed hydrops. The left eye (LE had central corneal thinning and scar in the central area involving the mid and posterior stroma secondary to healed hydrops. Penetrating keratoplasty (PKP was advised. The boy was lost to follow-up till 1991 and presented with white, dot-like opacities in the central cornea in the RE only, suggestive of granular corneal dystrophy. Similar findings of white, dot-like opacities were noted in the LE in 1995 and the patient subsequently underwent PKP in BE. Histopathology of corneal buttons confirmed the presence of patchy, crystal-like orange deposits, which stained bright red with Masson′s trichrome. Mutational analysis of the TGFBI gene in patient′s DNA revealed a heterozygous mutation corresponding to a change in Arg555Trp in the keratoepithelin protein. Granular dystrophy recurred after 8 years in the RE.

  12. HERPES VIRUS CONTAMINATION OF DONOR’S TISSUE AS A POTENTIAL ETIOLOGY OF CORNEAL GRAFT DISEASE AFTER PENETRATING KERATOPLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Mironkova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the study of outcomes of PCR-diagnostics directed on detection of DNA of herpes-family viruses in donor’s corneal tissues taken during penetrating keratoplasty (PK. In total, there were 46 patients, who under- went PKs. They were followed up from 14 days till 12 months. PCR-research of fragments of a donor cornea re- vealed existence of DNA in 21.7%. The retrospective analysis showed that in the presence of herpes-virus DNA in donor’s cornea is the risk factor of postoperative complications development and increases the rejection rate 2–3 times, reaching 100% – 70%. Thus the high risk of graft failures remains associated not only with the system immunosupressive therapy which is usually considered as the precondition of activization of chronic infections, but also in the absence of that. It gives the ground to conclude that preoperative preparation of a donor material, especially «fresh» corneas, should include expanded PCR-diagnostics on herpes-viruses and its obligatory dis- carding in cases of positive tests. 

  13. Mecanotransduction and Endothelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.MULLER; JF.; STOLTZ2

    2005-01-01

    1 IntroductionAtherosclerosis preferentially occurs in areas of complex blood flow where there are disturbed flow and low fluid shear stress, whereas laminar blood flow and high shear stress are atheroprotective~([1]). Reports of others and our studies suggest a steady laminar flow decreases some molecules and genes expression of vascular endothelial cells (EC) that may promote atherosclerosis, as well as it can differentially regulate production of many vasoactive factors at the level of gene expression an...

  14. Recovering endothelial function

    OpenAIRE

    Bryce Moncloa, Alfonso; Médico Cardiólogo, Académico Asociado de la Academia Nacional de Medicina, Presidente del Colegio Panamericano del Endotelio, Miembro del Comité Institucional de Investigaciones del Comité Ejecutivo de la Sociedad Latino Americana de Hipertensión Arterial y del Colegio Americano de Cardiología (ACC).; Morales Villegas, Enrique C.; Médico Internista y Cardiólogo, Fundador y Director del Centro de Investigación Cardiometabólica de Aguascalientes. México; Urquiaga Calderón, Juan; Médico Internista y Cardiólogo, Fundador y Director del Centro de Investigación Cardiometabólica de Aguascalientes. México; Larrauri Vigna, Cesar; Médico Cardiólogo, Miembro de la Sociedad Peruana de Cardiología, Sociedad Peruana de Hipertensión, Sociedad Peruana de Medicina Interna, Colegio Panamericano del Endotelio.

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis starts early in life. The presence of risk factors like hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia and diabetes as well as obesity and metabolic syndrome accelerates its progress. These factors generate endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress and inflammation, with early appearance of foamy cells, fatty streaks and atheromatous plaques. These plaques are vulnerable to erosion and rupture, the so called atherothrombotic phenomenon, leading to acute vascular events like acute coronar...

  15. Endothelial RIG-I activation impairs endothelial function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asdonk, Tobias, E-mail: tobias.asdonk@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Motz, Inga; Werner, Nikos [Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Coch, Christoph; Barchet, Winfried; Hartmann, Gunther [Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Nickenig, Georg; Zimmer, Sebastian [Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIG-I activation impairs endothelial function in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIG-I activation alters HCAEC biology in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPC function is affected by RIG-I stimulation in vitro. -- Abstract: Background: Endothelial dysfunction is a crucial part of the chronic inflammatory atherosclerotic process and is mediated by innate and acquired immune mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that pattern recognition receptors (PRR) specialized in immunorecognition of nucleic acids may play an important role in endothelial biology in a proatherogenic manner. Here, we analyzed the impact of endothelial retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) activation upon vascular endothelial biology. Methods and results: Wild type mice were injected intravenously with 32.5 {mu}g of the RIG-ligand 3pRNA (RNA with triphosphate at the 5 Prime end) or polyA control every other day for 7 days. In 3pRNA-treated mice, endothelium-depended vasodilation was significantly impaired, vascular oxidative stress significantly increased and circulating endothelial microparticle (EMP) numbers significantly elevated compared to controls. To gain further insight in RIG-I dependent endothelial biology, cultured human coronary endothelial cells (HCAEC) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) were stimulated in vitro with 3pRNA. Both cells types express RIG-I and react with receptor upregulation upon stimulation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation is enhanced in both cell types, whereas apoptosis and proliferation is not significantly affected in HCAEC. Importantly, HCAEC release significant amounts of proinflammatory cytokines in response to RIG-I stimulation. Conclusion: This study shows that activation of the cytoplasmatic nucleic acid receptor RIG-I leads to endothelial dysfunction. RIG-I induced endothelial damage could therefore be an important pathway in atherogenesis.

  16. Manufacturing and automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Córdoba Nieto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents concepts and definitions from different sources concerning automation. The work approaches automation by virtue of the author’s experience in manufacturing production; why and how automation prolects are embarked upon is considered. Technological reflection regarding the progressive advances or stages of automation in the production area is stressed. Coriat and Freyssenet’s thoughts about and approaches to the problem of automation and its current state are taken and examined, especially that referring to the problem’s relationship with reconciling the level of automation with the flexibility and productivity demanded by competitive, worldwide manufacturing.

  17. Clinical study on the recurrence of fungal keratitis after lamellar keratoplasty%真菌性角膜炎板层角膜移植术后复发的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡建章; 谢立信

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the characters,diagnosis,treatment and risk factors of the recurrence of fungal keratitis after lamellar keratoplasty(LKP). Methods In this nonrandomized retrospective case series,two hundred and eighteen cases of fungal keratitis were undertaken partial LKP from January 1998 to July 2005.The case history was inquired in detail preoperatively.A trephine with diameter 0.5 mm larger than the area of fungal infeetion was used to incise the lamellar corneal ulcer,and the hyphae of some cases were inspected with microscope during the operation. The recurrence of fungal keratitis was observed after the surgery. Medical treatment and/or operation were used in the management of recurrent cases. The risk factors for the recurrence of fungal keratitis after LKP,such as fungal species,glucocorticoid or immunosuppressant therapy,hypopyon or endothelial plague,were also analyzed. Results Seventeen cases(7.80%)recurred within 2 weeks after surgery and mainly(15 cases)within 1 week.The recurrence displayed with increased local irritation and hypha infihration on recipient LKP bed. All recurrent fungal infections were controlled by performing penetrating keratoplasty(PKP). Risk factor analysis:(1)The recurrent rate of Aspergillus infection(19.23 %)was higher than that in Fusarium infection(5.63%)(P=0.0323). (2)The recurrence rate of cases treated with glueocorticoid or immunosuppressant preoperatively(21.70%)was much higher than that in non-treated cases(6.15%)(P=0.0219).(3)The recurrence rate of cases with hypopyon or endothelial plague preoperatively(17.02%)was much higher than that without these signs(5.26%)(P=0.0134).Conclusions The recurrence of fungal keratitis after LKP OCCUrs mainly within the 1 st week. Aspergillus infection, glucocortieoid or immunosuppressant therapy,hypopyon or endothelial plague are the risk factors for LKP.%目的 探讨板层角膜移植术(LKP)治疗真菌性角膜炎术后真菌复发的特点、诊

  18. The cllnical observation of deep lamellar keratoplasty for corneal ulcer%深板层角膜移植术治疗角膜溃疡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴华; 廖荣丰; 朱美玲; 汪永

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨深板层角膜移植术治疗角膜溃疡的临床效果.方法 采用甘油冷保存的角膜组织对22例(22眼)药物治疗无效的角膜溃疡行深角膜板层移植术.真菌性角膜溃疡16眼,病毒性角膜溃疡4眼,热烧伤引起的角膜溃疡2眼.其中角膜溃疡穿孔10眼,术中行双板层移植,前房注气.结果 随访5~24个月,21眼角膜植片存活,溃疡治愈率95.45%,1眼术后原发病复发,2眼术后移植片血管化,19眼角膜半透明,视力提高.结论 对药物治疗无效的角膜溃疡,及时应用甘油冷保存的角膜组织行深板层角膜移植术,可以控制炎症,恢复部分视力.%Objective To investigate the clinical effect of deep lamellar keratoplasty for corneal ulcer. Methods Deep lamellar keratoplasty was performed on 22 eyes of 22 cases of corneal ulcer with drug refractory,16 eyes with mycotic corneal ulcer,4 eyes with herpes simplex keratitis,2 eyes with thermal burn;10 cases'with perforated corneal ulcer were treated with deep lamellar keratoplasty combined with in-terlamellar padding. Results All patients were followed up for 5 to 24 months, grafts of 21 cases were survivorship (95.45%),lcases had re-crudescence;grafts of 2 cases turned vascularize,grafts of 19 cases remained clear,and visual acuity improved. Conclusion Deep lamellar ker-atoplasty is valuable in the management of corneal ulcer with drug refractory.h can succeed curing infection, achieving a useful visual acuity.

  19. Indications for Corneal Transplantation at a Tertiary Referral Center in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zare

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the indications and techniques of corneal transplantation at a tertiary referral center in Tehran over a 3-year period. Methods: Records of patients who had undergone any kind of corneal transplantation at Labbafinejad Medical Center, Tehran, Iran from March 2004 to March 2007 were reviewed to determine the indications and types of corneal transplantation. Results: During this period, 776 eyes of 756 patients (including 504 male subjects with mean age of 41.3±21.3 years underwent corneal transplantation. The most common indication was keratoconus (n=317, 40.8% followed by bullous keratopathy (n=90, 11.6%, non-herpetic corneal scars (n=62, 8.0%, infectious corneal ulcers (n=61, 7.9%, previously failed grafts (n=61, 7.9%, endothelial and stromal corneal dystrophies (n=28, 3.6%, and trachoma keratopathy (n=26, 3.3%. Other indications including Terrien′s marginal degeneration, post-LASIK keratectasia, trauma, chemical burns, and peripheral ulcerative keratitis constituted the rest of cases. Techniques of corneal transplantation included penetrating keratoplasty (n=607, 78.2%, deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (n=108, 13.9%, conventional lamellar keratoplasty (n=44, 5.7%, automated lamellar therapeutic keratoplasty (n=8, 1.0%, and Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (n=6, 0.8% in descending order. The remaining cases were endothelial keratoplasty and sclerokeratoplasty. Conclusion: In this study, keratoconus was the most common indication for penetrating keratoplasty which was the most prevalent technique of corneal transplantation. However, deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty is emerging as a growing alternative for corneal pathologies not involving the endothelium.

  20. Indications for Corneal Transplantation at a Tertiary Referral Center in Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Mohammad; Javadi, Mohammad-Ali; Einollahi, Bahram; Baradaran-Rafii, Alireza; Ghanavati, Siamak Zarei; Farsani, Mohammad-Reza Jamshidi; Mohammadi, Parviz; Feizi, Sepehr

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To report the indications and techniques of corneal transplantation at a tertiary referral center in Tehran over a 3-year period. Methods Records of patients who had undergone any kind of corneal transplantation at Labbafinejad Medical Center, Tehran, Iran from March 2004 to March 2007 were reviewed to determine the indications and types of corneal transplantation. Results During this period, 776 eyes of 756 patients (including 504 male subjects) with mean age of 41.3±21.3 years underwent corneal transplantation. The most common indication was keratoconus (n=317, 40.8%) followed by bullous keratopathy (n=90, 11.6%), non-herpetic corneal scars (n=62, 8.0%), infectious corneal ulcers (n=61, 7.9%), previously failed grafts (n=61, 7.9%), endothelial and stromal corneal dystrophies (n=28, 3.6%), and trachoma keratopathy (n=26, 3.3%). Other indications including Terrien’s marginal degeneration, post-LASIK keratectasia, trauma, chemical burns, and peripheral ulcerative keratitis constituted the rest of cases. Techniques of corneal transplantation included penetrating keratoplasty (n=607, 78.2%), deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (n=108, 13.9%), conventional lamellar keratoplasty (n=44, 5.7%), automated lamellar therapeutic keratoplasty (n=8, 1.0%), and Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty (n=6, 0.8%) in descending order. The remaining cases were endothelial keratoplasty and sclerokeratoplasty. Conclusion In this study, keratoconus was the most common indication for penetrating keratoplasty which was the most prevalent technique of corneal transplantation. However, deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty is emerging as a growing alternative for corneal pathologies not involving the endothelium. PMID:22737335

  1. In Vitro Endothelialization Test of Biomaterials Using Immortalized Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Kono

    Full Text Available Functionalizing biomaterials with peptides or polymers that enhance recruitment of endothelial cells (ECs can reduce blood coagulation and thrombosis. To assess endothelialization of materials in vitro, primary ECs are generally used, although the characteristics of these cells vary among the donors and change with time in culture. Recently, primary cell lines immortalized by transduction of simian vacuolating virus 40 large T antigen or human telomerase reverse transcriptase have been developed. To determine whether immortalized ECs can substitute for primary ECs in material testing, we investigated endothelialization on biocompatible polymers using three lots of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC and immortalized microvascular ECs, TIME-GFP. Attachment to and growth on polymer surfaces were comparable between cell types, but results were more consistent with TIME-GFP. Our findings indicate that TIME-GFP is more suitable for in vitro endothelialization testing of biomaterials.

  2. INTRACAMERAL AND INTRACORNEAL VORICONAZOLE IN DEEP KERATOMYCOSIS WITH ENDOTHELIAL PLAQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Prasad

    2015-12-01

    (16.7% did not respond to 2 (Two intracorneal and intracameral voriconazole injections, progressed to corneal perforations and were treated by Therapeutic Penetrating keratoplasty. Visual acuity was <3/60 in 18(60.0% and 3/60 to <6/60 in 12(40.0%, and <3/60 in 3(10.0%, 3/60-<6/60 in 13(43.3% and 6/60- <6/18 in 9(30.0% before and after the intracorneal and intracameral voriconazole respectively. CONCLUSIONS Targeted delivery of Intracorneal and Intracameral Voriconazole was effective with a better visual outcome and a significant reduction in healing time in deep keratomycosis with endothelial plaque not responding to routine antifungal therapy.

  3. An automated swimming respirometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    STEFFENSEN, JF; JOHANSEN, K; BUSHNELL, PG

    1984-01-01

    An automated respirometer is described that can be used for computerized respirometry of trout and sharks.......An automated respirometer is described that can be used for computerized respirometry of trout and sharks....

  4. Configuration Management Automation (CMA) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Configuration Management Automation (CMA) will provide an automated, integrated enterprise solution to support CM of FAA NAS and Non-NAS assets and investments. CMA...

  5. Autonomy and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Jay

    2017-01-01

    A significant level of debate and confusion has surrounded the meaning of the terms autonomy and automation. Automation is a multi-dimensional concept, and we propose that Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) automation should be described with reference to the specific system and task that has been automated, the context in which the automation functions, and other relevant dimensions. In this paper, we present definitions of automation, pilot in the loop, pilot on the loop and pilot out of the loop. We further propose that in future, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) RPAS Panel avoids the use of the terms autonomy and autonomous when referring to automated systems on board RPA. Work Group 7 proposes to develop, in consultation with other workgroups, a taxonomy of Levels of Automation for RPAS.

  6. Endothelial dysfunction: EDCF revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAUL M Vanhoutte

    2008-01-01

    Endothelial cells can initiate contraction (constriction) of the vascular smooth muscle cells that surround them. Such endothelium-dependent, acute increases in contractile tone can be due to the withdrawal of the production of nitric oxide, to the production of vasoconstrictor peptides (angiotensin Ⅱ, endothelin-1), to the formation of oxygen-derived free radicals(superoxide anions) and/or the release of vasoconstrictor metabolites of arachidonic acid. The latter have been termed endothelium-derived contracting factor (EDCF) as they can contribute to moment-to-moment changes in contractile activity of the underlying vascular smooth muscle cells. To judge from animal experiments, EDCF-mediated responses are exacerbated when the production of nitric oxide is impaired as well as by aging, spontaneous hypertension and diabetes. To judge from human studies, they contribute to the blunting of endothelium-dependent vasodilatations in aged subjects and essential hypertensive patients. Since EDCF causes vasoconstriction by activation of the TP-receptors on the vascular smooth muscle cells, selective antagonists at these receptors prevent endothelium-dependent contractions, and curtail the endothelial dysfunction in hypertension and diabetes.

  7. Workflow automation architecture standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshofsky, R.P.; Rohen, W.T. [Boeing Computer Services Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-11-14

    This document presents an architectural standard for application of workflow automation technology. The standard includes a functional architecture, process for developing an automated workflow system for a work group, functional and collateral specifications for workflow automation, and results of a proof of concept prototype.

  8. The endothelial border to health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Nina Wærling; Hansen, Anker Jon; Sams, Anette

    2017-01-01

    The endothelial cell (EC) layer constitutes a barrier that controls movements of fluid, solutes and cells between blood and tissue. Further, the endothelial layer regulates vascular tone and directs local humoral and cellular inflammatory processes. The strategic position makes it an important...... for several endothelial dysfunctions. There is also mounting epidemiological evidence that dietary intake of refined sugars is important for the development of a number of diseases beyond obesity and type 2 diabetes. Various diseases involving inflammatory and immunological components are accelerated...... extracellular proteins form epitopes for potential specific antibody formation upon interactions with reducing sugars. This paper reviews the endothelial metabolism, biology, inflammatory processes, physical barrier functions, and summarizes evidence that although stochastic in nature, endothelial responses...

  9. 穿透性角膜移植术治疗角膜溃疡穿孔%Penetrating keratoplasty in the treatment of perforating corneal ulcer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楠; 刘平; 温成林; 郑广瑛

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effects of penetrating keratoplasty in the treatment of perforating corneal ulcer.Methods 42 cases ( 42 eyes) were enrolled in this study and followed up for 6 to 18 months.Results 31 of 42 cases with penetrating corneal transplantation had better visual acuity.Rejection happened in 15 eyes.Fungal keratitis recurred in 4 cases and glaucoma developed in 11 cases after operation.Conclusion Penetrating keratoplasty is an effective method in the treatment of perforating cornea ulcer.%目的 探讨穿透性角膜移植术治疗角膜溃疡穿孔的效果.方法 对角膜溃疡穿孔42例(42眼)施行穿透性角膜移植术,观察其临床特点及手术效果.随访时间6~18个月.结果 术后31例视力比术前提高,15例发生排斥反应,4例真菌性角膜炎复发,11例继发青光眼.结论 对保守治疗无效者,穿透性角膜移植术是治疗角膜溃疡穿孔的有效方法.

  10. Automation in Clinical Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the trend toward automation in clinical pathology laboratories has largely bypassed the clinical microbiology laboratory. In this article, we review the historical impediments to automation in the microbiology laboratory and offer insight into the reasons why we believe that we are on the cusp of a dramatic change that will sweep a wave of automation into clinical microbiology laboratories. We review the currently available specimen-processing instruments as well as the total laboratory automation solutions. Lastly, we outline the types of studies that will need to be performed to fully assess the benefits of automation in microbiology laboratories. PMID:23515547

  11. Femtosecond laser-assisted penetrating keratoplasty in the treatment for keratoconus%飞秒激光辅助角膜移植手术在圆锥角膜治疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱小敏; 叶芬; 吴艳; 陆燕; 黄振平

    2016-01-01

    Femtosecond laser as a type of infrared laser operated in pulse fashion has been applied in the treatment of keratoconus .Compared with traditional methods such as keratoplasty , femtosecond laser-assisted penetrating keratoplasty and femtosecond laser-assisted deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty have better clinical outcomes and higher safety to pa -tients.This paper focuses on the related applications of femtosecond laser -assisted keratoplasty in the treatment for kerato-conus, and our experience in using this new technique .%飞秒激光是一种以脉冲形式运转的红外线激光,在圆锥角膜的手术治疗中得到了很好的应用,与传统手术方式相比,飞秒激光辅助的穿透性角膜移植术和飞秒激光辅助的深板层角膜移植术在圆锥角膜患者术后均取得了良好的临床效果和更高的安全性。本文就近几年飞秒激光在圆锥角膜手术治疗中的应用进展进行综述,并结合我们临床应用中的经验和体会进行阐述。

  12. Delayed onset of congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy due to compound heterozygous SLC4A11 mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Lal Kumawat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by bilateral, symmetrical, noninflammatory corneal clouding (edema present at birth or shortly thereafter. This study reports on an unusual delayed presentation of CHED with compound heterozygous SLC4A11 mutations. Materials and Methods: A 45-year-old female, presenting with bilateral decreased vision since childhood that deteriorated in the last 5 years, was evaluated to rule out trauma, viral illness, chemical injury, glaucoma, and corneal endothelial dystrophies. Tear sample was sent for herpes simplex viral (HSV antigen testing. Genomic DNA from peripheral blood was screened for mutations in all exons of SLC4A11 by direct sequencing. Full-thickness penetrating keratoplasty was done and corneal button was sent for histopathological examination. Results: Slit-lamp findings revealed bilateral diffuse corneal edema and left eye spheroidal degeneration with scarring. Increased corneal thickness (762 μm and 854 μm in the right and left eyes, respectively, normal intraocular pressure (12 mmHg and 16 mmHg in the right and left eyes, respectively, inconclusive confocal scan, and specular microscopy, near normal tear film parameters, were the other clinical features. HSV-polymerase chain reaction was negative. Histopathological examination revealed markedly thickened Descemet′s membrane with subepithelial spheroidal degeneration. SLC4A11 screening showed a novel variant p.Ser415Asn, reported mutation p.Cys386Arg and two polymorphisms, all in the heterozygous state and not identified in 100 controls. Conclusions: The study shows, for the first time, compound heterozygous SLC4A11 mutations impair protein function leading to delayed onset of the disease.

  13. Endothelial dysfunction in morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauricio, Maria Dolores; Aldasoro, Martin; Ortega, Joaquin; Vila, José María

    2013-01-01

    Morbid obesity is a chronic multifunctional disease characterized by an accumulation of fat. Epidemiological studies have shown that obesity is associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Endothelial dysfunction, as defined by an imbalance between relaxing and contractile endothelial factors, plays a central role in the pathogenesis of these cardiometabolic diseases. Diminished bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) contributes to endothelial dysfunction and impairs endothelium- dependent vasodilatation. But this is not the only mechanism that drives to endothelial dysfunction. Obesity has been associated with a chronic inflammatory process, atherosclerosis, and oxidative stress. Moreover levels of asymmetrical dimethyl-L-arginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), are elevated in obesity. On the other hand, increasing prostanoid-dependent vasoconstriction and decreasing vasodilator prostanoids also lead to endothelial dysfunction in obesity. Other mechanisms related to endothelin-1 (ET-1) or endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) have been proposed. Bariatric surgery (BS) is a safe and effective means to achieve significant weight loss, but its use is limited only to patients with severe obesity including morbid obesity. BS also proved efficient in endothelial dysfunction reduction improving cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities associated with morbid obesity such as diabetes, coronary artery disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cancer. This review will provide a brief overview of the mechanisms that link obesity with endothelial dysfunction, and how weight loss is a cornerstone treatment for cardiovascular comorbidities obesity-related. A better understanding of the mechanisms of obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction may help develop new therapeutic strategies to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  14. Automated DNA Sequencing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, G.A.; Ekkebus, C.P.; Hauser, L.J.; Kress, R.L.; Mural, R.J.

    1999-04-25

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a core DNA sequencing facility to support biological research endeavors at ORNL and to conduct basic sequencing automation research. This facility is novel because its development is based on existing standard biology laboratory equipment; thus, the development process is of interest to the many small laboratories trying to use automation to control costs and increase throughput. Before automation, biology Laboratory personnel purified DNA, completed cycle sequencing, and prepared 96-well sample plates with commercially available hardware designed specifically for each step in the process. Following purification and thermal cycling, an automated sequencing machine was used for the sequencing. A technician handled all movement of the 96-well sample plates between machines. To automate the process, ORNL is adding a CRS Robotics A- 465 arm, ABI 377 sequencing machine, automated centrifuge, automated refrigerator, and possibly an automated SpeedVac. The entire system will be integrated with one central controller that will direct each machine and the robot. The goal of this system is to completely automate the sequencing procedure from bacterial cell samples through ready-to-be-sequenced DNA and ultimately to completed sequence. The system will be flexible and will accommodate different chemistries than existing automated sequencing lines. The system will be expanded in the future to include colony picking and/or actual sequencing. This discrete event, DNA sequencing system will demonstrate that smaller sequencing labs can achieve cost-effective the laboratory grow.

  15. Congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy with progressive sensorineural deafness (Harboyan syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramowicz Marc

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Harboyan syndrome is a degenerative corneal disorder defined as congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED accompanied by progressive, postlingual sensorineural hearing loss. To date, 24 cases from 11 families of various origin (Asian Indian, South American Indian, Sephardi Jewish, Brazilian Portuguese, Dutch, Gypsy, Moroccan, Dominican have been reported. More than 50% of the reported cases have been associated with parental consanguinity. The ocular manifestations in Harboyan syndrome include diffuse bilateral corneal edema occurring with severe corneal clouding, blurred vision, visual loss and nystagmus. They are apparent at birth or within the neonatal period and are indistinguishable from those characteristic of the autosomal recessive CHED (CHED2. Hearing deficit in Harboyan is slowly progressive and typically found in patients 10–25 years old. There are no reported cases with prelinglual deafness, however, a significant hearing loss in children as young as 4 years old has been detected by audiometry, suggesting that hearing may be affected earlier, even at birth. Harboyan syndrome is caused by mutations in the SLC4A11 gene located at the CHED2 locus on chromosome 20p13-p12, indicating that CHED2 and Harboyan syndrome are allelic disorders. A total of 62 different SLC4A11 mutations have been reported in 98 families (92 CHED2 and 6 Harboyan. All reported cases have been consistent with autosomal recessive transmission. Diagnosis is based on clinical criteria, detailed ophthalmological assessment and audiometry. A molecular confirmation of the clinical diagnosis is feasible. A variety of genetic, metabolic, developmental and acquired diseases presenting with clouding of the cornea should be considered in the differential diagnosis (Peters anomaly, sclerocornea, limbal dermoids, congenital glaucoma. Audiometry must be performed to differentiate Harboyan syndrome from CHED2. Autosomal recessive types of CHED (CHED2 and

  16. Laboratory Automation and Middleware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riben, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The practice of surgical pathology is under constant pressure to deliver the highest quality of service, reduce errors, increase throughput, and decrease turnaround time while at the same time dealing with an aging workforce, increasing financial constraints, and economic uncertainty. Although not able to implement total laboratory automation, great progress continues to be made in workstation automation in all areas of the pathology laboratory. This report highlights the benefits and challenges of pathology automation, reviews middleware and its use to facilitate automation, and reviews the progress so far in the anatomic pathology laboratory.

  17. In-vivo cell tracking to quantify endothelial cell migration during zebrafish angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Prahlad G.; Rochon, Elizabeth R.; Roman, Beth L.

    2016-03-01

    The mechanism of endothelial cell migration as individual cells or collectively while remaining an integral component of a functional blood vessel has not been well characterized. In this study, our overarching goal is to define an image processing workflow to facilitate quantification of how endothelial cells within the first aortic arch and are proximal to the zebrafish heart behave in response to the onset of flow (i.e. onset of heart beating). Endothelial cell imaging was conducted at this developmental time-point i.e. ~24-28 hours post fertilization (hpf) when flow first begins, using 3D+time two-photon confocal microscopy of a live, wild-type, transgenic, zebrafish expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in endothelial cell nuclei. An image processing pipeline comprised of image signal enhancement, median filtering for speckle noise reduction, automated identification of the nuclei positions, extraction of the relative movement of nuclei between consecutive time instances, and finally tracking of nuclei, was designed for achieving the tracking of endothelial cell nuclei and the identification of their movement towards or away from the heart. Pilot results lead to a hypothesis that upon the onset of heart beat and blood flow, endothelial cells migrate collectively towards the heart (by 21.51+/-10.35 μm) in opposition to blood flow (i.e. subtending 142.170+/-21.170 with the flow direction).

  18. Combined HLA matched limbal stem cells allograft with amniotic membrane transplantation as a prophylactic surgical procedure to prevent corneal graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Capozzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine if the use of combined HLA matched limbal stem cells allograft with amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT is a safe and effective prophylactic surgical procedure to prevent corneal graft after penetrating keratoplasty (PK. Methods. We report the case of a 17 years old patient with a history of congenital glaucoma, trabeculectomy and multiple corneal graft rejections, presenting total limbal cell deficiency. To reduce the possibility of graft rejection in the left eye after a new PK, a two step procedure was performed. At first the patient underwent a combined HLA matched limbal stem cells allograft (LAT and AMT and then, 10 months later, a new PK. Results. During 12 months of follow-up, the corneal graft remained stable and smooth, with no sign of graft rejection. Conclusions. In our patient, the prophylactic use of LAT from HLA-matched donors and AMT before PK, may result in a better prognosis of corneal graft survival.

  19. Automating checks of plan check automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabi, Tarek; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2014-07-08

    While a few physicists have designed new plan check automation solutions for their clinics, fewer, if any, managed to adapt existing solutions. As complex and varied as the systems they check, these programs must gain the full confidence of those who would run them on countless patient plans. The present automation effort, planCheck, therefore focuses on versatility and ease of implementation and verification. To demonstrate this, we apply planCheck to proton gantry, stereotactic proton gantry, stereotactic proton fixed beam (STAR), and IMRT treatments.

  20. Automation in Warehouse Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg, R.; Verriet, J.

    2012-01-01

    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and support

  1. Automate functional testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kalindri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, software engineers are increasingly turning to the option of automating functional tests, but not always have successful in this endeavor. Reasons range from low planning until over cost in the process. Some principles that can guide teams in automating these tests are described in this article.

  2. More Benefits of Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Malcolm

    1988-01-01

    Describes a study that measured the benefits of an automated catalog and automated circulation system from the library user's point of view in terms of the value of time saved. Topics discussed include patterns of use, access time, availability of information, search behaviors, and the effectiveness of the measures used. (seven references)…

  3. Advances in inspection automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Walter H.; Mair, H. Douglas; Jansen, Dion; Lombardi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    This new session at QNDE reflects the growing interest in inspection automation. Our paper describes a newly developed platform that makes the complex NDE automation possible without the need for software programmers. Inspection tasks that are tedious, error-prone or impossible for humans to perform can now be automated using a form of drag and drop visual scripting. Our work attempts to rectify the problem that NDE is not keeping pace with the rest of factory automation. Outside of NDE, robots routinely and autonomously machine parts, assemble components, weld structures and report progress to corporate databases. By contrast, components arriving in the NDT department typically require manual part handling, calibrations and analysis. The automation examples in this paper cover the development of robotic thickness gauging and the use of adaptive contour following on the NRU reactor inspection at Chalk River.

  4. Automation in immunohematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Meenu; Kaur, Ravneet; Gupta, Ekta

    2012-07-01

    There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process.

  5. Automated model building

    CERN Document Server

    Caferra, Ricardo; Peltier, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    This is the first book on automated model building, a discipline of automated deduction that is of growing importance Although models and their construction are important per se, automated model building has appeared as a natural enrichment of automated deduction, especially in the attempt to capture the human way of reasoning The book provides an historical overview of the field of automated deduction, and presents the foundations of different existing approaches to model construction, in particular those developed by the authors Finite and infinite model building techniques are presented The main emphasis is on calculi-based methods, and relevant practical results are provided The book is of interest to researchers and graduate students in computer science, computational logic and artificial intelligence It can also be used as a textbook in advanced undergraduate courses

  6. Automation in Warehouse Development

    CERN Document Server

    Verriet, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The warehouses of the future will come in a variety of forms, but with a few common ingredients. Firstly, human operational handling of items in warehouses is increasingly being replaced by automated item handling. Extended warehouse automation counteracts the scarcity of human operators and supports the quality of picking processes. Secondly, the development of models to simulate and analyse warehouse designs and their components facilitates the challenging task of developing warehouses that take into account each customer’s individual requirements and logistic processes. Automation in Warehouse Development addresses both types of automation from the innovative perspective of applied science. In particular, it describes the outcomes of the Falcon project, a joint endeavour by a consortium of industrial and academic partners. The results include a model-based approach to automate warehouse control design, analysis models for warehouse design, concepts for robotic item handling and computer vision, and auton...

  7. Automation in Immunohematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Bajpai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been rapid technological advances in blood banking in South Asian region over the past decade with an increasing emphasis on quality and safety of blood products. The conventional test tube technique has given way to newer techniques such as column agglutination technique, solid phase red cell adherence assay, and erythrocyte-magnetized technique. These new technologies are adaptable to automation and major manufacturers in this field have come up with semi and fully automated equipments for immunohematology tests in the blood bank. Automation improves the objectivity and reproducibility of tests. It reduces human errors in patient identification and transcription errors. Documentation and traceability of tests, reagents and processes and archiving of results is another major advantage of automation. Shifting from manual methods to automation is a major undertaking for any transfusion service to provide quality patient care with lesser turnaround time for their ever increasing workload. This article discusses the various issues involved in the process.

  8. Estudo retrospectivo dos transplantes penetrantes de córnea da Santa Casa de Porto Alegre Retrospective study of penetrating keratoplasty at the Santa Casa of Porto Alegre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Fabris

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Traçar o perfil clínico e social dos pacientes submetidos a transplante de córnea e avaliar as principais indicações desses transplantes, tempo de espera para doação e os índices de sucesso, rejeição e falência dos transplantes penetrantes de córnea. Métodos: Foram analisados retrospectivamente os prontuários de 87 pacientes submetidos a transplante penetrante de córnea no Serviço de Oftalmologia da Santa Casa de Porto Alegre entre janeiro de 1990 e dezembro de 1998, totalizando 91 olhos. Destes, 56 pacientes foram chamados para avaliação clínica do enxerto durante o levantamento de dados para este estudo. Resultados: Considerando-se os 91 transplantes (87 pacientes, 53 (60,9% foram realizados em pacientes do sexo masculino e 34 (39%, do sexo feminino. A idade variou de 3 a 89 anos, com média de 42,3 ± 19,8 anos. As principais indicações para transplante de córnea foram ceratocone em 32 (35% olhos, ceratopatia bolhosa (pós-facectomia, distrofia de Fuchs e outros em 24 (26,4%, trauma mecânico em 9 (9,9%, causas infecciosas em 9 (9,9%, queimadura química em 2 (2,2%, queimadura térmica em 1 (1,1% e outras causas em 14 (15,4% olhos. O tempo médio de espera por doação de córnea foi de 17,3 ± 9,9 meses. Do total de 91 olhos transplantados, 25 (27,5% apresentaram rejeição e 12 (13,2% olhos apresentaram falência do transplante. Conclusões: Este estudo mostrou a epidemiologia dos pacientes transplantados. A falta de dados seriados devido à alta precoce e perda de acompanhamento dos pacientes tornou impossível a análise e a comparação dos resultados pós-operatórios com outros estudos.Purpose: To describe the clinical and social profile of recipient patients of transplanted corneas, and to evaluate main indications for corneal transplants, waiting time for donor tissue, and percentages of success, rejection and failure of penetrating keratoplasty. Methods: Retrospective chart review of 87 patients

  9. Genetics of corneal endothelial dystrophies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chitra Kannabiran

    2009-12-01

    The corneal endothelium maintains the level of hydration in the cornea. Dysfunction of the endothelium results in excess accumulation of water in the corneal stroma, leading to swelling of the stroma and loss of transparency. There are four different corneal endothelial dystrophies that are hereditary, progressive, non-inflammatory disorders involving dysfunction of the corneal endothelium. Each of the endothelial dystrophies is genetically heterogeneous with different modes of transmission and/or different genes involved in each subtype. Genes responsible for disease have been identified for only a subset of corneal endothelial dystrophies. Knowledge of genes involved and their function in the corneal endothelium can aid understanding the pathogenesis of the disorder as well as reveal pathways that are important for normal functioning of the endothelium.

  10. Systematic review automation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

  11. Chef infrastructure automation cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Marschall, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Chef Infrastructure Automation Cookbook contains practical recipes on everything you will need to automate your infrastructure using Chef. The book is packed with illustrated code examples to automate your server and cloud infrastructure.The book first shows you the simplest way to achieve a certain task. Then it explains every step in detail, so that you can build your knowledge about how things work. Eventually, the book shows you additional things to consider for each approach. That way, you can learn step-by-step and build profound knowledge on how to go about your configuration management

  12. 穿透性角膜移植术治疗真菌性角膜炎的临床观察%Clinical study on effect of penetrating keratoplasty in treatment of fungal keratitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡志刚; 夏泽梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluale the therapeutic effect of penetrating keratoplasty in treatment of patients with fungal keratitis. Methods Forty nine eyes of 49 patients with fungal keratitis were treated with penetrating keratoplasty, and their clinical characteristics and effect of operation were observed. Results Among them, 4 cases were treated with enucleation, three cases give up for treatment, the vision in remaining patients were improved after the operation. Visual acuity of patients after operation reached 0.01 to 0. 3, 15 cases were suffered from postoperative fungal recurrence, 5 patients with transient increase in IOP at 3 days after operation, and rejection occurred in 27 cases. Conclusion Penetrating keratoplasty is an effective procedure in treatment of patients with fungal keratitis, and visual acuity is significantly increased after keratoplasty.%目的 观察穿透性角膜移植术治疗真菌性角膜炎的临床疗效.方法 对真菌性角膜炎49例49眼进行穿透性角膜移植术,观察其临床特点及手术效果.结果 术后49例患者中除4例眼球摘除、3例放弃治疗外,其余视力均较术前提高.术后视力0.01~0.3.15例术后出现真菌复发,5例患者在术后3 d内眼压暂时升高,27例出现排斥反应.结论 穿透性角膜移植术是治疗真菌性角膜炎的有效方法.

  13. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven

    2016-01-01

    This edited book comprises papers about the impacts, benefits and challenges of connected and automated cars. It is the third volume of the LNMOB series dealing with Road Vehicle Automation. The book comprises contributions from researchers, industry practitioners and policy makers, covering perspectives from the U.S., Europe and Japan. It is based on the Automated Vehicles Symposium 2015 which was jointly organized by the Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in July 2015. The topical spectrum includes, but is not limited to, public sector activities, human factors, ethical and business aspects, energy and technological perspectives, vehicle systems and transportation infrastructure. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  14. I-94 Automation FAQs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — In order to increase efficiency, reduce operating costs and streamline the admissions process, U.S. Customs and Border Protection has automated Form I-94 at air and...

  15. Automated Vehicles Symposium 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Beiker, Sven; Road Vehicle Automation 2

    2015-01-01

    This paper collection is the second volume of the LNMOB series on Road Vehicle Automation. The book contains a comprehensive review of current technical, socio-economic, and legal perspectives written by experts coming from public authorities, companies and universities in the U.S., Europe and Japan. It originates from the Automated Vehicle Symposium 2014, which was jointly organized by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) in Burlingame, CA, in July 2014. The contributions discuss the challenges arising from the integration of highly automated and self-driving vehicles into the transportation system, with a focus on human factors and different deployment scenarios. This book is an indispensable source of information for academic researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers interested in the topic of road vehicle automation.

  16. Hydrometeorological Automated Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of Hydrologic Development of the National Weather Service operates HADS, the Hydrometeorological Automated Data System. This data set contains the last 48...

  17. Automating the Media Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Mary A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the need to develop more efficient information retrieval skills by the use of new technology. Lists four stages used in automating the media center. Describes North Carolina's pilot programs. Proposes benefits and looks at the media center's future. (MVL)

  18. Endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi AR Hadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hadi AR Hadi, Jassim Al SuwaidiDepartment of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery, Hamad General Hospital – Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, State of Qatar; Department of Cardioscience, Sheikh Khalifa Medical City, Abu Dhabi, UAEAbstract: Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, even in the presence of intensive glycemic control. Substantial clinical and experimental evidence suggest that both diabetes and insulin resistance cause a combination of endothelial dysfunctions, which may diminish the anti-atherogenic role of the vascular endothelium. Both insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction appear to precede the development of overt hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, in patients with diabetes or insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction may be a critical early target for preventing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Microalbuminuria is now considered to be an atherosclerotic risk factor and predicts future cardiovascular disease risk in diabetic patients, in elderly patients, as well as in the general population. It has been implicated as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature cardiovascular mortality for patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as for patients with essential hypertension. A complete biochemical understanding of the mechanisms by which hyperglycemia causes vascular functional and structural changes associated with the diabetic milieu still eludes us. In recent years, the numerous biochemical and metabolic pathways postulated to have a causal role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease have been distilled into several unifying hypotheses. The role of chronic hyperglycemia in the development of diabetic microvascular complications and in neuropathy has been clearly established. However, the biochemical or cellular links between elevated blood glucose levels, and the vascular lesions remain

  19. Disassembly automation automated systems with cognitive abilities

    CERN Document Server

    Vongbunyong, Supachai

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a number of aspects to be considered in the development of disassembly automation, including the mechanical system, vision system and intelligent planner. The implementation of cognitive robotics increases the flexibility and degree of autonomy of the disassembly system. Disassembly, as a step in the treatment of end-of-life products, can allow the recovery of embodied value left within disposed products, as well as the appropriate separation of potentially-hazardous components. In the end-of-life treatment industry, disassembly has largely been limited to manual labor, which is expensive in developed countries. Automation is one possible solution for economic feasibility. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  20. ACCOUNTING AUTOMATIONS RISKS

    OpenAIRE

    Муравський, В. В.; Хома, Н. Г.

    2015-01-01

    Accountant accepts active voice in organization of the automated account in the conditions of the informative systems introduction in enterprise activity. Effective accounting automation needs identification and warning of organizational risks. Authors researched, classified and generalized the risks of introduction of the informative accounting systems. The ways of liquidation of the organizational risks sources andminimization of their consequences are gives. The method of the effective con...

  1. Instant Sikuli test automation

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to follow style using the Starter guide approach.This book is aimed at automation and testing professionals who want to use Sikuli to automate GUI. Some Python programming experience is assumed.

  2. Automated security management

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Shaer, Ehab; Xie, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    In this contributed volume, leading international researchers explore configuration modeling and checking, vulnerability and risk assessment, configuration analysis, and diagnostics and discovery. The authors equip readers to understand automated security management systems and techniques that increase overall network assurability and usability. These constantly changing networks defend against cyber attacks by integrating hundreds of security devices such as firewalls, IPSec gateways, IDS/IPS, authentication servers, authorization/RBAC servers, and crypto systems. Automated Security Managemen

  3. Automation of Diagrammatic Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Jamnik, Mateja; Bundy, Alan; Green, Ian

    1997-01-01

    Theorems in automated theorem proving are usually proved by logical formal proofs. However, there is a subset of problems which humans can prove in a different way by the use of geometric operations on diagrams, so called diagrammatic proofs. Insight is more clearly perceived in these than in the corresponding algebraic proofs: they capture an intuitive notion of truthfulness that humans find easy to see and understand. We are identifying and automating this diagrammatic reasoning on mathemat...

  4. Automated Lattice Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    I review recent developments in automated lattice perturbation theory. Starting with an overview of lattice perturbation theory, I focus on the three automation packages currently "on the market": HiPPy/HPsrc, Pastor and PhySyCAl. I highlight some recent applications of these methods, particularly in B physics. In the final section I briefly discuss the related, but distinct, approach of numerical stochastic perturbation theory.

  5. Marketing automation supporting sales

    OpenAIRE

    Sandell, Niko

    2016-01-01

    The past couple of decades has been a time of major changes in marketing. Digitalization has become a permanent part of marketing and at the same time enabled efficient collection of data. Personalization and customization of content are playing a crucial role in marketing when new customers are acquired. This has also created a need for automation to facilitate the distribution of targeted content. As a result of successful marketing automation more information of the customers is gathered ...

  6. Deep lamellar keratoplasty for scarring stage keratoconus%深板层角膜移植修复瘢痕期圆锥角膜*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马利肖; 吴彦超; 王珂; 王鑫; 鲁绍音

    2013-01-01

      背景:深板层角膜移植治疗圆锥角膜可显著提高视力,且并发症少,排斥反应率低,但对于瘢痕期圆锥角膜仍以部分穿透性角膜移植为主。目的:评价深板层角膜移植治疗瘢痕期圆锥角膜的临床疗效。方法:58例Ⅲ期、Ⅳ期有角膜瘢痕患者分为角膜浅基质层有角膜瘢痕形成患者37例(浅瘢痕组),角膜深基质层或全层有角膜瘢痕形成患者21例(深瘢痕组)。58例患者行深板层角膜移植,移植后随访12个月,比较移植前后视力变化。结果与结论:所有患者角膜移植后裸眼视力与移植前比较均有明显提高。58只眼角膜植片均透明,其中1只眼角膜移植后2个月发生上皮型排斥反应,经药物治疗后恢复透明。深瘢痕组2例角膜移植后出现眩光,改做部分穿透性角膜移植。角膜移植后1年浅瘢痕组与深瘢痕组视力相比差异无显著性意义。提示深板层角膜移植治疗瘢痕期圆锥角膜可显著提高视力,且并发症少,排斥率低,是一种安全有效,长期疗效稳定的治疗方法,尤其对于大基底的圆锥角膜应作为首选方案。%BACKGROUND: Deep lamel ar keratoplasty for the treatment of keratoconus can improve the visual acuity significantly with less complications and low rejection rate, but the treatment of scarring stage keratoconus is mainly depends on the partial penetrating keratoplasty. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of deep lamel ar keratoplasty for the treatment of scarring stage keratoconus. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with Ⅲ and Ⅳ scarring stage keratoconus were divided into two groups:patients with corneal scarring in the superficial corneal stroma (n=37, superficial scar group), patients with corneal scarring in the deep or whole corneal stroma (n=21, deep scar group). The 58 patients who had accepted deep lamel ar keratoplasy were fol owed-up for 12 months and the changes of visual

  7. Elements of EAF automation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioana, A.; Constantin, N.; Dragna, E. C.

    2017-01-01

    Our article presents elements of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) automation. So, we present and analyze detailed two automation schemes: the scheme of electrical EAF automation system; the scheme of thermic EAF automation system. The application results of these scheme of automation consists in: the sensitive reduction of specific consummation of electrical energy of Electric Arc Furnace, increasing the productivity of Electric Arc Furnace, increase the quality of the developed steel, increasing the durability of the building elements of Electric Arc Furnace.

  8. 前房气体介导下的深板层角膜移植术%Air-Guided repeatable manual dissected deep lamellar keratoplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕燕龙; 徐蔚; 周祁; 李厚硕; 王震; 李雯; 荣翱

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨前房气体介导下可重复切的深板层角膜移植术的临床疗效.方法 对41例(41只眼)行此改良的深板层角膜移植术.其中角膜炎反复发作所致混浊累及深层基质者22只眼、化学伤或热烧伤所致混浊累及深层基质者12只眼、完成期圆锥角膜4只眼、累及深层基质的角膜营养不良2只眼及角膜变性1只眼.术后以裂隙灯显微镜观察患眼角膜植片的转归、原眼表疾病的预后、角膜层间的透明度、新生血管的侵入、后弹力层破口的闭合、视力和眼内炎性反应的情况.结果 在41只患眼中,有31只眼完整的暴露了后弹力层,有6只眼的部分基质瘢痕与后弹力层不能完整分开;另4只眼在分离近中央部深层基质和后弹力层时,发生穿孔.术后有1只眼发生了严重的前房毒性反应.随访期内无其他严重并发症发生.结论 前房气体介导下手法分次切的深板层角膜移植术安全有效.%Objective To investigate the clinical outcomes of air-guided repeatable manual dissected deep lamellar keratoplasty.Methods 41 cases with 41 eyes were operated by the modified deep lamellar keratoplasty.Among all the cases,22 eyes were with deep stromal opacity caused by intractable keratitis,12 eyes were with deep stromal opacity caused by chemical or thermal burns,4 eyes were keratoconus in the advanced stage but with no history of acute hydrops,2 eyes with progressive cornea dystrophy and 1 eye with cornea degeneration.Slit-lamp microscope was used to observe changes of the comea button,primary diseases'prognosis,intrastromal clearness,neovascularization,closing of the disrupted descemet's membrane,visual acuity and intraocular inflammation.Results A complete successful exposure of the descemet's membrane were acquired in 31 eyes.In 6 eyes,the deep stromal scarring could not be completely dissected from the descemet's membrane.In 4 eyes,mircopunctures happened when dissection reached to the

  9. Endothelial dysfunction: a comprehensive appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilariño Jorge O

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The endothelium is a thin monocelular layer that covers all the inner surface of the blood vessels, separating the circulating blood from the tissues. It is not an inactive organ, quite the opposite. It works as a receptor-efector organ and responds to each physical or chemical stimulus with the release of the correct substance with which it may maintain vasomotor balance and vascular-tissue homeostasis. It has the property of producing, independently, both agonistic and antagonistic substances that help to keep homeostasis and its function is not only autocrine, but also paracrine and endocrine. In this way it modulates the vascular smooth muscle cells producing relaxation or contraction, and therefore vasodilatation or vasoconstriction. The endothelium regulating homeostasis by controlling the production of prothrombotic and antithrombotic components, and fibrynolitics and antifibrynolitics. Also intervenes in cell proliferation and migration, in leukocyte adhesion and activation and in immunological and inflammatory processes. Cardiovascular risk factors cause oxidative stress that alters the endothelial cells capacity and leads to the so called endothelial "dysfunction" reducing its capacity to maintain homeostasis and leads to the development of pathological inflammatory processes and vascular disease. There are different techniques to evaluate the endothelium functional capacity, that depend on the amount of NO produced and the vasodilatation effect. The percentage of vasodilatation with respect to the basal value represents the endothelial functional capacity. Taking into account that shear stress is one of the most important stimulants for the synthesis and release of NO, the non-invasive technique most often used is the transient flow-modulate "endothelium-dependent" post-ischemic vasodilatation, performed on conductance arteries such as the brachial, radial or femoral arteries. This vasodilatation is compared with the

  10. 棘阿米巴性角膜炎行角膜移植术的临床观察%The treatment of acanthamoeba keratitis with keratoplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝静华; 吕岚; 王廉

    2012-01-01

    目的 回顾性分析13例棘阿米巴性角膜溃疡行角膜移植手术治疗的临床效果.方法 临床诊断棘阿米巴性角膜炎患者13例,其中6例行板层角膜移植术,7例行穿透性角膜移植术,术后继续应用抗阿米巴药物1~3个月.结果 术后随访6个月至2年,感染均得到控制.术后视力情况,LK术后指数的1例,0.02 ~ 0.1的3例,0.12~0.3的2例,PK术后小于0.02的3例,0.02~0.1的2例,0.12~0.3的2例.结论 棘阿米巴性角膜炎在药物不能控制的情况下,行角膜移植术可有效控制炎症,根据病灶的深度合理选择术式,术后可获得良好的治疗效果.同时术后辅以抗阿米巴药物的治疗可以起到辅助治疗的目的.%Objective To determine the surgical indications and effects for acanthamoeba comeal ulcer. Methods Six patients out of 13 had lamellar keratoplasty,while the other 7 patients had penetrating with acanthamoeba keratoplasty.All cases were topically applied anti-ameoba drugs for 1-3 months. Results All 13 patients'condition was controlled The visual acuity of most cases was improved.The follow up time was 6-24 months.To the cases with acanthamoeba corneal ulcer which was not easy to be controlled,surgical treatment was used. Conclusions Under the medicine uncontrollable condition of the acanthamoeba keratitis,the cornea transplantation can acquire better treatment effect and can reduce the relapse.The type of surgical operation is selected according to the depth and the range of the disease.The treatment of anti- amoeba medicine can raise the purpose of assistance treatment after the surgical operation at the same time.

  11. Materials Testing and Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Wayne D.; Zweigoron, Ronald B.

    1980-07-01

    The advent of automation in materials testing has been in large part responsible for recent radical changes in the materials testing field: Tests virtually impossible to perform without a computer have become more straightforward to conduct. In addition, standardized tests may be performed with enhanced efficiency and repeatability. A typical automated system is described in terms of its primary subsystems — an analog station, a digital computer, and a processor interface. The processor interface links the analog functions with the digital computer; it includes data acquisition, command function generation, and test control functions. Features of automated testing are described with emphasis on calculated variable control, control of a variable that is computed by the processor and cannot be read directly from a transducer. Three calculated variable tests are described: a yield surface probe test, a thermomechanical fatigue test, and a constant-stress-intensity range crack-growth test. Future developments are discussed.

  12. Automation of Taxiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Bursík

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the possibility of automation of taxiing, which is the part of a flight, which, under adverse weather conditions, greatly reduces the operational usability of an airport, and is the only part of a flight that has not been affected by automation, yet. Taxiing is currently handled manually by the pilot, who controls the airplane based on information from visual perception. The article primarily deals with possible ways of obtaining navigational information, and its automatic transfer to the controls. Analyzed wand assessed were currently available technologies such as computer vision, Light Detection and Ranging and Global Navigation Satellite System, which are useful for navigation and their general implementation into an airplane was designed. Obstacles to the implementation were identified, too. The result is a proposed combination of systems along with their installation into airplane’s systems so that it is possible to use the automated taxiing.

  13. Automating the CMS DAQ

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gerry; Behrens, Ulf; Branson, James; Chaze, Olivier; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Hartl, Christian; Hegeman, Jeroen Guido; Holzner, Andre Georg; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Franciscus; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius; Morovic, Srecko; Nunez Barranco Fernandez, Carlos; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Ozga, Wojciech Andrzej; Paus, Christoph Maria Ernst; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schwick, Christoph; Spataru, Andrei Cristian; Stieger, Benjamin Bastian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Veverka, Jan; Wakefield, Christopher Colin; Zejdl, Petr

    2014-01-01

    We present the automation mechanisms that have been added to the Data Acquisition and Run Control systems of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment during Run 1 of the LHC, ranging from the automation of routine tasks to automatic error recovery and context-sensitive guidance to the operator. These mechanisms helped CMS to maintain a data taking efficiency above 90\\% and to even improve it to 95\\% towards the end of Run 1, despite an increase in the occurrence of single-event upsets in sub-detector electronics at high LHC luminosity.

  14. Automating the CMS DAQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.; et al.

    2014-01-01

    We present the automation mechanisms that have been added to the Data Acquisition and Run Control systems of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment during Run 1 of the LHC, ranging from the automation of routine tasks to automatic error recovery and context-sensitive guidance to the operator. These mechanisms helped CMS to maintain a data taking efficiency above 90% and to even improve it to 95% towards the end of Run 1, despite an increase in the occurrence of single-event upsets in sub-detector electronics at high LHC luminosity.

  15. Penetrating keratoplasty in fungal keratitis%穿透性角膜移植治疗真菌性角膜炎

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙先勇; 黄旭东; 张浩润

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the therapeutic effect of penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) in fungal keratitis.Method:11 cases with severe fungal keratitis which were uncontrollable with medicine undertook PKP.Results:10 eyes(90.9%) were cured,6 eyes have the vision>0.1;immunological rejection occured in 2 eyes,secondary glaucoma in 2 eyes,hyphema in 1 eye.Conclusion:PKP is an effective treatment for severe fungal keratitis.%目的:观察穿透性角膜移植治疗真菌性角膜炎的疗效。方法:对11眼经抗真菌药物治疗无效的真菌性角膜炎行穿透性角膜移植术。结果:术后10眼治愈,占90.9%,6眼视力在0.1以上。免疫排斥反应2眼,继发青光眼2眼,前房积血1眼。结论:穿透性角膜移植是治疗真菌性角膜炎的有效方法。

  16. Altering user' acceptance of automation through prior automation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekier, Marek; Molesworth, Brett R C

    2016-08-22

    Air navigation service providers worldwide see increased use of automation as one solution to overcome the capacity constraints imbedded in the present air traffic management (ATM) system. However, increased use of automation within any system is dependent on user acceptance. The present research sought to determine if the point at which an individual is no longer willing to accept or cooperate with automation can be manipulated. Forty participants underwent training on a computer-based air traffic control programme, followed by two ATM exercises (order counterbalanced), one with and one without the aid of automation. Results revealed after exposure to a task with automation assistance, user acceptance of high(er) levels of automation ('tipping point') decreased; suggesting it is indeed possible to alter automation acceptance. Practitioner Summary: This paper investigates whether the point at which a user of automation rejects automation (i.e. 'tipping point') is constant or can be manipulated. The results revealed after exposure to a task with automation assistance, user acceptance of high(er) levels of automation decreased; suggesting it is possible to alter automation acceptance.

  17. [Endothelial dysfunction in hypertension--clinical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmala, Wojciech

    2002-04-01

    Endothelial cells produce both vasodilatating compounds as nitric oxide, prostacycline, endothelial derived hyperpolarising factor and counteracting substances known as endothelial derived contracting factors: endothelin, tromboxan A2, prostaglandin H2, free oxygen radicals. Natural balance between both groups affects blood perfusion of various tissues and constitutes important element in blood pressure control. More and more attention is paid to endothelial dysfunction in patogenesis of hypertension. In a number of studies endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive patients was found out as decreased release of nitric oxide or increased production of endothelin. Principle mechanism of impaired function of endothelium in hypertension seems to be decreased production and increased degradation of nitric oxide mainly due to free oxygen radicals. Favorable effects in improvement of endothelial function were achieved by using ACE inhibitors, AT1 receptor blockers and calcium channel antagonists.

  18. Resveratrol: A Multifunctional Compound Improving Endothelial Function

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Huige; Förstermann, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The red wine polyphenol resveratrol boosts endothelium-dependent and -independent vasorelaxations. The improvement of endothelial function by resveratrol is largely attributable to nitric oxide (NO) derived from endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). By stimulating eNOS expression, eNOS phosphorylation and eNOS deacetylation, resveratrol enhances endothelial NO production. By upregulating antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and suppressing the expression a...

  19. Microcontroller for automation application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    The description of a microcontroller currently being developed for automation application was given. It is basically an 8-bit microcomputer with a 40K byte random access memory/read only memory, and can control a maximum of 12 devices through standard 15-line interface ports.

  20. Automated Composite Column Wrapping

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    The Automated Composite Column Wrapping is performed by a patented machine known as Robo-Wrapper. Currently there are three versions of the machine available for bridge retrofit work depending on the size of the columns being wrapped. Composite column retrofit jacket systems can be structurally just as effective as conventional steel jacketing in improving the seismic response characteristics of substandard reinforced concrete columns.

  1. Automated Web Applications Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Dan CĂPRIŢĂ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Unit tests are a vital part of several software development practicesand processes such as Test-First Programming, Extreme Programming andTest-Driven Development. This article shortly presents the software quality andtesting concepts as well as an introduction to an automated unit testingframework for PHP web based applications.

  2. Automated Student Model Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedinger, Kenneth R.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth A.; Stamper, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Student modeling plays a critical role in developing and improving instruction and instructional technologies. We present a technique for automated improvement of student models that leverages the DataShop repository, crowd sourcing, and a version of the Learning Factors Analysis algorithm. We demonstrate this method on eleven educational…

  3. Automated Accounting. Instructor Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Duane R.

    This curriculum guide was developed to assist business instructors using Dac Easy Accounting College Edition Version 2.0 software in their accounting programs. The module consists of four units containing assignment sheets and job sheets designed to enable students to master competencies identified in the area of automated accounting. The first…

  4. ERGONOMICS AND PROCESS AUTOMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Carrión Muñoz, Rolando; Docente de la FII - UNMSM

    2014-01-01

    The article shows the role that ergonomics in automation of processes, and the importance for Industrial Engineering.  El artículo nos muestra el papel que tiene la ergonomía en la automatización de los procesos, y la importancia para la Ingeniería Industrial.

  5. Mechatronic Design Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun

    successfully design analogue filters, vibration absorbers, micro-electro-mechanical systems, and vehicle suspension systems, all in an automatic or semi-automatic way. It also investigates the very important issue of co-designing plant-structures and dynamic controllers in automated design of Mechatronic...

  6. Protokoller til Home Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kristian Ellebæk

    2008-01-01

    computer, der kan skifte mellem foruddefinerede indstillinger. Nogle gange kan computeren fjernstyres over internettet, så man kan se hjemmets status fra en computer eller måske endda fra en mobiltelefon. Mens nævnte anvendelser er klassiske indenfor home automation, er yderligere funktionalitet dukket op...

  7. Myths in test automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmine Francis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myths in automation of software testing is an issue of discussion that echoes about the areas of service in validation of software industry. Probably, the first though that appears in knowledgeable reader would be Why this old topic again? What's New to discuss the matter? But, for the first time everyone agrees that undoubtedly automation testing today is not today what it used to be ten or fifteen years ago, because it has evolved in scope and magnitude. What began as a simple linear scripts for web applications today has a complex architecture and a hybrid framework to facilitate the implementation of testing applications developed with various platforms and technologies. Undoubtedly automation has advanced, but so did the myths associated with it. The change in perspective and knowledge of people on automation has altered the terrain. This article reflects the points of views and experience of the author in what has to do with the transformation of the original myths in new versions, and how they are derived; also provides his thoughts on the new generation of myths.

  8. Automating spectral measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Fred T.

    2008-09-01

    This paper discusses the architecture of software utilized in spectroscopic measurements. As optical coatings become more sophisticated, there is mounting need to automate data acquisition (DAQ) from spectrophotometers. Such need is exacerbated when 100% inspection is required, ancillary devices are utilized, cost reduction is crucial, or security is vital. While instrument manufacturers normally provide point-and-click DAQ software, an application programming interface (API) may be missing. In such cases automation is impossible or expensive. An API is typically provided in libraries (*.dll, *.ocx) which may be embedded in user-developed applications. Users can thereby implement DAQ automation in several Windows languages. Another possibility, developed by FTG as an alternative to instrument manufacturers' software, is the ActiveX application (*.exe). ActiveX, a component of many Windows applications, provides means for programming and interoperability. This architecture permits a point-and-click program to act as automation client and server. Excel, for example, can control and be controlled by DAQ applications. Most importantly, ActiveX permits ancillary devices such as barcode readers and XY-stages to be easily and economically integrated into scanning procedures. Since an ActiveX application has its own user-interface, it can be independently tested. The ActiveX application then runs (visibly or invisibly) under DAQ software control. Automation capabilities are accessed via a built-in spectro-BASIC language with industry-standard (VBA-compatible) syntax. Supplementing ActiveX, spectro-BASIC also includes auxiliary serial port commands for interfacing programmable logic controllers (PLC). A typical application is automatic filter handling.

  9. A microscopic view on the renal endothelial glycocalyx

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dane, M.J.; Berg, B.M. van den; Lee, D.H.; Boels, M.G.; Tiemeier, G.L.; Avramut, M.C.; Zonneveld, A.J. van; Vlag, J. van der; Vink, H.; Rabelink, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial cells perform key homeostatic functions such as regulating blood flow, permeability, and aiding immune surveillance for pathogens. While endothelial activation serves normal physiological adaptation, maladaptation of these endothelial functions has been identified as an important effecto

  10. 深板层角膜移植治疗真菌性角膜溃疡13例分析%Clinical analysis of deep lamellar keratoplasty for fungal corneal ulcer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔凤肖

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of deep lamellar keratoplasty for fungus corneal ulcer in primary hospital.Methods A retrospective analysis of August 2010 to January 2014 in Qiuxian Central Hospital for treatment of fungal corneal ulcer with deep lamellar keratoplasty.Surgery indications,operation techniques,postoperative treatment and experience were summarized.Results Thirteen cases of patients with fungus corneal ulcer were underwent deep lamellar keratoplasty,10 cases (76.92%) were cured,and 3 cases (23.08%) relapsed.The visual acuity after operation as follows:over 0.5 in 2 case,0.1~0.5 in 4 cases,and finger count~0.1 in 4 cases.Conclusions Fungus ulcer can be restrined by deep lamellar keratoplasty under strict indication and results in a better therapeutic effect.This operation doesn't need high quality cornea,has less complications and surgical risk which can obtains some useful vision acuity.It is low economic and practical and suitable to perform in primary hospital.%目的 探讨基层医院开展深板层角膜移植治疗真菌性角膜溃疡的可行性.方法 回顾分析了2010年8月至2014年1月在邱县中心医院眼科就诊的真菌性角膜溃疡行深板层角膜移植术的适应证、术中手术技巧、术后处理及经验总结.结果 13例真菌性角膜溃疡经深板层角膜移植10例治愈(76.92%,10/13),复发3例(23.07%,3/13),术后视力0.5以上者2例,0.2~0.5者4例,指数~0.1者4例.结论 深板层角膜移植治疗真菌性角膜溃疡在严格掌握适应证的前提下取得较好疗效,术后合并症少、手术风险小、经济实惠,适合基层医院开展推广.

  11. Vascular endothelial dysfunction and pharmacological treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin; Bo; Su

    2015-01-01

    The endothelium exerts multiple actions involving regulation of vascular permeability and tone, coagulation and fibrinolysis, inflammatory and immunological reactions and cell growth. Alterations of one or more such actions may cause vascular endothelial dysfunction. Different risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, homocystinemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension, smo-king, inflammation, and aging contribute to the development of endothelial dysfunction. Mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction are multiple, including impaired endothelium-derived vasodilators, enhanced endothelium-derived vasoconstrictors, over production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, activation of inflammatory and immune reactions, and imbalance of coagulation and fibrinolysis. Endothelial dysfunction occurs in many cardiovascular diseases, which involves different mechanisms, depending on specific risk factors affecting the disease. Among these mechanisms, a reduction in nitric oxide(NO) bioavailability plays a central role in the development of endothelial dysfunction because NO exerts diverse physiological actions, including vasodilation, anti-inflammation, antiplatelet, antiproliferation and antimigration. Experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated that a variety of currently used or investigational drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin AT1 receptors blockers, angiotensin-(1-7), antioxidants, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, endothelial NO synthase enhancers, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, sphingosine-1-phosphate and statins, exert endothelial protective effects. Due to the difference in mechanisms of action, these drugs need to be used according to specific mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction of the disease.

  12. ATLAS Distributed Computing Automation

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Borrego, C; Campana, S; Di Girolamo, A; Elmsheuser, J; Hejbal, J; Kouba, T; Legger, F; Magradze, E; Medrano Llamas, R; Negri, G; Rinaldi, L; Sciacca, G; Serfon, C; Van Der Ster, D C

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment benefits from computing resources distributed worldwide at more than 100 WLCG sites. The ATLAS Grid sites provide over 100k CPU job slots, over 100 PB of storage space on disk or tape. Monitoring of status of such a complex infrastructure is essential. The ATLAS Grid infrastructure is monitored 24/7 by two teams of shifters distributed world-wide, by the ATLAS Distributed Computing experts, and by site administrators. In this paper we summarize automation efforts performed within the ATLAS Distributed Computing team in order to reduce manpower costs and improve the reliability of the system. Different aspects of the automation process are described: from the ATLAS Grid site topology provided by the ATLAS Grid Information System, via automatic site testing by the HammerCloud, to automatic exclusion from production or analysis activities.

  13. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-05-31

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC.

  14. The automation of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ross D; Rowland, Jem; Oliver, Stephen G; Young, Michael; Aubrey, Wayne; Byrne, Emma; Liakata, Maria; Markham, Magdalena; Pir, Pinar; Soldatova, Larisa N; Sparkes, Andrew; Whelan, Kenneth E; Clare, Amanda

    2009-04-03

    The basis of science is the hypothetico-deductive method and the recording of experiments in sufficient detail to enable reproducibility. We report the development of Robot Scientist "Adam," which advances the automation of both. Adam has autonomously generated functional genomics hypotheses about the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and experimentally tested these hypotheses by using laboratory automation. We have confirmed Adam's conclusions through manual experiments. To describe Adam's research, we have developed an ontology and logical language. The resulting formalization involves over 10,000 different research units in a nested treelike structure, 10 levels deep, that relates the 6.6 million biomass measurements to their logical description. This formalization describes how a machine contributed to scientific knowledge.

  15. Endothelial Dysfunction in Renal Failure: Current Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radenkovic, Miroslav; Stojanovic, Marko; Prostran, Milica

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is principally characterized by impaired endothelium- dependent transduction mechanisms related to vascular relaxation, as an outcome of decreased release of endothelium-derived relaxing factors, mainly nitric oxide, as well as augmented oxidative stress, increased inflammation and predominance of vascular action produced by endothelium-derived contracting factors. Current data strongly suggest that pathological development of different types of kidney impairment with further progression to renal failure includes notable vascular changes associated with endothelial dysfunction. In accordance, this scientific field represents an advancing area of investigation, involving different biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction linked to renal impairment, as well as clinical findings with new information that can provide a more comprehensive understanding of the role of endothelial dysfunction in kidney disease. With regards to quoted facts, the aim of this article was to review the latest data related to endothelial dysfunction and renal failure by selection of relevant articles released from 2010 to 2015.

  16. The Automated Medical Office

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    With shock and surprise many physicians learned in the 1980s that they must change the way they do business. Competition for patients, increasing government regulation, and the rapidly escalating risk of litigation forces physicians to seek modern remedies in office management. The author describes a medical clinic that strives to be paperless using electronic innovation to solve the problems of medical practice management. A computer software program to automate information management in a c...

  17. Automation of printing machine

    OpenAIRE

    Sušil, David

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor thesis is focused on the automation of the printing machine and comparing the two types of printing machines. The first chapter deals with the history of printing, typesettings, printing techniques and various kinds of bookbinding. The second chapter describes the difference between sheet-fed printing machines and offset printing machines, the difference between two representatives of rotary machines, technological process of the products on these machines, the description of the mac...

  18. Automated Cooperative Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt; Pahle, Joseph; Brown, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of the Automated Cooperative Trajectories project. An introduction to the phenomena of wake vortices is given, along with a summary of past research into the possibility of extracting energy from the wake by flying close parallel trajectories. Challenges and barriers to adoption of civilian automatic wake surfing technology are identified. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is described that will support future research. Finally, a roadmap for future research and technology transition is proposed.

  19. Automation in biological crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patrick Shaw; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-06-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given.

  20. Automation in biological crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw Stewart, Patrick; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given. PMID:24915074

  1. Contaminant analysis automation demonstration proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, M.G.; Schur, A.; Heubach, J.G.

    1993-10-01

    The nation-wide and global need for environmental restoration and waste remediation (ER&WR) presents significant challenges to the analytical chemistry laboratory. The expansion of ER&WR programs forces an increase in the volume of samples processed and the demand for analysis data. To handle this expanding volume, productivity must be increased. However. The need for significantly increased productivity, faces contaminant analysis process which is costly in time, labor, equipment, and safety protection. Laboratory automation offers a cost effective approach to meeting current and future contaminant analytical laboratory needs. The proposed demonstration will present a proof-of-concept automated laboratory conducting varied sample preparations. This automated process also highlights a graphical user interface that provides supervisory, control and monitoring of the automated process. The demonstration provides affirming answers to the following questions about laboratory automation: Can preparation of contaminants be successfully automated?; Can a full-scale working proof-of-concept automated laboratory be developed that is capable of preparing contaminant and hazardous chemical samples?; Can the automated processes be seamlessly integrated and controlled?; Can the automated laboratory be customized through readily convertible design? and Can automated sample preparation concepts be extended to the other phases of the sample analysis process? To fully reap the benefits of automation, four human factors areas should be studied and the outputs used to increase the efficiency of laboratory automation. These areas include: (1) laboratory configuration, (2) procedures, (3) receptacles and fixtures, and (4) human-computer interface for the full automated system and complex laboratory information management systems.

  2. Resveratrol and Endothelial Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Xia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO derived from the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS has antihypertensive, antithrombotic, anti-atherosclerotic and antiobesogenic properties. Resveratrol is a polyphenol phytoalexin with multiple cardiovascular and metabolic effects. Part of the beneficial effects of resveratrol are mediated by eNOS. Resveratrol stimulates NO production from eNOS by a number of mechanisms, including upregulation of eNOS expression, stimulation of eNOS enzymatic activity and reversal of eNOS uncoupling. In addition, by reducing oxidative stress, resveratrol prevents oxidative NO inactivation by superoxide thereby enhancing NO bioavailability. Molecular pathways underlying these effects of resveratrol involve SIRT1, AMPK, Nrf2 and estrogen receptors.

  3. 移动气泡征在深板层角膜移植术中的应用%Shifting bubble sign, a useful tip in manual dissection of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sasan Niknam; Mohammad Taher Rajabi; V. Vinood Mootha; Seyed Sahaboddin Shahrzad; Mohammad Bagher Rajabi

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe shifting bubble sign in manual dissection of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK). This sign can be noticed in more than 99% of patients. It is very useful in phakic keratoconic eyes, the leading indication for DALK. We believe that our small modification can help surgeons early in learning curve to avoid inadvertent anterior chamber penetration during the final stages of DALK.%我们报道了移动气泡征在深板层角膜移植术(deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty, DALK)中的应用.这一体征见于99%以上的患者.有晶状体的圆锥角膜是DALK最主要的适应证,这一体征对这类患者非常有用.我们认为对手术方法的小改进将帮助医师缩短此类手术的学习过程,避免前房穿透在手术最后阶段的发生.

  4. Physiological hydrostatic pressure protects endothelial monolayer integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Marschhausen, K; Waschke, J; Drenckhahn, D

    2008-01-01

    Endothelial monolayer integrity is required to maintain endothelial barrier functions and has found to be impaired in several disorders like inflammatory edema, allergic shock, or artherosclerosis. Under physiologic conditions in vivo, endothelial cells are exposed to mechanical forces such as hydrostatic pressure, shear stress, and cyclic stretch. However, insight into the effects of hydrostatic pressure on endothelial cell biology is very limited at present. Therefore, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that physiological hydrostatic pressure protects endothelial monolayer integrity in vitro. We investigated the protective efficacy of hydrostatic pressure in microvascular myocardial endothelial (MyEnd) cells and macrovascular pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) by the application of selected pharmacological agents known to alter monolayer integrity in the absence or presence of hydrostatic pressure. In both endothelial cell lines, extracellular Ca(2+) depletion by EGTA was followed by a loss of vascular-endothelial cadherin (VE-caherin) immunostaining at cell junctions. However, hydrostatic pressure (15 cmH(2)O) blocked this effect of EGTA. Similarly, cytochalasin D-induced actin depolymerization and intercellular gap formation and cell detachment in response to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin antagonist trifluperazine (TFP) as well as thrombin-induced cell dissociation were also reduced by hydrostatic pressure. Moreover, hydrostatic pressure significantly reduced the loss of VE-cadherin-mediated adhesion in response to EGTA, cytochalasin D, and TFP in MyEnd cells as determined by laser tweezer trapping using VE-cadherin-coated microbeads. In caveolin-1-deficient MyEnd cells, which lack caveolae, hydrostatic pressure did not protect monolayer integrity compromised by EGTA, indicating that caveolae-dependent mechanisms are involved in hydrostatic pressure sensing and signaling.

  5. Greater Buyer Effectiveness through Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    FOB = free on board FPAC = Federal Procurement Automation Council FPDS = Federal Procurement Data System 4GL = fourth generation language GAO = General...Procurement Automation Council ( FPAC ), entitled Compendium of Automated Procurement Systems in Federal Agencies. The FPAC inventory attempted to identify...In some cases we have updated descriptions of systems identified by the FPAC study, but many of the newer systems are identified here for the first

  6. 78 FR 66039 - Modification of National Customs Automation Program Test Concerning Automated Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Modification of National Customs Automation Program Test... National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) test concerning the Simplified Entry functionality in the...'s (CBP's) National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) test concerning Automated...

  7. 77 FR 48527 - National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Test Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Test Concerning...: General notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces modifications to the National Customs Automation Program...) National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) test concerning Automated Commercial Environment...

  8. Microvascular endothelial cells of the corpus luteum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spanel-Borowski Katherina

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cyclic nature of the capillary bed in the corpus luteum offers a unique experimental model to examine the life cycle of endothelial cells, involving discrete physiologically regulated steps of angiogenesis, blood vessel maturation and blood vessel regression. The granulosa cells and theca cells of the developing antral follicle and the steroidogenic cells of the corpus luteum produce and respond to angiogenic factors and vasoactive peptides. Following ovulation the neovascularization during the early stages of corpus luteum development has been compared to the rapid angiogenesis observed during tumor formation. On the other end of the spectrum, the microvascular endothelial cells are the first cells to undergo apoptosis at the onset of corpus luteum regression. Important insights on the morphology and function of luteal endothelial cells have been gained from a combination of in vitro and in vivo studies on endothelial cells. Endothelial cells communicate with cells comprising the functional unit of the corpus luteum, i.e., other vascular cells, steroidogenic cells, and immune cells. This review is designed to provide an overview of the types of endothelial cells present in the corpus luteum and their involvement in corpus luteum development and regression. Available evidence indicates that microvascular endothelial cells of the corpus luteum are not alike, and may differ during the process of angiogenesis and angioregression. The contributions of vasoactive peptides generated by the luteal endothelin-1 and the renin-angiotensin systems are discussed in context with the function of endothelial cells during corpus luteum formation and regression. The ability of two cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma, are evaluated as paracrine mediators of endothelial cell function during angioregression. Finally, chemokines are discussed as a vital endothelial cell secretory products that contribute to the recruitment of

  9. Role of precoating in artificial vessel endothelialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖乐; 时德

    2004-01-01

    @@ As the progress of vascular surgery, artificial vessels have become the substitute for large and middle diameter vessels but have not for small diameter ones owing to thrombogenesis and occlusion within a short period of time after being applied.Artificial vessel endothelialization is one of the ideal methods to resolve such issue and has been improved continuously since Herring1 in 1978 put forward this term in the first time and utilized vascular endothelial cells (ECs) harvested from living animals to perform the test of artificial vessel endothelialization.

  10. Endothelial dysfunction after non-cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, E S; Fonnes, S; Gögenur, I

    2015-01-01

    with non-invasive measurements done both pre- and post-operatively and published in English. All types of non-cardiac surgery and both men and women of all ages were included. RESULTS: We found 1722 eligible studies in our search, and of these, five studies fulfilled our inclusion and exclusion criteria....... Endothelial function was disturbed in patients after non-cardiac surgery. Three studies found a significant decrease in the endothelial function immediately after surgery (2 and 24 h post-operatively). Two studies found that patients with previous endothelial dysfunction and scheduled for surgery (renal...... of post-operative myocardial damage....

  11. World-wide distribution automation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaney, T.M.

    1994-12-31

    A worldwide power distribution automation system is outlined. Distribution automation is defined and the status of utility automation is discussed. Other topics discussed include a distribution management system, substation feeder, and customer functions, potential benefits, automation costs, planning and engineering considerations, automation trends, databases, system operation, computer modeling of system, and distribution management systems.

  12. Automating CPM-GOMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Bonnie; Vera, Alonso; Matessa, Michael; Freed, Michael; Remington, Roger

    2002-01-01

    CPM-GOMS is a modeling method that combines the task decomposition of a GOMS analysis with a model of human resource usage at the level of cognitive, perceptual, and motor operations. CPM-GOMS models have made accurate predictions about skilled user behavior in routine tasks, but developing such models is tedious and error-prone. We describe a process for automatically generating CPM-GOMS models from a hierarchical task decomposition expressed in a cognitive modeling tool called Apex. Resource scheduling in Apex automates the difficult task of interleaving the cognitive, perceptual, and motor resources underlying common task operators (e.g. mouse move-and-click). Apex's UI automatically generates PERT charts, which allow modelers to visualize a model's complex parallel behavior. Because interleaving and visualization is now automated, it is feasible to construct arbitrarily long sequences of behavior. To demonstrate the process, we present a model of automated teller interactions in Apex and discuss implications for user modeling. available to model human users, the Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection (GOMS) method [6, 21] has been the most widely used, providing accurate, often zero-parameter, predictions of the routine performance of skilled users in a wide range of procedural tasks [6, 13, 15, 27, 28]. GOMS is meant to model routine behavior. The user is assumed to have methods that apply sequences of operators and to achieve a goal. Selection rules are applied when there is more than one method to achieve a goal. Many routine tasks lend themselves well to such decomposition. Decomposition produces a representation of the task as a set of nested goal states that include an initial state and a final state. The iterative decomposition into goals and nested subgoals can terminate in primitives of any desired granularity, the choice of level of detail dependent on the predictions required. Although GOMS has proven useful in HCI, tools to support the

  13. Conductive keratoplasty for presbyopia and two years follow-up%传导性角膜成形术治疗老视的二年临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雯; 吴炜; 姚克; 李兆春; 叶盼盼; 徐鹤升; 倪海龙; 许素惠

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of conductive keratoplasty (CK) for presbyopia and 2 years follow-up. Methods This study is prospective clinical trial. CK was performed on 34 patients for presbyopia, in which 26 hyperopic patients underwent binocular operations and 8 emmetropic patients underwent monocular operation. The following-up time was 24 months. Results At 24 months postoperatively, for the hyperopia group, binocular uncorrected near visual acuity (33 cm) (5-logMAR)(4. 63 ± 0. 12 ) was increased significantly ( t = 9. 237, P < 0. 001) compared pre-operatively ( 4. 06 ±0. 15) ; binocular uncorrected distance visual acuity (4. 99 ±0. 02) was significantly increased (t =6. 718,P <0. 05) compared pre-operatively (4. 82 ±0. 21); for the emmetropia group, binocular uncorrected near visual acuity (33 cm) (5-logMAR) (4. 68 ± 0. 16) was increased significantly (t = 10. 413 ,P < 0. 001)compared pre-operatively (4. 13 ±0. 18); binocular uncorrected distance visual acuity was same as preoperative one; compared pre-operatively ( +0.97 ±0. 63D), manifest refractive spherical equivalent was decreased significantly (P <0. 001) to peak value ( - 1. 21 ± 1. 00) D at 1 week, and then regressed to a relative plateau( -0. 40 ±0. 70)D at 24 months; the regressive rate was decreased from ( +0. 35 ±0. 44)D/month at 1 month postoperatively to ( +0.01 ± 0. 01 ) D/months at 24 months postoperatively. Contrast sensitivity and glare sensitivity, intraocular pressure, tear break-up time, endothelial cell count, central corneal thickness, stereopsis function and best corrected visual acuity were not significantly changed.Conclusions For treatment of presbyopia, CK appeared to be safe, effective, refractive-predictable and controllable, and relatively stable at 24 months post-operatively. More long-time follow-up is necessary for further evaluation.%目的 评估传导性角膜成形术治疗老视2年的临床疗效.方法 前瞻性研究传导性角

  14. Clinical study on surgical treatment of keratoconus acute hydrops with deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty%前部深板层角膜移植治疗急性圆锥角膜的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍连云; 秦勤; 向双明; 卞征

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) in patients with keratoconus acute hydrops. Methods In a prospective, consecutive clinical cases trail. Five keratoconus acute hydrops patients were scheduled for DALK in Nanjing Ning-Yi Eye Center. The donor corneae included fresh and cryopreserved allogeneic bank eyes. Surgerical techniques were air bubble injection to anterior chamber and layer by layer removal of lamellar tissue. The follow-up examinations included visual acuity(VA) , best corrected VA, biomicroscopy, ultrasound pachymetry, specular microscopy, which were measured and recorded at 1,3,6 and over 12 months postoperatively. Results Average VA was HM/5 ~ 10 cm preoperatively, and after operation, average VA was 0.26 ±0.16, mean best corrected VA was 0.42 ±0.23, mean spherical diaopter was ( -2.75 ±0. 94 ) D, mean cylinder diaopter was ( - 2. 56 ± 0. 83) D.Mean central corneal thickness was (279. 33 ±312.30) μm and that was (557. 20 ±37.48) μm at 1 year after operation. The counting of acute hydrop patients' corneal endothelium couldn' t be achieved before surgery. The mean endothelial cell count was (1967 ±228. 51 )/mm2 after surgery. The grafts of fresh corneal donors were better transparent than that of cryopreserved comeae. With ultrasound bio-microscopy technique , acute hydrop corneal anterior surface curvature was higher and there were some small ' cysts' in stromal layer, fabric component part was decreased and had stronger ultrasound echo, but all above pathological phenomena disappeared after operation. All surgeries were uneventful except two patients in whom the Descemet membrane( DM) microperforation occurred. But the pseudo anterior chamber and rejection complications did not occurred and the grafts remained stable at 1 year postoperatively. Conclusions The keratoconus acute hydrops could not cause heavy damage of endothelium and DALK is suitable for acute hydrops.Short-term postoperative

  15. AUTOMATED API TESTING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNIL L. BANGARE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test. With the help of software testing we can verify or validate the software product. Normally testing will be done after development of software but we can perform the software testing at the time of development process also. This paper will give you a brief introduction about Automated API Testing Tool. This tool of testing will reduce lots of headache after the whole development of software. It saves time as well as money. Such type of testing is helpful in the Industries & Colleges also.

  16. The automated medical office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petreman, M

    1990-08-01

    With shock and surprise many physicians learned in the 1980s that they must change the way they do business. Competition for patients, increasing government regulation, and the rapidly escalating risk of litigation forces physicians to seek modern remedies in office management. The author describes a medical clinic that strives to be paperless using electronic innovation to solve the problems of medical practice management. A computer software program to automate information management in a clinic shows that practical thinking linked to advanced technology can greatly improve office efficiency.

  17. [Automated anesthesia record system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tao; Liu, Jin

    2005-12-01

    Based on Client/Server architecture, a software of automated anesthesia record system running under Windows operation system and networks has been developed and programmed with Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0, Visual Basic 6.0 and SQL Server. The system can deal with patient's information throughout the anesthesia. It can collect and integrate the data from several kinds of medical equipment such as monitor, infusion pump and anesthesia machine automatically and real-time. After that, the system presents the anesthesia sheets automatically. The record system makes the anesthesia record more accurate and integral and can raise the anesthesiologist's working efficiency.

  18. Amyloid β induces adhesion of erythrocytes to endothelial cells and affects endothelial viability and functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kiko, Takehiro; Kuriwada, Satoko; Miyazawa, Taiki; Kimura, Fumiko; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) might mediate the adhesion of erythrocytes to the endothelium which could disrupt the properties of endothelial cells. We provide evidence here that Aβ actually induced the binding of erythrocytes to endothelial cells and decreased endothelial viability, perhaps by the generation of oxidative and inflammatory stress. These changes are likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Leukocytes Breach Endothelial Barriers by Insertion of Nuclear Lobes and Disassembly of Endothelial Actin Filaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagi Barzilai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The endothelial cytoskeleton is a barrier for leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM. Mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leukocytes generate gaps of similar micron-scale size when squeezing through inflamed endothelial barriers in vitro and in vivo. To elucidate how leukocytes squeeze through these barriers, we co-tracked the endothelial actin filaments and leukocyte nuclei in real time. Nuclear squeezing involved either preexistent or de novo-generated lobes inserted into the leukocyte lamellipodia. Leukocyte nuclei reversibly bent the endothelial actin stress fibers. Surprisingly, formation of both paracellular gaps and transcellular pores by squeezing leukocytes did not require Rho kinase or myosin II-mediated endothelial contractility. Electron-microscopic analysis suggested that nuclear squeezing displaced without condensing the endothelial actin filaments. Blocking endothelial actin turnover abolished leukocyte nuclear squeezing, whereas increasing actin filament density did not. We propose that leukocyte nuclei must disassemble the thin endothelial actin filaments interlaced between endothelial stress fibers in order to complete TEM.

  20. Asiaticoside Inhibits TNF-α-Induced Endothelial Hyperpermeability of Human Aortic Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Lai Yen; Ng, Chin Theng; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Baharuldin, Mohamad Taufik Hidayat; Arifah, Abdul Kadir; Hakim, Muhammad Nazrul; Zuraini, Ahmad

    2015-10-01

    The increase in endothelial permeability often promotes edema formation in various pathological conditions. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), a pro-atherogenic cytokine, impairs endothelial barrier function and causes endothelial dysfunction in early stage of atherosclerosis. Asiaticoside, one of the triterpenoids derived from Centella asiatica, is known to possess antiinflammatory activity. In order to examine the role of asiaticoside in preserving the endothelial barrier, we assessed its effects on endothelial hyperpermeability and disruption of actin filaments evoked by TNF-α in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). TNF-α caused an increase in endothelial permeability to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran. Asiaticoside pretreatment significantly suppressed TNF-α-induced increased permeability. Asiaticoside also prevented TNF-α-induced actin redistribution by suppressing stress fiber formation. However, the increased F to G actin ratio stimulated by TNF-α was not changed by asiaticoside. Cytochalasin D, an actin depolymerizing agent, was used to correlate the anti-hyperpermeability effect of asiaticoside with actin cytoskeleton. Surprisingly, asiaticoside failed to prevent cytochalasin D-induced increased permeability. These results suggest that asiaticoside protects against the disruption of endothelial barrier and actin rearrangement triggered by TNF-α without a significant change in total actin pool. However, asiaticoside seems to work by other mechanisms to maintain the integrity of endothelial barrier rather than stabilizing the F-actin organization.

  1. Automating quantum experiment control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kelly E.; Amini, Jason M.; Doret, S. Charles; Mohler, Greg; Volin, Curtis; Harter, Alexa W.

    2017-03-01

    The field of quantum information processing is rapidly advancing. As the control of quantum systems approaches the level needed for useful computation, the physical hardware underlying the quantum systems is becoming increasingly complex. It is already becoming impractical to manually code control for the larger hardware implementations. In this chapter, we will employ an approach to the problem of system control that parallels compiler design for a classical computer. We will start with a candidate quantum computing technology, the surface electrode ion trap, and build a system instruction language which can be generated from a simple machine-independent programming language via compilation. We incorporate compile time generation of ion routing that separates the algorithm description from the physical geometry of the hardware. Extending this approach to automatic routing at run time allows for automated initialization of qubit number and placement and additionally allows for automated recovery after catastrophic events such as qubit loss. To show that these systems can handle real hardware, we present a simple demonstration system that routes two ions around a multi-zone ion trap and handles ion loss and ion placement. While we will mainly use examples from transport-based ion trap quantum computing, many of the issues and solutions are applicable to other architectures.

  2. Automated Postediting of Documents

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, K; Knight, Kevin; Chander, Ishwar

    1994-01-01

    Large amounts of low- to medium-quality English texts are now being produced by machine translation (MT) systems, optical character readers (OCR), and non-native speakers of English. Most of this text must be postedited by hand before it sees the light of day. Improving text quality is tedious work, but its automation has not received much research attention. Anyone who has postedited a technical report or thesis written by a non-native speaker of English knows the potential of an automated postediting system. For the case of MT-generated text, we argue for the construction of postediting modules that are portable across MT systems, as an alternative to hardcoding improvements inside any one system. As an example, we have built a complete self-contained postediting module for the task of article selection (a, an, the) for English noun phrases. This is a notoriously difficult problem for Japanese-English MT. Our system contains over 200,000 rules derived automatically from online text resources. We report on l...

  3. Automated Test Case Generation

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I would like to present the concept of automated test case generation. I work on it as part of my PhD and I think it would be interesting also for other people. It is also the topic of a workshop paper that I am introducing in Paris. (abstract below) Please note that the talk itself would be more general and not about the specifics of my PhD, but about the broad field of Automated Test Case Generation. I would introduce the main approaches (combinatorial testing, symbolic execution, adaptive random testing) and their advantages and problems. (oracle problem, combinatorial explosion, ...) Abstract of the paper: Over the last decade code-based test case generation techniques such as combinatorial testing or dynamic symbolic execution have seen growing research popularity. Most algorithms and tool implementations are based on finding assignments for input parameter values in order to maximise the execution branch coverage. Only few of them consider dependencies from outside the Code Under Test’s scope such...

  4. Maneuver Automation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uffelman, Hal; Goodson, Troy; Pellegrin, Michael; Stavert, Lynn; Burk, Thomas; Beach, David; Signorelli, Joel; Jones, Jeremy; Hahn, Yungsun; Attiyah, Ahlam; Illsley, Jeannette

    2009-01-01

    The Maneuver Automation Software (MAS) automates the process of generating commands for maneuvers to keep the spacecraft of the Cassini-Huygens mission on a predetermined prime mission trajectory. Before MAS became available, a team of approximately 10 members had to work about two weeks to design, test, and implement each maneuver in a process that involved running many maneuver-related application programs and then serially handing off data products to other parts of the team. MAS enables a three-member team to design, test, and implement a maneuver in about one-half hour after Navigation has process-tracking data. MAS accepts more than 60 parameters and 22 files as input directly from users. MAS consists of Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) scripts that link, sequence, and execute the maneuver- related application programs: "Pushing a single button" on a graphical user interface causes MAS to run navigation programs that design a maneuver; programs that create sequences of commands to execute the maneuver on the spacecraft; and a program that generates predictions about maneuver performance and generates reports and other files that enable users to quickly review and verify the maneuver design. MAS can also generate presentation materials, initiate electronic command request forms, and archive all data products for future reference.

  5. Automated digital magnetofluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, J; Garcia, A A; Marquez, M [Harrington Department of Bioengineering Arizona State University, Tempe AZ 85287-9709 (United States)], E-mail: tony.garcia@asu.edu

    2008-08-15

    Drops can be moved in complex patterns on superhydrophobic surfaces using a reconfigured computer-controlled x-y metrology stage with a high degree of accuracy, flexibility, and reconfigurability. The stage employs a DMC-4030 controller which has a RISC-based, clock multiplying processor with DSP functions, accepting encoder inputs up to 22 MHz, provides servo update rates as high as 32 kHz, and processes commands at rates as fast as 40 milliseconds. A 6.35 mm diameter cylindrical NdFeB magnet is translated by the stage causing water drops to move by the action of induced magnetization of coated iron microspheres that remain in the drop and are attracted to the rare earth magnet through digital magnetofluidics. Water drops are easily moved in complex patterns in automated digital magnetofluidics at an average speed of 2.8 cm/s over a superhydrophobic polyethylene surface created by solvent casting. With additional components, some potential uses for this automated microfluidic system include characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces, water quality analysis, and medical diagnostics.

  6. Endothelial progenitor cells in cardiovascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Poay; Sian; Sabrina; Lee; Kian; Keong; Poh

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction has been associated with the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Adult endothelial progenitor cells(EPCs) are derived from hematopoietic stem cells and are capable of forming new blood vessels through a process of vas-culogenesis. There are studies which report correlations between circulating EPCs and cardiovascular risk fac-tors. There are also studies on how pharmacotherapies may influence levels of circulating EPCs. In this review, we discuss the potential role of endothelial progenitor cells as both diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. In addition, we look at the interaction between cardio-vascular pharmacotherapies and endothelial progenitor cells. We also discuss how EPCs can be used directly and indirectly as a therapeutic agent. Finally, we evalu-ate the challenges facing EPC research and how these may be overcome.

  7. Endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in asymptomatic proteinuria

    OpenAIRE

    Paisley, K.E.; Beaman, M; Tooke, J. E.; Mohamed-Ali, V; Lowe, G. D. O.; Shore, A C

    2003-01-01

    Background. Proteinuria is associated with vascular risk and a systemic increase in vascular permeability. Endothelial dysfunction occurs early in atherosclerosis and modulates vascular permeability. Vascular risk and chronic inflammation are associated. This study investigates whether the increased vascular permeability in proteinuria reflects systemic endothelial dysfunction and chronic inflammation. Methods. Twenty-one patients with asymptomatic proteinuria (1.29 g/24 h; range 0.18 to 3.17...

  8. Get smart! automate your house!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Amstel, P.; Gorter, N.; De Rouw, J.

    2016-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Innovation and Sustainability This manual will help you in reducing both energy usage and costs by automating your home. It gives an introduction to a number of home automation systems that every homeowner can install.

  9. Opening up Library Automation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the history of library automation, the author has seen a steady advancement toward more open systems. In the early days of library automation, when proprietary systems dominated, the need for standards was paramount since other means of inter-operability and data exchange weren't possible. Today's focus on Application Programming…

  10. Classification of Automated Search Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehrer, Greg; Stokes, Jack W.; Chellapilla, Kumar; Platt, John C.

    As web search providers seek to improve both relevance and response times, they are challenged by the ever-increasing tax of automated search query traffic. Third party systems interact with search engines for a variety of reasons, such as monitoring a web site’s rank, augmenting online games, or possibly to maliciously alter click-through rates. In this paper, we investigate automated traffic (sometimes referred to as bot traffic) in the query stream of a large search engine provider. We define automated traffic as any search query not generated by a human in real time. We first provide examples of different categories of query logs generated by automated means. We then develop many different features that distinguish between queries generated by people searching for information, and those generated by automated processes. We categorize these features into two classes, either an interpretation of the physical model of human interactions, or as behavioral patterns of automated interactions. Using the these detection features, we next classify the query stream using multiple binary classifiers. In addition, a multiclass classifier is then developed to identify subclasses of both normal and automated traffic. An active learning algorithm is used to suggest which user sessions to label to improve the accuracy of the multiclass classifier, while also seeking to discover new classes of automated traffic. Performance analysis are then provided. Finally, the multiclass classifier is used to predict the subclass distribution for the search query stream.

  11. Translation: Aids, Robots, and Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyewsky, Alexander

    1981-01-01

    Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators. Describes the limitations of robotic MT (Machine Translation) systems, viewing MAT (Machine-Aided Translation) as the only practical solution and the best vehicle for further automation. (MES)

  12. Automated Methods Of Corrosion Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Reeve, John Ch

    1997-01-01

    The chapter describes the following automated measurements: Corrosion Measurements by Titration, Imaging Corrosion by Scanning Probe Microscopy, Critical Pitting Temperature and Application of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Permeation Cell.......The chapter describes the following automated measurements: Corrosion Measurements by Titration, Imaging Corrosion by Scanning Probe Microscopy, Critical Pitting Temperature and Application of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Permeation Cell....

  13. Ultrasound assessment of endothelial function in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko J Järvisalo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Mikko J Järvisalo1,2, Olli T Raitakari21Department of Internal Medicine, Satakunta Central Hospital, Pori, Finland; 2Department of Clinical Physiology, Turku University Hospital, Turku, FinlandAbstract: Although the clinical complications of atherosclerosis arise from developed lesions in old age, the atherosclerotic disease is a lifelong process with roots in childhood. Endothelial dysfunction is currently considered an early stage in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, which precedes the formation of structural atherosclerotic changes. Improvements in noninvasive imaging modalities, mainly in ultrasound imaging, have made it possible to assess the endothelial health of asymptomatic children with or without cardiovascular risk factors. By using noninvasive ultrasound for endothelial function, important insights have been gained into the early stages of atherosclerosis and the effects of cardiovascular risk factors on vasculature in childhood. The ultrasound test of endothelial function is affordable, available, and safe and may be considered a potent aid in clinical risk stratification of children at high risk for subsequent clinical atherosclerosis in adulthood. At present, this methodology serves only research purposes, as many issues including reproducibility and normal values for healthy children need to be solved before clinical use can be considered. In adults, however, recent studies have shown that attenuated endothelial function predicts the occurrence of future cardiovascular events.Keywords: atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, ultrasound imaging, childhood vasculature

  14. Endothelial Dysfunction in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis M. Steyers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. As the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is increasingly recognized as an inflammatory process, similarities between atherosclerosis and systemic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, lupus, psoriasis, spondyloarthritis and others have become a topic of interest. Endothelial dysfunction represents a key step in the initiation and maintenance of atherosclerosis and may serve as a marker for future risk of cardiovascular events. Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases manifest endothelial dysfunction, often early in the course of the disease. Therefore, mechanisms linking systemic inflammatory diseases and atherosclerosis may be best understood at the level of the endothelium. Multiple factors, including circulating inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α, reactive oxygen species, oxidized LDL (low density lipoprotein, autoantibodies and traditional risk factors directly and indirectly activate endothelial cells, leading to impaired vascular relaxation, increased leukocyte adhesion, increased endothelial permeability and generation of a pro-thrombotic state. Pharmacologic agents directed against TNF-α-mediated inflammation may decrease the risk of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease in these patients. Understanding the precise mechanisms driving endothelial dysfunction in patients with systemic inflammatory diseases may help elucidate the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in the general population.

  15. Clinical observing on the Tear Film Stability after Penetrating Keratoplasty%穿透性角膜移植术后泪膜稳定性的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚朝秀; 李奇根; 王涛; 董丽洁; 朱春兰

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨穿透性角膜移植术后泪膜稳定性的变化规律.方法 对20例行部分穿透性角膜移植术后的患者分别观察术后6、9、12个月主观感觉、泪膜破裂时间(BUT)、泪液分泌值、泪河高度值、角膜荧光素染色,并与健眼对照观察.将结果作统计学分析.结果 穿透性角膜移植术后12个月内,术眼泪膜破裂时间低于健眼(P<0.01),但患者无明显眼部干涩等症状;泪液分泌值在6个月时,比较健眼有统计学意义(P<0.01),9、12个月时与健眼相比无统计学意义(P>0.05);泪河高度值在6个月时比较健眼有统计学意义(P<0.01),9、12个月时术眼与健眼无统计学意义(P>0.05);荧光素染色在6个月时评分为7.89,与健眼比较有统计学意义(P<0.01),9、12月时评分为4.62、3.03,与健眼比较无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 穿透性角膜移植术后6~12月的时间内,术跟的泪膜稳定性仍未恢复到正常水平,特别是泪膜破裂时间的缩短较健眼有显著差异(P<0.01),提示穿透性角膜移植术后12个月时间内,存在泪膜不稳定和干眼症,需要定期复查泪膜变化,根据情况使用不含防腐剂的人工泪液和角膜营养,神经营养药物.%Objective To investigate tear film changes after penetrating keratoplasty. Methods Twenty cases (20eyes)after penetrating keratoplasty were examined. We observed subjective symptom, tear fill bread-up time, Schirmer Test Ⅰ with anaesthesia, the height of tear meniscus and corneal fluorescein staining. On both operative eye and healthy eye of the patients at 6m, 9m, 12m after penetrating keratoplasty. Then the results were analysis in statistics.Results During 6m after penetrating keratoplasty the data of tear film break-up time of the operative eye was less than the healthy eye(P<0,01 ). But the patients didn't feel dull and dry; the data of Schirmer Test Ⅰ with anaesthesia of the operative eye was significantly different from the

  16. Automated Standard Hazard Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebler, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The current system used to generate standard hazard reports is considered cumbersome and iterative. This study defines a structure for this system's process in a clear, algorithmic way so that standard hazard reports and basic hazard analysis may be completed using a centralized, web-based computer application. To accomplish this task, a test server is used to host a prototype of the tool during development. The prototype is configured to easily integrate into NASA's current server systems with minimal alteration. Additionally, the tool is easily updated and provides NASA with a system that may grow to accommodate future requirements and possibly, different applications. Results of this project's success are outlined in positive, subjective reviews complete by payload providers and NASA Safety and Mission Assurance personnel. Ideally, this prototype will increase interest in the concept of standard hazard automation and lead to the full-scale production of a user-ready application.

  17. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  18. [From automation to robotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The introduction of automation into the laboratory of biology seems to be unavoidable. But at which cost, if it is necessary to purchase a new machine for every new application? Fortunately the same image processing techniques, belonging to a theoretic framework called Mathematical Morphology, may be used in visual inspection tasks, both in car industry and in the biology lab. Since the market for industrial robotics applications is much higher than the market of biomedical applications, the price of image processing devices drops, and becomes sometimes less than the price of a complete microscope equipment. The power of the image processing methods of Mathematical Morphology will be illustrated by various examples, as automatic silver grain counting in autoradiography, determination of HLA genotype, electrophoretic gels analysis, automatic screening of cervical smears... Thus several heterogeneous applications may share the same image processing device, provided there is a separate and devoted work station for each of them.

  19. Automated electronic filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Amal

    2017-01-01

    This book describes a novel, efficient and powerful scheme for designing and evaluating the performance characteristics of any electronic filter designed with predefined specifications. The author explains techniques that enable readers to eliminate complicated manual, and thus error-prone and time-consuming, steps of traditional design techniques. The presentation includes demonstration of efficient automation, using an ANSI C language program, which accepts any filter design specification (e.g. Chebyschev low-pass filter, cut-off frequency, pass-band ripple etc.) as input and generates as output a SPICE(Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) format netlist. Readers then can use this netlist to run simulations with any version of the popular SPICE simulator, increasing accuracy of the final results, without violating any of the key principles of the traditional design scheme.

  20. Automated Essay Scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semire DIKLI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated Essay Scoring Semire DIKLI Florida State University Tallahassee, FL, USA ABSTRACT The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali, 2004. AES is defined as the computer technology that evaluates and scores the written prose (Shermis & Barrera, 2002; Shermis & Burstein, 2003; Shermis, Raymat, & Barrera, 2003. Revision and feedback are essential aspects of the writing process. Students need to receive feedback in order to increase their writing quality. However, responding to student papers can be a burden for teachers. Particularly if they have large number of students and if they assign frequent writing assignments, providing individual feedback to student essays might be quite time consuming. AES systems can be very useful because they can provide the student with a score as well as feedback within seconds (Page, 2003. Four types of AES systems, which are widely used by testing companies, universities, and public schools: Project Essay Grader (PEG, Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA, E-rater, and IntelliMetric. AES is a developing technology. Many AES systems are used to overcome time, cost, and generalizability issues in writing assessment. The accuracy and reliability of these systems have been proven to be high. The search for excellence in machine scoring of essays is continuing and numerous studies are being conducted to improve the effectiveness of the AES systems.

  1. Effects of vascular endothelial growth factor on angiogenesis of the endothelial cells isolated from cavernous malformations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN YuZhen; ZHAO Yao; WANG HaiJie; ZHOU LiangFu; MAO Ying; LIU Rui; SHU Jia; WANG YongFei

    2008-01-01

    Human cerebral cavernous malformation (CM) is a common vascular malformation of the central nervous system. We have investigated the biological characteristics of CM endothelial cells and the cellular and molecular mechanisms of CM angiogenesis to offer new insights into exploring effective measures for treatment of this disease. The endothelial cells were isolated from CM tissue masses dissected during operation and expanded in vitro. Expression of VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 was examined with immunocytochemical staining. Proliferation, migration and tube formation of CM endothelial cells were determined using MTT, wounding and transmigration assays, and three-dimensional collagen type Ⅰ gel respectively. The endothelial cells were successfully isolated from the tissue specimens of 25 CMs dissected without dipolar electrocoagulation. The cells show the general characteristics of the vascular endothelial cells. Expression of VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 on the cells is higher than that on the normal cerebral microvascular endothelial cells. After treatment with VEGF, numbers of the proliferated and migrated cells, the maximal distance of cell migration and the length and area of capillary-like struc-tures formed in the three-dimensional collagen gel increase significantly. These results demonstrate that expression of VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 on CM endothelial cells is up-regulated. By binding to re-ceptors, VEGF may activate the downstream signaling pathways and promote proliferation, migration and tube formation of CM endothelial cells. VEGF/VEGFR signaling pathways play important regulating roles in CM angiogenesis.

  2. 飞秒激光辅助的深板层角膜移植治疗圆锥角膜患者的护理%Nursing of femtosecond laser-assisted deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty for keratoconus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢玉文; 丁颖; 刘佳; 叶婷; 张利

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨飞秒激光辅助的深板层角膜移植治疗圆锥角膜患者的护理方法。方法对9例10眼圆锥角膜患者行飞秒激光辅助的深板层角膜移植术,进行充分的术前、术中、术后护理,总结护理经验。结果所有患者术后效果满意,视力均有不同程度提高,达到治疗目的。1例患者术中出现角膜后弹力层微穿孔并发症。结论飞秒激光辅助的深板层角膜移植术对圆锥角膜患者安全有效。术前协助患者做好飞秒激光参数设置相关的眼部检查,术中协助患者配合手术及严格无菌操作,术后严密观察病情变化,出院指导及随访是巩固治疗成果的重要环节。%Objective To explore the nursing of patients with keratoconus after performing the deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty assisted by femtosecond laser .Methods 9 patients with keratoconus hadfemtosecond laser-assisted deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty . Adequate preoperative , intraoperative and postoperative nursing care was performed .Results All the patients were satisfied with the results of sugery and their visual acuity were improved for various status .The purpose of treatment was achieved .One patient had intraoperative complication of small descemet membrane perforation .Conclusions Our early results of femtosecond laser-assisted deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty turn to be safe and effective .The key nursing care of preoperative period is to help patients make ophthalmic examination related to parameter settings of femtosecond laser , and the intraoperative period is to help patients coordinate with surgery and closely observe the changes of patients .The instructions of discharge and follow-up are also the important parts of consolidation the therapy outcomes .

  3. 穿透性角膜移植术治疗中晚期圆锥角膜的围手术期护理%Perioperative nursing of keratoconus patients with keratoplasty The first affiliated hospital of Nanchang university

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨穿透性角膜移植术治疗中晚期圆锥角膜的围手术期护理方法。方法:对27例(30眼)中晚期圆锥角膜患者进行穿透性角膜移植术,进行充分有效的心理护理、术前准备及全面的术中配合、术后护理,正确的出院指导。结果:本组病例手术效果满意,视力均有不同程度的提高,临床刺激症状明显改善,术后26眼视力较术前提高,原发病复发1例,排斥反应2例,继发性青光眼1例,经及时处理均治愈。结论:中晚期圆锥角膜行穿透性角膜移植术患者,心理护理可取得患者的信任与合作,是手术成功的基础,术中严格无菌技术操作及全面的配合是手术成功的保障,严密观察病情变化,发现异常积极采取有效措施是手术成功的关键,出院指导是巩固治疗成果的重要环节。%objective:to investigate nursing care interventions for keratoconus patients with keratoplasty and outcomes.Methods:twenty—seven cases of keratoconus patients were admited to our hospital from January of 2011 to January of 2013 al of them under went keratoplasty proceedure and was provided perioperative nursing care.Results:the degree of visual acuity improved and the clinical symptoms were relieved significantly without prominent complications.Conclusion:keratoplasty could control the development of keratoconus.Prompt operation quality psychological care, preoperative preparation and postoperative nursing interventions could help these patients to achieve optimal outcomes.

  4. Protection of Coronary Endothelial Function during Cardiac Surgery: Potential of Targeting Endothelial Ion Channels in Cardioprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelium plays a critical role in the control of blood flow by producing vasoactive factors to regulate vascular tone. Ion channels, in particular, K+ channels and Ca2+-permeable channels in endothelial cells, are essential to the production and function of endothelium-derived vasoactive factors. Impairment of coronary endothelial function occurs in open heart surgery that may result in reduction of coronary blood flow and thus in an inadequate myocardial perfusion. Hyperkalemic exposure and concurrent ischemia-reperfusion during cardioplegic intervention compromise NO and EDHF-mediated function and the impairment involves alterations of K+ channels, that is, KATP and KCa, and Ca2+-permeable TRP channels in endothelial cells. Pharmacological modulation of these channels during ischemia-reperfusion and hyperkalemic exposure show promising results on the preservation of NO and EDHF-mediated endothelial function, which suggests the potential of targeting endothelial K+ and TRP channels for myocardial protection during cardiac surgery.

  5. [Assessment of endothelial function in autoimmune diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhamou, Y; Bellien, J; Armengol, G; Gomez, E; Richard, V; Lévesque, H; Joannidès, R

    2014-08-01

    Numerous autoimmune-inflammatory rheumatic diseases have been associated with accelerated atherosclerosis or other types of vasculopathy leading to an increase in cardiovascular disease incidence. In addition to traditional cardiovascular risk factors, endothelial dysfunction is an important early event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, contributing to plaque initiation and progression. Endothelial dysfunction is characterized by a shift of the actions of the endothelium toward reduced vasodilation, a proinflammatory and a proadhesive state, and prothrombic properties. Therefore, assessment of endothelial dysfunction targets this vascular phenotype using several biological markers as indicators of endothelial dysfunction. Measurements of soluble adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin), pro-thrombotic factors (thrombomodulin, von Willebrand factor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) and inflammatory cytokines are most often performed. Regarding the functional assessment of the endothelium, the flow-mediated dilatation of conduit arteries is a non-invasive method widely used in pathophysiological and interventional studies. In this review, we will briefly review the most relevant information upon endothelial dysfunction mechanisms and explorations. We will summarize the similarities and differences in the biological and functional assessments of the endothelium in different autoimmune diseases.

  6. Dietary phosphorus acutely impairs endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuto, Emi; Taketani, Yutaka; Tanaka, Rieko; Harada, Nagakatsu; Isshiki, Masashi; Sato, Minako; Nashiki, Kunitaka; Amo, Kikuko; Yamamoto, Hironori; Higashi, Yukihito; Nakaya, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji

    2009-07-01

    Excessive dietary phosphorus may increase cardiovascular risk in healthy individuals as well as in patients with chronic kidney disease, but the mechanisms underlying this risk are not completely understood. To determine whether postprandial hyperphosphatemia may promote endothelial dysfunction, we investigated the acute effect of phosphorus loading on endothelial function in vitro and in vivo. Exposing bovine aortic endothelial cells to a phosphorus load increased production of reactive oxygen species, which depended on phosphorus influx via sodium-dependent phosphate transporters, and decreased nitric oxide production via inhibitory phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Phosphorus loading inhibited endothelium-dependent vasodilation of rat aortic rings. In 11 healthy men, we alternately served meals containing 400 mg or 1200 mg of phosphorus in a double-blind crossover study and measured flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery before and 2 h after the meals. The high dietary phosphorus load increased serum phosphorus at 2 h and significantly decreased flow-mediated dilation. Flow-mediated dilation correlated inversely with serum phosphorus. Taken together, these findings suggest that endothelial dysfunction mediated by acute postprandial hyperphosphatemia may contribute to the relationship between serum phosphorus level and the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  7. Building Automation Using Wired Communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Supriya Gund*,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a building automation system where communication technology LAN has been used. This paper mainly focuses on the controlling of home appliances remotely and providing security when the user is away from the place. This system provides ideal solution to the problems faced by home owners in daily life. This system provides security against intrusion as well as automates various home appliances using LAN. To demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed system, the device such as fire sensor, gas sensor, panic switch, intruder switch along with the smartcard have been developed and evaluated with the building automation system. These techniques are successfully merged in a single building automation system. This system offers a complete, low cost powerful and user friendly way of real-time monitoring and remote control of a building.

  8. Evolution of Home Automation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Rihan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern society home and office automation has becomeincreasingly important, providing ways to interconnectvarious home appliances. This interconnection results infaster transfer of information within home/offices leading tobetter home management and improved user experience.Home Automation, in essence, is a technology thatintegrates various electrical systems of a home to provideenhanced comfort and security. Users are grantedconvenient and complete control over all the electrical homeappliances and they are relieved from the tasks thatpreviously required manual control. This paper tracks thedevelopment of home automation technology over the lasttwo decades. Various home automation technologies havebeen explained briefly, giving a chronological account of theevolution of one of the most talked about technologies ofrecent times.

  9. Home automation with Intel Galileo

    CERN Document Server

    Dundar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    This book is for anyone who wants to learn Intel Galileo for home automation and cross-platform software development. No knowledge of programming with Intel Galileo is assumed, but knowledge of the C programming language is essential.

  10. Automating the Purple Crow Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicks Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Purple Crow LiDAR (PCL was built to measure short and long term coupling between the lower, middle, and upper atmosphere. The initial component of my MSc. project is to automate two key elements of the PCL: the rotating liquid mercury mirror and the Zaber alignment mirror. In addition to the automation of the Zaber alignment mirror, it is also necessary to describe the mirror’s movement and positioning errors. Its properties will then be added into the alignment software. Once the alignment software has been completed, we will compare the new alignment method with the previous manual procedure. This is the first among several projects that will culminate in a fully-automated lidar. Eventually, we will be able to work remotely, thereby increasing the amount of data we collect. This paper will describe the motivation for automation, the methods we propose, preliminary results for the Zaber alignment error analysis, and future work.

  11. Network based automation for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahabeddini Parizi, Mohammad; Radziwon, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of appropriate automation concepts which increase productivity in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) requires a lot of effort, due to their limited resources. Therefore, it is strongly recommended for small firms to open up for the external sources of knowledge, which...... automation solutions. The empirical data collection involved application of a combination of comparative case study method with action research elements. This article provides an outlook over the challenges in implementing technological improvements and the way how it could be resolved in collaboration...... with other members of the same regional ecosystem. The findings highlight two main automation related areas where manufacturing SMEs could leverage on external sources on knowledge – these are assistance in defining automation problem as well as appropriate solution and provider selection. Consequently...

  12. National Automated Conformity Inspection Process -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The National Automated Conformity Inspection Process (NACIP) Application is intended to expedite the workflow process as it pertains to the FAA Form 81 0-10 Request...

  13. Restoring vision with an early penetrating keratoplasty after bee sting injury: a case report%蜂螫后早期行穿透性角膜移植成功恢复视力1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roslinah Muji; Muzaliha Mohd Nor; Anusiah Selvathurai; Raja Norliza Raja Omar; Juliana Jalaluddin; Norfadzillah Abd Jalil; Shatriah Ismail

    2009-01-01

    ·A 27-year-old man was stung by a bee presented with severe pain in the right eye. It was associated with reduced vision and swelling of the eyelids. A retained stinger was identified at the center of the cornea, surrounded by dense corneal oedema and numerous folds in the Descemet's membrane. The sting was removed completely. He subsequently developed persistent corneal oedema and heterochromia iridis. He was treated with intensive topical steroids. He underwent penetrating keratoplasty five months after the injury. His visual acuity was satisfactory one year after the surgery. Corneal oedema is an uncommon complication of bee sting injuries. It can be persistent and results in severe visual impairment. An early penetrating keratoplasty offers a good visual outcome after bee sting injury.%一位27岁的男士右眼被蜜蜂螫伤.右眼剧痛伴视力下降及眼睑肿胀.角膜中央可见滞留的毒刺,周围有明显的角膜水肿和较多的后弹力膜皱襞.针迅速地被移除后,患者继发持续性的角膜水肿和虹膜异色.患眼局部应用激素,并于5mo后行穿透性角膜移植.手术后1a其视力良好.蜜蜂螫伤眼后所致的角膜水肿少见,可长期存在并导致严重的视力损害.早期行穿透性角膜移植有利于获得好的视力.

  14. Development of Endothelial-Specific Single Inducible Lentiviral Vectors for Genetic Engineering of Endothelial Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guanghua; Kramer, M Gabriela; Fernandez-Ruiz, Veronica; Kawa, Milosz P; Huang, Xin; Liu, Zhongmin; Prieto, Jesus; Qian, Cheng

    2015-11-27

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are able to migrate to tumor vasculature. These cells, if genetically modified, can be used as vehicles to deliver toxic material to, or express anticancer proteins in tumor. To test this hypothesis, we developed several single, endothelial-specific, and doxycycline-inducible self-inactivating (SIN) lentiviral vectors. Two distinct expression cassettes were inserted into a SIN-vector: one controlled by an endothelial lineage-specific, murine vascular endothelial cadherin (mVEcad) promoter for the expression of a transactivator, rtTA2S-M2; and the other driven by an inducible promoter, TREalb, for a firefly luciferase reporter gene. We compared the expression levels of luciferase in different vector constructs, containing either the same or opposite orientation with respect to the vector sequence. The results showed that the vector with these two expression cassettes placed in opposite directions was optimal, characterized by a robust induction of the transgene expression (17.7- to 73-fold) in the presence of doxycycline in several endothelial cell lines, but without leakiness when uninduced. In conclusion, an endothelial lineage-specific single inducible SIN lentiviral vector has been developed. Such a lentiviral vector can be used to endow endothelial progenitor cells with anti-tumor properties.

  15. Evolution of Home Automation Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd. Rihan; M. Salim Beg

    2009-01-01

    In modern society home and office automation has becomeincreasingly important, providing ways to interconnectvarious home appliances. This interconnection results infaster transfer of information within home/offices leading tobetter home management and improved user experience.Home Automation, in essence, is a technology thatintegrates various electrical systems of a home to provideenhanced comfort and security. Users are grantedconvenient and complete control over all the electrical homeappl...

  16. Technology modernization assessment flexible automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, D.W.; Boyd, D.R.; Hansen, N.H.; Hansen, M.A.; Yount, J.A.

    1990-12-01

    The objectives of this report are: to present technology assessment guidelines to be considered in conjunction with defense regulations before an automation project is developed to give examples showing how assessment guidelines may be applied to a current project to present several potential areas where automation might be applied successfully in the depot system. Depots perform primarily repair and remanufacturing operations, with limited small batch manufacturing runs. While certain activities (such as Management Information Systems and warehousing) are directly applicable to either environment, the majority of applications will require combining existing and emerging technologies in different ways, with the special needs of depot remanufacturing environment. Industry generally enjoys the ability to make revisions to its product lines seasonally, followed by batch runs of thousands or more. Depot batch runs are in the tens, at best the hundreds, of parts with a potential for large variation in product mix; reconfiguration may be required on a week-to-week basis. This need for a higher degree of flexibility suggests a higher level of operator interaction, and, in turn, control systems that go beyond the state of the art for less flexible automation and industry in general. This report investigates the benefits and barriers to automation and concludes that, while significant benefits do exist for automation, depots must be prepared to carefully investigate the technical feasibility of each opportunity and the life-cycle costs associated with implementation. Implementation is suggested in two ways: (1) develop an implementation plan for automation technologies based on results of small demonstration automation projects; (2) use phased implementation for both these and later stage automation projects to allow major technical and administrative risk issues to be addressed. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs. (JF)

  17. Aprendizaje automático

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Antonio

    1994-01-01

    En este libro se introducen los conceptos básicos en una de las ramas más estudiadas actualmente dentro de la inteligencia artificial: el aprendizaje automático. Se estudian temas como el aprendizaje inductivo, el razonamiento analógico, el aprendizaje basado en explicaciones, las redes neuronales, los algoritmos genéticos, el razonamiento basado en casos o las aproximaciones teóricas al aprendizaje automático.

  18. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’15, held in Fuzhou, China. The topics include adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, reconfigurable control, etc. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into interdisciplinary solutions in the field of intelligent automation.

  19. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  20. Multifunction automated crawling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Joffe, Benjamin (Inventor); Backes, Paul Gregory (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an automated crawling robot system including a platform, a first leg assembly, a second leg assembly, first and second rails attached to the platform, and an onboard electronic computer controller. The first leg assembly has an intermittent coupling device and the second leg assembly has an intermittent coupling device for intermittently coupling the respective first and second leg assemblies to a particular object. The first and second leg assemblies are slidably coupled to the rail assembly and are slidably driven by motors to thereby allow linear movement. In addition, the first leg assembly is rotary driven by a rotary motor to thereby provide rotary motion relative to the platform. To effectuate motion, the intermittent coupling devices of the first and second leg assemblies alternately couple the respective first and second leg assemblies to an object. This motion is done while simultaneously moving one of the leg assemblies linearly in the desired direction and preparing the next step. This arrangement allows the crawler of the present invention to traverse an object in a range of motion covering 360 degrees.

  1. Automated ISS Flight Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Jan Tuzlic

    2016-01-01

    During my internship at NASA Johnson Space Center, I worked in the Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG), where I was tasked with a number of projects focused on the automation of tasks and activities related to the operation of the International Space Station (ISS). As I worked on a number of projects, I have written short sections below to give a description for each, followed by more general remarks on the internship experience. My first project is titled "General Exposure Representation EVADOSE", also known as "GEnEVADOSE". This project involved the design and development of a C++/ ROOT framework focused on radiation exposure for extravehicular activity (EVA) planning for the ISS. The utility helps mission managers plan EVAs by displaying information on the cumulative radiation doses that crew will receive during an EVA as a function of the egress time and duration of the activity. SRAG uses a utility called EVADOSE, employing a model of the space radiation environment in low Earth orbit to predict these doses, as while outside the ISS the astronauts will have less shielding from charged particles such as electrons and protons. However, EVADOSE output is cumbersome to work with, and prior to GEnEVADOSE, querying data and producing graphs of ISS trajectories and cumulative doses versus egress time required manual work in Microsoft Excel. GEnEVADOSE automates all this work, reading in EVADOSE output file(s) along with a plaintext file input by the user providing input parameters. GEnEVADOSE will output a text file containing all the necessary dosimetry for each proposed EVA egress time, for each specified EVADOSE file. It also plots cumulative dose versus egress time and the ISS trajectory, and displays all of this information in an auto-generated presentation made in LaTeX. New features have also been added, such as best-case scenarios (egress times corresponding to the least dose), interpolated curves for trajectories, and the ability to query any time in the

  2. Automated Gas Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Allen; Clark, Henry

    2012-10-01

    The cyclotron of Texas A&M University is one of the few and prized cyclotrons in the country. Behind the scenes of the cyclotron is a confusing, and dangerous setup of the ion sources that supplies the cyclotron with particles for acceleration. To use this machine there is a time consuming, and even wasteful step by step process of switching gases, purging, and other important features that must be done manually to keep the system functioning properly, while also trying to maintain the safety of the working environment. Developing a new gas distribution system to the ion source prevents many of the problems generated by the older manually setup process. This developed system can be controlled manually in an easier fashion than before, but like most of the technology and machines in the cyclotron now, is mainly operated based on software programming developed through graphical coding environment Labview. The automated gas distribution system provides multi-ports for a selection of different gases to decrease the amount of gas wasted through switching gases, and a port for the vacuum to decrease the amount of time spent purging the manifold. The Labview software makes the operation of the cyclotron and ion sources easier, and safer for anyone to use.

  3. Genetic circuit design automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Alec A K; Der, Bryan S; Shin, Jonghyeon; Vaidyanathan, Prashant; Paralanov, Vanya; Strychalski, Elizabeth A; Ross, David; Densmore, Douglas; Voigt, Christopher A

    2016-04-01

    Computation can be performed in living cells by DNA-encoded circuits that process sensory information and control biological functions. Their construction is time-intensive, requiring manual part assembly and balancing of regulator expression. We describe a design environment, Cello, in which a user writes Verilog code that is automatically transformed into a DNA sequence. Algorithms build a circuit diagram, assign and connect gates, and simulate performance. Reliable circuit design requires the insulation of gates from genetic context, so that they function identically when used in different circuits. We used Cello to design 60 circuits forEscherichia coli(880,000 base pairs of DNA), for which each DNA sequence was built as predicted by the software with no additional tuning. Of these, 45 circuits performed correctly in every output state (up to 10 regulators and 55 parts), and across all circuits 92% of the output states functioned as predicted. Design automation simplifies the incorporation of genetic circuits into biotechnology projects that require decision-making, control, sensing, or spatial organization.

  4. Automated sugar analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Alcides MARQUES

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sugarcane monosaccharides are reducing sugars, and classical analytical methodologies (Lane-Eynon, Benedict, complexometric-EDTA, Luff-Schoorl, Musson-Walker, Somogyi-Nelson are based on reducing copper ions in alkaline solutions. In Brazil, certain factories use Lane-Eynon, others use the equipment referred to as “REDUTEC”, and additional factories analyze reducing sugars based on a mathematic model. The objective of this paper is to understand the relationship between variations in millivolts, mass and tenors of reducing sugars during the analysis process. Another objective is to generate an automatic model for this process. The work herein uses the equipment referred to as “REDUTEC”, a digital balance, a peristaltic pump, a digital camcorder, math programs and graphics programs. We conclude that the millivolts, mass and tenors of reducing sugars exhibit a good mathematical correlation, and the mathematical model generated was benchmarked to low-concentration reducing sugars (<0.3%. Using the model created herein, reducing sugars analyses can be automated using the new equipment.

  5. 穿透性角膜移植治疗LASIK术后继发圆锥角膜%Penetrating keratoplasty for secondary keratoconus after Laser in situ keratomileusis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚晓明; 黎明; 于莉; 齐卫; 诸凤娇; 袁凤波; 姚迪

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察穿透性角膜移植治疗准分子激光原位角膜磨削术(Laserin situkeratomileusis,LASIK)术后继发圆锥角膜的效果.方法 对6例LASIK术后确诊为继发圆锥角膜的患者进行穿透性角膜移植术,选用直径7~7.5mm植片,与植床等大.术后随访1~5年,观察和评价其疗效.结果 本研究6例患者LASIK术前角膜厚度平均为394.9μm.术后圆锥发生时间(13±3.4)个月,穿透性角膜移植术后,中央角膜厚度平均为504.7μm,视力明显增进,随访期内未见圆锥角膜复发.讨论我们建议,进行LASIK对术中切削时,角膜基质床的厚度不应小于270μm,角膜总厚度不应小于400μm.对LASIK术后继发圆锥角膜患者行穿透性角膜移植术,植床直径与角膜植片等大,术后再选择性拆除缝线,将有助于降低术后免疫排斥反应发生率和圆锥复发,减少手术源性散光,提高视力.%Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) for secondary keratoconus after Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Methods Six eyes of secondary keratoconus after LASIK undergoing PKP were analyzed with 7.5mm transplant which had the same diameter that positively matching the recipient bed. The therapeutic effect had been monitored and assessed for the follow-up 1 to 5 years. Results Post-operatively, the six patients had an average 504.7+8.3μ m of central cornea thickness.The visual acuity improved obviously and there was no recurrence of keratoconus during the follow-up period.Conclusions It is encouraged that during the PKP, the thickness of stromal bed should be less than 270μ m,and the overall thickness of cornea after photoablation should be greater than 400μ m. For the ectatic corneas followed by LASIK, it is essential to replace the abnormal cornea by a same diameter donor button, and the sutures will be removed under the guidance of corneal topography. A lower occurrence of immunological rejection, iatrogenic

  6. Endothelial cell promotion of early liver and pancreas development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Deborah A; Kashima, Yasushige; Zaret, Kenneth S

    2007-01-01

    Different steps of embryonic pancreas and liver development require inductive signals from endothelial cells. During liver development, interactions between newly specified hepatic endoderm cells and nascent endothelial cells are crucial for the endoderm's subsequent growth and morphogenesis into a liver bud. Reconstitution of endothelial cell stimulation of hepatic cell growth with embryonic tissue explants demonstrated that endothelial signalling occurs independent of the blood supply. During pancreas development, midgut endoderm interactions with aortic endothelial cells induce Ptf1a, a crucial pancreatic determinant. Endothelial cells also have a later effect on pancreas development, by promoting survival of the dorsal mesenchyme, which in turn produces factors supporting pancreatic endoderm. A major goal of our laboratory is to determine the endothelial-derived molecules involved in these inductive events. Our data show that cultured endothelial cells induce Ptf1a in dorsal endoderm explants lacking an endogenous vasculature. We are purifying endothelial cell line product(s) responsible for this effect. We are also identifying endothelial-responsive regulatory elements in genes such as Ptf1a by genetic mapping and chromatin-based assays. These latter approaches will allow us to track endothelial-responsive signal pathways from DNA targets within progenitor cells. The diversity of organogenic steps dependent upon endothelial cell signalling suggests that cross-regulation of tissue development with its vasculature is a general phenomenon.

  7. AUTOMATED ANALYSIS OF BREAKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Farhadzade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breakers relate to Electric Power Systems’ equipment, the reliability of which influence, to a great extend, on reliability of Power Plants. In particular, the breakers determine structural reliability of switchgear circuit of Power Stations and network substations. Failure in short-circuit switching off by breaker with further failure of reservation unit or system of long-distance protection lead quite often to system emergency.The problem of breakers’ reliability improvement and the reduction of maintenance expenses is becoming ever more urgent in conditions of systematic increasing of maintenance cost and repair expenses of oil circuit and air-break circuit breakers. The main direction of this problem solution is the improvement of diagnostic control methods and organization of on-condition maintenance. But this demands to use a great amount of statistic information about nameplate data of breakers and their operating conditions, about their failures, testing and repairing, advanced developments (software of computer technologies and specific automated information system (AIS.The new AIS with AISV logo was developed at the department: “Reliability of power equipment” of AzRDSI of Energy. The main features of AISV are:· to provide the security and data base accuracy;· to carry out systematic control of breakers conformity with operating conditions;· to make the estimation of individual  reliability’s value and characteristics of its changing for given combination of characteristics variety;· to provide personnel, who is responsible for technical maintenance of breakers, not only with information but also with methodological support, including recommendations for the given problem solving  and advanced methods for its realization.

  8. Endothelial derived hyperpolarization in renal interlobar arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasen, Jens Christian; Sørensen, Charlotte M.

    2015-01-01

    In small arteries, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) are connect by myoendothelial junctions (MEJ), usually extending from the EC. Ca2+ activated K+ channels (IKCa and SKCa) located in the MEJ are suggested to play a role in NO-independent endothelium derived...

  9. Brain endothelial dysfunction in cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musolino, Patricia L; Gong, Yi; Snyder, Juliet M T; Jimenez, Sandra; Lok, Josephine; Lo, Eng H; Moser, Ann B; Grabowski, Eric F; Frosch, Matthew P; Eichler, Florian S

    2015-11-01

    See Aubourg (doi:10.1093/awv271) for a scientific commentary on this article.X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene leading to accumulation of very long chain fatty acids. Its most severe neurological manifestation is cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy. Here we demonstrate that progressive inflammatory demyelination in cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy coincides with blood-brain barrier dysfunction, increased MMP9 expression, and changes in endothelial tight junction proteins as well as adhesion molecules. ABCD1, but not its closest homologue ABCD2, is highly expressed in human brain microvascular endothelial cells, far exceeding its expression in the systemic vasculature. Silencing of ABCD1 in human brain microvascular endothelial cells causes accumulation of very long chain fatty acids, but much later than the immediate upregulation of adhesion molecules and decrease in tight junction proteins. This results in greater adhesion and transmigration of monocytes across the endothelium. PCR-array screening of human brain microvascular endothelial cells after ABCD1 silencing revealed downregulation of both mRNA and protein levels of the transcription factor c-MYC (encoded by MYC). Interestingly, MYC silencing mimicked the effects of ABCD1 silencing on CLDN5 and ICAM1 without decreasing the levels of ABCD1 protein itself. Together, these data demonstrate that ABCD1 deficiency induces significant alterations in brain endothelium via c-MYC and may thereby contribute to the increased trafficking of leucocytes across the blood-brain barrier as seen in cerebral adrenouleukodystrophy.

  10. Endothelialized ePTFE Graft by Nanobiotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    The Apparatus for Processing the Tubular Graft Modification Will be Designed and Evaluated.; The On-site Capturing of the Endothelial (Progenitor) Cells by Peptide-mediated Selective Adhesion in Vitro and in Vivo Will Also be Elucidated.; The Patency Rate of ITRI-made Artificial Blood Vessels Will be Evaluated by the Porcine Animal Model.

  11. Endothelial dysfunction: the early predictor of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudau, Mashudu; Genis, Amanda; Lochner, Amanda; Strijdom, Hans

    2012-05-01

    Since the discovery in the 1980s that nitric oxide (NO) is in fact the elusive endothelium-derived relaxing factor, it has become evident that NO is not only a major cardiovascular signalling molecule, but that changes in its bioavailability are crucial in determining whether atherosclerosis will develop or not. Sustained high levels of harmful circulating stimuli associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes mellitus elicit responses in endothelial cells that appear sequentially, namely endothelial cell activation and endothelial dysfunction (ED). ED, characterised by reduced NO bioavailability, is now recognised by many as an early, reversible precursor of atherosclerosis. The pathogenesis of ED is multifactorial; however, oxidative stress appears to be the common underlying cellular mechanism in the ensuing loss of vaso-active, inflammatory, haemostatic and redox homeostasis in the body's vascular system. The role of ED as a pathophysiological link between early endothelial cell changes associated with cardiovascular risk factors and the development of ischaemic heart disease is of importance to basic scientists and clinicians alike.

  12. Methylglyoxal promotes oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, Cristina M; Matafome, Paulo; Crisóstomo, Joana; Rodrigues, Lisa; Fernandes, Rosa; Pereira, Paulo; Seiça, Raquel M

    2012-05-01

    Modern diets can cause modern diseases. Research has linked a metabolite of sugar, methylglyoxal (MG), to the development of diabetic complications, but the exact mechanism has not been fully elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate whether MG could directly influence endothelial function, oxidative stress and inflammation in Wistar and Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, an animal model of type 2 diabetes. Wistar and GK rats treated with MG in the drinking water for 3 months were compared with the respective control rats. The effects of MG were investigated on NO-dependent vasorelaxation in isolated rat aortic arteries from the different groups. Insulin resistance, NO bioavailability, glycation, a pro-inflammatory biomarker monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and vascular oxidative stress were also evaluated. Methylglyoxal treated Wistar rats significantly reduced the efficacy of NO-dependent vasorelaxation (pMethylglyoxal treated GK rats significantly aggravated endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, AGEs accumulation and diminished NO bioavailability when compared with control GK rats. These results indicate that methylglyoxal induced endothelial dysfunction in normal Wistar rats and aggravated the endothelial dysfunction present in GK rats. The mechanism is at least in part by increasing oxidative stress and/or AGEs formation with a concomitant increment of inflammation and a decrement in NO bioavailability. The present study provides further evidence for methylglyoxal as one of the causative factors in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and development of macrovascular diabetic complication.

  13. Anesthetic propofol overdose causes endothelial cytotoxicity in vitro and endothelial barrier dysfunction in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Ming-Chung [Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Anesthesiology, Chi Mei Medical Center, Liouying, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chia-Ling [Center of Infectious Disease and Signaling Research, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Yang, Tsan-Tzu; Choi, Pui-Ching [Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Hsing, Chung-Hsi [Department of Anesthesiology, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Anesthesiology, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chiou-Feng, E-mail: cflin@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Center of Infectious Disease and Signaling Research, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-01

    An overdose and a prolonged treatment of propofol may cause cellular cytotoxicity in multiple organs and tissues such as brain, heart, kidney, skeletal muscle, and immune cells; however, the underlying mechanism remains undocumented, particularly in vascular endothelial cells. Our previous studies showed that the activation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 is pro-apoptotic in phagocytes during overdose of propofol treatment. Regarding the intravascular administration of propofol, we therefore hypothesized that propofol overdose also induces endothelial cytotoxicity via GSK-3. Propofol overdose (100 μg/ml) inhibited growth in human arterial and microvascular endothelial cells. After treatment, most of the endothelial cells experienced caspase-independent necrosis-like cell death. The activation of cathepsin D following lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) determined necrosis-like cell death. Furthermore, propofol overdose also induced caspase-dependent apoptosis, at least in part. Caspase-3 was activated and acted downstream of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) loss; however, lysosomal cathepsins were not required for endothelial cell apoptosis. Notably, activation of GSK-3 was essential for propofol overdose-induced mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, but not necrosis-like cell death. Intraperitoneal administration of a propofol overdose in BALB/c mice caused an increase in peritoneal vascular permeability. These results demonstrate the cytotoxic effects of propofol overdose, including cathepsin D-regulated necrosis-like cell death and GSK-3-regulated mitochondrial apoptosis, on endothelial cells in vitro and the endothelial barrier dysfunction by propofol in vivo. Highlights: ► Propofol overdose causes apoptosis and necrosis in endothelial cells. ► Propofol overdose triggers lysosomal dysfunction independent of autophagy. ► Glycogen synthase kinase-3 facilitates propofol overdose-induced apoptosis. ► Propofol overdose causes an increase

  14. Automation: Decision Aid or Decision Maker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skitka, Linda J.

    1998-01-01

    This study clarified that automation bias is something unique to automated decision making contexts, and is not the result of a general tendency toward complacency. By comparing performance on exactly the same events on the same tasks with and without an automated decision aid, we were able to determine that at least the omission error part of automation bias is due to the unique context created by having an automated decision aid, and is not a phenomena that would occur even if people were not in an automated context. However, this study also revealed that having an automated decision aid did lead to modestly improved performance across all non-error events. Participants in the non- automated condition responded with 83.68% accuracy, whereas participants in the automated condition responded with 88.67% accuracy, across all events. Automated decision aids clearly led to better overall performance when they were accurate. People performed almost exactly at the level of reliability as the automation (which across events was 88% reliable). However, also clear, is that the presence of less than 100% accurate automated decision aids creates a context in which new kinds of errors in decision making can occur. Participants in the non-automated condition responded with 97% accuracy on the six "error" events, whereas participants in the automated condition had only a 65% accuracy rate when confronted with those same six events. In short, the presence of an AMA can lead to vigilance decrements that can lead to errors in decision making.

  15. Development of a System and Method for Automated Isolation of Stromal Vascular Fraction from Adipose Tissue Lipoaspirate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swathi SundarRaj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous fat grafting for soft tissue reconstruction is challenged by unpredictable long-term graft survival. Fat derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF is gaining popularity in tissue reconstruction as SVF-enriched fat grafts demonstrate improved engraftment. SVF also has potential in regenerative medicine for remodeling of ischemic tissues by promoting angiogenesis. Since SVF cells do not require culture expansion, attempts are being made to develop automated devices to isolate SVF at the point of care. We report development of a closed, automated system to process up to 500 mL lipoaspirate using cell size-dependent filtration technology. The yield of SVF obtained by automated tissue digestion and filtration (1.17 ± 0.5 × 105 cells/gram was equivalent to that obtained by manual isolation (1.15 ± 0.3 × 105; p = 0.8, and the viability of the cells isolated by both methods was greater than 90%. Cell composition included CD34+CD31− adipose stromal cells, CD34+CD31+ endothelial progenitor cells, and CD34−CD31+ endothelial cells, and their relative percentages were equivalent to SVF isolated by the manual method. CFU-F capacity and expression of angiogenic factors were also comparable with the manual method, establishing proof-of-concept for fully automated SVF isolation, suitable for use in reconstructive surgeries and regenerative medicine applications.

  16. Selective endothelial overexpression of arginase II induces endothelial dysfunction and hypertension and enhances atherosclerosis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris L Vaisman

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disorders associated with endothelial dysfunction, such as atherosclerosis, have decreased nitric oxide (NO bioavailability. Arginase in the vasculature can compete with eNOS for L-arginine and has been implicated in atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of endothelial-specific elevation of arginase II expression on endothelial function and the development of atherosclerosis.Transgenic mice on a C57BL/6 background with endothelial-specific overexpression of human arginase II (hArgII gene under the control of the Tie2 promoter were produced. The hArgII mice had elevated tissue arginase activity except in liver and in resident peritoneal macrophages, confirming endothelial specificity of the transgene. Using small-vessel myography, aorta from these mice exhibited endothelial dysfunction when compared to their non-transgenic littermate controls. The blood pressure of the hArgII mice was 17% higher than their littermate controls and, when crossed with apoE -/- mice, hArgII mice had increased aortic atherosclerotic lesions.We conclude that overexpression of arginase II in the endothelium is detrimental to the cardiovascular system.

  17. International Conference Automation : Challenges in Automation, Robotics and Measurement Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Zieliński, Cezary; Kaliczyńska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the set of papers accepted for presentation at the International Conference Automation, held in Warsaw, 2-4 March of 2016. It presents the research results presented by top experts in the fields of industrial automation, control, robotics and measurement techniques. Each chapter presents a thorough analysis of a specific technical problem which is usually followed by numerical analysis, simulation, and description of results of implementation of the solution of a real world problem. The presented theoretical results, practical solutions and guidelines will be valuable for both researchers working in the area of engineering sciences and for practitioners solving industrial problems. .

  18. Development of new therapeutic modalities for corneal endothelial disease focused on the proliferation of corneal endothelial cells using animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Noriko; Okumura, Naoki; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2012-02-01

    This review describes our recent attempts to develop new therapeutic modalities for corneal endothelial disease using animal models including non-human primate model in which the proliferative ability of corneal endothelial cells is severely limited, as is the case in humans. First, we describe our attempt to develop new surgical treatments using cultivated corneal endothelial cells for advanced corneal endothelial dysfunction. It includes two different approaches; a "corneal endothelial cell sheet transplantation" with cells grown on a type-I collagen carrier, and a "cell-injection therapy" combined with the application of Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitor. Recently, it was reported that the selective ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, promotes cell adhesion and proliferation and inhibits the apoptosis of primate corneal endothelial cells in culture. When cultivated corneal endothelial cells were injected into the anterior chamber of animal eyes in the presence of ROCK inhibitor, endothelial cell adhesion was promoted and the cells achieved a high cell density and a morphology similar to corneal endothelial cells in vivo. We are also trying to develop a novel medical treatment for the early phase of corneal endothelial disease by the use of ROCK inhibitor eye drops. In rabbit and monkey experiments using partial endothelial dysfunction models, corneal endothelial wound healing was accelerated by the topical application of ROCK inhibitor to the ocular surface, and resulted in the regeneration of a corneal endothelial monolayer with a high endothelial cell density. We are now trying to advance the clinical application of these new therapies for patients with corneal endothelial dysfunction.

  19. Manual versus automated blood sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, A C; Kalliokoski, Otto; Sørensen, Dorte B

    2014-01-01

    Facial vein (cheek blood) and caudal vein (tail blood) phlebotomy are two commonly used techniques for obtaining blood samples from laboratory mice, while automated blood sampling through a permanent catheter is a relatively new technique in mice. The present study compared physiological parameters......, glucocorticoid dynamics as well as the behavior of mice sampled repeatedly for 24 h by cheek blood, tail blood or automated blood sampling from the carotid artery. Mice subjected to cheek blood sampling lost significantly more body weight, had elevated levels of plasma corticosterone, excreted more fecal...... corticosterone metabolites, and expressed more anxious behavior than did the mice of the other groups. Plasma corticosterone levels of mice subjected to tail blood sampling were also elevated, although less significantly. Mice subjected to automated blood sampling were less affected with regard to the parameters...

  20. Automated Approaches to RFI Flagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garimella, Karthik; Momjian, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    It is known that Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is a major issue in centimeter wavelength radio astronomy. Radio astronomy software packages include tools to excise RFI; both manual and automated utilizing the visibilities (the uv data). Here we present results on an automated RFI flagging approach that utilizes a uv-grid, which is the intermediate product when converting uv data points to an image. It is a well known fact that any signal that appears widespread in a given domain (e.g., image domain) is compact in the Fourier domain (uv-grid domain), i.e., RFI sources that appear as large scale structures (e.g., stripes) in images can be located and flagged using the uv-grid data set. We developed several automated uv-grid based flagging algorithms to detect and excise RFI. These algorithms will be discussed, and results of applying them to measurement sets will be presented.

  1. Automated power management and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolce, James L.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive automation design is being developed for Space Station Freedom's electric power system. A joint effort between NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Exploration Technology and NASA's Office of Space Station Freedom, it strives to increase station productivity by applying expert systems and conventional algorithms to automate power system operation. The initial station operation will use ground-based dispatches to perform the necessary command and control tasks. These tasks constitute planning and decision-making activities that strive to eliminate unplanned outages. We perceive an opportunity to help these dispatchers make fast and consistent on-line decisions by automating three key tasks: failure detection and diagnosis, resource scheduling, and security analysis. Expert systems will be used for the diagnostics and for the security analysis; conventional algorithms will be used for the resource scheduling.

  2. The role of H2S bioavailability in endothelial dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Szabo, Csaba; Ichinose, Fumito; Ahmed, Asif; Whiteman, Matthew; Papapetropoulos, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction reflects pathophysiological changes in the phenotype and functions of endothelial cells that result from and/or contribute to a plethora of cardiovascular diseases. Here we review the role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction, one of the fastest advanced and hottest research topics. Conventionally treated as an environment pollutant, H2S is also produced in endothelial cells and participates in the fine regulation of endothelial integrity and functions. Disturbed H2S bioavailability has been suggested to be a novel indicator of the progress and prognosis of endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction appears to exhibit in different forms in different pathologies but therapeutics aimed at remedying the altered H2S bioavailability may benefit all. PMID:26071118

  3. 部分环状板层角膜移植治疗蚕蚀性角膜溃疡%Clinical effect of using a ring-shaped donor cornea in partial lamellar keratoplasty for Mooren's ulcer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀先; 史伟云; 李素霞; 王婷; 高华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical effect of using a ring-shaped donor cornea in partial lamellar keratoplasty for early-stage Mooren's ulcer.Methods It was a retrospective case series study.Partial lamellar keratoplasty was performed on 11 eyes with Mooren's ulcer.The patients were treated for symptoms for a week or more.A residual ring-shaped section of a donor cornea was used after partial penetrating keratoplasty.A trephine (7.75-8.00 mm) was used to mark the central cornea.An ophthalmic knife was used to deepen the trephine groove to an extent dictated by the size of the lesion in order to excise the lesion adequately.If corneal perforation appeared before or during the operation,it was repaired using a very thin layer of lamellar cornea larger than the perforation and sutured to the perforation hole with 10-0 sutures.Then a ring-shaped donor graft was used to repair the lesion area.Visual acuity,condition of the lesion,and complications were monitored for 6-36 months.Repeated measures analysis of variance were used.Results Compared to pre-surgery,uncorrected visual acuity improved by a mean of 1.36±1.21 Snellen chart lines at 1 month,1.72±1.47 lines at 3 months and 1.86±2.04 lines at 6 months.Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity improved by a mean of 0.46±0.93 Snellen chart lines at 1 month,0.73±1.10 lines at 3 months and 1.55±1.75 lines at 6 months.There were significant difference before and after surgery at uncorrected visual acuity (F=5.630,P<0.05) and best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (F=5.925,P<0.05).One patient had graft epithelial defect and was cured with an amniotic membrane transplant after 20 days.One patient had a recurrence after 19 months and was cured with a second lamellar keratoplasty.No rejections were detected.Conclusion A ring-shaped donor cornea in partial lamellar keratoplasty for Mooren's ulcer is a useful option when medical treatment fails.It cannot only control the development of the disease,but also preserve the

  4. 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’13, held in Yangzhou, China. The topics include e.g. adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, and reconfigurable control. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry, and government can gain an inside view of new solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent automation. Zengqi Sun and Zhidong Deng are professors at the Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, China.

  5. 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’13, held in Yangzhou, China. The topics include e.g. adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, and reconfigurable control. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry, and government can gain an inside view of new solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent automation.   Zengqi Sun and Zhidong Deng are professors at the Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, China.

  6. Automated synthesis of sialylated oligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Esposito

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sialic acid-containing glycans play a major role in cell-surface interactions with external partners such as cells and viruses. Straightforward access to sialosides is required in order to study their biological functions on a molecular level. Here, automated oligosaccharide synthesis was used to facilitate the preparation of this class of biomolecules. Our strategy relies on novel sialyl α-(2→3 and α-(2→6 galactosyl imidates, which, used in combination with the automated platform, provided rapid access to a small library of conjugation-ready sialosides of biological relevance.

  7. Automation, Labor Productivity and Employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Lene; Rose Skaksen, Jan; Sørensen, Anders

    CEBR fremlægger nu den første rapport i AIM-projektet. Rapporten viser, at der er gode muligheder for yderligere automation i en stor del af de danske fremstillingsvirksomheder. For i dag er gennemsnitligt kun omkring 30 % af virksomhedernes produktionsprocesser automatiserede. Navnlig procesområ......CEBR fremlægger nu den første rapport i AIM-projektet. Rapporten viser, at der er gode muligheder for yderligere automation i en stor del af de danske fremstillingsvirksomheder. For i dag er gennemsnitligt kun omkring 30 % af virksomhedernes produktionsprocesser automatiserede. Navnlig...

  8. Design automation, languages, and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    As the complexity of electronic systems continues to increase, the micro-electronic industry depends upon automation and simulations to adapt quickly to market changes and new technologies. Compiled from chapters contributed to CRC's best-selling VLSI Handbook, this volume covers a broad range of topics relevant to design automation, languages, and simulations. These include a collaborative framework that coordinates distributed design activities through the Internet, an overview of the Verilog hardware description language and its use in a design environment, hardware/software co-design, syst

  9. Agile Data: Automating database refactorings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an automated approach to database change management throughout the companies’ development workflow. By using automated tools, companies can avoid common issues related to manual database deployments. This work was motivated by analyzing usual problems within organizations, mostly originated from manual interventions that may result in systems disruptions and production incidents. In addition to practices of continuous integration and continuous delivery, the current paper describes a case study in which a suggested pipeline is implemented in order to reduce the deployment times and decrease incidents due to ineffective data controlling.

  10. Design Automation in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Evan; Madsen, Curtis; Roehner, Nicholas; Densmore, Douglas

    2017-04-03

    Design automation refers to a category of software tools for designing systems that work together in a workflow for designing, building, testing, and analyzing systems with a target behavior. In synthetic biology, these tools are called bio-design automation (BDA) tools. In this review, we discuss the BDA tools areas-specify, design, build, test, and learn-and introduce the existing software tools designed to solve problems in these areas. We then detail the functionality of some of these tools and show how they can be used together to create the desired behavior of two types of modern synthetic genetic regulatory networks.

  11. Network based automation for SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahabeddini Parizi, Mohammad; Radziwon, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    could be obtained through network interaction. Based on two extreme cases of SMEs representing low-tech industry and an in-depth analysis of their manufacturing facilities this paper presents how collaboration between firms embedded in a regional ecosystem could result in implementation of new...... automation solutions. The empirical data collection involved application of a combination of comparative case study method with action research elements. This article provides an outlook over the challenges in implementing technological improvements and the way how it could be resolved in collaboration......, this paper develops and discusses a set of guidelines for systematic productivity improvement within an innovative collaboration in regards to automation processes in SMEs....

  12. Increased brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity is associated with impaired endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dong-hong; TAO Jun; WANG Yan; LIAO Xin-xue; XU Ming-guo; WANG Jie-mei; YANG Zhen; CHEN Long; L(U) Ming-de; LU Kun

    2006-01-01

    Background Pulse wave velocity and flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) are widely used as noninvasive modalities for evaluating atherosclerosis. However, it is not known whether pulse wave velocity is related to FMD in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the alteration in brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and endothelial function in CAD patients.Methods Thirty-three patients with CAD and thirty control subjects were recruited for this study. baPWV was measured non-invasively using a VP 1000 automated PWV/ABI analyzer (PWV/ABI, Colin Co. Ltd., Komaki,Japan). Endothelial function as reflected by FMD in the brachial artery was assessed with a high-resolution ultrasound device.Results baPWV was increased in CAD patients compared with control subjects [(1756.1±253.1) cm/s vs(1495.3 ± 202.3) cm/s, P<0.01]. FMD was significantly reduced in CAD patients compared with control subjects[(5.2±2.1) % vs (11.1 ±4.4) %, P<0.01]. baPWV correlated with FMD (r =-0.68, P<0.001). The endothelium-independent vasodilation induced by sublingual nitroglycerin in the brachial artery was similar in the CAD group compared with the control group.Conclusions CAD is associated with increased baPWV and endothelial dysfunction. Increased baPWV parallels diminished endothelial function. Our data therefore suggest that baPWV can be used as a noninvasive surrogate index in clinical evaluation of endothelial function.

  13. Endothelial progenitor cells with Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Xiao-dong; ZHANG Yun; LIU Li; SUN Ning; ZHANG Ming-yi; ZHANG Jian-ning

    2011-01-01

    Background Endothelial dysfunction is thought to be critical events in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD).Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have provided insight into maintaining and repairing endothelial function. To study the relation between EPCs and AD, we explored the number of circulating EPCs in patients with AD.Methods A total of 104 patients were recruited from both the outpatients and inpatients of the geriatric neurology department at General Hospital, rianjin Medical University. Consecutive patients with newly diagnosed AD (n=30),patients with vascular dementia (VaD, n=34), and healthy elderly control subjects with normal cognition (n=40) were enrolled after matching for age, gender, body mass index, medical history, current medication and Mini Mental State Examination. Middle cerebral artery flow velocity was examined with transcranial Doppler. Endothelial function was evaluated according to the level of EPCs, and peripheral blood EPCs was counted by flow cytometry.Results There were no significant statistical differences of clinical data in AD, VaD and control groups (P >0.05). The patients with AD showed decreased CD34-positive (CD34+) or CD133-positive (CD133+) levels compared to the control subjects, but there were no significant statistical differences in patients with AD. The patients with AD had significantly lower CD34+CD133+ EPCs(CD34 and CD133 double positive endothelial progenitor cells) than the control subjects (P <0.05). In the patients with AD, a lower CD34+CD133+ EPCs count was independently associated with a lower Mini-Mental State Examination score (r=0.514, P=0.004). Patients with VaD also showed a significant decrease in CD34+CD133+ EPCs levels, but this was not evidently associated with the Mini-Mental State Examination score. The changes of middle cerebral artery flow velocity were similar between AD and VaD. Middle cerebral artery flow velocity was decreased in the AD and VaD groups and significantly lower than

  14. Genipin inhibits endothelial exocytosis via nitric oxide in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-fa WANG; Shao-yu WU; Jin-jun RAO; Lin L(U); Wei XU; Jian-xin PANG; Zhong-qiu LIU; Shu-guang WU; Jia-jie ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Exocytosis of endothelial Weibel-Palade bodies, which contain von Willebrand factor (VWF), P-selectin and other modulators, plays an important role in both inflammation and thrombosis. The present study investigates whether genipin,an aglycon of geniposide, inhibits endothelial exocytosis.Methods: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were isolated from umbilical cords and cultured. The concentration of VWF in cell supernatants was measured using an ELISA Kit. P-selectin translocation on the cell surface was analyzed by cell surface ELISA. Cell viability was measured using a Cell Counting Kit-8. Mouse bleeding times were measured by amputating the tail tip. Western blot analysis was used to determine the amount of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and phospho-eNOS present. Nitric oxide (NO) was measured in the cell supernatants as nitrite using an NO Colorimetric Assay.Results: Genipin inhibited thrombin-induced VWF release and P-selectin translocation in HUVECs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The drug had no cytotoxic effect on the cells at the same doses that were able to inhibit exocytosis. The functional study that demonstrated that genipin inhibited exocytosis in vivo also showed that genipin prolonged the mouse bleeding time. Furthermore, genipin activated eNOS phosphorylation, promoted enzyme activation and increased NO production. L-NAME, an inhibitor of NOS, reversed the inhibitory effects of genipin on endothelial exocytosis.Conclusion: Genipin inhibits endothelial exocytosis in HUVECs. The mechanism by which this compound inhibits exocytosis may be related to its ability to stimulate eNOS activation and NO production. Our findings suggest a novel antiinflammatory mechanism for genipin. This compound may represent a new treatment for inflammation and/or thrombosis in which excess endothelial exocytosis plays a pathophysiological role.

  15. Automated Ply Inspection (API) for AFP Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Automated Ply Inspection (API) system autonomously inspects layups created by high speed automated fiber placement (AFP) machines. API comprises a high accuracy...

  16. Ask the experts: automation: part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allinson, John L; Blick, Kenneth E; Cohen, Lucinda; Higton, David; Li, Ming

    2013-08-01

    Bioanalysis invited a selection of leading researchers to express their views on automation in the bioanalytical laboratory. The topics discussed include the challenges that the modern bioanalyst faces when integrating automation into existing drug-development processes, the impact of automation and how they envision the modern bioanalytical laboratory changing in the near future. Their enlightening responses provide a valuable insight into the impact of automation and the future of the constantly evolving bioanalytical laboratory.

  17. Automated Integrated Analog Filter Design Issues

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of modern automated integrated analog circuits design methods and their use in integrated filter design is done. Current modern analog circuits automated tools are based on optimization algorithms and/or new circuit generation methods. Most automated integrated filter design methods are only suited to gmC and switched current filter topologies. Here, an algorithm for an active RC integrated filter design is proposed, that can be used in automated filter designs. The algorithm is t...

  18. 75 FR 64737 - Automated Commercial Environment (ACE): Announcement of a National Customs Automation Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... National Customs Automation Program Test of Automated Manifest Capabilities for Ocean and Rail Carriers... Protection (CBP) will be conducting a National Customs Automation Program test concerning the transmission of...: Background The National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) was established in Subtitle B of Title...

  19. 76 FR 69755 - National Customs Automation Program Test Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection National Customs Automation Program Test Concerning Automated... Protection's (CBP's) plan to conduct a National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) test concerning Automated..., at susan.maskell@dhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The National Customs...

  20. 76 FR 34246 - Automated Commercial Environment (ACE); Announcement of National Customs Automation Program Test...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... National Customs Automation Program Test of Automated Procedures for In-Bond Shipments Transiting Through....S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) plans to conduct a National Customs Automation Program (NCAP...@dhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The National Customs Automation Program (NCAP)...

  1. 穿透性角膜移植手术治疗棘阿米巴性角膜炎的临床研究%Penetrating keratoplasty for acanthamoeba Keratitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李星仪; 黄薇岚; 袁进; 林晓蕾; 陈家祺

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical process and diagnostic criteria of acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), and assess the intervention time and therapeutic effects of keratoplasty. Methods Nine patients (9 eyes) diagnosed as AK form June 2005 to December 2009 were retrospectively studied. AH cases were performed the penetrating keratoplasty,the cornea was stained by HE to determine the pathologic characteristic, the postoperative visual acuity,corneal graft transparency and long-term curative effect were observed. Results In 9 cases, the median of preoperative visual acuity was hand movement,which at the final follow-up increased to 10/200,there was statistical difference (P <0.05). There was no recurrent during the follow-up period (from 6 months to 36 months) .and about 90% of the corneal graft were transparent. Conclusion The AK present the atypical clinical symptoms, which could be wrong diagnosed. The effect of drug treatment is not ideal,early keratoplasty associated with the application of normal anti-acanthamoeba drug therapy is the key of the treatment.%目的 分析棘阿米巴性角膜炎临床病程及诊断要点,评价角膜移植手术的介入时机及疗效.方法 回顾性研究2005年6月至2009年12月确诊为棘阿米巴性角膜炎患者9例,均接受穿透性角膜移植术,病变角膜HE染色明确病变性质,追踪术后视力变化、植片透明性以及手术后远期疗效.结果 9例患者术前视力中位数为HM,术后末次随访视力中位数为10/200,术后视力与术前视力比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).随访期内(6 ~36个月)未见病变复发,植片远期透明率为90%.3例患者随访期间出现眼压升高,予降眼压药物后控制;3例患者早期发生前房出血,予止血药物,1例出血多需行前房冲洗.1例患者行再次穿透性角膜移植术.结论 棘阿米巴角膜溃疡感染临床体征不典型性易导致误诊,药物治疗效果不明显,及早行治疗性角膜移植联合规范抗

  2. Deep lamellar keratoplasty for treatment of acute keratoconus%深板层角膜移植术治疗急性期圆锥角膜的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东; 吴彦超; 肖丽; 段少英; 鲁韶音

    2010-01-01

    Objective To observe the timing of surgery and clinical results of the deep lamellar keratoplasty for treatment of acute keratoconus. Methods Eight cases of in patients with keratoconus in the acute stage of hospitalization were operated using deep lamellar keratoplasty since September 2008 to September 2009 at the Xingtai Eye Hospital, postoperative follow-up observation was from 6 months - 1 year to observe the corneal transparency of the graft and visual conditions. Results The preoperative uncorrected visual acuity in 4 cases was hand move, 4 cases finger count, could not corrected; postoperative uncorrected visual acuity of 0.2-0.5 in 6 eyes, ≥0.6 in 2 eyes, corrected visual acuity ≥0.4. Intraoperative Descemet's layer hole was found in slit-like, most of hole in 6 cases healed, and 2 cases of hiatus was greater (there was about 1mm did not heal). There was effusion found within layers of graft stroma 3 days after surgery. Light degree of edema was treated with anterior chamber air injection and wrapping to let the layer of fluid absorption, corneal graft restored transparency. All cases those underlying Descemet's rupture had no significant turbidity. Conclusions Deep lamellar keratoplasty for treatment of acute keratoconus can obtain better clinical effects.%目的 观察深板层角膜移植术治疗急性期圆锥角膜的手术时机及临床效果.方法 总结自2008年9月至2009年9月于邢台眼科医院住院的急性期圆锥角膜患者8例,均于发病后2~3周采用深板层角膜移植术治疗,术后随访观察6~12个月,观察角膜植片的透明度及视力情况.结果 8例患者中,术前裸眼视力4例为手动,4例为眼前指数,矫正均不提高;术后裸眼视力为0.2~0.5的6例,≥0.6的2例,术中发现后弹力层裂孔呈裂隙状;术后6例大部分裂孔已愈合,角膜植片透明;2例裂孔较大者(尚有约1mm未愈合)术后第3天发现少许层间积液,植片基质层轻度水肿,经前房补气及包扎

  3. Automated Analysis of Infinite Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    The security of a network protocol crucially relies on the scenario in which the protocol is deployed. This paper describes syntactic constructs for modelling network scenarios and presents an automated analysis tool, which can guarantee that security properties hold in all of the (infinitely many...

  4. Automated Orientation of Aerial Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høhle, Joachim

    2002-01-01

    Methods for automated orientation of aerial images are presented. They are based on the use of templates, which are derived from existing databases, and area-based matching. The characteristics of available database information and the accuracy requirements for map compilation and orthoimage...

  5. Automated minimax design of networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Voldby, J

    1975-01-01

    A new gradient algorithm for the solution of nonlinear minimax problems has been developed. The algorithm is well suited for automated minimax design of networks and it is very simple to use. It compares favorably with recent minimax and leastpth algorithms. General convergence problems related...

  6. Automating Workflow using Dialectical Argumentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urovi, Visara; Bromuri, Stefano; McGinnis, Jarred; Stathis, Kostas; Omicini, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-agent framework based on argumentative agent technology for the automation of the workflow selection and execution. In this framework, workflow selection is coordinated by agent interactions governed by the rules of a dialogue game whose purpose is to evaluate the workflo

  7. Teacherbot: Interventions in Automated Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Sian

    2015-01-01

    Promises of "teacher-light" tuition and of enhanced "efficiency" via the automation of teaching have been with us since the early days of digital education, sometimes embraced by academics and institutions, and sometimes resisted as a set of moves which are damaging to teacher professionalism and to the humanistic values of…

  8. Automated monitoring of milk meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.; Andre, G.

    2009-01-01

    Automated monitoring might be an alternative for periodic checking of electronic milk meters. A computer model based on Dynamic Linear Modelling (DLM) has been developed for this purpose. Two situations are distinguished: more milking stands in the milking parlour and only one milking stand in the m

  9. Automated Accounting. Payroll. Instructor Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Duane R.

    This teacher's guide was developed to assist business instructors using Dac Easy Accounting Payroll Version 3.0 edition software in their accounting programs. The module contains assignment sheets and job sheets designed to enable students to master competencies identified in the area of automated accounting--payroll. Basic accounting skills are…

  10. Automated Solar-Array Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffa, A.; Bycer, M.

    1982-01-01

    Large arrays are rapidly assembled from individual solar cells by automated production line developed for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Apparatus positions cells within array, attaches interconnection tabs, applies solder flux, and solders interconnections. Cells are placed in either straight or staggered configurations and may be connected either in series or in parallel. Are attached at rate of one every 5 seconds.

  11. Automation, Performance and International Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann, Lene; Sørensen, Anders

    This paper presents new evidence on trade‐induced automation in manufacturing firms using unique data combining a retrospective survey that we have assembled with register data for 2005‐2010. In particular, we establish a causal effect where firms that have specialized in product types for which ...

  12. Automation of Space Inventory Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W.; Ngo, Phong; Wagner, Raymond; Barton, Richard; Gifford, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the utilization of automated space-based inventory management through handheld RFID readers and BioNet Middleware. The contents include: 1) Space-Based INventory Management; 2) Real-Time RFID Location and Tracking; 3) Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) RFID; and 4) BioNet Middleware.

  13. Feasibility Analysis of Crane Automation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Ming-xiao; MEI Xue-song; JIANG Ge-dong; ZHANG Gui-qing

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the modeling methods, open-loop control and closed-loop control techniques of various forms of cranes, worldwide, and discusses their feasibilities and limitations in engineering. Then the dynamic behaviors of cranes are analyzed. Finally, we propose applied modeling methods and feasible control techniques and demonstrate the feasibilities of crane automation.

  14. Automated Clustering of Similar Amendments

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The Italian Senate is clogged by computer-generated amendments. This talk will describe a simple strategy to cluster them in an automated fashion, so that the appropriate Senate procedures can be used to get rid of them in one sweep.

  15. Adaptation : A Partially Automated Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manjing, Tham; Bukhsh, F.A.; Weigand, H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper showcases the possibility of creating an adaptive auditing system. Adaptation in an audit environment need human intervention at some point. Based on a case study this paper focuses on automation of adaptation process. It is divided into solution design and validation parts. The artifact

  16. Designing automated handheld navigation support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uluca, D.; Streefkerk, J.W.; Sciacchitano, B.; McCrickard, D.S.

    2008-01-01

    Map usage on handheld devices suffers from limited screen size and the minimal attention that users can dedicate to them in mobile situations. This work examines effects of automating navigation features like zooming and panning as well as other features such as rotation, path finding and artifact r

  17. Circulating Endothelial Microparticles in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Tramontano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Endothelial Microparticles (EMPs are small vesicles shed from activated or apoptotic endothelial cells and involved in cellular cross-talk. Whether EMP immunophenotypes vary according to stimulus in Diabetes Mellitus (DM is not known. We studied the cellular adhesion molecule (CAM profile of circulating EMPs in patients with and without Diabetes Mellitus type 2, who were undergoing elective cardiac catheterization. Methods and Results. EMPs were analyzed by flow cytometry. The absolute median number of EMPs (EMPs/L specific for CD31, CD105, and CD106 was significantly increased in the DM population. The ratio of CD62E/CD31 EMP populations reflected an apoptotic process. Conclusion. Circulating CD31+, CD105+, and CD106+ EMPs were significantly elevated in patients with DM. EMPs were the only independent predictors of DM in our study cohort. In addition, the EMP immunophenotype reflected an apoptotic process. Circulating EMPs may provide new options for risk assessment.

  18. Arterial endothelial function measurement method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltz, Jonathan S; Budinger, Thomas F

    2014-03-04

    A "relaxoscope" (100) detects the degree of arterial endothelial function. Impairment of arterial endothelial function is an early event in atherosclerosis and correlates with the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An artery (115), such as the brachial artery (BA) is measured for diameter before and after several minutes of either vasoconstriction or vasorelaxation. The change in arterial diameter is a measure of flow-mediated vasomodification (FMVM). The relaxoscope induces an artificial pulse (128) at a superficial radial artery (115) via a linear actuator (120). An ultrasonic Doppler stethoscope (130) detects this pulse 10-20 cm proximal to the point of pulse induction (125). The delay between pulse application and detection provides the pulse transit time (PTT). By measuring PTT before (160) and after arterial diameter change (170), FMVM may be measured based on the changes in PTT caused by changes in vessel caliber, smooth muscle tone and wall thickness.

  19. Illinois: Library Automation and Connectivity Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Bridget L.; Bloomberg, Kathleen L.

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of library automation in Illinois focuses on ILLINET, the Illinois Library and Information Network. Topics include automated resource sharing; ILLINET's online catalog; regional library system automation; community networking and public library technology development; telecommunications initiatives; electronic access to state government…

  20. You're a What? Automation Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, John

    2010-01-01

    Many people think of automation as laborsaving technology, but it sure keeps Jim Duffell busy. Defined simply, automation is a technique for making a device run or a process occur with minimal direct human intervention. But the functions and technologies involved in automated manufacturing are complex. Nearly all functions, from orders coming in…

  1. Library Automation in the Netherlands and Pica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossers, Anton; Van Muyen, Martin

    1984-01-01

    Describes the Pica Library Automation Network (originally the Project for Integrated Catalogue Automation), which is based on a centralized bibliographic database. Highlights include the Pica conception of library automation, online shared cataloging system, circulation control system, acquisition system, and online Dutch union catalog with…

  2. Does Automated Feedback Improve Writing Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Joshua; Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Andrada, Gilbert N.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines data from students in grades 4-8 who participated in a statewide computer-based benchmark writing assessment that featured automated essay scoring and automated feedback. We examined whether the use of automated feedback was associated with gains in writing quality across revisions to an essay, and with transfer effects…

  3. Isolation, Characterization, and Transplantation of Cardiac Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busadee Pratumvinit

    2013-01-01

    due to difficulties in isolation, cell heterogeneity, lack of specific markers to identify myocardial endothelial cells, and inadequate conditions to maintain long-term cultures. Herein, we developed a method for isolation, characterization, and expansion of cardiac endothelial cells applicable to study endothelial cell biology and clinical applications such as neoangiogenesis. First, we dissociated the cells from murine heart by mechanical disaggregation and enzymatic digestion. Then, we used flow cytometry coupled with specific markers to isolate endothelial cells from murine hearts. CD45+ cells were gated out to eliminate the hematopoietic cells. CD31+/Sca-1+ cells were isolated as endothelial cells. Cells isolated from atrium grew faster than those from ventricle. Cardiac endothelial cells maintain endothelial cell function such as vascular tube formation and acetylated-LDL uptake in vitro. Finally, cardiac endothelial cells formed microvessels in dorsal matrigel plug and engrafted in cardiac microvessels following intravenous and intra-arterial injections. In conclusion, our multicolor flow cytometry method is an effective method to analyze and purify endothelial cells from murine heart, which in turn can be ex vivo expanded to study the biology of endothelial cells or for clinical applications such as therapeutic angiogenesis.

  4. Adhesion of endothelial cells and endothelial progenitor cells on peptide-linked polymers in shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Cooper, Stuart

    2013-05-01

    The initial adhesion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), cord blood endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs), and human blood outgrowth endothelial cells (HBOECs) was studied under radial flow conditions. The surface of a variable shear-rate device was either coated with polymer films or covered by synthetic fibers. Spin-coating was applied to produce smooth polymer films, while fibrous scaffolds were generated by electrospinning. The polymer was composed of hexyl methacrylate, methyl methacrylate, poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA), and CGRGDS peptide. The peptide was incorporated into the polymer system by coupling to an acrylate-PEG-N-hydroxysuccinimide comonomer. A shear-rate-dependent increase of the attached cells with time was observed with all cell types. The adhesion of ECs increased on RGD-linked polymer surfaces compared to polymers without adhesive peptides. The number of attached ECFCs and HBOECs are significantly higher than that of HUVECs within the entire shear-rate range and surfaces examined, especially on RGD-linked polymers at low shear rates. Their superior adhesion ability of endothelial progenitor cells under flow conditions suggests they are a promising source for in vivo seeding of vascular grafts and shows the potential to be used for self-endothelialized implants.

  5. Activation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide (eNOS Occurs through Different Membrane Domains in Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Tran

    Full Text Available Endothelial cells respond to a large range of stimuli including circulating lipoproteins, growth factors and changes in haemodynamic mechanical forces to regulate the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and maintain blood pressure. While many signalling pathways have been mapped, the identities of membrane domains through which these signals are transmitted are less well characterized. Here, we manipulated bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC with cholesterol and the oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol (7KC. Using a range of microscopy techniques including confocal, 2-photon, super-resolution and electron microscopy, we found that sterol enrichment had differential effects on eNOS and caveolin-1 (Cav1 colocalisation, membrane order of the plasma membrane, caveolae numbers and Cav1 clustering. We found a correlation between cholesterol-induced condensation of the plasma membrane and enhanced high density lipoprotein (HDL-induced eNOS activity and phosphorylation suggesting that cholesterol domains, but not individual caveolae, mediate HDL stimulation of eNOS. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-induced and shear stress-induced eNOS activity was relatively independent of membrane order and may be predominantly controlled by the number of caveolae on the cell surface. Taken together, our data suggest that signals that activate and phosphorylate eNOS are transmitted through distinct membrane domains in endothelial cells.

  6. Metformin improves endothelial function in aortic tissue and microvascular endothelial cells subjected to diabetic hyperglycaemic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Suparna; Lakshmanan, Arun P; Hwang, Mu Ji; Kubba, Haidar; Mushannen, Ahmed; Triggle, Chris R; Ding, Hong

    2015-12-01

    The cellular mechanisms whereby metformin, the first line drug for type 2 diabetes (T2DM), mediates its antidiabetic effects remain elusive, particularly as to whether metformin has a direct protective action on the vasculature. This study was designed to determine if a brief 3-h exposure to metformin protects endothelial function against the effects of hyperglycaemia. We investigated the protective effects of metformin on endothelial-dependent vasodilatation (EDV) in thoracic aortae from T2DM db/db mice and on high glucose (HG, 40 mM) induced changes in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling in mouse microvascular endothelial cells (MMECs) in culture. Exposure of aortae from db+/? non-diabetic control mice to high glucose (HG, 40 mM) containing Krebs for 3-h significantly (Pmetformin; metformin also improved ACh-induced EDV in aortae from diabetic db/db mice. Immunoblot analysis of MMECs cultured in HG versus NG revealed a significant reduction of the ratio of phosphorylated (p-eNOS)/eNOS and p-Akt/Akt, but not the expression of total eNOS or Akt. The 3-h exposure of MMECs to metformin significantly (Pmetformin can reverse/reduce the impact of HG on endothelial function, via mechanisms linked to increased phosphorylation of eNOS and Akt.

  7. Targeted endothelial nanomedicine for common acute pathological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Brenner, Jacob S; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2015-12-10

    Endothelium, a thin monolayer of specialized cells lining the lumen of blood vessels is the key regulatory interface between blood and tissues. Endothelial abnormalities are implicated in many diseases, including common acute conditions with high morbidity and mortality lacking therapy, in part because drugs and drug carriers have no natural endothelial affinity. Precise endothelial drug delivery may improve management of these conditions. Using ligands of molecules exposed to the bloodstream on the endothelial surface enables design of diverse targeted endothelial nanomedicine agents. Target molecules and binding epitopes must be accessible to drug carriers, carriers must be free of harmful effects, and targeting should provide desirable sub-cellular addressing of the drug cargo. The roster of current candidate target molecules for endothelial nanomedicine includes peptidases and other enzymes, cell adhesion molecules and integrins, localized in different domains of the endothelial plasmalemma and differentially distributed throughout the vasculature. Endowing carriers with an affinity to specific endothelial epitopes enables an unprecedented level of precision of control of drug delivery: binding to selected endothelial cell phenotypes, cellular addressing and duration of therapeutic effects. Features of nanocarrier design such as choice of epitope and ligand control delivery and effect of targeted endothelial nanomedicine agents. Pathological factors modulate endothelial targeting and uptake of nanocarriers. Selection of optimal binding sites and design features of nanocarriers are key controllable factors that can be iteratively engineered based on their performance from in vitro to pre-clinical in vivo experimental models. Targeted endothelial nanomedicine agents provide antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other therapeutic effects unattainable by non-targeted counterparts in animal models of common acute severe human disease conditions. The results of animal

  8. [Endothelial microparticles (EMP) in physiology and pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierko, Ewa; Sokół, Monika; Wojtukiewicz, Marek Z

    2015-08-18

    Endothelial microparticles (EMP) are released from endothelial cells (ECs) in the process of activation and/or apoptosis. They harbor adhesive molecules, enzymes, receptors and cytoplasmic structures and express a wide range of various constitutive antigens, typical for ECs, at their surface. Under physiological conditions the concentration of EMP in the blood is clinically insignificant. However, it was reported that under pathological conditions EMP concentration in the blood might slightly increase and contribute to blood coagulation, angiogenesis and inflammation. It has been shown that EMP directly and indirectly contribute to the activation of blood coagulation. Endothelial microparticles directly participate in blood coagulation through their surface tissue factor (TF) - a major initiator of blood coagulation. Furthermore, EMP exhibit procoagulant potential via expression of negatively charged phospholipids at their surface, which may promote assembly of coagulation enzymes (TF/VII, tenases and prothrombinase complexes), leading to thrombus formation. In addition, they provide a binding surface for coagulation factors: IXa, VIII, Va and IIa. Moreover, it is possible that EMP transfer TF from TF-bearing EMP to activated platelets and monocytes by binding them through adhesion molecules. Also, EMP express von Willebrand factor, which may facilitate platelet aggregation. Apart from their procoagulant properties, it was demonstrated that EMP may express adhesive molecules and metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) at their surface and release growth factors, which may contribute to angiogenesis. Additionally, surface presence of C3 and C4 - components of the classical pathway - suggests pro-inflammatory properties of these structures. This article contains a summary of available data on the biology and pathophysiology of endothelial microparticles and their potential role in blood coagulation, angiogenesis and inflammation.

  9. Automating Shallow Seismic Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steeples, Don W.

    2004-12-09

    This seven-year, shallow-seismic reflection research project had the aim of improving geophysical imaging of possible contaminant flow paths. Thousands of chemically contaminated sites exist in the United States, including at least 3,700 at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Imaging technologies such as shallow seismic reflection (SSR) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) sometimes are capable of identifying geologic conditions that might indicate preferential contaminant-flow paths. Historically, SSR has been used very little at depths shallower than 30 m, and even more rarely at depths of 10 m or less. Conversely, GPR is rarely useful at depths greater than 10 m, especially in areas where clay or other electrically conductive materials are present near the surface. Efforts to image the cone of depression around a pumping well using seismic methods were only partially successful (for complete references of all research results, see the full Final Technical Report, DOE/ER/14826-F), but peripheral results included development of SSR methods for depths shallower than one meter, a depth range that had not been achieved before. Imaging at such shallow depths, however, requires geophone intervals of the order of 10 cm or less, which makes such surveys very expensive in terms of human time and effort. We also showed that SSR and GPR could be used in a complementary fashion to image the same volume of earth at very shallow depths. The primary research focus of the second three-year period of funding was to develop and demonstrate an automated method of conducting two-dimensional (2D) shallow-seismic surveys with the goal of saving time, effort, and money. Tests involving the second generation of the hydraulic geophone-planting device dubbed the ''Autojuggie'' showed that large numbers of geophones can be placed quickly and automatically and can acquire high-quality data, although not under rough topographic conditions. In some easy

  10. Experimental lamellar keratoplasty in rabbits using microfibrilar cellulose membrane: clinical, morphological and immunohistochemical findings Ceratoplastia lamelar experimental em coelhos usando membrana microfibrilar de celulose: achados clínicos, morfológicos e imunoistoquímicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Riacciardi Macedo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical features of the cornea were investigated in adult male New Zealand rabbits submitted to lamellar keratoplasty with microfibrillar cellulose membrane. Thirty animals were divided into five groups (n=6 and evaluated up to 60 days after surgery. Clinical examination revealed moderate manifestations of edema, blepharospasm and photophobia on the second day, which became mild or disappeared after the seventh day. This period was characterized clinically by repair of the corneal defect. Histopathological analysis showed the presence of a thin layer of squamous cells covering the damaged area as early as 7th day, accompanied by a mild infiltrate of polymorphonuclear cells. Blood vessels were observed in the epithelium after the 15th day, which had regressed by day 48. Ki67 antibody labeling showed an increase of proliferating cells in the epithelium by the 15th day and in the stroma by day 30. Remodeling and epithelial adhesion were observed during this period. Microfibrillar cellulose membrane (Bionext® used for lamellar keratoplasty was found to yield good results considering the good integration of the implant.Avaliaram-se aspectos clínicos, histopatógicos e imunoistoquímicos da córnes de coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia adultos e machos em ceratoplastias lamelares com membrana de celulose microfibrilar. Trinta animais distribuídos em cinco grupos (n=6 foram estudados por até 60 dias de pós-operatório. A avaliação clínica revelou manifestações moderadas de edema, blefaroespasmo e fotofobia ao segundo dia, evoluindo para formas discretas ou ausentes a partir do sétimo dia, período em que se observou, clinicamente, reparo do defeito corneal. A histopatologia revelou uma fina camada de células escamosas, recobrindo a área lesada já aos sete dias, com discreto infiltrado de células polimorfonucleares. Observaram-se vasos no epitélio a partir do 15o dia, com regressão ao 48o dia

  11. Epithelial Downgrowth after Intraocular Surgery Treated with Intracameral 5-Fluorouracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To present the clinical and histopathologic correlation of two cases of epithelial downgrowth (EDG after prior intraocular surgery. Methods. Observational case reports. Results. We present two cases of EDG occurring after intraocular surgery. In both cases, after two anterior chamber injections of 5-fluorouracil (5FU, the area of EDG initially regressed. In Case 1, a limited area of EDG eventually recurred, and penetrating keratoplasty with cryotherapy was curative. In Case 2, subsequent corneal edema required Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty, and the patient remained clinically free of EDG without further treatment. Conclusion. Intracameral 5FU may have a role in the treatment of EDG after intraocular surgery, though its precise utilization and impact remain to be defined.

  12. Tumor Microvasculature: Endothelial Leakiness and Endothelial Pore Size Distribution in a Breast Cancer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Uzgiris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor endothelial leakiness is quantified in a rat mammary adenocarcinoma model using dynamic contrast enhancement MRI and contrast agents of widely varying sizes. The contrast agents were constructed to be of globular configuration and have their uptake rate into tumor interstitium be driven by the same diffusion process and limited only by the availability of endothelial pores of passable size. It was observed that the endothelial pore distribution has a steep power law dependence on size, r−β, with an exponent of −4.1. The model of large pore dominance in tumor leakiness as reported in some earlier investigation with fluorescent probes and optical chamber methods is rejected for this tumor model and a number of other tumor types including chemically induced tumors. This steep power law dependence on size is also consistent with observations on human breast cancer.

  13. Semantics-based Automated Web Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Feng Guo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present TAO, a software testing tool performing automated test and oracle generation based on a semantic approach. TAO entangles grammar-based test generation with automated semantics evaluation using a denotational semantics framework. We show how TAO can be incorporated with the Selenium automation tool for automated web testing, and how TAO can be further extended to support automated delta debugging, where a failing web test script can be systematically reduced based on grammar-directed strategies. A real-life parking website is adopted throughout the paper to demonstrate the effectivity of our semantics-based web testing approach.

  14. Automation for a base station stability testing

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This Batchelor’s thesis was commissioned by Oy LM Ericsson Ab Oulu. The aim of it was to help to investigate and create a test automation solution for the stability testing of the LTE base station. The main objective was to create a test automation for a predefined test set. This test automation solution had to be created for specific environments and equipment. This work included creating the automation for the test cases and putting them to daily test automation jobs. The key factor...

  15. Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia of the mandibular lingual mucosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benay Tokman; (S)ebnem (S)im(s)ek; Erkan Erkmen; Tülin Oygur

    2004-01-01

    @@ In 1923, Masson1 described an unusual papillary endothelial proliferation that he named as "hemangioendotheliome vegetant intravasculaire". In 1976, Clearkin and Enzinger2 coined the term intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH) that is now in use. This term refers to the presence of endothelium lined papillary projections within a vascular space. Characteristically, the papillary structures are composed of a single layer of swollen or plump endothelial cells without cellular pleomorphism, mitotic activity or necrosis.

  16. MicroRNA-34a regulation of endothelial senescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Takashi; Yagi, Shusuke [Department of Medicine, Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, West Henrietta, NY 14586 (United States); Yamakuchi, Munekazu, E-mail: munekazu_yamakuchi@urmc.rochester.edu [Department of Medicine, Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, West Henrietta, NY 14586 (United States)

    2010-08-06

    Research highlights: {yields} MicroRNA-34a (miR-34a) regulates senescence and cell cycle progression in endothelial cells. {yields} MiR-34a expression increases during endothelial cell senescence and in older mice. {yields} SIRT1 is a miR-34a target gene in endothelial cells. {yields} SIRT1 mediates the effects of miR-34a upon cell senescence in endothelial cells. -- Abstract: Endothelial senescence is thought to play a role in cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that endothelial microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate endothelial survival and senescence. We found that miR-34a is highly expressed in primary endothelial cells. We observed that miR-34a expression increases in senescent human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and in heart and spleen of older mice. MiR-34a over-expression induces endothelial cell senescence and also suppresses cell proliferation by inhibiting cell cycle progression. Searching for how miR-34a affects senescence, we discovered that SIRT1 is a target of miR-34a. Over-expressing miR-34a inhibits SIRT1 protein expression, and knocking down miR-34a enhances SIRT1 expression. MiR-34a triggers endothelial senescence in part through SIRT1, since forced expression of SIRT1 blocks the ability of miR-34a to induce senescence. Our data suggest that miR-34a contributes to endothelial senescence through suppression of SIRT1.

  17. High-throughput screening identifies idarubicin as a preferential inhibitor of smooth muscle versus endothelial cell proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakti A Goel

    Full Text Available Intimal hyperplasia is the cause of the recurrent occlusive vascular disease (restenosis. Drugs currently used to treat restenosis effectively inhibit smooth muscle cell (SMC proliferation, but also inhibit the growth of the protective luminal endothelial cell (EC lining, leading to thrombosis. To identify compounds that selectively inhibit SMC versus EC proliferation, we have developed a high-throughput screening (HTS format using human cells and have employed this to screen a multiple compound collection (NIH Clinical Collection. We developed an automated, accurate proliferation assay in 96-well plates using human aortic SMCs and ECs. Using this HTS format we screened a 447-drug NIH Clinical Library. We identified 11 compounds that inhibited SMC proliferation greater than 50%, among which idarubicin exhibited a unique feature of preferentially inhibiting SMC versus EC proliferation. Concentration-response analysis revealed this differential effect most evident over an ∼10 nM-5 µM window. In vivo testing of idarubicin in a rat carotid injury model at 14 days revealed an 80% reduction of intimal hyperplasia and a 45% increase of lumen size with no significant effect on re-endothelialization. Taken together, we have established a HTS assay of human vascular cell proliferation, and identified idarubicin as a selective inhibitor of SMC versus EC proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Screening of larger and more diverse compound libraries may lead to the discovery of next-generation therapeutics that can inhibit intima hyperplasia without impairing re-endothelialization.

  18. An Overview of Moonlight Applications Test Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appasami Govindasamy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Now-a-days web applications are developed by new technologies like Moonlight, Silverlight, JAVAFX, FLEX, etc. Silverlight is Microsoft's cross platform runtime and development technology for running Web-based multimedia applications in windows platform. Moonlight is an open-source implementation of the Silverlight development platform for Linux and other Unix/X11-based operating systems. It is a new technology in .Net 4.0 to develop rich interactive and attractive platform independent web applications. User Interface Test Automation is very essential for Software industries to reduce test time, cost and man power. Moonlight is new .NET technology to develop rich interactive Internet applications with the collaboration of Novel Corporation. Testing these kinds of applications are not so easy to test, especially the User interface test automation is very difficult. Software test automation has the capability to decrease the overall cost of testing and improve software quality, but most testing organizations have not been able to achieve the full potential of test automation. Many groups that implement test automation programs run into a number of common pitfalls. These problems can lead to test automation plans being completely scrapped, with the tools purchased for test automation becoming expensive. Often teams continue their automation effort, burdened with huge costs in maintaining large suites of automated test scripts. This paper will first discuss some of the key benefits of software test automation, and then examine the most common techniques used to implement software test automation of Moonlight Applications Test Automation. It will then discuss test automation and their potential. Finally, it will do test automation.

  19. Eldecalcitol prevents endothelial dysfunction in postmenopausal osteoporosis model rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serizawa, Kenichi; Yogo, Kenji; Tashiro, Yoshihito; Takeda, Satoshi; Kawasaki, Ryohei; Aizawa, Ken; Endo, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Postmenopausal women have high incidence of cardiovascular events as estrogen deficiency can cause endothelial dysfunction. Vitamin D is reported to be beneficial on endothelial function, but it remains controversial whether vitamin D is effective for endothelial dysfunction under the treatment for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the endothelial protective effect of eldecalcitol (ELD) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. ELD (20  ng/kg) was orally administrated five times a week for 4 weeks from 1 day after surgery. After that, flow-mediated dilation (FMD) as an indicator of endothelial function was measured by high-resolution ultrasound in the femoral artery of living rats. ELD ameliorated the reduction of FMD in OVX rats. ELD inhibited the increase in NOX4, nitrotyrosine, and p65 and the decrease in dimer/monomer ratio of nitric oxide synthase in OVX rat femoral arteries. ELD also prevented the decrease in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in femoral arteries and cultured endothelial cells. Although PPARγ is known to inhibit osteoblastogenesis, ELD understandably increased bone mineral density of OVX rats without increase in PPARγ in bone marrow. These results suggest that ELD prevented the deterioration of endothelial function under condition of preventing bone loss in OVX rats. This endothelial protective effect of ELD might be exerted through improvement of endothelial nitric oxide synthase uncoupling, which is mediated by an antioxidative effect through normalization of vascular PPARγ/NF-κB signaling.

  20. Changing indications and surgical techniques for corneal transplantation between 2004 and 2009 at a tertiary referral center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zare

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to report the indications, techniques, and clinical outcomes of corneal transplantation and investigate any changing trends in surgical techniques over a 6 year period. Materials and Methods: Records of patients who had undergone any kind of corneal transplantation at Labbafinejad Medical Center, Tehran, Iran, from January 2004 to December 2009 were reviewed to determine the indications and types of corneal transplantation. Postoperative best-corrected visual acuity, refractive error, graft clarity, and complications were reported. Results: During this period, 1859 eyes of 1624 patients with a mean age of 41.3 ± 21.3 years underwent corneal transplantation. The most common indication was keratoconus (38.4% followed by aphakic/pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (11.7%, previous failed grafts (10.6%, infectious corneal ulcers (10.1%, non-herpetic corneal scars (7.6%, trachoma keratopathy (4.7%, stromal corneal dystrophies (4.6%, post-herpetic corneal scar (3.7%, Fuchs′ endothelial dystrophy (0.8%, and congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (0.4%. Techniques of corneal transplantation included penetrating keratoplasty (PKP; 70.9%, deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK; 20.1%, conventional lamellar keratoplasty (LKP; 4.4%, and Descemet′s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK; 2.3%. Over the study period, there was a significant increase in the relative frequency of infectious corneal ulcers, failed grafts, and trachoma keratopathy. Additionally, a significant reduction was observed in PKP and LKP procedures, and volume of DALK and DSAEK increased significantly. At final follow-up, 69.0% of grafts were clear in the PKP group. This figure was 82.6%, 82.7%, and 97.6% in the DALK, LKP, and DSAEK groups, respectively. Conclusion: Keratoconus was the most common indication and PKP was the most prevalent technique used for corneal transplantation. However, significant changes in the indications

  1. Changing Indications and Surgical Techniques for Corneal Transplantation Between 2004 and 2009 at a Tertiary Referral Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Mohammad; Javadi, Mohammad A.; Einollahi, Bahram; Karimian, Farid; Rafie, Ali R. B.; Feizi, Sepehr; Azimzadeh, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to report the indications, techniques, and clinical outcomes of corneal transplantation and investigate any changing trends in surgical techniques over a 6 year period. Materials and Methods: Records of patients who had undergone any kind of corneal transplantation at Labbafinejad Medical Center, Tehran, Iran, from January 2004 to December 2009 were reviewed to determine the indications and types of corneal transplantation. Postoperative best-corrected visual acuity, refractive error, graft clarity, and complications were reported. Results: During this period, 1859 eyes of 1624 patients with a mean age of 41.3 ± 21.3 years underwent corneal transplantation. The most common indication was keratoconus (38.4%) followed by aphakic/pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (11.7%), previous failed grafts (10.6%), infectious corneal ulcers (10.1%), non-herpetic corneal scars (7.6%), trachoma keratopathy (4.7%), stromal corneal dystrophies (4.6%), post-herpetic corneal scar (3.7%), Fuchs’ endothelial dystrophy (0.8%), and congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (0.4%). Techniques of corneal transplantation included penetrating keratoplasty (PKP; 70.9%), deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK; 20.1%), conventional lamellar keratoplasty (LKP; 4.4%), and Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK; 2.3%). Over the study period, there was a significant increase in the relative frequency of infectious corneal ulcers, failed grafts, and trachoma keratopathy. Additionally, a significant reduction was observed in PKP and LKP procedures, and volume of DALK and DSAEK increased significantly. At final follow-up, 69.0% of grafts were clear in the PKP group. This figure was 82.6%, 82.7%, and 97.6% in the DALK, LKP, and DSAEK groups, respectively. Conclusion: Keratoconus was the most common indication and PKP was the most prevalent technique used for corneal transplantation. However, significant changes in the indications and

  2. Ceratocone: resultados visuais, complicações e qualidade de vida após ceratoplastia penetrante realizada por médico residente Keratoconus: visual results, complications and life quality after penetrating keratoplasty performed by a resident physician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Trovão Duarte Cavalcanti

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados visuais, incidência de complicações e qualidade de vida, utilizando-se o teste VF-14, dos pacientes submetidos à ceratoplastia penetrante por ceratocone na Fundação Altino Ventura, Recife (PE. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e três pacientes submetidos à ceratoplastia penetrante por ceratocone foram avaliados por meio do teste VF-14. O tempo mínimo de seguimento foi de 18 meses. A média de idade dos pacientes foi de 29,5 ± 9,8 anos. Foram coletadas dos prontuários informações sobre os pacientes e seus respectivos exames oftalmológicos. Foi utilizado o coeficiente de correlação de Pearson para análise de correlação entre variáveis quantitativas. Aceitou-se r > 0,8 como indicativo de forte correlação. RESULTADOS: No último seguimento, 71,7% dos pacientes tinham acuidade visual com correção (AVCC maior ou igual a 0,5. Entre as complicações mais encontradas no pós-operatório estavam glaucoma (26,1% e rejeição do enxerto (17,4%. A pontuação final média do VF-14 foi 78,7. As melhores pontuações obtidas foram para atividades como dirigir durante o dia (100 e ler letras grandes (94, ao passo que as piores pontuações foram para ler letras pequenas (79,8 e dirigir à noite (78,1. A correlação entre as pontuações obtidas e a AV pós-transplante foi fraca (r = 0,46. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados visuais foram bons, uma vez que 71,7% dos pacientes apresentaram AVCC ³0,5 no pós-operatório. Houve fraca correlação entre a AV pós-transplante e a pontuação média do VF-14. A incidência de complicações foi baixa, sendo a mais freqüente o glaucoma.PURPOSE: To evaluate the visual results, complication rates and life quality, using the VF-14 test, after penetrating keratoplasty for keratoconus, performed at the "Altino Ventura Foundation", Recife - Pernambuco, Brazil. METHODS: Forty-three patients who underwent penetrating keratoplasty were evaluated by the VF-14 test. The mean age of the patients

  3. Automated illustration of patients instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Duy; Nakamura, Carlos; Bray, Bruce E; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2012-01-01

    A picture can be a powerful communication tool. However, creating pictures to illustrate patient instructions can be a costly and time-consuming task. Building on our prior research in this area, we developed a computer application that automatically converts text to pictures using natural language processing and computer graphics techniques. After iterative testing, the automated illustration system was evaluated using 49 previously unseen cardiology discharge instructions. The completeness of the system-generated illustrations was assessed by three raters using a three-level scale. The average inter-rater agreement for text correctly represented in the pictograph was about 66 percent. Since illustration in this context is intended to enhance rather than replace text, these results support the feasibility of conducting automated illustration.

  4. Advances in Automation and Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    International conference on Automation and Robotics ICAR2011

    2012-01-01

    The international conference on Automation and Robotics-ICAR2011 is held during December 12-13, 2011 in Dubai, UAE. The proceedings of ICAR2011 have been published by Springer Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, which include 163 excellent papers selected from more than 400 submitted papers.   The conference is intended to bring together the researchers and engineers/technologists working in different aspects of intelligent control systems and optimization, robotics and automation, signal processing, sensors, systems modeling and control, industrial engineering, production and management.   This part of proceedings includes 81 papers contributed by many researchers in relevant topic areas covered at ICAR2011 from various countries such as France, Japan, USA, Korea and China etc.     Many papers introduced their advanced research work recently; some of them gave a new solution to problems in the field, with powerful evidence and detail demonstration. Others stated the application of their designed and...

  5. Automated methods of corrosion measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Reeve, John Ch

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of corrosion rates and other parameters connected with corrosion processes are important, first as indicators of the corrosion resistance of metallic materials and second because such measurements are based on general and fundamental physical, chemical, and electrochemical relations....... Hence improvements and innovations in methods applied in corrosion research are likeliy to benefit basic disciplines as well. A method for corrosion measurements can only provide reliable data if the beckground of the method is fully understood. Failure of a method to give correct data indicates a need...... to revise assumptions regarding the basis of the method, which sometimes leads to the discovery of as-yet unnoticed phenomena. The present selection of automated methods for corrosion measurements is not motivated simply by the fact that a certain measurement can be performed automatically. Automation...

  6. CCD characterization and measurements automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotov, I.V., E-mail: kotov@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Frank, J.; Kotov, A.I. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Kubanek, P. [Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences, Prague, CZ 18221 (Czech Republic); Image Processing Laboratory, Universidad de Valencia (Spain); O' Connor, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Prouza, M. [Institute of Physics of the Academy of Sciences, Prague, CZ 18221 (Czech Republic); Radeka, V.; Takacs, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2012-12-11

    Modern mosaic cameras have grown both in size and in number of sensors. The required volume of sensor testing and characterization has grown accordingly. For camera projects as large as the LSST, test automation becomes a necessity. A CCD testing and characterization laboratory was built and is in operation for the LSST project. Characterization of LSST study contract sensors has been performed. The characterization process and its automation are discussed, and results are presented. Our system automatically acquires images, populates a database with metadata information, and runs express analysis. This approach is illustrated on {sup 55}Fe data analysis. {sup 55}Fe data are used to measure gain, charge transfer efficiency and charge diffusion. Examples of express analysis results are presented and discussed.

  7. Fully automated (operational) modal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynders, Edwin; Houbrechts, Jeroen; De Roeck, Guido

    2012-05-01

    Modal parameter estimation requires a lot of user interaction, especially when parametric system identification methods are used and the modes are selected in a stabilization diagram. In this paper, a fully automated, generally applicable three-stage clustering approach is developed for interpreting such a diagram. It does not require any user-specified parameter or threshold value, and it can be used in an experimental, operational, and combined vibration testing context and with any parametric system identification algorithm. The three stages of the algorithm correspond to the three stages in a manual analysis: setting stabilization thresholds for clearing out the diagram, detecting columns of stable modes, and selecting a representative mode from each column. An extensive validation study illustrates the accuracy and robustness of this automation strategy.

  8. DOLFIN: Automated Finite Element Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Logg, Anders; 10.1145/1731022.1731030

    2011-01-01

    We describe here a library aimed at automating the solution of partial differential equations using the finite element method. By employing novel techniques for automated code generation, the library combines a high level of expressiveness with efficient computation. Finite element variational forms may be expressed in near mathematical notation, from which low-level code is automatically generated, compiled and seamlessly integrated with efficient implementations of computational meshes and high-performance linear algebra. Easy-to-use object-oriented interfaces to the library are provided in the form of a C++ library and a Python module. This paper discusses the mathematical abstractions and methods used in the design of the library and its implementation. A number of examples are presented to demonstrate the use of the library in application code.

  9. Automated Tools for Rapid Prototyping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘锦平

    1991-01-01

    An automated environment is presented which aids the software engineers in developing data processing systems by using rapid prototyping techniques.The environment is being developed on VAX station.It can render good support to the specification of the requirements and the rapid creation of prototype.The goal,the methodology,the general structure of the environment and two sub-systems are discussed.

  10. Automated Analysis of Corpora Callosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Davies, Rhodri H.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes and evaluates the steps needed to perform modern model-based interpretation of the corpus callosum in MRI. The process is discussed from the initial landmark-free contours to full-fledged statistical models based on the Active Appearance Models framework. Topics treated incl...... include landmark placement, background modelling and multi-resolution analysis. Preliminary quantitative and qualitative validation in a cross-sectional study show that fully automated analysis and segmentation of the corpus callosum are feasible....

  11. Automated Scheduling Via Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.

  12. Automated Discovery of Inductive Theorems

    OpenAIRE

    McCasland, Roy; Bundy, Alan; Serge, Autexier

    2007-01-01

    Inductive mathematical theorems have, as a rule, historically been quite difficult to prove – both for mathematics students and for auto- mated theorem provers. That said, there has been considerable progress over the past several years, within the automated reasoning community, towards proving some of these theorems. However, little work has been done thus far towards automatically discovering them. In this paper we present our methods of discovering (as well as proving) inductive theorems, ...

  13. Algorithms Could Automate Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baky, A. A.; Winkler, D. G.

    1982-01-01

    Five new algorithms are a complete statistical procedure for quantifying cell abnormalities from digitized images. Procedure could be basis for automated detection and diagnosis of cancer. Objective of procedure is to assign each cell an atypia status index (ASI), which quantifies level of abnormality. It is possible that ASI values will be accurate and economical enough to allow diagnoses to be made quickly and accurately by computer processing of laboratory specimens extracted from patients.

  14. Automated Test Requirement Document Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    DIAGNOSTICS BASED ON THE PRINCIPLES OF ARTIFICIAL INTELIGENCE ", 1984 International Test Conference, 01Oct84, (A3, 3, Cs D3, E2, G2, H2, 13, J6, K) 425...j0O GLOSSARY OF ACRONYMS 0 ABBREVIATION DEFINITION AFSATCOM Air Force Satellite Communication Al Artificial Intelligence ASIC Application Specific...In-Test Equipment (BITE) and AI ( Artificial Intelligence) - Expert Systems - need to be fully applied before a completely automated process can be

  15. Adaptation: A Partially Automated Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Manjing, Tham; Bukhsh, F.A.; Weigand, H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper showcases the possibility of creating an adaptive auditing system. Adaptation in an audit environment need human intervention at some point. Based on a case study this paper focuses on automation of adaptation process. It is divided into solution design and validation parts. The artifact design is developed around import procedures of M-company. An overview of the artefact is discussed in detail to fully describes the adaptation mechanism with automatic adjustment for compliance re...

  16. Personnel Aspects of Library Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Weber

    1971-03-01

    Full Text Available Personnel of an automation project is discussed in terms of talents needed in the design team, their qualifications and organization, the attitudes to be fostered, and the communication and documentation that is important for effective teamwork. Discussion is based on Stanford University's experience with Protect BALLOTS and includes comments on some specific problems which have personnel importance and may be faced in major design efforts.

  17. Home automation in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, J E; Tello, S F

    1994-01-01

    Environmental control units and home automation devices contribute to the independence and potential of individuals with disabilities, both at work and at home. Devices currently exist that can assist people with physical, cognitive, and sensory disabilities to control lighting, appliances, temperature, security, and telephone communications. This article highlights several possible applications for these technologies and discusses emerging technologies that will increase the benefits these devices offer people with disabilities.

  18. Instigation of endothelial Nlrp3 inflammasome by adipokine visfatin promotes inter-endothelial junction disruption: role of HMGB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Pitzer, Ashley L; Li, Xiang; Li, Pin-Lan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the inflammasome plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. However, the pathological relevance of this inflammasome activation, particularly in vascular cells, remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of endothelial (Nucleotide-binding Oligomerization Domain) NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing three (Nlrp3) inflammasomes in modulating inter-endothelial junction proteins, which are associated with endothelial barrier dysfunction, an early onset of obesity-associated endothelial injury. Our findings demonstrate that the activation of Nlrp3 inflammasome by visfatin markedly decreased the expression of inter-endothelial junction proteins including tight junction proteins ZO-1, ZO-2 and occludin, and adherens junction protein VE-cadherin in cultured mouse vascular endothelial (VE) cell monolayers. Such visfatin-induced down-regulation of junction proteins in endothelial cells was attributed to high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) release derived from endothelial inflammasome-dependent caspase-1 activity. Similarly, in the coronary arteries of wild-type mice, high-fat diet (HFD) treatment caused a down-regulation of inter-endothelial junction proteins ZO-1, ZO-2, occludin and VE-cadherin, which was accompanied with enhanced inflammasome activation and HMGB1 expression in the endothelium as well as transmigration of CD43(+) T cells into the coronary arterial wall. In contrast, all these HFD-induced alterations in coronary arteries were prevented in mice with Nlrp3 gene deletion. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that the activation of endothelial Nlrp3 inflammasomes as a result of the increased actions of injurious adipokines such as visfatin produces HMGB1, which act in paracrine or autocrine fashion to disrupt inter-endothelial junctions and increase paracellular permeability of the endothelium contributing to the early onset of endothelial injury during metabolic

  19. Automated bioacoustic identification of species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chesmore

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Research into the automated identification of animals by bioacoustics is becoming more widespread mainly due to difficulties in carrying out manual surveys. This paper describes automated recognition of insects (Orthoptera using time domain signal coding and artificial neural networks. Results of field recordings made in the UK in 2002 are presented which show that it is possible to accurately recognize 4 British Orthoptera species in natural conditions under high levels of interference. Work is under way to increase the number of species recognized.Pesquisas sobre a identificação automatizada de animais através da bioacústica estão se ampliando, principalmente em vista das dificuldades para realizar levantamentos diretos. Este artigo descreve o reconhecimento automático de insetos Orthoptera utilizando a codificação de sinal no domínio temporal e redes neurais artificiais. Resultados de registros sonoros feitos no campo no Reino Unido em 2002 são apresentados, mostrando ser possível reconhecer corretamente 4 espécies britânicas de Orthoptera em condições naturais com altos níveis de interferências. Estão em andamento trabalhos para aumentar o número de espécies identificadas.

  20. Triazole RGD antagonist reverts TGFβ1-induced endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition in endothelial precursor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Francesca; Peppicelli, Silvia; Fabbrizzi, Pierangelo; Biagioni, Alessio; Mazzanti, Benedetta; Menchi, Gloria; Calorini, Lido; Pupi, Alberto; Trabocchi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Fibrosis is the dramatic consequence of a dysregulated reparative process in which activated fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) and Transforming Growth Factor β1 (TGFβ1) play a central role. When exposed to TGFβ1, fibroblast and epithelial cells differentiate in myofibroblasts; in addition, endothelial cells may undergo endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) and actively participate to the progression of fibrosis. Recently, the role of αv integrins, which recognize the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) tripeptide, in the release and signal transduction activation of TGFβ1 became evident. In this study, we present a class of triazole-derived RGD antagonists that interact with αvβ3 integrin. Above different compounds, the RGD-2 specifically interferes with integrin-dependent TGFβ1 EndoMT in Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells (ECPCs) derived from circulating Endothelial Precursor Cells (ECPCs). The RGD-2 decreases the amount of membrane-associated TGFβ1, and reduces both ALK5/TGFβ1 type I receptor expression and Smad2 phosphorylation in ECPCs. We found that RGD-2 antagonist reverts EndoMT, reducing α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and vimentin expression in differentiated ECPCs. Our results outline the critical role of integrin in fibrosis progression and account for the opportunity of using integrins as target for anti-fibrotic therapeutic treatment.

  1. Infection of hepatitis B virus in extrahepatic endothelial tissues mediated by endothelial progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lili

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV replication has been reported to be involved in many extrahepatic viral disorders; however, the mechanism by which HBV is trans-infected into extrahepatic tissues such as HBV associated myocarditis remains largely unknown. Results In this study, we showed that human cord blood endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, but not human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs could be effectively infected by uptake of HBV in vitro. Exposure of EPCs with HBV resulted in HBV DNA and viral particles were detected in EPCs at day 3 after HBV challenge, which were peaked around day 7 and declined in 3 weeks. Consistently, HBV envelope surface and core antigens were first detected in EPCs at day 3 after virus challenge and were retained to be detectable for 3 weeks. In contrast, HBV covalently closed circular DNA was not detected in EPCs at any time after virus challenge. Intravenous transplantation of HBV-treated EPCs into myocardial infarction and acute renal ischemia mouse model resulted in incorporation of HBV into injured heart, lung, and renal capillary endothelial tissues. Conclusion These results strongly support that EPCs serve as virus carrier mediating HBV trans-infection into the injured endothelial tissues. The findings might provide a novel mechanism for HBV-associated myocarditis and other HBV-related extrahepatic diseases as well.

  2. Erythropoietin improves cardiac function through endothelial progenitor cell and vascular endothelial growth factor mediated neovascularization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbrink, B. Daan; Lipsic, Erik; van der Meer, Peter; van der Harst, Pirn; Oeseburg, Hisko; Sarvaas, Gideon J. Du Marchie; Koster, Johan; Voors, Adriaan A.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Schoemaker, Regien G.

    2007-01-01

    Aims Erythropoietin (EPO) improves cardiac function and induces neovascutarization in chronic heart failure (CHF), although the exact mechanism has not been elucidated. We studied the effects of EPO on homing and incorporation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) into the myocardial microvasculatur

  3. The female athlete triad and endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanser, Erica M; Zach, Karie N; Hoch, Anne Z

    2011-05-01

    A tremendous increase in the number of female athletes of all ages and abilities has occurred in the past 35 years. In general, sports and athletic competition produce healthier and happier women. However, explosion in participation has revealed clear gender-specific injuries and medical conditions unique to the female athlete. This article focuses on the latest advances in our knowledge of the female athlete triad and the relationship between athletic-associated amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction. Treatment of vascular dysfunction with folic acid is also discussed.

  4. Production of soluble Neprilysin by endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuruppu, Sanjaya, E-mail: Sanjaya.Kuruppu@monash.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Building 77, Monash University, Wellington Rd, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia); Rajapakse, Niwanthi W. [Department of Physiology, Building 13F, Monash University, Wellington Rd, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia); Minond, Dmitriy [Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, 11350 SW Village Parkway, Port Saint Lucie, FL 34987 (United States); Smith, A. Ian [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Building 77, Monash University, Wellington Rd, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • A soluble full-length form of Neprilysin exists in media of endothelial cells. • Exosomal release is the key mechanism for the production of soluble Neprilysin. • Inhibition of ADAM-17 by specific inhibitors reduce Neprilysin release. • Exosome mediated release of Neprilysin is dependent on ADAM-17 activity. - Abstract: A non-membrane bound form of Neprilysin (NEP) with catalytic activity has the potential to cleave substrates throughout the circulation, thus leading to systemic effects of NEP. We used the endothelial cell line Ea.hy926 to identify the possible role of exosomes and A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 17 (ADAM-17) in the production of non-membrane bound NEP. Using a bradykinin based quenched fluorescent substrate (40 μM) assay, we determined the activity of recombinant human NEP (rhNEP; 12 ng), and NEP in the media of endothelial cells (10% v/v; after 24 h incubation with cells) to be 9.35 ± 0.70 and 6.54 ± 0.41 μmols of substrate cleaved over 3 h, respectively. The presence of NEP in the media was also confirmed by Western blotting. At present there are no commercially available inhibitors specific for ADAM-17. We therefore synthesised two inhibitors TPI2155-14 and TPI2155-17, specific for ADAM-17 with IC{sub 50} values of 5.36 and 4.32 μM, respectively. Treatment of cells with TPI2155-14 (15 μM) and TPI2155-17 (4.3 μM) resulted in a significant decrease in NEP activity in media (62.37 ± 1.43 and 38.30 ± 4.70, respectively as a % of control; P < 0.0001), implicating a possible role for ADAM-17 in NEP release. However, centrifuging media (100,000g for 1 h at 4 °C) removed all NEP activity from the supernatant indicating the likely role of exosomes in the release of NEP. Our data therefore indicated for the first time that NEP is released from endothelial cells via exosomes, and that this process is dependent on ADAM-17.

  5. Enhancing endothelial progenitor cell for clinical use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) havebeen demonstrated to correlate negatively with vascularendothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk factors.However, translation of basic research into the clinicalpractice has been limited by the lack of unambiguousand consistent definitions of EPCs and reduced EPCcell number and function in subjects requiring them forclinical use. This article critically reviews the definitionof EPCs based on commonly used protocols, their valueas a biomarker of cardiovascular risk factor in subjectswith cardiovascular disease, and strategies to enhanceEPCs for treatment of ischemic diseases.

  6. Operator versus computer control of adaptive automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburn, Brian; Molloy, Robert; Wong, Dick; Parasuraman, Raja

    1993-01-01

    Adaptive automation refers to real-time allocation of functions between the human operator and automated subsystems. The article reports the results of a series of experiments whose aim is to examine the effects of adaptive automation on operator performance during multi-task flight simulation, and to provide an empirical basis for evaluations of different forms of adaptive logic. The combined results of these studies suggest several things. First, it appears that either excessively long, or excessively short, adaptation cycles can limit the effectiveness of adaptive automation in enhancing operator performance of both primary flight and monitoring tasks. Second, occasional brief reversions to manual control can counter some of the monitoring inefficiency typically associated with long cycle automation, and further, that benefits of such reversions can be sustained for some time after return to automated control. Third, no evidence was found that the benefits of such reversions depend on the adaptive logic by which long-cycle adaptive switches are triggered.

  7. How to assess sustainability in automated manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkman, Teunis Johannes; Rödger, Jan-Markus; Bey, Niki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe how sustainability in automation can be assessed. The assessment method is illustrated using a case study of a robot. Three aspects of sustainability assessment in automation are identified. Firstly, we consider automation as part of a larger system...... that fulfills the market demand for a given functionality. Secondly, three aspects of sustainability have to be assessed: environment, economy, and society. Thirdly, automation is part of a system with many levels, with different actors on each level, resulting in meeting the market demand. In this system......, (sustainability) specifications move top-down, which helps avoiding sub-optimization and problem shifting. From these three aspects, sustainable automation is defined as automation that contributes to products that fulfill a market demand in a more sustainable way. The case study presents the carbon footprints...

  8. Laboratory automation and LIMS in forensics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Morling, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of laboratory automation and LIMS in a forensic laboratory enables the laboratory, to standardize sample processing. Automated liquid handlers can increase throughput and eliminate manual repetitive pipetting operations, known to result in occupational injuries to the technical staff....... Furthermore, implementation of automated liquid handlers reduces the risk of sample misplacement. A LIMS can efficiently control the sample flow through the laboratory and manage the results of the conducted tests for each sample. Integration of automated liquid handlers with a LIMS provides the laboratory...... with the tools required for setting up automated production lines of complex laboratory processes and monitoring the whole process and the results. Combined, this enables processing of a large number of samples. Selection of the best automated solution for an individual laboratory should be based on user...

  9. Increased endothelial cell-leukocyte interaction in murine schistosomiasis: possible priming of endothelial cells by the disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen D S Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Schistosomiasis is an intravascular parasitic disease associated with inflammation. Endothelial cells control leukocyte transmigration and vascular permeability being modulated by pro-inflammatory mediators. Recent data have shown that endothelial cells primed in vivo in the course of a disease keep the information in culture. Herein, we evaluated the impact of schistosomiasis on endothelial cell-regulated events in vivo and in vitro. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The experimental groups consisted of Schistosoma mansoni-infected and age-matched control mice. In vivo infection caused a marked influx of leukocytes and an increased protein leakage in the peritoneal cavity, characterizing an inflamed vascular and cellular profile. In vitro leukocyte-mesenteric endothelial cell adhesion was higher in cultured cells from infected mice as compared to controls, either in the basal condition or after treatment with the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF. Nitric oxide (NO donation reduced leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells from control and infected groups; however, in the later group the effect was more pronounced, probably due to a reduced NO production. Inhibition of control endothelial NO synthase (eNOS increased leukocyte adhesion to a level similar to the one observed in the infected group. Besides, the adhesion of control leukocytes to endothelial cells from infected animals is similar to the result of infected animals, confirming that schistosomiasis alters endothelial cells function. Furthermore, NO production as well as the expression of eNOS were reduced in cultured endothelial cells from infected animals. On the other hand, the expression of its repressor protein, namely caveolin-1, was similar in both control and infected groups. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Schistosomiasis increases vascular permeability and endothelial cell-leukocyte interaction in vivo and in vitro. These effects are partially

  10. Serum carotenoids and vitamins in relation to markers of endothelial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen-Broekmans, W. van; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.; Michiel, B.; Cornelis, K.; Hans, P.; Hendriks, F.J.; Tijburg, L.; Poppel, G. van; Kardinaal, A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Endothelial cell dysfunction may be related to an increase in cellular oxidative stress. Carotenoids and vitamins could have an antioxidant-mediated tempering influence on endothelial function and inflammation, thereby reducing the risk of atherosclerosis. Methods: We measured serum caro

  11. Endothelial Function in Migraine With Aura – A Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butt, Jawad H; Franzmann, Ulriche; Kruuse, Christina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An increased risk of ischemic stroke is repeatedly reported in young subjects with migraine with aura (MA). Such may be caused by changes in endothelial function. The present review evaluates current evidence on endothelial function in MA patients. METHODS: A systematic search...

  12. Emerging Role of Endothelial and Inflammatory Markers in Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menha Swellam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Endothelial disturbance and excess inflammatory response are pathogenic mechanisms in pre-eclampsia (PE. Authors determine the clinical diagnostic role for thrombomodulin (TM, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 as endothelial markers and C-reactive protein (CRP, and interlukin-6 (IL-6 as inflammatory markers when tested independently or in combinations.

  13. Complement activation, endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance and chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, M.; Kistorp, C.; Hansen, T.K.

    2010-01-01

    CRP), endothelial activation (soluble E-selectin, sEsel)), endothelial damage/dysfunction (von Willebrand factor, vWf) and insulin resistance (IR) and prognosis in CHF remains unknown. Design. We investigated the association(s) between plasma sMAC, hsCRP, sEsel, vWf and IR (assessed by homeostatic model assessment...

  14. The barrier within: endothelial transport of hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolka, Cathryn M; Bergman, Richard N

    2012-08-01

    Hormones are involved in a plethora of processes including development and growth, metabolism, mood, and immune responses. These essential functions are dependent on the ability of the hormone to access its target tissue. In the case of endocrine hormones that are transported through the blood, this often means that the endothelium must be crossed. Many studies have shown that the concentrations of hormones and nutrients in blood can be very different from those surrounding the cells on the tissue side of the blood vessel endothelium, suggesting that transport across this barrier can be rate limiting for hormone action. This transport can be regulated by altering the surface area of the blood vessel available for diffusion through to the underlying tissue or by the permeability of the endothelium. Many hormones are known to directly or indirectly affect the endothelial barrier, thus affecting their own distribution to their target tissues. Dysfunction of the endothelial barrier is found in many diseases, particularly those associated with the metabolic syndrome. The interrelatedness of hormones may help to explain why the cluster of diseases in the metabolic syndrome occur together so frequently and suggests that treating the endothelium may ameliorate defects in more than one disease. Here, we review the structure and function of the endothelium, its contribution to the function of hormones, and its involvement in disease.

  15. Endothelial Progenitor Cells Enter the Aging Arena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate eWilliamson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Age is a significant risk factor for the development of vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Although pharmacological treatments, including statins and anti-hypertensive drugs, have improved the prognosis for patients with cardiovascular disease, it remains a leading cause of mortality in those aged 65 years and over. Furthermore, given the increased life expectancy of the population in developed countries, there is a clear need for alternative treatment strategies. Consequently, the relationship between aging and progenitor cell-mediated repair is of great interest. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs play an integral role in the cellular repair mechanisms for endothelial regeneration and maintenance. However, EPCs are subject to age-associated changes that diminish their number in circulation and function, thereby enhancing vascular disease risk. A great deal of research is aimed at developing strategies to harness the regenerative capacity of these cells.In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the cells termed ‘EPCs’, examine the impact of age on EPC-mediated repair and identify therapeutic targets with potential for attenuating the age-related decline in vascular health via beneficial actions on EPCs.

  16. Endothelial Cellular Responses to Biodegradable Metal Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Zhao, Nan; Zhu, Donghui

    Biodegradable zinc (Zn) metals, a new generation of biomaterials, have attracted much attention due to their excellent biodegradability, bioabsorbability, and adaptability to tissue regeneration. Compared with magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe), Zn exhibits better corrosion and mechanical behaviors in orthopedic and stent applications. After implantation, Zn containing material will slowly degrade, and Zn ions (Zn(2+)) will be released to the surrounding tissue. For stent applications, the local Zn(2+)concentration near endothelial tissue/cells could be high. However, it is unclear how endothelia will respond to such high concentrations of Zn(2+), which is pivotal to vascular remodeling and regeneration. Here, we evaluated the short-term cellular behaviors of primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCECs) exposed to a concentration gradient (0-140 μM) of extracellular Zn(2+). Zn(2+) had an interesting biphasic effect on cell viability, proliferation, spreading, and migration. Generally, low concentrations of Zn(2+) promoted viability, proliferation, adhesion, and migration, while high concentrations of Zn(2+) had opposite effects. For gene expression profiles, the most affected functional genes were related to cell adhesion, cell injury, cell growth, angiogenesis, inflammation, vessel tone, and coagulation. These results provide helpful information and guidance for Zn-based alloy design as well as the controlled release of Zn(2+)in stent and other related medical applications.

  17. Cellular and molecular biology of aging endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Anthony J; Morgan, R Garrett; Walker, Ashley E; Lesniewski, Lisa A

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and aging is a major risk factor for CVD development. One of the major age-related arterial phenotypes thought to be responsible for the development of CVD in older adults is endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial function is modulated by traditional CVD risk factors in young adults, but advancing age is independently associated with the development of vascular endothelial dysfunction. This endothelial dysfunction results from a reduction in nitric oxide bioavailability downstream of endothelial oxidative stress and inflammation that can be further modulated by traditional CVD risk factors in older adults. Greater endothelial oxidative stress with aging is a result of augmented production from the intracellular enzymes NADPH oxidase and uncoupled eNOS, as well as from mitochondrial respiration in the absence of appropriate increases in antioxidant defenses as regulated by relevant transcription factors, such as FOXO. Interestingly, it appears that NFkB, a critical inflammatory transcription factor, is sensitive to this age-related endothelial redox change and its activation induces transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines that can further suppress endothelial function, thus creating a vicious feed-forward cycle. This review will discuss the two macro-mechanistic processes, oxidative stress and inflammation, that contribute to endothelial dysfunction with advancing age as well as the cellular and molecular events that lead to the vicious cycle of inflammation and oxidative stress in the aged endothelium. Other potential mediators of this pro-inflammatory endothelial phenotype are increases in immune or senescent cells in the vasculature. Of note, genomic instability, telomere dysfunction or DNA damage has been shown to trigger cell senescence via the p53/p21 pathway and result in increased inflammatory signaling in arteries from older adults. This review will discuss the current state

  18. ACE INHIBITORS ARE RATIONAL PHARMACOTHERAPY OF ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Metrova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study effects of ACE inhibitor perindopril on markers of endothelial dysfunction in therapy of patients with arterial hypertension (HT.Material and methods. 82 patients with HT, complicated by ischemic stroke were involved in the study. 30 patients with uncomplicated HT were included into control group. Antihypertensive therapy with perindopril (52 patients or amlodipine (30 patients was conducted additionally to standard neurotropic therapy in hypertensive patients with ischemic stroke. Phase-contrast microscopy and enzyme immunoassay were used for screening of endothelial dysfunction markers (blebbing, desquamated endothelial cells, membrane-liberated parts, sPECAM-1.Results. Reduction in levels of markers of endothelial dysfunction was observed among patients treated with perindopril in comparison with patients who did not receive ACE inhibitor or patients of control group. Target levels of blood pressure were reached in 96% of patients treated with perindopril. Сonclusion. ACE inhibitors in therapy patients with HT reduce endothelial dysfunction additionally to antihypertensive effect.

  19. Endothelial dysfunction and periodontitis: The role of inflammatory serum biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reila Tainá Mendes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periodontitis is a local chronic inflammation with systemic consequences. Many disorders are associated with periodontitis such as diabetes, high-serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL, and premature birth. Cardiovascular disease does not correspond to a classic risk factor for periodontitis but evidence suggests that endothelial dysfunction due to systemic inflammation may be the link between both pathologies. The aim of this study was to review the literature regarding endothelial dysfunction and periodontitis and to establish a possible link through systemic inflammatory biomarkers. Methods: We searched the terms "periodontitis and endothelial dysfunction" and "periodontal disease and endothelial dysfunction" in the following four databases: PubMed, Cochrane, Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia-Brazilian Bibliography in Dentistry (BBO, and Embase. Results: Both diseases share same systemic biomarkers. Conclusion: Endothelial dysfunction may be the link between periodontitis and other diseases such as cardiovascular ones.

  20. Mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction in obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Atkeson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Amy Atkeson, Sanja JelicDivision of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NYAbstract: Endothelial activation and inflammation are important mediators of accelerated atherogenesis and consequent increased cardiovascular morbidity in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Repetitive episodes of hypoxia/reoxygenation associated with transient cessation of breathing during sleep in OSA resemble ischemia/reperfusion injury and may be the main culprit underlying endothelial dysfunction in OSA. Additional factors such as repetitive arousals resulting in sleep fragmentation and deprivation and individual genetic suseptibility to vascular manifestations of OSA contribute to impaired endothelial function in OSA. The present review focuses on possible mechanisms that underlie endothelial activation and inflammation in OSA.Keywords: endothelial, obstructive sleep apnea, inflammation, dysfunction

  1. Impact of hemorheological and endothelial factors on microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchetti, Vera; Boschi, Letizia; Donati, Giovanni; Trabalzini, Luca; Forconi, Sandro

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies showed that endothelial alterations caused by physical stress worsened the hemorheological parameters mainly in patients affected by ischemic vascular diseases: major vascular alterations have been found in patients with very high endothelial dysfunction indexes: these indexes are given by the various substances produced by the endothelium, but it is very difficult to have a value which clearly identifies the real state of the endothelial alteration. The function of the NO, an endogenous vasodilator whose synthesis is catalyzed by NOs, can be determined by the Citrulline/Arginine ratio, which represents the level of activity of the enzyme. A very good index of the endothelial dysfunction is asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a powerful endogenous inhibitor of NOs; in fact several studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between ischemic vascular disease and high levels of plasmatic ADMA. Our recent studies on heart failure and on ischemic cerebrovascular diseases evaluate endothelial dysfunctions and hemorheological parameters.

  2. Cataract extraction in eyes with Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Li-xin; HUANG Yu-sen; Ann Mei-Chi Chiu; LIN Ping; YAO Zhan; SUN Jie

    2005-01-01

    @@ It is a common belief that Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy predominantly affects Caucasians but rarely Asians. However, in one Japanese study, primary corneal guttae (first stage of Fuchs' dystrophy) were found in four of 107 cataract patients.1 With the growing popularity of phacoemulsification in China in the past decade, the increased incidence of endothelial decompensation may be due to learning curves among surgeons as well as that the prevalence of Fuchs' dystrophy among Chinese is higher than we thought. Low index of suspicion for Fuchs' dystrophy may result in missing of diagnosis and occurrence of endothelial decompensation, particularly when no extra protection is provided for endothelial cells during phacoemulsification. This study was aimed at improving our knowledge about Fuchs' dystrophy among Chinese population and reminding surgeons of extra endothelial protection during cataract surgery for patients with Fuchs' dystrophy.

  3. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240... § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell diluting apparatus is a fully automated or semi-automated device used to make appropriate dilutions of a blood...

  4. Automated Integrated Analog Filter Design Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolis Kiela

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of modern automated integrated analog circuits design methods and their use in integrated filter design is done. Current modern analog circuits automated tools are based on optimization algorithms and/or new circuit generation methods. Most automated integrated filter design methods are only suited to gmC and switched current filter topologies. Here, an algorithm for an active RC integrated filter design is proposed, that can be used in automated filter designs. The algorithm is tested by designing an integrated active RC filter in a 65 nm CMOS technology.

  5. Automated High Throughput Drug Target Crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupp, B

    2005-02-18

    The molecular structures of drug target proteins and receptors form the basis for 'rational' or structure guided drug design. The majority of target structures are experimentally determined by protein X-ray crystallography, which as evolved into a highly automated, high throughput drug discovery and screening tool. Process automation has accelerated tasks from parallel protein expression, fully automated crystallization, and rapid data collection to highly efficient structure determination methods. A thoroughly designed automation technology platform supported by a powerful informatics infrastructure forms the basis for optimal workflow implementation and the data mining and analysis tools to generate new leads from experimental protein drug target structures.

  6. Rapid Automated Mission Planning System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an automated UAS mission planning system that will rapidly identify emergency (contingency) landing sites, manage contingency routing, and...

  7. Extensible and Efficient Automation Through Reflective Tactics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malecha, Gregory; Bengtson, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    automation, where proofs are witnessed by verified decision procedures rather than verbose proof objects. Our techniques center around a verified domain specific language for proving, Rtac, written in Gallina, Coq’s logic. The design of tactics makes it easy to combine them into higher-level automation...... that can be proved sound in a mostly automated way. Furthermore, unlike traditional uses of reflection, Rtac tactics are independent of the underlying problem domain. This allows them to be re-tasked to automate new problems with very little effort. We demonstrate the usability of Rtac through several case...

  8. Automated Contingency Management for Propulsion Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Increasing demand for improved reliability and survivability of mission-critical systems is driving the development of health monitoring and Automated Contingency...

  9. Automated cognome construction and semi-automated hypothesis generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytek, Jessica B; Voytek, Bradley

    2012-06-30

    Modern neuroscientific research stands on the shoulders of countless giants. PubMed alone contains more than 21 million peer-reviewed articles with 40-50,000 more published every month. Understanding the human brain, cognition, and disease will require integrating facts from dozens of scientific fields spread amongst millions of studies locked away in static documents, making any such integration daunting, at best. The future of scientific progress will be aided by bridging the gap between the millions of published research articles and modern databases such as the Allen brain atlas (ABA). To that end, we have analyzed the text of over 3.5 million scientific abstracts to find associations between neuroscientific concepts. From the literature alone, we show that we can blindly and algorithmically extract a "cognome": relationships between brain structure, function, and disease. We demonstrate the potential of data-mining and cross-platform data-integration with the ABA by introducing two methods for semi-automated hypothesis generation. By analyzing statistical "holes" and discrepancies in the literature we can find understudied or overlooked research paths. That is, we have added a layer of semi-automation to a part of the scientific process itself. This is an important step toward fundamentally incorporating data-mining algorithms into the scientific method in a manner that is generalizable to any scientific or medical field.

  10. Aberrant lymphatic endothelial progenitors in lymphatic malformation development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June K Wu

    Full Text Available Lymphatic malformations (LMs are vascular anomalies thought to arise from dysregulated lymphangiogenesis. These lesions impose a significant burden of disease on affected individuals. LM pathobiology is poorly understood, hindering the development of effective treatments. In the present studies, immunostaining of LM tissues revealed that endothelial cells lining aberrant lymphatic vessels and cells in the surrounding stroma expressed the stem cell marker, CD133, and the lymphatic endothelial protein, podoplanin. Isolated patient-derived CD133+ LM cells expressed stem cell genes (NANOG, Oct4, circulating endothelial cell precursor proteins (CD90, CD146, c-Kit, VEGFR-2, and lymphatic endothelial proteins (podoplanin, VEGFR-3. Consistent with a progenitor cell identity, CD133+ LM cells were multipotent and could be differentiated into fat, bone, smooth muscle, and lymphatic endothelial cells in vitro. CD133+ cells were compared to CD133- cells isolated from LM fluids. CD133- LM cells had lower expression of stem cell genes, but expressed circulating endothelial precursor proteins and high levels of lymphatic endothelial proteins, VE-cadherin, CD31, podoplanin, VEGFR-3 and Prox1. CD133- LM cells were not multipotent, consistent with a differentiated lymphatic endothelial cell phenotype. In a mouse xenograft model, CD133+ LM cells differentiated into lymphatic endothelial cells that formed irregularly dilated lymphatic channels, phenocopying human LMs. In vivo, CD133+ LM cells acquired expression of differentiated lymphatic endothelial cell proteins, podoplanin, LYVE1, Prox1, and VEGFR-3, comparable to expression found in LM patient tissues. Taken together, these data identify a novel LM progenitor cell population that differentiates to form the abnormal lymphatic structures characteristic of these lesions, recapitulating the human LM phenotype. This LM progenitor cell population may contribute to the clinically refractory behavior of LMs.

  11. Endothelial nitric oxide: protector of a healthy mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katusic, Zvonimir S; Austin, Susan A

    2014-04-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) is generated by constitutively active endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), an essential enzyme responsible for cardiovascular homeostasis. Historically, endothelial NO was first recognized as a major vasodilator involved in control of vasomotor function and local blood flow. In this review, our attention is focused on the emerging role of endothelial NO in linking cerebrovascular function with cognition. We will discuss the recognized ability of endothelial NO to modulate processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP), influence functional status of microglia, and affect cognitive function. Existing evidence suggests that the loss of NO in cultured human cerebrovascular endothelium causes increased expression of APP and β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) thereby resulting in increased secretion of amyloid β peptides (Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42). Furthermore, increased expression of APP and BACE1 as well as increased production of Aβ peptides was detected in the cerebral microvasculature and brain tissue of eNOS-deficient mice. Since Aβ peptides are considered major cytotoxic molecules responsible for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, these observations support the concept that a loss of endothelial NO might significantly contribute to the initiation and progression of cognitive decline. In addition, genetic inactivation of eNOS causes activation of microglia and promotes a pro-inflammatory phenotype in the brain. Behavioural analysis revealed that eNOS-deficient mice exhibit impaired cognitive performance thereby indicating that selective loss of endothelial NO has a detrimental effect on the function of neuronal cells. Together with findings from prior studies demonstrating the ability of endothelial NO to affect synaptic plasticity, mitochondrial biogenesis, and function of neuronal progenitor cells, it is becoming apparent that the role of endothelial NO in the control of central nervous system function is very complex. We

  12. Intermittent Hypoxia Impairs Endothelial Function in Early Preatherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuleta, I; França, C N; Wenzel, D; Fleischmann, B; Nickenig, G; Werner, N; Skowasch, D

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia seems to be a major pathomechanism of obstructive sleep apnea-associated progression of atherosclerosis. The goal of the present study was to assess the influence of hypoxia on endothelial function depending on the initial stage of vasculopathy. We used 16 ApoE-/- mice were exposed to a 6-week-intermittent hypoxia either immediately (early preatherosclerosis) or after 5 weeks of high-cholesterol diet (advanced preatherosclerosis). Another 16 ApoE-/- mice under normoxia served as corresponding controls. Endothelial function was measured by an organ bath technique. Blood plasma CD31+/annexin V+ endothelial microparticles as well as sca1/flk1+ endothelial progenitor cells in blood and bone marrow were analyzed by flow cytometry. The findings were that intermittent hypoxia impaired endothelial function (56.6±6.2% of maximal phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction vs. 35.2±4.1% in control) and integrity (increased percentage of endothelial microparticles: 0.28±0.05% vs. 0.15±0.02% in control) in early preatherosclerosis. Peripheral repair capacity expressed as the number of endothelial progenitor cells in blood was attenuated under hypoxia (2.0±0.5% vs. 5.3±1.9% in control), despite the elevated number of these cells in the bone marrow (2.0±0.4% vs. 1.1±0.2% in control). In contrast, endothelial function, as well as microparticle and endothelial progenitor cell levels were similar under hypoxia vs. control in advanced preatherosclerosis. We conclude that hypoxia aggravates endothelial dysfunction and destruction in early preatherosclerosis.

  13. Changes of macrovascular endothelial ultrastructure and gene expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆颖理; 胡申江; 沈周俊; 邵一川

    2004-01-01

    Background The most intimidatory pathological changes in patients with DM are cardiovascular illnesses, which are the major causes of death in diabetic patients and are far more prevalent than in nondiabetics because of accelerated atherosclerosis. In this study, we tried to clarify the changes in macrovascular endothelial ultrastructure and in the gene expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)mRNA in diabetic rats. Methods The study was conducted on 52 of 10-week old Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with body weight of (320±42) g. SD rats were divided into: experimental group treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 60 mg/kg), (male, n=20, diabetes mellitus (DMM)); female, n=12, diabetes mellitus female (DMF)) and control group (male, n=10, diabetes mellitus male control (DMMC); female, n=10, diabetes mellitus female control (DMFC)). Four weeks after treatment, half of the rats were sacrificed; the remainders were sacrificed ten weeks after treatment. One part of the abdominal aortic sample was stored under glutaraldehyde (volume fraction ψB = 2.5 %). After the process of chemical fixation, chemical dehydration, drying and conductivity enhancement, all samples were observed and photographed using scanning electron microscopy (Leica-Stereoscan 260, England). The other part of the abdominal aortic sample was treated with liquid nitrogen and the expression of eNOSmRNA was assessed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Results The aortic lumen of both experimental groups adsorbed much more debris than that of either control group. The endothelial surfaces of diabetic rats were coarse, wrinkled and protuberant like fingers or villi. The vascular endothelial lesions of diabetic male rats were very distinct after 4 weeks, and as obvious as those at 10 weeks. The vascular endothelial lesions of diabetic female rats were not severe at 4 weeks and only became marked after 10 weeks. In both males and females, the abdominal aortic eNOSmRNA content

  14. Home automation on the move:

    OpenAIRE

    Imperl, Bojan; Jeřabek, Boro; Šoštarič, Andrej

    2003-01-01

    In this article we would like to show how an arbitrary home and building electronic system based on the home automation standards such as Xl0 might be addressed and controlled by an appropriate mobile technology. Urge for mobility of users, which may be at the same time either the inhabitants of these homes or even administrators and supporters, is growing. The possibility to control and observe the status of home appliances while being on the move away from home using our mobile phones is be...

  15. Automated analysis of complex data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintamant, Robert; Cohen, Paul R.

    1994-01-01

    We have examined some of the issues involved in automating exploratory data analysis, in particular the tradeoff between control and opportunism. We have proposed an opportunistic planning solution for this tradeoff, and we have implemented a prototype, Igor, to test the approach. Our experience in developing Igor was surprisingly smooth. In contrast to earlier versions that relied on rule representation, it was straightforward to increment Igor's knowledge base without causing the search space to explode. The planning representation appears to be both general and powerful, with high level strategic knowledge provided by goals and plans, and the hooks for domain-specific knowledge are provided by monitors and focusing heuristics.

  16. Automated planar patch-clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Carol J; Möller, Clemens

    2013-01-01

    Ion channels are integral membrane proteins that regulate the flow of ions across the plasma membrane and the membranes of intracellular organelles of both excitable and non-excitable cells. Ion channels are vital to a wide variety of biological processes and are prominent components of the nervous system and cardiovascular system, as well as controlling many metabolic functions. Furthermore, ion channels are known to be involved in many disease states and as such have become popular therapeutic targets. For many years now manual patch-clamping has been regarded as one of the best approaches for assaying ion channel function, through direct measurement of ion flow across these membrane proteins. Over the last decade there have been many remarkable breakthroughs in the development of technologies enabling the study of ion channels. One of these breakthroughs is the development of automated planar patch-clamp technology. Automated platforms have demonstrated the ability to generate high-quality data with high throughput capabilities, at great efficiency and reliability. Additional features such as simultaneous intracellular and extracellular perfusion of the cell membrane, current clamp operation, fast compound application, an increasing rate of parallelization, and more recently temperature control have been introduced. Furthermore, in addition to the well-established studies of over-expressed ion channel proteins in cell lines, new generations of planar patch-clamp systems have enabled successful studies of native and primary mammalian cells. This technology is becoming increasingly popular and extensively used both within areas of drug discovery as well as academic research. Many platforms have been developed including NPC-16 Patchliner(®) and SyncroPatch(®) 96 (Nanion Technologies GmbH, Munich), CytoPatch™ (Cytocentrics AG, Rostock), PatchXpress(®) 7000A, IonWorks(®) Quattro and IonWorks Barracuda™, (Molecular Devices, LLC); Dynaflow(®) HT (Cellectricon

  17. Ball Bearing Stacking Automation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafeequerrahman S . Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This document is an effort to introduce the concept of automation in small scale industries and or small workshops that are involved in the manufacturing of small objects such as nuts, bolts and ball bearing in this case. This an electromechanical system which includes certain mechanical parts that involves one base stand on which one vertical metallic frame is mounted and hinged to this vertical stand is an in humanized effort seems inadequate in this era making necessary the use of Electronics, Computer in the manufacturing processes leading to the concept of Automated Manufacturing System (AMS.The ball bearing stack automation is an effort in this regard. In our project we go for stack automation for any object for example a ball bearing, be that is still a manual system there. It will be microcontroller based project control system equipped with microcontroller 89C51 from any manufacturer like Atmel or Philips. This could have been easily implemented if a PLC could be used for manufacturing the staking unit but I adopted the microcontroller based system so that some more modification in the system can be effected at will as to use the same hardware .Although a very small object i.e. ball bearig or small nut and fixture will be tried to be stacked, the system with more precision and more power handling capacity could be built for various requirements of the industry. For increasing more control capacity, we can use another module of this series. When the bearing is ready, it will be sent for packing. This is sensed by an inductive sensor. The output will be proceeds by PLC and microcontroller card which will be driving the assembly in order to put it into pads or flaps. This project will also count the total number of bearings to be packed and will display it on a LCD for real time reference and a provision is made using a higher level language using hyper terminal of the computer

  18. Robotium automated testing for Android

    CERN Document Server

    Zadgaonkar, Hrushikesh

    2013-01-01

    This is a step-by-step, example-oriented tutorial aimed at illustrating the various test scenarios and automation capabilities of Robotium.If you are an Android developer who is learning how to create test cases to test their application, and are looking to get a good grounding in different features in Robotium, this book is ideal for you. It's assumed that you have some experience in Android development, as well be familiar with the Android test framework, as Robotium is a wrapper to Android test framework.

  19. Smart Home Automation with Linux

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwin, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Linux users can now control their homes remotely! Are you a Linux user who has ever wanted to turn on the lights in your house, or open and close the curtains, while away on holiday? Want to be able to play the same music in every room, controlled from your laptop or mobile phone? Do you want to do these things without an expensive off-the-shelf kit? In Beginning Linux Home Automation, Steven Goodwin will show you how a house can be fully controlled by its occupants, all using open source software. From appliances to kettles to curtains, control your home remotely! What you'll learn* Control a

  20. 78 FR 44142 - Modification of Two National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Tests Concerning Automated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Modification of Two National Customs Automation Program (NCAP... National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) tests concerning document imaging, known as the Document Image... Automation Program (NCAP) test called the Document Image System (DIS) test. See 77 FR 20835. The DIS...

  1. 77 FR 20835 - National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Test Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Test Concerning Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) Document Image System (DIS) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border.... Customs and Border Protection's (CBP's) plan to conduct a National Customs Automation Program (NCAP)...

  2. Propofol protects against high glucose-induced endothelial adhesion molecules expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Minmin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperglycemia could induce oxidative stress, activate transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, up-regulate expression of endothelial adhesion molecules, and lead to endothelial injury. Studies have indicated that propofol could attenuate oxidative stress and suppress NF-κB activation in some situations. In the present study, we examined whether and how propofol improved high glucose-induced up-regulation of endothelial adhesion molecules in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Methods Protein expression of endothelial adhesion molecules, NF-κB, inhibitory subunit of NF-κBα (IκBα, protein kinase Cβ2 (PKCβ2, and phosphorylation of PKCβ2 (Ser660 were measured by Western blot. NF-κB activity was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. PKC activity was measured with SignaTECT PKC assay system. Superoxide anion (O2.- accumulation was measured with the reduction of ferricytochrome c assay. Human peripheral mononuclear cells were prepared with Histopaque-1077 solution. Results High glucose induced the expression of endothelial selectin (E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1, and increased mononuclear-endothelial adhesion. High glucose induced O2.- accumulation, PKCβ2 phosphorylation and PKC activation. Further, high glucose decreased IκBα expression in cytoplasm, increased the translocation of NF-κB from cytoplasm to nuclear, and induced NF-κB activation. Importantly, we found these high glucose-mediated effects were attenuated by propofol pretreatment. Moreover, CGP53353, a selective PKCβ2 inhibitor, decreased high glucose-induced NF-κB activation, adhesion molecules expression, and mononuclear-endothelial adhesion. Conclusion Propofol, via decreasing O2.- accumulation, down-regulating PKCβ2 Ser660 phosphorylation and PKC as well as NF-κB activity, attenuated high glucose-induced endothelial adhesion molecules expression

  3. Contaminação de halos doadores córneo-esclerais em ceratoplastia penetrante no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre Positive corneoscleral rim culture in penetrating keratoplasty at the Porto Alegre Clinical Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Martins Borowsky

    2008-02-01

    -three corneoscleral rim cultures penetrating keratoplasties performed from January 2001 to January 2003 in the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre were reviewed. Enucleations and corneal storage were done as aseptic as possible and gentamicin 0.3% was instilled. Corneoscleral rim was divided into two segments, half was inoculated into Sabouraud broth and the other half into thioglycolate broth; inoculation into blood agar, chocolate agar and MacConkey agar was done later if necessary for pathogen identification. The receiver's eye data were reviewed. RESULTS: There were eleven positive cultures (6.7% out of 163 evaluated corneoscleral rim cultures. Of these, four were Staphylococcus epidermidis, one was Staphylococcus aureus, one was Serratia sp., one was Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the other four were different subtypes of Candida (two Candida sp., one Candida albicans and one Candida parapapilosis. All pathogens were resistant to gentamicin. None of the eleven cases of positive corneoscleral rim cultures resulted in ocular infection at the receiver's eyes (six months follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: We found low rates of positive corneoscleral rim cultures after penetrating keratoplasty at the Porto Alegre Clinical Hospital. The most frequent involved pathogens were Staphylococcus sp and Candida sp. Although we did not identify any postoperative infection at the receiver's eyes, we recommend corneoscleral rim culture for guidance of postoperative infection, a rare but possible devastating ocular event.

  4. Femtosecond laser-assisted deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty using the big bubble technique for keratoconus%飞秒激光辅助的大气泡法深板层角膜移植治疗圆锥角膜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆燕; 陈祥菲; 杨丽萍; 曹茜; 王春红; 黄振平

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical results and safety of big bubble deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty assisted by a femtosecond laser for keratoconus.Methods A case series of 11 eyes of 9 keratoconus patients were enrolled in the study.A 500 kHz VisuMax femtosecond laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG,Jena,Germany) was used to create a vertical side cut on both donor and recipient corneas.The mean thinnest corneal thickness measured with ultrasound corneal pachymetry,was 359.7±49.8 μm.Preoperative UCVA was counting fingers (CF) to-0.1 and preoperative BCVA was CF to-0.12.The mean donor diameter was 7.51±0.14 mm and mean recipient diameter was 7.38±0.10 mm.Mean follow-up was 7.70±2.88 months.Results All eyes were successfully treated without intraoperative complications.Early postoperative evaluation showed a clear graft in all cases.Mean corneal thickness was 481.4±51.3 μm.A normal corneal topographic pattern was restored.At the last postoperative examination,UCVA was 0.15 to 0.40 and the BCVA was 0.30 to 0.80.Conclusion Our early results indicate that femtosecond laser-assisted deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty using the big bubble technique shows promise as a safe and effective surgical choice in the treatment of keratoconus.%目的 评价飞秒激光辅助的大气泡法深板层角膜移植术治疗圆锥角膜临床效果及安全性.方法 系列病例研究.9例(11眼)圆锥角膜患者采用飞秒激光辅助进行大气泡法深板层角膜移植手术.供体及受体角膜均采用500 kHz VisuMax飞秒激光进行垂直边切,术前超声测量角膜最薄点厚度,角膜厚度为(359.7±49.8) μm,术前UCVA为指数~0.1,术前BCVA为指数~0.12,供体直径为(7.51±0.14)mm,受体直径为(7.38±0.10)mm,随访时间为(7.70±2.88)个月.结果 所有患者手术顺利,术中无并发症,术后早期所有角膜植片透明.角膜厚度为(481.4±51.3)μm,角膜地形图恢复正常形态.术后最后1次随访,UCVA为0.15~0.40,BCVA为0.30~0

  5. Automated pipelines for spectroscopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende Prieto, C.

    2016-09-01

    The Gaia mission will have a profound impact on our understanding of the structure and dynamics of the Milky Way. Gaia is providing an exhaustive census of stellar parallaxes, proper motions, positions, colors and radial velocities, but also leaves some glaring holes in an otherwise complete data set. The radial velocities measured with the on-board high-resolution spectrograph will only reach some 10 % of the full sample of stars with astrometry and photometry from the mission, and detailed chemical information will be obtained for less than 1 %. Teams all over the world are organizing large-scale projects to provide complementary radial velocities and chemistry, since this can now be done very efficiently from the ground thanks to large and mid-size telescopes with a wide field-of-view and multi-object spectrographs. As a result, automated data processing is taking an ever increasing relevance, and the concept is applying to many more areas, from targeting to analysis. In this paper, I provide a quick overview of recent, ongoing, and upcoming spectroscopic surveys, and the strategies adopted in their automated analysis pipelines.

  6. Cassini Tour Atlas Automated Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazier, Kevin R.; Roumeliotis, Chris; Lange, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    During the Cassini spacecraft s cruise phase and nominal mission, the Cassini Science Planning Team developed and maintained an online database of geometric and timing information called the Cassini Tour Atlas. The Tour Atlas consisted of several hundreds of megabytes of EVENTS mission planning software outputs, tables, plots, and images used by mission scientists for observation planning. Each time the nominal mission trajectory was altered or tweaked, a new Tour Atlas had to be regenerated manually. In the early phases of Cassini s Equinox Mission planning, an a priori estimate suggested that mission tour designers would develop approximately 30 candidate tours within a short period of time. So that Cassini scientists could properly analyze the science opportunities in each candidate tour quickly and thoroughly so that the optimal series of orbits for science return could be selected, a separate Tour Atlas was required for each trajectory. The task of manually generating the number of trajectory analyses in the allotted time would have been impossible, so the entire task was automated using code written in five different programming languages. This software automates the generation of the Cassini Tour Atlas database. It performs with one UNIX command what previously took a day or two of human labor.

  7. Automation of hydroelectric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasser, H.S. (Consolidated Papers, Inc., Wisconsin Rapids, WI (US))

    1990-03-01

    This paper describes how the author's company has been automating its hydroelectric generating plants. The early automations were achieved with a relay-type supervisory control system, relay logic, dc tachometer, and a pneumatic gate-position controller. While this system allowed the units to be started and stopped from a remote location, they were operated at an output that was preset by the pneumatic control at the generating site. The supervisory control system at the site provided such information as unit status, generator breaker status, and a binary coded decimal (BCD) value of the pond level. The generating units are started by energizing an on-site relay that sets the pneumatic gate controller to a preset value above the synchronous speed of the hydroelectric generator. The pneumatic controller then opens the water-wheel wicket gates to the preset startup position. As the hydroelectric generator starts to turn, the machine-mounted dc tachometer produces a voltage. At a dc voltage equivalent to synchronous speed, the generator main breaker closes, and a contact from the main breaker starts a field-delay timer. Within a few seconds, the field breaker closes. Once the cycle is complete, a relay changes the pneumatic setpoint to a preset operating point of about 8/10 wicket gate opening.

  8. Manual and automated reticulocyte counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simionatto, Mackelly; de Paula, Josiane Padilha; Chaves, Michele Ana Flores; Bortoloso, Márcia; Cicchetti, Domenic; Leonart, Maria Suely Soares; do Nascimento, Aguinaldo José

    2010-12-01

    Manual reticulocyte counts were examined under light microscopy, using the property whereby supravital stain precipitates residual ribosomal RNA versus the automated flow methods, with the suggestion that in the latter there is greater precision and an ability to determine both mature and immature reticulocyte fractions. Three hundred and forty-one venous blood samples of patients were analyzed of whom 224 newborn and the rest adults; 51 males and 66 females, with ages between 0 and 89 years, as part of the laboratory routine for hematological examinations at the Clinical Laboratory of the Hospital Universitário do Oeste do Paraná. This work aimed to compare manual and automated methodologies for reticulocyte countings and evaluate random and systematic errors. The results obtained showed that the difference between the two methods was very small, with an estimated 0·4% systematic error and 3·9% random error. Thus, it has been confirmed that both methods, when well conducted, can reflect precisely the reticulocyte counts for adequate clinical use.

  9. Automated Car Park Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  10. An Automated Biological Dosimetry System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, T.; Bille, J.; Frieben, M.; Stephan, G.

    1986-04-01

    The scoring of structural chromosome aberrations in peripheral human blood lymphocytes can be used in biological dosimetry to estimate the radiation dose which an individual has received. Especially the dicentric chromosome is a rather specific indicator for an exposure to ionizing radiation. For statistical reasons, in the low dose range a great number of cells must be analysed, which is a very tedious task. The resulting high cost of a biological dose estimation limits the application of this method to cases of suspected irradiation for which physical dosimetry is not possible or not sufficient. Therefore an automated system has been designed to do the major part of the routine work. It uses a standard light microscope with motorized scanning stage, a Plumbicon TV-camera, a real-time hardware preprocessor, a binary and a grey level image buffer system. All computations are performed by a very powerful multi-microprocessor-system (POLYP) based on a MIMD-architecture. The task of the automated system can be split in finding the metaphases (see Figure 1) at low microscope magnification and scoring dicentrics at high magnification. The metaphase finding part has been completed and is now in routine use giving good results. The dicentric scoring part is still under development.

  11. SURGICAL OUTCOME OF TRIPLE PROCEDURE AS PENETRATING KERATOPLASTY WITH EXTRACAPSULAR CATARACT EXTRACTION WITH POSTERIOR CHAMBER INTRAOCULAR LENS IMPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH BOTH CENTRAL CORNEAL OPACITY AND ADVANCED CATARACT AT RURAL SET UP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhangi Nigwekar, Kishor Badhe, Neeta Misra, Surekha Bangal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the surgical outcome of triple procedure as penetrating keratoplasty (PKP with conventional extra capsular cataract extraction (ECCE with posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL implantation in patients with both central corneal opacity and advanced cataract at rural set up. Introduction: When corneal opacity and cataract present together then well-established and effective triple procedure is indicated. Prognosis for a clear graft is good in triple, as graft endothelium does not touch the hard nucleus which may occur in two steps or sequential surgery. It provides faster visual rehabilitation. Being single step procedure it reduces patient’s hospital stay, postoperative care and follows up visits. Methodology: In this hospital based observational , three years longitudinal study, we studied the surgical outcome of relatively rare one step triple procedure as PKP with conventional ECCE with PCIOL implantation in sulcus or in bag, in patients with both central corneal opacity and advanced cataract at rural set up. The outcome measures included graft clarity on slit lamp, postoperative unaided visual acuity with Snellen’s chart and the occurrence of postoperative complications after taking IEC permission and informed written consent in local language from study patients. Results: Out of 13 study patients mean age was 61.15yrs (Range50-80yrs. Follow up range was 9-34 months. At final follow up 9 patients (69.23% had clear grafts and 61.52% patients gained visual acuity >6/24. Graft failure was the most common post operative complication in 30.76% followed by Posterior capsular opacification (PCO in 15.38% patients which was treated well with YAG laser capsulotomy. Conclusion: Triple procedure gives good results in respect to graft clarity, unaided vision, and faster rehabilitation.

  12. Endothelial Microparticle-Derived Reactive Oxygen Species: Role in Endothelial Signaling and Vascular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan Burger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial microparticles are effectors of endothelial damage; however mechanisms involved are unclear. We examined the effects of eMPs on cultured endothelial cells (ECs and isolated vessels and investigated the role of eMP-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS and redox signaling in these processes. eMPs were isolated from EC media and their ability to directly produce ROS was assessed by lucigenin and liquid chromatography. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (Nox subunits were probed by Western blot. ECs were treated with eMPs and effects on kinase signaling, superoxide anion (O2∙- generation, and nitric oxide (NO production were examined. Acetylcholine-mediated vasorelaxation was assessed by myography in eMP-treated mesenteric arteries. eMPs contained Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, p47phox, p67phox, and p22phox and they produced ROS which was inhibited by the Nox inhibitor, apocynin. eMPs increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Src, increased O2∙- production, and decreased A23187-induced NO production in ECs. Pretreatment of eMPs with apocynin diminished eMP-mediated effects on ROS and NO production but had no effect on eMP-mediated kinase activation or impairment in vasorelaxation. Our findings identify a novel mechanism whereby eMP-derived ROS contributes to MP bioactivity. These interactions may be important in conditions associated with vascular injury and increased eMP formation.

  13. Optical Investigations of Endothelial Cell Motility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossen, Ninna Struck

    of tissues and holds great promises for treatments and regenerative therapies. It faces an important obstacle before such promises can be realized, the engineered tissues needs to be of a size large enough to function and to relieve the damaged bodily functions. The current state of the art in tissue......A monolayer of endothelial cells lines the entire circulatory system and create a barrier between the circulatory system and the tissues. To create and maintain an intact barrier, the individual cells have to connect tightly with their neighbors, which causes a highly correlated motion between...... are fascinating from a biophysical point of view. The vasculature also plays a signi cant role in many pathologies. In diabetic blindness or ischemic diseases the ow of blood is insucient to sustain certain tissues or whole limbs. The creation of new blood vessels can relieve or treat such diseases. In other...

  14. Microalbuminuria, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    2000-01-01

    Microalbuminuria was originally considered to be an important new risk factor for diabetic nephropathy. More recently, it has been convincingly shown that microalbuminuria is also an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients. Even...... in the non-diabetic background population, microalbuminuria is a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. What is the link between increased loss of albumin in urine and cardiovascular disease and mortality? As microalbuminuria is apparently associated with increased universal vascular sieving of albumin...... of functional in vivo tests of endothelial dysfunction have been performed in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic patients as well as in normal controls. Overall, these studies indicate the existence of a functional vascular dysfunction in Type 1 diabetic patients and normal controls with microalbuminuria, which may...

  15. Papillary endothelial hyperplasia (Masson's tumor) in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liné, A; Sanchez, J; Jayyosi, L; Birembaut, P; Ohl, X; Poli-Mérol, M-L; François, C

    2016-06-23

    The intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (IPEH/Masson's tumor) is a rare benign tumor of the skin and subcutaneous vessels. We report, in four pediatric cases, clinical presentation, care (diagnostic and surgical) of Masson's tumor in children. Two boys (two years) and two girls (four and six years) showed a pain subcutaneous tumor (one to five centimeters). They were in the transverse abdominal muscle, between two metatarsals, at the front of thigh and in the axilla. Imaging performed (MRI, Doppler ultrasound) evoked either a hematoma, a lymphangioma or hemangioma. The indication for removal was selected from pain and/or parental concern. The diagnosis was histologically. A lesion persisted in residual form (incomplete initial resection), and is currently not scalable for eleven years.

  16. Endothelial cells, tissue factor and infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes-Bezerra L.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue factor is a transmembrane procoagulant glycoprotein and a member of the cytokine receptor superfamily. It activates the extrinsic coagulation pathway, and induces the formation of a fibrin clot. Tissue factor is important for both normal homeostasis and the development of many thrombotic diseases. A wide variety of cells are able to synthesize and express tissue factor, including monocytes, granulocytes, platelets and endothelial cells. Tissue factor expression can be induced by cell surface components of pathogenic microorganisms, proinflammatory cytokines and membrane microparticles released from activated host cells. Tissue factor plays an important role in initiating thrombosis associated with inflammation during infection, sepsis, and organ transplant rejection. Recent findings suggest that tissue factor can also function as a receptor and thus may be important in cell signaling. The present minireview will focus on the role of tissue factor in the pathogenesis of septic shock, infectious endocarditis and invasive aspergillosis, as determined by both in vivo and in vitro models.

  17. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiaohong; Keller, T C Stevenson; Begandt, Daniela; Butcher, Joshua T; Biwer, Lauren; Keller, Alexander S; Columbus, Linda; Isakson, Brant E

    2015-12-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, NOS3) is responsible for producing nitric oxide (NO)--a key molecule that can directly (or indirectly) act as a vasodilator and anti-inflammatory mediator. In this review, we examine the structural effects of regulation of the eNOS enzyme, including post-translational modifications and subcellular localization. After production, NO diffuses to surrounding cells with a variety of effects. We focus on the physiological role of NO and NO-derived molecules, including microvascular effects on vessel tone and immune response. Regulation of eNOS and NO action is complicated; we address endogenous and exogenous mechanisms of NO regulation with a discussion of pharmacological agents used in clinical and laboratory settings and a proposed role for eNOS in circulating red blood cells.

  18. Activation of endothelial β-catenin signaling induces heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Akito; Naito, Atsuhiko T.; Sumida, Tomokazu; Nomura, Seitaro; Shibamoto, Masato; Higo, Tomoaki; Okada, Katsuki; Sakai, Taku; Hashimoto, Akihito; Kuramoto, Yuki; Oka, Toru; Lee, Jong-Kook; Harada, Mutsuo; Ueda, Kazutaka; Shiojima, Ichiro; Limbourg, Florian P.; Adams, Ralf H.; Noda, Tetsuo; Sakata, Yasushi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei

    2016-01-01

    Activation of β-catenin-dependent canonical Wnt signaling in endothelial cells plays a key role in angiogenesis during development and ischemic diseases, however, other roles of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in endothelial cells remain poorly understood. Here, we report that sustained activation of β-catenin signaling in endothelial cells causes cardiac dysfunction through suppressing neuregulin-ErbB pathway in the heart. Conditional gain-of-function mutation of β-catenin, which activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling in Bmx-positive arterial endothelial cells (Bmx/CA mice) led to progressive cardiac dysfunction and 100% mortality at 40 weeks after tamoxifen treatment. Electron microscopic analysis revealed dilatation of T-tubules and degeneration of mitochondria in cardiomyocytes of Bmx/CA mice, which are similar to the changes observed in mice with decreased neuregulin-ErbB signaling. Endothelial expression of Nrg1 and cardiac ErbB signaling were suppressed in Bmx/CA mice. The cardiac dysfunction of Bmx/CA mice was ameliorated by administration of recombinant neuregulin protein. These results collectively suggest that sustained activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in endothelial cells might be a cause of heart failure through suppressing neuregulin-ErbB signaling, and that the Wnt/β-catenin/NRG axis in cardiac endothelial cells might become a therapeutic target for heart failure. PMID:27146149

  19. Endothelial cells derived from human embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenberg, Shulamit; Golub, Justin S.; Amit, Michal; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph; Langer, Robert

    2002-04-01

    Human embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into various cell types and, thus, may be useful as a source of cells for transplantation or tissue engineering. We describe here the differentiation steps of human embryonic stem cells into endothelial cells forming vascular-like structures. The human embryonic-derived endothelial cells were isolated by using platelet endothelial cell-adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM1) antibodies, their behavior was characterized in vitro and in vivo, and their potential in tissue engineering was examined. We show that the isolated embryonic PECAM1+ cells, grown in culture, display characteristics similar to vessel endothelium. The cells express endothelial cell markers in a pattern similar to human umbilical vein endothelial cells, their junctions are correctly organized, and they have high metabolism of acetylated low-density lipoprotein. In addition, the cells are able to differentiate and form tube-like structures when cultured on matrigel. In vivo, when transplanted into SCID mice, the cells appeared to form microvessels containing mouse blood cells. With further studies, these cells could provide a source of human endothelial cells that could be beneficial for potential applications such as engineering new blood vessels, endothelial cell transplantation into the heart for myocardial regeneration, and induction of angiogenesis for treatment of regional ischemia.

  20. Accelerated endothelial wound healing on microstructured substrates under flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Davide; Milde, Florian; Klingauf, Mirko; Orsenigo, Fabrizio; Dejana, Elisabetta; Poulikakos, Dimos; Cecchini, Marco; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Ferrari, Aldo; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan

    2013-02-01

    Understanding and accelerating the mechanisms of endothelial wound healing is of fundamental interest for biotechnology and of significant medical utility in repairing pathologic changes to the vasculature induced by invasive medical interventions. We report the fundamental mechanisms that determine the influence of substrate topography and flow on the efficiency of endothelial regeneration. We exposed endothelial monolayers, grown on topographically engineered substrates (gratings), to controlled levels of flow-induced shear stress. The wound healing dynamics were recorded and analyzed in various configurations, defined by the relative orientation of an inflicted wound, the topography and the flow direction. Under flow perpendicular to the wound, the speed of endothelial regeneration was significantly increased on substrates with gratings oriented in the direction of the flow when compared to flat substrates. This behavior is linked to the dynamic state of cell-to-cell adhesions in the monolayer. In particular, interactions with the substrate topography counteract Vascular Endothelial Cadherin phosphorylation induced by the flow and the wounding. This effect contributes to modulating the mechanical connection between migrating cells to an optimal level, increasing their coordination and resulting in coherent cell motility and preservation of the monolayer integrity, thus accelerating wound healing. We further demonstrate that the reduction of vascular endothelial cadherin phosphorylation, through specific inhibition of Src activity, enhances endothelial wound healing in flows over flat substrates.

  1. Silencing of directional migration in roundabout4 knockdown endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts David D

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Roundabouts are axon guidance molecules that have recently been identified to play a role in vascular guidance as well. In this study, we have investigated gene knockdown analysis of endothelial Robos, in particular roundabout 4 (robo4, the predominant Robo in endothelial cells using small interfering RNA technology in vitro. Results Robo1 and Robo4 knockdown cells display distinct activity in endothelial cell migration assay. The knockdown of robo4 abrogated the chemotactic response of endothelial cells to serum but enhanced a chemokinetic response to Slit2, while robo1 knockdown cells do not display chemotactic response to serum or VEGF. Robo4 knockdown endothelial cells unexpectedly show up regulation of Rho GTPases. Zebrafish Robo4 rescues both Rho GTPase homeostasis and serum reduced chemotaxis in robo4 knockdown cells. Robo1 and Robo4 interact and share molecules such as Slit2, Mena and Vilse, a Cdc42-GAP. In addition, this study mechanistically implicates IRSp53 in the signaling nexus between activated Cdc42 and Mena, both of which have previously been shown to be involved with Robo4 signaling in endothelial cells. Conclusion This study identifies specific components of the Robo signaling apparatus that work together to guide directional migration of endothelial cells.

  2. Endothelial and platelet markers in diabetes mellitus type 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Kubisz; Lucia Stanciaková; Ján Stasko; Peter Galajda; Marián Mokáň

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an extremely common disorder which carries a risk of vascular impairment. DM type2 (DM2) can be characterized by the dysfunction ofhaemostasis manifesting by stimulated coagulation process,disorder of platelet function and decreased fibrinolyticactivity. These all are the reasons why DM2 is the mostcommon acquired thrombophilia. Endothelial dysfunctionalong with platelet hyperactivity are unquestionablyinvolved in the hyperactivation of platelets and clottingfactors in DM. As a natural consequence of continuousinvestigation, many markers of endothelial dysfunctionand diabetic thrombocytopathy have been identifiedand considered for implementation in clinical practice.Endothelial function can be assessed by the evaluationof endothelial markers, circulating molecules synthesisedin various amounts by the endothelium. These markersprecede the signs of evident microangiopathy. Plateletshave an ethiopathogenic relation to the microangiopathy inDM. Their increased activity was confirmed in both typesof DM. Predictors of endothelial and platelet disorder couldimprove the screening of individuals at increased risk, thusleading to the early diagnosis, appropriate treatment, aswell as to the effective prevention of the complications ofDM2. In the article we deal with the mechanisms involvedin the pathogenesis of endothelial and platelet functionalabnormalities, endothelial and platelet markers of DM2considered for implementation in clinical practice andpossibilities of their detection.

  3. Endothelial HIF signaling regulates pulmonary fibrosis-associated pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Andrew J; Carrick, Ryan P; McConaha, Melinda E; Jones, Brittany R; Shay, Sheila D; Moore, Christy S; Blackwell, Thomas R; Gladson, Santhi; Penner, Niki L; Burman, Ankita; Tanjore, Harikrishna; Hemnes, Anna R; Karwandyar, Ayub K; Polosukhin, Vasiliy V; Talati, Megha A; Dong, Hui-Jia; Gleaves, Linda A; Carrier, Erica J; Gaskill, Christa; Scott, Edward W; Majka, Susan M; Fessel, Joshua P; Haase, Volker H; West, James D; Blackwell, Timothy S; Lawson, William E

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) complicating chronic parenchymal lung disease, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, results in significant morbidity and mortality. Since the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) signaling pathway is important for development of pulmonary hypertension in chronic hypoxia, we investigated whether HIF signaling in vascular endothelium regulates development of PH related to pulmonary fibrosis. We generated a transgenic model in which HIF is deleted within vascular endothelial cells and then exposed these mice to chronic intraperitoneal bleomycin to induce PH associated with lung fibrosis. Although no differences in the degree of fibrotic remodeling were observed, we found that endothelial HIF-deficient mice were protected against development of PH, including right ventricle and pulmonary vessel remodeling. Similarly, endothelial HIF-deficient mice were protected from PH after a 4-wk exposure to normobaric hypoxia. In vitro studies of pulmonary vascular endothelial cells isolated from the HIF-targeted mice and controls revealed that endothelial HIF signaling increases endothelial cell expression of connective tissue growth factor, enhances vascular permeability, and promotes pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation and wound healing ability, all of which have the potential to impact the development of PH in vivo. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that vascular endothelial cell HIF signaling is necessary for development of hypoxia and pulmonary fibrosis associated PH. As such, HIF and HIF-regulated targets represent a therapeutic target in these conditions.

  4. Endothelial progenitor cells and integrins: adhesive needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiado Francisco

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the last decade there have been multiple studies concerning the contribution of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs to new vessel formation in different physiological and pathological settings. The process by which EPCs contribute to new vessel formation in adults is termed postnatal vasculogenesis and occurs via four inter-related steps. They must respond to chemoattractant signals and mobilize from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood; home in on sites of new vessel formation; invade and migrate at the same sites; and differentiate into mature endothelial cells (ECs and/or regulate pre-existing ECs via paracrine or juxtacrine signals. During these four steps, EPCs interact with different physiological compartments, namely bone marrow, peripheral blood, blood vessels and homing tissues. The success of each step depends on the ability of EPCs to interact, adapt and respond to multiple molecular cues. The present review summarizes the interactions between integrins expressed by EPCs and their ligands: extracellular matrix components and cell surface proteins present at sites of postnatal vasculogenesis. The data summarized here indicate that integrins represent a major molecular determinant of EPC function, with different integrin subunits regulating different steps of EPC biology. Specifically, integrin α4β1 is a key regulator of EPC retention and/or mobilization from the bone marrow, while integrins α5β1, α6β1, αvβ3 and αvβ5 are major determinants of EPC homing, invasion, differentiation and paracrine factor production. β2 integrins are the major regulators of EPC transendothelial migration. The relevance of integrins in EPC biology is also demonstrated by many studies that use extracellular matrix-based scaffolds as a clinical tool to improve the vasculogenic functions of EPCs. We propose that targeted and tissue-specific manipulation of EPC integrin-mediated interactions may be crucial to further improve the usage of

  5. Do You Automate? Saving Time and Dollars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Christine H.

    2010-01-01

    An automated workforce management strategy can help schools save jobs, improve the job satisfaction of teachers and staff, and free up precious budget dollars for investments in critical learning resources. Automated workforce management systems can help schools control labor costs, minimize compliance risk, and improve employee satisfaction.…

  6. Approaches to automated protein crystal harvesting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deller, Marc C., E-mail: mdeller@scripps.edu; Rupp, Bernhard, E-mail: mdeller@scripps.edu

    2014-01-28

    Approaches to automated and robot-assisted harvesting of protein crystals are critically reviewed. While no true turn-key solutions for automation of protein crystal harvesting are currently available, systems incorporating advanced robotics and micro-electromechanical systems represent exciting developments with the potential to revolutionize the way in which protein crystals are harvested.

  7. Investing in the Future: Automation Marketplace 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    In a year where the general economy presented enormous challenges, libraries continued to make investments in automation, especially in products that help improve what and how they deliver to their end users. Access to electronic content remains a key driver. In response to anticipated needs for new approaches to library automation, many companies…

  8. Performance modeling of automated manufacturing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanadham, N.; Narahari, Y.

    A unified and systematic treatment is presented of modeling methodologies and analysis techniques for performance evaluation of automated manufacturing systems. The book is the first treatment of the mathematical modeling of manufacturing systems. Automated manufacturing systems are surveyed and three principal analytical modeling paradigms are discussed: Markov chains, queues and queueing networks, and Petri nets.

  9. Partial Automated Alignment and Integration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Gary Wayne (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a Partial Automated Alignment and Integration System (PAAIS) used to automate the alignment and integration of space vehicle components. A PAAIS includes ground support apparatuses, a track assembly with a plurality of energy-emitting components and an energy-receiving component containing a plurality of energy-receiving surfaces. Communication components and processors allow communication and feedback through PAAIS.

  10. How to Evaluate Integrated Library Automation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, James R.; Slach, June E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes methodology used in compiling a list of candidate integrated library automation systems at a corporate technical library. Priorities for automation, identification of candidate systems, the filtering process, information for suppliers, software and hardware considerations, on-site evaluations, and final system selection are…

  11. Perspective on Automation: Three Talks to Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Robert; And Others

    These papers take the view that automation impinges upon our socio-psychological as well as economic existence and we must take drastic measures to survive. Robert Theobald, presenting evidence that automation brings job displacement, suggests that we face the choice of trying to insure enough jobs, or of taking advantage of the new free time to…

  12. Automation and Job Satisfaction among Reference Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlatch, Jo Bell

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of job satisfaction and the level of job performance focuses on the effect of automation on job satisfaction among reference librarians. The influence of stress is discussed, a job strain model is explained, and examples of how to design a job to reduce the stress caused by automation are given. (12 references) (LRW)

  13. A new approach to automating services

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    While many white collar workers may feel threatened by service automation, companies that thoughtfully automate services are finding that the worries are overblown. By pairing humans and robots, companies can deliver better services for less, and jobs can become more interesting.

  14. An Automation Interface for Kappa PC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1999-01-01

    The reports documents an automation interface for Kappa PC. The automation interface can be used to embed Kappa applications in 32-bit Windowsapplications.The interface includes functions for initialising Kappa, for loading an application, for settingvalues, for getting values, and for stopping...

  15. Workflow Automation: A Collective Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge management has proven to be a sustainable competitive advantage for many organizations. Knowledge management systems are abundant, with multiple functionalities. The literature reinforces the use of workflow automation with knowledge management systems to benefit organizations; however, it was not known if process automation yielded…

  16. Ecological Automation Design, Extending Work Domain Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelink, M.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    In high–risk domains like aviation, medicine and nuclear power plant control, automation has enabled new capabilities, increased the economy of operation and has greatly contributed to safety. However, automation increases the number of couplings in a system, which can inadvertently lead to more com

  17. Endothelial Repair in Childhood Arterial Ischaemic Stroke with Cerebral Arteriopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina Eleftheriou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: We have previously shown that recurrent arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS in children with cerebral arteriopathy is associated with increased circulating endothelial cells and endothelial microparticles, consistent with ongoing endothelial injury. To date, however, little is known about endothelial repair responses in childhood AIS. We examined the relationship between the number and function of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC, the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and AIS recurrence. Methods: Flow cytometry was used to identify peripheral blood mononuclear cells positive for CD34/kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR. In a subgroup of patients (5 in each group selected at random, monocytic EPC function was assessed by colony-forming unit (EPC-CFU capacity and incorporation into endothelial cell networks in Matrigel. BDNF was measured using ELISA. Results: Thirty-five children, aged 12 years (range: 5-16.5; 9 males, with AIS and cerebral arteriopathy were studied; 10 had recurrent AIS. CD34+/KDR+ cells were significantly higher in recurrent AIS compared to non-recurrent AIS patients (p = 0.005 and controls (p = 0.0002. EPC-CFU and EPC incorporation into endothelial cell networks were significantly reduced in recurrent compared to non-recurrent AIS patients (p = 0.04 and p = 0.01, respectively. Levels of BDNF were significantly higher in recurrent compared to non-recurrent AIS patients (p = 0.0008 and controls (p = 0.0002. Conclusions: Children with recurrent AIS and cerebral arteriopathy had increased circulating CD34+/KDR+ cells and BDNF consistent with an endothelial repair response. However, EPC function was impaired. Future studies are needed to examine whether suboptimal endothelial repair contributes to childhood AIS recurrence.

  18. Differentiation state determines neural effects on microvascular endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muffley, Lara A., E-mail: muffley@u.washington.edu [University of Washington, Campus Box 359796, 300 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States); Pan, Shin-Chen, E-mail: pansc@mail.ncku.edu.tw [University of Washington, Campus Box 359796, 300 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States); Smith, Andria N., E-mail: gnaunderwater@gmail.com [University of Washington, Campus Box 359796, 300 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States); Ga, Maricar, E-mail: marga16@uw.edu [University of Washington, Campus Box 359796, 300 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States); Hocking, Anne M., E-mail: ahocking@u.washington.edu [University of Washington, Campus Box 359796, 300 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States); Gibran, Nicole S., E-mail: nicoleg@u.washington.edu [University of Washington, Campus Box 359796, 300 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Growing evidence indicates that nerves and capillaries interact paracrinely in uninjured skin and cutaneous wounds. Although mature neurons are the predominant neural cell in the skin, neural progenitor cells have also been detected in uninjured adult skin. The aim of this study was to characterize differential paracrine effects of neural progenitor cells and mature sensory neurons on dermal microvascular endothelial cells. Our results suggest that neural progenitor cells and mature sensory neurons have unique secretory profiles and distinct effects on dermal microvascular endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and nitric oxide production. Neural progenitor cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons secrete different proteins related to angiogenesis. Specific to neural progenitor cells were dipeptidyl peptidase-4, IGFBP-2, pentraxin-3, serpin f1, TIMP-1, TIMP-4 and VEGF. In contrast, endostatin, FGF-1, MCP-1 and thrombospondin-2 were specific to dorsal root ganglion neurons. Microvascular endothelial cell proliferation was inhibited by dorsal root ganglion neurons but unaffected by neural progenitor cells. In contrast, microvascular endothelial cell migration in a scratch wound assay was inhibited by neural progenitor cells and unaffected by dorsal root ganglion neurons. In addition, nitric oxide production by microvascular endothelial cells was increased by dorsal root ganglion neurons but unaffected by neural progenitor cells. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dorsal root ganglion neurons, not neural progenitor cells, regulate microvascular endothelial cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neural progenitor cells, not dorsal root ganglion neurons, regulate microvascular endothelial cell migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neural progenitor cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons do not effect microvascular endothelial tube formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dorsal root ganglion neurons, not neural progenitor cells, regulate

  19. Laboratory automation: trajectory, technology, and tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, R S; Whalen, S A

    2000-05-01

    Laboratory automation is in its infancy, following a path parallel to the development of laboratory information systems in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Changes on the horizon in healthcare and clinical laboratory service that affect the delivery of laboratory results include the increasing age of the population in North America, the implementation of the Balanced Budget Act (1997), and the creation of disease management companies. Major technology drivers include outcomes optimization and phenotypically targeted drugs. Constant cost pressures in the clinical laboratory have forced diagnostic manufacturers into less than optimal profitability states. Laboratory automation can be a tool for the improvement of laboratory services and may decrease costs. The key to improvement of laboratory services is implementation of the correct automation technology. The design of this technology should be driven by required functionality. Automation design issues should be centered on the understanding of the laboratory and its relationship to healthcare delivery and the business and operational processes in the clinical laboratory. Automation design philosophy has evolved from a hardware-based approach to a software-based approach. Process control software to support repeat testing, reflex testing, and transportation management, and overall computer-integrated manufacturing approaches to laboratory automation implementation are rapidly expanding areas. It is clear that hardware and software are functionally interdependent and that the interface between the laboratory automation system and the laboratory information system is a key component. The cost-effectiveness of automation solutions suggested by vendors, however, has been difficult to evaluate because the number of automation installations are few and the precision with which operational data have been collected to determine payback is suboptimal. The trend in automation has moved from total laboratory automation to a

  20. Cockpit Adaptive Automation and Pilot Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasuraman, Raja

    2001-01-01

    The introduction of high-level automated systems in the aircraft cockpit has provided several benefits, e.g., new capabilities, enhanced operational efficiency, and reduced crew workload. At the same time, conventional 'static' automation has sometimes degraded human operator monitoring performance, increased workload, and reduced situation awareness. Adaptive automation represents an alternative to static automation. In this approach, task allocation between human operators and computer systems is flexible and context-dependent rather than static. Adaptive automation, or adaptive task allocation, is thought to provide for regulation of operator workload and performance, while preserving the benefits of static automation. In previous research we have reported beneficial effects of adaptive automation on the performance of both pilots and non-pilots of flight-related tasks. For adaptive systems to be viable, however, such benefits need to be examined jointly in the context of a single set of tasks. The studies carried out under this project evaluated a systematic method for combining different forms of adaptive automation. A model for effective combination of different forms of adaptive automation, based on matching adaptation to operator workload was proposed and tested. The model was evaluated in studies using IFR-rated pilots flying a general-aviation simulator. Performance, subjective, and physiological (heart rate variability, eye scan-paths) measures of workload were recorded. The studies compared workload-based adaptation to to non-adaptive control conditions and found evidence for systematic benefits of adaptive automation. The research provides an empirical basis for evaluating the effectiveness of adaptive automation in the cockpit. The results contribute to the development of design principles and guidelines for the implementation of adaptive automation in the cockpit, particularly in general aviation, and in other human-machine systems. Project goals

  1. Sensing for advancing mining automation capability:A review of underground automation technology development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ralston Jonathon; Reid David; Hargrave Chad; Hainsworth David

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the role of automation technologies for improving the safety, productivity, and environmental sustainability of underground coal mining processes. This is accomplished by reviewing the impact that the introduction of automation technology has made through the longwall shearer auto-mation research program of Longwall Automation Steering Committee (LASC). This result has been achieved through close integration of sensing, processing, and control technologies into the longwall mining process. Key to the success of the automation solution has been the development of new sensing methods to accurately measure the location of longwall equipment and the spatial configuration of coal seam geology. The relevance of system interoperability and open communications standards for facilitat-ing effective automation is also discussed. Importantly, the insights gained through the longwall automa-tion development process are now leading to new technology transfer activity to benefit other underground mining processes.

  2. Future Computer, Communication, Control and Automation

    CERN Document Server

    2011 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation

    2012-01-01

    The volume includes a set of selected papers extended and revised from the 2011 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation (3CA 2011). 2011 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation (3CA 2011) has been held in Zhuhai, China, November 19-20, 2011. This volume topics covered include wireless communications, advances in wireless video, wireless sensors networking, security in wireless networks, network measurement and management, hybrid and discrete-event systems, internet analytics and automation, robotic system and applications, reconfigurable automation systems, machine vision in automation. We hope that researchers, graduate students and other interested readers benefit scientifically from the proceedings and also find it stimulating in the process.

  3. Context-Aware user interfaces in automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mikkel Holm

    2007-01-01

    Automation is deployed in a great range of different domains such as the chemical industry, the production of consumer goods, the production of energy (both in terms of power plants and in the petrochemical industry), transportation and several others. Through several decades the complexity...... of automation systems and the level of automation have been rising. This has caused problems regarding the operator's ability to comprehend the overall situation and state of the automation system, in particular in abnormal situations. The amount of data available to the operator results in information overload....... Since context-aware applications have been developed in other research areas it seems natural to analyze the findings of this research and examine how this can be applied to the domain of automation systems. By evaluating existing architectures for the development of context-aware applications we find...

  4. Automated transit planning, operation, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Rongfang

    2016-01-01

    This book analyzes the successful implementations of automated transit in various international locations, such as Paris, Toronto, London, and Kuala Lumpur, and investigates the apparent lack of automated transit applications in the urban environment in the United States. The book begins with a brief definition of automated transit and its historical development. After a thorough description of the technical specifications, the author highlights a few applications from each sub-group of the automated transit spectrum. International case studies display various technologies and their applications, and identify vital factors that affect each system and performance evaluations of existing applications. The book then discusses the planning and operation of automated transit applications at both macro and micro levels. Finally, the book covers a number of less successful concepts, as well as the lessons learned, allow ng readers to gain a comprehensive understanding of the topic.

  5. High glucose mediates endothelial-to-chondrocyte transition in human aortic endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Rining

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular calcification is one of the common complications in diabetes mellitus. Many studies have shown that high glucose (HG caused cardiovascular calcification, but its underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Recently, medial calcification has been most commonly described in the vessels of patients with diabetes. Chondrocytes were involved in the medial calcification. Recent studies have shown that the conversion into mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs via the endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT could be triggered in chondrocytes. Our previous research has indicated that HG induced EndMT in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs. Therefore, we addressed the question of whether HG-induced EndMT could be transitioned into MSCs and differentiated into chondrocytes. Methods HAECs were divided into three groups: a normal glucose (NG group, HG group (30 mmol/L, and mannitol (5.5 mmol/L NG + 24.5 mmol/L group. Pathological changes were investigated using fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to detect the co-expression of endothelial markers, such as CD31, and fibroblast markers, such as fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP-1. The expression of FSP-1 was detected by real time-PCR and western blots. Endothelial-derived MSCs were grown in MSC medium for one week. The expression of the MSCs markers STRO-1, CD44, CD10 and the chondrocyte marker SOX9 was detected by immunofluorescence staining and western blots. Chondrocyte expression was detected by alcian blue staining. Calcium deposits were analyzed by alizarin red staining. Results The incubation of HAECs exposed to HG resulted in a fibroblast-like phenotype. Double staining of the HAECs indicated a co-localization of CD31 and FSP-1. The expression of FSP-1 was significantly increased in the HG group, and the cells undergoing EndMT also expressed STRO-1, CD44 and SOX9 compared with the controls (P  Conclusions Our

  6. Endothelial-Mesenchymal Transition : miR-101 as a new target to treat intimal hyperplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanchin, B.; Maleszewska, M.; Kiers, B.; Brouwer, L. A.; Van Der Pol, B.; Pereira, A. C.; Harmsen, M. C.; Moonen, J. R. A. J.; Krenning, G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Endothelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EndMT) is a specific form of endothelial dysfunction wherein endothelial cells acquire a mesenchymal phenotype and lose their endothelial functions. We, and others, recently described that EndMT contributes to intimal hyperplasia and atherosclerosis.

  7. 21 CFR 866.2170 - Automated colony counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2170 Automated colony counter. (a) Identification. An automated colony counter is a mechanical device intended for...

  8. AUTOMATING GROUNDWATER SAMPLING AT HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONNELL CW; HILDEBRAND RD; CONLEY SF; CUNNINGHAM DE

    2009-01-16

    Until this past October, Fluor Hanford managed Hanford's integrated groundwater program for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). With the new contract awards at the Site, however, the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has assumed responsibility for the groundwater-monitoring programs at the 586-square-mile reservation in southeastern Washington State. These programs are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). The purpose of monitoring is to track existing groundwater contamination from past practices, as well as other potential contamination that might originate from RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. An integral part of the groundwater-monitoring program involves taking samples of the groundwater and measuring the water levels in wells scattered across the site. More than 1,200 wells are sampled each year. Historically, field personnel or 'samplers' have been issued pre-printed forms that have information about the well(s) for a particular sampling evolution. This information is taken from the Hanford Well Information System (HWIS) and the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS)--official electronic databases. The samplers used these hardcopy forms to document the groundwater samples and well water-levels. After recording the entries in the field, the samplers turned the forms in at the end of the day and the collected information was posted onto a spreadsheet that was then printed and included in a log book. The log book was then used to make manual entries of the new information into the software application(s) for the HEIS and HWIS databases. This is a pilot project for automating this tedious process by providing an electronic tool for automating water-level measurements and groundwater field-sampling activities. The automation will eliminate the manual forms and associated data entry, improve the

  9. Vascular endothelial-cadherin downregulation as a feature of endothelial transdifferentiation in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitopoulou, Ioanna; Orfanos, Stylianos E; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Maltabe, Violetta; Manitsopoulos, Nikolaos; Karras, Panagiotis; Kouklis, Panos; Armaganidis, Apostolos; Maniatis, Nikolaos A

    2016-08-01

    Increased pulmonary vascular resistance in pulmonary hypertension (PH) is caused by vasoconstriction and obstruction of small pulmonary arteries by proliferating vascular cells. In analogy to cancer, subsets of proliferating cells may be derived from endothelial cells transitioning into a mesenchymal phenotype. To understand phenotypic shifts transpiring within endothelial cells in PH, we injected rats with alkaloid monocrotaline to induce PH and measured lung tissue levels of endothelial-specific protein and critical differentiation marker vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin. VE-cadherin expression by immonoblotting declined significantly 24 h and 15 days postinjection to rebound to baseline at 30 days. There was a concomitant increase in transcriptional repressors Snail and Slug, along with a reduction in VE-cadherin mRNA. Mesenchymal markers α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin were upregulated by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting, and α-smooth muscle actin was colocalized with endothelial marker platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 by confocal microscopy. Apoptosis was limited in this model, especially in the 24-h time point. In addition, monocrotaline resulted in activation of protein kinase B/Akt, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), nuclear factor (NF)-κB, and increased lung tissue nitrotyrosine staining. To understand the etiological relationship between nitrosative stress and VE-cadherin suppression, we incubated cultured rat lung endothelial cells with endothelin-1, a vasoconstrictor and pro-proliferative agent in pulmonary arterial hypertension. This resulted in activation of eNOS, NF-κB, and Akt, in addition to induction of Snail, downregulation of VE-cadherin, and synthesis of vimentin. These effects were blocked by eNOS inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester. We propose that transcriptional repression of VE-cadherin by nitrosative stress is involved in endothelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation in experimental PH.

  10. SAMI Automated Plug Plate Configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Lorente, Nuria P F; Goodwin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) is a prototype wide-field system at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) which uses a plug-plate to mount its 13 x 61-core imaging fibre bundles (hexabundles) in the optical path at the telescope's prime focus. In this paper we describe the process of determining the positions of the plug-plate holes, where plates contain three or more stacked observation configurations. The process, which up until now has involved several separate processes and has required significant manual configuration and checking, is now being automated to increase efficiency and reduce error. This is carried out by means of a thin Java controller layer which drives the configuration cycle. This layer controls the user interface and the C++ algorithm layer where the plate configuration and optimisation is carried out. Additionally, through the Aladin display package, it provides visualisation and facilitates user verification of the resulting plates.

  11. Power analysis in flexible automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Nathan A.

    1992-12-01

    The performance of an automation or robotic device can be measured in terms of its power efficiency. Screw theory is used to mathematically define the task instantaneously with two screws. The task wrench defines the effect of the device on its environment, and the task twist describes the motion of the device. The tasks can be separated into three task types: kinetic, manipulative, and reactive. Efficiency metrics are developed for each task type. The output power is strictly a function of the task screws, while device input power is shown to be a function of the task, the device Jacobian, and the actuator type. Expressions for input power are developed for two common types of actuators, DC servometers and hydraulic actuators. Simple examples are used to illustrate how power analysis can be used for task/workspace planning, actuator selection, device configuration design, and redundancy resolution.

  12. Renormalization automated by Hopf algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Broadhurst, D J

    1999-01-01

    It was recently shown that the renormalization of quantum field theory is organized by the Hopf algebra of decorated rooted trees, whose coproduct identifies the divergences requiring subtraction and whose antipode achieves this. We automate this process in a few lines of recursive symbolic code, which deliver a finite renormalized expression for any Feynman diagram. We thus verify a representation of the operator product expansion, which generalizes Chen's lemma for iterated integrals. The subset of diagrams whose forest structure entails a unique primitive subdivergence provides a representation of the Hopf algebra ${\\cal H}_R$ of undecorated rooted trees. Our undecorated Hopf algebra program is designed to process the 24,213,878 BPHZ contributions to the renormalization of 7,813 diagrams, with up to 12 loops. We consider 10 models, each in 9 renormalization schemes. The two simplest models reveal a notable feature of the subalgebra of Connes and Moscovici, corresponding to the commutative part of the Hopf ...

  13. Audit: Automated Disk Investigation Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Karabiyik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Software tools designed for disk analysis play a critical role today in forensics investigations. However, these digital forensics tools are often difficult to use, usually task specific, and generally require professionally trained users with IT backgrounds. The relevant tools are also often open source requiring additional technical knowledge and proper configuration. This makes it difficult for investigators without some computer science background to easily conduct the needed disk analysis. In this paper, we present AUDIT, a novel automated disk investigation toolkit that supports investigations conducted by non-expert (in IT and disk technology and expert investigators. Our proof of concept design and implementation of AUDIT intelligently integrates open source tools and guides non-IT professionals while requiring minimal technical knowledge about the disk structures and file systems of the target disk image.

  14. Background illumination and automated perimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klewin, K M; Radius, R L

    1986-03-01

    Visual field function in the right and left eyes of 31 normal volunteers was evaluated with an automated projection perimeter (OCTOPUS). Serial visual field evaluations were repeated in these same eyes with neutral filters of increasing optical density. We compared the results of threshold determinations with the different neutral filters in place before the examined eye. Significant reduction in threshold sensitivity at several test spots throughout the central 30 degrees visual field was seen with neutral density filters of 0.5 log units or greater. The low level of background illumination of the OCTOPUS perimeter (4.0 apostilbs) may allow relatively minor reduction in light transmission by the ocular media to produce significant changes in the recorded level of threshold sensitivity during visual field evaluation.

  15. Automation of finite element methods

    CERN Document Server

    Korelc, Jože

    2016-01-01

    New finite elements are needed as well in research as in industry environments for the development of virtual prediction techniques. The design and implementation of novel finite elements for specific purposes is a tedious and time consuming task, especially for nonlinear formulations. The automation of this process can help to speed up this process considerably since the generation of the final computer code can be accelerated by order of several magnitudes. This book provides the reader with the required knowledge needed to employ modern automatic tools like AceGen within solid mechanics in a successful way. It covers the range from the theoretical background, algorithmic treatments to many different applications. The book is written for advanced students in the engineering field and for researchers in educational and industrial environments.

  16. Automation of a coke battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonov, N.F.; Bannikov, L.S.; Yakushina, E.N.; Mil' ko, M.S.

    1980-10-01

    This paper discusses methods of remote control of machines used for discharging coke ovens. The system, developed by the Construction Office of AiM Giprokoks, consists of a number of detecting and transmitting coupling coils and oscillators installed at various places on a coke battery. A scheme of the automated remote control system is given. Method of placing coupling coils and covering them to prevent damages is explained. Principles of coupling coil operation are described. By means of coupling coils exact position of a quenching car, coke discharging machine, and machine removing the coke oven door, can be controlled. When the position of a machine is not exact, operation of other machines is blocked. Operation of the system is regarded as satisfactory. Principles of operation of another system in which, instead of coupling coils coupling bars are installed, are evaluated. Bars control position of machines. The system has numerous weak points and its introduction is not recommended. (In Russian)

  17. Automated Periodontal Diseases Classification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaa A. A. Youssif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient and innovative system for automated classification of periodontal diseases, The strength of our technique lies in the fact that it incorporates knowledge from the patients' clinical data, along with the features automatically extracted from the Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E stained microscopic images. Our system uses image processing techniques based on color deconvolution, morphological operations, and watershed transforms for epithelium & connective tissue segmentation, nuclear segmentation, and extraction of the microscopic immunohistochemical features for the nuclei, dilated blood vessels & collagen fibers. Also, Feedforward Backpropagation Artificial Neural Networks are used for the classification process. We report 100% classification accuracy in correctly identifying the different periodontal diseases observed in our 30 samples dataset.

  18. Fast Automated Decoupling at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Beebe-Wang, Joanne

    2005-01-01

    Coupling correction is essential for the operational performance of RHIC. The independence of the transverse degrees of freedom makes diagnostics and tune control easier, and it is advantageous to operate an accelerator close to the coupling resonance to minimize nearby nonlinear sidebands. An automated decoupling application has been developed at RHIC for coupling correction during routine operations. The application decouples RHIC globally by minimizing the tune separation through finding the optimal settings of two orthogonal skew quadrupole families. The program provides options of automatic, semi-automatic and manual decoupling operations. It accesses tune information from all RHIC tune measurement systems: the PLL (Phase Lock Loop), the high frequency Schottky system, and the tune meter. It also supplies tune and skew quadrupole scans, finding the minimum tune separation, display the real time results and interface with the RHIC control system. We summarize the capabilities of the decoupling application...

  19. Automated information retrieval using CLIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, Rodney Doyle, III; Beug, James Lewis

    1991-01-01

    Expert systems have considerable potential to assist computer users in managing the large volume of information available to them. One possible use of an expert system is to model the information retrieval interests of a human user and then make recommendations to the user as to articles of interest. At Cal Poly, a prototype expert system written in the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) serves as an Automated Information Retrieval System (AIRS). AIRS monitors a user's reading preferences, develops a profile of the user, and then evaluates items returned from the information base. When prompted by the user, AIRS returns a list of items of interest to the user. In order to minimize the impact on system resources, AIRS is designed to run in the background during periods of light system use.

  20. Automated Detection of Solar Eruptions

    CERN Document Server

    Hurlburt, Neal

    2015-01-01

    Observation of the solar atmosphere reveals a wide range of motions, from small scale jets and spicules to global-scale coronal mass ejections. Identifying and characterizing these motions are essential to advancing our understanding the drivers of space weather. Both automated and visual identifications are currently used in identifying CMEs. To date, eruptions near the solar surface (which may be precursors to CMEs) have been identified primarily by visual inspection. Here we report on EruptionPatrol (EP): a software module that is designed to automatically identify eruptions from data collected by SDO/AIA. We describe the method underlying the module and compare its results to previous identifications found in the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase. EP identifies eruptions events that are consistent with those found by human annotations, but in a significantly more consistent and quantitative manner. Eruptions are found to be distributed within 15Mm of the solar surface. They possess peak speeds ranging from...